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Sample records for santiago chile consideraciones

  1. El Parque Portal Bicentenario en Santiago de Chile / Portal Bicentennial Park in Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beach Lobos, Myriam;

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta los principios que orientaron el diseño del Parque Portal Bicentenario, un parque de 50 hás. que será el eje principal de la nueva urbanización “Ciudad Parque Bicentenario”, actualmente en construcción en los terrenos del ex aeropuerto de Los Cerrillos en Santiago de Chile.The following text was submitted to the Architecture Competition together with the project drawings. It presents the principles that leaded the design. The 123 acres park will be the main axis of a new urban development in Santiago “Ciudad Parque Bicentenario” at present under construction on the area occupied by the former Cerrillos Airport, Santiago de Chile.

  2. Estudio del campo ocupacional del traductor en Santiago de Chile (A Study of Opportunities for Professional Translators in Santiago, Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Ileana; And Others

    A study of translation as a profession in Chile covered two areas: a diagnostic study of the real need for literary, scientific, and technical translations, and a followup study of graduates of the translation degree program at the Catholic Pontifical University of Chile (Santiago). The analysis considered the relationship between the need for…

  3. Volatile carbonylic compounds in downtown Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, María A; Zamorano, Natalia; Lissi, Eduardo; Rojas, Alicia; Gutiérrez, Luis; von Baer, Dietrich

    2006-02-01

    Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, propanal, butanal, 2-butenal, 3-methylbutanal, hexanal, benzaldehyde, 2-methylbenzaldehyde, and 2,5-dimethylbenzaldehyde were measured during six spring days at downtown Santiago de Chile. Measurements were performed 24h/day and averaged over three hour periods. The averages of the maxima (ppbv) were, formaldehyde: 3.9+/-1.4; butanal: 3.3+/-3.4; acetaldehyde: 3.0+/-0.9; acetone: 2.4+/-1.0; 2-butenal: 0.56+/-0.52; propanal: 0.46+/-0.21; benzaldehyde: 0.34+/-0.3; 3-butanal: 0.11+/-0.05; hexanal: 0.11+/-0.08; 2-methylbenzaldehyde: 0.08+/-0.05; 2,5-dimethylbenzaldehyde: 0.05+/-0.03. Aliphatic aldehydes (C1-C3) are strongly correlated among them and weakly with primary (toluene) and secondary (ozone plus nitrogen dioxide or PAN) pollutants. In particular, the correlation between acetaldehyde and propanal values remains even if diurnal and nocturnal data are considered separately, indicating similar sources. All these aldehydes present maxima values in the morning (9-12h) and minima at night (0-3h). The best correlation is observed when butanal and 2-butenal data are considered (r=0.99, butanal/2-butenal=6.2). These compounds present maxima values during the 3-6h period, with minima values in the 0-3h period. These data imply a strong pre-dawn emission. Other aldehydes show different daily profiles, suggesting unrelated origins. Formaldehyde is the aldehyde whose concentration values best correlate with the levels of oxidants. The contribution of primary emissions and photochemical processes to formaldehyde concentrations were estimated by using a multiple regression. This treatment indicates that (32+/-16)% of measured values arise from direct emissions, while (79+/-23)% is attributable to secondary formation.

  4. Identidad y fronteras urbanas en Santiago de Chile

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    Francisca Márquez

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo analiza a través de un ejercicio etnográfico los procesos de construcción identitaria de los habitantes de barrios pobres y medios de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile. Se plantea que las identidades que alli se construyen son expresión de los procesos de segregación urbana de la ciudad de Santiago y ellas dan cuenta del debilitamiento de un modelo urbano asentado en la heterogeneidad social, la noción de espacio público y valores como la ciudadanía política y la integración social. Paradojalmente, esta misma segregación urbana abre también paso a un imaginario y una práctica de vida comunitaria y tribal que refuerza y protege al nosotros de la peligrosidad de los otros.

  5. Informality wears uniform: Beauty salons’ workers in Santiago, Chile

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    Rosario Palacios Ruiz de Gamboa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how flexible work economy has been affecting a group of beauty salons’ workers in Santiago, Chile. They do not have a work contract and receive their payment as if they were giving an independent service, but depend on the rules their bosses impose them. The kind of work described in the article appears to be a new arrangement within the context of urban informality, which has present and future implications regarding social security and uncertainty. Drawing on ethnographic observation in four beauty salons, I describe how the embodied belief of being an independent worker helps to enact many skills required by the flexible work economy.

  6. When memory becomes heritage: Experiences from Santiago, Chile

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    Chiara Bianchini, Maria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationships between memory politics and urban heritage in the construction of a twenty-first century democratic society. It focuses on the case of Chile and concentrates on three examples of public buildings in the capital city, Santiago. Given what can be considered a difficult heritage –linked to the recent experience of dictatorship and state sponsored violence– these buildings have been in recent years objects of heritage politics, directed to address a public memory related to those events. Based on these case studies, the article critically discusses the materialization of the dominant human rights discourse in the current memory politics affecting Santiago’s urban heritage.Este artículo aborda las relaciones entre políticas de memoria y patrimonio urbano en el proceso de construcción de una sociedad democrática del siglo XXI. El análisis se centra en el caso de Chile y presenta tres ejemplos de edificios públicos de la capital, Santiago. Los tres sitios representan lo que puede considerarse un patrimonio difícil –vinculado a una reciente experiencia de dictadura y violencia de Estado– y, por esta razón, han sido objeto, en años recientes, de políticas patrimoniales dirigidas a gestionar la memoria pública de esos eventos. A través de estos casos, el artículo analiza críticamente la materialización del discurso dominante de los derechos humanos en las actuales políticas de memoria que afectan al patrimonio urbano de Santiago.

  7. Transformaciones del modelo territorial de Santiago de Chile./ Transformations in the territorial model of Santiago de Chile.

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    Jonás Figueroa Salas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available La identificación de las tendencias morfológicas, como expresiones espaciales del crecimiento físico del Área Metropolitana de Santiago de Chile, sirve para reflexionar acerca de las diferentes y variadas contradicciones -negaciones y discontinuidades- que operan eventualmente entre el modelo territorial propuesto por los instrumentos de ordenamiento y la planta final resultante. Junto a ello, esta reflexión nos brinda la oportunidad de identificar las tendencias registradas por una urbanística de escala metropolitana, cuyo signo de los tiempos es el todo urbanizable, dejando de lado otras maneras y modos de encarar el crecimiento físico de la ciudad. En tal sentido, el diseño de una armadura de escala provincial, como factor de reequilibrio entre un débil sistema regional de ciudades y un área metropolitana excedida, constituye la segunda parte del escrito./The urban growth of Santiago, and it morphology, is the starting point in the study of the contradictions between the plans for Santiago and its results. The author also notes that the differences between the scales of planning is also an issue in the attempt to perform a better regional and local planning.

  8. Studies to Control Endemic Typhoid Fever in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Society for Microbiology, Chapter 16. 10. Medina E, Yrarrazaval M. (1983) Fiebre tifoidea en Chile: Consideraciones epideniologicas. Revista Medica de... panamericana .’ Santiago, Chile. 12. Morris JG Jr., Ferreccio C, Garcia J, Lobcs H, Black RE, Rodriguez H, Levine MM. (1984) TypAhoid fever in Santiago

  9. El crecimiento urbano en Europa: conceptos, tendencias y marco comparativo para el área metropolitana de Santiago de Chile

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    Hidalgo, Rodrigo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the urban development in Europe, this paper includes conceptual deliberations on the main processes which have affected both the morphology and structure of cities and it also interprets in broad terms the evolution of the Latin American city up to the modern times. On the basis of the transformations occurred in Santiago of Chile over the last decades, this study aims to draw a comparison with the theoretical framework set for the European reality.

    A partir del desarrollo urbano en Europa se hacen algunas consideraciones conceptuales de los principales procesos que han marcado a la morfología y estructura de las ciudades. A partir de estas disquisiciones se interpreta de un modo general la evolución de la ciudad latinomamericana hasta los tiempos modernos. En base a la transformaciones ocurridas en Santiago de Chile en las últimas décadas se intenta comparar y poner en tensión el marco teórico generado para la realidad europea.

  10. Childbirth in Santiago de Chile: stratification, intervention, and child centeredness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Marjorie

    2012-09-01

    On the basis of ethnographic work with women from different economic and educational backgrounds in Santiago, I describe the experiences of labor and birth from the point of view of women's priorities, socioeconomic constraints, and relationships with the medical system. I specifically focus on their desires expressed during the late prenatal period and their narratives of the actual birth. Class and the differences in opportunities resulting from educational and class inequalities melt down into near invisibility as vulnerability rises and women become increasingly subjected to medical decision making. The long-standing Chilean focus on child centeredness, while shown to benefit bonding, can work to obliterate women's own desires and choices by encouraging them to "sacrifice their all" for the sake of the baby. This kind of sacrifice defines the meaning of the maternal body in Chile. I suggest further analysis of these factors is essential for an understanding of the hypermedicalized Chilean context.

  11. Vivienda social periurbana en Santiago de Chile: la exclusión a escala regional del trasurbanita de Santiago de Chile/Peri-urban social housing in Santiago de Chile: the exclusion at regional scale of the trasurbanita of Santiago de Chile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    César Cáceres-Seguel

    2017-01-01

      The location of peri-urban social housing in Santiago de Chile has been broadly studied from political and territorial implications, however, little do we know about the impact of urbanization in the...

  12. Analyzing the cost effectiveness of Santiago, Chile's policy of using urban forests to improve air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco J. Escobedo; John E. Wagner; David J. Nowak; Carmen Luz De la Maza; Manuel Rodriguez; Daniel E. Crane

    2008-01-01

    Santiago, Chile has the distinction of having among the worst urban air pollution problems in Latin America. As part of an atmospheric pollution reduction plan, the Santiago Regional Metropolitan government defined an environmental policy goal of using urban forests to remove particulate matter less than 10 µm (PM10) in the Gran...

  13. The socioeconomics and management of Santiago de Chile's public urban forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco J. Escobedo; David J. Nowak; John E. Wagner; Carmen Luz De la Maza; Manuel Rodr& #237; guez; Daniel E. Crane; Jamie Hern& #225; ndez; Hern& #225; Jamie ndez

    2006-01-01

    Santiago, Chile's semi-arid climate and urbanized environment poses a severe limitation for the establishment and maintenance of urban forests. Municipalities, or comunas, are the main stakeholders in the management of Santiago's public urban forests. A tenable hypothesis would be that as the socioeconomic level of a comuna...

  14. Desarrollo metropolitano integrado: El caso de Santiago de Chile

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    Paulina Schiappacasse

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available El Área Metropolitana de Santiago (AMS ocupa un rol significativo en términos demográficos y de desarrollo económico en Chile. Sin embargo existen debilidades importantes en el establecimiento de mecanismos adecuados que permitan definir su orientación estratégica en un marco global competitivo; esta situación se intensifica en la medida que las áreas metropolitanas en Chile, no poseen una institucionalidad definida y un marco legal que las sustente. El AMS esta siendo afectada por cambios estructurales típicos en la evolución de las grandes metrópolis, con las consecuentes externalidades negativas que incrementan las dificultades para enfrentar y orientar su crecimiento y para establecer instancias de colaboración entre los diferentes actores involucrados. En este artículo se analiza la situación del AMS, en el marco de la discusión internacional, en relación a las metas estratégicas necesarias para el logro de un desarrollo metropolitano sustentable. La intención es contribuir al debate nacional actual en torno a la revisión y cambio de las políticas de planificación, en particular, aquellas orientadas a enfrentar los procesos dinámicos que están experimentando las ciudades.

  15. Actitudes lingüísticas en Santiago de Chile

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    Darío Rojas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo analiza las actitudes lingüísticas de hablantes nativos de español de la ciudad de Santiago, hacia al español de Chile y hacia el español de los otros países hispanohablantes: El artículo es parte de los resultados del Proyecto LIAS (Linguistic Identity and attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, financiado por El Consejo Noruego de Investigación (RCN. La recolección de los datos se realizó en la capital del país, entrevistando una muestra de 400 informantes estratificada con las variables de edad, sexo y nivel socioeconómico. Entre nuestros hallazgos, destacan los siguientes: 1 los santiaguinos muestran seguridad lingüística en comparación con variedades regionales del español de Chile, pero una gran inseguridad cuando se comparan con el habla de otros países; 2 sus actitudes se ven influenciadas tanto por características lingüísticas (modelo ideal de lengua, conservador y de raigambre colonial como por características extralingüísticas (estatus social; 3 el concepto de mayor peso dentro de la ideología lingüística de los santiaguinos es la corrección idiomática, que se articula con otros dos conceptos clave: el de unidad lingüística y el de entendimiento (o comprensión lingüística. Abstract This article analyzes the linguistic attitudes of Spanish speakers from Santiago, towards Spanish spoken in Chile and in the other Spanish-speaking countries. It is a result of the LIAS-Project (Linguistic Identity and attitudes in Spanish-speaking Latin America, funded by The Research Council of Norway (RCN. The data were gathered in the capital of the country, interviewing a stratified sample of 400 persons based on the variables of age, sex and socioeconomic status. Our main findings are the following: 1 Santiaguinos show linguistic confidence when they compare their speech to regional varieties of Chilean Spanish, but they show great insecurity when they compare their speech to those of other

  16. Air Pollution in São Paulo and Santiago de Chile: Sources and Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artaxo, P.; Castanho, A.; Oyolla, P.; Gramsch, E.; Martinez, R.

    2007-05-01

    Urban air pollution is a serious issue for millions in Latin America. São Paulo, Santiago de Chile, México City and many other large urban conglomerates. Fast industrialization, large population growth, emissions from the transportation sectors and many other issues are the cause for the air pollution in these mega cities. São Paulo, with 17 million people, 5.5 million vehicles and strong industry suffers from severe particulate matter and ozone exposure. Santiago de Chile with very unfavorable dispersion characteristics also has problems with PM10 and ozone. Health effects in these areas are a public health concern. In Sao Paulo alone, about 30,000 excess deaths are attributable to air pollution issues. There are also critical institutional issues in the São Paulo metropolitan area, which has 39 municipalities, as well as three other metropolitan areas within a 100-km radius. In Santiago de Chile, a dry climate makes ressuspended soil dust an important PM10 component, and vehicle emissions produces high concentration of secondary organic aerosols. Old diesel buses make black carbon concentrations very high in Santiago. We carried out extensive aerosol source apportionment studies for several years, using PIXE as trace element analysis technique and multivariate statistical analysis to separate and quantify aerosol sources in Santiago and Sao Paulo. We will present results from 5 years studies in both Santiago and Sao Paulo. Vehicles and soil dust dominates the picture, with a strong sulfate component in Santiago de Chile.

  17. Medication Overdoses at a Public Emergency Department in Santiago, Chile

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    Pablo Aguilera, MD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: While a nationwide poison control registry exists in Chile, reporting to the center is sporadic and happens at the discretion of the treating physician or by patients’ self-report. Moreover, individual hospitals do not monitor accidental or intentional poisoning in a systematic manner. The goal of this study was to identify all cases of intentional medication overdose (MO that occurred over two years at a large public hospital in Santiago, Chile, and examine its epidemiologic profile. Methods: This study is a retrospective, explicit chart review conducted at Hospital Sótero del Rio from July 2008 until June 2010. We included all cases of identified intentional MO. Alcohol and recreational drugs were included only when they were ingested with other medications. Results: We identified 1,557 cases of intentional MO and analyzed a total of 1,197 cases, corresponding to 0.51% of all emergency department (ED presentations between July 2008 and June 2010. The median patient age was 25 years. The majority was female (67.6%. Two peaks were identified, corresponding to the spring of each year sampled. The rate of hospital admission was 22.2%. Benzodiazepines, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, and tricyclic antidepressants (TCA were the causative agents most commonly found, comprising 1,044 (87.2% of all analyzed cases. Acetaminophen was involved in 81 (6.8% cases. More than one active substance was involved in 35% of cases. In 7.3% there was ethanol co-ingestion and in 1.0% co-ingestion of some other recreational drug (primarily cocaine. Of 1,557 cases, six (0.39% patients died. TCA were involved in two of these deaths. Conclusion: Similar to other developed and developing nations, intentional MO accounts for a significant number of ED presentations in Chile. Chile is unique in the region, however, in that its spectrum of intentional overdoses includes an excess burden of tricyclic antidepressant and benzodiazepine overdoses, a

  18. Performing national identity through Peruvian food migration in Santiago de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Imilan

    2015-01-01

    The article explores the processes of re-production of national identity based on food-related practices and discourses of Peruvian migrants living in Santiago de Chile. The meeting point of these three fields – migration, national identity and food – is most evidently performed in the celebration of the Peruvian National Holidays in Santiago. The article finds evidence that the performance in this national festivity reinforces a sense of Peruvianness, thus contributing to the study of contem...

  19. Santiago de Chile, ¿ejemplo de una reestructuración capitalista global?

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    Luis Fuentes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Términos como "ciudad global", "ciudad difusa", "ciudad dual", entre otros, merecen ser rediscutidos y contrastados con el proceso de transformaciones experimentado por Santiago de Chile producto de la reestructuración capitalista. En este sentido, este trabajo pretende discutir acerca de la conveniencia de otorgar a la capital de Chile éstos y otros adjetivos frecuentemente utilizados en la literatura urbanística internacional.

  20. Oxidation capacity of the city air of Santiago, Chile

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    Y. F. Elshorbany

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation capacity of the highly polluted urban area of Santiago, Chile has been evaluated during a summer measurement campaign carried out from 8–20 March 2005. The hydroxyl (OH radical budget was evaluated employing a simple quasi-photostationary-state model (PSS constrained with simultaneous measurements of HONO, HCHO, O3, NO, NO2, j(O1D, j(NO2, 13 alkenes and meteorological parameters. In addition, a zero dimensional photochemical box model based on the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCMv3.1 has been used to estimate production rates and total free radical budgets, including OH, HO2 and RO2. Besides the above parameters, the MCM model has been constrained by the measured CO and volatile organic compounds (VOCs including alkanes and aromatics. Both models simulate the same OH concentration during daytime indicating that the primary OH sources and sinks included in the simple PSS model predominate. Mixing ratios of the main OH radical precursors were found to be in the range 0.8–7 ppbv (HONO, 0.9–11 ppbv (HCHO and 0–125 ppbv (O3. The alkenes average mixing ratio was ~58 ppbC accounting for ~12% of the total identified non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs. During the daytime (08:00 h–19:00 h, HONO photolysis was shown to be the most important primary OH radical source comprising alone ~55% of the total initial production rate, followed by alkene ozonolysis (~24% and photolysis of HCHO (~16% and O3 (~5%. The calculated average and maximum daytime OH production rates from HONO photolysis was 1.7 ppbv h−1 and 3.1 ppbv h−1, respectively. Based on the experimental results a strong photochemical daytime source of HONO is proposed. A detailed analysis of the sources of OH radical precursors has also been carried out.

  1. Parental Attitude and Practice Regarding Physical Punishment of School Children in Santiago de Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Nelson A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Attitudes and practices regarding child physical punishment were surveyed in Santiago (Chile) with 423 parents from 2 public schools and 104 parents from a private Catholic school, 98 private school students in grades 7 and 8, and 84 state school students. Results showed a high prevalence of physical punishment and a high proportion of students…

  2. Santiago de Chile, ¿ejemplo de una reestructuración capitalista global?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fuentes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Términos como "ciudad global", "ciudad difusa", "ciudad dual", entre otros, merecen ser rediscutidos y contrastados con el proceso de transformaciones experimentado por Santiago de Chile producto de la reestructuración capitalista. En este sentido, este trabajo pretende discutir acerca de la conveniencia de otorgar a la capital de Chile éstos y otros adjetivos frecuentemente utilizados en la literatura urbanística internacional.Terms like "global city", "diffuse city", "dual city", among others, deserve to be discussed and contrasted with urban processes that are been taking part in Santiago de Chile in the last decades. This article attempts to discuss the convenience of grant to Chile’s capital city these and others adjectives, commonly used in the urban literature

  3. HIV prevalence, AIDS knowledge, and condom use among female sex workers in Santiago, Chile Prevalencia del VIH, conocimientos sobre el SIDA, y uso del condón en trabajadoras sexuales de Santiago, Chile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaime E. Barrientos; Michel Bozon; Edith Ortiz; Anabella Arredondo

    2007-01-01

    ...) attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was administered to 626 FSW...

  4. Performing national identity through Peruvian food migration in Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Imilan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the processes of re-production of national identity based on food-related practices and discourses of Peruvian migrants living in Santiago de Chile. The meeting point of these three fields – migration, national identity and food – is most evidently performed in the celebration of the Peruvian National Holidays in Santiago. The article finds evidence that the performance in this national festivity reinforces a sense of Peruvianness, thus contributing to the study of contemporary processes of renewal of national identities in transnational contexts. The case study also demonstrates that the ascription of national identity by Peruvian in Santiago is strategic, and it operates as an assemblage of various and locally situated elements.

  5. Posicionamiento de las mujeres como locutoras en las transmisiones de programas radiales en Santiago de Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomas, Dodds.; Amor, I.M.

    2016-01-01

    Este artículo busca describir el rol de las mujeres en las radios de Frecuencia Modulada que transmiten en Santiago de Chile. Para ello levanta información respecto a la cantidad de mujeres que ocupan roles de locución y observa a través de la categorización de los programas qué espacios se les han

  6. Cultural Identity and Citizenship in Poverty–Stricken Areas in Santiago, Chile

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    Cristian Cabalin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a qualitative study in La Victoria, a shantytown in Santiago de Chile with a long history of urban mobilization that goes back to the 50's, this paper examines how cultural identities shape political representation and contribute to social exclusion. The results suggest that the origins of the shantytown left an important imprint on its residents delineating their cultural identity in ways that limit their political and social integration.

  7. A typology of female sex work in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmar, Julieta; Stuardo, Valeria; Folch, Cinta; Carvajal, Bielka; Clunes, Maria José; Montoliu, Alexandra; Casabona, Jordi

    2017-08-11

    In Chile, sex work takes place covertly in a variety of venues and locations. Formative research using time-location sampling methods is important in order to understand the nature of this diversity. This study used qualitative methods to develop a typology of female sex work in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile, using semi-structured interviews, focus groups and ethnographic fieldwork during visits to sex work venues. The study identified seven types of venue, which reflect the context and regulatory framework of the country and the structural vulnerabilities that affect female sex workers in Chile. These venues and locations include: cafés con piernas (coffee with legs); nightclubs, topless bars and cabarets; brothels; hotels; street and highway soliciting; massage parlours; and private residences. Formative research methods were helpful in identifying and characterising the venues and locations in which sex work occurred. Barriers to accessing and mapping specific locations were also identified. Recommendations for addressing these barriers include working with non-governmental organisations to map venues and initiate contact with the populations of interest. A comprehensive typology of sex work in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile, is an essential element for future time-location sampling and bio-behavioural research in the context of second-generation surveillance for HIV and sexually transmitted infections in Chile.

  8. Thermal and lighting perception in four fully glazed office buildings in Santiago, Chile

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    Claudio Vásquez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Corresponding author: Claudio Vásquez, School of Architecture, Catholic University of Chile. 1916 El Comendador str. Providencia, Santiago, ZIP: 7530091, Chile. Tel.: +56 9 92826305; E-mail: clvasque@uc.cl This paper is part of a general research project whose main objective is to establish a baseline for post-occupancy energy consumption and indoor environmental quality for office buildings in Santiago, Chile. This study aims at understanding how architectonical variables relate to, and can even determine, user comfort perception. Thus, one-year continuous monitoring in several floors at four office buildings was performed and seasonal surveys were completed. Survey participants were asked a series of questions regarding spatial orientation and comfort perception in their workspace. The data from the comfort survey and onsite measurements such as season of the year, case study, type of workspace and possibility of an outdoor view from the workstation were contrasted with the components obtained by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Three components were selected from the PCA, and three Maps of Perception (MP were produced. These maps were then analyzed and interpreted so as to obtain information on the general perception of thermal and lighting comfort at workspaces within several office buildings in Santiago.

  9. Ecological factors and adolescent marijuana use: results of a prospective study in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delva, Jorge; Lee, Wonhyung; Sanchez, Ninive; Andrade, Fernando H; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Sanhueza, Guillermo; Ho, Michelle

    2014-03-21

    Despite the growing evidence that ecological factors contribute to substance use, the relationship of ecological factors and illicit drugs such as marijuana use is not well understood, particularly among adolescents in Latin America. Guided by social disorganization and social stress theories, we prospectively examined the association of disaggregated neighborhood characteristics with marijuana use among adolescents in Santiago, Chile, and tested if these relationships varied by sex. Data for this study are from 725 community-dwelling adolescents participating in the Santiago Longitudinal Study, a study of substance using behaviors among urban adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Adolescents completed a two-hour interviewer administered questionnaire with questions about drug use and factors related to drug using behaviors. As the neighborhood levels of drug availability at baseline increased, but not crime or noxious environment, adolescents had higher odds of occasions of marijuana use at follow up, approximately 2 years later (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.16-1.66), even after controlling for the study's covariates. No interactions by sex were significant. The findings suggest that "poverty", "crime", and "drug problems" may not be synonyms and thus can be understood discretely. As Latin American countries re-examine their drug policies, especially those concerning decriminalizing marijuana use, the findings suggest that attempts to reduce adolescent marijuana use in disadvantaged neighborhoods may do best if efforts are concentrated on specific features of the "substance abuse environment".

  10. Ecological Factors and Adolescent Marijuana Use: Results of a Prospective Study in Santiago, Chile

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    Jorge Delva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Despite the growing evidence that ecological factors contribute to substance use, the relationship of ecological factors and illicit drugs such as marijuana use is not well understood, particularly among adolescents in Latin America. Guided by social disorganization and social stress theories, we prospectively examined the association of disaggregated neighborhood characteristics with marijuana use among adolescents in Santiago, Chile, and tested if these relationships varied by sex. Methods: Data for this study are from 725 community-dwelling adolescents participating in the Santiago Longitudinal Study, a study of substance using behaviors among urban adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Adolescents completed a two-hour interviewer administered questionnaire with questions about drug use and factors related to drug using behaviors. Results: As the neighborhood levels of drug availability at baseline increased, but not crime or noxious environment, adolescents had higher odds of occasions of marijuana use at follow up, approximately 2 years later (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.16–1.66, even after controlling for the study’s covariates. No interactions by sex were significant. Discussion: The findings suggest that “poverty”, “crime”, and “drug problems” may not be synonyms and thus can be understood discretely. As Latin American countries re-examine their drug policies, especially those concerning decriminalizing marijuana use, the findings suggest that attempts to reduce adolescent marijuana use in disadvantaged neighborhoods may do best if efforts are concentrated on specific features of the “substance abuse environment”.

  11. Respiratory disease and particulate air pollution in Santiago Chile: contribution of erosion particles from fine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Chevesich, Pablo A; Alvarado, Sergio; Neary, Daniel G; Valdes, Rodrigo; Valdes, Juan; Aguirre, Juan José; Mena, Marcelo; Pizarro, Roberto; Jofré, Paola; Vera, Mauricio; Olivares, Claudio

    2014-04-01

    Air pollution in Santiago is a serious problem every winter, causing thousands of cases of breathing problems within the population. With more than 6 million people and almost two million vehicles, this large city receives rainfall only during winters. Depending on the frequency of storms, statistics show that every time it rains, air quality improves for a couple of days, followed by extreme levels of air pollution. Current regulations focus mostly on PM10 and PM2.5, due to its strong influence on respiratory diseases. Though more than 50% of the ambient PM10s in Santiago is represented by soil particles, most of the efforts have been focused on the remaining 50%, i.e. particulate material originating from fossil and wood fuel combustion, among others. This document emphasizes the need for the creation of erosion/sediment control regulations in Chile, to decrease respiratory diseases on Chilean polluted cities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Vivienda social periurbana en Santiago de Chile: la exclusión a escala regional del trasurbanita de Santiago de Chile

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    César Cáceres-Seguel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La localización periurbana de vivienda social en Santiago de Chile ha sido am-pliamente estudiada desde sus implicancias territoriales y políticas, sin embargo,poco sabemos del impacto de estas urbanizaciones en la calidad de vida delhabitante. Mediante entrevistas con residentes de proyectos localizados en Lampase sugiere el surgimiento detrasurbanitas, para ellos, el acceso a un bienestarbásico depende de habitar cotidianamente territorios fragmentados entre lavivienda periurbana y comunas centrales que albergan servicios urbanos elemen-tales. El subsidio de vivienda desencadena la exclusión a escala regional congrupos habitando bordes periurbanos carentes de transporte público eficiente yservicios básicos.

  13. Evolution of aerosol loading in Santiago de Chile between 1997 and 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistone, Kristina; Gallardo, Laura

    2015-04-01

    While aerosols produced by major cities are a significant component of anthropogenic climate forcing as well as an important factor in public health, many South American cities have not been a major focus of aerosol studies due in part to relatively few long-term observations in the region. Here we present a synthesis of the available data for the emerging megacity of Santiago, Chile. We report new results from a recent NASA AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) site in the Santiago basin, combining these with previous AERONET observations in Santiago as well as with a new assessment of the 11-station air quality monitoring network currently administered by the Chilean Environment Ministry (MMA, Ministerio del Medio Ambiente) to assess changes in aerosol composition since 1997. While the average surface concentration of pollution components (specifically PM2.5 and PM10) has decreased, no significant change in total aerosol optical depth was observed. However, changes in aerosol size and composition are suggested by the proxy measurements. Previous studies have revealed limitations in purely satellite-based studies over Santiago due to biases from high surface reflection in the region, particularly in summer months (e.g. Escribano et al 2014). To overcome this difficulty and certain limitations in the air quality data, we next incorporate analysis of aerosol products from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument along with those from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument, both on NASA's Terra satellite, to better quantify the high bias of MODIS. Thus incorporating these complementary datasets, we characterize the aerosol over Santiago over the period 1997 to 2014, including the evolution of aerosol properties over time and seasonal dependencies in the observed trends. References: Escribano et al (2014), "Satellite Retrievals of Aerosol Optical Depth over a Subtropical Urban Area: The Role of Stratification and Surface

  14. Air contaminant statistical distributions with application to PM10 in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, Carolina; Leiva, Víctor; Cavieres, M Fernanda; Sanhueza, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The use of statistical distributions to predict air quality is valuable for determining the impact of air chemical contaminants on human health. Concentrations of air pollutants are treated as random variables that can be modeled by a statistical distribution that is positively skewed and starts from zero. The type of distribution selected for analyzing air pollution data and its associated parameters depend on factors such as emission source and local meteorology and topography. International environmental guideline use appropriate distributions to compute exceedance probabilities and percentiles for setting administrative targets and issuing environmental alerts. The distribution bears a relationship to the normal distribution, and there are theoretical - and physical-based mechanistic arguments that support its use when analyzing air-pollutant data. Others distribution have also been used to model air population data, such as the beta, exponential, gamma, Johnson, log-logistic, Pearson, and Weibull distribution. One model also developed from physical-mechanistic considerations that has received considerable interest in recent year is the Birnbaum-Saunders distribution. This distribution has theoretical arguments and properties similar to those of the log-normal distribution, which renders it useful for modeling air contamination data. In this review, we have addressed the range of common atmospheric contaminants and the health effects they cause. We have also reviewed the statistical distributions that have been use to model air quality, after which we have detailed the problem of air contamination in Santiago, Chile. We have illustrated a methodology that is based on the Birnbaum-Saunders distributions to analyze air contamination data from Santiago, Chile. Finally, in the conclusions, we have provided a list of synoptic statements designed to help readers understand the significance of air pollution in Chile, and in Santiago, in particular, but that can be

  15. Narcocultura y signos de transfronterización en Santiago de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Ganter Solis, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    El artículo busca explorar las interacciones entre narcocultura, las dinámicas de apropiación local de dicho estilo de vida y los procesos de transfronterización que se ponen en juego en este campo de relaciones. Se indaga, además, en las posibles confluencias entre dicho estilo y la configuración del Chile actual. Para este propósito, se analiza el caso de una población histórica ubicada en el centro de la ciudad de Santiago y fuertemente ocupada por bandas de narcotraficantes. Con el objeto...

  16. Residential Solar PV Planning in Santiago, Chile: Incorporating the PM10 Parameter

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    Gustavo Cáceres

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses an economic study of the installation of photovoltaic (PV solar panels for residential power generation in Santiago, Chile, based on the different parameters of a PV system, such as efficiency. As a performance indicator, the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE was used, which indicates the benefit of the facility vs. the current cost of electrical energy. In addition, due to a high level of airborne dusts typically associated with PM10, the effect of the dust deposition on PV panels’ surfaces and the effect on panel performance are examined. Two different scenarios are analyzed: on-grid PV plants and off-grid PV plants.

  17. Waiting list in a public health facility in Santiago, Chile

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    Alejandro Letelier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Waiting lists are a well-known problem in public healthcare systems worldwide. For instance, England had over one million people in waiting lists for elective surgical procedures in 2000. Spain had over 360 000 patients in surgical waiting lists in 2007. Chile has been trying to manage waiting times through the GES (Explicit Guarantees in Healthcare plan, which was established by the Chilean government in 2005. Waiting lists for the guaranteed-care diseases in the GES plan had 380 000 patients at the beginning of 2010, and that number was reduced to zero in 2011. Internationally, there are some descriptive studies about waiting lists that focus on variables such as waiting times and number of patients in the list. In Chile, however, this type of study is lacking. Purpose This study aims to describe the characteristics of waiting lists for medical specialties between April and October 2011. It also aims to identify the components of management models in public healthcare centers, and to identify and analyze waiting-time frames of patients referred to a secondary or tertiary healthcare public center from a public primary healthcare center. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study of the waiting list for first-time consultations for medical specialties was carried out. Referred patients were described and grouped using indicators of access to healthcare and waiting time between April and October 2011. Each consultation request or referral of a new patient was included in the waiting list and analyzed. Results There were 15 935 requests for consultations; 5 717 requests were resolved, and 8 544 were not (54% of the total requests for consultation. There was a mean waiting time of 498 days for non-resolved requests for consultation, and a mean of 141 days for resolved requests. The specialties in highest demand were orthopedic surgery and ophthalmology. The main waiting-list management processes were referral and reception of requests

  18. Elemental concentrations of ambient particles and cause specific mortality in Santiago, Chile: a time series study

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    Valdés Ana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health effects of particulate air pollution are widely recognized and there is some evidence that the magnitude of these effects vary by particle component. We studied the effects of ambient fine particles (aerodynamic diameter 2.5 and their components on cause-specific mortality in Santiago, Chile, where particulate pollution is a major public health concern. Methods Air pollution was collected in a residential area in the center of Santiago. Daily mortality counts were obtained from the National Institute of Statistic. The associations between PM2.5 and cause-specific mortality were studied by time series analysis controlling for time trends, day of the week, temperature and relative humidity. We then included an interaction term between PM2.5 and the monthly averages of the mean ratios of individual elements to PM2.5 mass. Results We found significant effects of PM2.5 on all the causes analyzed, with a 1.33% increase (95% CI: 0.87-1.78 in cardiovascular mortality per 10μg/m3 increase in the two days average of PM2.5. We found that zinc was associated with higher cardiovascular mortality. Particles with high content of chromium, copper and sulfur showed stronger associations with respiratory and COPD mortality, while high zinc and sodium content of PM2.5 amplified the association with cerebrovascular disease. Conclusions Our findings suggest that PM2.5 with high zinc, chromium, copper, sodium, and sulfur content have stronger associations with mortality than PM2.5 mass alone in Santiago, Chile. The sources of particles containing these elements need to be determined to better control their emissions.

  19. Modeling study of biomass burning plumes and their impact on urban air quality; a case study of Santiago de Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuchiara, G. C.; Rappenglück, B.; Rubio, M. A.; Lissi, E.; Gramsch, E.; Garreaud, R. D.

    2017-10-01

    On January 4, 2014, during the summer period in South America, an intense forest and dry pasture wildfire occurred nearby the city of Santiago de Chile. On that day the biomass-burning plume was transported by low-intensity winds towards the metropolitan area of Santiago and impacted the concentration of pollutants in this region. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF/Chem) is implemented to investigate the biomass-burning plume associated with these wildfires nearby Santiago, which impacted the ground-level ozone concentration and exacerbated Santiago's air quality. Meteorological variables simulated by WRF/Chem are compared against surface and radiosonde observations, and the results show that the model reproduces fairly well the observed wind speed, wind direction air temperature and relative humidity for the case studied. Based on an analysis of the transport of an inert tracer released over the locations, and at the time the wildfires were captured by the satellite-borne Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the model reproduced reasonably well the transport of biomass burning plume towards the city of Santiago de Chile within a time delay of two hours as observed in ceilometer data. A six day air quality simulation was performed: the first three days were used to validate the anthropogenic and biogenic emissions, and the last three days (during and after the wildfire event) to analyze the performance of WRF/Chem plume-rise model within FINNv1 fire emission estimations. The model presented a satisfactory performance on the first days of the simulation when contrasted against data from the well-established air quality network over the city of Santiago de Chile. These days represent the urban air quality base case for Santiago de Chile unimpacted by fire emissions. However, for the last three simulation days, which were impacted by the fire emissions, the statistical indices showed a decrease in

  20. [Dermatophyte colonization on guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) kept in pet stores. First report from Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Pamela; Monsalves, Pamela; Maier, Liliana; Silva, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes are pathogenic fungi that can be present in the flora of mammals, such as dogs, cats and rodents, which can be a source and transmission vehicle to other hosts, including humans. In Chile, there is a steady increase of acquiring guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) as pets, with no local studies on their colonization by dermatophytes. To determine the presence of dermatophytes on clinically healthy guinea pigs, kept in pet stores in Santiago, Chile. A total of 52 clinically healthy animals were studied using the method by Mariat and Tapia (1966). The specimen culture and identification of the dermatophytes were performed using classical mycological procedures. Four guinea pigs (7.7%) out of 52 were colonized by dermatophytes, and were identified as Trichophyton mentagrophytes (3 cases) and Trichophyton verrucosum (one case). This study shows, for the first time in Chile, that guinea pigs can be colonized by dermatophytes, which should alert administrators of pet stores, veterinarians and physicians, to keep this in mind when purchasing or looking after this type of pet in a veterinary office. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of methods for evaluating options for improving air quality in Santiago, Chile and its environs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.D.; Brown, M.J.

    1993-10-01

    Santiago, Chile has a serious air pollution problem. Aerosols reach very high levels and ozone exceeds US ambient standards on over 100 days a year. Chileans are very concerned about the poor air quality of Santiago and the effect of emissions from their copper smelters both near Santiago and at other sites. Officials from both the Santiago metropolitan air quality commission (La Comision Especial de Descontaminacion de le Region Metropolitana) and a government owned copper development company (La Empress Nacional de Mineria (ENAMI)) have asked for assistance to deal with the air quality problems in the city and associated with smelter emissions. This report describes the first steps in that effort. Santiago lies in a valley between a small coastal range to the west and the towering Andes to the cast. Air motion is greatly affected by the major topographical features which include the Pacific Ocean, the coastal range, and the Andes. In this first year of work the authors concentrated on gathering information on the meteorology, topography, and air quality of the metropolitan region. They examined two smelter sites and applied models to them to help their understanding and to provide assistance to ENAMI. One smelter, Ventanas, was located on the Pacific coast to the northwest of Santiago, while the other, Paipote, was located several hundred kilometers to the north. The Ventanas emissions may potentially affect Santiago air quality. Several advantages of working with the smelters in the first phase of the project are: (1) there is more monitoring in the vicinity of the smelters, (2) the development of a useful emission inventory is easier, (3) they pose a simpler problem of immediate interest whose resolution will provide an early benefit to the Chilean colleagues, and (4) the authors gain important experience as they prepare to delve deeper into Santiago`s air pollution problems.

  2. Children at risk: A comparison of child pedestrian traffic collisions in Santiago, Chile, and Seoul, South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazquez, Carola; Lee, Jae Seung; Zegras, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    We examine and compare pedestrian-vehicle collisions and injury outcomes involving school-age children between 5 and 18 years of age in the capital cities of Santiago, Chile, and Seoul, South Korea. We conduct descriptive analysis of the child pedestrian-vehicle collision (P-VC) data (904 collisions for Santiago and 3,505 for Seoul) reported by the police between 2010 and 2011. We also statistically analyze factors associated with child P-VCs, by both incident severity and age group, using 3 regression models: negative binomial, probit, and spatial lag models. Descriptive statistics suggest that child pedestrians in Seoul have a higher risk of being involved in traffic crashes than their counterparts in Santiago. However, in Seoul a greater proportion of children are unharmed as a result of these incidents, whereas more child pedestrians are killed in Santiago. Younger children in Seoul suffer more injuries from P-VCs than in Santiago. The majority of P-VCs in both cities tend to occur in the afternoon and evening, at intersections in Santiago and at midblock locations in Seoul. Our model results suggest that the resident population of children is positively associated with P-VCs in both cities, and school concentrations apparently increase P-VC risk among older children in Santiago. Bus stops are associated with higher P-VCs in Seoul, and subway stations relate to higher P-VCs among older children in Santiago. Zone-level land use mix was negatively related to child P-VCs in Seoul but not in Santiago. Arterial roads are associated with fewer P-VCs, especially for younger children in both cities. A share of collector roads is associated with increased P-VCs in Seoul but fewer P-VCs in Santiago. Hilliness is related to fewer P-VCs in both cities. Differences in these model results for Santiago and Seoul warrant additional analysis, as do the differences in results across model type (negative binomial versus spatial lag models). To reduce child P-VCs, this study

  3. Thermal and lighting perception in four fully glazed office buildings in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Vásquez Záldivar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of a general research project whose main objective is to establish a baseline for post-occupancy energy consumption and indoor environmental quality for office buildings in Santiago, Chile. This study aims at understanding how architectonical variables relate to, and can even determine, user comfort perception.  Thus, one-year continuous monitoring in several floors at four office buildings was performed and seasonal surveys were completed.  Survey participants were asked a series of questions regarding spatial orientation and comfort perception in their workspace.The data from the comfort survey and onsite measurements such as season of the year, case study, type of workspace and possibility of an outdoor view from the workstation were contrasted with the components obtained by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Three components were selected from the PCA, and three Maps of Perception (MP were produced. These maps were then analyzed and interpreted so as to obtain information on the general perception of thermal and lighting comfort at workspaces within several office buildings in Santiago.

  4. Santiago de Chile de cara a la globalización: ?(spanishotra ciudad?

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    Mattos Carlos A. de

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho propõe-se a identificar e caracterizar a "outra cidade" resultante das transformações que afetaram a área metropolitana de Santiago do Chile em função da assunção, a partir de meados de 1975, de uma nova estratégia macroeconômica, onde tanto uma crescente liberalização econômica, como uma ampla abertura externa, favoreceram a progressiva globalização da economia nacional. Nesse contexto, observa-se como junto a importantes modificações na base econômica metropolitana começou a processar-se na grande Santiago uma radical reestruturação de seu mercado de trabalho e uma maior dispersão territorial das atividades produtivas e da população. Nesse novo cenário, analisa-se como as transformações que afetaram a cidade emergente incidiram na afirmação, de um lado, de uma morfologia social donde persiste a polarização social e a segregação residencial e, de outra, de uma morfologia territorial onde impera a periurbanização e a policentralidade, transformações essas que correspondem às tendências que atualmente se observam nas grandes áreas metropolitanas tanto dos países centrais como das economias emergentes.

  5. Determinants of compliance in the emissions compensation program in Santiago, Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, Milagros [Universidad de Concepcion, Master Program in Natural Resources and Environmental Economics, Concepcion (Chile); Chavez, Carlos [Universidad de Concepcion, Dept. of Economics, Concepcion (Chile)

    2005-08-01

    The Emissions Compensation (EC) Program in Santiago, Chile, has been affected from the beginning by the incidence of individual violations of maximum-emission capacity permits. Based on information at the individual source level, in this paper we develop and estimate a model explaining the individual compliance decision with emission capacity permits. Our results indicate that the compliance behavior of sources during the period 1993-1999 do in fact depend on their individual characteristics. Among other factors, type of equipment used, industrial sector to which the source belongs, fuel type used, the initial allocation of emission capacity permits to the source, and population density as well as average income in the area where the source is located, turn out to be relevant. Furthermore, the evidence does not allow us to reject the presence of structural change in the individual decision to comply with permit holdings because of the introduction of natural gas in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago at the end of 1997. (Author)

  6. Prevalence of oral mucosal lesions in elderly people in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, I; Rojas, R; Aranda, W; Gamonal, J

    2003-11-01

    Oral prevalence studies are important to know the state of health and the needs of treatment. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions and associated factors among aging Chileans. A random sample by age, gender, and socioeconomic status was obtained, comprising 889 individuals older than 65 years. Individuals were interviewed and examined in Santiago, the capital of Chile, according to the World Health Organization guidelines. The prevalence of one or more oral mucosal lesions in the sample was 53%. Logistic regression model revealed that denture use increased the probability of one or more oral mucosal lesions by threefold, while age, gender, smoking, medication use, xerostomia, and social or cultural factors had no effect. The most common lesion was denture stomatitis (22.3%), followed by irritative hyperplasia (9.4%), oral mucosal varicosities (9%), solitary pigmented lesions (4%), traumatic ulcer (3.5%), angular cheilitis (2.9%), multiple pigmented lesions (2.8%), hemangioma (2.3%), lichen planus (2.1%), leukoplakia (1.7%), recurrent aphthous stomatitis (1.4%), nicotine stomatitis (1.3%), median rhomboid glossitis (0.9%), actinic cheilitis (0.9%), pyogenic granuloma (0.7%), oral squamous papiloma (0.6%), and mucocele (0.2%). One case of oral cancer was observed. Different factors increased the probability of specific oral mucosal pathologies. We can conclude that oral mucosal lesions are common in elderly people in Santiago, suggesting the necessity for improved standards of prevention, and diagnostic and opportune treatment of these lesions.

  7. Factores asociados a satisfacción vital en una cohorte de adultos mayores de Santiago, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Castillo-Carniglia, Álvaro; Albala, Cecilia; Dangour, Alan D.; Uauy, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar la asociación entre satisfacción vital con el nivel socioeconómico y el autorreporte del estado de salud en una cohorte de adultos mayores de Santiago de Chile en los años 2005 y 2006. Métodos: Estudio transversal que incluyó 2002 sujetos entre 65 y 67,9 años de edad, registrados en 20 centros de salud primaria del Gran Santiago, autovalentes, sin deterioro cognitivo, sospecha de cáncer ni enfermedad terminal. Se evaluó la satisfacción vital mediante la adaptación abreviada ...

  8. Prevalence and correlates of physical fighting among school-going adolescents in Santiago, Chile Prevalencia e correlaciones de la lucha física entre adolescentes escolares en Santiago de Chile, Chile

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    Emmanuel Rudatsikira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There is a growing interest in injury as a public health issue across the world. There is paucity of data on the prevalence and social correlates of non-fatal interpersonal violence in low- and middle-income income nations. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of, and associated factors for physical fighting among school-going adolescents in Santiago, Chile. METHOD: We conducted a secondary analysis of the Chilean Global School-Based Health Survey conducted in 2004 in Santiago. We aimed to assess the prevalence and social correlates of having been involved in a physical fight in the prior 12 months. RESULTS: Of the 2111 respondents, 40.7% (54.3% males and 26.6% females reported having been in a physical fight in the prior 12 months. Males were more likely to have been in a physical fight than females [OR = 3.89, 95% CI (3.11, 4.85]. Substance use (cigarette smoking, drinking alcohol, and using drugs and bullying victimization were positively associated with fighting [OR = 3.05, 95% CI (2.40, 3.87 for substance use, and OR = 1.65, 95% CI (1.32, 2.05 for bullying]. Parental supervision was negatively associated with physical fighting [OR = 0.62, 95% CI (0.50, 0.78]. CONCLUSION: We have estimated the prevalence of having engaged in a physical fight among in-school adolescents in Santiago, Chile. We have found that the prevalence is similar to what has been reported in diverse settings in Africa, Europe and North America.OBJETIVO: Existe un creciente interés en el daño como un asunto de salud pública a través del mundo. Hay escasez de datos en la prevalencia y correlaciones sociales de violencia interpersonal no fatal, en naciones con bajos y medianos ingresos. El objetivo de este estudio fue estimar la prevalencia y el factor asociado a lucha física entre estudiantes adolescentes en Santiago, Chile. MÉTODO: Hemos conducido un análisis secundario de la Encuesta Global Chilena de Salud Basada en Escuelas

  9. Assessment of urban vulnerability towards floods using an indicator-based approach – a case study for Santiago de Chile

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    A. Müller

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Regularly occurring flood events do have a history in Santiago de Chile, the capital city of Chile and study area for this research. The analysis of flood events, the resulting damage and its causes are crucial prerequisites for the development of risk prevention measures. The goal of this research is to empirically investigate the vulnerability towards floods in Santiago de Chile as one component of flood risk. The analysis and assessment of vulnerability is based on the application of a multi-scale (individual, household, municipal level set of indicators and the use of a broad range of data. The case-specific set of indicators developed in this study shows the relevant variables and their interrelations influencing the flood vulnerability in the study area. It provides a decision support tool for stakeholders and allows for monitoring and evaluating changes over time. The paper outlines how GIS, census, and remote sensing data as well as household surveys and expert interviews are used as an information base for the derivation of a vulnerability map for two municipalities located in the eastern part of Santiago de Chile. The generation of vulnerability maps representing the two different perspectives of local decision makers (experts and affected households is exemplified and discussed using the developed methodology.

  10. Metropolizaciones Colombia-Chile: Experiencias de Bogotá, Medellín, Santiago y Concepción

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    Luz Ángela Silva Álvarez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available El libro Metropolizaciones Colombia-Chile: Experiencias de Bogotá, Medellín, Santiago y Concepción surge en el marco de la alianza entre dos grupos de investigación de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia: el Grupo de Estudios sobre la Problemática Urbano-Regional en Colombia (Geourbe del Departamento de Geografía, sede Bogotá; y el de Dinámicas Urbano-Regionales de la Facultad de Arquitectura, sede Medellín. Posteriormente, la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile se sumó a la alianza con la organización del seminario Dinámicas Metropolitanas Colombia-Chile, diálogo entre Bogotá, Medellín, Santiago y Concepción, en noviembre de 2012 en la ciudad de Santiago. Los trabajos allí presentados fueron la base para la edición y materialización de esta interesante obra que contiene diecisiete textos, en los que se examina el proceso de metropolización en cuatro ciudades de Colombia y Chile desde diferentes perspectivas, donde el término ‘metropolizaciones’, en plural, sugiere la riqueza de aportes y enfoques tanto teóricos como metodológicos, expuestos para estudiar las metrópolis en cuanto a sus particularidades, formas y dinámicas resultantes.

  11. Tensiones de una triple vocación urbana: San Bernardo en su proceso de absorción por Santiago de Chile / Tensions of a triple urban vocation: San Bernardo and its absorption process from Santiago de Chile

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    Daniela Boccardo Apablaza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl fenómeno expansivo de una metrópoli muchas veces va incorporando a su tejido urbano centralidades preexistentes. Entender los efectos de la absorción metropolitana sobre la centralidad menor, es el objetivo de esta investigación sobre San Bernardo y Santiago de Chile. San Bernardo en su proceso de absorción se ha visto enfrentado a nuevas demandas, que lo tensionan a desempeñarse como periferia o subcentro de Santiago, mientras debe seguir respondiendo como centro y capital de una provincia rural. Se intentará demostrar como paulatinamente las demandas metropolitanas se sobreponen a las demandas locales, alterando la estructura física y social de San Bernardo.Palabras claveÁrea Metropolitana de Santiago, conurbación, expansión urbana, periferia, policentrismo.AbstractThe phenomenon of urban sprawl in a metropolis often adds pre-existing towns to its urban fabric. The aim of this research is to understand the effects of absorption on smaller centralities through the cases of San Bernardo and the metropolitan area of Santiago de Chile. San Bernardo in itsabsorption process has been faced new demands, which stress it to responds as either peripheral area or sub-centre of Santiago. Meanwhile, San Bernardo must continue responding as both centre and capital of a rural province. It will attempt to show how gradually overlapping metropolitan demands to local demands, altering the physical and social structure of San Bernardo.KeywordsSantiago Metropolitan Area, conurbation, urban sprawl, periphery, polycentrism.

  12. Midface fractures surgically treated in Instituto Traumatológico of Santiago (Chile): A 10 years review.

    OpenAIRE

    Cristóbal Pacheco; Sebastián Zapata; Cristián Núñez

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Maxillofacial fractures are associated with high morbidity, loss of function, aesthetics and psychological sequelae and substancial economical costs for surgical treatment. The incidence and the prevalence of maxillofacial trauma have been reported in many countries, with differences being found between studies due to sociocultural factors. Our aim is to describe the frequency of surgically treated midface fractures in Instituto Traumatologico of Santiago, Chile.Materials and Me...

  13. Prevalencia del VIH, conocimientos sobre el SIDA, y uso del condón en trabajadoras sexuales de Santiago, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Barrientos, Jaime E.; Bozon, Michel; Ortiz, Edith; Arredondo, Anabella

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW) attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was administered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV prevalence was 0%. FSW ...

  14. Sexual intercourse among adolescents in Santiago, Chile: a study of individual and parenting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ninive; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Castillo, Marcela; Caballero, Gabriela; Delva, Jorge

    2010-10-01

    to examine a range of individual, parenting, and family factors associated with sexual intercourse among a community sample of youth and their families in Santiago, Chile. Data were taken from the Santiago Longitudinal Study conducted in January 2008-November 2009. Participants were 766 youth (mean age = 14.03 years, 51% male) from municipalities of low- to mid-socioeconomic status. Variables included emotional and behavioral subscales from the Child Behavior Checklist's Youth Self Report, parental monitoring, family involvement, parental control and autonomy, relationship with each parent, and sexual activity. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the odds of sexual intercourse initiation. seventy (9.14%) youth reported having had sex in their lifetime; the average age of first sexual intercourse among this group was 13.5 years (Standard Deviation [SD] = 1.74) for males and 14.08 (SD = 1.40) for females. Having sex was inversely associated with withdrawn-depressed symptoms (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.84, Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72-0.97), but positively associated with somatic complaints (OR = 1.20, CI = 1.04-1.38) and rule breaking behavior (OR = 1.21, CI = 1.08-1.36), after adjusting for demographic and other individual and parenting variables. The majority (80%) of the youth who had had sex reported using protection at the time of last intercourse. findings highlight the role that mental health problems-some of them not commonly associated with onset of sexual activity-may play in a youth's decision to have sex. The potential protective effects of several parenting and family characteristics disappeared with youth age and youth behavioral problems.

  15. Temporal evolution of main ambient PM2. 5 sources in Santiago, Chile, from 1998 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Francisco; Lambert, Fabrice; Jorquera, Héctor; María Villalobos, Ana; Gallardo, Laura

    2017-08-01

    The inhabitants of Santiago, Chile have been exposed to harmful levels of air pollutants for decades. The city's poor air quality is a result of steady economic growth, and stable atmospheric conditions adverse to mixing and ventilation that favor the formation of oxidants and secondary aerosols. Identifying and quantifying the sources that contribute to the ambient levels of pollutants is key for designing adequate mitigation measures. Estimating the evolution of source contributions to ambient pollution levels is also paramount to evaluating the effectiveness of pollution reduction measures that have been implemented in recent decades. Here, we quantify the main sources that have contributed to fine particulate matter (PM2. 5) between April 1998 and August 2012 in downtown Santiago by using two different source-receptor models (PMF 5.0 and UNMIX 6.0) that were applied to elemental measurements of 1243 24 h filter samples of ambient PM2.5. PMF resolved six sources that contributed to ambient PM2. 5, with UNMIX producing similar results: motor vehicles (37.3 ± 1.1 %), industrial sources (18.5 ± 1.3 %), copper smelters (14.4 ± 0.8 %), wood burning (12.3 ± 1.0 %), coastal sources (9.5 ± 0.7 %) and urban dust (3.0 ± 1.2 %). Our results show that over the 15 years analyzed here, four of the resolved sources significantly decreased [95 % confidence interval]: motor vehicles 21.3 % [2.6, 36.5], industrial sources 39.3 % [28.6, 48.4], copper smelters 81.5 % [75.5, 85.9], and coastal sources 58.9 % [38.5, 72.5], while wood burning did not significantly change and urban dust increased by 72 % [48.9, 99.9]. These changes are consistent with emission reduction measures, such as improved vehicle emission standards, cleaner smelting technology, introduction of low-sulfur diesel for vehicles and natural gas for industrial processes, public transport improvements, etc. However, it is also apparent that the mitigation expected from the above regulations has been partially

  16. El rol de la ciudad infiltrada en la reconfiguración de la periferia metropolitana de Santiago de Chile

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    Naranjo Ramírez, Gloria

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The DL 3.516/80 allows the division of rustic properties up to 0,5 hectares. Its application in the outskirts of Santiago has generated the urbanization of the countryside not considering the existing territorial planning instruments, which only regulate urban spaces.

    Santiago suffered a strong expansion until 1994 when the Metropolitan Regulation Plan of Santiago (PRMS in Spanish, fixed the urban boundary. Its appearance generated the subdivision of fields and the speculation of land, under the DL 3.516/80.

    This investigation studies the territorial impact of the DL 3.516/80 and its relation with the PRMS on the outskirts of Santiago, Chile. Through a bibliographic and cartographic analysis, interviews to key local agents and using GIS, the area affected by the DL 3.516/80 is determined, the quality of its soils and the area lost by agriculture due to the urbanization of the countryside, which generates the “infiltrated city”.

    El DL 3.516/80 permite la división de predios rústicos hasta 0,5 hectárea. Su aplicación en la periferia de Santiago ha generado la urbanización del campo al margen de los instrumentos de ordenamiento territorial, que regulan solo los espacios urbanos.

    Santiago sufrió una fuerte expansión hasta que en 1994, el Plan Regulador Metropolitano de Santiago (PRMS, fija el límite urbano. Su aparición genera procesos de subdivisión predial y de especulación sobre la tierra, al amparo del DL 3.516/80.

    Esta investigación estudia el Impacto territorial del DL 3.516/80 y su relación con el PRMS en la periferia de Santiago de Chile. Mediante un análisis bibliográfico y cartográfico, entrevistas a agentes locales claves y el uso del SIG, se determina la superficie afectada por el DL 3.516, la calidad de sus suelos y la superficie perdida para la agricultura por la urbanización del campo, con lo que se constituye la “ciudad infiltrada”.

  17. Help-seeking behavior, use, and satisfaction among frequent primary care users in Santiago de Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpaci, J L

    1988-09-01

    A survey of 140 low-income, urban consumers of primary health care services provided by the public sector at Santiago, Chile's Villa O'Higgins Clinic suggested that organizational factors are more significant predictors of frequency of clinic use and patient satisfaction than demographic characteristics of the clinic population. 73% of respondents interviewed were female; the mean family size was 5, most were from families that fell well below the official poverty level, and 76% of household income went toward food. 29% of the households represented lacked adult men or had unemployed male workers. 66% were acute care patients; the remainder were receiving treatment for chronic conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and alcoholism. 70% had been attending the clinic for the past few years; the mean number of visits per year was 6.4. 53% indicated a preference for a public rather than a private doctor, even if the latter were affordable. Only 51% expressed a dislike of any aspect of the clinic (long waits, 24%; discourteous staff, 19%; and lack of cleanliness, 5%). 84% perceived the quality of the care they received as good; this perception was strongly associated with satisfaction with the physician and receipt of prescription drugs. Multiple regression analysis indicated that 4 organizational variables (travel time to clinic, distance from home to clinic, waiting time at clinic, and travel time-travel distance) and 3 demographic factors (mother bringing child for care, presence of children under 5 years of age, and acute rather than chronic illness) were the best predictors of the frequency of clinic visits. Changes in clinic management by Chile's military government may jeopardize this pattern of high satisfaction with public health services by the poor.

  18. Incidence rate and spatio-temporal clustering of type 1 diabetes in Santiago, Chile, from 1997 to 1998 Taxa de incidência e agrupamento espaço-temporal de diabetes tipo 1 em Santiago, Chile, de 1997 a 1998

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    JL Santos; E Carrasco; AL Moore; F Pérez-Bravo; C Albala

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence rate of type 1 diabetes in the urban area of Santiago, Chile, from March 21, 1997 to March 20, 1998, and to assess the spatio-temporal clustering of cases during that period. METHODS...

  19. Biocultural Homogenization in Urban Settings: Public Knowledge of Birds in City Parks of Santiago, Chile

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    Juan L. Celis-Diez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An understudied consequence of growing urbanization is the rapid and concurrent loss of native biological and cultural diversity. Here, we measured the concordance between avian species richness in public green areas of the city of Santiago, Chile, and the corresponding knowledge of local citizens of this avian diversity. To assess this correspondence, we sampled avian species richness in 10 representative city parks and surveyed the awareness of avian diversity by park visitors as well as their ability to identify bird species. We found no significant relationship between estimated bird diversity from field sampling and their perception by park visitors, suggesting that visitors underestimate avian diversity in city parks because they perceive only a small fraction of the overall diversity, with their awareness especially biased towards the most abundant species. Exotic bird species comprise the majority of the latter group. This result was observed regardless of whether the city park had high or low bird diversity. Public knowledge of birds did not relate to the species richness present at city parks, and was strongly biased towards the most abundant, widely distributed, and primarily exotic species. This result agrees with the biocultural homogenization hypothesis, documenting the role of urban areas in this global process.

  20. [Social capital and mental health in low income urban communities in Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblete, Fernando C; Sapag, Jaime C; Bossert, Thomas J

    2008-02-01

    Many studies suggest that social capital, defined as those intangible resources of a society or community (trust, participation and reciprocity), that might facilitate collective action, can be associated with positive health effects. To explore the relationship between social capital an the level of mental health, in urban communities of Santiago, Chile. In a qualitative-quantitative cross-sectional design, two low income neighborhoods in the municipality of Puente Alto were selected. Interviews to key agents and focus groups, as well as surveys (407) to adults from a representative random sample of households, were conducted, measuring social capital, using a locally devised questionnaire and mental health using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12 instrument). A qualitative analysis based on the grounded theory and a quantitative analysis through correlations and simple and logistic regression models were applied. The quantitative analysis found an association between female gender, education and having a chronic disease, with low levels of mental health. At the same time, the trust component of social capital might be associated with a better mental health status. Qualitatively, all the components of social capital were identified as important for a better mental health. This study suggests the existence of a positive relationship between social capital and mental health. Developing trust in a community might be a useful tool to work in mental health at the community level.

  1. [Latent tuberculosis infection screening in healthcare workers in four large hospitals in Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Mariluz; Casar, Carlos; García, Patricia; Morales, Verónica; Mamani, Nora; Gómez-Cofré, Natalia; Pizarro, Patricia; Balcells, M Elvira

    2014-06-01

    It is currently unknown which is the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection in healthcare workers in Chile, but this group has been described as at higher risk of developing active tuberculosis than general population. To determine the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection in a sample of healthcare workers from at risk areas. A cross-sectional, descriptive study, conducted in health care workers from clinical laboratories or respiratory care areas in four hospitals in Santiago. Latent tuberculosis infection detection was determined by Quantiferon® TB Gold In Tube testing (QFT). QFT resulted positive in 20 of 76 (26.3%) of the individuals tested. Test positivity reached 62.5% among the personnel that reported history of past TB contact in the community, 50% among the personnel who belonged to the national tuberculosis control program and 38% among those doing induced sputum, acid fast smear or mycobacterial cultures. The proportion of individuals with positive QFT was significantly lower in those personnel who had no such risk factors (15.7%, p = 0.03). The proportion of latent tuberculosis infection also increased in direct relation to the age of the subject. Latent tuberculosis infection as detected by QFT testing was highly prevalent in healthcare workers included in the present study. Further exploring the limitations and possible scenarios for this new diagnostic tool is needed, with emphasis on health personnel at higher-risk and younger individuals.

  2. Inmigrantes en territorios de frontera: La ciudad de los otros. Santiago de Chile

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    Francisca Márquez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se aborda la construcción y génesis de territorios de frontera por parte de inmigrantes en Santiago de Chile, específicamente en La Chimba, al norte del río Mapocho. Se analiza este habitar de frontera desde evidencias de la historia, la sociología, georreferenciación y etnografía. La tesis central dice que el habitar de frontera se crea y se transforma en fuente de poder y ejercicio ciudadano, cuando la configuración de los territorios que cobijan a los inmigrantes es capaz de alimentar y ensanchar el campo de lo posible, más allá de la sobrevivencia. Se concluye que en La Chimba, la realización de la vita activa en los migrantes se levanta sobre una paradoja: cobijo y arraigo (condición de comunidad y redes de protección; itinerancia y movimiento (condición de translocalidad y conectividad. Esta paradoja resguarda la identidad de los habitantes en la multiculturalidad, pero a su vez abre la conectividad más allá de las fronteras del barrio, de la ciudad y la nación.

  3. Sexuality behind bars in the female central penitentiary of Santiago, Chile: Unlocking the gendered binary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Madariaga, Francisca Alejandra; Gómez Garcés, Belén Estefanía; Carrasco Parra, Alicia; Foster, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    We explore what it means to promote healthy sexuality for incarcerated women. We report upon the experiences of ten inmates in the Female Central Penitentiary of Santiago, Chile, regarding their sexuality within prison. We used a qualitative, descriptive research approach. Individual and semistructured interviews were conducted with women from different sections of the prison over a 2-month period. Participants highlighted the site for conjugal visits, the Venusterio, as a place of privacy and sexual expression between couples from outside prison. Motivated by loneliness, need of protection, and desire for affection, participants enacted alternate gender and sexual identities and sexual orientation. Some previously heterosexual women became 'machos', women taking on dominant masculine identities. Women found a paradoxical freedom to express a malleable and fluid sexual identity, an identity that might not go outside the prison. Informed by Judith Butler's idea of performativity, we argue that women could enact both different gender and sexual identities in search of satisfying their affective and erotic desires while under the duress of incarceration. The findings suggest a need for a more fluid understanding of gender and sexuality, especially for those midwives and nurses who strive to promote sexual health, not only reproductive health. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. [Liver transplantation in adults: a caseload from Clínica Alemana de Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Juan; Ríos, Horacio; Suárez, Leopoldo; Zaror, Mónica; Quiroga, Marta; Rodríguez, Gabriela; Valderrama, Rodrigo; Humeres, Roberto; Innocenti, Franco; Sanhueza, Edgar; Zapata, Rodrigo; Cárdenas, Rubén; Palacios, José M; Abarca, Juan; Montalván, Carlos; Noriega, Luis M; Videla, Domingo; Reynolds, Enrique; Espinoza, Ricardo; Sandoval, Renato; Rius, Montserrat

    2002-07-01

    The success of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) has resulted in its widespread use for different liver diseases. To report our 8 years experience with adult OLT at Clinica Alemana de Santiago. In all transplantations done at the center, we recorded patient's overall data and survival, postoperative medical and surgical complications and causes of death. Between November 1993 and September 2001, 51 consecutive OLT were performed in 44 patients (22 females, median age 45 years old). Thirty eight patients presented with chronic and 6 with acute or sub-acute liver failure. Cryptogenic cirrhosis and hepatitis C infection were the most common causes for OLT. Postoperative bleeding and extrahepatic biliary complications were seen in 17.6 and 21.5% of cases respectively. Acute rejection, bacterial infections, CMV infection or disease and post OLT hemodialysis were the most common medical complications (51, 31, 19.6 and 19.6% of cases respectively). The overall 1 and 5 years survival rates were 80% and 73% respectively. Considering exclusively the last 22 OLT performed since January 1999, the 1 year survival rate has improved to 91%. Liver transplantation in Chile provides a good long term survival with acceptable morbidity, due to a multidisciplinary approach management. The survival rates have improved over the last few years probably due to better surgical techniques, ICU care and immunosuppression. These overall results are comparable with those from other Centers in developed countries.

  5. GORDURA, DISCRIMINACIÓN Y CLASISMO: UN ESTUDIO EN JÓVENES DE SANTIAGO DE CHILE

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    María Alejandra Energici Sprovera

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El estudio de la obesidad desde la psicología social se ha realizado principalmente desde una aproximación cognitivo conductual omitiendo los contextos sociales en que se realizan juicios discriminadores. Con el objetivo de comprender los significados con que se construye la gordura y su interacción con otras formas de exclusión social, hemos realizado un estudio cualitativo de jóvenes de Santiago de Chile. Trabajamos con tres grupos de discusión, que analizamos siguiendo las directrices de la teoría fundada. Presentamos los resultados relativos a la construcción de la gordura y su vinculación con las clases sociales. La gordura se constituye como una condición que define a la persona como ansioso/a, perezoso/a y deforme, lo que justifica la acción de discriminación. Los atributos por los que son excluidos las personas gordas coinciden con los utilizados históricamente para discriminar a los/as pobres, de ahí que concluimos que se constituye como una nueva forma de clasismo.

  6. METROPOLIZACION Y POLITICAS DE PLANIFICACION. UN DESAFIO PARA SANTIAGO DE CHILE

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    Paulina Schiappacasse

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El Area Metropolitana de Santiago (AMS ocupa un rol significativo en términos demográficos y de desarrollo económico en Chile. Sin embargo, el AMS esta siendo afectada por cambios estructurales típicos en la evolución de las grandes metrópolis, con las consecuentes externalidades negativas que incrementan las dificultades para enfrentar y orientar su crecimiento y para establecer instancias de colaboración entre los diferentes actores involucrados. El propósito de este trabajo, es analizar la situación del AMS, en relación a las metas estratégicas necesarias para el logro de un desarrollo metropolitano sustentable. Se pretende contribuir al debate nacional actual en torno a la revisión y cambio de las políticas de planificación, en particular, las orientadas a enfrentar los procesos dinámicos que experimentan las ciudades.

  7. Child mental hygiene and psychoanalysis at the clinic of conduct, Santiago de Chile, 1936-1938

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    Silvana Vetö

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking stance in a situated perspective, this article looks into one of the first Chilean state initiatives aimed at the study and care of child psyche. This institution that has not yet been explored by specialized literature: the Clinic of Conduct, founded in the city of Santiago in 1936 as part of the Special School of Development, which was created in the context of a the Educational Reform of 1928. The Clinic of Conduct launched a state managed mental hygiene programme that included psychoanalysis as its main reference at a time when psychoanalysis was not yet a regular reference in the local medical world. We are thus interested in analysing context in which this initiatives were created and the ways in which mental hygiene and psychoanalysis were appropriated and used in an institution in which the principal interest was not the defence or legitimation of a singular theory, but the approach to specific social problems such as child delinquency and education. Some characteristics of the history of psy knowledges in Chile emerge from this study, showing how they unfold on the scenario of social problems and how they relate to other disciplines and practices such as criminology and pedagogy.

  8. Understanding Density in an Uneven City, Santiago de Chile: Implications for Social and Environmental Sustainability

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    Felipe Livert Aquino

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to promote infill development and to raise densities are growing in many cities around the world as a way to encourage urban sustainability. However, in cities polarized along socio-economic lines, the benefits of densification are not so evident. The aim of this paper is to discuss some of the contradictions of densification in Santiago de Chile, a city characterized by socio-spatial disparities. To that end, we first use regression analysis to explain differences in density rates within the city. The regression analysis shows that dwelling density depends on the distance from the city center, socioeconomic conditions, and the availability of urban attributes in the area. After understanding the density profile, we discuss the implications for travel and the distribution of social infrastructures and the environmental services provided by green areas. While, at the metropolitan scale, densification may favor a more sustainable travel pattern, it should be achieved by balancing density rates and addressing spatial differences in the provision of social services and environmental amenities. We believe a metropolitan approach is essential to correct these spatial imbalances and to promote a more sustainable and socially cohesive growth pattern.

  9. [Food satisfaction in Mapuche persons in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnettler, Berta; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela; Mora, Marcos; Lobos, Germán

    2011-06-01

    Although the study and measurement of satisfaction with life has generated great interest in the last 15 years, there are few works which address satisfaction with food-related life. In order to identify variables which have an influence on satisfaction with food-related life among Mapuche persons, a survey was applied to 400 Mapuche subjects in the Santiago Metropolitan Region, Chile. The scales evaluated in the questionnaire included: SWFL (Satisfaction with Food-related Life), lifestyles, food, and Mapuche acculturation. It was found that 41.0% were extremely satisfied, 40.5% satisfied, 17.2% somewhat satisfied and 1.2% dissatisfied with their food-related life. To identify variables which have an influence on satisfaction with food, an ordinal multinomial logit model was proposed, which was significant (p related life increases as there are fewer children in the household, the person's expenditure on food increases, the person consumes some Mapuche foods, is aged 55 or more, consumes red meat in moderation, consumes foods without additives, try to balance work and private life, does not read the labels of products, and if he/she had Mapuche friends at school. Thus satisfaction with food-related life in Mapuche persons in the Metropolitan Region is related to demographic variables, expenditure on food, consumption of Mapuche foods and life-style.

  10. Impresiones sobre el Concurso Internacional: “Área de remodelación en el centro de Santiago de Chile, U.I.A. 1972”, y sobre nuestro funcionamiento. / Impressions relating to the International Competition: “Redevelopment Area in Down Town SantiagoChile –U.I.A. 1972”, and our performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Winograd [agosto de 1972

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El autor relata sus impresiones y participación en el Concurso internacional “Área de remodelación en el centro de Santiago de Chile, U.I.A. 1972” como miembro del jurado. /The author recounts his impressions of and participation in the International Competition: “Redevelopment Area in Down Town SantiagoChile –U.I.A. 1972”, as a juror.

  11. Living City: community mobilization to build active transport policies and programs in Santiago, Chile

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    L. Sagaris

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Although the usefulness of walking and cycling to promote health is increasingly recognized, the importance of civil society leadership in developing new policies and activities is often overlooked. This case study, of Living City (Ciudad Viva a community-based organization in Santiago, Chile, examines how several communities used knowledge about transport’s impact on the environment and health, gained through opposition to a major highway project, to build effective sustainable urban transport initiatives.Inspired by urban reforms in Bogot´a, Living City now focuses mainly on “active transport” (formerly nonmotorized, building the policies, attitudes and infrastructure necessary to encourage walking and cycling, and the inclusion of the differently abled. It has won two major awards for innovation and now partners with NGOs in The Netherlands and elsewhere in Chile and Latin America.Moreover, Living City now organizes cycling-inclusive training programs, design charrettes and participatory processes in cooperation with Santiago’s regional and national authorities. Its publication, La Voz de La Chimba, distributed free throughout the city by volunteers, has helped to open people’s eyes to the implications of active transport for social equality and health, and provided support to other citizens’ initiatives, struggling to get off the ground.This experience illustrates how citizens’ and community organizations acquire important knowledge and practical experience in learning by doing situations, and how they can learn to reach out to ordinary people and key policymakers, building bridges across the citizen-policy divide to produce innovative, win-win programs that simultaneously bring change at micro- and macro-levels.Bien que la nécessité de marcher et de faire du vélo pour rester en bonne santé soit de plus en plus reconnue, l’importance du rôle prépondérant de la société civile dans le développement de nouvelles

  12. Trends in the elemental composition of fine particulate matter in Santiago, Chile, from 1998 to 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Sonja N; Koutrakis, Petros; Rudolph, Pablo A Ruiz; Cereceda-Balic, Francisco; Gramsch, Ernesto; Oyola, Pedro

    2007-07-01

    Santiago, Chile, is one of the most polluted cities in South America. As a response, over the past 15 yr, numerous pollution reduction programs have been implemented by the environmental authority, Comisión Nacional del Medio Ambiente. This paper assesses the effectiveness of these interventions by examining the trends of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and its associated elements. Daily fine particle filter samples were collected in Santiago at a downtown location from April 1998 through March 2003. Additionally, meteorological variables were measured continuously. Annual average concentrations of PM(2.5) decreased only marginally, from 41.8 microg/m3 for the 1998-1999 period to 35.4 microg/m3 for the 2002-2003 period. PM(2.5) concentrations exceeded the annual U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standard of 15 microg/m3. Also, approximately 20% of the daily samples exceeded the old standard of 65 microg/m3, whereas approximately half of the samples exceeded the new standard of 35 microg/m3 (effective in 2006). Mean PM(2.5) levels measured during the cold season (April through September) were three times higher than those measured in the warm season (October through March). Particulate mass and elemental concentration trends were investigated using regression models, controlling for year, month, weekday, wind speed, temperature, and relative humidity. The results showed significant decreases for Pb, Br, and S concentrations and minor but still significant decreases for Ni, Al, Si, Ca, and Fe. The larger decreases were associated with specific remediation policies implemented, including the removal of lead from gasoline, the reduction of sulfur levels in diesel fuel, and the introduction of natural gas. These results suggest that the pollution reduction programs, especially the ones related to transport, have been effective in reducing various important components of PM(2.5). However, particle mass and other associated element levels remain high, and it is thus

  13. [Validation of the Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI) in vulnerable users of health care services in Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyanedel, Juan Carlos; Vargas, Salvador; Mella, Camila; Páez, Darío

    2015-09-01

    Personal well-being calculates quality of life in terms of the necessary conditions required to live well. To validate the Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI) in a representative sample of vulnerable users of the public health system in Santiago, Chile. A probabilistic and multistage sample consisting of 400 individuals aged 44 ± 18 years (61% females) belonging to the lower income group of the National Health Fund (FONASA), residents of Gran Santiago was surveyed. Internal consistency and correlation between items and scale were examined. Structure was analyzed through confirmatory factor analysis. The seven-item PWI is a good indicator of subjective well-being in the population under study, considering internal consistency, factor loadings, relation with overall life satisfaction and goodness of fit. The indicators mostly associated with personal well-being are the socioeconomic level followed by relationships with the community, health conditions and achievements. The 7-item version of the PWI is suitable for application in vulnerable health service users.

  14. Vivienda social en Santiago de Chile. Análisis de su comportamiento locacional, período 1980- 2002

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    Ricardo Tapia Zarricueta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo revela antecedentes acerca de la instalación y emplazamiento de la vivienda social en la modalidad de conjuntos o proyectos de vivienda, en Santiago de Chile, detectando en ese proceso tendencias locacionales, causas y factores explicativos de tales tendencias y relación con la estructura socio espacial. Se presentan las políticas habitacionales y urbanas del período, aspectos normativos y principales modificaciones que estuvieron impactando en el Gran Santiago. La información primaria se obtuvo de archivos del Servicio de Vivienda y Urbanización del Ministerio de Vivienda y Urbanismo, y otras de fuentes secundarias para luego proceder a su análisis, georeferenciamiento y obtención de conclusiones. Es además, la primera etapa de dos en total, en que se levantarán los datos de los conjuntos de vivienda social, período 2003-2009, para obtener el comportamiento de la vivienda social 1980-2010. Los resultados aportan evidencias más detalladas acerca de que la tendencia locacional fue consecuente con los cambios radicales a las políticas públicas en vivienda social y consecuente con el modelo económico que se iniciaba en Chile en ese momento. Con este proceso se inició una nueva etapa que llevó a Santiago de Chile a ser una metrópolis más segregada y no inclusiva.

  15. Sensing Urban Patterns with Antenna Mappings: The Case of Santiago, Chile

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    Eduardo Graells-Garrido

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mobile data has allowed us to sense urban dynamics at scales and granularities not known before, helping urban planners to cope with urban growth. A frequently used kind of dataset are Call Detail Records (CDR, used by telecommunication operators for billing purposes. Being an already extracted and processed dataset, it is inexpensive and reliable. A common assumption with respect to geography when working with CDR data is that the position of a device is the same as the Base Transceiver Station (BTS it is connected to. Because the city is divided into a square grid, or by coverage zones approximated by Voronoi tessellations, CDR network events are assigned to corresponding areas according to BTS position. This geolocation may suffer from non negligible error in almost all cases. In this paper we propose “Antenna Virtual Placement” (AVP, a method to geolocate mobile devices according to their connections to BTS, based on decoupling antennas from its corresponding BTS according to its physical configuration (height, downtilt, and azimuth. We use AVP applied to CDR data as input for two different tasks: first, from an individual perspective, what places are meaningful for them? And second, from a global perspective, how to cluster city areas to understand land use using floating population flows? For both tasks we propose methods that complement or improve prior work in the literature. Our proposed methods are simple, yet not trivial, and work with daily CDR data from the biggest telecommunication operator in Chile. We evaluate them in Santiago, the capital of Chile, with data from working days from June 2015. We find that: (1 AVP improves city coverage of CDR data by geolocating devices to more city areas than using standard methods; (2 we find important places (home and work for a 10% of the sample using just daily information, and recreate the population distribution as well as commuting trips; (3 the daily rhythms of floating population

  16. [Etiology of febrile neutropenia episodes among cancer patients from Hospital Clinico Universidad Catolica, Santiago-Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabagliati B, Ricardo; Fuentes L, Gino; Orellana U, Eric; Oporto C, Jorge; Domínguez M, Isabel; Benítez G, Rosana; Aedo C, Igor; Ramos G, Germán; Garrido S, Marcelo; García C, Patricia

    2009-04-01

    The surveillance of febrile neutropenia (FN) episodes in every center allows adapt the antibiotic therapy guidelines to local epidemiology. To characterize clinical features and compare the FN etiology between hematological cancer (HC) and solid organ cancer (SOC) in our center. Surveillance study in adult patients with FN admitted to Hospital Clinico Universidad Católica, in Santiago, Chile, from January 2004 to August 2007. 154 FN episodes corresponding to 87 patients were included. Mean age: 47 +/- 6 years-old; 71% had HC and 29% SOC. A clinical and/or microbiologically documented infection was recognized in 76%. Gastrointestinal 31.5%, upper respiratory 30.3% and lower respiratory 16.9% were the more frequent clinical focus. In 30.5% blood culture resulted positive: gram negative rods 51%, gram positive cocci 41% and yeasts 8%; being Escherichia coli 22%, S. coagulase negative (SCoN) 20% and Klebsiella pneumoniae 12% most frequent bacteria; 22.2% Enterobacteriaceae were ESBL producers and 55.6% 5CoN were methicillin resistant. In 18.3% of FN episodes the etiology was not established. Highest mortality was observed in episodes with microbiologically documented infection (14.5% vs 1.3%, p < 0.005). A clinical observed focus and positive blood cultures were more frequently obtamed among HC than SOC associated episodes: 37.3% vs 13.6%; (p < 0.01) and 67.2% vs 50%; (p = 0.045), respectively. The etiological profile of FN in our center and the necessity to continue the surveillance was described. Future studies are needed regarding risk factors of invasive infection that have worst prognosis.

  17. Trends and threshold exceedances analysis of airborne pollen concentrations in Metropolitan Santiago Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Toro A

    Full Text Available Pollen is one of the primary causes of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in urban centers. In the present study, the concentrations of 39 different pollens in the Santiago de Chile metropolitan area over the period 2009-2013 are characterized. The pollen was monitored daily using Burkard volumetric equipment. The contribution of each type of pollen and the corresponding time trends are evaluated. The concentrations of the pollens are compared with the established threshold levels for the protection of human health. The results show that the total amount of pollen grains originating from trees, grasses, weeds and indeterminate sources throughout the period of the study was 258,496 grains m-3, with an annual average of 51,699 ± 3,906 grains m-3 year-1. The primary source of pollen is Platanus orientalis, which produces 61.8% of the analyzed pollen. Grass pollen is the third primary component of the analyzed pollen, with a contribution of 5.82%. Among the weeds, the presence of Urticacea (3.74% is remarkable. The pollination pattern of the trees is monophasic, and the grasses have a biphasic pattern. The trends indicate that the total pollen and tree pollen do not present a time trend that is statistically significant throughout the period of the study, whereas the grass pollen and weed pollen concentrations in the environment present a statistically significant decreasing trend. The cause of this decrease is unclear. The pollen load has doubled over the past decade. When the observed concentrations of the pollens were compared with the corresponding threshold levels, the results indicated that over the period of the study, the pollen concentrations were at moderate, high and very high levels for an average of 293 days per year. Systematic counts of the pollen grains are an essential method for diagnosing and treating patients with pollinosis and for developing forestation and urban planning strategies.

  18. A Heat Vulnerability Index: Spatial Patterns of Exposure, Sensitivity and Adaptive Capacity for Santiago de Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palme, Massimo; de la Barrera, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Climate change will worsen the high levels of urban vulnerability in Latin American cities due to specific environmental stressors. Some impacts of climate change, such as high temperatures in urban environments, have not yet been addressed through adaptation strategies, which are based on poorly supported data. These impacts remain outside the scope of urban planning. New spatially explicit approaches that identify highly vulnerable urban areas and include specific adaptation requirements are needed in current urban planning practices to cope with heat hazards. In this paper, a heat vulnerability index is proposed for Santiago, Chile. The index was created using a GIS-based spatial information system and was constructed from spatially explicit indexes for exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity levels derived from remote sensing data and socio-economic information assessed via principal component analysis (PCA). The objective of this study is to determine the levels of heat vulnerability at local scales by providing insights into these indexes at the intra city scale. The results reveal a spatial pattern of heat vulnerability with strong variations among individual spatial indexes. While exposure and adaptive capacities depict a clear spatial pattern, sensitivity follows a complex spatial distribution. These conditions change when examining PCA results, showing that sensitivity is more robust than exposure and adaptive capacity. These indexes can be used both for urban planning purposes and for proposing specific policies and measures that can help minimize heat hazards in highly dynamic urban areas. The proposed methodology can be applied to other Latin American cities to support policy making. PMID:27606592

  19. Cuerpo y demencia. La fisonomía de la incapacidad en Santiago de Chile (1855-1900

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    María José Correa Gómez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Taking the fact that Chilean medicine saw human appearance as an indicator of what happened inside the body, this article problematizes individual corporal signs as a diagnostics tool. It approaches corporal aspects in the field of civil justice, and the uses of the body in legally and medically identifying insanity. It is based on the expert reports completed in processes of interdiction by reason of dementia during the second half of the 19th century in Santiago de Chile, with the purpose of describing the corporal base that contributed to the interpretation of mental illness and individual capacity.

  20. Las Fábricas de la charla en Santiago de Chile: materialidad y subjetividad del trabajo en los call centers

    OpenAIRE

    Escobar Salazar, Areli Patricia

    2013-01-01

    El escenario laboral chileno se caracteriza en las últimas décadas por la profundización de la flexibilidad y la precariedad del trabajo generada por las políticas neoliberales. En este contexto se propuso analizar la organización del trabajo y la configuración de la subjetividad laboral en los call centers subcontratistas en Santiago de Chile, considerando las relaciones de género como una categoría central. Como procedimiento metodológico se utilizó la etnografía crítica y un enfoque histór...

  1. Innovations in adolescent reproductive and sexual health education in Santiago de Chile: effects of physician leadership and direct service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizzard, Tarayn; González, Electra; Sandoval, Jorge; Molina, Ramiro

    2004-01-01

    Reproductive and sexual health (RSH) education is a key component of most family planning programs around the world and is particularly important for adolescents, for whom parenthood is more likely to have difficult or dangerous health outcomes. A lack of comprehensive RSH education targeted at adolescents may augment the poor outcomes associated with early pregnancy by creating barriers to optimal care. This article discusses the creation of the Centro de Medicina Reproductiva y Desarrollo Integral de la Adolescencia clinic, a comprehensive adolescent reproductive health center in Santiago de Chile, and its RSH education programs. In particular, the role of the physician in originating and leading the RSH education efforts, the controversy associated with RSH education in Chile, and the effects of comprehensive RHS education on the local and regional adolescent populations are discussed.

  2. Santiago de Chile: antecedentes demográficos, expansión urbana y conflictos./ Santiago de Chile: demographic background for the urban sprawl and its conflicts.

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    Francisco Ferrando Acuña

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Cuando la expansión de Santiago se efectuó sobre los sectores rurales circundantes y también, en los últimos decenios, en polígonos altos en busca de mejores condiciones ambientales y de calidad de vida, también impensadamente, se efectuó hacia áreas de mayor riesgo. La ciudad ha cuadruplicado su superficie en los últimos 50 años y se acerca al límite de su capacidad de carga, presionado por la ocupación de áreas morfodinámicamente inestables. Son, por lo tanto, motivo de especial preocupación los desastres asociados en parte a procesos naturales, a los que están expuestas ciudades como Santiago, con una expansión asociada a un proceso de desplanificación activado desde 1979 y que dio término a los 50 años del Estado Planificador (1929-1979./When the urban growth of Santiago overlapped its rural environment, it also overlapped risk zones. in the last half century, the city has quadrupled its surface and is getting to the limit of usable land before using morphodynamic unstable zones.

  3. Los anclajes en la proximidad y la movilidad cotidiana: Retrato de tres barrios de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Lazo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Situándonos en el actual escenario de lo que se ha denominado una "movilidad generalizada" de la sociedad, en este artículo se aborda la importancia del territorio de proximidad -casa y barrio- como un soporte que permite generar los anclajes necesarios para hacer frente a las tensiones espacio-temporales asociadas a la movilidad. A partir de un enfoque de tipo cualitativo se realizó una investigación en tres barrios de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile que permitió plantear que a pesar del aumento de la movilidad, existe todavía entre los habitantes una identificación y valorización de los lazos simbólicos y afectivos, así como de las prácticas que tienen lugar en la casa, el barrio y la vecindad. De este modo, se concluye para el caso de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile, la importancia de leer la movilidad a partir de los anclajes tejidos en la proximidad.

  4. Acanthamoeba belonging to T3, T4, and T11: genotypes isolated from air-conditioning units in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorga, Berbeli; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; Alarcón, Verónica; Moreno, Johanna; González, Ana C; Navarrete, Elizabeth; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio

    2011-01-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) of the genus Acanthamoeba are widely distributed in the environment, in the air, soil, and water, and have also been isolated from air-conditioning units. The objective of this work was to investigate the presence of this genus of FLA in the air-conditioning equipment at the Institute of Public Health of Chile in Santiago, Chile. Water and air samples were collected from air-conditioning systems and were checked for the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. Positive samples were further classified at the genotype level after sequencing the highly variable diagnostic fragment 3 (DF3) region of the 18S rRNA gene. This is the first report of the T3, T4, and T11 genotypes of Acanthamoeba in air-conditioning units from Chile. Overall, the widespread distribution of potentially pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains in the studied source demands more awareness within the public and health professionals in Chile as this pathogen is emerging as a risk for human health worldwide. © 2011 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2011 International Society of Protistologists.

  5. [The School of Medical Sciences of the University of Santiago de Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardones Restat, F

    1997-07-01

    The Medical Sciences School of the University of Santiago de Chile, is an institution inserted in the occidental culture and therefore on its conceptions and traditions. It subscribes the Principles defined in the Universal Declaration of the Human Rights of the United Nations and especially the importance of the human person, as an entity irrepetible, different to others. The human rights are over the institutions, the society and the laws of science. The Faculty considers the family as the cell or natural and fundamental element for the development of the human being in the society. It defines its historic mission as the search of the truth and the achievement of a society in pro of the welfare and health of the people in a frame of excellence, justice, humanism, efficiency and participation. As an expression of the cultural patrimony it should create and transfer knowledge. As guarantor of the ethical principles it should protect the dignity that emanates from the transcendent nature of the person and its moral principles and therefore its right to life, justice, freedom, equality, health, education, and happiness. As a paradigm of progress it must be involved in modernization and should impulse the development. As an entity committed with Society it should participate in the search of solutions for politics and programs looking for a higher level of life and a better model of health. The profile of our graduated students will identify them due to their profound spirit of welfare of the person, his family, his community, ethical sense, solidarity, justness and humanity, their orientation to the community and the environment with a solid professional formation in the strategy of Primary Health Care. They will provide education in health for the whole family in order to improve a better way of life. They will be trained to detect and solve the risks of individual, communities and environment. Research is also a priority of the Faculty in order to contribute to

  6. LAS ANDANZAS DE JUAN RAFAEL ALLENDE POR LA CIUDAD DE LOS ‘PALACIOS MARMÓREOS’ Y LAS CAZUELAS DELEITOSAS. SANTIAGO DE CHILE, 1880-1910

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    Daniel Palma Alvarado

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. El artículo presenta un capítulo de la historia social y urbana de Santiago de Chile, en un período durante el cual la ciudad asistió a profundos cambios que modificaron el viejo trazado colonial y las relaciones sociales entre sus habitantes. Por medio de la aguda pluma del escritor satírico Juan Rafael Allende, descubrimos las insuficiencias del proceso de urbanización, los nuevos personajes que se dieron cita en las calles y plazas, y las variadas diversiones que animaban la vida cotidiana de los capitalinos. Palabras clave: Santiago de Chile, Juan Rafael Allende, prensa satírica, historia urbana ABSTRACT. This article deals with a chapter of the social and urban history of Santiago de Chile, throughout a period in which the city was subject of deep changes that modified its colonial setting and long lasting social relationships. Following the sharpness of the satiric writer Juan Rafael Allende, we look to the insuficiencies of the urbanizing process, the new characters ocupying the city’s squares and streets, as well as the multiple entertainments animating the everyday life of its inhabitants. Key words: Santiago de Chile, Juan Rafael Allende, satiric press, urban history

  7. Factores asociados a satisfacción vital en una cohorte de adultos mayores de Santiago, Chile Factors associated with life satisfaction in a cohort of older people in Santiago, Chile

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    Álvaro Castillo-Carniglia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la asociación entre satisfacción vital con el nivel socioeconómico y el autorreporte del estado de salud en una cohorte de adultos mayores de Santiago de Chile en los años 2005 y 2006. Métodos: Estudio transversal que incluyó 2002 sujetos entre 65 y 67,9 años de edad, registrados en 20 centros de salud primaria del Gran Santiago, autovalentes, sin deterioro cognitivo, sospecha de cáncer ni enfermedad terminal. Se evaluó la satisfacción vital mediante la adaptación abreviada de una escala de satisfacción con la vida (de 0 a 11, además de los ingresos económicos, el nivel de educación, el apoyo social y autorreporte del estado de salud y la memoria. Se utilizó un modelo log-binomial para analizar la asociación entre las variables evaluadas y los extremos del puntaje de satisfacción vital (cuartil 4 frente a 1. Resultados: Se observó una asociación significativa (análisis bivariado y multivariado entre satisfacción vital e ingresos económicos en los hombres, y en ambos sexos con el apoyo social, el autorreporte de salud, la memoria y los diagnósticos de problemas articulares, diabetes e hipertensión. Conclusión: La situación económica, el apoyo social y el estado de salud se asocian de forma independiente con la satisfacción vital en los adultos mayores de Santiago. Se requieren nuevos estudios para evaluar la dirección temporal del efecto, así como las implicaciones de estos hallazgos en las políticas públicas de salud en esta población.Objective: To evaluate the association between life satisfaction and socioeconomic status and self-reported health in a cohort of older people in Santiago, Chile, in 2005 and 2006. Methods: We interviewed 2002 individuals aged 65 to 67.9 years registered in 20 primary care centers in the city of Santiago. Participants were living independently with no cognitive impairment, suspected cancer or terminal diseases. We assessed life satisfaction using an abbreviated

  8. Condiciones de trabajo y bienestar/malestar docente en profesores de enseñanza media de Santiago de Chile Secondary school teachers' working conditions and well-being/discomfort in Santiago, Chile

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    Rodrigo Cornejo Chávez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación busca analizar conjuntamente las condiciones de trabajo docente (materiales y psicosociales y el bienestar/malestar de los profesores de enseñanza secundaria de Santiago, Chile. Su diseño es multivariado, descriptivo/transversal, correlacional y explicativo (siendo bienestar/malestar la variable dependiente para la construcción del modelo de regresión múltiple. La información fue recogida durante el año 2008, en una muestra representativa para los establecimientos educacionales con subvención estatal de Santiago. Se concluye que los docentes perciben condiciones de trabajo precarias y altos niveles de demanda laboral (intensificación del trabajo. Se construye un modelo explicativo del bienestar/malestar de los docentes, que consta de siete variables, de las cuales dos se destacan por su alto poder explicativo: la "significatividad en el trabajo" y las "demandas laborales".This research analyzes teachers' material and psychosocial working conditions and well-being/discomfort in Chilean secondary school. It has a multivariate, descriptive/cross-sectional, correlational and explanatory design-wellness/discomfort being the dependent variable in the construction of this multiple regression model. Information was collected along 2008 from a representative sample of educational establishments funded by the State of Santiago. It concludes that teachers perceive the precariousness of their working conditions and the high levels of labor demand (work intensification. An explanatory model of teachers' well-being/discomfort is constructed, which consists of seven variables, two of which are outlined for their high explanatory power: "meaningfulness in work" and "labor demands".

  9. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    The background notes on Chile provide a statistical summary of the population, geography, government, and the economy, and more descriptive text on the history, population, government, economy, defense, and foreign relations. In brief, Chile has 13.3 million Spanish Indian (Mestizos), European, and Indian inhabitants and an annual growth rate of 1.6%. 96% are literate. Infant mortality is 18/1000. 34% of the population are involved in industry and commerce, 30% in services, 19% in agriculture and forestry and fishing, 7% in construction, and 2% in mining. The major city is Santiago. The government, which gained independence in 1810, is a republic with executive, legislative, and judicial branches. There are 12 regions. There are 6 major political parties. Suffrage is universal at 18 years. Gross domestic product (GDP) is $29.2 billion. The annual growth rate is 5% and inflation is 19%. Copper, timber, fish, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, and molybdenum are its natural resources. Agricultural products are 9% of GDP and include wheat, potatoes, corn, sugar beets, onions, beans, fruits, and livestock. Industry is 21% of GDP and includes mineral refining, metal manufacturing, food and fish processing, paper and wood products, and finished textiles. $8.3 billion is the value of exports and $7 billion of imports. Export markets are in Japan, the US, Germany, Brazil, and the United Kingdom. Chile received $3.5 billion in economic aid between 1949-85, but little in recent years. 83% live in urban centers, principally around Santiago. Congressional representation is made on the basis of elections by a unique binomial majority system. Principal government officials are identified. Chile has a diversified free market economy and is almost self-sufficient in food production. The US is a primary trading partner. 49% of Chile's exports are minerals. Chile maintains diplomatic relations with 70 countries, however, relations are strained with Argentina and Bolivia. Relations

  10. Urban Morphological Dynamics in Santiago (chile): Proposing Sustainable Indicators from Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, H. J.; Gutiérrez, M. A.; Acuña, M. P.

    2016-06-01

    Latin America is one of the world's most urbanised regions, with more than 80% of inhabitants living in urban areas and over 50 cities with at least 1 million inhabitants. The concept of urban structure types (UST) allows the dynamics of a growing urban environment to be captured in its quantity and quality. They are defined as areas of homogenous appearance in the urban matrix with a recognisable mixture of built-up areas and open spaces. We used the vegetation-impervious-soil (V-I-S) model approach to classify and monitor different types of USTs in Santiago (~800 km2), Chile between 1985 and 2015. The V-I-S model is based on a simplification of the large diversity of urban land cover types in three general categories: vegetation, impervious surfaces and soil. These categories were obtained by processing Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-8 OLI images. First, we applied standard radiometric calibration and co-registration methods to all datasets. Second, using a linear spectral unmixing algorithm we performed a soft classification of urban land cover types (end members): trees, shrubs, herbaceous plants, soils, buildings, roads and water bodies. All end members were validated using a combination of photointerpretation on high-resolution images (~1 m) and field data collection (only for 2015). In each pixel we used the resulting probability scores, logically grouped, to obtain final values for each V-I-S component. Third, we used statistical clustering of V-I-S values to create a set of eight pixel groups, which we interpreted as USTs and mapped them for each date. The overall accuracy for V-I-S components in 1985 and 2015 were 78% and 82%, respectively, and errors did not exhibit any spatial correlation. The main sources of differentiation between USTs were the trade-off proportions between vegetation and impervious components, whereas soil proportions remained near 5% across the city in both dates. To analyse the change in UST spatial configuration between dates, we used a

  11. URBAN MORPHOLOGICAL DYNAMICS IN SANTIAGO (CHILE: PROPOSING SUSTAINABLE INDICATORS FROM REMOTE SENSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Hernández

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Latin America is one of the world’s most urbanised regions, with more than 80% of inhabitants living in urban areas and over 50 cities with at least 1 million inhabitants. The concept of urban structure types (UST allows the dynamics of a growing urban environment to be captured in its quantity and quality. They are defined as areas of homogenous appearance in the urban matrix with a recognisable mixture of built-up areas and open spaces. We used the vegetation-impervious-soil (V-I-S model approach to classify and monitor different types of USTs in Santiago (~800 km2, Chile between 1985 and 2015. The V-I-S model is based on a simplification of the large diversity of urban land cover types in three general categories: vegetation, impervious surfaces and soil. These categories were obtained by processing Landsat-5 TM and Landsat-8 OLI images. First, we applied standard radiometric calibration and co-registration methods to all datasets. Second, using a linear spectral unmixing algorithm we performed a soft classification of urban land cover types (end members: trees, shrubs, herbaceous plants, soils, buildings, roads and water bodies. All end members were validated using a combination of photointerpretation on high-resolution images (~1 m and field data collection (only for 2015. In each pixel we used the resulting probability scores, logically grouped, to obtain final values for each V-I-S component. Third, we used statistical clustering of V-I-S values to create a set of eight pixel groups, which we interpreted as USTs and mapped them for each date. The overall accuracy for V-I-S components in 1985 and 2015 were 78% and 82%, respectively, and errors did not exhibit any spatial correlation. The main sources of differentiation between USTs were the trade-off proportions between vegetation and impervious components, whereas soil proportions remained near 5% across the city in both dates. To analyse the change in UST spatial configuration between

  12. DEVOTIONAL OBJECTS IN A PERIFERICAL COLONIAL CITY (SANTIAGO DE CHILE 1598 – 1610; 1692 – 1710: AN INITIAL RESEARCH.

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    Josefina Schenke

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper sketches in a programmatic manner the main lines of an ongoing PHD research that tries to find out which images and objects of devotion existed, were in use or vanished in Santiago de Chile during two specific periods: 1598–1610/ 1692–1710. The research relates the variation in the presence of these objects to the devotional, social and urban contexts to which they belong. Grounded in a quantitative research of notarial and ecclesiastical sources, it aims to find every single object around which some special religious practice revolves: sculptures, prints, canvas boards, relics, medallions, rosaries and crosses. An estimate of the proportion in which each of this kinds of devotional elements occurs should afford us a better understanding of their organic combinations and their shared meanings. This paper faces the multiple aspects involved in this field of inquiry, as well as its status quaestionis and the methodological approaches of this research.

  13. INTERCULTURALIDAD Y POLÍTICAS PÚBLICAS EN EDUCACIÓN: REFLEXIONES DESDE SANTIAGO DE CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    Donoso Romo,Andrés; Contreras Mühlenbrock,Rafael; Cubillos Puelma,Leonardo; Aravena Aragón,Luis

    2006-01-01

    Desde Santiago de Chile se observan, analizan y cuestionan los resultados de diez años de políticas públicas destinadas a materializar la Educación Intercultural Bilingüe en la ciudad. Con una mirada histórica de la educación indígena en el continente se sopesa la originalidad del escenario urbano como ámbito de intervención en interculturalidad y se examina el desarrollo de ésta educación en el país, extrayéndose conclusiones, a modo de preguntas, que ayudan a palpar los límites teóricos y p...

  14. Development of mobile technologies for the prevention of cervical cancer in Santiago, Chile study protocol: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momany, McKenzie C; Martinez-Gutierrez, Javiera; Soto, Mauricio; Capurro, Daniel; Ciampi, Francis; Thompson, Beti; Puschel, Klaus

    2017-12-13

    In Chile, more than 500 women die every year from cervical cancer, and a majority of Chilean women are not up-to-date with their Papanicolau (Pap) test. Mobile health has great potential in many health areas, particularly in health promotion and prevention. There are no randomized controlled trials in Latin America assessing its use in cervical cancer screening. The 'Development of Mobile Technologies for the Prevention of Cervical Cancer in Santiago, Chile' study aims to determine the efficacy of a text-message intervention on Pap test adherence among Chilean women in the metropolitan region of Santiago. This study is a parallel randomized-controlled trial of 400 Chilean women aged 25-64 who are non-adherent with current recommendations for Pap test screening. Participants will be randomly assigned to (1) a control arm (usual care) or (2) an intervention arm, where text and voice messages containing information and encouragement to undergo screening will be sent to the women. The primary endpoint is completion of a Pap test within 6 months of baseline assessment, as determined by medical record review at community-based clinics. Medical record reviewers will be blinded to randomization arms. The secondary endpoint is an evaluation of the implementation and usability of the text message intervention as a strategy to improve screening adherence. This intervention using mobile technology intends to raise cervical cancer screening adherence and compliance among a Chilean population of low and middle-low socioeconomic status. If successful, this strategy may reduce the incidence of cervical cancer. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02376023 Registered 2/17/2015. First participant enrolled Feb 22nd 2016.

  15. Respiratory disease and particulate air pollution in Santiago Chile: Contribution of erosion particles from fine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablo A. Garcia-Chevesich; Sergio Alvarado; Daniel G. Neary; Rodrigo Valdes; Juan Valdes; Juan Jose Aguirre; Marcelo Mena; Roberto Pizarro; Paolo Jofre; Mauricio Vera; Claudio Olivares

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution in Santiago is a serious problem every winter, causing thousands of cases of breathing problems within the population. With more than 6 million people and almost two million vehicles, this large city receives rainfall only during winters. Depending on the frequency of storms, statistics show that every time it rains, air quality improves for a couple of...

  16. Santiago de Chile: Metropolización, globalización, desigualdad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Rodríguez

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente artículo describe cómo la pobreza y la exclusión dentro de Santiago ha sido pasada por alto en parte debido al fuerte desempeño económico y al positivo conjunto de indicadores sociales que la ciudad exhibe. Enfatiza cuán segregada se ha vuelto la ciudad, subrayando la fragmentación política y las grandes diferencias entre las 34 municipalidades que conforman el Gran Santiago en lo que se refiere a ingreso per cápita, calidad de la educación, cobertura de la inversión en edificación y los niveles de ingreso y gasto de las autoridades municipales. También describe la pérdida de espacio social y físico para la interacción pública y el crecimiento de una percepción de inseguridad. Sugiere que tales problemas en parte se relacionan con una falta de estructuras democráticas en Santiago ya que la ciudad carece de un gobierno metropolitano representativo y además el poder, los recursos y la toma de decisiones permanecen en un plano nacionalThe paper describes how poverty and exclusion within Santiago has been overlooked, in part, because of the city’s strong economic performance and impressive aggregate social indicators. It highlights how segregated the city has become -for instance the political fragmentation and the difference between the 34 municipalities that conform Santiago in terms of their per capita income, quality of education, extent of new building investment, and municipal authority levels of income and expenditure. It also describes the loss of social and physical space for public interaction and the rising perception of insecurity. It suggests that such problems are in part linked to the lack of democratic structures within Santiago since it lacks a democratic metropolitan government. Power, resources and decisions remain within national ministries

  17. Midface fractures surgically treated in Instituto Traumatológico of Santiago (Chile: A 10 years review.

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    Cristóbal Pacheco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Maxillofacial fractures are associated with high morbidity, loss of function, aesthetics and psychological sequelae and substancial economical costs for surgical treatment. The incidence and the prevalence of maxillofacial trauma have been reported in many countries, with differences being found between studies due to sociocultural factors. Our aim is to describe the frequency of surgically treated midface fractures in Instituto Traumatologico of Santiago, Chile.Materials and Methods. We performed a cross sectional study at Maxillofacial Surgery Department of Instituto Traumatológico (Chile, by reviewing medical records of subjects with midfacial fractures treated surgically from January 2001 to December 2010. Information was collected according to patient age and gender, aetiology, type of fracture, health insurance and date of the intervention. The sample consisted of 549 patients.Results. There was a total of 549 patients with a total of 709 fractures. The male:female ratio with midface fractures was 5,3:1. The most affected age group was from 20 and 29 years. Most fractures were caused by aggression. The most common fracture was nasal, followed by zygomatic complex fractures.Conclusion. The findings of the study allow us to know the distribution patterns of surgically treated midface fractures. Our study showed similar characteristics to other studies in terms of affected population and the distribution of the location of fractures.

  18. Gender Differences in Predictors of Self-Reported Physical Aggression: Exploring Theoretically Relevant Dimensions among Adolescents from Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, Lauren; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Bares, Cristina; Han, Yoonsun; Delva, Jorge

    2013-10-01

    Research findings remain unclear on whether different factors predict aggression for adolescent men and women. Given that aggression research is rarely conducted with Latin American populations, the current study used multiple imputation and linear regression to assess gender differences in levels and predictors of self-reported physical aggression among a community sample of young (ages 11 through 17) men (n=504) and women (n = 471) from Santiago, Chile. Results revealed that adolescent women reported engaging in higher levels of physical aggression than men. The variables found to be significantly associated with higher levels of reported aggression-younger age, less family involvement, less parental control, less positive relationships with caregivers, having more friends who act out and use substances, having fewer friends committed to learning, presence of dating violence, and more exposure to neighborhood crime-were not moderated by gender, implying that similar factors are related to aggression in adolescent men and women from Chile. Implications for prevention and intervention efforts to address high-risk adolescents and reduce aggression among Chilean youth are discussed.

  19. Homosexual Discretion and Good Taste: Two Rules That Govern Homosexual Sociability Space in Santiago de Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizama, Pablo Astudillo

    2015-01-01

    Homosexual sociability space in Santiago is not socially homogenous. Beyond non-heterosexual identities segmentation (gay, lesbian, queer, BDSM, etc.), the present article proposes a reflection observing certain social distinctions or differences that come into play to create a hierarchy among gay and lesbian individuals within that space. Using a qualitative approximation, we analyze the discourse of homosexual men and women about ways to display homosexuality in different places in the city, as well as some sociability practices used in homosexual venues. The resulting social hierarchy is understood through two central subjective rules: discretion and good taste, dynamic mechanisms that perpetuate the distance among groups within the same sociability space, and to some extent reproduce the city's class structure. Given that material means to privatize and sophisticate homosexual expression are unequally distributed in Santiago, the resulting differentiated social networks end up configuring the visibility strategies of homosexual identity played out in the city in the last years.

  20. Congenital Chagas disease of second generation in Santiago, Chile. Report of two cases

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    SCHENONE Hugo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital Chagas disease (CChD has been reported in different countries, mostly in Latin America. In 1987 a fatal case of CChD of second generation (CChDSG was published. Within a period of six months - 1989-1990 - two cases of CChDSG were diagnosed and studied in the city of Santiago. Two premature newborns, sons of two sisters, with moderate liver and spleen enlargement, were found to have positive serology for Chagas disease and xenodiagnoses. The mothers, urban residents all their lives, without antecedents of triatomine bugs contact or blood transfusions, showed positive serology and xenodiagnoses. Their mother (grandmother of the infants, lived 20 years in a Northern rural Chagas disease endemic locality, in a triatomine infested house. Afterwards, she moved to Santiago, where she married and has resided up to now. Serology and xenodiagnoses were also positive. All the Trypanosoma cruzi infected individuals were successfully treated with nifurtimox.

  1. Secondhand tobacco smoke in bars and restaurants in Santiago, Chile: evaluation of partial smoking ban legislation in public places

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Veronica; Droppelmann, Andrea; Acuña, Marisol; Peruga, Armando; Breysse, Patrick N; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare air nicotine concentrations according to the smoking policy selected by bars/restaurants in Santiago, Chile before and after the enactment of partial smoking ban legislation in 2007 (establishments could be smoke free, have segregated (mixed) smoking and non-smoking areas, or allow smoking in all areas). Methods The study measured air nicotine concentrations over 7 days to characterise secondhand smoke exposure in 30 bars/restaurants in 2008. Owner/manager interviews and physical inspections were conducted. Results Median IQR air nicotine concentrations measured in all venues were 4.38 (0.61–13.62) μg/m3. Air nicotine concentrations were higher in bars (median 7.22, IQR 2.48–15.64 μg/m3) compared to restaurants (1.12, 0.15–9.22 μg/m3). By smoking status, nicotine concentrations were higher in smoking venues (13.46, 5.31–16.87 μg/m3), followed by smoking areas in mixed venues (9.22, 5.09–14.90 μg/m3) and non-smoking areas in mixed venues (0.99, 0.19–1.27 μg/m3). Air nicotine concentrations were markedly lower in smoke-free venues (0.12, 0.11–0.46 μg/m3). After adjustment for differences in volume and ventilation, air nicotine concentrations were 3.2, 35.5 and 56.2 times higher in non-smoking areas in mixed venues, smoking areas in mixed venues and smoking venues, respectively, compared to smoke-free venues. Conclusions Exposure to secondhand smoke remains high in bars and restaurants in Santiago, Chile. These findings demonstrate that the partial smoking ban legislation enacted in Chile in 2007 provides no protection to employees working in those venues. Enacting a comprehensive smoke-free legislation which protects all people from exposure to secondhand smoke in all public places and workplaces is urgently needed. PMID:20798021

  2. Los costos del uso del automóvil y su elasticidad. El caso de Santiago de Chile

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    Alejandro Cortés Salinas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El fenómeno de la congestión y la búsqueda de su reducción y/o mitigación, es un tema de amplio debate actualmente. El argumento central consiste en cómo limitar o hacer más racional el uso del automóvil. Muchas de las propuestas se inscriben dentro de enfoques mercantiles, mediante cobros por circulación o peaje urbano en zonas y/u horarios distintos. Este trabajo analiza los comportamientos de los automovilistas frente a incrementos de sus costos, para verificar si efectivamente existe una relación entre un aumento en los costos de circulación y el desaliento al uso del automóvil. Consecuentemente, se consideró la evolución de los precios de los combustibles, que en Chile son ajustados periódicamente, para relacionarlos con los flujos de tránsito.Se verifica que en Santiago de Chile existe una fuerte inelasticidad en la demanda por el uso del vehículo particular frente a importantes incrementos de costo y por ello, no se asegura que un pago de peaje promueva una reducción de la circulación privada. ABSTRACT Congestion and the search for its reduction or mitigation is nowadays a highly discussed issue. The focal point of this debate is to find alternatives to limit or rationalize the car use. Many current proposals are developed under market approaches, such as congestion charges or urban toll in high-demanded areas or schedules. This paper analyzes the drivers’behavior facing increases in their costs, aiming to detect if there is a relationship between these and the discouragement of car use. To achieve it, the paper takes into account the fuel price evolution adjusted periodically to relate it to traffic flows. It verifies that in Santiago de Chile there is a strong inelasticity in demand for the private car use facing relevant increases of costs; therefore, the introduction of toll payments does not assure a reduction in private circulation.

  3. Precordillera de Santiago de Chile: Percepciones, actitudes y preferencias de visitantes urbanos

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    Gonzalo De la Fuente-De Val

    2015-03-01

    A partir de los resultados se sugiere desarrollar una gestión activa del paisaje, que involucre las expectativas y necesidades de la población y, un desarrollo urbanístico basado en el desarrollo ambiental sostenible, lo que debería tender a recuperar los paisajes naturales de la precordillera de Santiago como un proyecto común de todos los ciudadanos.

  4. Agua y pobreza en Santiago de Chile. Morfología de la inequidad en la distribución del consumo domiciliario de agua potable/Water and Poverty in Santiago de Chile. Morphology of inequity in the distribution of household consumption of drinking water

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gustavo Durán

    2015-01-01

    En la trayectoria temporal de la relación entre agua y pobreza en Santiago de Chile, el "acceso" como indicador ha sufrido, para los estudios urbanos, una suerte de desgaste, y en la actualidad no representa un dato significativo para medir...

  5. PRECORDILLERA DE SANTIAGO DE CHILE: PERCEPCIONES, ACTITUDES Y PREFERENCIAS de VISITANTES URBANOS

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    Gonzalo De la Fuente-De Val

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo fue conocer las actitudes, percepciones y preferencias de visitantes por los paisajes precordilleranos de Santiago. Se construyó y aplicó un cuestionario a visitantes y se realizaron entrevistas en distintos sitios de la precordillera. Los resultados muestran que los visitantes perciben la precordillera de Santiago como un paisaje deteriorado, debido a la expansión urbana. Concuerdan en que es importante generar una relación armoniosa entre la ciudad y su entorno natural, a través de una ordenación coherente del paisaje; como crear programas de educación ambiental para que la gente conozca y proteja este ecosistema. Además, se constató que la mayoría de los visitantes prefiere paisajes boscosos, poco alterados, y la vegetación natural incide en la valoración positiva de los individuos. A partir de los resultados se sugiere desarrollar una gestión activa del paisaje, que involucre las expectativas y necesidades de la población y, un desarrollo urbanístico basado en el desarrollo ambiental sostenible, lo que debería tender a recuperar los paisajes naturales de la precordillera de Santiago como un proyecto común de todos los ciudadanos.

  6. Mujeres que Consumen Sustancias y su Vulnerabilidad frente al VIH en Santiago de Chile (Women Who Consume Substances and Their Vulnerability to HIV in Santiago of Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irarrázabal, Lisette P; Ferrer, Lilian; Villegas, Natalia; Sanhueza, Sebastián; Molina, Yerko; Cianelli, Rosina

    2016-06-01

    Women represent 15% of the people living with HIV in Chile. Risk behaviors for HIV are: multiple partners, unsafe sex, and exchange of sex for drugs/money. A correlational design was used. A sample of 203 women who were sexually active and consumed substances within the last 3-months were selected for this study. The average age of the participants was 32.4 years (SD = 9.2) and 68.1% were housewives. The substance most commonly used was alcohol (95.1%) and marijuana (49.8%); 23.7% of the women were drunk or drugged before having sex; 74.4% had multiple sexual partners and 95.6% had unprotected sex. There is a significant correlation (p < 0.05) between substance abuse and HIV risk behaviors. It is necessary to develop more research to understand in depth the relationship between substance use and HIV risk among Chilean women. It is important to consider the use of substances to develop and implement HIV prevention programs in the Chilean community. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Historias de vida y violencia de género en la pareja a mujeres mayores en Santiago de Chile (1940-2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Sepúlveda, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Investigación cualitativa y de carácter exploratorio sobre la violencia contra mujeres mayores en relaciones de pareja en Chile. Utilizando el modelo ecológico y las historia de vida de 21 mujeres mayores de 60 años de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile, se analizan distintos aspectos de su vida en la infancia, juventud y madurez, puestas en el contexto histórico, social y cultural en que se desarrollaron, los que sirven de base para analizar la violencia basada en el género que vivieron de parte...

  8. Fracturas del tercio medio facial operadas en el Instituto Traumatológico de Santiago (Chile): 10 años de revisión.

    OpenAIRE

    Cristóbal Pacheco; Sebastián Zapata; Cristián Núñez

    2012-01-01

    Maxillofacial fractures are associated with high morbidity, loss of function, aesthetics and psychological sequelae and substancial economical costs for surgical treatment. The incidence and the prevalence of maxillofacial trauma have been reported in many countries, with differences being found between studies due to sociocultural factors. Our aim is to describe the frequency of surgically treated midface fractures in Instituto Traumatologico of Santiago, Chile.Materials and Methods. We perf...

  9. Movilidad para la emancipación o para el arraigo: Interacción de las escalas en París y Santiago de Chile

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    Yves Jouffe

    2015-03-01

    The paper analyzes the integration of the multiple dimensions of mobility, in search for key principles through which meaning is conveyed at the same time by the relationship with the territory, the decisions related to the extension and intensity of mobility, as well as life projects and ethical values. Thus, from the study of poor workers of the far suburb of Paris, we set the bases to discuss its replicability to the case of Santiago of Chile.

  10. HIV prevalence, AIDS knowledge, and condom use among female sex workers in Santiago, Chile Prevalencia del VIH, conocimientos sobre el SIDA, y uso del condón en trabajadoras sexuales de Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime E. Barrientos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes HIV seroprevalence, knowledge of HIV transmission, and condom use among female sex workers (FSW attending five specialized sexually transmitted disease (STD clinics in Santiago, Chile. A short questionnaire with socio-demographic, AIDS knowledge, and condom-use variables was administered to 626 FSW. HIV seroprevalence was estimated with a blood test sent to the Chilean Public Health Institute. ELISA was used to confirm HIV in suspected cases. HIV prevalence was 0%. FSW showed adequate overall knowledge of HIV, even better than reported for the Chilean general population on some items. Condom use with clients was high ("always" = 93.4%, although regular use with steady partners was low ("always" = 9.9%. The zero HIV seroprevalence and consistent condom use with clients confirms the positive impact of intervention strategies for FSW, increasing both correct knowledge of AIDS and condom use with clients and helping decrease these women's HIV/AIDS vulnerability.Este artículo examina la prevalencia del VIH, los conocimientos respecto a su infección y, además, describe el uso del condón en mujeres que ejercen el comercio sexual en Santiago de Chile y que son atendidas en cinco centros especializados de enfermedades de transmisión sexual. Se aplicó una encuesta que indagaba sobre las características sociodemográficas, el conocimiento sobre el VIH/SIDA y el uso del condón a 626 mujeres. La prevalencia del VIH fue evaluada mediante un examen de ELISA. La prevalencia del VIH fue 0. El conocimiento del VIH fue bueno e, incluso, mejor que en población general, en algunos indicadores. El uso del condón con los clientes fue alto, aunque su uso regular con las parejas estables fue bajo. La prevalencia cero del VIH y el uso consistente de condones con los clientes confirma el impacto positivo que han tenido las estrategias de intervención implementadas para estos grupos, incrementando el conocimiento adecuado sobre el SIDA y el

  11. Violencia y Clima Escolar en Establecimientos Educacionales en Contextos de Alta Vulnerabilidad Social de Santiago de Chile School Violence and School Climate in Schools of Santiago, Chile, in High Vulnerable Social Contexts

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    Cecilia Tijmes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó la asociación entre violencia escolar y calidad de las relaciones interpersonales, diferenciando según el clima escolar del establecimiento. Por medio de una muestra intencionada de 13 establecimientos educacionales municipales con alta vulnerabilidad social de Santiago de Chile, se aplicó un cuestionario a 4.015 estudiantes de ambos sexos entre 10 y 18 años de edad. Se construyeron escalas y subescalas de violencia para testigos, víctimas, victimarios y víctimas agresivas. Por medio del cálculo de proporciones y x², t de Student y correlación lineal de Pearson (r, se constató que la mayoría de los alumnos (61% ha sido testigo de violencia entre los alumnos. A pesar de la elevada percepción de violencia escolar, la mayor parte de los alumnos percibe una buena calidad de las relaciones interpersonales, la cual se correlaciona en forma inversa, aunque débilmente, con la violencia escolar. Dicha correlación es reforzada en un clima escolar bueno cuando se trata de testigos de violencia, pero no de víctimas o victimarios. La correlación entre violencia física y calidad de las relaciones interpersonales es muy baja.The study investigated the relationship between school violence and the quality of interpersonal relations, according to school climate. Using a purposive sample of 13 public schools in highly vulnerable social contexts, in Santiago, Chile, 4,015 male and female students aged 10 to 18 completed a questionnaire. Violence scales and subscales were constructed for witnesses, aggressors, and aggressive victims. Using proportions and x², Student's t, and Pearson's linear correlation (r, it was observed that most students (61% have witnessed violence between their peers. Even though they perceived a high rate of school violence, most students reported good interpersonal relationships, which is inversely correlated with school violence, although weakly. In a good school climate this correlation is stronger for

  12. Distribución, superficie y accesibilidad de las áreas verdes en Santiago de Chile

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    Sonia Reyes Päcke

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Las áreas verdes urbanas (AVU proveen servicios sociales y ecológicos, en función de su distribución, superficie y accesibilidad. Se evalúan dichos atributos para las AVU de Santiago mediante métricas de paisaje. Se muestra que el 91% de las AVU tiene tamaño menor a 5.000 m². Las comunas de bajos ingresos y mayor población presentan un mayor número de áreas verdes (NP, pero de menor tamaño (Green spaces provide social and ecological functions within urban environments. The magnitude of these depends on the size, distribution and accessibility of such spaces. These attributes of the green areas in Santiago de Chile are evaluated using landscape metrics. The results show that 91% of green spaces are smaller than 5,000 m2. Municipalities with higher population and lower income levels had a greater number of green spaces, but these are smaller than 1,000 m2. The four municipalities with the highest income levels have 32.2% of the total green space surface, while the four municipalities with the lowest income levels barely exceed 4.0%>. The proposed accessibility indicator (IAc reveals that in the La Pintana municipality (low income level, 19.6% of the population has access to a green space of at least 5,000 within 300 from their home, while this figure is 45.3% for San Miguel (medium income level and 74.1% in Vitacura (high income level. Chilean urban legislation tends to promote the creation of smaller green spaces.

  13. Particle size distribution and its relationship to black carbon in two urban and one rural site in Santiago de Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramsch, E; Reyes, E; Oyola, P; Ma, Rubio; López, G; Pérez, P; Martínez, R

    2014-07-01

    The size distribution of particles has been studied in three sites in the Metropolitan area of Santiago de Chile in the winter of 2009 and a comparison with black carbon was performed. Two sites are located near busy streets in Santiago and the other site is located in a rural area about 40 km west of Santiago with little influence from vehicles, but large influence from wood burning. The campaign lasted 1 or 2 weeks in each site. We have divided the particle size measurements into four groups (10-39 nm, 40-62 nm, 63-174 nm, and 175-700 nm) in order to compare with the carbon monitor. In the sites near the street, black carbon has a high correlation (R = 0.85) with larger particles (175-700 nm). The correlation decreased when black carbon was compared with smaller particles, having very small correlation with the smallest sizes (10-39 nm). In the rural site, black carbon also has a high correlation (R = 0.86) with larger particles (175-700 nm), but the correlation between black carbon and the finest particles (10-39 nm) decreases to near 0. These measurements are an indication that wood burning does not generate particles smaller than -50 nm. In the urban sites, particle size distribution is peaked toward smaller particles (10-39 nm) only during rush hours, but at other times, particles size distribution is peaked toward larger sizes. When solar radiation was high, evidence of secondary particle formation was seen in the rural site, but not in the urban sites. The correlation between the number of secondary particles and solar radiation was R2 = 0.46, indicating that it there may be other variables that play a role in ultrafine particle formation. Implications: A study of the size distribution of particles and black carbon concentration in two street sites and one rural site shows that in the last site the number of particles ultrafine particles (d particles is about 2 times lower. Thus, the rural site has less of the particles that are more dangerous to health

  14. Trends In The Elemental Composition Of PM2.5 In Santiago, Chile From 1998 To 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, P.; Oyola, P.; Gramsch, E.; Moreno, F.; Koutrakis, P.

    2007-05-01

    Santiago, Chile is one of the most polluted cities in South America. As a response, over the past 15 years, numerous pollution reduction programs have been implemented by the environmental authority, Comision Nacional del Medio Ambiente (CONAMA). This paper assesses the effectiveness of these interventions by examining the trends of PM2.5 and its elemental composition. Daily fine particle filter samples were collected in Santiago, Chile at a downtown location from April 1998 through March 2003. Additionally, meteorological variables were measured continuously. Annual average concentrations of PM2.5 decreased only marginally, from 41.8 μg/m3 for the 1998/1999 period to 35.4 μg/m3 for the 2002/2003 period. PM2.5 concentrations exceeded the annual U.S. EPA Standard of 15 μg/m3. Additionally, about 20% of the days exceeded the old standard of 65 μg/m3, while about half of the days exceeded the new standard (effective in 2006) of 35 μg/m3. Mean PM2.5 levels during the cold season (April through September) were three times as high as those observed in the warm season (October through March). Particulate mass and elemental concentration trends were investigated using regression models, controlling for year, month, weekday, wind speed, temperature and relative humidity. Significant decreases were observed for Pb, Br, and S concentrations, while minor but still significant decreases were observed for Ni, Al, Si, Ca and Fe. The larger decreases were associated with specific remediation policies implemented to remove lead from gasoline, the reduction of sulfur levels in diesel fuel, and the introduction of natural gas. These results suggest that the pollution reduction programs, specially the ones related to transport, have been effective in reducing various important components of PM. However, particle mass and other associated element levels remain high and it is thus imperative to continue the efforts to improve air quality, particularly, focusing on industrial

  15. De la represión al patrimonio: vestigios de la violencia de estado en Madrid y Santiago de Chile

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    Bianchini, Maria Chiara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores social practices related to two sites of repression both resulting from 20thcentury dictatorships: Villa Grimaldi in Santiago, Chile, and Carabanchel Prison in Madrid, Spain. The conservation and memorialization of «sites of memory» is a common practice in the contemporary world. The objective here is to analyse critically certain aspects of the memorial culture in which these practices are generated and developed, demonstrating the existence of transnational dialogues and mimetic processes between communities rooted in different contexts. Taking this transnational perspective as its starting point, the article explores the actors, languages, rituals and timing of the heritage valuation processes affecting these two sites in the 21st century, and compares and contrasts similarities and differences, demonstrating the development of a common memorial culture. This dialogue suggests a reflection on various critical aspects of the transnational culture in which these two processes are framed.Este artículo investiga las prácticas sociales que se desarrollan en torno a dos lugares de represión de dos dictaduras del siglo XX: Villa Grimaldi en Santiago de Chile y la Cárcel de Carabanchel en Madrid, España. La conservación y memorialización de «sitios de memoria» es una práctica difundida en el mundo actual. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar críticamente algunos aspectos de la cultura memorial en la que estas prácticas nacen y se despliegan, mostrando la existencia de intercambios y procesos de mímesis entre comunidades de distintos contextos. Adoptando esta perspectiva transnacional, se investigan los actores, los lenguajes, los rituales y los tiempos de los procesos de valorización patrimonial que han afectado a estos sitios en el siglo XXI, evidenciando algunas similitudes y diferencias que indican el desarrollo de una cultura memorial común. Este diálogo sugiere una reflexión sobre algunos aspectos cr

  16. Nutritional profile of schoolchildren from different socio-economic levels in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberona, Yessica; Castillo, Oscar; Engler, Valerie; Villarroel, Luis; Rozowski, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    To assess the nutritional status, food intake and physical activity patterns in schoolchildren attending 5th and 6th grade in basic schools from different socio-economic levels in the metropolitan region of Santiago. Cross-sectional study in children 5th and 6th grade of eighteen basic schools in the metropolitan region of Santiago. Boys and girls aged 9-12 years from basic schools were evaluated in terms of physical capacity. An anthropometric evaluation was also performed which included weight, height and triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses. Food intake was evaluated by a 24 h recall, socio-economic level by the ESOMAR method and physical activity by a questionnaire. Boys and girls aged 9-12 years (n 1732). The average prevalence of overweight and obesity was 40 %, with the highest prevalence in males and those from lower socio-economic level. A majority (64 %) of the children had a low level of physical activity. A higher intake of fat and protein and a higher intake of carbohydrate were found in the higher and lower socio-economic levels, respectively. Both males and females showed adequacy greater than 75 % in macronutrient intake except for fibre, with both groups showing a deficit in the consumption of fruits, vegetables, legumes, fish and milk products according to Chilean recommendations. A high prevalence of malnutrition by excess was observed in both sexes and a better eating and physical activity pattern was seen in children from higher socio-economic level.

  17. [History of the locations of the Casa de Orates (madhouse) in Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio A, Carlos G

    2016-03-01

    This work describes the origin of the different locations that Casa de Orates (Madhouse) has occupied in Chile. The locations of this institution at the Yungay and Chimba neighborhoods area are specially analyzed. Moreover, the sad and poorly known incident involving the national Madhouse of Providencia is narrated.

  18. El divorcio entre los instrumentos de planificación y la morfología urbana en el perímetro metropolitano de Santiago de Chile. El caso de Maipú. / The divorce between the instruments of planning and urban morphology in the metropolitan perimeter of Santiago de Chile. The case of Maipú.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mawromatis P., Constantino

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available El espacio urbano resultante de la aplicación de los instrumentos de planificación comunal vigentes en Chile en el perímetro metropolitano de Santiago, carece de estructura y forma que evidencie una intencionalidad urbanística y arquitectónica./Chilean urban policies seem dramatically poor towards the physical environment which shapes a community. The public realm in suburban Santiago is a result of restrictive codes applied to private property. Spatial qualities, and morphological identity, are completely overlooked by urban laws.

  19. Capital social y participación,una perspectiva desde el Cono Sur de América: Porto Alegre, Montevideo y Santiago de Chile

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    Patricio Valdivieso

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio presento evidencias sobre la participación ciudadana y el Capital Social (CS en tres casos sudamericanos - Porto Alegre, Montevideo y Santiago de Chile-, con el propósito de revitalizar el debate sobre la opinión pública, cultura política y CS. El estudio parte de los siguientes supuestos: el CS es el resultado de decisiones racionales de las personas, y los diseños políticos, las instituciones y la cultura política tienen efectos en esas decisiones. Con ayuda de un modelo de utilidad, datos de encuestas e información complementaria, analizo información sobre asociativismo y confianza, y otras variables socio-económicas, demográficas y políticas relacionadas. Las conclusiones son: a mediados de la década del 2000, Montevideo, Porto Alegre y Santiago de Chile disponían de un stock de CS equivalente al de sociedades desarrolladas; en esas ciudades, y por extensión en los países, los factores político-institucionales y de cultura política tuvieron efectos en la confianza y la disposición de las personas a participar, operando de forma variada, en relación con distintos contextos y situaciones de participación. En el análisis más desagregado del caso de Chile en el nivel municipal, se observan las mismas relaciones.This study presents evidence on citizen participation and social capital (SC in three South American cases - Porto Alegre, Montevideo and Santiago of Chile, in order to revitalize the debate on public opinion, political culture and SC. The study has the following assumptions: the SC is the output of rational decisions of individuals and political designs and institutions and political culture have an impact on those decisions. Using a utility model, survey data and information, I analyze information on associative life and trust, and other socio-economic, demographic and political information. The conclusions: in the mid-2000s, Montevideo, Porto Alegre and Santiago de Chile had a stock of SC

  20. Status and evolution of the cryosphere in the Andes of Santiago (Chile, 33.5°S.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodin, X.; Rojas, F.; Brenning, A.

    2010-06-01

    In the context of a general retreat of glaciers in the dry Andes, this study focuses on the state and recent evolution of debris-covered glaciers and permafrost-related landforms, especially rock glaciers, in the semiarid to semihumid Laguna Negra catchment, a part of the Andes of central Chile at 33.5°S, that is a key contributor of drinking water for the city of Santiago. We conducted catchment-scale geomorphological mapping, diachronic analysis of 1955 and 1996 orthophotographs and digital elevation models (DEMs), and the analysis of ground temperatures and their sensitivity to climate variation. Rock glaciers dominate spatially and in terms of water storage over glaciers (area ratio: 1.7:1; ratio of water equivalents: 1.5:1). An intense downwasting has affected both debris-covered and exposed glacier components in the Punta Negra subcatchment, a process that is associated with the growth of numerous thermokarst depressions. The altitudinal transect of ground temperature suggest that permafrost is widespread above ˜ 4000 m asl, although it can also occur at lower elevations on sheltered footslopes and within rock glaciers. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the near-surface ground thermal regime at high altitudes is strongly influenced by the snow cover disappearance date, which may therefore constitute an important control on the effect of climatic warming.

  1. Brechas territoriales de género en la Región Metropolitana de Santiago, Chile

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    Gerardo Ubilla Bravo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En Chile, el tema de género ha sido abordado conceptualmente desde la academia por las ciencias sociales (como el caso de PNUD, y por el Estado a través de medidas de acción de políticas públicas impulsadas a partir la década de 1990. Desde la perspectiva del análisis territorial del género ha habido un escaso desarrollo del conocimiento respecto del comportamiento de diferentes variables en comunas y regiones (SUBDERE, 2012. De esta manera, la presente investigación muestra resultados sobre la dinámica de las brechas género en las comunas de la Región Metropolitana de Santiago (RMS considerando variables de tipo social, económica, de localización y gobernabilidad, dando cuenta de las disparidades territoriales presentes, así como de las relaciones que existen entre éstas. En cuanto a los hallazgos, se observa que sólo una de las diez variables analizadas tiene una predominancia femenina, que la escolaridad constituye el de menor inequidad y que los patrones espaciales están fuertemente determinados por el ingreso y estatus de la población.

  2. Caracterización de cyberbullying en el gran Santiago de Chile, en el año 2010

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    Jorge Varela T.

    Full Text Available El estudio caracteriza el cyberbullying en estudiantes del gran Santiago de Chile (2010. Se aplicó una encuesta de autorreporte (Cuestionario de Experiencias de Internet a 1.357 estudiantes entre 7º básico a IVº medio. El diseño de muestra fue no probabilístico por cuotas en 32 establecimientos educacionales, ponderados según género, curso y tipo de dependencia. El 50% fueron hombres, con un promedio de edad 15 años (DS= 1,82 años. Resultados: El 11,4% reportó haber sido víctima de algún tipo de cyberbullyingy el 12,5% victimario. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en las víctimas según sexo, curso y tipo de dependencia. Sólo los hombres reportan identificarse en forma más frecuente con los victimarios que las mujeres. Conclusiones: El cyberbullying es un fenómeno existente en la realidad chilena, siendo - mayormente - homogéneo en su presentación. Dado esto, se plantean nuevos desafíos y preguntas respecto a sus consecuencias tanto para los estudiantes como para todo el sistema escolar.

  3. Agricultura urbana en metrópolis iberoamericanas: estudio de casos en Santiago de Chile y Lisboa, Portugal

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    Isabel María Madaleno

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available La mitad de la humanidad vive actualmente en las grandes ciudades, donde la sustentabilidad en estas urbes pasa por políticas indusivas, tanto sociales, culturales, como económicas y ambientales. La agricultura practicada al interior del tejido urbano o en su entorno, sobre todo cuando evita el uso de sustandas químicas, revela cuan imprescindible resulta mejorar la calidad de vida urbana y junto a ella, aminorar la pobreza de la pobladón. El trabajo que se presenta tiene por objetivo comparar las semejanzas y diferencias de cultivos intra y peri-urbanos registrados en dos capitales de similar dominio climático: Lisboa, Portugal y Santiago de Chile. Se recurre en este estudio a imágenes de satélite, estadísticas y al muestreo, enfocando más detenidamente las políticas públicas favorecedoras de actividades del sector primario en esos medios urbanos, las cuales contribuyen a hacerlas más sostenibles desde el punto de vista social, económico y ambiental.

  4. Novas espécies e nota sobre Cerambycidae (Coleoptera neotropicais da coleção Arriagada, Santiago, Chile

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    Maria Helena M. Galileo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Notas sobre uma forma melânica de Trachyderes (T. cingulatus Klug, 1825 (Trachiderini e descrição de novos táxons: Eburini, Pantomallus titinga sp. nov. da Bolivia (La Paz, Santa Cruz; Elaphidionini, Stizocera asyka sp. nov. do Paraguai (Presidente Hayes; Ibidionini, Cycnidolon immaculatum sp. nov., da Bolívia (La Paz; Desmiphorini, Ischnoleomimus arriagadai sp. nov. do Paraguai (Paraguari; Ceiupaba bella sp. nov., da Guiana Francesa, Equador (Pichincha e Bolívia (La Paz; Euestola obliqua sp. nov. e Paraguay (Caazapá.New species and note on Cerambycidae (Coleoptera of Arriagada´s collection, Santiago, Chile. Notes on a melanic form of Trachyderes (T. cingulatus Klug, 1825 (Trachiderini are provided and new taxa are described: Eburiini, Pantomallus titinga sp. nov. from Bolivia (La Paz, Santa Cruz; Elaphidionini, Stizocera asyka sp. nov. from Paraguay (Presidente Hayes; Ibidionini, Cycnidolon immaculatum sp. nov., from Bolivia (La Paz; Desmiphorini, Ischnoleomimus arriagadai sp. nov. from Paraguay (Paraguari; Ceiupaba bella sp. nov., from French Guiana, Ecuador (Pichincha and Bolivia (La Paz; Euestola obliqua sp. nov. from Paraguay (Caazapá.

  5. La pequeña Lima: Nueva cara y vitalidad para el centro de Santiago de Chile

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    María Elena Ducci

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Las migraciones recientes hacia Chile constituyen un fenómeno social inédito para el país. Este trabajo se centra en el impacto que están teniendo los peruanos, como grupo migrante mayoritario, en el centro de Santiago, donde han recuperado lugares y comercios semiabandonados, generando una “Pequeña Lima”, sector donde los migrantes acuden a conseguir trabajo, alimentarse y divertirse. El trabajo muestra los efectos positivos de este fenómeno en la recuperación y revitalización de zonas centrales, dinamizando el comercio y la ocupación de los espacios públicos. Se reconoce también que la instalación precaria de muchos migrantes en viviendas antiguas del centro está generando problemas de hacinamiento y de acceso a salud y educación, lo cual, dada la inexistencia de políticas sociales orientadas a la inmigración, puede (y empieza a originar confictos en el corto plazo.

  6. Occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: A cross-sectional study in bars and restaurants in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Claudio; Droppelmann, Andrea; Erazo, Marcia; Aceituno, Paulina; Orellana, Cecilia; Parro, Javiera; Mesias, Sthepanie; Marchetti, Nella; Navas-Acien, Ana; Iglesias, Verónica

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate indoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in bars and restaurants and identify the main determinants of airborne PAH concentrations. This study included 57 bars/restaurants in Santiago, Chile. PAH concentrations (ng/m(3) ) were measured using photoelectric aerosol sensor equipment (PAS 2000CE model). Nicotine concentrations (μg/m(3) ) were measured using active sampling pumps followed by gas-chromatography. Linear regression models were used to identify determinants of PAH concentrations. PAH concentrations were higher in venues that allowed smoking compared to smoke-free venues. After adjusting, the air PAH concentrations were 1.40 (0.64-3.10) and 3.34 (1.43-7.83) ng/m(3) higher for tertiles 2 and 3 of air nicotine compared to the lowest tertile. In hospitality venues where smoking is allowed, secondhand smoke exposure is a major source of PAHs in the environment. This research further supports the importance of implementing complete smoking bans to protect service industry workers from PAH exposure. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:887-896, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Climas urbanos y contaminación atmosférica en Santiago de Chile

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    Hugo Romero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan las relaciones existentes entre temperaturas urbanas y concentraciones de material particulado a una escala que representa la totalidad de la ciudad, destacando su división en dos zonas bien delimitadas, que ubicadas al oriente y poniente de la misma, durante los días de ocurrencia de las peores condiciones de contaminación atmosférica. A escala más detallada, que representa a tipos característicos de morfología urbana, se correlacionan los usos y coberturas de suelos con los niveles de vegetación y las temperaturas de las llamadas "subzonas climáticas", en las comunas de Peñalolén, Santiago Centro y Cerrillos, que representan diversas localizaciones en los espacios naturales y socioeconómicos de la ciudad, concluyéndose que existen áreas de condiciones adversas para la población y configuraciones que resaltan su heterogeneidad y diversidad.Current relationships between urban temperatures and particulate matter concentrations at a scale that is representative of the whole city have been analyzed, highlighting a clear division in two zones, the eastern and western part of the city during the days that register the worst air pollution. On a more detailed scale, based on characteristic urban morphology types, land uses and extensions are correlated with vegetation cover and surface temperatures in so-called climatic sub-zones, in the municipalities of Peñalolén, Santiago Centro and Cerrillos, that represent different urban locations, natural cover and socioeconomic variables across the city. The article concludes that there are areas with adverse conditions for the population and configurations that highlight the heterogeneity and diversity of these municipalities.

  8. Integración laboral de inmigrantes haitianos, dominicanos y colombianos en Santiago de Chile

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    Patricia Valenzuela Jeldes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En el actual contexto de la globalización, caracterizado por la reestructuración del sistema de producción capitalista y de las relaciones de trabajo, la migración presenta nuevas y particulares características. A nivel mundial, estamos en presencia de una polarización del mercado laboral, donde conviven empleos estables y bien remunerados con otros informales y ocasionales. Sumado a ello, nos encontramos con trabajadores informales en medios formales, lo cual evidencia las nuevas maneras en que se presenta la informalidad. A nivel nacional, desde la vuelta a la democracia, Chile presenta un aumento considerable de población inmigrante latinoamericana, la cual llega con el objetivo principal de integrarse al mercado laboral. En este marco es que se habla de “inmigrantes laborales”. Chile es un país con una baja tasa de informalidad laboral; con una creciente llegada de inmigrantes laborales y una débil presencia del Estado en cuanto a la integración de la población extranjera. La incorporación de éstos al mercado laboral nacional, considerados mano de obra barata, adquiere características particulares que a través de la presente investigación exploratoria con inmigrantes colombianos, haitianos y dominicanos (la “nueva inmigración” se pretenden develar. Este artículo abordará la creciente inserción de estos inmigrantes al mundo laboral chileno, sus problemáticas para trabajar en Chile y el contradictorio juego de inclusión/exclusión social al que se ven enfrentados.

  9. Spatio-Temporal Changes in Structure for a Mediterranean Urban Forest: Santiago, Chile 2002 to 2014

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    Francisco J. Escobedo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is little information on how urban forest ecosystems in South America and Mediterranean climates change across both space and time. This study statistically and spatially analyzed the spatio-temporal dynamics of Santiago, Chile’s urban forest using tree and plot-level data from permanent plots from 2002 to 2014. We found mortality, ingrowth, and tree cover remained stable over the analysis period and similar patterns were observed for basal area (BA and biomass. However, tree cover increased, and was greater in the highest socioeconomic stratum neighborhoods while it dropped in the medium and low strata. Growth rates for the five most common tree species averaged from 0.12 to 0.36 cm·year−1. Spatially, tree biomass and BA were greater in the affluent, northeastern sections of the city and in southwest peri-urban areas. Conversely, less affluent central, northwest, and southern areas showed temporal losses in BA and biomass. Overall, we found that Santiago’s urban forest follows similar patterns as in other parts of the world; affluent areas tend to have more and better managed urban forests than poorer areas, and changes are primarily influenced by social and ecological drivers. Nonetheless, care is warranted when comparing urban forest structural metrics measured with similar sampling-monitoring approaches across ecologically disparate regions and biomes.

  10. Las prácticas lúdicas en la calle y la imagen del centro de la ciudad en Santiago de Chile = Recreational practices on the street and the image of the city center of Santiago de Chile

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    Natacha Calvet Tapia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza la relación de la imagen del espacio central de una ciudad y la calle como escenario de esparcimiento y las prácticas lúdicas que en ellas se manifiestan. Los espacios que permiten o promueven las actividades lúdicas y festivas, ya sean parques, plazas, paseos o simplemente calles, en el Centro de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile responden a la necesidad consensual de todos los actores que componen ese espacio. Contribuyen a crear sentimientos de pertenencia e identidad, a disimular las diferencias sociales, como también constituyen una necesidad desde el punto de vista turístico y comercial. Mejoran la calidad de vida de los habitantes, a la vez que construyen una imagen positiva del territorio. Los espacios lúdicos y las actividades lúdicas son utilizados como instrumento por todos los actores y colectividades sociales, ya sea para ordenar, normalizar y estructurar dichos espacios y dichas prácticas; o para criticar y subvertir ese orden; o para obtener beneficios económicos. No existe una relación de causa-efecto entre la organización espacial planificada y las vivencias y apropiación de un espacio por parte de la población. Dicho de otra manera las personas no necesariamente usan o viven el espacio según sea la voluntadinstitucional.This article examines the relationship between the images of central and the street as a leisurely space in a city against the recreational practices that are enacted in them. The spaces that foster festive and recreational activities, such as parks, squares or simply streets in the center of Santiago de Chile meet a consensual need of all actors involved. They contribute to create feelings of belonging and identity, to soften social differences, in addition to responding to the needs of trade and tourism. They improve the quality of life of the city residents and build a positive image of the territory. Recreational spaces are used as tools by all

  11. Sexual intercourse among adolescents in Santiago, Chile: a study of individual and parenting factors Relaciones sexuales entre adolescentes de Santiago, Chile: un estudio de factores individuales y de crianza

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    Ninive Sanchez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine a range of individual, parenting, and family factors associated with sexual intercourse among a community sample of youth and their families in Santiago, Chile. METHODS: Data were taken from the Santiago Longitudinal Study conducted in January 2008-November 2009. Participants were 766 youth (mean age = 14.03 years, 51% male from municipalities of low- to mid-socioeconomic status. Variables included emotional and behavioral subscales from the Child Behavior Checklist's Youth Self Report, parental monitoring, family involvement, parental control and autonomy, relationship with each parent, and sexual activity. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the odds of sexual intercourse initiation. RESULTS: Seventy (9.14% youth reported having had sex in their lifetime; the average age of first sexual intercourse among this group was 13.5 years (Standard Deviation [SD] = 1.74 for males and 14.08 (SD = 1.40 for females. Having sex was inversely associated with withdrawn-depressed symptoms (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.84, Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72-0.97, but positively associated with somatic complaints (OR = 1.20, CI = 1.04-1.38 and rule breaking behavior (OR = 1.21, CI = 1.08-1.36, after adjusting for demographic and other individual and parenting variables. The majority (80% of the youth who had had sex reported using protection at the time of last intercourse. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight the role that mental health problems-some of them not commonly associated with onset of sexual activity-may play in a youth's decision to have sex. The potential protective effects of several parenting and family characteristics disappeared with youth age and youth behavioral problems.OBJETIVO: Examinar distintos factores relacionados con el inicio de la actividad sexual que presentan los jóvenes, sus padres y su familia en una muestra de jóvenes y su respectiva familia tomada de la ciudad de Santiago, Chile

  12. Estudio del norte de Santiago de Chile mediante cartografía histórica: La chimba entre los siglos XVI Y XIX

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    Carolina Quilodrán Rubio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En la ribera norte del río Mapocho, en Santiago de Chile, existió un área que fue reconocida como La Chimba, el lugar ideal para que se asentaran allí numerosas familias indígenas antes del periodo de fundación de la ciudad. Esta otra banda u otra orilla, –significado en lengua quechua de La Chimba–, durante largo tiempo fue el límite septentrional de Santiago del Nuevo Extremo, con una historia y un desarrollo territorial marcados por las diversas situaciones naturales y culturales de la ciudad. A partir de la documentación histórica, en el presente estudio se analiza la representación de La Chimba entre los siglos XVI y el XIX.

  13. Desencuentro de afectos y de poderes: variaciones para el estudio de un conflicto singular. Santiago de Chile, octubre 1793 – noviembre 1797

    OpenAIRE

    Albornoz Vásquez, María Eugenia

    2007-01-01

    Au mois d’octobre 1793 à Santiago du Chili, Clara Pando dépose un recours devant l’autorité laïque, la Real Audiencia de Chile, contre l’abus de pouvoir commis par une autorité ecclésiastique : l’évêque Blas y Minayo avait enlevé et enfermé sa fille avec l'aide des soldats de la garde du Gouverneur Ambrosio O’Higgins. Le Conseil des Indes, en Espagne, finit par accueillir la plainte, délaissée par les juges de Santiago. Cette dispute implique des personnes dont les patronymes sont connus au C...

  14. History of the Neurosurgery Department of Pontificia Universidad Catolica, Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfeir, Felipe; Villanueva, Pablo; Tagle, Patricio

    2017-01-01

    Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile's medical school was founded in 1929. An interest in neurosurgical development arose in the minds of the Dean, Dr. Cristobal Espíldora, and the Chief of Surgery, Dr. Rodolfo Rencoret, in 1946. They encouraged and supported Dr. J. Ricardo Olivares to specialize in Neurosurgery with Professor H. Olivecrona in Stockholm, Sweden. The first neurosurgical procedure in the Hospital Clínico de la Universidad Católica was performed in 1950. Since then, intensive efforts have been made to develop neurosurgery and its science. As a result, it is now a center capable of achieving high-quality standards in vascular, oncologic, and endoscopic neurosurgery; stereotactic and radiosurgery; complex spine surgery; pediatric neurosurgery; and epilepsy surgery. This article tells the story of a university hospital neurosurgery service in a country at the southern end of the world and how it became one of the most important neurosurgical centers in Chile and South America. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The association of neighborhood characteristics and domestic violence in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Huiyun; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Han, Yoonsun; Maurizi, Laura; Delva, Jorge

    2013-02-01

    The growing tension between conservative attitudes and liberal policies on gender issues in Chile is reflected by the high rates of domestic violence juxtaposed by a strong governmental policy aimed at preventing this social problem. Attempts to understand factors associated with domestic violence in Chile, and in other countries as well, have not paid much attention to neighborhood-level factors. This manuscript examined the extent to which selected neighborhood characteristics were associated with domestic violence against women. Relying on theories of social disorganization and social stress, this study conceptualized residence in a disadvantaged neighborhood as a source of stress and examined the relationship between detrimental physical and social characteristics of neighborhoods and the chance of women experiencing domestic violence. Results revealed that a higher level of trash in neighborhoods was associated with increased rates of domestic violence above and beyond individual characteristics. Findings also suggested that the relationship between high levels of trash in neighborhoods and domestic violence was greater for women with higher levels of financial stress. Given the potential role of neighborhood environments in reducing domestic violence, a comprehensive approach incorporating both neighborhood- and individual-level factors may be critical in designing effective preventive interventions for domestic violence.

  16. [The archeology of San Vincente de Paul Hospital in Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, Harold; Osorio, Carlos G

    2007-02-01

    The San Vicente de Paul Hospital was the first Clinical Hospital of the University of Chile and was located at the same place of present School of Medicine. The School area contains several old buildings, which are probably remains of the San Vicente de Paul Hospital. After a careful study of the current plans of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile and those of the San Vicente de Paul Hospital, and after checking measurements on the actual site, we were able to demonstrate that two and a half clinical rooms of the original building and some parts of the old laundry still remain intact. At present, these constructions are being used as storerooms, student's union offices, and other activities. We expect that this article may contribute to improve the knowledge of our roots by our own as well as by future generations and that it may inspire our authorities to take care and preserve this important patrimonial remains of our national medicine.

  17. Trazas y trazos de la circulación musical en el virreinato del Perú: copistas de la catedral de Lima en Santiago de Chile

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    Vera Aguilera, Alejandro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to expand the current knowledge about the circulation of music in the Viceroyalty of Peru, through a comparative study between music scores from the colonial period that have been preserved in the cathedrals of Lima and Santiago de Chile. Contributing with new musical and calligraphic concordances, it shows that some of the works held in Santiago were copied in the viceregal capital. It also raises convincing hypotheses about the possible Spanish origin of certain musical sources, as well as methodological contributions for the study of music copyists, complementing the existing ones. Finally, it goes on to question important assumptions about the musical life of Lima cathedral that have been transmitted in previous works.El presente trabajo busca ampliar el conocimiento actual sobre la circulación musical en el virreinato del Perú por medio de un estudio comparado entre las partituras del período colonial que se han conservado en las catedrales de Lima y Santiago de Chile. De esta forma, se establecen nuevas correspondencias tanto musicales como caligráficas, demostrándose que algunas de las obras conservadas en Santiago fueron copiadas en la capital del virreinato; se formulan hipótesis convincentes acerca del posible origen español de ciertas fuentes musicales; y se realizan aportaciones metodológicas para el estudio de los copistas de música, que complementan las ya existentes. Finalmente, el trabajo permite cuestionar importantes premisas sobre la vida musical de la catedral de Lima que nos han sido transmitidas en trabajos previos.

  18. Temporal evolution of main ambient PM2. 5 sources in Santiago, Chile, from 1998 to 2012

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    F. Barraza

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The inhabitants of Santiago, Chile have been exposed to harmful levels of air pollutants for decades. The city's poor air quality is a result of steady economic growth, and stable atmospheric conditions adverse to mixing and ventilation that favor the formation of oxidants and secondary aerosols. Identifying and quantifying the sources that contribute to the ambient levels of pollutants is key for designing adequate mitigation measures. Estimating the evolution of source contributions to ambient pollution levels is also paramount to evaluating the effectiveness of pollution reduction measures that have been implemented in recent decades. Here, we quantify the main sources that have contributed to fine particulate matter (PM2. 5 between April 1998 and August 2012 in downtown Santiago by using two different source-receptor models (PMF 5.0 and UNMIX 6.0 that were applied to elemental measurements of 1243 24 h filter samples of ambient PM2.5. PMF resolved six sources that contributed to ambient PM2. 5, with UNMIX producing similar results: motor vehicles (37.3 ± 1.1 %, industrial sources (18.5 ± 1.3 %, copper smelters (14.4 ± 0.8 %, wood burning (12.3 ± 1.0 %, coastal sources (9.5 ± 0.7 % and urban dust (3.0 ± 1.2 %. Our results show that over the 15 years analyzed here, four of the resolved sources significantly decreased [95 % confidence interval]: motor vehicles 21.3 % [2.6, 36.5], industrial sources 39.3 % [28.6, 48.4], copper smelters 81.5 % [75.5, 85.9], and coastal sources 58.9 % [38.5, 72.5], while wood burning did not significantly change and urban dust increased by 72 % [48.9, 99.9]. These changes are consistent with emission reduction measures, such as improved vehicle emission standards, cleaner smelting technology, introduction of low-sulfur diesel for vehicles and natural gas for industrial processes, public transport improvements, etc. However, it is also apparent that the

  19. [Breastfeeding indicators produced at time of vaccination in four Primary Care Centres in southern Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisser, Mario Boris; Barragán, Tatiana del Carmen; Weisstaub, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    To compare official breastfeeding (BF) data with those obtained by interviews conducted during regular vaccination visits. A pilot descriptive study with convenience sampling was conducted by interviewing guardians of children attending vaccination in four Primary Care Centres in south Santiago. BF prevalence indicators were calculated and stratified by age and education of mothers. A comparison was made between the results and the official ones reported by each Centre. Chi-squared (X2) was calculated to evaluate differences (P<.05) RESULTS: A total of 1990 cases were analysed, in which exclusive BF prevalence was 43.4%, 34.2% and 8.8%, at 2, 4, and 6 months, respectively. At the sixth month, official data (41%) was significantly higher (P<.001). Mothers with less than 12 years of schooling have a lower prevalence of exclusive BF at the 4th month than those with higher education (28.4% vs. 37.8%, respectively, P<.05). Even considering the small size of the sample studied, exclusive BF prevalence obtained is surprisingly lower than official reported data. That difference might be explained by: (a) children brought to vaccinations are roughly two fold the number brought to well-child clinics and, (b) potential bias in official data obtained by staff in charge of promotion and education on BF practices, which could distort the results. Further studies are needed to improve the methodology for collecting and analysis BF data. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Chile is a long (2650 miles), narrow (250 miles at widest point) country sandwiched between the Andes mountains and the Pacific. The northern desert is rich in copper and nitrates; the temperate middle region is agricultural and supports the major cities, including Santiago, the capital, and the port of Valparaiso; and the southern region is a cold and damp area of forests, grasslands, lakes, and fjords. The country is divided into 12 administrative regions. Chile's population of 12.5 million are mainly of Spanish or Indian descent or mestizos. Literacy is 92.3%, and the national language is Spanish. Infant mortality is 18.1/1000, and life expectancy is 68.2 years. 82% of the people are urban, and most are Roman Catholics. Chile was settled by the Spanish in 1541 and attached to the Viceroyalty of Peru. Independence was won in 1818 under the leadership of Bernardo O'Higgins. In the 1880s Chile extended its sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan in the south and areas of southern Peru and Bolivia in the north. An officially parliamentary government, elected by universal suffrage, drifted into oligarchy and finally into a military dictatorship under Carlos Ibanez in 1924. Constitutional government was restored in 1932. The Christian Democratic government of Eduardo Frei (1964-70) inaugurated major reforms, including land redistribution, education, and far-reaching social and economic policies. A Marxist government under Salvador Allende lasted from 1970 to 1973 when the present military government of General Pinochet Ugarte took power, overthrew Allende, abolished the Congress, and banned political parties. It has moved the country in the direction of a free market economy but at the cost of systematic violations of human rights. A new constitution was promulgated in 1981, and congressional elections have been scheduled for October, 1989. A "National Accord for Transition to Full Democracy" was mediated by the Catholic Church in 1985. The social reforms of the

  1. Characteristics associated to child sexual abuse in a specialized intervention program from Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Gómez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive study is presented, about the characteristics of boys and girls served between 2006 and 2009 in a child maltreatment and sexual abuse intervention program, implemented by Protectora de la Infancia and fi nanced by the National Service of Children of Chile. A retrospective analysis was conducted on 100 clinical records randomly selected (76 women and 24 men, all of them less than 18 years old. The results show that they are mostly girls between 8 and 12 years old, from low income families, and with appropriate levels of development except on the socio-emotional and psycho-sexual sphere. The main intake motive is sexual abuse, intra-familial, chronic, perpetrated on their own home, and by a masculine figure close to the child, on most cases. The complexity of this situations demand an integral eco-systemic approach to the intervention

  2. Espacio Habitacional Colectivo y Mejoramiento en Dos Cités de Santiago, Chile

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    Ricardo Tapia Z.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En el contexto de aplicación de un proyecto de investigaciónde la Universidad de Chile que tiene como título Vivir en uncité, su equipo de investigadores presenta un avance delmismo y unas primeras conclusiones referidas a esta forma dehabitación urbana popular destacando en él las acciones demejoramiento habitacional que se han llevado a cabo en doscités objeto de estudio, bajo un enfoque interdisciplinariodesde la antropología, la historia y la arquitectura. Se entregaun análisis preliminar a partir de la metodología aplicada y sedescriben unas primeras conclusiones a partir de losresultados obtenidos en un primer año de trabajo.

  3. [Evaluation of good manufacturing practices in the elaboration of enteral formulas in public hospitals of Santiago (Chile)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara González, Sandra; Domecq Jendres, C; Atalah Samur, Eduardo

    2013-11-01

    The development of enteral formulas (FE) is subject to various risks of contamination. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), have worried about alerting, recommendations and documents released to prevent contamination the FE, suggesting the standardization and protocols for all procedures involved. The study was aimed to evaluate compliance with the technical criteria contained in a Guideline for Good Practice of Manufacture in relation to the development, maintenance and administration of enteral nutrition in hospitals of Santiago, in the Metropolitan Area. The verification criteria considered Physical Plant, Equipment and Implementation, Hygienic and Sanitary Standards, Human Resources, Organization and Management, Safety and Warranty Quality Assurance. 639 criteria were defined, 309 risk Type 1, by mayor risk of producing pollution. The study was conducted by observing Central Units Enteral Formulas and interview with the caregiver. Medium of compliance for each group of criteria risk 1 and overall, was analyzed. A total of 14 public hospitals were studied. The degree of compliance with the 639 reached a median of 33.2% (p25-75 31.6%-40.4%), with the lowest value for physical plant with 27.9% (p25-75 23.9%-38.2%) and the highest for human resources with 52.4% (p25-75 44.1%-52.4%). Median compliance for risk criteria Type 1 was only 31.8% (p25-75 27.5%-41.2%). Most of the units tested, meets less than half of the internationals recommendations, or the Ministry of Health of Chile. It should develop protocols and train staff to ensure quality and safety in the development of enteral formulas and reduce risk of infection. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Capital social y participación,una perspectiva desde el Cono Sur de América: Porto Alegre, Montevideo y Santiago de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Patricio Valdivieso

    2012-01-01

    En este estudio presento evidencias sobre la participación ciudadana y el Capital Social (CS) en tres casos sudamericanos - Porto Alegre, Montevideo y Santiago de Chile-, con el propósito de revitalizar el debate sobre la opinión pública, cultura política y CS. El estudio parte de los siguientes supuestos: el CS es el resultado de decisiones racionales de las personas, y los diseños políticos, las instituciones y la cultura política tienen efectos en esas decisiones. Con ayuda de un modelo de...

  5. Prevalencia de ideación e intento suicida en adolescentes de la Región Metropolitana de Santiago de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    VENTURA-JUNCÁ D,RAÚL; CARVAJAL,CÉSAR; UNDURRAGA,SEBASTIÁN; VICUÑA,PILAR; EGAÑA,JOSEFINA; GARIB,MARÍA JOSÉ

    2010-01-01

    Background: According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, suicide is one of the five leading causes of death among people aged l5-24 years. Suicide rates in Chile among young people have been increasing. In 1990 and 2005, the prevalence of suicide was 8.8% and 9.3% per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively. Aitns: To determine the prevalence of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt rates among teenagers aged 14 and 19 years, living in Metropolitan Santiago and analyze the factors relate...

  6. [Various epidemiological aspects of Enterobius vermicularis infection inpatients served at public outpatient clinics and hospitals from the northern section of Santiago, Chile, 1995].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, R; García, M

    1996-01-01

    During 1995, we examined 2,666 Graham's tests (five perianal swabs with adhesive cellulose tape) prescribed to ambulatory patients attended in 14 public outpatient clinics and four hospitals from the north section of Santiago. The infection rates found by age groups were the following: 6.1% in infants ( 15 years old). Similar percentages of E. vermicularis infections were observed in females and males patients. Frequency of infection in each month of the year varied between 17.4 and 26.8%, with no seasonal variation. This study and previous surveys are stressing that E. vermicularis is the most frequent helminthic agent found in Chile, specially in elementary school children.

  7. La unidad como componente de la Independencia: precursores de la integración latinoamericana en Santiago de Chile (1810-1813

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    Germán A. de la Reza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo analizamos los primeros escritos independentistas difundidos en Santiago de Chile entre 1810 y 1813 desde la perspectiva de su aporte a la creación de las bases ideológicas que facilitarán la participación del país en posteriores iniciativas confederales hispanoamericanas. Las conclusiones de nuestra investigación refrendan la importancia de la idea del congreso general durante el periodo de la Patria Vieja y matizan la hipótesis sobre el monopolio del proyecto protonacional defendida por la historiografía mayoritaria.

  8. Carbonaceous Aerosols in Fine Particulate Matter of Santiago Metropolitan Area, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro Araya, Richard; Flocchini, Robert; Morales Segura, Rául G. E.; Leiva Guzmán, Manuel A.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of carbonaceous aerosols in South American cities are limited, and most existing data are of short term and limited to only a few locations. For 6 years (2002–2007), concentrations of fine particulate matter and organic and elemental carbon were measured continuously in the capital of Chile. The contribution of carbonaceous aerosols to the primary and secondary fractions was estimated at three different sampling sites and in the warm and cool seasons. The results demonstrate that there are significant differences in the levels in both the cold (March to August) and warm (September to February) seasons at all sites studied. The percent contribution of total carbonaceous aerosol fine particulate matter was greater in the cool season (53 ± 41%) than in the warm season (44 ± 18%). On average, the secondary organic carbon in the city corresponded to 29% of the total organic carbon. In cold periods, this proportion may reach an average of 38%. A comparison of the results with the air quality standards for fine particulate matter indicates that the total carbonaceous fraction alone exceeds the World Health Organization standard (10 µg/m3) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency standard (15 µg/m3) for fine particulate matter. PMID:24587753

  9. Mujeres que Consumen Sustancias y su Vulnerabilidad frente al VIH en Santiago de Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irarrázabal, Lisette P.; Ferrer, Lilian; Villegas, Natalia; Sanhueza, Sebastián; Molina, Yerko; Cianelli, Rosina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Women represent 15% of the people living with HIV in Chile. Risk behaviors for HIV are: multiple partners, unsafe sex, and exchange of sex for drugs/money. Methodology A correlational design was used. A sample of 203 women who were sexually active and consumed substances within the last 3-months were selected for this study. Results The average age of the participants was 32.4 years (SD = 9.2) and 68.1% were housewives. The substance most commonly used was alcohol (95.1%) and marijuana (49.8%); 23.7% of the women were drunk or drugged before having sex; 74.4% had multiple sexual partners and 95.6% had unprotected sex. There is a significant correlation (p < 0.05) between substance abuse and HIV risk behaviors. Conclusion It is necessary to develop more research to understand in depth the relationship between substance use and HIV risk among Chilean women. It is important to consider the use of substances to develop and implement HIV prevention programs in the Chilean community. PMID:27257222

  10. LA INSURRECCION DEL ARRABAL. ESPACIO URBANO Y VIOLENCIA COLECTIVA. SANTIAGO DE CHILE, 1878

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    Igor Goicovic Donoso

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CL X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} EL 11 DE MAYO de 1983, el Comando Nacional de Trabajadores y los partidos políticos de oposición a la Dictadura Militar —que gobernaba Chile desde septiembre de 1973—, convocaron a las organizaciones sindicales, sociales y políticas del país a una jornada de protesta nacional en contra del régimen. Durante la mañana de ese día, los estudiantes universitarios y las organizaciones de derechos humanos se manifestaron pacíficamente en el centro cívico de las principales ciudades del país; pero al caer la tarde, todo cambió. Desde el arrabal de la ciudad, desde los barrios con mayor concentración de trabajadores y de pobres, miles de personas, hombres, mujeres y niños, salieron a las calles, levantaron barricadas, cortaron el suministro de energía eléctrica, saquearon locales comerciales y se enfrentaron violentamente con la policía. Al día siguiente ni las autoridades militares ni quienes habían convocado a la manifestación pacífica en contra del gobierno, encontraban respuestas claras para explicarse los fenómenos de violencia desencadenados durante la noche de ese 11 de mayo. La angustia se hizo aún mayor

  11. A first insight on the population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex as studied by spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTRs in Santiago, Chile.

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    María Elvira Balcells

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB remains a significant public health problem worldwide, but the ecology of the prevalent mycobacterial strains, and their transmission, can vary depending on country and region. Chile is a country with low incidence of TB, that has a geographically isolated location in relation to the rest of South American countries due to the Andes Mountains, but recent migration from neighboring countries has changed this situation. We aimed to assess the genotypic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC strains in Santiago, Chile, and compare with reports from other Latin-American countries. We analyzed MTBC isolates from pulmonary tuberculosis cases collected between years 2008 and 2013 in Central Santiago, using two genotyping methods: spoligotyping and 12-loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTRs. Data obtained were analyzed and compared to the SITVIT2 database. Mean age of the patients was 47.5 years and 61% were male; 11.6% were migrants. Of 103 strains (1 isolate/patient included, there were 56 distinct spoligotype patterns. Of these, 16 strains (15.5% corresponded to orphan strains in the SITVIT2 database, not previously reported. Latin American and Mediterranean (LAM (34% and T (33% lineages were the most prevalent strains, followed by Haarlem lineage (16.5%. Beijing family was scarcely represented with only two cases (1.9%, one of them isolated from a Peruvian migrant. The most frequent clustered spoligotypes were SIT33/LAM3 (10.7%, SIT53/T1 (8.7%, SIT50/H3 (7.8%, and SIT37/T3 (6.8%. We conclude that LAM and T genotypes are the most prevalent genotypes of MTBC in Santiago, Chile, and together correspond to almost two thirds of analyzed strains, which is similar to strain distribution reported from other countries of Latin America. Nevertheless, the high proportion of SIT37/T3, which was rarely found in other Latin American countries, may underline a specific history or

  12. Dispersión urbana y nuevos desafíos para la gobernanza (metropolitana en América Latina: el caso de Santiago de Chile

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    DIRK HEINRICHS

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available La expansión acelerada de las áreas urbanas no es algo nuevo para las ciudades latinoamericanas. Sin embargo, es sólo ahora que las profundas implicaciones sociales, ecológicas y económicas de la dispersión urbana empiezan a convertirse en una preocupación fundamental de las grandes aglomeraciones del continente. El presente artículo toma a Santiago de Chile como ejemplo para discutir los desafíos que la dispersión urbana supone para la gobernanza. En primer lugar, resume tendencias recientes en producción de viviendas, donde los "megaproyectos" residenciales a gran escala han sido muy importantes. En segundo lugar, considerando estas tendencias desde la perspectiva de la bibliografía internacional sobre dispersión, concluye que la dispersión urbana en Santiago está ampliamente impulsada por las políticas públicas y la toma de decisiones. En tercer lugar, construye un análisis básico de la gobernanza de la dispersión en términos de actores, instituciones y su interacción, tanto sobre la base de los pocos estudios existentes, como de las propias investigaciones en curso de los autores. Finalmente, el artículo sugiere campos de acción y lincamientos estratégicos de carácter general como puntos de partida para afrontar la dispersión.Massive expansion of urban areas is not a new experience to Latin American cities. However, the profound social, ecological and economic implications of urban sprawl are only today starting to become a major concern in the continent's big agglomerations. By taking Santiago de Chile as an example this paper discusses the challenges posed to urban governance by urban sprawl It first summarizes recent trends in residential housing production where large scale residential 'megaprojects' have become highly significant. Second, by looking at these trends from the perspective of the international sprawl literature it finds that urban sprawl in Santiago is largely driven by policy and decision making

  13. Planificación urbana-regional y paisaje: impronta de los planes 1960-1994 para Santiago de Chile. / Urban-regional planning and landscape: his mark on the plans for Santiago de Chile 1960-1994.

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    Pavez Reyes, M. Isabel

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Se indaga en el potencial paisajístico del espacio intersticial público incorporado en los planes de ordenamiento territorial para la Región e Intercomuna de Santiago, aprobados técnicamente en 1958 y oficialmente desde 1960, dando la capacidad de soporte fundamental para la transformación de la ciudad tradicional de Santiago en una Metrópoli. / This reflection is referred to the landscaping potential of the interceding public space incorporated into the territorial regulatory plans for the Region and for inter-local authority coordination. These were technically approved in 1958 and officially in 1960, giving the capacity for a fundamental support for the transformation of the traditional city of Santiago into a metropolis.

  14. Oficios, milicias y cofradías. Éxito económico, prestigio y redes sociales afromestizas en Santiago de Chile, 1780-1820

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    Hugo Contreras Cruces

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo estudia a un grupo de mulatos y otros afromestizos de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile durante los últimos años del siglo XVIII y comienzos del siglo XIX, quienes a través de la práctica de un oficio artesanal o del comercio minorista y de su inserción institucional en milicias de castas y cofradías comenzaron y solidificaron un proceso que, por una parte, se traducía en la acumulación de bienes que tenían un carácter tanto material como simbólico; y por otra, en el aumento de su prestigio personal y social, que los alejaba cada vez más de los sectores populares coloniales.

  15. La construcción del nuevo Estado y sus políticas públicas : El transporte colectivo urbano en Santiago de Chile, 1925-1957

    OpenAIRE

    González Martínez, Marco

    2014-01-01

    El 2 de abril de 1957 se registró en Santiago de Chile una de las protesta urbanas de mayor trascendencia, tal conflicto develó tensiones económico-sociales que existían sobre las tarifas, la mantención de los vehículos, las subvenciones del petróleo. Todas estas demandas fueron mediadas por la negociación política del Estado, los empresarios del rubro y los usuarios. El Estado que enfrentó tal situación, se había constituido hacia 1925 distanciándose de la conceptualización liberal clásic...

  16. Antígeno soluble Mycobacterium leprae y PPD en escolares de la Isla de Pascua y Santiago de Chile, 1987

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    Hugo Hurtado G.

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Se midió la reacción cruzada de los antígenos proteina pura derivada de tuberculina (PPD y antígeno soluble de Mycobacterium leprae (ASML mediante dos muestras de niños entre 6-14 años: una en un área endémica (Isla de Pascua y la otra en una no endémica (Santiago de Chile continental. Cada grupo de niños se inoculó simultáneamente con PPD y ASML en los antebrazos derecho e izquierdo respectivamente. Las lecturas fueron hechas 48 horas después. Los análisis estadísticos mostraron una evidente reacción cruzada de los dos antígenos. Se presentó también una significativa mayor reacción en el área endémica (Pascua que en Santiago tanto para PPD como para ASML.

  17. Inseguridad ciudadana y diferenciación social en el nivel microbarrial: el caso del sector Santo Tomás, Santiago de Chile

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    Alejandra Lunecke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En la periferia de la ciudad de Santiago se observan zonas de viviendas sociales que se caracterizan por una alta concentración de precariedades económicas y materiales, segregación espacial, procesos de debilitamiento del tejido comunitario y altos niveles de inseguridad, esto último por la presencia de grupos vinculados a la criminalidad. En tal contexto, a partir de una investigación realizada en el sector Santo Tomás de la zona sur de Santiago de Chile, se analiza cómo incide en los procesos de debilitamiento del tejido social, la percepción de inseguridad asociada al delito y la violencia, en un medio de pobreza guetizada. Para ello se pone énfasis en las prácticas discursivas de los vecinos, las que dan cuenta de los juicios de valor existentes respecto de "lo peligroso" y "lo desviado". Se discute cómo dichos juicios refuerzan las dinámicas de distinción social existentes en el nivel micro barrial y se alimentan de ellas.

  18. Movilidad femenina en Santiago de Chile: reproducción de inequidades en la metrópolis, el barrio y el espacio público

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    Cristhian Figueroa Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La construcción social que asocia a las mujeres con la mantención y cuidado del hogar las muestra como un grupo con baja disponibilidad de tiempo y con limitadas capacidades de desplazamiento urbano. La limitación se traduce en una movilidad diferenciada, acotada y vulnerable a fenómenos tan diversos como su lugar de residencia y la calidad del espacio público. En el caso de Santiago de Chile, existen diferencias considerables en la movilidad según género, edad y estrato socioeconómico, destacándose una mayor fragilidad en grupos de escasos recursos que habitan en barrios producidos por el Estado durante la segunda mitad del siglo pasado. Mediante indicadores cuantitativos y herramientas cualitativas, el presente texto tiene por propósito caracterizar la movilidad femenina en Santiago en tres escalas: metropolitana, barrial y local. La evidencia muestra que existen disparidades en los todos los niveles. En la escala metropolitana las mujeres de ingresos altos exhiben un elevado número de viajes, mayoritariamente motorizados, mientras que en los grupos de escasos recursos dominan los desplazamientos pedestres. En una escala menor, en los barrios, los traslados peatonales se encuentran fuertemente afectados por factores sociales y ambientales como, por ejemplo, la percepción de seguridad.

  19. USO DE BIOSÓLIDOS EN LA REHABILITACIÓN DE ÁREA EN EL RELLENO SANITARIO SANTIAGO PONIENTE-CHILE

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    Lucrecia Brutti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evalúan distintas especies herbáceas como estabilizadoras de taludes sobre una mezcla de suelo con biosólidos en el Relleno Sanitario Santiago Poniente en Santiago, Región Metropolitana (Chile, con el fin de recuperar el suelo. Se determina el comportamiento de cuatro tratamientos, tres corresponden a diferentes mezclas herbáceas más uno que actuó como testigo, la mezcla de suelo utilizada contenía un 15% de biosólido. Se utilizó un diseño estadístico de Cuadrado Latino, con cuatro repeticiones. Las variables evaluadas fueron: temperatura del suelo del ensayo, producción de materia verde y seca de raíces, nodulación de raíces de leguminosas y cuantificación de malezas. Los resultados fueron sometidos a un análisis de varianza (ANDEVA, donde la significancia de las diferencias entre tratamientos fueron determinadas a través de un test de rango múltiple de Duncan (P<0,05. La incorporación de 15% de biosólidos a un suelo pobre produce efectos positivos para el establecimiento del prado.

  20. Hospedándose en la ciudad global: patrones de localización de los hoteles de lujo en Santiago de Chile*

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    Rodrigo Hidalgo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chile, for a long time a backwater of international tourism, is about to turn itself into a top-end destination, with the capital Santiago taking a leading role. In recent decades, international chains have constructed numerous luxury hotels aimed at the requirements of international city and business tourists. The continuing bicentric orientation of the city (core city and ‘modern town’, which has withstood all fragmentation processes, has led to a polycentric distribution of luxury hotels, with the largest, most expensive and most luxurious hotels situated in the ‘modern town’. The airport, the innovation centers and business parks, as well as the city center, have also seen investment. When compared with models of hotel localization in cities, it is evident that Santiago has overcome the traditional model of city tourism under the influence of globalization trends. Today the needs of global travelers, both city and business tourists, transport links and the surroundings of the hotels play an important role. This is reflected in the pricing structure and the distribution of luxury hotels across the city.

  1. Analysis of PM10, PM2.5, and PM2 5-10 concentrations in Santiago, Chile, from 1989 to 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutrakis, Petros; Sax, Sonja N; Sarnat, Jeremy A; Coull, Brent; Demokritou, Phil; Oyola, Pedro; Garcia, Javier; Gramsch, Ernesto

    2005-03-01

    Daily particle samples were collected in Santiago, Chile, at four urban locations from January 1, 1989, through December 31, 2001. Both fine PM with da Ambient Air Quality Standards and the European Union concentration limits. Mean PM2.5 levels during the cold season (April through September) were more than twice as high as those observed in the warm season (October through March); whereas coarse particle levels were similar in both seasons. PM concentration trends were investigated using regression models, controlling for site, weekday, month, wind speed, temperature, and RH. Results showed that PM2.5 concentrations decreased substantially, 52% over the 12-year period (1989-2000), whereas PM2.5-10 concentrations increased by approximately 50% in the first 5 years and then decreased by a similar percentage over the following 7 years. These decreases were evident even after controlling for significant climatic effects. These results suggest that the pollution reduction programs developed and implemented by the Comisión Nacional del Medio Ambiente (CONAMA) have been effective in reducing particle levels in the Santiago Metropolitan region. However, particle levels remain high and it is thus imperative that efforts to improve air quality continue.

  2. DEVOCIONES DE INMIGRANTES: INDÍGENAS ANDINOS Y PLURIETNICIDAD URBANA EN LA CONFORMACIÓN DE COFRADÍAS COLONIALES (SANTIAGO DE CHILE, SIGLO XVII

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    Jaime Valenzuela Márquez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En los orígenes de Chile colonial nos encontramos con numerosos indígenas andinos que sirvieron a los españoles, se asentaron y se integraron en los espacios laborales y sociales de este “nuevo mundo” periférico; formaron redes y parentescos locales, tuvieron descendencia, varios se transformaron en artesanos y algunos dictaron testamentos o dejaron huellas en documentos eclesiásticos y notariales que nos permiten observar su participación en las cofradías de la capital chilena. Estas corporaciones, por su parte, si bien remiten a una finalidad eminentemente religiosa, también actúan como un canal privilegiado para la inserción y movilidad de población diversa. Bajo esta perspectiva, nuestro artículo analiza las principales cofradías en las cuales participaron estos inmigrantes, vinculando prácticas religiosas, redes sociales y espacios laborales. Las cofradías estudiadas se revelan, entonces, como instancias representativas de la diversidad de orígenes geográficos y étnicos de sus integrantes, así como de la pluralidad de referentes identitarios que circulaban e interactuaban en un escenario urbano colonial como Santiago de Chile.In the origins of colonial Chile it is possible to find numerous Andean Indians who worked for Spaniards, settled and were integrated in labor and social spaces of this peripheral “new world”. They established local nets and relationships, and had descendants. Many became craftmen and some left wills or traces on ecclesiastic and notarial documents that allow us to observe their participation in brotherhoods created in Chile’s capital. These corporations had a religious aim, but worked as privileged channels for the insertion and mobility of diverse people. Under this premise, this article analyzes the main brotherhoods in which these immigrants participated, linking religious practices with their social nets and working spaces. The brotherhoods studied reveal themselves as instances that

  3. ¿Qué es un cluster? Geografías y prácticas de la escena de música experimental en Santiago, Chile

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    Manuel Tironi Rodó

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Las teorías sobre la clusterización económica, y en particular sobre la aglomeración geográfica en la industria creativa, asumen una idea de 'lugar' o 'localidad' en extremo estática, auto clausurada e idealizada. A través de evidencia empírica, y después de una revisión de los argumentos a favor y en contra de dicha idea de 'lugar' en la literatura especializada, este artículo explora la escena de música experimental de Santiago, Chile, como caso de una industria creativa estructurada en una espacialidad alternativa. Específicamente, se argumenta que dadas ciertas condiciones productivas, culturales y urbanísticas, las industrias creativas pueden desplegarse en torno a espacialidades múltiples, móviles y eventuales, sin que esto mine los efectos de cluster esperados. Finalmente, y sólo a modo especulativo, se propone una nueva figura espacial para dar cuenta de los procesos de clusterización económica en ciudades emergentes.Cluster theories, and particularly theories on creative clustering, have assumed a highly static, self contained and idealized idea of the 'local'. Based on empirical evidence, and folio wing a review of the arguments in favor and against this idea of the 'local', the article explores the experimental music scene in Santiago de Chile, as a case of a creative industry structured around an alternative spatiality. Specifically, we argue that under certain productive, cultural and urban conditions, creative industries can unfold around multiple, mobile and eventual spatialities without losing the expected cluster effeects. Finally, and only speculatively, we propose a new spatial structure for understanding the process of economic clustering in developing cities.

  4. Aucas en la ciudad de Santiago. La rebelión mapuche de 1723 y el miedo al «otro» en Chile central

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    Contreras Cruces, Hugo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of the so-called indigenous rebellion in 1723, this article reconstructs the actions carried out to suppress an alleged rebel attack on the city of Santiago in October of that year, an attack which never occurred, but nevertheless brought to jail over one hundred Indians, inhabitants of the nearby city areas, and most of whom were immigrants who had come from the border of the river Biobio or from within the Araucania. This process is studied from the perspective of fear of the «other» who was in this case an indigenous migrant carrying language, customs and religion all of which were mostly incomprehensible to the hispanocriollos of central Chile, thereby making them immediately to appear suspicious and be referred to as «Auca», or rebel.En el contexto de la llamada rebelión general indígena de 1723, este artículo reconstituye las acciones llevadas a cabo para reprimir un supuesto ataque rebelde a la ciudad de Santiago en octubre de dicho año, el cual nunca llegó a realizarse, pero que llevó a la cárcel a más de una centena de indios que habitaban en las cercanías de la ciudad, la mayoría de los cuales eran inmigrantes venidos de la frontera del río Biobío o desde el interior de la Araucanía. Dicho proceso se estudia desde la perspectiva del miedo al «otro», en este caso al indígena migrante, portador de un idioma, costumbres y una religiosidad mayormente incomprensibles para los hispanocriollos de Chile central, lo que los convertía inmediatamente en sospechosos y se les calificaba como «aucas» o rebeldes.

  5. La construcción socioimaginaria de la mujer en la crítica literaria periodística: resultados del estudio de la producción cultural de la revista de libros del diario El Mercurio de Santiago de Chile1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alberto Javier Mayorga Rojel; Luis Nitrihual Valdebenito; Macarena Herrera Salazar; Juan Manuel Fierro Bustos

    2013-01-01

      This paper presents the results of a research about the social-imaginary construction of women in the literary criticism of the Books Review section in the newspaper El Mercurio of Santiago de Chile...

  6. Estacionamientos en Santiago centro

    OpenAIRE

    Maestrello,Sara

    2006-01-01

    Opuesta a la invención de Chile, esta lectura fotográfica entrega una visión extranjera, desprejuiciada y atenta, de la realidad. Producto de una dinámica urbana que emparenta consolidación y abandono, aparecen rasgos de periferia en el casco antiguo de Santiago.

  7. Papeleros urbanos vs aseo del centro de Santiago de Chile.Impacto de las variables formales de los papeleros urbanos existentes en los paseos peatonales Ahumada y Huérfanos. /Waste containers vs. cleaning in downtown Santiago, Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muñoz Peralta, Osvaldo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El diseño que presentan los papeleros urbanos de los paseos peatonales del centro de Santiago no facilita su uso adecuado, lo que contribuye a la suciedad de sus calles peatonales. Como elementos de mobiliario urbano en el espacio público, deberían tener un mejor diseño en orden a mejorar su función y facilitar su uso. /The urban trash cans design, on pedestrian walks in Santiago downtown, doesn't facilitate its appropriate use, what contributes to the dirt of its pedestrian streets. As part of urban furniture in public space, they should have a better design in order to improve their function and to facilitate their use.

  8. Monitoring the effects of land cover change on the supply of ecosystem services in an urban region: A study of Santiago-Valparaíso, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Barrera, Francisco; Salazar, Alejandro; Inostroza, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Mankind’s quest for well-being results in continuous pressure to transform landscapes, with said transformation driven by land use changes, urbanization, production activity, and protective measures in addition to climate variability and other environmental drivers. The relationship between anthropogenic landscape changes and the provision of ecosystem services (ES) is a topic of increasing interest in Latin America. In Chile, land cover changes due to increased urbanization and forestry, and expansion of agricultural land, in addition to conservation initiatives as a part of land planning, have been intensive in the last few decades. In this study, the effects of anthropogenic landscape changes on the supply of ES were analyzed for the urban region of Santiago-Valparaiso (Chile) using a method based on expert consultation and land cover change assessment. A pool of experts scored the potential of specific land covers to provide certain ES. The results enabled calculation and mapping of changes in the potential of the landscape to supply ES. The aforementioned changes over a period of 15 years were evaluated. The results indicate a tenuous balance between positive and negative changes to the supply of ES derived from land cover changes. Understanding and reporting how these processes occur in urban regions contributes to the conservation of valuable landscapes through spatial planning tools, especially in areas close to housing developments and sensitive ecosystems. PMID:29136016

  9. Disciplinamientos femeninos y soledades del trabajo doméstico en un hogar de Santiago de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Romané Landaeta Sepúlveda

    2009-01-01

    El hogar de una familia acomodada en Santiago es el telón de fondo sobre el cual se narra el acontecer cotidiano que sucede entre sus integrantes. De un lado, unos padres profesionales que organizan el día a día junto a sus cuatro hijos que habitan esta gran casa. De otro, una mujer que a pesar de no tener ningún lazo de consanguineidad, ha vivido muchos años junto a ellos; sin embargo, come y habita en un sector paralelo del hogar. He ahí el eje argumental de la película: nos referimos a una...

  10. Incidence rate and spatio-temporal clustering of type 1 diabetes in Santiago, Chile, from 1997 to 1998 Taxa de incidência e agrupamento espaço-temporal de diabetes tipo 1 em Santiago, Chile, de 1997 a 1998

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    JL Santos

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence rate of type 1 diabetes in the urban area of Santiago, Chile, from March 21, 1997 to March 20, 1998, and to assess the spatio-temporal clustering of cases during that period. METHODS: All sixty-one incident cases were located temporally (day of diagnosis and spatially (place of residence in the area of study. Knox's method was used to assess spatio-temporal clustering of incident cases. RESULTS: The overall incidence rate of type 1 diabetes was 4.11 cases per 100,000 children aged less than 15 years per year (95% confidence interval: 3.06--5.14. The incidence rate seems to have increased since the last estimate of the incidence calculated for the years 1986--1992 in the metropolitan region of Santiago. Different combinations of space-time intervals have been evaluated to assess spatio-temporal clustering. The smallest p-value was found for the combination of critical distances of 750 meters and 60 days (uncorrected p-value = 0.048. CONCLUSIONS: Although these are preliminary results regarding space-time clustering in Santiago, exploratory analysis of the data method would suggest a possible aggregation of incident cases in space-time coordinates.OBJETIVO: Estimar a taxa de incidência de diabetes tipo 1 na área urbana de Santiago, Chile, entre os dias 21 de março de 1997 e 20 de março 1998, assim como a avaliação do agrupamento espaço-temporal dos casos incidentes no período. MÉTODOS: Foram localizados 61 casos incidentes no tempo (dia do diagnóstico e no espaço (lugar de residência na área do estudo. O método de Knox foi usado para avaliar o agrupamento dos casos no espaço e no tempo. RESULTADOS: A taxa de diabetes tipo 1 foi estimada em 4,11 casos por 100.000 menores de 15 anos por ano (Intervalo de confiança 95%: 3,06 -- 5,14. Essa taxa de incidência parece ter aumentado desde a última estimativa realizada na região metropolitana de Santiago, nos anos 1986-1992. Foram constru

  11. Santiago de Chile, nueva arquitectura y espacio público. Arquitecturas de fin de crisis. 1999-2004. / Santiago de Chile, new architecture and public space. Architectures at the end of the crisis of 1999-2004.

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    Aránguiz P., Javier

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata de un estudio comparado -siempre parcial en estos casos- del estado actual de arquitectura chilena concentrada en la ciudad de Santiago. Su valor estaría en reivindicar lo que denomino común reflexión de ciertos autores entorno a modalidades y gestiones convergentes, superando maneras particulares de hacer y diferentes escalas de intervención. No pretende más que generar, indicar de cierta manera, la conjunción de pensamientos al momento de obrar la arquitectura como objeto urbano. Esta reflexión se realiza en términos de contexto dinámico e inicio de planes operativos, que sin perder las líneas invariantes de analogía y relación a ciertas obras escogidas en este período de tiempo definido, puedan marcar el derrotero de la ciudad de cara a las propuestas de renovación urbana que se avecinan. Para esto utilizaré una escritura, que sin ser texto exhaustivo desde lo académico, se perfila como discurso apriorístico para futuras investigaciones de base objetual y ejercicio crítico. Es un intento también de síntesis de las aportaciones arquitectónicas -en clave de proyectación- refrendadas desde el germen de la economía urbana como matriz ineludible en el concepto de ciudad futura./This article deals with a comparative study of present chilean architecture concentrated in the city of Santiago. It points out the importance of a comprehensive thought process capable of integrating single and unrelated enterprizes to urban systems. This is accomplished by coordinating different scales and functions in order to search for the opportunity to reach a better result in terms of urban morphology and urban functions.

  12. Movilidad femenina: los reveses de la utopía socio-espacial en las poblaciones de Santiago de Chile

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    Cristhian Figueroa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Daily displacement is one of the main activities of women in the poor neighborhoods of Latin American cities. Their female status makes heavy demands of them in connection with household support,, accompaniment, maintenance of family relationships and neighborhood social networks, etc. They are consequently obliged to make countless trips both inside and outside their neighborhoods. Through an analysis of the daily travel routines of women in Santa Julia, a poor neighborhood in Santiago, this article shows how the urban design of the political project of “popular promotion” has turned out to be a double-edged weapon. These women’s habitual pathways are being threatened by public space today, a situation which reignites the old debate on whether urban design by itself can transform society.

  13. Disciplinamientos femeninos y soledades del trabajo doméstico en un hogar de Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romané Landaeta Sepúlveda

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available El hogar de una familia acomodada en Santiago es el telón de fondo sobre el cual se narra el acontecer cotidiano que sucede entre sus integrantes. De un lado, unos padres profesionales que organizan el día a día junto a sus cuatro hijos que habitan esta gran casa. De otro, una mujer que a pesar de no tener ningún lazo de consanguineidad, ha vivido muchos años junto a ellos; sin embargo, come y habita en un sector paralelo del hogar. He ahí el eje argumental de la película: nos referimos a un...

  14. Hospedándose en la ciudad global: patrones de localización de los hoteles de lujo en Santiago de Chile

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    Rodrigo Hidalgo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chile se está convirtiendo en uno de los destinos más importantes en América Latina, especialmente, con su capital, Santiago. Así, asume un papel fundamental en los atractivos turísticos de familias, turistas urbanos y de negocios. Estos últimos juegan un rol importante dentro de este contexto, ya que las cadenas internacionales han construido numerosos hoteles de lujo dirigidos a ellos, alcanzando los estándares de las ciudades globales. La continua reestructuración económico-urbana de las metrópolis ha producido una distribución policéntrica de los hoteles de lujo; la mayoría de ellos, los más costosos y ostentosos, se ubican en la ciudad moderna. El aeropuerto, los centros de innovación y parques de negocio, al igual que el centro de la ciudad, también han formado parte de este nicho de inversión. En el caso del área de estudio analizada, las localizaciones de los hoteles de lujo muestran patrones que reflejan una nueva producción del espacio por parte de los agentes privados, en su búsqueda de una mejor capitalización de la renta urbana. Ello se refleja en la estructura intraurbana de los precios y la distribución de los hoteles de lujo.

  15. [Periodontal health status in patients with diabetes mellitus type 1, from 18 to 30 years-old, from Santiago de Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavez, Violeta; Araya, Verónica; Rubio, Alex; Ríos, Lorena; Meza, Patricio; Martínez, Benjamín

    2002-04-01

    The prevalence of periodontal diseases, gingivitis and periodontitis, is higher in diabetic patients and can have severe functional and esthetic consequences early in their lives. To evaluate the prevalence of periodontal disease in type 1 diabetics, aged between 18 and 30 years old, living in Santiago de Chile. One hundred male and female type 1 diabetics were examined. Glycated hemoglobin A1c, microalbuminuria, and fundoscopy were assessed in a sample of 52 subjects, separated in two groups according to the presence of periodontal disease. The prevalence of gingivitis was 22%, periodontitis 41%. Only 37% of subjects were free of periodontal disease. When compared with patients without periodontal disease, in the group of patients with the disease there was a higher proportion of subjects with diabetes lasting more than 10 years (28 and 55% respectively) and a higher proportion of patients with chronic complications of diabetes (42 and 58% respectively). A high prevalence of periodontal diseases was observed in this sample of diabetic patients. A long history of diabetes and the presence of chronic complications were risk factors for these diseases in the analyzed sample.

  16. Contra el espacio público: criminalización e higienización en la migración peruana en Santiago de Chile

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    Alejandro Garcés

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A partir de una exploración etnográfica de los usos y apropiaciones del espacio urbano de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile, y de la utilización de fuentes secundarias -como estadísticas y producciones cartográficas-, el presente artículo describe y explica la actuación de los dispositivos de criminalización e higienización de los espacios ocupados Por los grupos migrantes Peruanos en el marco de su inserción urbana y su reproducción económica y social como colectivo en la ciudad, en este caso escenificadas por la práctica del comercio ambulante. De la comparación entre dos espacios concretos de la ciudad emerge la contemporánea patrimonialización de los espacios urbanos y la reificación de la clausura espacial del colectivo, como vectores que cruzan tanto a migrantes como a autóctonos en la producción del espacio en tanto contenedor de una cultura y relaciones sociales específicas.

  17. MIGRANTES PERUANOS EN LA PROA DE LA PLAZA DE ARMAS DE SANTIAGO DE CHILE: DE UMBRALES A INDICIOS DE HIBRIDEZ CULTURAL

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    Ximena Andrea Póo Figueroa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Los inmigrantes peruanos en Santiago de Chile que han hecho suyo el entorno de la Plaza de Armas, específicamente de uno de sus vértices desde donde surge la calle Catedral, plantean varias preguntas sobre la resignificación de los espacios en el casco histórico y sobre la articulación de discursos y prácticas culturales que emergen entre los migrantes y entre ellos y los “otros”, considerando esa alteridad en un espacio reconstituido, tanto por la memoria histórica como por los flujos de una ciudad que (desaparece en la inflexión modernidad/posmodernidad/sobremodernidad. En este documento se realiza una exploración por esas rutas liminales, intentado teorizar sobre los niveles de hibridez a los que pueden llegar los flujos, los movimientos y los anclajes que se dan entre los dos mundos (in between de los migrantes y entre ellos y el lugar que “acoge y discrimina” y que es resignificado como un espacio público con nuevos sentidos, y el “no lugar” de movimiento perpetuo y fugaz que los desplaza entre las máscaras intercambiables de lo global y lo local. En ese escenario la comunicación intercultural es clave.

  18. Agua y pobreza en Santiago de Chile: Morfología de la inequidad en la distribución del consumo domiciliario de agua potable

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    Gustavo Durán

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available En la trayectoria temporal de la relación entre agua y pobreza en Santiago de Chile, el "acceso" como indicador ha sufrido, para los estudios urbanos, una suerte de desgaste, y en la actualidad no representa un dato significativo para medir las condiciones de inequidad en esta sociedad urbana. De otra parte, el "consumo" sobresale como un indicador con mayor capacidad de revelar las circunstancias de vida de los pobres en esa ciudad, que si bien les ofrece posibilidades de inserción en términos de acceso a las redes físicas del sistema, los excluye a través de mecanismos de mercado, como un sistema tarifario en permanente proceso de crecimiento y el desbalance de este respecto del ingreso familiar. Este proceso sostenido de contracción del consumo domiciliario de agua potable que se viene registrando a partir de la privatización, se produce en el marco de un claro proceso de "mercantilización" (Winpenny, 1994, p.110 de un bien básico, como lo es el agua en la ciudad.

  19. ¿Veis aquí el Potro del tormento? ¡Decid la verdad! Tortura judicial en la Real Audiencia de Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ARANCIBIA F

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available La tortura ha estado presente a largo de los siglos, tanto dentro como fuera de la ley. Durante el siglo XX esta realidad se nos ha presentado particularmente evidente y cruda en el acontecer mundial y nacional. La amplitud de este hecho nos ha llevado a preguntarnos por su ejercicio durante el período colonial en Chile, tema del cual daremos ciertas impresiones respecto de su práctica judicial. Ese tipo de tortura, llamada también cuestión de tormento, se define como «una prueba en el proceso penal, la cual era subsidiaria y reiterable, y estaba destinada a provocar por medios violentos la confesión de culpabilidad de aquel contra quien hubiera ciertos indicios; o dirigida a veces, a obtener la acusación del reo contra sus cómplices, o también a forzar las declaraciones de los testigos».[1] Para tratar lo anterior nos hemos basado en el material encontrado tras la revisión de juicios por homicidio contenidos en el archivo de la Real Audiencia de Santiago. El período estudiado va desde el siglo XVII hasta la primera década del XIX.

  20. Características del policonsumo simultáneo de drogas en estudiantes de pregrado de carreras de ciencias de la salud de una universidad, Santiago - Chile

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    Giselle Riquelme Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudio transversal cuyo objetivo fue establecer los patrones de policonsumo simultáneo de drogas en estudiantes universitarios de pregrado de carreras de medicina y enfermería, en una universidad de la ciudad de Santiago - Chile. Contó con una muestra de 188 estudiantes. Resultados: 42.3% de los estudiantes refirieron policonsumo simultáneo; edad promedio de inicio 16 años; combinaciones más comunes fueron alcohol + tabaco + marihuana y tabaco + alcohol + drogas de prescripción. Aprenden de las combinaciones de drogas a través de amigos, consumen en grupos mixtos, fuera de la universidad (clubes nocturnos y lo hacen para relajarse o disfrutar de la compañía de amigos. Es fundamental desarrollar estrategias integrales si se desea contribuir a mejorar la salud de esta población de jóvenes, quienes estarán a cargo de la salud de las generaciones futuras.

  1. School-based intervention to improve the mental health of low-income, secondary school students in Santiago, Chile (YPSA: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

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    Cova Felix

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is common and can have devastating effects on the life of adolescents. Psychological interventions are the first-line for treating or preventing depression among adolescents. This proposal aims to evaluate a school-based, universal psychological intervention to reduce depressive symptoms among student's aged 13-14 attending municipal state secondary schools in Santiago, Chile. Study design This is a cluster randomised controlled trial with schools as the main clusters. We compared this intervention with a control group in a study involving 22 schools, 66 classes and approximately 2,600 students. Students in the active schools attended 11 weekly and 3 booster sessions of an intervention based on cognitive-behavioural models. The control schools received their usual but enhanced counselling sessions currently included in their curriculum. Mean depression scores and indicators of levels of functioning were assessed at 3 and 12 months after the completion of the intervention in order to assess the effectiveness of the intervention. Direct and indirect costs were measured in both groups to assess the cost-effectiveness of this intervention. Discussion As far as we are aware this is the first cluster randomised controlled trial of a school intervention for depression among adolescents outside the Western world. Trial Registration ISRCTN19466209

  2. Anti-inflammatory activity and phenolic profile of propolis from two locations in Región Metropolitana de Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Barra, Gabriela; Castro, Consuelo; Figueroa, Catalina; Barriga, Andrés; Silva, Ximena; de Las Heras, Beatriz; Hortelano, Sonsoles; Delporte, Carla

    2015-06-20

    Propolis has long been used as a popular folk medicine due to its wide spectrum of alleged biological and pharmaceutical properties. In Chile, propolis is widely used by folklore medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent; however, this property has not been demonstrated by scientific methods. The objective of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory activity in vivo and in vitro and to establish the phenolic profile of propolis collected in two localities in Región Metropolitana de Santiago (RM), Chile. Propolis was collected in the areas of Caleu and Buin, RM Chile. Following that, the samples were unwaxed to obtain the global ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEPs) and, from these, the serial extracts of dichloromethane (EEP-DCMs) and ethanol (EEP-EtOHs). The topic anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated through mice ear edema induced by arachidonic acid (AA) and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) at a dose of 3 mg/ear. Nitric oxide (NO) measurements were determined spectrophotometrically (Greiss reagent) by the accumulation of nitrite in the medium of macrophages RAW 264.7 stimulated with the lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 μg/mL) for 20 h at different concentrations of the EEPs, EEP-DCMs and EEP-EtOHs (6.25-50.00 μg/mL). The content of total phenols and flavonoids were determined through the methods of Folin-Ciocalteau and AlCl3, respectively. The profile of phenolic compounds was determined by HPLC-UV-ESI-MS/MS. The EEP-EtOH (64%) and EEP (59%) of Buin were the most active in the inflammation induced by TPA and AA respectively, being the anti-inflammatory effect stronger than the same Caleu extracts. Regarding the release of NO, all the extracts from the Buin propolis inhibited significantly its release in a concentration-dependent manner, this inhibition was stronger than the extracts from Caleu propolis. Our research shows for the first time a comparative study of the topical in vivo activity of two Chilean propolis. Both propolis showed in vivo

  3. Entre el Estado y el mercado: resonancias geográficas y sustentabilidad social en Santiago de Chile

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    Francisco Sabatini

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Los autores argumentan que los resultados de las políticas urbanas pro-mercado aplicadas en Santiago después de 1973 han estado fuertemente condicionados por la "resonancia geográfica", o impronta espacial, del intervencionismo estatal previo, así como por los "espacios de borde" que el desarrollo urbano está produciendo entre las áreas pobres de la ciudad y los barrios modernos y zonas comerciales que están expandiéndose hoy. Las políticas urbanas no tienen impactos simples o directos en la ciudad, como parece implícito en el enfoque en boga sobre los "impactos territoriales" de la reestructuración capitalista y la globalización, o en la metodología de evaluación de proyectos o políticas que forma parte de las formas privadas y públicas de gestión urbana. Las resonancias geográficas y los espacios de borde pueden, incluso, impulsar resultados paradójicos, algunos de los cuales se analizan en el artículo. La atención que se dé a estas complejidades espaciales puede facilitar una mejor evaluación de las iniciativas de gestión urbana, así como de las peculiaridades de cada ciudadThe authors argue that the results of the post-1973 market-oriented urban policies in Santiago have been strongly conditioned by the "geographical resonance," or spatial imprint, of the earlier state interventionism, as well as by the "border spaces" product of urban development between the city’s poor areas and today’s expanding modern neighborhoods and commercial areas. Urban policies have no simple or direct impact on the city as implied nowadays by the popular approach of "territorial impacts" of capitalist restructuring and globalization, or in the project or policy assessment methodology, that is part of the private and public forms of urban management. Geographical resonances and border spaces could even further paradoxical results, some of which are discussed in the article. The attention paid to these spatial complexities could provide

  4. Vida y muerte de un grupo inca local en Santiago de Chile: cementerio incaico estación Quinta Normal

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    Henríquez, Mario C.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A raíz de los trabajos de construcción de la estación Quinta Normal de la Línea 5 del Metro de Santiago, se excavan cinco entierros de individuos adultos (un masculino y cuatro femeninos, en un cementerio incaico ubicado en calle Matucana esquina calle Catedral. Si bien el patrón mortuorio revela cierta homogeneidad en los contextos funerarios con relación al tipo de sepultura y a la disposición y tratamiento de los cuerpos, se observa cierta diversidad con relación a sus ofertorios cerámicos. El análisis bioantropológico, por otro lado, pone de manifiesto las ocurrencia de alteraciones óseas causadas por procesos degenerativos, lesiones traumáticas y problemas nutricionales, donde estos últimos afectan especialmente a los individuos femeninos. Las condiciones del aparato masticatorio: desgaste oclusal leve, importante frecuencia de caries, baja incidencia de traumas dentales no intencionales ocurridos en vida, muestran en su frecuencia y distribución, una dieta basada plenamente en la horticultura, caracterizada por la ingesta de alimentos blandos, ricos en carbohidratos y con un bajo contenido de partículas abrasivas. La frecuencia de hipoplasias del esmalte y el intervalo de edad en que ocurren, reflejan que algunos individuos estuvieron sometidos a factores de estrés ambiental durante su infancia, posiblemente relacionados con el destete.

  5. Las consecuencias del urbanismo fragmentador en la vida cotidiana de habitantes de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile

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    Paola Jirón

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available En el contexto de las múltiples transformaciones urbanas que experimentan las grandes metrópolis, este trabajo analiza el modo en que, por medio de diversas intervenciones, la práctica del urbanismo fragmenta las condiciones espacio-temporales sobre las cuales se constituye la espacialidad urbana de la vida cotidiana. Con un enfoque etnográfico de la movilidad cotidiana de los habitantes de la ciudad de Santiago, describe el modo en que la fragmentación urbana es vivida por los habitantes, los que implementan diversas estrategias de movilidad para zurcir las espacialidades inconexas, interrumpidas y segregadas en las que ha sido descompuesta la ciudad, y que han ido fragmentando la espacialidad de la vida cotidiana. Los resultados de la investigación dan cuenta de las consecuencias de este urbanismo fragmentador, en particular en las condiciones de exclusión social, y también permiten proponer posibles intervenciones urbanas destinadas a aminorar el impacto de dicha fragmentación y consiguiente exclusión.

  6. [Evaluation of the in vitro susceptibility pattern of clinical isolates of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum in Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Jarabrán, María Cristina; Díaz González, Pablo; Espinoza Rodríguez, José; Carrillo Muñoz, Alfonso Javier

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes are a group of keratinophilic fungi able to produce dermatophytosis or tinea infections. In Chile, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes are the ones most commonly isolated in adults, while Microsporum canis is found among children. Treatment of these infections is usually with topical or oral antifungals, such as griseofulvin or azole derivatives (clotrimazole, itraconazole, fluconazole), allylamines (terbinafine) or new drugs that are available. Evaluation of the in vitro susceptibility of dermatophytes to five antifungal agents and the comparison of the susceptibility pattern with that of previous years. Sixty-two clinical isolates of dermatophyte fungi were studied (March-June 2010). The CLSI M38-A2 micromethod was used. Fluconazole MIC values for T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes varied between 0.25 and 1 μg/ml; MIC range to clotrimazole, terbinafine and itraconazole was 0.03-0.06 μg/ml, and MIC values for griseofulvin were 0.015-0.03 μg/ml. No statistically significant differences were found between susceptibility patterns, except for fluconazole. Fluconazole was less active in comparison with other drugs tested (0.25-1 μg/ml). None of the isolates were resistant to any of the drugs, and no changes in the susceptibility pattern were observed when comparing the results with data previously reported concerning dermatophytes in Chile. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Electricidad, alienismo y modernidad: The Sanden Electric Company y el cuerpo nervioso en Santiago de Chile, 1900-1910

    OpenAIRE

    Correa Gómez, María José

    2014-01-01

    Este artículo estudia la electroterapia con el objeto de analizar algunos aspectos de la medicina moderna en Chile. A través del análisis de los discursos publicitarios de los cinturones magnéticos comercializados en el país en la primera década del siglo XX por la Casa Sanden, aborda el diálogo que se gesta entre la modernidad urbana, el ideario médico y el mercado de productos terapéuticos. En esta conversación, el cuerpo surge como destino de las dinámicas entregadas por la modernidad y de...

  8. Razón y secreto en los registros notariales virreinales. Madrid, Lima y Santiago de Chile (1670-1720

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aude Argouse

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available What was at stake in the process of notarial registration? Through the analysis of three situations that arose during the Catholic Monarchy between 1670 and 1720 in the territories of Spain, Peru and Chile, this article explores diverse social and cultural tensions perceived in the process of recording notarial documents and in the circulation of records and persons. It reveals a range of distances among facts, truth and the administration of justice. The writing appears to be a dialogue: the will of the grantors — either individual or collective strategies to express sentiments and decisions— are mixed with the ink of the clerks who were transcribing, co-authors whose identity is unknown but whose mark can nonetheless be seen in the documentation.

  9. Pinceladas de fragmentación urbana en la narrativa de Alberto Fuguet. Postmodernidad y destellos McOndianos en la Santiago de Chile de Por favor, rebobinar

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    G. Gatti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available ENThe aim of this article is to analyze in which way and terms the incorporation of canonical attitudes and linguistic behaviors of the postmodern culture is included in the novel Por favor, rebobinar (1998, from the Chilean writer and filmmaker Alberto Fuguet. We will underline the modalities –sometimes merely descriptive, some others ironic or critical– according to which the urban and night scene of Santiago of Chile reflects the fragmentation in human exchanges and the fleetingness of the values of the present age. As theoretical frame, in the first part of our work we will survey the sociocultural dynamics that have determined the passage of the modernity to the postmodern epoch, by stressing the way that have been adopted from Fuguet's literature to includes and reflect the paradigms and speeches of the post modernity, which have been processed and expressed in the literary production of Latin America. In the second part of our essay we adapt the previous reflections to the novel, putting in evidence how - inside the plurality of the voices that tell the story – fiction protagonists demonstrate a loss of sensibility, that is related to a diminished aptitude to perceive the external sensations and to process the environment inputs. Keywords: Alberto Fuguet – Chilean literature – Narrative of post modernity – Metanarratives – Absence of centers.ESEl presente trabajo se propone analizar de qué manera y en que términos la presencia de actitudes y comportamientos lingüísticos canónicos de la cultura postmoderna se manifiesta en la novela Por favor, rebobinar (1998, del escritor y cineasta chileno Alberto Fuguet. Se subrayarán las modalidades, a veces meramente descriptivas, otras irónicas o críticas, según las cuales el escenario urbano y nocturno de Santiago de Chile refleja –en los diálogos articulados por Fuguet– la fragmentación de los intercambios humanos y la fugacidad de los valores de la época presente

  10. Santiago de Chile, globalización y expansión metropolitana: lo que existía sigue existiendo

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    Carlos A. de Mattos

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A mediados de los años 70 se inició en Chile un nuevo período de modernización y desarrollo capitalista, impulsado por la aplicación de una estrategia macroeconómica de liberalización económica. La profunda reestructuración que entonces se inició, culminó en una etapa de sostenido crecimiento económico, reindustrialización y terciarización del aparato productivo. Al mismo tiempo se produjo una progresiva recuperación de la tendencia a la concentración metropolitana, en la que tanto el comando del nuevo poder económico, como las principales actividades industriales y terciarias mostraron una clara preferencia por localizarse en el Area Metropolitana de Santiago (AMS, dando impulso a una intensificación de la suburbanización tanto de las actividades productivas como de la población. Tres tipos de transformaciones merecen destacarse. Primero, la emergencia de una ciudad de cobertura regional, suburbanizada y policéntrica, de límites imprecisos, configurada como archipiélago, cuya dinámica expansiva ha ido incorporando a diversos centros urbanos aledaños y áreas rurales, que han pasado a formar parte de un extenso periurbano. Segundo, el hecho de que si bien persiste una distribución del ingreso altamente regresiva que ha contribuido a mantener una ciudad extremadamente segregada y fragmentada, también se produjo una importante reducción de los niveles relativos de pobreza e indigencia. Y, tercero, la irrupción y afirmación de un conjunto de nuevos artefactos urbanos (shopping malls, grandes superficies comerciales, condominios y barrios cerrados, centros empresariales descentralizados, multiplex y nuevos espacios para el esparcimiento, etc. que comienzan a tener una fuerte incidencia en la estructuración y articulación del nuevo espacio metropolitanoIn the mid seventies, a new stage of modernization and development of capitalism begun in Chile, impulsed by a strategy of economic liberalization. The profound

  11. Snacking Quality Is Associated with Secondary School Academic Achievement and the Intention to Enroll in Higher Education: A Cross-Sectional Study in Adolescents from Santiago, Chile

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    Paulina Correa-Burrows

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Although numerous studies have approached the effects of exposure to a Western diet (WD on academic outcomes, very few have focused on foods consumed during snack times. We explored whether there is a link between nutritious snacking habits and academic achievement in high school (HS students from Santiago, Chile. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 678 adolescents. The nutritional quality of snacks consumed by 16-year-old was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. The academic outcomes measured were HS grade point average (GPA, the likelihood of HS completion, and the likelihood of taking college entrance exams. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine the independent associations of nutritious snacking with having completed HS and having taken college entrance exams. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA estimated the differences in GPA by the quality of snacks. Compared to students with healthy in-home snacking behaviors, adolescents having unhealthy in-home snacks had significantly lower GPAs (M difference: −40.1 points, 95% confidence interval (CI: −59.2, −16.9, d = 0.41, significantly lower odds of HS completion (adjusted odds ratio (aOR: 0.47; 95% CI: 0.25–0.88, and significantly lower odds of taking college entrance exams (aOR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.31–0.88. Unhealthy at-school snacking showed similar associations with the outcome variables. Poor nutritional quality snacking at school and at home was associated with poor secondary school academic achievement and the intention to enroll in higher education.

  12. Snacking Quality Is Associated with Secondary School Academic Achievement and the Intention to Enroll in Higher Education: A Cross-Sectional Study in Adolescents from Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Burrows, Paulina; Rodríguez, Yanina; Blanco, Estela; Gahagan, Sheila; Burrows, Raquel

    2017-04-27

    Although numerous studies have approached the effects of exposure to a Western diet (WD) on academic outcomes, very few have focused on foods consumed during snack times. We explored whether there is a link between nutritious snacking habits and academic achievement in high school (HS) students from Santiago, Chile. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 678 adolescents. The nutritional quality of snacks consumed by 16-year-old was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. The academic outcomes measured were HS grade point average (GPA), the likelihood of HS completion, and the likelihood of taking college entrance exams. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine the independent associations of nutritious snacking with having completed HS and having taken college entrance exams. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) estimated the differences in GPA by the quality of snacks. Compared to students with healthy in-home snacking behaviors, adolescents having unhealthy in-home snacks had significantly lower GPAs (M difference: -40.1 points, 95% confidence interval (CI): -59.2, -16.9, d = 0.41), significantly lower odds of HS completion (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.47; 95% CI: 0.25-0.88), and significantly lower odds of taking college entrance exams (aOR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.31-0.88). Unhealthy at-school snacking showed similar associations with the outcome variables. Poor nutritional quality snacking at school and at home was associated with poor secondary school academic achievement and the intention to enroll in higher education.

  13. CAMBIOS CLIMÁTICOS Y CLIMAS URBANOS: Relaciones entre zonas termales y condiciones socioeconómicas de la población de Santiago de Chile

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    Pamela Smith

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los climas urbanos son un componente principal de los cambios climáticos y diferentes de los climas de áreas rurales, lo que se manifi esta en la presencia de islas de calor, causadas por la urbanización, y en su vinculación con la composición socioeconómica de los barrios que componen la ciudad. En Chile, los climas urbanos forman parte de diversos mosaicos de paisajes que a su vez, representan profundas desigualdades sociales. Las comunas de Santiago registran zonas climáticas termales, que son producto de sus variados usos y coberturas de suelos, densidades y diseños de las viviendas y coberturas vegetales. Los climas urbanos son, por lo tanto, representaciones de procesos integrados entre la naturaleza y la sociedad. Las áreas más cálidas se observan en áreas de construcciones de edificios sociales de alta densidad y carentes de vegetación, ubicados en municipios donde predominan los sectores de menores ingresos, mientras que las más frías lo hacen en barrios donde residen los grupos de mayores ingresos, caracterizados por el predominio de áreas verdes y bajas densidades residenciales. La planifi cación urbana a escala de barrio debería implementar estrategias y acciones explícitas de mitigación y adaptación de los espacios urbanos ante los procesos de cambio climático.

  14. LA RECONSTRUCCIÓN DE MOVIMIENTO SOCIAL EN BARRIOS CRÍTICOS: EL CASO DE LA "COORDINADORA DE POBLADORES JOSÉ MARÍA CARO" DE SANTIAGO DE CHILE

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    Leslie Parraguez Sánchez

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La historia de la población José María Caro es similar a la de otras poblaciones históricas del pericentro de la ciudad de Santiago que en los últimos años fueron de¿ nidas como barrios críticos debido a sus graves problemas de violencia y con¿ ictividad social. En este contexto, ¿cómo se explica que un "barrio crítico" protagonice uno de los movimientos sociales más reconocidos de la última década? A partir del análisis del proceso político protagonizado por la Coordinadora de Pobladores José María Caro (2005-2007, este trabajo aporta elementos para entender esta paradoja, permitiendo una comprensión más compleja de la llamada "fragmentación comunitaria" presente en estos barrios, y de la reconstrucción de movimientos sociales en Chile a 20 años del ¿ n de la dictadura militar. Se concluye que los pobladores no se movilizan para superar una carencia, sino para conservar una ganancia construida colectivamente a lo largo de su historia. Los pobres de ayer adquieren un nuevo status en relación con un "afuera" que se desarrolla con patrones excluyentes: la ciudad neoliberal, que los hace sentir privilegiados de tener algo que defender, pero, paradójicamente, los convierte nuevamente en personas vulnerables. Cuando se dan cuenta de eso, se comienza a reconstruir la acción colectiva.

  15. Estilos de vida en relación a la alimentación y hábitos alimentarios dentro y fuera del hogar en la Región Metropolitana de Santiago, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Berta Schnettler; Juan Pablo Peña; Marcos Mora; Horacio Miranda; José Sepúlveda; Marianela Denegri; Germán Lobos

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Distinguir tipologías de consumidores en base a su estilo de vida en relación a la alimentación en las principales comunas de la Región Metropolitana de Santiago, Chile, y caracterizarlas según sus hábitos de consumo de alimentos dentro y fuera del hogar, características sociodemográficas y su nivel de satisfacción con su alimentación. Material y método: Se aplicó un cuestionario estructurado a una muestra de 951 personas en las principales comunas de la Región Metropolitana de Sant...

  16. Diminutivos, hipocorísticos y otras formas de nombrar a los parientes en familias de Santiago de Chile

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    Gonzálvez, Herminia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explains the results of an anthropological investigation entitled «Families in Chile: Kinwork and the Generation of Family Constellations», and seeks to tackle one of the specific research goals: to show how kin work affects the naming of relatives. To do so, we use Di Leonardo’s definition of kin work «the conception, maintenance, and ritual celebration of crosshousehold kin ties, including visits, letters, telephone calls, presents, and cards to kin; the organization of holiday gatherings (...» (1987: 442 to investigate its impact on ways of naming relatives. The method used was in-depth interviews, which allowed us to construct kinship charts for each respondent. We found that the use of diminutives, hypocoristics and other ways of naming express the maintenance of kinship ties that are produced inside families. In turn, these ways of naming are influenced by gender and kinship positions and by the positions that respondents use to identify themselves inside their families.En este artículo se exponen resultados procedentes de una investigación antropológica titulada «Las familias en Chile: el trabajo de parentesco y la generación de constelaciones familiares». En concreto, en este trabajo se trata de dar respuesta a uno de los objetivos específicos de la investigación señalada, el cual consiste en mostrar cómo el trabajo de parentesco se relaciona con la forma de nombrar a los parientes. Para ello partimos de la definición de trabajo de parentesco de Di Leonardo definida como «la concepción, el mantenimiento y las celebraciones rituales a través de los lazos de parentesco dentro del grupo doméstico, incluyendo visitas, cartas, llamadas telefónicas, regalos y tarjetas recordatorias; la organización de las reuniones por vacaciones (...» (1987: 442, para indagar cómo este trabajo repercute en las formas de nombrar. La metodología utilizada han sido las entrevistas en profundidad las cuales han permitido

  17. [Body distribution and density of acquired melanocytic nevi in adolescents of low socioeconomic status of Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemelman D, Viviana; Molina C, Paula; Valenzuela, Carlos Y; Honeyman M, Juan

    2008-06-01

    There is an increase in the incidence of malignant melanoma in Chile. Previous studies have shown that the density and size of acquired melanocytic nevi (AMN) are a risk factor for developing malignant melanoma. To assess the number and anatomical distribution of acquired melanocytic nevi in Chilean adolescents. The number of AMN was counted in 30 anatomical sites in 201 Chilean school children (111 females), aged from 11 to 15 years. The number of small AMN (2-4.9 mm) and large AMN (>5 mm of diameter) was determined. Mean AMN number per person was 32.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) 30.7-42.3) in males and 29 (95% CI 271-38.6) in females (p =NS). Males had a higher number of AMN in the face, neck and trunk. Females had a higher number of AMN in the upper and lower limbs. Older children, adolescents with history of sunburns and with lighter skin had a higher number of total, small and large nevi. The average number of AMN found in this study is similar to that reported in the literature. The differences in site distribution between males and females may be explained by a different sun exposure pattern.

  18. Policentrismo en el Área Metropolitana de Santiago de Chile: reestructuración comercial, movilidad y tipificación de subcentros1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ricardo Truffello; Rodrigo Hidalgo

    2015-01-01

    .... This phenomenon has been approached in the case of the Metropolitan Area of Santiago, through the analysis of commercial density and land price data, applying parametric modeling in the analysis...

  19. Prevalencia de fisura labiopalatina e indicadores de riesgo: Estudio de la población atendida en el Hospital Clínico Félix Bulnes de Santiago de Chile Prevalence of cleft lip and palate and risk indicators: Study of the reference population of Felix Bulnes University Hospital, Santiago de Chile

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    G. Sepúlveda Troncoso

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El estudio de la prevalencia de fisuras labiopalatinas y la determinación de indicadores de riesgo ayuda a prevenir su ocurrencia mejorando las condiciones durante la concepción o gestación. También favorece diagnósticos precoces que atenúan el impacto emocional favoreciendo el apego madre-hijo y mejorando la respuesta materna al tratamiento. Ambas situaciones permiten optimizar y focalizar los recursos sanitarios disponibles. Material y Método. Se determinó la incidencia de fisuras labiopalatinas y la asociación a factores de riesgo en los RNV beneficiarios del Hospital Clínico Félix Bulnes de Santiago de Chile entre enero del año 1998 y junio del 2005. Se estudió además condiciones y exposición maternas a agentes ambientales asociados a fisura labial y/o palatina. Resultados. Sobre un total de 36.041 RNV consecutivos, se registraron 51 casos de fisurados, obteniéndose una tasa de 1,42 x 1000 RNV. Conclusiones. Los indicadores de riesgo identificados correspondieron a edad materna menor a veinte años asociado al primer embarazo; alto grado de etnicidad amerindia e historia familiar positiva para este tipo de malformación. Nuestro estudio apoya la teoría de herencia multifactorial de la susceptibilidad a las fisuras labiopalatinas.Introduction. The study of the prevalence of cleft lip and palate and the identification of risk groups helps to improve the treatment of this condition. Occurrence may be prevented by improving environmental conditions during pregnancy and ensuring early diagnosis, thus lessening the emotional impact on the family and reinforcing the early mother-child bond. The aim of this study was to improve prevention levels and thus enhance health resources. Material and Method. The frequency of cleft lip and palate and its association with risk factors was studied in live births of the Felix Bulnes University Hospital in Santiago between January 1998 and June 2005. Maternal conditions and

  20. A Propósito de un Edificio en el Barrio Cívico de Santiago: La Ex Caja de Crédito Agrario / A building in the Civic Center in Santiago, Chile: Former Caja Agraria

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    Sahady Villanueva, Antonio

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Se indaga en uno de los edificios del Barrio Cívico, obra de René Aránguiz Saravia y Luis Muñoz Maluschka. Este último contribuyó al Barrio Cívico no sólo para efectos del mejor cumplimiento de las ideas de Karl Brunner y Carlos Vera, en su calidad de Jefe de la Sección de Urbanismo de la D.G.O.P., sino también desde algunas obra de arquitectura integrada al megaproyecto de diseño urbano del Barrio Cívico de Santiago en los años 1930./This article is about one of the buildings in the Civic Center of Santiago. This building was designed by René Aránguiz and Luis Muñoz. Muñoz was also the Chief of the Urbanism Department of the D. G. O. P. and contributed to the realization of the ideas of Karl Brunner and Carlos Vera, since this particular building is part of the Santiago Civic Center Mega project of 1930.

  1. Situación epidemiológica de las enfermedades transmitidas por alimentos en Santiago de Chile: Período 1999-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Prado J,Valeria; Solari G,Verónica; Alvarez A,Isabel M; Arellano C,Carolina; Vidal A,Roberto; Carreño C,Mónica; Mamani M,Nora; Fuentes R,David; O’Ryan G,Miguel; Muñoz F,Víctor

    2002-01-01

    Background: Foodborne diseases are becoming an important cause of morbidity in Chile. In the Metropolitan Region of Chile, the Environmental Health Service started a surveillance program for foodborne diseases in 1994. In 2000, this program was complemented with an etiologic study of individuals involved in outbreaks. Aim: To report the incidence of foodborne outbreaks in the Metropolitan Region of Chile and its causative agents. Results: One hundred ninety outbreaks of foodborne diseases wer...

  2. Is urban agriculture urban green space? A comparison of policy arrangements for urban green space and urban agriculture in Santiago de Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Contesse, Maria; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Lenhart, J.

    2018-01-01

    Urban green spaces are crucial for citizens’ wellbeing. Nonetheless, many Latin American cities struggle to provide sufficient and equitable green space distribution for their citizens. By looking at the Chilean capital Santiago as an example, this paper examines whether the growing urban

  3. Is urban agriculture urban green space? A comparison of policy arrangements for urban green space and urban agriculture in Santiago de Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Contesse, Maria; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Lenhart, J.

    2017-01-01

    Urban green spaces are crucial for citizens’ wellbeing. Nonetheless, many Latin American cities struggle to provide sufficient and equitable green space distribution for their citizens. By looking at the Chilean capital Santiago as an example, this paper examines whether the growing urban

  4. Evaluación ambiental del proceso de urbanización de las cuencas del piedemonte andino de Santiago de Chile

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    Hugo Romero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Las cuencas son complejos sistemas ambientales en que se desarrollan procesos geomorfológicos, hidrológicos, climáticos y ecológicos, que son impactados por la urbanización. En este trabajo se estudian seis cuencas del piedemonte andino de la ciudad de Santiago que se encuentran en diferentes fases del proceso de urbanización, variando entre Macul-San Ramón, en donde casi el 40% de su superficie ha sido incorporada a la ciudad, y Pirque, que mantiene aún sus características agrícolas y rurales. Empleando Sistemas de Información Geográfica, se analiza el impacto de la urbanización sobre indicadores ambientales, tales como productividad vegetal, biomasa, humedad en el suelo y temperaturas superficiales de los territorios ocupados por las cuencas. Las Áreas Totales de Impermeabilización, los Coeficientes de Escorrentía y las Áreas Sensitivas Ambientales, permiten estimar el estado de las cuencas y su contribución a la salud ambiental de la ciudad de SantiagoWatersheds are complex environmental systems, where geomorphologic, hydrologic, climatic and ecological processes take place, and which are severely impacted by urbanisation. In this paper, six Santiago Andean piedmont watersheds have been researched, according with the degree of urbanisation that they reach, which varies between Macul-San Ramón, where about 40% of their land covers has been already urbanised, until Pirque, where agricultural and rural features are still dominants. Using geographical information systems, the impact of urbanization on several ecological indicators, such as vegetative productivity, biomass, soil moisture and surface temperature are analysed. Total Imperviousness Areas, Runoff Coefficients and Environmentally Sensitive Areas allow the estimation of the state of the watersheds ant their contribution to the environmental health of Santiago city

  5. Consideraciones biogeográficas y ecológicas de equinodermos arquibentónicos de Chile Central (com excepción de crinoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Andrade Vasquez

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available 30 echinoderm species (the crinoias excepted have been recorded from the archibenthos off Central Chile. Samples were taken at 5 stations (from Los Vilos to Quíntero. 250-450 m depth range, every 15 days for one year. The concept of Region or Province, usually related to the intertital fauna from high latitudes are showed to be impractical using them with archibenthal echinoderms. The presence oj some species that had been registered as characteristic from the Antarctic Region and/or present in the Argentinian and Magellanic Province is related with the Antarctic Intermediate Water Mass, which is at the capture depth in the sampled area.

  6. La manzana de la Catedral en Santiago de Chile: expansión y contrucción urbana, 1874-1913

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    Macarena Ibarra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina el proceso de desarrollo morfológico de la manzana de la Catedral Metropolitana de Santiago, entre 1874 y 1913. En este período la manzana sufrió radicales transformaciones y alteraciones, que se vinculan a un fenómeno de expansión y contracción urbana que se reflejan en la paulatina redefinición de los contornos interiores y exteriores de los edificios, las transformaciones de las tipologías de edificación y en la densificación urbana. Asimismo, este fenómeno de expansión se manifestó en la hegemonía que alcanzó la Iglesia como propietaria de gran parte de los solares y edificios de la manzana. Se propone que tanto la totalidad de la manzana como sus edificios más emblemáticos -Catedral Metropolitana, Palacio Arzobispal y Parroquia del Sagrario- fueron permeables a factores sociales y políticos, a los propios cambios de la Iglesia como institución, a las continuas transformaciones edilicias y a la modernización de Santiago a partir de las últimas décadas del siglo XIX.This article examines the process of morphologic development of Santiago's Cathedral block, between 1874 and 1913. During this period the block experienced radical transformations and alterations that were linked to a phenomenon of urban expansion and contraction. This process reflected the gradual redefinition of the interior and exterior contours of the buildings, the transformations of building typologies and of urban densification. This phenomenon of expansion became evident with the hegemony reached by the church as owner of most of the buildings on the block. The article proposes that the entirety of the block, as well as most of its emblematic buildings- Metropolitan Cathedral, Archbishop's Palace and the Sagrario Parish - were permeable to social and political factors, to the changes that were affecting the church as an institution, the permanent transformations in the urban fabric and the modernization of Santiago from the last

  7. Redescripción y consideraciones biogeográficas de dos especies de Scotobius (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae de ambientes montanos del centro de Argentina y Chile

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    Violeta A. SILVESTRO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El género neotropical Scotobius Germar (Tenebrioninae: Scotobiini comprende 61 especies distribuidas desde el centro de Perú y sur de Brasil hasta el sur de Argentina y Chile. En este trabajo, revisamos dos especies de Scotobius que habitan el oeste de las provincias de San Juan, Mendoza y Neuquén (Argentina y en Chile central, a lo largo de la Cordillera de los Andes y las montañas extra-andinas en Argentina: S. punctatus Eschscholtz, 1831 y S. andrassyi Kaszab, 1969. Se proveen redescripciones utilizando nuevos caracteres morfológicos y se proporcionan fotografías de los adultos y de los pronotos. Se consigna la distribución geográfica, rangos altitudinales y las provincias biogeográficas en las que habitan estas especies. Se utiliza un modelo predictivo de distribución de especies para proponer hipótesis sobre los factores que influencian la distribución espacial y que explicarían la alopatría de ambas especies.

  8. Policentrismo en el Área Metropolitana de Santiago de Chile: reestructuración comercial, movilidad y tipificación de subcentros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Truffello

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El complejo proceso de evolución de las áreas metropolitanas ha reconfigurado las estructuras urbanas, pasando desde los modelos monocéntricos a nuevos patrones basados en el paradigma del policentrismo. Se aborda esta problemática, para el Área Metropolitana de Santiago, por medio del análisis de datos de densidad comercial y precios de suelo, utilizando la aplicación de modelos paramétricos. Los resultados indican una evolución hacia una estructura urbana policéntrica comercial que aún coexiste con algunos rasgos de monocentrismo. Se identificaron diecinueve candidatos a subcentro comercial, los que fueron evaluados, clasificados y caracterizados mediante la utilización de variables complementarias a la densidad de superficie de uso comercial, como la movilidad. Adicionalmente se confirmó la validez del uso de la variable superficie comercial y se encontró en el modelo exponencial negativo la mejor fórmula de ajuste paramétrico para la ciudad de Santiago.

  9. High Prevalence of Pneumocystis jirovecii Dihydropteroate Synthase Gene Mutations in Patients with a First Episode of Pneumocystis Pneumonia in Santiago, Chile, and Clinical Response to Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Carolina A; Chabé, Magali; George, Claudio; Cárdenas, Alejandra; Durán, Luisa; Guerrero, Julia; Bustamante, Rebeca; Matos, Olga; Huang, Laurence; Miller, Robert F; Vargas, Sergio L

    2017-02-01

    Mutations in the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) gene of Pneumocystis jirovecii are associated with the failure of sulfa prophylaxis. They can develop by selection in patients receiving sulfa drugs or be acquired via person-to-person transmission. DHPS mutations raise concern about the decreasing efficacy of sulfa drugs, the main available therapeutic tool for Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). The prevalence of Pneumocystis DHPS mutations was examined in Pneumocystis isolates from 56 sulfa-prophylaxis-naive adults with a first episode of PCP from 2002 to 2010 in Santiago, Chile. Their clinical history was reviewed to analyze the effect of these mutations on response to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) therapy and outcome. Mutant genotypes occurred in 22 (48%) of 46 HIV-infected patients and in 5 (50%) of 10 HIV-uninfected patients. Compared to patients with a wild-type genotype, those with mutant genotypes were more likely to experience sulfa treatment-limiting adverse reactions and to have a twice-longer duration of mechanical ventilation if mechanically ventilated. Specific genotypes did not associate with death, which occurred in none of the HIV-infected patients and in 50% of the non-HIV-infected patients. Chile has a high prevalence of DHPS mutations, which were presumably acquired through interhuman transmission because patients were not on sulfa prophylaxis. These results contrast with the low prevalence observed in other Latin American countries with similar usage of sulfa drugs, suggesting that additional sources of resistant genotypes may be possible. The twice-longer duration of mechanical ventilation in patients with mutant DHPS genotypes suggests a decreased efficacy of TMP-SMX and warrants collaborative studies to assess the relevance of DHPS mutations and further research to increase therapeutic options for PCP. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Methods for economic evaluation of a factorial-design cluster randomised controlled trial of a nutrition supplement and an exercise programme among healthy older people living in Santiago, Chile: the CENEX study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Damian G

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In an effort to promote healthy ageing and preserve health and function, the government of Chile has formulated a package of actions into the Programme for Complementary Food in Older People (Programa de Alimentación Complementaria para el Adulto Mayor - PACAM. The CENEX study was designed to evaluate the impact, cost and cost-effectiveness of the PACAM and a specially designed exercise programme on pneumonia incidence, walking capacity and body mass index in healthy older people living in low- to medium-socio-economic status areas of Santiago. The purpose of this paper is to describe in detail the methods that will be used to estimate the incremental costs and cost-effectiveness of the interventions. Methods and design The base-case analysis will adopt a societal perspective, including the direct medical and non-medical costs borne by the government and patients. The cost of the interventions will be calculated by the ingredients approach, in which the total quantities of goods and services actually employed in applying the interventions will be estimated, and multiplied by their respective unit prices. Relevant information on costs of interventions will be obtained mainly from administrative records. The costs borne by patients will be collected via exit and telephone interviews. An annual discount rate of 8% will be used, consistent with the rate recommended by the Government of Chile. All costs will be converted from Chilean Peso to US dollars with the 2007 average period exchange rate of US$1 = 522.37 Chilean Peso. To test the robustness of model results, we will vary the assumptions over a plausible range in sensitivity analyses. Discussion The protocol described here indicates our intent to conduct an economic evaluation alongside the CENEX study. It provides a detailed and transparent statement of planned data collection methods and analyses. Trial registration ISRCTN48153354

  11. Methods for economic evaluation of a factorial-design cluster randomised controlled trial of a nutrition supplement and an exercise programme among healthy older people living in Santiago, Chile: the CENEX study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Damian G; Aedo, Cristian; Albala, Cecilia; Allen, Elizabeth; Dangour, Alan D; Elbourne, Diana; Grundy, Emily; Uauy, Ricardo

    2009-05-27

    In an effort to promote healthy ageing and preserve health and function, the government of Chile has formulated a package of actions into the Programme for Complementary Food in Older People (Programa de Alimentación Complementaria para el Adulto Mayor - PACAM). The CENEX study was designed to evaluate the impact, cost and cost-effectiveness of the PACAM and a specially designed exercise programme on pneumonia incidence, walking capacity and body mass index in healthy older people living in low- to medium-socio-economic status areas of Santiago. The purpose of this paper is to describe in detail the methods that will be used to estimate the incremental costs and cost-effectiveness of the interventions. The base-case analysis will adopt a societal perspective, including the direct medical and non-medical costs borne by the government and patients. The cost of the interventions will be calculated by the ingredients approach, in which the total quantities of goods and services actually employed in applying the interventions will be estimated, and multiplied by their respective unit prices. Relevant information on costs of interventions will be obtained mainly from administrative records. The costs borne by patients will be collected via exit and telephone interviews. An annual discount rate of 8% will be used, consistent with the rate recommended by the Government of Chile. All costs will be converted from Chilean Peso to US dollars with the 2007 average period exchange rate of US$1 = 522.37 Chilean Peso. To test the robustness of model results, we will vary the assumptions over a plausible range in sensitivity analyses. The protocol described here indicates our intent to conduct an economic evaluation alongside the CENEX study. It provides a detailed and transparent statement of planned data collection methods and analyses. ISRCTN48153354.

  12. Construcción del espacio urbano y modelación social desde la “ciudad letrada”: Santiago, Chile (Siglos XVI-XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo German Gómez Alcorta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio aborda el problema de la representación de la ciudad colonial como escenario de jerarquización y subordinación social. Presentamos aquí la pesquisa de evidencias documentales a fin de refrendar la imagen de la ciudad como escenario de ordenamiento, coerción social y manifestaciones de alternidad. En esta búsqueda hemos utilizado referencias históricas de las Actas del Cabildo de Santiago además de la historiografía referida a este tema. Presentamos evidencias de las tensiones en la ciudad colonial referente al adoctrinamiento social, la persecución de idolatrías, su diversidad cultural, multietnicidad y marginación social en la sociedad urbana santiaguina, en un esfuerzo permanente de modelación social.

  13. Construcción del espacio urbano y modelación social desde la “ciudad letrada”: Santiago, Chile (Siglos XVI-XVIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo German Gómez Alcorta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio aborda el problema de la representación de la ciudad colonial como escenario de jerarquización y subordinación social. Presentamos aquí la pesquisa de evidencias documentales a fin de refrendar la imagen de la ciudad como escenario de ordenamiento, coerción social y manifestaciones de alternidad. En esta búsqueda hemos utilizado referencias históricas de las Actas del Cabildo de Santiago además de la historiografía referida a este tema. Presentamos evidencias de las  tensiones en la ciudad colonial referente al adoctrinamiento social, la persecución de idolatrías, su diversidad cultural, multietnicidad y marginación social en la sociedad urbana santiaguina, en un esfuerzo permanente de modelación social.

  14. Efectos proinflamatorios de la contaminación atmosférica Proinflammatory effects of air pollution in Santiago de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Oyarzún G; Nelson Dussaubat D; M. Eugenia Miller A; Silvia Labra J; Sergio González B

    2011-01-01

    La exposición intermitente de ratas centinela a la contaminación del tráfico vehicular de Santiago se ha asociado a disminución del crecimiento corporal después de cien días de exposición (rango: 101-111) y a daño histopatológico del pulmón a los 90 días y más, especialmente a los 180 días de exposición. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar si la exposición al aire de una avenida con elevado tráfico vehicular durante 90 días era capaz de inducir en la rata una respuesta inflamatoria sistémica. Ratas ...

  15. ‘VALENTONES’, ‘ALCALDES DE BARRIO’ AND PARADIGMS OF CIVILITY.CONFLICTS AND ACCOMODATIONS IN SANTIAGO OF CHILE, XVIII CENTURY.

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    Verónica Undurraga Schüler

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This work studies the polisemous universe of the practices and the speeches of violence, civility and social control that circulated in the city of Santiago throughout XVIII century. When analyzing plots of meaning of the narrations of interpersonal violence, related to the construction of a hegemonic masculinity and protected in speeches of honour, the study explores the survival of old practices of private revenge. Also, it examines the tensions and negotiations established between these and the strategies of social control undertaken by the Bourbons’ state and exerted through a microphysics of daily control, incarnated as much in the functions of the ‘Alcaldes de barrio’ like in the socialization of a civility paradigm. The latest allows putting under evaluation the fissures and the strengths of the foundations of the Bourbon’s administration.

  16. Vulnerabilidad frente al cambio climático en la Región Metropolitana de Santiago de Chile: posiciones teóricas versus evidencias empíricas

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    Juliane Welz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Para la Región Metropolitana de Santiago de Chile (RMS, el cambio climático implica diferentes impactos que se suman a la continua expansión urbana y a cambios en los patrones de uso del suelo, los cuales a su vez acrecientan las amenazas hidroclimáticas, como las inundaciones y el calor extremo. En general, estos cambios tendrán notables consecuencias para la vulnerabilidad residencial. Especialmente las familias de bajos recursos y los asentamientos ilegales en grandes ciudades con crecimiento acelerado suelen ser los más vulnerables, debido a una mayor exposición y a una limitada capacidad de respuesta. Este artículo contrasta posiciones teóricas sobre las dimensiones socioeconómicas, físico-constructivas y urbano-rurales de la vulnerabilidad con evidencias empíricas, para entender quiénes son los más afectados por las inundaciones y el calor extremo en la Rms. Como muestran los resultados del estudio, las posiciones teóricas no se reflejan en los análisis cuantitativos. La vulnerabilidad depende de cada contexto y requiere políticas adecuadas para distintos territorios.

  17. Evaluación de la efectividad del Programa Vínculos para la prevención e intervención del Bullying en Santiago de Chile

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    J. Carola Pérez

    Full Text Available El Bullying, por sus características y consecuencias, se ha transformado en una preocupación central en los colegios, los cuales han desarrollado diferentes formas de afrontarlo. El objetivo principal de este artículo es evaluar la efectividad de un programa de prevención e intervención de Bullying y Ciberbullying, en una muestra de 320 alumnas en un colegio de Santiago de Chile, a través de un diseño pre-post. El programa utilizó estrategias preventivas e integrales orientadas a realizar intervenciones en los distintos niveles del sistema escolar: colegio, sala de clases, individuo y familia. Los resultados demostraron que el programa es efectivo en disminuir el reporte de ser testigos de Bullying y la victimización de manotaje a través de internet. La efectividad del programa se debería a que se respetaron los lineamientos de los programas que han demostrado ser efectivos.

  18. Educar la moral del pobre: fronteras simbólicas y gobierno de los pobres por parte de la elite económica católica de Santiago de Chile

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    Sofía Bowen Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Resumen En este artículo sostengo la existencia de una frontera simbólica entre el pobre y parte de la elite económica chilena vinculada a exclusivos colegios católicos de Santiago, basada en la significación del pobre como "carente de cultura" y en necesidad de ser moralmente educado. Por medio del análisis del discurso de ex alumnos y apoderados de estos colegios se muestra que el pobre es entendido como el principal responsable de su situación, mientras que el papel de los factores estructurales de la sociedad es escasamente reconocido. La definición del pobre como en "falta de cultura" lo ubica en un lugar jerárquico moral inferior, lo que justifica acciones moralizadoras y paternalistas por parte de la elite. Para éstos, la mejor manera de superar la pobreza en Chile es educando la moral del pobre. Sin embargo, esta educación es reconocida como un proceso con limitaciones o fronteras: según los entrevistados, hay ciertas actitudes y conocimientos que sólo "buenas familias" con tradición pueden transmitir.

  19. ¿Es posible medir el capital de movilidad para evaluar sus diferenciaciones sociodemográfica e intraurbana? El caso de los habitantes del Área Metropolitana de Santiago de Chile

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    Daniel Delaunay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Es notoria la dificultad para discernir las desigualdades frente a la movilidad basán- dose únicamente en la intensidad, distancia o duración de los desplazamientos, o inclu- so en comportamientos que, a pesar de sus similitudes, no reflejan necesariamente una igualdad en los márgenes de maniobra que están a disposición de los individuos. Al considerar la diferenciación del capital de movilidad se abre la puerta a una realidad más compleja que replantea la importancia del sujeto social, sus trayectorias y sus capa- cidades. La ventaja heurística reside en la posibilidad de comparar la movilidad poten- cial y la movilidad efectiva. En este trabajo se pretende dar una realidad estadística a la noción de “capital de movilidad” con base en una encuesta cuantitativa que se llevó a cabo en Santiago de Chile en el año 2009. La apreciación empírica de este capital se divide en varias propo- siciones experimentales que luego se comparan con las características demo-económicas de los habitantes y su localización en la ciudad. De este modo se propone un enfoque demo-geográfico de un concepto sociológico.

  20. LA NOCHE BUENA EN LA ALAMEDA: DESCRIPCIÓN DE UNA TRADICIÓN EN TIEMPOS DE MODERNIZACIÓN. SANTIAGO DE CHILE, SEGUNDA MITAD DEL SIGLO XIX

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    ELISA SILVA GUZMÁN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La celebración de la Navidad en la Alameda fue uno de los momentos más importantes del año en el Santiago de la segunda mitad del siglo XIX. A partir de lo visto en la prensa de la capital de ese período, junto a otras fuentes escritas y visuales, en este artículo describimos la evolución de esta fiesta desde su materialidad. A través de una serie de "cuadros" organizados cronológicamente, nos acercamos a los efectos del proceso de modernización en la vida cotidiana de los santiaguinos, tanto en sus prácticas como en sus aspiraciones. El intercambio de objetos en el comercio navideño y los espacios urbanos en que este se instaló dan cuenta de cómo la influencia extranjera se hizo espacio entre las prácticas tradicionales, en medio de una constante dispersión social.The celebration of Christmas Eve on the Alameda was one of the most important moments of the year in Santiago during the second half of the nineteenth century. This article describes the evolution of this celebration from its materiality using press coverage from the time together with other written and visual sources. Through a series of chronologically organized "scenes" we have a more detailed picture of the effects that the modernization process had on the daily lives of Santiaguinos in their practices as well as in their aspirations. Christmas commerce and the urban spaces where it took place provide an insight into how foreign influence fit between traditional practices amidst a constant social dispersion.

  1. Comparison of two modes of vitamin B12 supplementation on neuroconduction and cognitive function among older people living in Santiago, Chile: a cluster randomized controlled trial. a study protocol [ISRCTN 02694183

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    Brito Alex

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older people have a high risk of vitamin B12 deficiency; this can lead to varying degrees of cognitive and neurological impairment. CBL deficiency may present as macrocytic anemia, subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord, or as neuropathy, but is often asymptomatic in older people. Less is known about subclinical vitamin B12 deficiency and concurrent neuroconduction and cognitive impairment. A Programme of Complementary Feeding for the Older Population (PACAM in Chile delivers 2 complementary fortified foods that provide approximately 1.4 μg/day of vitamin B12 (2.4 μg/day elderly RDA. The aim of the present study is to assess whether supplementation with vitamin B12 will improve neuroconduction and cognitive function in older people who have biochemical evidence of vitamin B12 insufficiency in the absence of clinical deficiency. Methods We designed a cluster double-blind placebo-controlled trial involving community dwelling people aged 70-79 living in Santiago, Chile. We randomized 15 clusters (health centers involving 300 people (20 per cluster. Each cluster will be randomly assigned to one of three arms: a a 1 mg vitamin B12 pill taken daily and a routine PACAM food; b a placebo pill and the milk-PACAM food fortified to provide 1 mg of vitamin B12; c the routine PACAM food and a placebo pill. The study has been designed as an 18 month follow up period. The primary outcomes assessed at baseline, 4, 9 and 18 months will be: serum levels of vitamin B12, neuroconduction and cognitive function. Conclusions In view of the high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency in later life, the present study has potential public health interest because since it will measure the impact of the existing program of complementary feeding as compared to two options that provide higher vitamin B12 intakes that might potentially may contribute in preserving neurophysiologic and cognitive function and thus improve quality of life for older

  2. Reforma de los mercados de suelo en Santiago, Chile: efectos sobre los precios de la tierra y la segregación residencial

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    Francisco Sabatini

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available La temprana y radical liberalización de los mercados urbanos chilenos tuvo consecuencias inesperadas en los precios del suelo y en la segregación residencial en Santiago: los precios del suelo ha crecido persistentemente desde la eliminación en 1979 de la norma sobre "límites urbanos" y otras reformas; y la segregación ha reducido su escala geográfica en importantes áreas, debido a la acción del robusto sector inmobiliario privado surgido en los años ochenta. Se trata de dos fenómenos de relevancia para el desarrollo urbano, en general, y que tienen un impacto directo en el grave problema de la pobreza urbana, en particular: los precios del suelo condicionan el acceso de los pobres al suelo; y el patrón de segregación residencial, sus perspectivas de integración social. Estos hechos, lo mismo que sus implicaciones para la política urbana, han sido, en lo principal, descuidados tanto por el gobierno como por los investigadoresThe early and radical liberalization of Chilean urban land markets has had unexpected consequences on land prices and on residential segregation in Santiago: prices have grown persistently after the elimination in 1979 of the law on "urban limits" and other market-oriented reforms; and segregation has reduced its geographical scale in important parts of the city due to the action of the strong private real estate sector that emerged in the 1980s. These two are relevant facts for urban development, in general, and have a direct impact on the compelling problem of urban poverty, in particular: land prices condition access to land on the part of the poor; and patterns of segregation, their prospects for social integration. These two facts, as well as their implications for urban policy, have been, for the most part, neglected both by the government and by researchers

  3. El enlace faltante entre cadenas globales de producción y ciudades globales: el servicio financiero en Ciudad de México y Santiago de Chile

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    Christof Parnreiter

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde los años ochenta, las economías de México y Chile pasaron por un profundo proceso de globalización. En cuanto a las ciudades capitales de ambospaises, esta globalización implicó una nodalización, que se ve en una concentración alta de los funciones de gestión económica. Intentamos especificar la relación entre la formación de ciudades globales y la profundizad ón de la integración global por medio de un estudio de casos prácticos de proveedores de servicios financieros. Usando los datos de transacciones del mercado de valores, analizamos la implicación de instituciones financieras (locales y globales en emisiones de bonos y acciones de las 50 empresas mejor posicionadas de México y Chile. Con nuestra investigación empírica inicialde intermediarios de servicios financieros, que proveen servicios a las corporaciones más importantes en México y en Chile, damos el primer paso para especificar cómo se relacionan las dos redes trans-estatales basadas en empresas -las redes de ciudades globales y de producciónSince the 1980s, the economies of Mexico and Chile have passed through a profound process of globalisation. The result has been a nodalisation of the cities' economies, documented by their high concentration of command and control functions essential for economic globalization. In order to specif the relationship between global city formation and the deepening of global integration we draw on the findings of the global city and global commodity chain literature. Since advanced producer services have been identified as key actors in interlocking de-centralized production sites and urban networks we have analyzed the involvement of financial institutions in bond and share issues of the 50 top ranked Mexican and Chilean enterprises. Based on this initial empirical investigation we take a first step to specif how the two firm-based, trans-state networks -global city- and global production networks - relate

  4. Programa de educadores líderes con vocación pedagógica temprana de la Universidad de Santiago de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Araya Marchant, José Miguel; Wong Valdés, Tamara Consuelo

    2016-01-01

    El Programa de Educadores Líderes con Vocación Pedagógica Temprana (PEL-VPT), se inspiró en las inquietudes transversales sobre la Calidad en la Accesibilidad, Permanencia y Movilidad Social en la Educación, que se han ido manifestando con elocuencia progresiva en los movimientos sociales de Chile en los últimos años. Se centró en la formación de Profesores, considerando su protagonismo estratégico en la situación general de la educación chilena. El Programa PEL-VPT fue concebido como una pla...

  5. Programa de acceso inclusivo equidad y permanencia de la universidad de Santiago de Chile: una política universitaria de acción afirmativa

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmer Pavez, Beatriz; Miranda Molina, Rafael; Gil Llambias, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    En Chile, desde la década de los sesenta hasta el 2012, el sistema admisión para la educación superior se basó en la ponderación de una prueba estandarizada PAA/ PSU (Prueba de Selección Universitaria) junto a la trayectoria escolar del estudiante representado en las NEM (Notas de Enseñanza Media). Las Universidades han utilizado estos indicadores como exigencia de postulación considerando un porcentaje mayoritario a la PAA/PSU por sobre las NEM. La PSU ha generado discusiones respecto a cuat...

  6. Experiencias contradictorias y demandantes: lainfancia y la adultez en la perspectiva de niños yniñas de Santiago de Chile

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    Ana Vergara-del Solar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, se presentan los resultados de un estudio que exploró los discursos acerca de la infancia y la adultez de niños y niñas de distintos estratos socioeconómicos de Santiago, a partir de entrevistas abiertas realizadas a grupos mixtos y de un sólo sexo (niñas y niños varones. Se da cuenta, en este marco, de discursos que, para hablar de infancia y adultez, construyen oposiciones: juego versus trabajo, libertad versus sometimiento, inocencia versus conciencia e infancias ricas versus infancias pobres. Además, se identifican algunas diferencias de clase social y de género y se analiza cómo se expresan, en los complejos discursos de los niños y las niñas, contradicciones y ambivalencias culturales respecto a la infancia y adultez, en el marco de un contexto de neoliberalización creciente.

  7. Resignificación de la muerte en los Andes: La festividad de Wiñay Pacha o todas las almas en Santiago de Chile

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    Francisca Fernández Droguett

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde el 2009 diversas organizaciones y agrupaciones de danza y música andina, han comenzado a conmemorar el día de difuntos en la ciudad de Santiago, denominándola Wiñay Pacha o Todas Almas. El siguiente artículo tiene por objetivo caracterizar esta práctica festiva desde los elementos culturales que configuran la visión de la muerte de los pueblos indígenas de Los Andes, a través de la vivencia del duelo y la forma de conmemorar a los difuntos, para luego reflexionar el modo en que se ha ido resignificando en el contexto urbano, mediante la revisión de su origen como festividad y su expresión como reivindicación de otros modos de vivenciar la muerte. La investigación se aborda desde una aproximación etnográfica, utilizando para la recopilación de datos la revisión bibliográfica, observación participante y entrevistas en profundidad.

  8. El agua y los territorios hídricos en la Región Metropolitana de Santiago de Chile. Casos de estudio: Tiltil, Valle de Mallarauco y San Pedro de Melipilla

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    Tesser Obregón, Claudio Ernesto Esteban

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The rural area of the Santiago Metropolitan Region is a combination of natural, social, economic and technical factors that give origin to several territories. If we consider those in which water resources play a significant role in carrying out agricultural activity, several different «water territories» can be identified in the Tiltil, Valle de Mallarauco and San Pedro de Melipilla areas. In these cases the study allowed us to shed light upon and discuss several important points regarding the territorial approach to water resources and water management in a model that favors the actions of private parties, such as: the extension of the agricultural use of the water resources, the conflicts and problems over its control and the resulting water territories that have come about as a result of the various assessments of a liberal management system. This has been done with the intention of contributing, from a Geographical point of view, thoughts geared towards achieving a comprehensive and sustainable management of the water resources in Chile.El espacio rural de la Región Metropolitana de Santiago de Chile es una combinación de factores naturales, sociales, económicos y técnicos que dan origen a diversos territorios. Si consideramos aquellos donde el recurso hídrico tiene un papel predominante en el desarrollo de las actividades agrícolas, se pueden identificar distintos «territorios hídricos» en las áreas de Tiltil, Valle de Mallarauco y San Pedro de Melipilla. El estudio de estos casos permitió poner en evidencia y discutir un cierto número de puntos importantes concernientes al enfoque territorial de los recursos hídricos y de la gestión del agua en un modelo que privilegia la acción de los privados, tales como: la dimensión espacial del uso agrícola de los recursos hídricos, los conflictos y problemas por su control y los consecuentes territorios hídricos que han surgido como resultado de diversas valorizaciones de un

  9. La Familia Trochidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda en el norte de Chile: consideraciones ecológicas y taxonómicas The trochidae family (Mollusca : Gastropoda in northern Chile: taxonomic and ecological considerations

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    DAVID VELIZ

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio describe la diversidad, y la distribución latitudinal y batimétrica de los caracoles de la Familia Trochidae en el norte de Chile, mediante muestreos intermareales y submareales someros, realizados entre 1996 y 1999 entre Arica (18º S y Los Vilos (31º S, y de muestras de profundidad provenientes de la pesca de arrastre del camarón nylon, Heterocarpus reedi. En el norte de Chile, la Familia Trochidae está representada por cuatro géneros: Tegula y Diloma de distribución intermareal y submareal somero hasta los 20 m de profundidad, y Bathybembix y Calliostoma presentes en profundidades superiores a los 200 m. El género Tegula tiene seis especies (T. quadricostata, T. luctuosa, T. ignota, T. atra, T. tridentata y T. euryomphala distribuídas en sustratos rocosos intermareales y submarales someros. El género Diloma está representado por una especie, D. nigerrima, de distribución intermareal hasta pocos metros de profundidad. El género Calliostoma tiene dos especies C. chilena y C. delli, las que se distribuyen entre 200 y 750 m de profundidad. Finalmente, el género Bathybembix está representado por B. humboldti y B. macdonaldi distribuídas entre 200 y 1480 m de profundidad. Esta segregación batimétrica parece estar relacionada a las estrategias alimentarias de cada uno de los géneros de la familia Trochidae. Diloma y Tegula son herbívoros, las especies del género Bathybembix son alimentadoras de depósito y las de Calliostoma son carnívorasThis study reveals the diversity, and the bathimetric and latitudinal distribution of the snails of the Trochidae family members in northern Chile, throughout the analysis of all Trochidae gastropods entailed in intertidal and subtidal (from the `camarón naylon' fishery samples collected during 1996 and 1999 between Arica (ca 18º S and Los Vilos (ca 31º S. The Trochidae family in northern Chile have four genus: Tegula and Diloma that are distributed on intertidal and shallow

  10. Perioperative care of patients with epidermolysis bullosa: proceedings of the 5th international symposium on epidermolysis bullosa, Santiago Chile, December 4-6, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldschneider, Kenneth; Lucky, Anne W; Mellerio, Jemima E; Palisson, Francis; del Carmen Viñuela Miranda, Maria; Azizkhan, Richard G

    2010-09-01

    Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) has become recognized as a multisystem disorder that poses a number of pre-, intra-, and postoperative challenges. While anesthesiologists have long appreciated the potential difficult intubation in patients with EB, other systems can be affected by this disorder. Hematologic, cardiac, skeletal, gastrointestinal, nutritional, and metabolic deficiencies are foci of preoperative medical care, in addition to the airway concerns. Therefore, multidisciplinary planning for operative care is imperative. A multinational, interdisciplinary panel of experts assembled in Santiagio, Chile to review the best practices for perioperative care of patients with EB. This paper presents guidelines that represent a synthesis of evidence-based approaches and the expert consensus of this panel and are intended to aid physicians new to caring for patients with EB when operative management is indicated. With proper medical optimization and attention to detail in the operating room, patients with EB can have an uneventful perioperative course.

  11. [Invasive fungal disease in hemato-oncological and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation patients from Hospital Clinico Universidad Católica, Santiago-Chile using revised EORTC/MSG diagnostic criteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabagliati B, Ricardo; Fuentes L, Gino; Guzmán D, Ana María; Orellana U, Eric; Oporto C, Jorge; Aedo C, Igor; Garrido S, Marcelo; Nervi N, Bruno

    2009-06-01

    Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is a severe complication occurring mostly in haematooncological (H-O) patients and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) receptors. Our aim was to describe the IFD occurring in our H-O and HSCT patients according to the EORTC/MSG revised criteria. IFD surveillance was performed in adult patients of the Hospital Clínico Universidad Catolica, Santiago, Chile, from January 2004 to January 2008. A total of 41 IFD episodes were identified in 39 patients; mean age was 46.6 +/- 9.9 years, and 87.8% and 12.2% occurred in H-O and HCTS patients respectively. 15/41(36.6%) episodes were proven, 36.6% probable and 11/41 (26.8%) possible. In 26 (63.4%) episodes aspergillosis was diagnosed (20 pulmonary, 3 sinus, 1 laryngeal and 1 case with pulmonary and cerebral involvement). In 7 patients (17.1%) candidiasis was diagnosed, 5 with a proven bloodstream infection and 2 with possible hepatosplenic candidiasis; mucormyeosis was diagnosed in 4 (9.8%) Fusarium infection was demonstrated in 2 patients (4.9%), and Mucor and Aspergillus pulmonary coinfection and Alternaria sp rhino-sinusitis in one patient each. The frequency of IFD among febrile neutropenic patients was 26.2% and 6.4% in H-O and HSCT receptors respectively. The overall mortality was 36%. Aspergillosis is the most common IFD infection among H-O patients and HSCT receptors in our center. Candidiasis followed although only in H-O patients most probably because of routine use of antifungal prophylaxis in HSCT recipients. Continuous surveillance is required to develop local guidelines and to evaluate antifungal strategies in different clinical scenarios.

  12. Urbanismo pro-empresarial en Chile: políticas y planificación de la producción residencial en altura en el pericentro del Gran Santiago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alberto Meza Corvalán

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamentales para la producción neoliberal del espacio urbano son los ajustes técnico-urbanísticos orientados a la atracción de capital requerido para producir renovación urbana a gran escala, factor preponderante pero poco estudiado en Latinoamérica. Tales operaciones municipales son propias de lo que se conoce como urbanismo pro-empresarial (urban state-entrepreneurialism o la regulación ad hoc del uso e intensidad de la explotación del suelo, con generación de alianzas público-privadas, inyección de lógicas de rentabilidad al interior del discurso y práctica municipal, y accionar especulativo del estado a nivel local. Focalizado en seis comunas del "inner city" de Santiago de Chile, el estudio de caso aquí presentado (período 2000-2011 observa las modificaciones a los instrumentos de regulación y su resultante en producción y localización inmobiliaria, a través de revisión documental, entrevistas a agentes clave y análisis de registro público de propiedades. Se concluye que si bien la alianza público privada no es condición necesaria para la renovación intensiva del suelo, sí lo es un estado general de competencia intercomunal, la capacidad de los gobiernos locales pericentrales de relocalizar áreas de renovación urbana vía modificaciones normativas, y la generación deliberada de movilidad intra y extracomunal de capital inmobiliario.

  13. Modelación de episodios críticos de contaminación por material particulado (PM10 en Santiago de Chile: Comparación de la eficiencia predictiva de los modelos paramétricos y no paramétricos Modeling critical episodes of air pollution by PM10 in Santiago, Chile: Comparison of the predictive efficiency of parametric and non-parametric statistical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A. Alvarado

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la eficiencia predictiva de modelos estadísticos paramétricos y no paramétricos para predecir episodios críticos de contaminación por material particulado PM10 del día siguiente, que superen en Santiago de Chile la norma de calidad diaria. Una predicción adecuada de tales episodios permite a la autoridad decretar medidas restrictivas que aminoren la gravedad del episodio, y consecuentemente proteger la salud de la comunidad. Método: Se trabajó con las concentraciones de material particulado PM10 registradas en una estación asociada a la red de monitorización de la calidad del aire MACAM-2, considerando 152 observaciones diarias de 14 variables, y con información meteorológica registrada durante los años 2001 a 2004. Se ajustaron modelos estadísticos paramétricos Gamma usando el paquete estadístico STATA v11, y no paramétricos usando una demo del software estadístico MARS v 2.0 distribuida por Salford-Systems. Resultados: Ambos métodos de modelación presentan una alta correlación entre los valores observados y los predichos. Los modelos Gamma presentan mejores aciertos que MARS para las concentraciones de PM10 con valores Objective: To evaluate the predictive efficiency of two statistical models (one parametric and the other non-parametric to predict critical episodes of air pollution exceeding daily air quality standards in Santiago, Chile by using the next day PM10 maximum 24h value. Accurate prediction of such episodes would allow restrictive measures to be applied by health authorities to reduce their seriousness and protect the community´s health. Methods: We used the PM10 concentrations registered by a station of the Air Quality Monitoring Network (152 daily observations of 14 variables and meteorological information gathered from 2001 to 2004. To construct predictive models, we fitted a parametric Gamma model using STATA v11 software and a non-parametric MARS model by using a demo version of Salford

  14. Plano Oficial de Urbanización de Algarrobo, 1950: urbanismo saludable y visión de futuro para un balneario de la antigua Provincia de Santiago (Chile / Official Plan of Private Algarrobo, 1950: healthy urban planning and vision for a resort of the old Province of Santiago (Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavez Reyes, María Isabel

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el proyecto urbano para la comuna de Algarrobo (Chile, aprobado en 1950, a partir de copia matriz de plano en Archivo Histórico del departamento de Urbanismo FAU. U. de Chile. A cargo de esta planificación estuvo la Sección de Urbanismo del Departamento de Arquitectura de la D.G.O.P., dirigida por el Arqto. Luis Muñoz Maluschka./This article analyzes the project for Algarrobo approved in 1950 when Luis Muñoz M. was in charge of the plan management.

  15. La industria vitivinícola en las haciendas jesuitas de Santiago de Chile. Una revisión bibligráfica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sottorf Neculhueque

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo busca aproximarse a la forma en cómo la Compañía de Jesús fue articulando en Chile desde finales del siglo XVI un importante poder económico, basado especialmente en la propiedad y producción agropecuaria, con especial énfasis en la fabricación de vinos. La Compañía adquirió propiedades, algunas de las cuales alcanzaron notables niveles en cuanto al sentido de la producción y la administración, siendo la elaboración de vinos una arista más de su enorme red comercial. Nos importa destacar la importancia que el vino tuvo para la Compañía, ya que incluso fue utilizado como mecanismo de pago en actividades o labores agrícolas, como rodeos o cosechas. De esta forma, la actividad vitivinícola será descrita como parte de la diversificación de las unidades productivas de la Compañía, que mejoraron sus técnicas de cultivo y por ende, incrementaron sus índices de producción de una manera destacada.

  16. Movilidad residencial del sector de renta alta del Gran Santiago (Chile: hacia el aumento de la complejidad de los patrones socioespaciales de segregación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ortiz V

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available En América Latina, el paso de una ciudad compacta a una ciudad dispersa no solo ha implicado transformaciones territoriales y funcionales de las grandes urbes; también ha contribuido a modificar la escala de la segregación social que en ellas existe, proceso en el que han desempeñado un papel central los cambios de residencia de la población urbana. En Chile, la capital nacional no ha sido una excepción a esta dinámica, en la medida en que los cambios residenciales en curso han alterado la segregación residencial, tanto en su escala espacial como en las formas que adopta. Los resultados alcanzados en este estudio muestran una marcada concentración de grupos socioeconómicos de mayor estatus en entidades administrativas de la ciudad que, hasta hace poco tiempo, no eran valoradas como lugares de residencia permanente por estas categorías de población. Esto ha incrementado a otras escalas la segregación, y ha contribuido a aumentar la complejidad del modelo general de segregación residencial de la ciudad.

  17. Documents from Chile Public Participation Training – Chile – March 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA delivered a two-day workshop in Santiago, Chile, on public participation. The course intended to enable students to increase the level of public impact through the levels of public participation, found on EPA’s Public Participation Guide.

  18. William F. Sater, La imagen heroica de Chile: Arturo Prat, santo secular, Santiago, Centro de Estudios Bicentenario, 2005, 231 págs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANTIAGO ARÁNGUIZ PINTO

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available LA PERSONA Y LA FIGURA de Arturo Prat parece que, a simple vista, representan una misma y única unidad. Pero, si profundizamos algo más en la vida de este marino y abogado, nos daremos cuenta de que sus datos biográficos y la percepción que tuvo la sociedad de éste, varían considerablemente, pues, por su misma condición de héroe, está sujeto a los vaivenes interpretativos propios de la sobreabundante mitología nacional. Y es que el héroe, dice Sater, plantea otras problemáticas y disyuntivas cuando se le estudia, diferente a las del hombre público que posee figuración o renombre. En el héroe, por el contrario, confluyen elementos que responden a otro tipo de variables sociales, espirituales y culturales, y que es, por cierto, la preocupación fundamental que se ha propuesto desarrollar en este libro el historiador norteamericano. Analizar, comprender o estudiar la imagen heroica de Prat exige la participación de otros elementos analíticos que, a su vez, se plantean en relación a determinados momentos de la historia de Chile. No hay dudas al respecto: a nadie dejaba indiferente los rasgos y virtudes que desprendía la cautivante personalidad de Prat, considerando que éste era un ejemplo único de abnegación, heroísmo y de entrega hacia su patria, digno de imitar y difundir hacia el resto de la sociedad. Cada vez que ocurría alguna desgracia, el país requería a su vez de un estímulo moral para superar los problemas nacionales. ¿Cómo lograrlo? Recurriendo a Prat, que luego se transformaría en una práctica común, que excedió los límites de la mesura y el entendimiento.

  19. La cerrajería artística en la arquitectura urbana del centro de Santiago de Chile a principios del siglo XX: los hermanos Mina /The locksmith art in the urban architecture of the center of Santiago de Chile in the early twentieth century: the brothers Mina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravo Munita, Jaime

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se valora el aporte de la cerrajería artística a la arquitectura urbana de comienzos del siglo XX en Chile (arquitectos Alberto Cruz Montt y Alberto Siegel, entre otros, observando el caso de la empresa fundada por Carlos Mina Ponti, perteneciente a una familia de cerrajeros españoles que se remonta a tiempos de Napoleón I. Mina Ponti trabajó primero en Chile con cerrajeros italianos, Santambrogio y Ravanello, y pronto se independizó. Su empresa alcanzó el apogeo en las décadas de 1920 y 1930, habiendo obtenido su obra el Gran Premio en la Exposición Ibero Americana de Sevilla en 1929. Con el advenimiento del Movimiento Moderno y su arquitectura sin ornamentación, la empresa concluyó sus actividades a finales de los años 1950s. /The author appreciates the contribution made by the locksmith art in the urban architecture of the early twentieth century in Chile (architects Alberto Cruz Alberto Montt and Siegel, among others, noting the case of the company founded by Ponti Carlos Mine, belonging to a locksmiths Spanish family that goes back to the time of Napoleon I. Carlos Mina Ponti worked first in Chile with Italian locksmiths ─Ravanello, and Santambrogio─, and soon became independent. Company reached its zenith in the decades of 1920 and 1930, having obtained his Grand Prix at the Ibero American Exposition of Seville in 1929. With the advent of the Modern Movement and its architecture without decoration, the company concluded its activities in the late 1950s.

  20. Anomia y Alienación en Estudiantes Secundarios de Santiago de Chile: Resultados Iniciales de un Estudio Comparativo 1989-2007 Anomie and Alienation in High School Students in Santiago of Chile: Initial Results of a Comparative Research Study 1989-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Aceituno

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los avances de un estudio sobre percepción de integración social y normativa en estudiantes de cuarto año de educación media de Santiago (N = 343. Se analizan los resultados de un cuestionario sobre anomia y alienación psicosocial, validado en un estudio análogo realizado en 1989. La replicación en 2007 contribuye a la caracterización de la experiencia de integración social y normativa en los jóvenes de hoy, así como al análisis de sus transformaciones casi 20 años después. Los resultados muestran que no existe una clara diferencia en los niveles de anomia y alienación, respecto a los de 1989.In a sample of Chilean students in their last year of high school (N = 343 anomie and psychosocial alienation were measured with a questionnaire validated in an analogous study done in 1989. This study compared the results of 1989 with those of 2007. This comparison contributes to the psychosocial characterization of social and normative integration experiences of Chilean youth today, and to the analysis of their transformations approximately 20 years later. The results show that there is not a clear difference in the social and normative integration levels in the studied youth, with respect to those of 1989.

  1. Energy from the Andes. The hydropower plant La Confluencia in Chile; Energie aus den Anden. Die Wasserkraftanlage La Confluencia in Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Mathias [Hochschule Regensburg (Germany). Bauingenieurwesen

    2012-11-01

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the hydropower plant La Confluencia situated nearly 150 km south of Santiago de Chile (Chile). La Confluencia is a project development of a Norwegian-Australian joint venture of SN Power utilities (Oslo, Norway) and Pacific Hydro (Melbourne, Australia). Constructora Hochtief Tecsa (Santiago, Chile) took over the order to construct the plant completely including planning, construction, equipment and operation. The system concept was developed in collaboration with Poeyry Energy (Zurich, Switzerland). The plant design was devised in cooperation with Intertechne (Curitiba, Brazil), EDIC Ingenieros (Santiago, Chile) and Geocontrol (Madrid, Spain).

  2. Rutas literarias en el Camino de Santiago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Uña Juarez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Desde los marcos teóricos de la sociología de la literatura y desde la consideración del lenguaje poético se presenta el Camino de Santiago como una gran realización humana y como una construcción simbólica de la sociedad española y europea desde las profundidades de la Edad Media hasta la tardomodernidad. La vía de Santiago ha sido una metáfora viva del encuentro, un signo vertebrador de la conciencia europea. Unas puntuales consideraciones revisan posiciones de filósofos, teólogos, semiólogos y creadores literarios para presentar la característica específica de la peregrinación jacobea y sus itinerarios: la edificación de un sistema de comunicación con lenguajes propios, un constructo significativo de orden religioso. El viaje así aparece como arte y discurso narrado, recreado por mil ejercicios del lenguaje elaborado y en mil juegos de la memoria hasta constituir una inmensa acumulación de significado y sentido.

  3. La Psicología en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Bravo Valdivieso

    1969-01-01

    Full Text Available The current state of psychology en Chile is reviewed, beginning with its historical development. The main areas of interest of Chilean psychologists are found to be psychometrics, social psychology, clinical, and experimental psychology; according to the chosen areas for thesis at the University of Chile and the Catholic Uiniuersity of Santiago. Professionally, the main fields of specialization are clinical and social psychology. In 1968 the goverment gave legal recognition to professional psychology in Chile.

  4. A factorial-design cluster randomised controlled trial investigating the cost-effectiveness of a nutrition supplement and an exercise programme on pneumonia incidence, walking capacity and body mass index in older people living in Santiago, Chile: the CENEX study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Damian

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chile is currently undergoing a period of rapid demographic transition which has led to an increase in the proportion of older people in the population; the proportion aged 60 years and over, for example, increased from 8% of the population in 1980 to 12% in 2005. In an effort to promote healthy ageing and preserve function, the government of Chile has formulated a package of actions into the Programme of Complementary Feeding for the Older Population (PACAM which has been providing a nutritional supplement to older people since 1998. PACAM distributes micronutrient fortified foods to individuals aged 70 years and over registered at Primary Health Centres and enrolled in the programme. The recommended serving size (50 g/day of these supplements provides 50% of daily micronutrient requirements and 20% of daily energy requirements of older people. No information is currently available on the cost-effectiveness of the supplementation programme. Aim The aim of the CENEX cluster randomised controlled trial is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an ongoing nutrition supplementation programme, and a specially designed physical exercise intervention for older people of low to medium socio-economic status living in Santiago, Chile. Methods The study has been conceptualised as a public health programme effectiveness study and has been designed as a 24-month factorial cluster-randomised controlled trial conducted among 2800 individuals aged 65.0–67.9 years at baseline attending 28 health centres in Santiago. The main outcomes are incidence of pneumonia, walking capacity and change in body mass index over 24 months of intervention. Costing data (user and provider, collected at all levels, will enable the determination of the cost-effectiveness of the two interventions individually and in combination. The study is supported by the Ministry of Health in Chile, which is keen to expand and improve its national programme of nutrition for

  5. Soviet Policy in Cuba and Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-06

    Libro Blanco del Cambio de Gobierno en Chile. Santiago: Editorial Lord 23 Cochrane, 1973, pp. 103-108. See also Page 8 for a photograph of Allende...Rothenberg, Soviet Penetration, p. 144. 18. The letter in Castro’s handwriting is published in the Libro Blanco, p. 101- 102. In the UN debates after the...a Via Chilena a la Via Insurreccional, Santiago: Editorial del Pacifico, 1974, pp. 296ff. 19. Libro Blanco includes (pp. 192 and 197) what appear to

  6. Educar la moral del pobre: fronteras simbólicas y gobierno de los pobres por parte de la elite económica católica de Santiago de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Sofía Bowen Silva

    2015-01-01

    Resumen En este artículo sostengo la existencia de una frontera simbólica entre el pobre y parte de la elite económica chilena vinculada a exclusivos colegios católicos de Santiago, basada en la significación del pobre como "carente de cultura" y en necesidad de ser moralmente educado. Por medio del análisis del discurso de ex alumnos y apoderados de estos colegios se muestra que el pobre es entendido como el principal responsable de su situación, mientras que el papel de los factores estruct...

  7. La intervención psicosocial y la construcción de las “mujeres víctimas”. Una aproximación desde las experiencias de Quito (Ecuador y Santiago (Chile

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    Caterine Galaz V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Practices and discourses manifested in social intervention devices that work with women in Ecuador and Chile contribute to the construction of a subject-victim as justification from a perspective of citizens’ rights. Based on two qualitative studies of services from a gender perspective in Ecuador (gender-based violence and Chile (inclusion of immigrants, the article seeks to understand the bases for intervention with women that positions them as victims; to show how social interventions based on this constitution of the subject generate certain effects both in the users and in those who intervene; and to look at some forms of resistance (Deleuze and Guattari 2012 [1988] that appear in the relationship between professionals and users that extend beyond these conceptions and practices.

  8. El jesuita como traductor. Organización, circulación y dinámicas de la Compañía de Jesús en Santiago de Chile, 1593-1598

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gaune

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This text aims to analyze the first five years of the presence of the Society of Jesus in Chile. Between 1593 and 1598, the Jesuits positioned themselves as relevant actors in the internal workings of society by using several strategies, such as the translation of a new reality and the assessment of the sociopolitical context. These will be analyzed while highlighting the intersection between local context and global environment through missionary practices.

  9. Los fondos de inversión inmobiliaria y la producción privada de vivienda en Santiago de Chile: ¿Un nuevo paso hacia la financiarización de la ciudad?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Andrés Cattaneo Pineda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de la influencia en el debate académico de la hipótesis de la relación entre la globalización económica y la emergencia de un nuevo modelo de metrópolis, pocas publicaciones han abordado el análisis de los mecanismos concretos de articulación de estas dos esferas. El objetivo de este artículo es el estudio del papel jugado por una categoría de actores del mercado de capitales -los fondos de inversión inmobiliaria chilenos- en la producción de los espacios residenciales de Santiago. Por medio del examen de su portafolio de colocaciones habitacionales, se subraya su importancia en el financiamiento de la edificación privada de vivienda. Para definir estos programas, los fondos han privilegiado las tipologías y las localizaciones que se adecuan mejor a sus temporalidades y a sus lógicas de funcionamiento. De este modo, han tenido influencia directa sobre la verticalización de la ciudad, y en los procesos de renovación de los barrios céntricos. Vemos en la difusión de las exigencias del mercado de capitales, así como de sus técnicas de gestión de activos, una nueva faceta del fenómeno de "financiarización" de las grandes metrópolis en el sector habitacional.Despite the influence in the scientific debate of the hypothesis of an interaction between economic globalization and the development of a new metropolitan model, few studies have handled the analysis of the concrete forms of articulation between these two spheres. The main purpose of this paper is to appraise the contribution of one form of capital market operators - Chilean real estate investment trusts- in the making of housing spaces in Santiago. Based on the examination of their residential assets, this article shows their growing role in the funding of private housing. They seem to favor housing models and localizations that suitably match up the timings and policies of their internal functioning. Consequently, it appears they have direct responsibility on

  10. Uso de las tecnologías digitales en el aprendizaje formal, no formal e informal en estudiantes de la carrera de Odontología de la Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Ormeño Quintana, Andrea del Pilar

    2017-01-01

    [spa] La educación en Chile ha sufrido un proceso de crecimiento y cambio que ha ido generando una apertura a toda la población desde la educación primaria a la universitaria. Todo este avance, ha llevado a una mayor implementación de los diferentes niveles educacionales fomentando el acceso a las tecnologías digitales y buscando acercar a los alumnos a este mundo de la información. Esta investigación tiene como finalidad explorar el o los usos potenciales y reales de las tecnologías digitale...

  11. Evaluación de los niveles de orientación empática en estudiantes de odontología de la Universidad Finis Terrae de Santiago, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Silva Urday,H; Rivera Ugalde,I; Zamorano Arancibia,A; Díaz Narváez,VP

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Evaluar el nivel de orientación empática en los alumnos de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Finis Terrae. Materiales y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio no experimental, descriptivo, transversal y ex post facto causa-efecto. Participaron 309 alumnos, de un universo de 430, correspondientes a los niveles 1º, 2º, 3º, 4º y 5º de la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad Finis Terrae (Chile) en 2012, a quienes se aplicó la Escala de Empatía Médica de Jefferson (EEMJ). Para e...

  12. Studies to Control Endemic Typhoid Fever in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-29

    control 678325, Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Michigan) in sodium carbonate coating buffer, pH 9.6. Test sera were diluted 1:100 in phosphate buffered...vaccination between May 3 and June 18, 1982. -25- REFERENCES 1. Departamento Planificacion Estadistica, Mjnisterio de Salud , Santiago Chile. 2. Ristori...MINISTERIO DE SALUD SANTIAGO, 6 de enero de 1982. Dr. Myron M. Levine Director Center for Vaccine Development University of Maryland School of Medicine

  13. Los fondos de inversión inmobiliaria y la producción privada de vivienda en Santiago de Chile: ¿Un nuevo paso hacia la financiarización de la ciudad?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Andrés Cattaneo Pineda

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de la influencia en el debate académico de la hipótesis de la relación entre la globalización económica y la emergencia de un nuevo modelo de metrópolis, pocas publicaciones han abordado el análisis de los mecanismos concretos de articulación de estas dos esferas. El objetivo de este artículo es el estudio del papel jugado por una categoría de actores del mercado de capitales -los fondos de inversión inmobiliaria chilenos- en la producción de los espacios residenciales de Santiago. Por medio del examen de su portafolio de colocaciones habitacionales, se subraya su importancia en el financiamiento de la edificación privada de vivienda. Para definir estos programas, los fondos han privilegiado las tipologías y las localizaciones que se adecuan mejor a sus temporalidades y a sus lógicas de funcionamiento. De este modo, han tenido influencia directa sobre la verticalización de la ciudad, y en los procesos de renovación de los barrios céntricos. Vemos en la difusión de las exigencias del mercado de capitales, así como de sus técnicas de gestión de activos, una nueva faceta del fenómeno de "financiarización" de las grandes metrópolis en el sector habitacional.

  14. Indígenas andinos en Chile Colonial: Inmigración, inserción espacial, integración económica y movilidad social (Santiago, Siglos XVI-XVII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valenzuela Márquez, Jaime

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with the 16th century conquering expeditions, many Andean natives who served the Spaniards arrived in Chile, where they settled in and integrated in the work and social areas of this outlying «New World»; they formed local networks and relationships, had offspring; a number of them became artisans and some drafted wills or left their mark in ecclesiastical or notarized documents that provide us with an idea of their mobility and local integration. This work offers a background and reveals the principle hubs of a process resembling a medullar structure, in order to understand how the early Chilean colonial society was made up. At the same time, it provides insights into the phenomena of movement, uprooting and settlement of the indigenous population in the southern Peruvian viceroyalty.

    Desde las expediciones de conquista del siglo XVI llegaron a Chile numerosos indígenas andinos que sirvieron a los españoles, se asentaron y se integraron en los espacios laborales y sociales de este «nuevo mundo» periférico; formaron redes y parentescos locales, tuvieron descendencia, varios se transformaron en artesanos y algunos dictaron testamentos o dejaron huellas en documentos eclesiásticos y notariales que nos permiten observar su movilidad e inserción local. Este trabajo aporta antecedentes y desvela los principales ejes de un proceso que aparece como medular para entender la formación de la sociedad colonial chilena temprana y, a la vez, para dar cuenta de fenómenos de circulación, desarraigo y asentamiento de población indígena en el virreinato peruano meridional.

  15. Redescripción y consideraciones biogeográfcas de dos especies de Scotobius (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae de ambientes montanos del centro de Argentina y Chile Redescription and biogeographic considerations of two species of Scotobius (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae from mountain environments of central Argentina and Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta A. Silvestro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El género neotropical Scotobius Germar (Tenebrioninae: Scotobiini comprende 61 especies distribuidas desde el centro de Perú y sur de Brasil hasta el sur de Argentina y Chile. En este trabajo, revisamos dos especies de Scotobius que habitan el oeste de las provincias de San Juan, Mendoza y Neuquén (Argentina y en Chile central, a lo largo de la Cordillera de los Andes y las montañas extra-andinas en Argentina: S. punctatus Eschscholtz, 1831 y S. andrassyi Kaszab, 1969. Se proveen redescripciones utilizando nuevos caracteres morfológicos y se proporcionan fotografías de los adultos y de los pronotos. Se consigna la distribución geográfica, rangos altitudinales y las provincias biogeográficas en las que habitan estas especies. Se utiliza un modelo predictivo de distribución de especies para proponer hipótesis sobre los factores que influencian la distribución espacial y que explicarían la alopatría de ambas especies.The Neotropical genus Scotobius Germar (Tenebrioninae: Scotobiini comprises 61 species distributed from central Peru and southern Brazil to southern Argentine and Chile. In this contribution two species of Scotobius: S. punctatus Eschscholtz, 1831 and S. andrassyi Kaszab, 1969, that inhabit in western San Juan, Mendoza, and Neuquén provinces (Argentina and in central Chile, along the “Cordillera de los Andes” and extra-Andean mountains in Argentina, are revised. Redescriptions using new morphological data and photographs of habitus and pronota are provided. This article informs about the geographic distribution, altitudinal ranges and the biogeographic provinces that these species inhabit. A predictive model of species distribution is presented to propose hypothesis about the factors that influence the space distribution and the allopatry of these two species.

  16. El estudio de la segregación residencial en Santiago de Chile: revisión crítica de algunos problemas metodológicos y conceptuales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ruiz-Tagle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediante un cuestionamiento a influyentes trabajos, se pretende introducir perspectivas alternativas en variados aspectos del estudio de la segregación residencial en Chile, desde esquemas metodológicos a interpretaciones conceptuales. La discusión critica cuatro aspectos de dichos estudios: i su método de estratificación, que define grupos sociales por medio de categorías altamente variables en el tiempo; ii su medida de la segregación, que no considera áreas suburbanas ni tampoco soluciona el problema de la escala; iii su conexión con problemas sociales, que presenta ciertos sesgos de reificación del espacio; y iv sus propuestas de política pública, que plantean líneas de acción fundadas en premisas discutibles. Dada la considerable influencia de estos estudios en la discusión de políticas públicas pro mixtura social, consideramos importante establecer nexos con la especificidad de nuestros contextos sociales, históricos y culturales, elaborando una racionalidad crítica que se extienda más allá de un excesivo empirismo.

  17. Apprenticeship in Latin America: The INACAP Program in Chile. A Case Study. Occasional Paper #6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvalan-Vasquez, Oscar E.

    The development of apprenticeship programs in several Latin American countries was investigated with a focus on the results of an industrial apprenticeship program in Santiago, Chile. The program studied was the Instituto Nacional de Capacitacion Profesional (INACAP), the national vocational training institute of Chile. The purpose of the study…

  18. Country watch: Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin, M E

    1998-01-01

    The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Chile's Program for Health Education (EPES) has developed HIV/AIDS and reproductive health education seminars for residents of working class neighborhoods in Santiago and Concepcion. A 1996 seminar on violence and AIDS, organized by EPES in collaboration with a network of area schools, health centers, and nongovernmental organizations, was attended by 250 women. Subsequent workshops have addressed homosexuality and lesbianism, women and AIDS, sex workers and AIDS, sex education, domestic violence, and child sex abuse. These workshops have included skills-building sessions on safer sex, prevention of domestic violence, stress management, women's self-defense, and AIDS education techniques. Workshop participants are urged to distribute AIDS educational materials and help the network organize exhibits at public events. In the future, EPES plans to conduct outreach to men as well as women.

  19. Fires in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On February 5, 2002, the dense smoke from numerous forest fires stretched out over the Pacific Ocean about 400 miles south of Santiago, Chile. This true-color Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image shows the fires, which are located near the city of Temuco. The fires are indicated with red dots (boxes in the high-resolution imagery). The fires were burning near several national parks and nature reserves in an area of the Chilean Andes where tourism is very popular. Southeast of the fires, the vegetation along the banks of the Rio Negro in Argentina stands out in dark green. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  20. Adapting to climate variability and change in Chile's Maipo basin ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    But pressure on the Maipo basin is rising as Santiago's population and industries grow, and as the country looks to tap hydro-electrical power from the basin's tributaries upstream. Meanwhile, climate change projections show temperatures rising as rainfall declines. Given the region's role in Chile's national economy, ...

  1. Domestic Violence and Women's Mental Health in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballo, Rosario; Ramirez, Cynthia; Castillo, Marcela; Caballero, Gabriela Alejandra; Lozoff, Betsy

    2004-01-01

    Domestic violence against women is a pervasive, global health problem. This study investigates the correlates and psychological outcomes of domestic abuse among women in a semi-industrial country. The participants included 215 mothers residing in working-class communities located on the outskirts of Santiago, Chile. We utilized structural equation…

  2. Historias e identidades barriales del Gran Santiago: 1950-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Márquez B

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A pesar de la segregación urbana y social que caracteriza a la ciudad de Santiago; en ella coexisten también identidades territoriales fuertes en su propuesta de integración social y urbana. Esta investigación aborda desde la perspectiva de sus habitantes, los procesos de construcción identitaria en ocho barrios de Santiago, desde los años cincuenta en adelante. La conclusión es que, pese a los enormes cambios experimentados en la sociedad y la persistencia de la segregación territorial, los barrios analizados destacan por la fuerza de sus identidades y la capacidad de diálogo con la ciudad. A diferencia de otros territorios, estos nacieron de proyectos identitarios y urbanos sólidos pensados e implementados por un conjunto de actores sociales diversos. Hoy sus habitantes se identifican con el barrio y lo defienden sin aplicar mecanismos de aislamiento, y en este proceso histórico, construyen y reafirman el derecho a la ciudad.I spite of Santiago, Chile's socioeconomic segregation,two territorially based identities also are present within this metropolitan area that offer strong proposals for social and urban integration. This study examines how inhabitants of eight neighborhoods in Santiago have constructed local identities since the 1950s. The study's findings indicate that in spite of the enormous changes experienced by Chilean society during this period and the persistence of socio-spatial segregation, the neighborhoods studied reveal the strength of their identities and their capacity to engage in a dialogue with the city. In contrast to other areas of the city, these communities initially emerged with solid identity and urban projects conceived and implemented by a diverse group of social actors. Today, residents identify with and defend their neighborhoods without relying on mechanisms designed to isolate themselves; and within this historical process, they construct and reaffirm the right to the city.

  3. Expansión Hare Krishna en contextos de crisis: resignificando la movilización social desde una perspectiva religiosa en Chile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bahamondes González, Luis Andrés; Marín Alarcón, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the expansion of the Hare Krishna movement in Santiago, Chile, analysing mobilization discourse and mechanisms adopted in the face of the social upheavals of the new millennium...

  4. Santiago de Cali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Sanabria

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se estudia la prevalencia del tipo de acto delictivo en un grupo de jóvenes infractores de Leyes colombianas. Se estudiaron datos de la Policía Nacional, en la cual se encontraban reportados los jóvenes que presentaron conductas delictivas en el año 2003 en Santiago de Cali, dentro de las categorías tipo o descripción del acto delictivo, edad y sexo. La unidad de análisis estuvo conformada por 3,677 jóvenes infractores, habitantes de diferentes comunas de la ciudad, con edades entre los 10 y los 17 años. La edad media de los jóvenes fue de 15,75 años. El acto delictivo más prevalente en ambos sexos fue el hurto, seguido del tráfico, fabricación o porte de estupefacientes en las mujeres; y, la fabricación, tráfico y porte de armas de fuego o municiones en los hombres. Siendo los últimos quienes, con mayor frecuencia manifiestan actos delictivos en comparación con las mujeres, observados con mayor frecuencia en el grupo de jóvenes entre 16 y 17 años. Los resultados muestran la importancia de variables biológicas y evolutivas, como la edad y el sexo, en la manifestación de este comportamiento; en consecuencia, la importancia de plantear programas de intervención diferenciados con perspectiva de género y edad que puedan generar un impacto relevante en esta población para la prevención y/o disminución de la delincuencia juvenil.

  5. DERECHOS INDIVIDUALES Y DEBERES DE ESTADO: CONSIDERACIONES BIOÉTICAS EN TORNO AL DEBATE SOBRE LA ANTICONCEPCIÓN DE EMERGENCIA EN CHILE DIREITOS INDIVIDUAIS E DEVERES DE ESTADO: CONSIDERAÇÕES BIOÉTICA SOBRE O DEBATE A RESPEITO DA ANTICONCEPÇÃO DE EMERGÊNCIA NO CHILE INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS AND STATE DUTIES: BIOETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS AROUND THE DEBATE OVER EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION IN CHILE

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    Raúl Villarroel Soto

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo intenta dar cuenta de un debate de relevancia moral, social y política en Chile: la controversia acerca de la anticoncepción de emergencia y la iniciativa de las autoridades de gobierno de facultar a los servicios de salud del Estado para distribuir el fármaco comúnmente llamado "píldora del día después". Se abordan diferentes perspectivas de análisis y se recae, finalmente, en un examen bioético a la luz de una revisión de la perspectiva principialista clásica para advertir algunas de sus insuficiencias analíticas y, por lo mismo, resituar la problemática desde la perspectiva de los derechos humanosO presente artigo tenta apresentar um debate de relevância moral, social e política no Chile: a controvérsia em torno da anticoncepção de emergência e a iniciativa das autoridades de governo de facultar os serviços de saúde do Estado para distribuir o fármaco popularmente conhecido como "pílula do dia seguinte". Abordam-se diferentes perspectivas de análise e se fixa, finalmente, num exame bioético do problema, à luz de uma revisão da perspectiva principialista clássica, para alertar a respeito de algumas de suas insuficiências analíticas e por, isto mesmo, recolocar a problemática a partir da perspectiva dos direitos humanosThis essay tries to show a moral, social and politically relevant debate in Chile: the controversy about emergency contraception and the decision of government authorities to authorize state health care services to distribute the drug commonly known as "the day after pill". Different views of analysis are studied to reach, finally, a bioethical reflection of the problem considering a re-examination of the classical principles perspective, to point out some of its analytical inadequacies and, for this reason, to rethink the problem under a human rights perspective

  6. Nueva instalación de telecomunicaciones. Santiago de Compostela (Galicia, España

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    Foster and Partners, Sir Norman

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available The proposal of Sir Norman Foster and Partners for the Telecommunications Center of Monte Pedroso in Santiago Compostela departs from the conventional type of tall telecommunications tower, which has been consolidated in the last third of the XX century. The architecture of this kind of facilities, conditioned technologically and functionally, undergoes continuous evolution in accordance with the extremely rapid progress of the telecommunication systems. The article explains the fundamentals of the novel typological approach of the Santiago Telecommunications Center, inducing the reader to reflect on the importance that the considerations relative to the site, function and construction have in the process of generating an architectural form.

    La propuesta de Sir Norman Foster and Partners para el Centro de Telecomunicaciones del Monte Pedroso en Santiago de Compostela, se aleja del tipo convencional de torre de telecomunicaciones desarrollada en altura que se ha consolidado durante el último tercio del siglo XX. La arquitectura de esta clase de instalaciones, tan condicionada tecnológicamente y funcionalmente, está sometida a una continua evolución en consonancia con el vertiginoso progreso de los sistemas de telecomunicación. El artículo expone los fundamentos del novedoso planteamiento tipológico del Centro de Telecomunicaciones de Santiago, invitando a la reflexión sobre la trascendencia que las consideraciones relativas al lugar, la función y la construcción tienen en el proceso de generación de la forma arquitectónica.

  7. [Medical education at Universidad de los Andes, Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrego Vicuña, F

    1997-07-01

    Universidad de los Andes School of Medicine started in 1991 with a new medical curriculum aimed at providing a medical education for its students, that is, it attempts to give, together with technical proficiency in medical matters, formation of character and a strong ethical attitude. The curriculum lasts for seven years: five of basic, pre-clinical and clinical theoretical and practical courses, followed by two years of internships in Internal Medicine, Surgery, Obstetrics and Pediatrics, plus a four month period of an elective internship. The courses have an integrated design, in which each matter is presented from multiple perspectives, e.g. in Internal Medicine together with the clinical aspects of disease, the pathophysiology and the pharmacology of the drugs used are presented. Also the Pathology of each disease is given in coordination in the Pathology course. General educational matters such as Anthropology, Psychology, Origin of Living Beings, Theology and Medical Ethics are interspersed in the curriculum. An important feature is the personal counselling system, in which each student may choose an academic counsellor and discuss with him (her) the subjects of his choosing. Clinical practice is given in a system that includes five hospitals and five private clinics that range from general medical practice to Psychiatry or Ophthalmology.

  8. Factors associated with dental attendance among adolescents in Santiago, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Baelum Vibeke; Lopez Rodrigo

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Dental treatment needs are commonly unmet among adolescents. It is therefore important to clarify the determinants of poor utilization of dental services among adolescents. Methods A total of 9,203 Chilean students aged 12–21 years provided information on dental visits, oral health related behavior, perceived oral health status, and socio-demographic determinants. School headmasters provided information on monthly tuition and annual fees. Based on the answers provided, thr...

  9. Factors associated with dental attendance among adolescents in Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baelum Vibeke

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental treatment needs are commonly unmet among adolescents. It is therefore important to clarify the determinants of poor utilization of dental services among adolescents. Methods A total of 9,203 Chilean students aged 12–21 years provided information on dental visits, oral health related behavior, perceived oral health status, and socio-demographic determinants. School headmasters provided information on monthly tuition and annual fees. Based on the answers provided, three outcome variables were generated to reflect whether the respondent had visited the dentist during the past year or not; whether the last dental visit was due to symptoms; and whether the responded had ever been to a dentist. Aged adjusted multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess the influence of the covariates gender; oral health related behaviors (self-reported tooth brushing frequency & smoking habits; and measures of social position (annual education expenses; paternal income; and achieved parental education on each outcome. Results Analyses showed that students who had not attended a dentist within the past year were more likely to be male (OR = 1.3; to report infrequent tooth brushing (OR = 1.3; to have a father without income (OR = 1.8; a mother with only primary school education (OR = 1.5; and were also more likely to report a poor oral health status (OR = 2.0, just as they were more likely to attend schools with lower tuition and fees (OR = 1.4. Students who consulted a dentist because of symptoms were more likely to have a father without income (OR = 1.4; to attend schools with low economic entry barriers (OR = 1.4; and they were more likely to report a poor oral health status (OR = 2.9. Students who had never visited a dentist were more likely to report infrequent tooth brushing (OR = 1.9 and to have lower socioeconomic positions independently of the indicator used. Conclusion The results demonstrate that socioeconomic and behavioral factors are independently associated with the frequency of and reasons for dental visits in this adolescent population and that self-perceived poor oral health status is strongly associated with infrequent dental visits and symptoms.

  10. Mapocho 42K, Santiago, Chile: Equipo Mapocho 42k, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Iturriaga,Sandra; Baixas,Juan Ignacio; Croxatto,Francisco; Ibieta,Paulina; Quintana, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    El borde de un río urbano es el objeto de esta propuesta que asocia gran escala y economía de medios: plantea la construcción de una continuidad de magnitud geográfica a partir de la introducción de pequeñas piezas de mobiliario urbano y un único criterio de plantaciones arbóreas y pavimentos.

  11. Santiago de Chile: Viejos problemas, nuevos desafíos

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    Esteban Soms García

    2015-03-01

    En particular, la gestión urbana de esta capital se ha transformado en un juego abierto y permanente de análisis de posibilidades estratégicas que dan fundamento a numerosas decisiones individuales y colectivas. Por lo mismo, necesariamente se entrelazan en ese territorio urbano, tanto las iniciativas económicas con aquellas que buscan mejorar la calidad de vida y/o las que están vinculadas con el rescate de la identidad y la cultura, así como en forma muy importante, preservación del entorno ambiental. Es la agenda propia de una megaciudad que se enfrenta a los numerosos desafíos que conlleva su desarrollo.

  12. El transporte urbano y sus alternativas para Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Krug Díaz

    2015-04-01

    Ya en la antigua Roma había problemas de congestión, lo que determino que en tiempos de Julio Cesar se tomaran medidas para que los carros de comercio no pudiesen entrar a la ciudad, sino que hasta después de la puesta del sol.

  13. Santiago no es Chile’ : cambio socioinstitucional, inequidades territoriales y políticas públicas para el desarrollo regional, 1990-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veyl Ahumada, Iván Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the unequal power relation between Santiago, the Chilean capital city, and the Northern region of Tarapacá in the period 1990-2010. Chile is one of the most centralized countries in Latin America. Since the 1990s decentralization process has been started including a

  14. Consideraciones sobre el fracaso escolar

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    Dora Laino

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available En lo que respecta al fracaso escolar, el texto formula algunas consideraciones desde una aproximación conceptual que procura dar cuenta de los rasgos distintivos del aprendizaje de cada sujeto humano, en especial desde una psicosociología de los procesos cognoscentes que sustente las prácticas profesionales de una clínica del aprender. El reconocimiento que hagan de una criatura sus familiares más cercanos, sus educadores, sus compañeros, condiciona la construcción de su éxito o fracaso escolar. A partir de la comunicación intersubjetiva entablada entre adultos significativos e infantes, púberes o adolescentes (ya sea entre padres e hijos como entre docentes y alumnos se producen inscripciones inconscientes estructurantes de la subjetividad como de los esquemas de acción intelectual y de los habitus sociales de los aprendientes. No es el niño quien define las relaciones educativas en las que se ve involucrado. Tampoco, y por razones análogas, es el único responsable de los esquemas y habitus que construye en su historia vital, ni mucho menos de la graduación de los contenidos que le proponen para realizar sus aprendizajes. El entendimiento que logre en cada situación dependerá de la inteligibilidad, de la subjetividad, de la sociabilidad y de la corporalidad disponibles, como rasgos distintivos de sus posibilidades para aprender, en ese momento de su trayectoria vital.

  15. La situación del arbolado urbano en Santiago./ The state of urban trees in Santiago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Hernández Palma

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available En la mayoría de los países desarrollados el concepto de manejo de la vegetación urbana ha evolucionado desde funciones meramente estética a funciones medioambientales, incluyendo los beneficios económicos cuantificables de árboles y espacios verdes. En Santiago se constata una gran diferencia entre los distintos municipios respecto de sus políticas y capacidades técnicas asociadas al manejo ("sustentable" de este recurso. Las diferencias de cobertura arbórea pueden llegar a ser de 10 a 1, entre comunas de estratos socioeconómicos altos y bajos. Por ello los servicios ambientales de la vegetación urbana también presentan una gran variabilidad espacial en la ciudad./ The management of the urban vegetation has evolved in the Developed World, from aesthetics to environmental considerations including the economic evaluation of it. In the developing countries the situation is different; in Santiago de Chile there's a deficit in the politics and technical assistance related to the management of the environment. The inequality between the rich and the poor neighbors in terms of trees in public spaces can be as much as 10 to 1. So, the environmental impact of the urban vegetation is not something to consider locally.

  16. Three halls for music performance in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, Jaime; Heuffemann, Carolina; Ramirez, Daniel; Galvez, Fernando

    2002-11-01

    The primary purpose of this work was to investigate about the present acoustic conditions of used architectonic spaces in Santiago of Chile for orchestras of classic music performance. The studied halls were three: Aula Magna Universidad de Santiago, Teatro Municipal de Nunoa, and Teatro Baquedano. The used methodology was based on studies made by L. Beranek, M. Barron, among others, in concert halls worldwide. As it guides, for the measurement procedure, physical parameters RT, EDT, C50, C80, LF, BR, G, U50 were evaluated according to norm ISO 3382. On the other hand, it has been defined, to proposal way, a questionnaire of subjective valuation directed to musicians, specialized conductors, and listeners.

  17. El movimiento estudiantil en Chile (2011-2012): Una lucha contra la discriminación

    OpenAIRE

    Arrué, Michèle

    2013-01-01

    This paper is based on the analysis of interviews conducted among senior high schools students in Santiago, Chile (September 2011 and 2012). Drawing from the categories used by the young interviewees themselves to account for their struggle, this article aims at analyzing the major student movement taking place in Chile at the moment. It focuses on the following themes: “loss of fear”, a fight for equality between human beings that goes beyond mere students claims, the significance of the not...

  18. El Congreso de Estudiantes Latinoamericanos de Santiago. Antimperialismo e indoamericanismo en el movimiento estudiantil chileno (1935-1940

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moraga Valle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Latin-American Student Conference was held in Santiago de Chile in October of 1937. During this event, the communist proposals of the "proletarian internationalism" and the "indoamericanism" of the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance (apra were confronted. Our hypothesis is that in Chile the most intense debates regarding these projects took place more through the student movement than through the formal political system. To do this we analyze the political and ideological discourse appearing in national student magazines and newspapers regarding this congress.

  19. La Realidad de la Adquisicion del Lenguaje Oral y Escrito en una Muestra de Escuelas del Sector sur de Santiago. [The Reality of the Acquisition of Oral and Written Language in a Sample of Schools in the Southern Part of Santiago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarce, Carmen Diaz; Mujica, Elena Alvarez-Salamanca

    2001-01-01

    Investigated reading and writing skills of socioeconomically deprived first graders in Santiago, Chile. Found that the children had low achievement in reading and writing and at the end of the school year had not acquired sufficient linguistic competence to successfully master these skills. Also found a dissociation between observed practice and…

  20. Country watch: Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya Leiva, M

    1996-01-01

    Servicio Paz y Justicia (SERPAJ) is a nongovernmental organization (NGO) established in Chile in 1977. It supports fundamental human dignity and rights by fighting discrimination and exclusion based upon individual differences. SERPAJ promotes training, organization, and the political participation of community members as part of the democratic process, working mainly with the at risk women, street children, and youth of Santiago's working-class neighborhoods. Groups participate in workshops and training courses on human rights and development, civic education, and methods of non-violent community action. In 1987, SERPAJ-Sur Oriente began to include the topic of sexuality and AIDS/STDs in courses training working-class women as community human rights agents. The NGO is therefore one of the first mainstream Chilean human rights organizations to incorporate HIV/AIDS issues. A basic facts brochure was developed, followed by a pilot education project developed in one neighborhood which was then systematically replicated in other neighborhoods. The comments of some people who have participated in SERPAJ workshops are presented.

  1. Cultural experiences of immigrant nurses at two hospitals in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Gabriel; Angélica-Muñoz, Luz; Hoga, Luiza Akiko Komura

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to explore the cultural experiences of nurses who immigrated to Chile. The study´s theoretical framework was the Purnell Model for Cultural Competence.METHOD: Leininger's Observation-Participation-Reflection method was developed at two hospitals in the city of Santiago, and ethnographic interviews were held with 15 immigrant nurses.RESULTS: among Purnell's 12 domains, the following were identified: Overview/heritage, Communication, Workforce issues, Family roles and organization, B...

  2. Parent's Defense of Their Children's Right to Education: Resistance Experiences against Public School Closings in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino-Yancovic, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    This is a semi-ethnographic study of three schools that were closed in a marginal community in Santiago, Chile. The school closing process was violent with many social and psychological negative consequences for guardians and students. The guardians of the students of these schools decided to take over the schools and fight against the local…

  3. [Mental disorders among immigrants in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Graciela; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Castro, Ariel; Guajardo, Viviana; Torres, Pamela; Díaz, Berta

    2011-10-01

    Chile is receiving immigrant populations coming from other Latin-American countries. To determine the prevalence of Common Mental Disorders (CMD) among immigrants who live in Independencia, a quarter in Santiago, Chile. A cross sectional study was carried out in the primary health care clinic and in the state-funded school of Independencia. A representative sample of 282 adults and 341 children were interviewed. Mental disorders were diagnosed using CIS-R and MINI structured interviews. The interviewed immigrants came mostly from Peru. The prevalence of mental disorders in the adult population was 17.8% and among children, it was 29.3%. The adult immigrants have a lower prevalence of mental disorders than the Chilean population but it increases among children. Barriers of access to health services, that should be solved, were detected.

  4. Charlando sobre el ánimo de lucro en instituciones de educación superior y las movilizaciones estudiantiles en Chile y Colombia [Entrevista a Milton Vidal y Carlos Liévano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo A. Abadía

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Entrevista a Milton Vidal y Carlos Liévano.Director de la Escuela de Sociología de la Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano de Santiago de Chile (Chile y líder de la Mesa Amplia Estudiantil de Universidades Privadas de Cali (Colombia.

  5. Current Discussions Between ESO and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    [Joint Press Release by the Government of the Republic of Chile and the European Southern Observatory. The text is issued simultaneously in Santiago de Chile (in Spanish) and at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (in English).] Today, Tuesday, 18 April 1995, at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany), Mr. Roberto Cifuentes, Plenipotentiary Ambassador representing the Government of the Republic of Chile, and the Director General of the European Southern Observatory, Professor Riccardo Giacconi, have signed a Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the Convention of 6 November 1963 which governs the relations between Chile and this International Organisation. This Agreement which in practice signifies a widening and strengthening of the cooperative relations between the Organisation and the Chilean scientific community will hereafter be submitted for ratification by the National Congress of the Republic of Chile (the Parliament) and by the ESO Council. According to the Agreement signed today, Chilean astronomers will have privileged access within up to 10 percent observing time on all present and future ESO telescopes in Chile. Moreover, ESO accepts to incorporate into its labour regulations for Chilean personnel concepts like freedom of association and collective bargaining. This signing of the Supplementary, Interpretative and Amending Agreement to the original Convention of 1963 follows after months of constructive dialogue between the parties. It constitutes an important step towards a solution of some of the pending points on the current agenda for discussions between the Government of Chile and ESO. Among the issues still pending, ESO has informed the Government of Chile that respect for its immunities by the Chilean State is of vital importance for the continuation of the construction of the world's largest telescope at Paranal, as well as the continued presence of the Organisation in Chile. The Chilean Government, on its side, and concerning

  6. Tabaquismo: Consideraciones estomatológicas

    OpenAIRE

    López Jiménez, Julián; Giménez Prats, Mª José; Boj Quesada, Juan Ramón; Caballero Herrera, Rafael

    1999-01-01

    Se abordan las consideraciones al tratamiento odontológico en el paciente adicto al tabaco (patología física y psíquica asociada), así como la patología oral más prevalente y las necesidades de tratamiento estomatológico. La utilidad de protocolizar la actuación del odontólogo en estos pacientes radica en su elevada prevalencia, superior al 40 % de la población general en Cataluña.

  7. Artritis reumatoide: consideraciones psicobiológicas

    OpenAIRE

    Japcy Margarita Quiceno; Stefano Vinaccia

    2011-01-01

    En la literatura es bien conocido el peso de las emociones negativas en la fisiopatología de la artritis reumatoide, pero hay poca información empírica del impacto de variables psicosociales positivas sobre esta enfermedad. Por tanto, el propósito de este trabajo es hacer énfasis en los factores psicobiológicos relacionados con la artritis reumatoide. Se describen las consideraciones epidemiológicas, los síntomas físicos constitutivos, los factores psicosociales más relevantes, como el papel ...

  8. Santiago, una ciudad con temor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oviedo S. Enrique

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo general de este artículo es evaluar los efectos de la inseguridad ciudadana en el uso del espacio público. Dicha evaluación exige analizar dos relaciones que se establecen en el ámbito de la violencia: la relación entre victimización y percepción de inseguridad; y la que se establece entre actitudes sociales y resolución pacífica de conflictos nacionales. Para ello, se analizaron las variables victimización, percepción de inseguridad, uso del espacio físico, actitudes hacia el sistema institucional político y social y hacia la resolución de conflictos nacionales, y las posibles relaciones entre ellas. Los datos para realizar el estudio se obtuvieron por medio de una encuesta que se llevó a cabo con 1 200 personas de 18 y 70 años de edad residentes en la ciudad de Santiago. Los resultados indican que Santiago es una ciudad de habitantes con temor y que el aumento de la percepción de inseguridad de sus habitantes contrasta con el hecho de que las tasas de victimización se hayan mantenido, más o menos, constantes en los años que precedieron a la encuesta. El temor se relaciona con el abandono del espacio público físico y sociopolítico, así como con el refugio en los espacios y la vida privados. La actitud de resolver los conflictos por medios no pacíficos es frecuente y se asocia en mayor medida con la inseguridad, la actitud negativa hacia la democracia y la falta de expectativas sobre el futuro del país. Los resultados de este estudio respaldan la idea de que para superar el temor la gente tiende a adaptarse a la realidad adoptando una postura conformista, homogeneizando las creencias y los comportamientos, y sobreestimando la fuerza como medio para resolver las diferencias.

  9. Santiago, una ciudad con temor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Oviedo S.

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo general de este artículo es evaluar los efectos de la inseguridad ciudadana en el uso del espacio público. Dicha evaluación exige analizar dos relaciones que se establecen en el ámbito de la violencia: la relación entre victimización y percepción de inseguridad; y la que se establece entre actitudes sociales y resolución pacífica de conflictos nacionales. Para ello, se analizaron las variables victimización, percepción de inseguridad, uso del espacio físico, actitudes hacia el sistema institucional político y social y hacia la resolución de conflictos nacionales, y las posibles relaciones entre ellas. Los datos para realizar el estudio se obtuvieron por medio de una encuesta que se llevó a cabo con 1 200 personas de 18 y 70 años de edad residentes en la ciudad de Santiago. Los resultados indican que Santiago es una ciudad de habitantes con temor y que el aumento de la percepción de inseguridad de sus habitantes contrasta con el hecho de que las tasas de victimización se hayan mantenido, más o menos, constantes en los años que precedieron a la encuesta. El temor se relaciona con el abandono del espacio público físico y sociopolítico, así como con el refugio en los espacios y la vida privados. La actitud de resolver los conflictos por medios no pacíficos es frecuente y se asocia en mayor medida con la inseguridad, la actitud negativa hacia la democracia y la falta de expectativas sobre el futuro del país. Los resultados de este estudio respaldan la idea de que para superar el temor la gente tiende a adaptarse a la realidad adoptando una postura conformista, homogeneizando las creencias y los comportamientos, y sobreestimando la fuerza como medio para resolver las diferencias.

  10. Parasites of the Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes in Chile Parásitos del picaflor chico (Sephanoides sephaniodes en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González-Acuña

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal and external parasites from 12 Green-backed Firecrown (Sephanoides sephaniodes were collected between January 2004 and December 2008 from the Biobío Region south-central Chile and Santiago (central Chile. Helminths collected included 1 trematode species (Mosesia sp. and 1 cestode species (Hymenolepis trinidadensis. The mite Proctophyllodes huitzilopchtlii was the only ectoparasite species found. All these parasites represent new records for Chile and the first parasites reported for this host species.Se recolectaron parásitos internos (gastrointestinales y externos de 12 picaflores (Sephanoides sephaniodes entre enero del 2004 y diciembre del 2008, de la región del Biobío en el centro-sur de Chile y en Santiago, en la región central de Chile. Los helmintos recolectados incluyeron 1 especie de trematodo (Mosesia sp. y 1 de cestodo (Hymenolepis trinidadensis. Únicamente se encontró 1 especie de ectoparásito, el ácaro Proctophyllodes huitzilopchtlii. Todos los parásitos mencionados representan nuevos registros para Chile y se registran por primera vez para este hospedero.

  11. Algunas consideraciones teóricas sobre el liderazgo transformacional

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Otilia Bracho Parra; Jesús García Guiliany

    2013-01-01

    El artículo tuvo como objetivo, realizar algunas consideraciones teóricas sobre el liderazgo transformacional, tomando como referencia los planteamientos de Bass y Avolio (2006), Velásquez (2006), Lerma (2007...

  12. Concurso Internacional: “Área de remodelación en el centro de Santiago de Chile” - U.I.A. 1972. Primer Premio. Galería fotográfica. / International competition: “Redevelopment area in down town Santiago – Chile” – U.I.A. 1972. First prize. Photo Gallery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revista de Urbanismo (M.I.Pavez Co-Ed.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Revista de Urbanismo presenta una compilación de imágenes referidas al Concurso Internacional: “Área de remodelación en el centro de Santiago de Chile” - U.I.A. 1972. Ella ha sido realizada a partir de los archivos profesionales del arquitecto Emilio Sessa (por su gentileza desde Argentina, y del arquitecto Juan Parrochia B., (en la Colección “Juan Parrochia Beguin”, Archivo Nacional de Chile, DIBAM. También se presenta imágenes en AUCA N° 24/25, Santiago de Chile, 1973; en SUMMA, N°57, Buenos Aires, Argentina, marzo de 1975, y finalmente, una fotografía aérea vertical en Google Earth, mayo de 2011. Otras fotografías de interés han sido realizadas por M.I. Pavez R. y Diego Vallejos O., en mayo de 2011. /Revista de Urbanismo presents a compilation of images referring to the International Competition "Redevelopment area in downtown Santiago de Chile" - UIA 1972. It compiles the architect's professional files of Emilio Sessa (by courtesy from Argentina, and Juan Parrochia B., (from the collection "Juan Parrochia Beguin", National Archives of Chile, DIBAM. It also presents images from AUCA No. 24/25, Santiago de Chile, 1973, and from SUMMA N°57, Buenos Aires, Argentina, March 1975, and finally, a vertical aerial photography in Google Earth, May 2011. Other photos of interest have been carried out by M.I. Pavez R. and Diego Vallejos O., in May 2011.

  13. Eso's Situation in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-02-01

    ESO, the European Southern Observatory, in reply to questions raised by the international media, as well as an ongoing debate about the so-called "Paranal case" in Chilean newspapers, would like to make a number of related observations concerning its status and continued operation in that country [1]. THE ESO OBSERVATORY SITES IN CHILE The European Southern Observatory, an international organisation established and supported by eight European countries, has been operating more than 30 years in the Republic of Chile. Here ESO maintains one of the world's prime astronomical observatories on the La Silla mountain in the southern part of the Atacama desert. This location is in the Fourth Chilean Region, some 600 km north of Santiago de Chile. In order to protect the La Silla site against dust and light pollution from possible future mining industries, roads and settlements, ESO early acquired the territory around this site. It totals about 825 sq. km and has effectively contributed to the preservation of its continued, excellent "astronomical" quality. Each year, more than 500 astronomers from European countries, Chile and elsewhere profit from this when they come to La Silla to observe with one or more of the 15 telescopes now located there. In 1987, the ESO Council [2] decided to embark upon one of the most prestigious and technologically advanced projects ever conceived in astronomy, the Very Large Telescope (VLT). It will consist of four interconnected 8.2-metre telescopes and will become the largest optical telescope in the world when it is ready. It is safe to predict that many exciting discoveries will be made with this instrument, and it will undoubtedly play a very important role in our exploration of the distant universe and its many mysteries during the coming decades. THE VLT AND PARANAL In order to find the best site for the VLT, ESO performed a thorough investigation of many possible mountain tops, both near La Silla and in Northern Chile. They showed

  14. La recuperación urbana y residencial del centro de Santiago: Nuevos habitantes, cambios socioespaciales significativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasna Contreras Gatica

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available De forma paralela al proceso de expansión suburbana en las ciudades latinoamericanas y, en especial, en Santiago de Chile, se observa un movimiento residencial y espacial centrípeto, que pone en valor los atributos de localización de sus espacios centrales y que lleva a plantear la tesis del regreso a la ciudad consolidada. Dicho movimiento se inicia en los años noventa, cuando el municipio de Santiago lleva a cabo el Plan de Repoblamiento cuyos objetivos se orientaron a la generación de una oferta de vivienda nueva en zonas de deterioro y en barrios consolidados y bien conectados al resto del sistema metropolitano. A esto último, se sumaron obras de mejoramiento vial y urbano, el arribo de oferta cultural y comercial y, por sobre todo, la llegada de nuevos habitantes urbanos, específicamente jóvenes y adultos profesionales y técnicos que posicionaron y consolidaron al centro como uno de los espacios residenciales más dinámicos.Parallel to the process of suburban expansion in the Latin American cities and especially in Santiago of Chile a centrifugal residential and spatial movement is observed. This movement values the attributes of location of central spaces, thus raising the thesis of the return of the consolidated city. This movement begins in the nineties, when the municipality of Santiago carries out a Repopulation Plan that was oriented to the generation of a supply of new housing in of deteriorated zones and in consolidated and well connected districts. Works of road and urban improvement, the arrival of cultural and commercial supply and the arrival of new urban inhabitants --specifically young and adult professionals and technicians, who positioned and consolidated the downtown area as one of the more dynamic residential spaces-were added.

  15. Políticas de vivienda social en el Gran Santiago: proletarización de los sectores populares urbanos

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha Pérez, Rodrigo; Antilef Osorio, Patricio; Villarroel de la Sotta, José

    2007-01-01

    La sumatoria de los procesos productivos, migraciones y pobreza que ha afectado a Santiago de Chile durante el siglo XX ha configurado un cuadro de déficit de viviendas entre los sectores populares como consecuencia del fuerte crecimiento poblacional, la falta de infraestructura urbana y la inestabilidad laboral de los sectores más desposeídos. Es en la segunda mitad del siglo citado cuando el Estado redefine sus políticas habitacionales enfatizando en la resolución de las necesidades primor...

  16. Primer "Entrenamiento en Metodologías de Investigación Clínica en Chile" (EMIC-Chile: Fundamentos psicoeducativos First "Training in Clinical Research Methodologies in Chile" (EMIC-Chile: Psychoeducational foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cabieses

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available EMIC-Chile ("Entrenamiento en Metodologías para la Investigación Clínica en Chile" es un proyecto académico desarrollado durante el año 2008 en Chile para entrenar a profesionales de la salud y disciplinas afines en metodología de investigación clínica, con el objetivo de aumentar la calidad de los proyectos de investigación con fines concursables en nuestro país. El propósito de este artículo es dar a conocer el programa y sus fundamentos teóricos de enseñanza-aprendizaje, que estuvieron en la base de la estructura, metodología, evaluación y sistematización del conocimiento entregado. Para ello, primero se describe el programa, la metodología, la evaluación y el seguimiento. Posteriormente se detallan los aspectos psicoeducativos considerados, con especial énfasis en el aprendizaje social y la educación de adultos. Finalmente, se discute en torno a las posibles consideraciones de este programa para futuras intervenciones educativas en investigación en salud en Chile. Se espera que esta experiencia y sus fundamentos educativos sirvan de motor para futuras iniciativas en el área, a favor de la investigación en salud en Chile.EMIC-Chile ("Entrenamiento en Metodologías para la Investigación Clínica en Chile" is an academic project developed in Chile during 2008 to train health professionals in clinical research. The purpose of this initiative was to improve the quality of research projects that are submitted to apply for public funding. The aim of this article is to describe the psycho-educative theories that supported this training program, its structure, methods and evaluation. Firstly, the program is described in detail. Secondly, psycho-educative theories are described, with special emphasis of social learning theory and education for adults. Finally, implications of EMIC-Chile are stated, in order to improve future research training experiences in Chile. It is expected that this article enhance other research experts

  17. Abundance of Mepraia spinolai in a Periurban Zone of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cattan Pedro E

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Mepraia spinolai is a silvatic species of Triatominae which prefers microhabitats near to or in rock piles. It is also able to maintain similar or higher size populations near houses. The density of bugs in quarries near Santiago, Chile, differed within microhabitats and varied significantly within sites according to season. M. spinolai was not found in sites characterized by human perturbation of quarries. Our results confirm M. spinolai as a silvatic triatomine whose importance as a vector of Chagas disease will depend on contact with humans. This could occur if the habitats where populations of this species are found become exploited for the building of urban areas.

  18. Abundance of Mepraia spinolai in a Periurban zone of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattan, Pedro E; Pinochet, Angélica; Botto-Mahan, Carezza; Acuna, Mariana I; Canals, Mauricio

    2002-04-01

    Mepraia spinolai is a silvatic species of Triatominae which prefers microhabitats near to or in rock piles. It is also able to maintain similar or higher size populations near houses. The density of bugs in quarries near Santiago, Chile, differed within microhabitats and varied significantly within sites according to season. M. spinolai was not found in sites characterized by human perturbation of quarries. Our results confirm M. spinolai as a silvatic triatomine whose importance as a vector of Chagas disease will depend on contact with humans. This could occur if the habitats where populations of this species are found become exploited for the building of urban areas.

  19. Chanco formation, a potential Cretaceous reservoir, central Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecione, G.

    1983-07-01

    The Chanco embayment lies 300 km SSW of Santiago, Chile. The sequence within this basin above the metamorphic basement is: Chanco Formation (very clean sandstone), Quiriquina Formation (glauconitic sandstone, rich in organic matter), and Navidad Group (a very good caprock). This section thus contains reservoir, source and caprocks, and is therefore very promising for petroleum investigations. The offshore C-1 well yielded salt-water with gas shows, and two wells drilled onshore yielded shows of gas. The C-1 well lies on a gently-dipping EW-striking anticlinal structure, the presence of which makes the area very prospective.

  20. Santiago Pérez: el dramaturgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Lamus Obregón

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available La vida de Santiago Pérez como escritor de poemas y dramas fue muy corta y pertenece a sus años de juventud. En la edad madura esta incursión la consideró un pecado que lo hacía ruborizar: por ello compraba los libros editados por la generosidad de Lorenzo María Lleras y los quemaba. Y es que el "señorito" Santiago Pérez, alumno aventajado del colegio del Espíritu Santo y después profesor de literatura y filosofía, recibió también de su maestro, don Lorenzo María Lleras, influencia política, literaria y teatral.

  1. IDENTIDAD DEL DESPLAZAMIENTO/REFUGIO. MEMORIA E IDENTIDAD COLECTIVA EN REFUGIADOS PALESTINOS REASENTADOS EN CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    CONTRERAS ROJAS, PAULA; CONTRERAS ROJAS, PAULA

    2010-01-01

    La investigación que presento a continuación es el recorrido de dos años de trabajo en la Maestría de Estudios Políticos y Sociales de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. El recorrido tiene su origen en Santiago de Chile, en el año 2008, con el anuncio por parte del gobierno de Chile de la acogida y reasentamiento de un grupo de refugiados palestinos que se encontraban en un campamento de refugiados en la frontera entre Iraq y Siria, como parte del Programa de Reas...

  2. IDENTIDAD DE DESPLAZAMIENTO/REFUGIO MEMORIA E IDENTIDAD COLECTIVA EN REFUGIADOS PALESTINOS REASENTADOS EN CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    CONTRERAS ROJAS ; PAULA; CONTRERAS ROJAS ; PAULA

    2010-01-01

    La investigación que presento a continuación es el recorrido de dos años de trabajo en la Maestría de Estudios Políticos y Sociales de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. El recorrido tiene su origen en Santiago de Chile, en el año 2008, con el anuncio por parte del gobierno de Chile de la acogida y reasentamiento de un grupo de refugiados palestinos que se encontraban en un campamento de refugiados en la frontera entre Iraq y Siria, como parte del Programa de Reasentam...

  3. El color a las puertas de Santiago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Martínez, Alberto

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available On the occasion of the Xacobeo 93, within the program of the works carried out to complete the urban infrastructures, Santiago de Compostela decided to undertake the morphological adaptation of the area located in the eastern part of the city, the arrival point of the Pilgrims Road to Santiago. In different parts of Spain, small chromatic actions are being carried out, mostly on the heritage of old buildings; on the contrary, the project which is the object of this article, beside being characteristic for its large scope, also has the peculiarity of referring to a recent architecture, dating from the 60s-70s.

    Dentro del programa de obras realizadas por completar las infraestructuras urbanas, con motivo del Xacobeo 93, Santiago de Compostela decide la adecuación morfológica del barrio situado al Este de la ciudad, llegada del Camino Jacobeo. Si bien en distintos puntos de nuestro país se están produciendo pequeñas actuaciones cromáticas, éstas recaen siempre en el patrimonio edificado antiguo; por el contrario, el proyecto objeto de este artículo, además de la amplitud de su intervención, tiene la particularidad de referirse a una arquitectura reciente, de los años 60-70.

  4. Artritis reumatoide: consideraciones psicobiológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Japcy Margarita Quiceno

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En la literatura es bien conocido el peso de las emociones negativas en la fisiopatología de la artritis reumatoide, pero hay poca información empírica del impacto de variables psicosociales positivas sobre esta enfermedad. Por tanto, el propósito de este trabajo es hacer énfasis en los factores psicobiológicos relacionados con la artritis reumatoide. Se describen las consideraciones epidemiológicas, los síntomas físicos constitutivos, los factores psicosociales más relevantes, como el papel que juegan las emociones positivas y negativas, el apoyo social, la resiliencia, la autotrascendencia y la percepción de enfermedad en la evolución y pronóstico de esta patología reumática. Conclusión: variables psicosociales positivas pueden promover la salud mental y física y aminorar el afecto negativo en pacientes con artritis reumatoide.

  5. Outdoor gyms in Santiago: urban distribution and effects on physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Mora

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To put together a registry of the location of all existing outdoor gyms (OGs in Santiago, Chile, and establish a profile of the users of these gyms. Methods All OGs in Santiago located in public spaces were identified and geo-referenced, and an accessibility analysis of them was carried out. A total of 1,023 users of OGs were surveyed (71% men, average age 31.5 years old, SD =16.6, about the frequency of use of OGs, amount of time spent using them, transportation habits, motivation for usage, and their perceptions regarding their own health, among other questions. In addition, each person's neck circumference was measured. Results There are 1,981 OGs in the city squares, sidewalks and parks, mostly located in poorest areas of the city. Most OG users live less than one kilometer away from an OG. Discussion In line with international studies, this research demonstrates that OGs have positive collateral effects, as they not only contribute to users to increase their physical activity, but also because they attract people with sedentary lifestyles to make physical activity. This, in turn, might contribute to make urban areas more livable and safer, for they bring new "eyes to the street" and permit to use cities' under-occupied public spaces. Conclusion The proliferation of outdoor gyms should be regarded as an opportunity for public health policies aimed at tackling the obesity problem and increasing the physical activity of people.

  6. Emotive movement on the road to Santiago de Compostela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.H.M.; Peelen, J.

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the emotions pilgrims experience on the road to Santiago de Compostela in the northwest of Spain. An increasing number of pilgrims take the road (el camino) to Santiago, but for many of them the movement on foot seems to be more important than reaching the tomb of St. James.

  7. Primer "Entrenamiento en Metodologías de Investigación Clínica en Chile" (EMIC-Chile: Fundamentos psicoeducativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Cabieses

    Full Text Available EMIC-Chile ("Entrenamiento en Metodologías para la Investigación Clínica en Chile" es un proyecto académico desarrollado durante el año 2008 en Chile para entrenar a profesionales de la salud y disciplinas afines en metodología de investigación clínica, con el objetivo de aumentar la calidad de los proyectos de investigación con fines concursables en nuestro país. El propósito de este artículo es dar a conocer el programa y sus fundamentos teóricos de enseñanza-aprendizaje, que estuvieron en la base de la estructura, metodología, evaluación y sistematización del conocimiento entregado. Para ello, primero se describe el programa, la metodología, la evaluación y el seguimiento. Posteriormente se detallan los aspectos psicoeducativos considerados, con especial énfasis en el aprendizaje social y la educación de adultos. Finalmente, se discute en torno a las posibles consideraciones de este programa para futuras intervenciones educativas en investigación en salud en Chile. Se espera que esta experiencia y sus fundamentos educativos sirvan de motor para futuras iniciativas en el área, a favor de la investigación en salud en Chile.

  8. Chile. Actores Populares en la Protesta Nacional, 1983-1984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa REVILLA BLANCO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Los acontecimientos y los actores implicados en las movilizaciones producidas en Santiago de Chile en 1983-84, son el objeto de andlisis de este artículo. Tras una breve exposición del contexto económico y político, se describen los rasgos fundamentales y la evolución de las protestas. Del análisis de los hechos se deducen tres objetivos implícitos en las movilizaciones: recuperación de la identidad política y social, integración polltica de los excluidos y democracia. Los resultados son dispares; mientras en el plano político se produce una derrota, en lo referente a la expresividad de las acciones y al problema de la integración, las movilizaciones fueron exitosas.ABSTRACT: ThLs article focuses on the events and actors involved in the mobilizations tha took place in Santiago de Chile between 1983-1984. After a short exposition of the political and economic context, it describes the main characteristics and the protest's evolution. Three implicit objetives can be identified from the demostrations: the recovering of social and political identity, the political integration of the excluded people and democracy. The results are inequal; while on the political level a defeat ocurs, with regard to the expressiveness of the actions and the integration's problem, the mobilizations were successful.

  9. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Chile 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Chile has experienced several serious energy supply incidents over the last decade, including major droughts, a sustained gas supply cut from Argentina (since 2004), and a major earthquake in early 2010 which affected electricity networks and refineries, and caused several black-outs. Due to Chile's unique and sinuous geography - it runs 4 300 kilometres from North to South and only 175 kms from East to West- the country's energy markets are regionally disjointed, particularly as the regional gas and electricity grids are not connected. In the arid North, energy demand is dominated by the mining industry, and operates based on a separate thermal-based Sistema Interconectado Norte Grande (SING) electricity grid. The more densely-populated central region (including Santiago) operates on the more hydro-dependent Sistema Interconectado Central (SIC) electricity grid. The southernmost, hydro-rich regions of the country are not connected to the rest of Chile in terms of electricity and gas. The following report is based on an IEA Emergency Response Assessment carried out in 2010 and 2011 which looked specifically at Chile's capacity to respond to short-term emergencies in oil, gas and electricity.

  10. Animal Parade: otros tiempos de resolución en la arquitectura de Santiago de Chile. / Animal Parade: other resolution times in the architecture of Santiago de Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aránguiz Pinto, Javier

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir de la metáfora de las esculturas pintadas y del diorama humano como imagen de obra pública, se presenta un catastro de proyectos recientes, verificando si las observaciones anteriores[2] demuestran continuidad en esta etapa de resolución de la ciudad. Si observamos algunas obras con vocación pública y analizamos su replicabilidad crítica, aparecerían nuevas condicionantes que hacen implementar una arquitectura de autor, que si bien profundiza una alta cualidad en el diseño, manifiesta situaciones de frágil subsistencia y baja consolidación./Based on the metaphor of the painted sculptures and ‘human diorama’ as the image of public works, the author presents a cadastre of recent projects to verify if the previous observations demonstrate continuity in this stage of resolution of the city. If we observe some of the works with public vocation and analyze its critical replicability, we would find that there are new conditions that demand a customized architecture, that implies a high quality in the design, but at the same time it presents situations of fragility in its subsistence and low consolidation.

  11. Transformaciones de Santiago de Chile 1960 – 1980. La manzana de la ciudad interior./ Transformations of Santiago de Chile from 1960 to 1980. The inner city block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonás Figueroa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este escrito presenta reflexión sobre cuatro grandes operaciones que pueden ser consideradas, a nuestro entender, los pilares sobre los que se funda la acción urbanística y arquitectónica que se realiza a lo largo del tercer cuarto del siglo XX. Es éste un período con avances y retrocesos, creativo y traumático para la historia social y económica del país y también para la historia de la ciudad./ This paper presents reflections on four main operations that can be considered, in our opinion, the pillars on which rests the town-planning and architecture that is done during the third quarter of the century. Is this a period with advances and setbacks, creative and traumatic for the social and economic history of the country and also for the history of the city.

  12. [The 140th anniversary of Revista Médica de Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, B Humberto; Andresen, H Max; Palma, H Joaquín

    2012-01-01

    Revista Médica de Chile was founded in 1872 and thus is one of the oldest medical journals being published since the 19th Century. The sponsoring institution--"Sociedad Médica de Santiago", founded in 1869--initially was the only scientific society in Chile, gathering medical doctors from every existing specialty. With the splitting of independent organizations representing specific specialties, including subspecial-ties of internal medicine, Sociedad Médica de Santiago focused its scope of action to become the "Chilean Society of Internal Medicine". Its official journal -Revista Médica de Chile--is currently a general and internal medicine journal that also publishes articles on scientific and technological advances in many fields of medicine and health sciences. While initially all authors were Chilean, the journal is now open to submissions from abroad and since the year 2000 articles are published in English when the local language of authors is not Spanish. The number of articles received determines an increasing administrative and editorial burden and, together with the high cost of publishing, will require changes in publication policies. The journal will participate in continuing medical education programs as soon as reaccreditation of medical specialties becomes officially organized in Chile.

  13. La guerra de la basura de Santiago: desde el derecho a la vivienda al derecho a la ciudad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sabatini

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Con base en un estudio de caso, este artículo discute las características de las movilizaciones populares urbanas en la ciudad de Santiago, Chile, comparándolas con el mítico "movimiento de pobladores" de los años sesenta. Aquéllas aparecen como reactivas, persiguiendo fines prácticos, animadas de cierto espíritu conservador (de defensa de lo que existe o se tiene y cargadas de desconfianza hacia los partidos y el sistema político. Sin embargo, y paradójicamente, el estudio pone de relieve la existencia de trazos democráticos de los que carecía el movimiento de pobladores, cruzado por la lógica clientelista que impulsaban los partidos políticos. Incluso, las actuales iniciativas populares podrían contener potencialidades de cambio social en gran medida insospechadas.Based on a case study, the paper discusses collective political initiatives on the part of popular groups in Santiago, Chile, and makes a comparison with the mythical "pobladores movement" of the sixties -pobladores being the name given in Chile to low-class settlers of the urban periphery. Current mobilizations show up as being reactive, geared at practical goals, inspired by conservatism (the defense of what exists or is possessed and loaded with cynicism towards political parties and the political system. Nevertheless, and paradoxically enough, these collective endeavors may comprise democratic traits which the pobladores movement, crossed as it was by the clientelist logics put forward by political parties, lacked off. Current popular initiatives could even include social change potential to a great extent unsuspected.

  14. A new species of Alsodes (Anura: Alsodidae) from Altos de Cantillana, central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Andrés; Correa, Claudio; Castro, Camila; Méndez, Marco A

    2015-02-05

    Based on morphological and molecular evidence (mitochondrial and nuclear sequences) we describe a new species of spiny-chest frog, Alsodes cantillanensis, from central Chile (around 34°S). The type locality, Quebrada Infiernillo, is located in the Coastal Range at approximately 65 km from Santiago (Metropolitan Region), the capital of Chile. The distribution of the new species is included entirely in that of A. nodosus (32-36°S approximately), which was identified as the sister taxon according to molecular phylogenetic analyses. Moreover, both species are sympatric in the type locality. The new species was found in a Nothofagus macrocarpa relict forest potentially threatened by gold mining activities. We identify other threats for its conservation and some biological data needed for understanding the evolution of this species. This discovery reveals the scarce knowledge about biogeography, evolution and ecology of spiny-chest frogs from central Chile

  15. Consideraciones de diseño para robots miniaturizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Vega Castillo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un resumende las principales consideraciones parael diseño de robots miniaturizados, desdeel punto de vista de su arquitectura.La definición de la arquitectura de unminirobot se discute desde los aspectosfuncional, físico y comportamental; esteúltimo incluye la arquitectura de software.Se discuten, también, aspectos clavesde la implementación de la arquitecturafuncional y física que pueden definir lafactibilidad de miniaturizar un robot,entre estos: el consumo de potencia, elsistema de comunicación y la fuente deenergía del robot. Se contemplan, también,las consideraciones de diseño para losactuadores microelectromecánicos.

  16. La Victoria de Pedro Aguirre Cerda: ideas para una renovación urbana sin gentrificación para Santiago./ La Victoria of Pedro Aguirre Cerda: ideas for an urban renewal without gentrification in Santiago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto López

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El modelo de renovación urbana en altura de Santiago, en expansión hacia áreas populares del pericentro, es una forma de acumulación de renta de suelo, con efectos de desplazamiento social, es decir, gentrificación. Sin embargo, el pericentro de Santiago es un espacio donde coexisten amplias necesidades y capacidades de densificación urbana sin desplazamiento. Tomando como caso de estudio el desarrollo urbano histórico y actual de la población La Victoria, en Pedro Aguirre Cerda (PAC, se plantea una investigación enfocada en dos perspectivas: histórica, definiendo este espacio desde la dialéctica entre movimientos sociales urbanos y producción espacial específica; y normativa, como una propuesta espacial que combina aspectos claves de mejoramiento barrial y densificación inclusiva y autosustentable. Se evidencia de esta forma la alta complejidad espacial del pericentro de Santiago de Chile, así como la existencia de alternativas de renovación residencial pericentral que sean social y políticamente inclusivas y de bajo impacto en términos de expulsión./ The model of high-rise urban renewal sprawls towards Santiago de Chile’s inner city. This model can be understood as a form of gentrification based on considerable accumulation of the rent gap, while its externalities generate social displacement and physical dilapidation. Notwithstanding, Santiago’s inner city is also a lived space where both needs and capacities of urban regeneration (without displacement coexist. Focusing on the case of La Victoria población, located in the southern municipality of Pedro Aguirre Cerda (PAC, this article seeks to address the following two topics: historically, the inner city responds to a dialectic of urban social movements and specific spatial production; normatively, as an ongoing research project shows, it is feasible to combine neighbourhood regeneration, urban density increase, and citizen participation. The article substantiates the

  17. IDRC in Chile

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers at PUC also studied residential energy use, the need to use wood fuel more efficiently, and the potential for small- and medium-scale hydroelectric power generation. Chile's energy management policies drew on this research. IDRC. IDRC in Chile. INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH CENTRE. R.

  18. Vascular alien flora, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Ugarte, Eduardo; Lira, Francisco; Fuentes, Nicol; Klotz, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    We compiled a list of 737 alien plant species growing in continental Chile. Most names were obtained from herbarium specimens (mainly herbarium CONC at Universidad de Concepción, Chile). More than fifty percent of the species are european in origin. Besides, records also include: traits related to life-cycle and brief coments on origin and history of introduction.

  19. Os fondos galegos da Biblioteca Universitaria de Santiago

    OpenAIRE

    Incio, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    History and current affairs of the " Catálogo Galicia " of the Biblioteca Universitaria de Santiago, the largest bibliographical database of Galician subjects and the database "Authors Galician na BUSC", the best directory of authors of Galician themes.

  20. Hacia un planteamiento de arquitectura docente, en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mac Clure Alamos, Oscar

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available On this pages the author expound the different architectural Solutions adopted for school projects from his professional experience: 22 years (1959-1981 in the Construction Society of Educational Establishments in Santiago de Chile, as well as the execution -four years at the Santiago University (late State Technical University- of the modified project for the Planetarium which had been projected by the Construction Society. He also expound briefly a number of constructions of educational character carried out through the practicing of his profession. Taking as a base these experiences, he offers some suggestions and conclusions that will be useful for future programmes intended to solve the problems of the school buildings. From a critical and objective position he tries to show the actual situation on the educational architecture in this country.En estas páginas se pretende dar a conocer diferentes soluciones arquitectónicas adoptadas en los proyectos escolares, a través de mi experiencia profesional, durante 22 años (1959 - 1981 en la Sociedad Constructora de Establecimientos Educacionales en Santiago de Chile. También la ejecución, durante 4 años (1981 - 1985, en la Universidad de Santiago (ex Universidad Técnica del Estado del proyecto modificado y la construcción del edificio para el Planetario, que había realizado en la Sociedad Constructora. En forma breve expondré, además, algunas obras de carácter educacional, realizadas en el ejercicio privado de mi profesión. En base a estas experiencias procuraré entregar algunas sugerencias y conclusiones que podrían ser útiles en futuros programas destinados a resolver los problemas de las construcciones docentes. Desde una posición crítica y objetiva intentaré también dar a conocer la situación actual de la arquitectura educacional en el país.

  1. Imaginarios urbanos en el Gran Santiago: huellas de una metamorfosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Márquez

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A partir de una lectura entrelineas del libro Santiago en EURE. Huellas de una metamorfosis metropolitana: 1970/2000, se reflexiona sobre los imaginarios urbanos en Santiago en estos últimos treinta años. Más allá de los objetivos y marcos conceptuales de los autores, se afirma que siempre e inevitablemente, algo de estos imaginarios urbanos se filtra y expresa en cada uno de los textos escogidos. El análisis se detiene en tres grandes relatos imaginarios en torno a la ciudad de Santiago: Uno que persiste y resiste a los tiempos, el imaginario de ciudad/país. Y otros dos que en su metamorfosis incompleta anuncian las contradicciones nunca resueltas de los habitantes de esta ciudad de Santiago: El imaginario de ciudad integrada / ciudad trizada. El imaginario de ciudad aldea / ciudad mundoFrom a reading, between the lines, of the book Santiago en EURE. Huellas de una metamorfosis metropolitana: 1970/2000, this article reflects on the urban imaginaries of Santiago presented over the last thirty years. Beyond the declared objectives and conceptual frameworks of the authors, it can be noted that aspects of these urban imaginaries filter into and are expressed in each of the selected texts. The analysis focuses on three principal imaginary narratives for the city of Santiago: one that persists and resists over time, the imaginary of city/country, and two others that through their incomplete metamorphosis are never resolved by the inhabitants of the city: the imaginary of the integrated city/fractured city and the imaginary of the village city ¡world city

  2. Santiago: territorios, anhelos y temores. Efectos sociales y espaciales de la expansión urbana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Ducci

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo se propone examinar cuáles son los tipos de espacios que se generan en la ciudad de Santiago de Chile, centrando su interés en aquellas áreas que se despliegan en los límites de la urbe. La periferia se ha ido desarrollando a través de la fuerte expansión experimentada por la ciudad durante las últimas décadas, surgiendo en ella nuevos desarrollos que comienzan a modificar la forma de habitar el territorio. Entre estos identificar zonas residenciales de nivel medio y alto, áreas de vivienda social, "artefactos de la globalización" y nuevas zonas industriales. Dada la importancia de los cambios, se analiza cómo dicho crecimiento desigual, está afectando la vida de los habitantes urbanos y cómo resulta vivir en cada uno de estos fragmentos yuxtapuestos. Adicionalmente se examinan las dinámicas que subyacen a las formas urbanas contemporáneas, las políticas de localización de las personas y actividades, el síndrome de la casa propia, el estatus y el estigma en la ciudad, la ciudad que decimos querer para vivir y el miedo a la violencia y al crimenThe article proposes to examine the types of space being generated in Santiago, Chile, focusing on those areas that spread out on the edges of the city. The periphery has been developing through the strong expansion experienced by the city during the last decades, and new developments are beginning to modify the way in which territory is ocuppied. Among these developments are residential areas of middle and upper social levels, areas of public housing, "artifacts of globalization" and new industrial areas. Given the importance of these changes, the paper analyzes how this unequal growth is affecting the life of city-dwellers and what it is like to live in each one of these juxtaposed fragments. Additionally, the dynamics that underlie contemporary urban forms, the politics of people’s location and activities, the syndrome of ownership , urban status and stigma, the city

  3. Umweltpolitik in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Önel, Jale; Wittelsbürger, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Im lateinamerikanischen Raum gilt Chile als in vielfacher Hinsicht stabiles, ja vorbildliches Land: Eine gute weltwirtschaftliche Integration, solide Wachstumsdaten und politische Stabilität sprechen für sich. Doch als das Land 2003 der OECD beitreten wollte und von dieser kritisch geprüft wurde, zeigten sich, zumal im Umweltschutzbereich, arge Defizite. In der Tat hat Umweltpolitik in Chile kaum Tradition: Zwar erkannte bereits in den sechziger Jahren Regierungschef Frei Montalva die Umweltb...

  4. Simbiosis: Consideraciones terminológicas y evolutivas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luko Hilje

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Se redefinen los tipos de asociaciones simbióticas más conocidas, a partir de consideraciones sobre su significado conceptual y biológico. Se plantea un esquema preliminar de clasificación, con dos categorías de simbiosis: recíproca y antagónica. La primera muestra una sola línea evolutiva, tendiente a mayor especificidad entre los organismos asociados, e  incluye al comensalismo, protocooperación y mutualismo. La segunda muestra tres líneas evolutivas separadas, con diferentes grados de especificidad, e involucra el amensalismo, depredación y parasitismo.

  5. Simbiosis: Consideraciones terminológicas y evolutivas

    OpenAIRE

    Luko Hilje

    2016-01-01

    Se redefinen los tipos de asociaciones simbióticas más conocidas, a partir de consideraciones sobre su significado conceptual y biológico. Se plantea un esquema preliminar de clasificación, con dos categorías de simbiosis: recíproca y antagónica. La primera muestra una sola línea evolutiva, tendiente a mayor especificidad entre los organismos asociados, e  incluye al comensalismo, protocooperación y mutualismo. La segunda muestra tres líneas evolutivas separadas, con diferentes grados de espe...

  6. Algunas consideraciones teóricas sobre el liderazgo transformacional

    OpenAIRE

    Otilia Bracho Parra; Jesús García Guiliany

    2013-01-01

    El artículo tuvo como objetivo, realizar algunas consideraciones teóricas sobre el liderazgo transformacional, tomando como referencia los planteamientos de Bass y Avolio (2006), Velásquez (2006), Lerma (2007), Leithwood, Mascall y Strauss (2009), entre otros. El proceso metodológico implico revisión bibliográfica, a través de la hermenéutica. Concluyendo que el liderazgo transformacional implica convertir a los colaboradores en personas creativas, motivadas al logro, comprometidas e identifi...

  7. Comunistas y anticomunistas. Redes políticas y culturales en Argentina y Chile durante la Guerra Fría (circa 1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Carmen Scirica

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Los trabajos incluidos en este dossier analizan los posicionamientos, las prácticas y las redes de relaciones de diversos espacios anticomunistas y comunistas en la Argentina y Chile. Esta propuesta, pues, pone en comunicación los distintos núcleos en lugar de concentrarse exclusivamente en el análisis de grupos abroquelados dentro de una misma familia ideológica o partidaria. Al respecto, se parte del supuesto de que el despliegue de cada uno de ellos se construye en íntima conexión con las prácticas, anclajes y discursividades de los otros, y en forma articulada con los imaginarios y las representaciones creadas sobre esos mismos otros.Con estas consideraciones presentes, este abordaje articula dos espacios vecinos y contemporáneos a partir de un problema en común (Bloch, 1992. El mismo está dado, como se indicó, por el modo en que se configuraron organizaciones, dispositivos y apuestas anticomunistas de distinto signo –ya sea desde esferas progresistas, investigadas en este dossier por Jorge Nallim a través de su estudio comparativo sobre el Congreso por la Libertad de la Cultura en ambos países, o desde múltiples espacios de derecha, analizados por Ernesto Boholavsky y Martín Vicente en el caso argentino– entre mediados de la década de 1950 y 1960, al fragor de la Guerra Fría en América latina. Al mismo tiempo, esa misma concatenación incidió en la propia estrategia del campo comunista y su búsqueda de alianzas o apelación a otros sectores. Inserta en esa lógica, la otra cuestión abordada refiere al contexto y los avatares que se desplegaron en torno a la organización del Primer Congreso Latinoamericano de Mujeres realizado en Santiago de Chile, así como su denostación como “pantalla” del comunismo internacional, según sus detractores –problemáticas examinadas por Adriana Valobra–.En esta dinámica, el influjo de la Revolución Cubana acentuó expectativas y resquemores en los actores en estudio, a

  8. La resitencia anti-española y el rol de las fortalezas indígenas en Chile central, 1536-1545

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo León

    Full Text Available La entrada de los españoles a Chile Central en 1536 y 1540 ocurrió sin que mediaran grandes ni sangrientos confrontociones con los nativos. Desde el Perú hasta Santiago, los peninsulares recibieron el apoyo de los tercios irrperiales incaicos estacionados en el área y de sus aliados nativos, quienes les proporcionaron apoyo mterial, político o militar. La conquisto de Chile prometía ser un evento que se conseguiría sin mayores costos ni sacrificios. Las viejas leyendas sobre los belicosos Promaucaes parecían ser no más que leyendas. Sin embargo, lo que hasta allí había sido una expansión  relativamente fácil fue súbitamente detenida al sur de Santiago y sus alrededores acausa de la obstinado resistencia indígena local.

  9. Biocultural Homogenization in Urban Settings: Public Knowledge of Birds in City Parks of Santiago, Chile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juan L Celis-Diez; Cesar E Muñoz; Sebastian Abades; Pablo A Marquet; Juan J Armesto

    2017-01-01

    .... To assess this correspondence, we sampled avian species richness in 10 representative city parks and surveyed the awareness of avian diversity by park visitors as well as their ability to identify bird species...

  10. ESPACIO PÚBLICO E INTERVENCION URBANA En SANTIAGO DE CHILE (1885 - 1918)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vila, Waldo

    2014-01-01

    ... había sido la construcción de la Cárcel Pública entre 1881 y 1886 -antes de la canalización-, instalada allí para disciplinar a un sector que las autoridades consideraban cada vez más problemático.

  11. El jardín de los senderos que se bifurcan, Santiago, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Beals,Alejandro; Lyon,Loreto

    2013-01-01

    Instalación de arte, espacio público, jardín, huerto, pabellón, ciudad: todas estas entidades colapsan en el montaje de este proyecto que trasforma tanto una pequeña porción de un parque urbano como la percepción de la ciudad que se tiene desde él.

  12. [Lung diseases among HIV infected patients admitted to the "Instituto Nacional del Torax" in Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernilo, Sara; Trujillo, Sergio; Kahn, Mariana; Paredes, Mónica; Echevarría, Ghislaine; Sepúlveda, Claudia

    2005-05-01

    Pulmonary diseases are common among HIV infected patients. The prevalence of the different diseases varies greatly. To identify the different pulmonary diseases that affect a Chilean population of HIV infected patients and to identify factors associated with in hospital mortality. Retrospective review of the clinical records of all HIV infected patients with lung diseases discharged from our institution during a period of 3.5 years. Collection of demographic and biomedical data. One hundred seventy one patients (aged 35.7 years, 86% men) had 236 episodes of lung diseases. Only 13.5% of the patients were receiving antiretroviral therapy and 18% were on pneumocystis prophylaxis. Infectious diseases accounted for 87% of the discharges, neoplasm for 5.1%. Pneumocystis jirovecii infection was responsible for 37.7% of the episodes, community acquired pneumonia was seen in 24.1% and mycobacterial diseases in 14.4%. Two or more conditions were present in 13.6%. Death during hospital stay occurred in 19.5%. Multivariate analysis identified pneumothorax as the only significant independent predictor of in-hospital mortality in patients with pneumocystis pneumonia, while nosocomial pneumonia was the only predictor of death among patients with non-pneumocystis pulmonary diseases. Infectious diseases were the main cause of hospitalization among Chilean HIV infected patients. Mortality among these patients remains high. Appropriate antiretroviral therapy and prophylaxis may alter pulmonary disease prevalence in the future. Every effort should be made to avoid the development of pneumothorax and nosocomial pneumonia.

  13. [Association of exhaled nitric oxide with asthma and atopy among children living in Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Daniella; Yohannessen, Karla; Prieto, Laura; Ubilla, Carlos; Ruiz, Pablo A

    2013-06-01

    Chronic airway inflammation is a central process in asthma. Measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) is a non-invasive biomarker of eosinophilic airway inflammation. To measure eNO levels in a population of asthmatic and non-asthmatic children and to evaluate their relationship with asthma and atopy. We studied 143 asthmatic and non-asthmatic children aged 6 to 14 years attended a hospital and primary health service. Participants were tested for allergies and followed during the winter months of 2010 and 2011. They were visited regularly at their homes and eNO levels were measured on each visit using a handheld equipment. Mean eNO distribution were compared by the presence of asthma or atopy using t-test and regression models. No significant differences for mean eNO levels were detected, according to presence of asthma or atopy, by any of the statistical methods used. Regression models showed significant effects for age but not for sex. There were no differences in eNO levels in the studied children by the presence of asthma or atopy.

  14. Fuerza, vigor y consumo: el caso de Eugene Sandow en Santiago de Chile, 1900-1930

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Fernández, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Considerado como el padre del fisicoculturismo moderno, el atleta de origen prusiano Eugene Sandow (1867-1925), desde finales del siglo XIX hasta los primeros años del siglo XX, se convirtió en una de las figuras más importantes en torno a la cultura física a nivel mundial. Sus recomendaciones y rutinas de entrenamiento lo posicionaron no solo como un sinónimo de fuerza, salud, y perfección corporal, sino que también lo potenciaron como una importante marca comercial a través de una serie de ...

  15. [Antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from stool cultures in Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Patricia C; Valenzuela, Natalia S; Rodríguez, M Victoria L; León, Eugenia C; Fernández, Heríberto J

    2009-12-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a common agent of enterocolitis in humans. Campylobacteriosis has been recognized as a zoonotic disease whose reservoir is the intestinal flora of poultry. The reposition of fluid and electrolytes is the recommended treatment, and antimicrobials are required only in severe and/or in prolonged disease. Given the emergence of resistance to drugs commonly used in the treatment of acute diarrhea, we studied the antimicrobial susceptibility of 73 strains of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from stool culture. The antimicrobials tested were: erythromycin, azithromycin, ampicillin and ciprofloxacin. Of the 73 strains tested by E-test, 32.4% were resistant to ciprofloxacin and 6.4% were resistant to ampicillin. Resistance to erythromycin and azithromycin was not detected. The surveillance of antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter jejuni is important in the evaluation of empirically used antimicrobials in the treatment of bacterial enterocolitis.

  16. Mapocho pedaleable, Santiago, Chile: Tomás Echiburú, Osvaldo Larrain, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Echiburú,Tomás; Larrain,Osvaldo

    2013-01-01

    La geografía como soporte de espacio público e infraestructura: el cauce de un río urbano y pequeñas intervenciones puntuales dan lugar a un paseo continuo para rodados, con una dimensión urbana y territorial que recuerda la síntesis de los planes urbanos de Le Corbusier para Latinoamérica.

  17. [Surveillance of carbapenem-resistant enterobacteria in stool cultures in a university hospital in Santiago, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Catalina; Labarca, Jaime; Román, Juan C; Sanhueza, Francia; Moraga, Marcela; Wozniak, Aniela; García, Patricia

    2013-02-01

    Clinical cultures detect only one-third of colonized patients with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Early identification and contact precautions implementation would help to interrupt transmission. In our hospital no carbapenemase-producing enterobacteria infections have been described. To perform stool surveillance cultures in patients hospitalized in critical care unit with the purpose to detect carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriacea. Rectal swabs were obtained of patients after five or more days of hospital stay, on a monthly basis from July to December 2011. Phenotypic assays (modified test Hodge and phenylboronic acid test) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) searching for six carbapenemases of group A and B of Ambler's classification were performed. During this period, 241 surveillance rectal cultures were performed. Thirty eight enterobacteria isolated from 30 patients presented a decreased susceptibility to carbapenems by agar dilution method. All PCR were negative. We found that despite the significant number of resistant isolates, patients hospitalized in our institution are not colonized with carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae. We highlight the importance of screening before having the problem in place.

  18. Teatro callejero en Santiago de Chile durante la década de 1980

    OpenAIRE

    Cáceres Pinto, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Durante la época de los 80, existían Grupos Teatrales Callejeros que montaban sus obras en la vía pública, de preferencia: Paseo Ahumada, Paseo Huérfanos y Tenderini, con el riesgo de ser detenidos. Aún cuando las circunstancias sociales no lo permitían, se abordaban temas contingentes que causaban conflicto en quienes manejaban el poder. Obras como “El muñeco”, dirigida por Aldo Parodi y actuada por Alejandro Trejo, Sandra Cepeda y Juan Carlos Cáceres entre otros, trataba de manera audaz el ...

  19. Reflexiones sobre transporte, la calidad de vida y alternativas para Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Krug Díaz

    2015-04-01

    El artículo termina presentando un plan alternativo que cambia un sistema de oferta de recorridos como se describe el actual en uno que permite ofrecer un servicio de transporte a los capitalinos.

  20. International Seminar--History and Social Science Textbook (Santiago de Chile, 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online Submission, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The School Textbook Division from the Chilean Ministry of Education has carried out experience-sharing instances and reflection processes oriented to improve the quality of textbooks, adapting them to new learning strategies, to the demands of the school system as well as to the state-of-the-art in research in education worldwide. Since the…

  1. Personality and Parenting Processes Associated with Problem Behaviors: A Study of Adolescents in Santiago, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, Cristina B.; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Andrade, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    Considerable research in the United States has established that adolescent antisocial, aggressive, and attention problem behaviors negatively influence adolescents' ability to become productive members of society. However, little is known about the development of these problems among adolescents in other countries. This study contributes to our…

  2. 24th International Cartographic Conference, Santiago, Chile, November 15-21, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljenko Lapaine

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Cartographic Conferences are organized by the International Cartographic Association (ICA every two years. The conferences have been held every odd year since 1987.

  3. Characteristics associated to child sexual abuse in a specialized intervention program from Santiago, Chile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Esteban Gómez; Bernardita Cifuentes; Catalina Sieverson

    2013-01-01

    A descriptive study is presented, about the characteristics of boys and girls served between 2006 and 2009 in a child maltreatment and sexual abuse intervention program, implemented by Protectora de...

  4. Pacientes policonsultantes: ¿un síntoma del sistema de salud en Chile?

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Hiriart,Gonzalo; Saffie Gatica,Ximena

    2014-01-01

    En el presente artículo se exponen una serie de reflexiones producto de un estudio exploratorio y cualitativo realizado en un Centro de Salud Familiar de Santiago de Chile. La pregunta que guía este artículo es si se puede considerar la alta tasa de pacientes policonsultantes como un síntoma de que algo no funciona en el sistema público de salud chileno. Se concluye que existe un desencuentro entre la demanda del paciente y el saber de los profesionales, el cual deja en evidencia la falta de ...

  5. Evaluación del Modelo Multi-componente de Telecuidado de apoyo a Personas con Pre-diabetes en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Ewert, J. Carola; BUSTAMANTE,CLAUDIA; Alcayaga, Claudia; Medina, Margarita; Sánchez, Hugo; Campos, Solange; Beltrán, Angela; Urrutia,Mila; LANGE,ILTA

    2016-01-01

    Antecedentes: la prediabetes es una condición reversible y su tratamiento una oportunidad para modificar prácticas no saludables. Objetivo: evaluar la efectividad del Modelo Multi-componente de Telecuidado para apoyo a personas con prediabetes y obesidad en Chile. Método: ensayo clínico controlado en centros de atención primaria, Santiago, Chile. Se realizó un muestreo y asignación aleatoria en cada uno de los 5 centros de salud participantes. Participantes: 70 adultos con pre-diabetes, IMC: ...

  6. From disease to desire, pleasure to the pill: A qualitative study of adolescent learning about sexual health and sexuality in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Macintyre, Anna; Montero Vega, Adela Rosa; Sagbakken, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Background Sexual and reproductive rights include access to accurate and appropriate information in order to make informed decisions. In the current age of media globalization and Internet, adolescents are exposed to information about sexual health and sexuality from a myriad of sources. The objective of this study was to explore sources of information and adolescent learning about sexual health and sexuality in Santiago, Chile. Methods Data collection included four focus group disc...

  7. Más allá de los imaginarios neoliberales : espacio urbano, escritura, y justicia social en Chile y Cuba, 1990-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Santizo, Gabriela D.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines literary representations of the neoliberal transformations of urban space in Santiago, Chile and Havana, Cuba since the 1990s. It draws on the influential work of scholars who argue that throughout the later part of the twentieth century cities have acquired important significance as spaces that register the conflicts that emerge in national contexts and are perpetuated on a global scale by neoliberalism. This dissertation evaluates how the urban imaginaries of Sant...

  8. The International Plate Boundary Observatory Chile (IPOC) in the northern Chile seismic gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, B.; Asch, A.; Sodoudi, F.; Manzanares, A.; Ritter, O.; Klotz, J.; Chong-Diaz, G.; Barrientos, S.; Villotte, J.-P.; Oncken, O.

    2009-04-01

    Fast convergence between the oceanic Nazca and the continental South American plate is accommodated by recurrent rupture of large segments of the two plates' interface. The resulting earthquakes are among the largest and, for their sizes, most frequent on Earth. Along the Chilean and southern Peruvian margin, all segments have ruptured at least once in the past 150 years for which there exist historic and/or instrumental records. The one segment that is most mature for re-rupture stretches for more than 500 km along the northernmost Chilean coast between roughly -23° and -18° latitude. It last broke in 1877 in a magnitude ~8.8 earthquake, triggering a major Tsunami. From the historical record, it has been known to have a recurrence cycle of approximately 110 years. The adjoining segments to the north and south broke rather recently in 1995 and 2001 in M>8 earthquakes and an M 7.7 earthquake encroached the southern part of the gap in 2007. The IPOC project intends to investigate this segment of the Nazca-South American plate boundary, on which a strong to devastating earthquake is expected to occur within the next years, by monitoring at a variety of time-scales deformation, seismicity, and magnetotelluric fields in the subduction zone at the closing stages of the interseismic cycle before and possibly during occurrence of a big earthquake. For that purpose, installation of long-term observatories in Northern Chile started in 2006 in a close cooperation of the Universidad de Chile (Santiago, Chile), the Universidad Catolica del Norte (Antofagasta, Chile), the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (Paris, France), and the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany). Currently we are operating 14 modern seismological stations equipped with STS-2 broadband seismometers and accelerometers (EPI sensor). At least two more stations will be installed in the near future. To cope with the high resolution and dynamic of the sensors and data acquisition

  9. Consideraciones epistemologico-conceptuales para el estudio del cuerpo en la danza

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Escudero, Maria Carolina

    2012-01-01

    .... Formalizar, para mis pares, algunos de los problemas que la investigacion sobre el cuerpo genera y explicitar algunas consideraciones metodologicas que al menos en mi caso particular, permitieron resolverlos...

  10. Quiste sinovial en el tendon del musculo tibial posterior. Caso clinico, consideraciones biomecanicas y revision bibliografica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valero Salas, Jose; Gallart Ortega, Jose; Gonzalez Lopez, David

    2014-01-01

    .... Al mismo se hacen algunas consideraciones acerca de la etiologia patomecanica de los quistes sinoviales y una revision bibliografica de los tumores benignos y malignos que afectan a las vainas...

  11. CONQUISTA Y FUNDACIÓN DE LA CIUDAD TERRENA: EL NACIMIENTO DE SANTIAGO EN LA NARRATIVA DE CARLOS DROGUETT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Suazo Gómez

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo proporciona una lectura actualizada de las llamadas ‘novelas históricas’ o ‘novelas de ciudad’ de Carlos Droguett. En particular, sus novelas centradas en la conquista y fundación de la ciudad de Santiago (100 gotas de sangre y 200 de sudor y Supay el cristiano señalan la primera coordenada del proyecto narrativo droguettiano orientado a reelaborar y reescribir la historia chilena y latinoamericana, en una historiografía-literaria que busca sus fuentes, su prueba documental, en eenorme archivo conformado por toda esa sangre, por todas esas muertes soslayadas “con silencio o con ruido”. 100 gotas de sangre y 200 de sudor y Supay el cristiano constituyen las primeras páginas de lo que aquí denominaremos “La Historia de Chile según Carlos Droguett”. Pero, además, ambas novelas serían tributarias de la fuente documental previamente elaborada y narrativizada por el historiador Crescente Errázuriz en su Historia de Chile bajo Pedro de Valdivia.The present article provides an up-to-date reading of the so called ‘historical novels’ or ‘city novels’ by Carlos Droguett. In particular, his novels focused on the conquest and founding of the city of Santiago (100 Gotas de Sangre y 200 de Sudor and Supay el cristiano mark the droguettian narrative project first’s coordinate, oriented towards a remaking and rewriting of the Chilean and Latin American history, in a literary-historiography which looks for its sources, its documentary evidence, within the enormous archive conformed by all that blood, all those deaths eluded “with silence or noise”. 100 Gotas de Sangre y 200 de Sudor and Supay el cristiano are the first pages of what we here call Chilean History according to Carlos Droguett. But, in addition, both novels would be tributary of the documentary source previously elaborated by the historian Crescente Errázuriz in his Historia de Chile bajo Pedro de Valdivia.

  12. Dos edificios públicos a base de tierra en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira, Hugo

    1986-02-01

    Full Text Available Two works in Chile are reported: The House of the Culture in La Florida (Santiago and the Botalcura Concentred School in the Vlllth Zone. Both constructions have as common characteristic to be built with adobe and wooden girders, to present a certain continuity in the adapted criteria of desing -both from Architect Hugo Pereira- and to be newly constructed buildings, even partialy in construction. The fact that there are spaces with appropriate light and height for public use, so as the circumstance that the part which waas being constructed just at the moment of the great seism in Chile (February 1985 had and excelent behaviour, makes these works interesting to be published.Se presentan dos realizaciones en Chile: la Casa de la Cultura, en la barriada La Florida (Santiago y la Escuela Concentrada de Botalcura, en la VIII Región. Ambas construcciones tienen en común el haberse realizado a base de adobe y cerchas de madera, el presentar una cierta continuidad en los criterios de diseño adoptados, en ambas ha participado el Arquitecto Hugo Pereira, y ser edificios recién construidos, incluso parcialmente en construcción. El hecho de tratarse de espacios con luces y alturas propias de construcciones para uso público, así como la circunstancia de que la parte construida de la Casa de la Cultura en el momento del último gran sismo en Chile (marzo 1985, presentase un excelente comportamiento, son hechos que hacen especialmente interesante la publicación de estas realizaciones.

  13. CASTIGO FEMENINO EN CHILE DURANTE LA PRIMERA MITAD DEL SIGLO XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Neira Navarro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo permitió generar una serie de categorías de castigos femeninos, considerando que durante buena parte del siglo XIX la policía pudo aplicar "justicia correccional", es decir, sancionar delitos menores. De un universo de más de 32.000 arrestos efectuados en la ciudad de Santiago de Chile entre los años 1830 a 1840 y utilizando el criterio "femenino", el levantamiento logró una muestra que alcanzó al 12% del total. Los datos sistematizados permiten señalar que durante la primera mitad del siglo XIX el delito femenino fue parte importante de la actividad represiva en Chile y dio origen a un castigo relacionado a la Cárcel Correccional. Aunque también se observan otras penas como trabajo de casa formal o encierro en monasterios, forman parte de un circuito restrictivo en función del encierro de mujeres.The present article allowed to generate a series of categories of female punishments, considering that during a great part of the XIX century the police could apply "correctional justice", in other words, punish minor offences. In a universe of more than 32,000 arrest in the city of Santiago, Chile between the years 1830 and 1840 and using a "female" criteria, the uprising achieved a sample that reached 12% of the total. The systematized information shows that during the firt half of the xix century the female offence was an important part of the repressive activity in Chile and it gave origin to a punishment related to a correctional. Even though some other punishments were observed such a work in a formal house or monastery confinemet, they formed part of a restricting circuit functioning with the confinement of women.

  14. El proceso reproductivo: Algunas consideraciones sobre el maternaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio González Labrador

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron una serie de consideraciones generales sobre el proceso reproductivo, y como una consecuencia de él se consolida un proceso llamado maternaje, conceptualizándose según criterio del autor, cómo puede influir en la vida sexual de la mujer. Se conceptualiza según las letras que componen la palabra que denomina dicho procesoA series of general considerations on the reproductive process as a result of which the so-called motherhood process is strengthened were presented in this paper. The author conceptualizes the influence of this process on the woman’s sexual life. The conceptualization is based on the letters of the word defining such a process

  15. Algunas consideraciones teóricas sobre el liderazgo transformacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otilia Bracho Parra

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El artículo tuvo como objetivo, realizar algunas consideraciones teóricas sobre el liderazgo transformacional, tomando como referencia los planteamientos de Bass y Avolio (2006, Velásquez (2006, Lerma (2007, Leithwood, Mascall y Strauss (2009, entre otros. El proceso metodológico implico revisión bibliográfica, a través de la hermenéutica. Concluyendo que el liderazgo transformacional implica convertir a los colaboradores en personas creativas, motivadas al logro, comprometidas e identificadas con la organización, además de inspirar en sus seguidores la participación, pensar en colectivo, esforzándose en alcanzar metas significativas, en pro de la misión y visión de la empresa.

  16. IDRC in Chile

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    authorities in Chile lack information on work- related psychological problems, which are an underlying cause of disease. The research team — made up of lawyers, sociologists, psychologists, medical doctors, and other specialists — is identifying good practices to promote healthier workplaces. I Reconstruction in Haiti.

  17. ¿Policentrismo o ampliación de la centralidad histórica en el Área Metropolitana del Gran Santiago?: Evidencia novedosa proveniente de la encuesta Casen 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rodríguez V

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Se usan los módulos de "movilidad cotidiana para trabajar" del censo de población de 2002 y de la Encuesta de Caracterización Socioeconómica Nacional (Casen de 2009, de Chile, para verificar las hipótesis del avance del policentrismo y de la "difusión del empleo" en el Área Metropolitana del Gran Santiago (AMGS, Chile, planteadas por estudios recientes. Ambas hipótesis se ajustan tanto a las predicciones de las teorías del cambio metropolitano predominantes, como a la experiencia de numerosas ciudades de los países desarrollados y de América Latina. Sin embargo, en ellas se tiende a desconocer el efecto que la segregación residencial socioeconómica a gran escala del AMGS tiene sobre la localización del empleo. La evidencia sistematizada en este trabajo sugiere un proceso mixto en el AMGS: nuevas sub-centralidades aparecen, pero no contrapesan aún el predominio económico de la centralidad histórica ampliada.Questions on commuting from the 2002 Population Census and the 2009 Casen (National Socioeconomic Characterization survey of Chile are used for assessing two hypotheses raised in some recent articles about the Metropolitan Area of Greater Santiago (MAGS: i the advancement of polycentrism, and ii territorial diffusion of employment across the MAGS. Both hypotheses are based on mainstream theories of metropolitan change, and have been supported by evidence from several cities, mostly in developed countries. However, these hypotheses do not take the effects of Santiago's high levels of residential segregation into account. According to results obtained in this study, the MAGS is experiencing a mixed process: new centralities indeed are arising but they do not overshadow yet the concentration of employment in the wider historic centrality.

  18. Manejando por Santiago: Explorando el uso de automóviles por parte de habitantes de bajos ingresos desde una óptica de movilidad sustentable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEBASTIÁN URETA ICAZA

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años, los regímenes actuales de movilidad urbana cotidiana y sus efectos sociales y medioambientales han sido materia de debate y preocupación pública. En el presente artículo pretendemos explorar el tema a través de un caso de estudio específico: el análisis de los motivos y percepciones detrás de la adquisición y el uso de automóviles por parte de habitantes de bajos ingresos de la ciudad de Santiago, Chile. En primer lugar veremos cómo puede ser entendido el automóvil y el tipo de movilidad urbana que genera desde una óptica de teoría social y urbana. En segundo lugar, presentaremos algunas tendencias generales de uso de automóviles en Santiago. Luego se analizarán en detalle los principales argumentos detrás de la adquisición, uso y valoración del automóvil por parte de un grupo de usuarios de bajos ingresos de la ciudad. Finalmente entregaremos, a partir de los análisis presentados, algunas ideas que pueden contribuir al diseño de políticas públicas que incentiven formas de movilidad urbana sustentables en la ciudad.In recent years, existingforms of daily urban mobility and their social and environmental impacts have become issues of debate and public concern. In this article we explore this issue through a specific case study: the analysis of the motives and perceptions that lie behind the acquisition and use of cars by low income residents in Santiago de Chile. Firstly we analyze how the car and the type of urban mobility that is generated are understood in terms of social and urban theory. Secondly, we present some general tendencies of car use in Santiago. Next we look in detail at the principal arguments behind acquisition, use and valuing of the vehicle by a group of low income users in the city. Finally, we offer, based on the analysis, some ideas that can contribute to the design of public policies that incentivize forms of sustainable urban mobility in the city.

  19. Artículo de investigación: Estudio descriptivo de síndrome metabólico en adultos del área oriente de santiago

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Camaggi, C.; Alfredo Molina, P.

    2010-01-01

    El síndrome metabólico se asocia a un aumento del riesgo cardiovascular. En Chile, la última encuesta nacional de salud, reveló una prevalencia del 23% en la población adulta. En el ámbito de la salud privada, no existen mayores estudios acerca de la prevalencia de esta condición. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de síndrome metabólico en una población aparentemente sana del área oriente de Santiago que se controla en la red privada de salud. Material y Métodos: El estudio se realizó...

  20. Reflexões sobre um outro onze de setembro: o golpe no Chile quarenta anos depois

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Federico Domínguez Avila

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo explora as repercussões do golpe de Estado no Chile, em 11 de setembro de 1973, especialmente no cenário doméstico. Para tanto, foi realizada pesquisa com documentação do Arquivo Histórico do Ministério das Relações Exteriores – doravante AHMRE. Especificamente foram consultados documentos enviados ao Itamaraty desde Santiago nos dias posteriores ao surgimento do regime burocrático-autoritário comandado pelo general Augusto Pinochet Ugarte. Conclui-se que os desdobramentos do golpe foram dramáticos, duradouros e, em muitos casos, trágicos para a sociedade chilena e para outros países com vínculos e interesses naquele país andino. The paper explores the repercussions the coup of State in Chile in September 11th 1973, especially in domestic scenario. Research was held at the Arquivo Histórico do Ministério das Relações Exteriores - henceforth AHMRE. Specifically were consulted documents sent to Itamaraty from Santiago in the subsequent days to the emergence of a bureaucratic-authoritarian regime commanded by General Augusto Pinochet Ugarte. Concludes that the coup were dramatic, long lasting and, in many cases, tragic for Chilean society and for others countries with traditional links and interests that country.

  1. [Euthanasia in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco M, Víctor Hugo; Crispi, Francisca

    2016-12-01

    Euthanasia is a complex medical procedure. Even though end of life decisions are common situations in health practice, there is a lack of consensus about their terminology. In this manuscript, the main concepts about this issue are defined and delimited; including active and passive euthanasia and limitation of therapeutic effort. Then, a revision is made about the international experience on euthanasia, to then go through the Chile’s history in euthanasia and the population’s opinion. In Chile, euthanasia is an act that has been removed from the social dialogue and legislation. In order to have an open discussion in our population about the issue, the debate has to be opened to the citizens, accompanied by clear medical information about the procedure.

  2. Chile: Its Conventional Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-18

    bilateral Economic Complementary Treaty and agreement on the 1951 Pipeline of Bolivian fiscal oilfield of Sicasica, which had serious implications for...Bolivia’s gas to Mexico and North America. Chile’s President Lagos likewise invited Bolivia to construct a plant in Chile to facilitate gas production at...Available from <http://www.rr.ee.gov.bo/ministerio/ POLITICA EXTERIOR/memoria.htm >. Internet. Accessed 28 October 2004. Gray, Colin. “Thinking

  3. Identidad Docente en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia González Castro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo invita a pensar el discurso identitario docente en Chile, desde la perspectiva de la tropología, entendida como ejes textuales sobre los cuales se figura la realidad y que son efecto de la interacción comunicativa entre integrantes de un colectivo social, que comparten una enciclopedia o repertorio de experiencias comunes que permiten asignar sentido a un mensaje.

  4. Elasticidad precio de la oferta inmobiliaria en el Gran Santiago

    OpenAIRE

    Lozano Navarro, Francisco-Javier

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to model the housing market in Greater Santiago from a supply perspective, using a Tobin-q equation to explain residential investment and taking into account its fundamentals: house prices, land prices and construction costs. Price elasticity coefficients are estimated and the following hypothesis contrasted: 1) there exist significant differences among areas within the city, which are probably caused by regulation; and 2) areas with more elastic supply present mode...

  5. Dos proyectos de urbanización en Santiago

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Franco, José Luis

    1995-01-01

    This article describes two actions of urbanization improvement in the city of Santiago. They are the reclamation of the shores of the Sarela river in the Carmen de Abaixo quarter and the arrangement of the Parque de la Alameda and Paseo de la Herradura Complex in the Santa Susana Reserve. Both actions are produced within the historical part of the city and although they deal with different formal and functional problems, they coincide in the use of traditional materials without the need ...

  6. Nicolae Ceausescu si Santiago Carrillo: Despre reforma internationalismului comunist

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cezar Stanciu

    2014-01-01

    ...; Internationalism; Moscow; China Introducere Santiago Carrillo a fost unul dintre veterano räzboiului civil spaniol $i un activist de seamä al Internationalei Comuniste însa dinámica activitätii politice în perioada postbélica l-a îndreptat catre o critica asprä a Moscovei $i a experientelor cominterniste ale trecutului. Aceastä metamorf...

  7. EFECTOS INDESEADOS DE LA MEDICIÓN DE LA CALIDAD EDUCATIVA EN CHILE. LA RESPUESTA DE LA SOCIEDAD CIVIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Campos-Martínez

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Con el avance de reformas que usan pruebas estandarizadas para evaluar y gestionar a las escuelas, sus efectos se hacen cada vez más presentes mientras las experiencias de resistencia se multiplican. El presente artículo utiliza técnicas cualitativas aplicadas durante un período de cinco años en tres escuelas de Santiago de Chile para explorar los efectos indeseados de este tipo de pruebas y el impacto de una campaña educativa que busca terminar con ellos.

  8. [Santiago Ramon y Cajal in literature, cinema and television].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vazquez, S; Carrillo, J M

    2016-11-16

    The life and work of Santiago Ramon y Cajal has been portrayed in scientific papers, biographical and autobiographical works, comics, films, television series or documentaries that have attempted to reflect upon his life or his contributions to science and to bring him closer to the general public. To analyse the different ways Santiago Ramon y Cajal has been represented in literature, cinema and television, and to become more closely acquainted with this scientist through his fictional writings. A number of biographical works have been written about Santiago Ramon y Cajal, including scientific papers, comics, books for children and youngsters, as well as the autobiographical writings, essays and even science fiction stories, which provide a good introduction to the life of the scientist and his work. His life has also been adapted to film (Leap to fame) or television (Ramon y Cajal, historia de una voluntad; The butterflies of the soul), which have, with varying degrees of success and accuracy, made him better known to the general population. The numerous biographical writings, historical notes, articles, the scientific work itself, the essays and fictional works by Cajal, as well as the portrayals of the Spanish Nobel Prize winner produced for films and television, can be used to obtain some interesting insights into the scientist, teacher, science populariser, humanist physician and, in short, the man who made such important contributions to neuroscience.

  9. Regulaciones públicas y explotación de renta de suelo: el boom inmobiliario de Ñuñoa, Santiago, 2000-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto López-Morales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación presenta un análisis de la renovación urbana del área de Irarrázaval poniente, comuna de Ñuñoa, Santiago, que durante la década pasada experimentó una intensificación de producción privada residencial en altura orientada a segmentos medio-altos. Los resultados muestran el activo rol que juegan, a nivel local, las regulaciones estatales neoliberales en Chile para fijar el más intenso uso del suelo a explotarse exclusivamente por empresas inmobiliarias. Se muestra además el diferencial creciente de rentas de suelo capturadas entre empresas y residentes propietarios tradicionales, lo que implica gentrificación para un segmento minoritario de éstos.

  10. Consideraciones pedagógicas para el diseño instruccional constructivista

    OpenAIRE

    Umaña Mata, Ana Cristina

    2010-01-01

    El artículo presenta una reseña de literatura relacionada con las consideraciones pedagógicas que deben ser tomadas en cuenta para la elaboración de un diseño instruccional desde el enfoque constructivista, bajo el modelo de educación a distancia. Se persigue un acercamiento y discusión sobre algunos de las principales consideraciones pedagógicas que debe tener en cuenta quien trabaje el diseño instruccional desde el enfoque mencionado, de manera que favorezcan la toma de decisiones más adecu...

  11. Primary Medical Care in Chile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.

    Primary medical care in Chile: accessibility under military rule [Front Cover] [Front Matter] [Title Page] Contents Tables Figures Preface Chapter 1: Introduction Chapter 2: The Restructuring of Medical Care Financing in Chile Chapter 3: Inflation and Medical Care Accessibility Chapter 4: Help-Se...

  12. Consideraciones sobre ética, derecho y ambiente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Foy Valencia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo aborda la importancia que progresivamente está adquiriendo la ética ambiental en relación con las variadas formas del ejercicio contemporáneo del Derecho, así como de sus diversificadas áreas o especialidades y, por cierto, en particular respecto del Derecho Ambiental. Para ello, en primer lugar, identificaremos conceptualmente el escenario y el proceso de la ética ambiental como presupuesto condicionante que impacta en los múltiples mecanismos de actuación social —léase la política, la economía, la educación, los sistemas jurídicos, entre otros—.2 Luego, estableceremos algunas premisas sobre la responsabilidad profesional en particular del abogado y cómo estas deberían ser integradas en una perspectiva ético-ambiental o, si se quiere, basadas en una ética de la sostenibilidad. Finalmente, interpretaremos cómo tales consideraciones debieran articularse con el ejercicio de las disciplinas jurídicas, en especial con el Derecho Ambiental, enfatizando la cuestión de la corrupción con la preocupación ambiental.

  13. Conflictos y negociaciones:La Planificacion Urbana en el desarrollo del Gran Santiago. / Disputes and negotiations: Urban Planning in the development of Greater Santiago, Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurovich W., Alberto

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Los continuos, y no siempre sucesivos cambios de la capacidad estructural de las Municipalidades y del ámbito de cometido de las instancias del Gobierno central, tienden a enfatizar la representación "normativa", la que adquiere una valoración simbólica tan fuerte que desdibuja y hasta parece anular las otras versiones, como ocurre en el presente, cuando está siendo justificada, en tanto opción de manejo eficiente, por la fragmentación social y los conflictos de la competencia que orquesta el neoliberalismo dominante./Continuous changes of the structural capacity of the municipalities and the scope of the central government, tends to emphasize the representation "standard”. This takes a very strong symbolic value, and decreases and nearly cancels the other versions. Today it is being justified as an efficient management option, given the social fragmentation and conflict of competition generated by the dominant neo-liberalism.

  14. Protecting Dark Skies in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. Chris; Sanhueza, Pedro; Phillips, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Current projections indicate that Chile will host approximately 70% of the astronomical collecting area on Earth by 2030, augmenting the enormous area of ALMA with that of three next-generation optical telescopes: LSST, GMTO, and E-ELT. These cutting-edge facilities represent billions of dollars of investment in the astronomical facilities hosted in Chile. The Chilean government, Chilean astronomical community, and the international observatories in Chile have recognized that these investments are threatened by light pollution, and have formed a strong collaboration to work at managing the threats. We will provide an update on the work being done in Chile, ranging from training municipalities about new lighting regulations to exploring international recognition of the dark sky sites of Northern Chile.

  15. Divorcio en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Loreto, Cox

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an initial attempt to make an empirical evaluation of what happened in Chile after the 2004 enactment of the new Civil Marriage Act (Law 19,947), which included absolute divorce for the first time in Chilean law. Until that moment, the way that a marriage could formally be ended was by an annulment due to incompetence of the Civil Registry officer, possible only provided there was mutual consent of the spouses and the resources to hire an attorney. The analysis says that althoug...

  16. Chile rural electrification cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flowers, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The author describes a joint program to use renewables for rural electrification projects in Chile. The initial focus was in a limited part of the country, involving wind mapping, pilot project planning, training, and development of methodologies for comparative evaluations of resources. To this point three wind hybrid systems have been installed in one region, as a part of the regional private utility, and three additional projects are being designed. Additional resource assessment and training is ongoing. The author points out the difficulties in working with utilities, the importance of signed documentation, and the need to look at these programs as long term because of the time involved in introducing such new technologies.

  17. Biomasa en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson Cifuentes, Gabriel; Rodríguez Monroy, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    El artículo presenta el desarrollo de la biomasa en Chile, dentro del complejo marco energético existente en el país, el cual, aún no logra potenciar e incentivar el desarrollo de energías renovables y depende fuertemente de los combustibles fósiles, acrecentando el riesgo latente de sufrir una crisis energética, en el mediano plazo, producto de la paulatina incorporación de nuevas centrales generadoras de energías, que satisfagan la creciente demanda energética pronosticada. Este ar...

  18. National and international astronomical activities in Chile (1849-2001). (German Title: Nationale und internationale astronomische Aktivitäten in Chile (1849-2001))

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerbeck, Hilmar W.

    The history of the Chilean National Observatory, beginning with its origins out of Gilliss' US Naval Expedition to the Southern Hemisphere, over its directors Moesta, Vergara, Obrecht, Ristenpart to the middle of the 20th century, as well as the astronomical development at the Universidad Católica, are described. Besides these national activities, various international expeditions, which aimed at the observations of solar eclipses, the Venus transit of 1882, and the Mars opposition of 1907 were carried out, a six-week photometric project of Harvard Observatory in the north of Chile, and the decade-long spectroscopic Mills expedition of Lick Observatory in Santiago. Finally, a brief overview of the evolution and the actual state of the international observatories Cerro Tololo, La Silla and Paranal, as well as Las Campanas is given.

  19. Robotics research in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ruiz-del-Solar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of research in robotics in a developing country is a challenging task. Factors such as low research funds, low trust from local companies and the government, and a small number of qualified researchers hinder the development of strong, local research groups. In this article, and as a case of study, we present our research group in robotics at the Advanced Mining Technology Center of the Universidad de Chile, and the way in which we have addressed these challenges. In 2008, we decided to focus our research efforts in mining, which is the main industry in Chile. We observed that this industry has needs in terms of safety, productivity, operational continuity, and environmental care. All these needs could be addressed with robotics and automation technology. In a first stage, we concentrate ourselves in building capabilities in field robotics, starting with the automation of a commercial vehicle. An important outcome of this project was the earn of the local mining industry confidence. Then, in a second stage started in 2012, we began working with the local mining industry in technological projects. In this article, we describe three of the technological projects that we have developed with industry support: (i an autonomous vehicle for mining environments without global positioning system coverage; (ii the inspection of the irrigation flow in heap leach piles using unmanned aerial vehicles and thermal cameras; and (iii an enhanced vision system for vehicle teleoperation in adverse climatic conditions.

  20. Safeguarding musical heritage. Memories of the rescue of the Hymn of Santiago de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daylenis Blanco-Lobaina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The musicality that highlights Santiago de Cuba as one of its fundamental attractions motivated one of the lines of work of the Escalinata project, focused on communication and promotion of Santiago's heritage. The city treasures several hymns composed in different periods and historical contexts, among them some dedicated to the Virgin of the Charity of the Copper and Santiago Apostle, patron of the city. However, dedicated to the city, Santiago's musical history has revealed the existence of a single anthem, which is why a process of restoration and digitization of its scores began in function of the rescue of this musical composition of the early nineteenth century. This work reveals the process of safeguarding and enhancing the value of this piece of music, considered to be the city's cultural heritage, just 88 years after it was premiered in the Municipal Government of Santiago de Cuba.

  1. Some considerations on the Music Education in Santiago de Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysmara Borlot-Faure

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the distinctive features of music education in Santiago de Cuba, to enhance historical knowledge in professional education (Bachelor's Degree in Art Education and Art Instructor. the historical and pedagogical process of musical education, an essential aspect in order to rescue and preservation of our most genuine traditions in the formation of present and future generations addresses. For education professionals is a conception of learning developer, in order to promote a new content to encourage new knowledge in the educational process taking place in higher education in Cuba.

  2. Dos proyectos de urbanización en Santiago

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Franco, José Luis

    1995-01-01

    En el presente artículo se describen dos actuaciones de mejora de la urbanización en la ciudad de Santiago. Se trata de la recuperación de las riberas del río Sarela en el barrio del Carmen de Abaixo y el acondicionamiento del Conjunto del Parque de la Alameda y Paseo de la Herradura en el Coto de Santa Susana. Ambas actuaciones se producen en el ámbito de la ciudad histórica y, si bien abordan problemas formales y funcionales diferentes, coinciden en el empleo de los materiales tradiciona...

  3. Luis Santiago Lozano, un signo mediático

    OpenAIRE

    Ocampo Cifuentes, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    El asesinato del niño Luis Santiago Lozano, el 1 de octubre de 2008, a manos de su padre fue un hecho que conmocionó a toda Colombia. Sin embargo, el maltrato infantil no era un acontecimiento sin precedentes, luego ¿qué hizo este suceso tan recordado? El cubrimiento mediático, en especial de los noticieros de televisión, de los canales RCN y Caracol fue más que conmovedor, y es interesante observar cuáles fueron las herramientas utilizadas en esta transmisión y por qué su emisión traspasó lo...

  4. Consideraciones acerca del Estado del Debate en teoría Macroeconómica

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Rosende

    1986-01-01

    Consideraciones acerca del Estado del Debate en Teoría Macroeconómica This paper tries to present the central issues around the macroeconomic debate, emphasizing the prominent role played today by the rational expectations school. The main propositions out of this school are explained, as well as the critiques advanced by its opponents.

  5. EL SECUESTRO DE LAS HISTORIAS INDÍGENAS: ITENERARIO Y LIMITACIONES DEL TIEMPO LINEAL EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAXIMILIANO SALINAS CAMPOS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La historia de Chile está cruzada por el conflicto entre la cultura moderna europea y las culturas indígenas. El tiempo lineal impuesto por el Estado nacional ha dejado al descubierto su irresponsabilidad con el tiempo indígena de los Andes. Esta temporalidad expresa una profunda y sustentable «ontología arcaica». Tras el fin de la Guerra Fría, y la postdictadura de Pinochet, esta propuesta se vuelve acuciante con las demandas políticas y los desafíos epistémicos indígenas del siglo XXI. En el «círculo de la vida» estos pueblos reclaman presencia, pasado y futuro: su historia. Este trabajo es resultado del proyecto de investigación de la Universidad de Santiago de Chile sobre la historia y la cultura de los pueblos indígenas en Chile en los siglos XX y XXI (Fondecyt 1121083, 2012-2014.

  6. Integrated design for the development of energy efficient housing in Chile: Threading abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Underlea Miotto Bruscato

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El diseño integrado es una estrategia para desarrollar proyectos de arquitectura sustentable, incorporando trabajo multidisciplinario y evaluaciones de desempeño, que ha demostrado ser un aporte relevante en la ejecución de edificios públicos de países desarrollados. Este artículo presenta la revisión de aspectos de diseño integrado para la elaboración de viviendas energéticamente eficientes en la zona sur de Chile, destinadas en particular a la reconstrucción post terremoto del 27 de Febrero del 2010. Realizando primeramente una síntesis de características de los procesos de diseño integrado, sus condiciones implícitas, participantes, etapas, recursos y resultados esperados según referencias internacionales. Luego se contrasta con la práctica regular de diseño de viviendas en Chile según la regulación vigente y entrevistas a profesionales. Posteriormente se analizan procesos de diseños de casas experimentales y conjuntos habitacionales particularmente enfocados al desempeño energético, realizando seguimientos y entrevistas para revisar aspectos significativos. Identificando algunas consideraciones y recursos relevantes aplicados en el diseño de las viviendas que permitieron el logro de mejoramientos ambientales.

  7. Las bandas de "Huaso Raimundo". Redes sociales y transicionalidad delictiva en Santiago y sus alrededores, 1882-1911.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Ayala Cordero

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available En su calidad de ladrón conocido, Nonato Orellana Avilés aparece como un sujeto transicional en el contexto de la modernización capitalista en Chile. Representa el proceso de descampesinización y la pretensión de disciplinamiento del peonaje rural, además de las formas de incorporación al mundo urbano desde la transgresión. Expresión de transicionalidad también es la diversidad de soportes documentales de los delitos que lo tuvieron por protagonista en un espacio de tiempo que se extiende desde 1904 hasta 1911. El objetivo de este artículo es analizar –incorporandola aproximación microhistórica y el análisis de redes sociales– la práctica criminal desarrollada por las bandas del “Huaso Raimundo”, a partir de sus dimensiones estratégica y organizacional. En tanto estrategia de supervivencia al día, sin subordinarse a la ética del trabajo, constituiría una alternativa a la proletarización; mientras que a través de sus formas organizativas características, tal estrategia se proyectaría socialmente incorporándose en el proceso deconfiguración de los “bajos fondos” de Santiago y sus alrededores.

  8. De la indiferencia a la resistencia. Los sectores populares y la Guerra de Independencia en el norte de Chile (1817-1823

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goicovic Donoso, Igor

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Chile’s independence movement was led by the Creole elite of landowners and merchants based in Santiago and its surroundings. The subsequent phase of construction of the state and the nation was an expression of their political project. Nonetheless, popular sectors consisting of laborers, craftsmen and farmers, slaves and Indians, remained aloof from this plan and, in the context of the disruption of colonial society, developed strategies of social and political empowerment. Expressions of this were the montoneras (irregular armed forces, banditry and military desertion. This article analyzes the development of these phenomena in northern Chile between 1817 and 1823.El proceso de Independencia en Chile fue liderado por la élite criolla terrateniente y mercantil radicada en Santiago y en sus inmediaciones. La posterior etapa de construcción del Estado y de la nación fue expresión de su proyecto político. No obstante, los sectores populares constituidos por peones, artesanos y labradores, esclavos e indígenas, se mantuvieron ajenos a esta propuesta y, en el contexto de la desorganización de la sociedad colonial, desplegaron estrategias de autonomización social y política. Expresión de ello fueron las montoneras, el bandolerismo y la deserción. Este artículo analiza el desarrollo de estos fenómenos en el norte de Chile entre 1817 y 1823.

  9. Consideraciones bioéticas del tamizaje neonatal: pautas para su regulación integral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo A. Cifuentes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El tamizaje neonatal pretende detectar al nacimiento anomalías susceptibles de tratamiento antes de la apari-ción de enfermedad. Su objetivo es evitar discapacidad e incluso la muerte de algunos recién nacidos. Con los desarrollos tecnológicos los beneficios se han extendido a la familia y a la sociedad. Contrariamente, también se han documentado daños psicológicos, sociales e incluso físicos. La probabilidad de daño está influenciada por consideraciones asociadas con principios bioéticos como la confidencialidad, la cual se relaciona con los principios de dignidad y autonomía. Aparecen entonces controversias como el tiempo de retención de muestras. De forma similar, hay otras controversias asociadas a consideraciones bioéticas como la prioridad de la persona o el consentimiento. A pesar del panorama descrito, la legislación no aborda de forma integral las consideraciones bioéticas. Colombia no es la excepción; la normatividad específica para tamizaje neonatal no considera ni siquiera de forma aislada consideraciones fundamentales en este tópico. En este contexto, el derecho blando da directivas como el deber de garantizar el acceso o las circunstancias en las cuales es posible realizar el tamizaje neonatal sin beneficio directo para el neonato. Sin embargo, no aborda otras consideraciones como el consentimiento y la confidencialidad, lo que amerita un debate bioético integral.

  10. Erecting the new winding tower at Santiago colliery. Montaje de la nueva torre de extraccion del Pozo Santiago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-08-01

    The modernisation work at Santiago colliery is making good progress without disrupting everyday operations. It is expected to be complete by February of next year. At present, the new winding tower is being erected; it is 60 m high and surrounds the old headgear which was 38 m high. This work is part of a larger project which is already underway and which will involve some 19,200 million pesetas for the Aller Group until the year 2003. Of this, sum, 13,700 million pesetas will be invested between 1986 and 1991. 2 figs.

  11. Chile Altiplano Unconformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This 10.5 by 11 km sub-area in northern Chile was acquired by ASTER on April 7, 2000. Dramatically displayed is a geological angular unconformity: a contact between layers of rock at different angles. On the right side of the image, Cretaceous sediments were tilted upward to an angle of about 50 degrees, then eroded. On this surface volcanic pyroclastic deposits were deposited as a flat sheet. The section of rocks has been eroding from the east, exposing the tilted and flat rock layers. The image is located at 24.8 degrees south latitude and 69.1 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  12. Presencia de Hippidion y Equus (Amerhippus (Mammalia, Perissodactyla y su distribución en el Pleistoceno superior de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frassinetti, D.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Fossil remains belonging to Equidae fram Chilean localities are described and taxonomically determined. Equus (Amerhippus and Hippidion species are identified; its geographic distribution in Chile and relations with others South American Equidae are given; a Late Pleistocene age is regarded for them. Stratigraphic and paleoecological considerations are also included.Se describen y sitúan taxonómicamente los restos de équidos de las localidades chilenas. Se identifican distintas especies de Equus (Amerhippus e Hippidion, señalando su distribución geográfica y relaciones con otros équidos sudamericanos, además de referirlos al Pleistoceno superior. Se analiza su situación estratigráfica así como consideraciones de tipo paleoecológico.

  13. Management of Tourist Flows. The Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xose Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La recuperación a finales de la década de 1980 del Camino de Santiago supuso un importante desarrollo turístico de la ciudad de Santiago de Compostela. Su crecimiento no ha estado vinculado exclusivamente a la afluencia de peregrinos sino también, y sobre todo, a la llegada de turistas de motivación fundamentalmente cultural. El incremento de los flujos se produce de forma especial en los Años Santos, cuando el 25 de Julio coincide en domingo. El significativo incremento de visitantes que se venía produciendo desde el año jubilar de 1993 hacía prever un volumen muy elevado para el que se celebraría en 2010. Con el fin de evitar una masificación excesiva de la catedral, con todos los efectos negativos que eso generaría, se puso en marcha un estudio del que habrían de salir propuestas de gestión de flujos. En este artículo se explica la metodología de dicho estudio y se analizan los resultados de su puesta en práctica. Destacamos los problemas surgidos no sólo por una aplicación parcial de las medidas sugeridas sino también por la concentración de las acciones en el templo catedralicio y no en el conjunto del destino.

  14. National and international astronomical activities in Chile 1849--2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerbeck, H. W.

    2003-03-01

    At all times and in many ways, Chilean astronomy has been influenced externally, either by astronomical expeditions from other parts of the world, or by astronomers that immigrated from other countries. We outline the history of the Chilean National Observatory, beginning with its origins out of Gilliss' US Naval Expedition to the Southern Hemisphere, over its directors Moesta, Vergara, Obrecht, Ristenpart to the middle of the 20th century, as well as the astronomical development at the Universidad Católica. In addition, various international expeditions, which aimed at observations of solar eclipses, the Venus transit of 1882, and the Mars opposition of 1907, were carried out. While a major photometric project of Harvard Observatory was active for only six weeks in the north of Chile, the spectroscopic Mills expedition of Lick Observatory in Santiago lasted several decades, and the solar observatory of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory near Calama even longer. Finally we give a brief overview of the evolution and the actual state of the international observatories Cerro Tololo, La Silla, Paranal, and Las Campanas.

  15. Appreciation of art in a workers' hospital in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Nina; Trucco, Marcelo

    2007-06-01

    To assess the impact of selected murals in the Workers' Hospital in Santiago on different groups of clients, a quantitative and qualitative approach, including a semantic differential scale, was applied. The sample was composed of 120 subjects-40 patients, 40 visitors and 40 hospital staff. Appreciation of the paintings (45-87%) and assessment of the benefit of each painting (56-84%) varied widely. Differences in perceptions according to age, gender and educational level were not significant. Over two-thirds of the sample had a positive appreciation of the murals and considered them beneficial. Differences in perception relate to personal characteristics of the subjects and are also associated with certain characteristics of the murals, such as location, or the structure and style of the work. This study, the first of its kind in Chile, provides grounds for the development of an art-for-health policy in the future, showing that most people are willing to participate by giving their opinions and assessments.

  16. Self-generated Literacy Practices in Disadvantaged Environments in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Calderón López

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the role of literacy in disadvantaged environments and the interplay between self-generated literacy practices and their conceptualization of literacy in 7 to 10-year-old Chilean pupils from two different schools located in Santiago, Chile. The study was framed within a participatory approach focused on promoting the children’s agency and voice in the research. A range of second-level data materials were collected through interviews with parents, photographs and existing documents. Although at a resources-associated level the sociocultural context did not inhibit the emergence of literacy practices, the context did contribute to the children’s understanding of literacy. This study raises the need for considering how children’s understanding of literacy influence their involvement and learning about reading and writing as their experiences and perceptions have an important role in their learning process, particularly on how they develop their reading and writing practices. The findings implied that by raising the participants’ awareness of the relevance of everyday practices in relation with reading and writing, they are likelier to feel more comfortable and empowered towards their own literacy practices. Particularly, the empowerment of children coming from a disadvantaged background would give them more opportunities to support their learning. By making the children aware of the relevance of their own perceptions and practices, the pupils could gain in confidence, be agents of their learning processes, and have more resources to succeed on the demanding school environment.

  17. Consideraciones sobre la produccion de frutas en Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Aular

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available En la presente revisión se presenta información sobre superficie, producción, y rendimiento de los frutales en Venezuela. Además se hacen consideraciones sobre los sistemas de producción, destacando limitaciones, avances y sugerencias. La fruticultura en Venezuela ocupa el 3er. lugar dentro del sector agrícola vegetal. Existen 167.691 Ha de frutales y una producción 2.232.088 TM por año. Se producen comercialmente una docena de rubros frutícolas, siendo los principales: plátano, banano, naranjo y piña. Las áreas de producción van desde zonas bajas y áridas, en donde se obtienen uvas y piñas; hasta zonas altas y húmedas donde se hallan duraznos y fresas. Ha habido reducción de la superficie plantada, con excepción de lechosa, piña y aguacate. El manejo hortícola de los huertos frutícolas es heterogéneo, ya que se observa desde bajo hasta alto nivel de tecnología. La incorrecta aplicación de las prácticas hortícolas origina baja productividad y calidad de fruta. La poscosecha podría mejorarse a través del desarrollo e implementación de normas de clasificación, empaque, embalaje, y cadena de frío. La exportación de frutas venezolanas se ha reducido en los últimos años y se concentra en mango, naranja y lima Tahití. Los principales destinos son Colombia, Europa, Norteamérica y las islas del Caribe. Sólo la naranja se procesa de manera importante en Venezuela. Las perspectivas para la fruticultura venezolana es continuar como una actividad dirigida al mercado interno, no se vislumbra una mayor participación del país en el mercado internacional.

  18. Pobres y pobreza en los testamentos (Reino de Chile, 1585-1641

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Lacoste

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se analiza a los pobres y la pobreza en testamentos de Santiago de Chile entre fines del siglo XVI y el primer tercio del XVII, a partir de un corpus documental de 300 testamentos. Se considera que el temor, las actitudes y las prácticas realizadas respecto a la pobreza y los pobres en este período, se relacionan con la muerte próxima y el juicio de Dios. Por eso es que los pobres aparecen como la oportunidad de practicar las enseñanzas cristianas, acumular méritos, y mejorar el futuro de las propias almas. El desafío consiste, entonces, en examinar los testamentos santiaguinos para identificar la presencia de los pobres y la pobreza, atendiendo a comprender el sentido de esos conceptos en la mentalidad de los testadores.

  19. Discrimination and victimization: parade for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) pride, in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos, Jaime; Silva, Jimena; Catalan, Susan; Gomez, Fabiola; Longueira, Jimena

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the population participating in the LGBT Pride Parade in Santiago, Chile, from discrimination and victimization standpoints. The sample consisted of 488 subjects older than 18 years (M = 25.1), who were interviewed during the 2007 event. For this purpose, a questionnaire from the Latin American Centre of Sexuality and Human Rights (CLAM) was adapted and administered. Approximately 35% of respondents reported having experimented school, religious, or neighborhood discrimination. The more discriminated are transgender people. Approximately three fourths of respondents reported experiencing ridicule and almost 60% reported experiencing insults or threats. Transgender were significantly more likely than gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals to experience discrimination or victimization events. Finally, the parade acquired an important social and political character in the context of a clearly homophobic society.

  20. Educación intercultural y representaciones de lo étnico en Chile: etnografía de un establecimiento secundario en contexto urbano

    OpenAIRE

    Catalán Pesce, Ramiro

    2016-01-01

    Esta investigación doctoral aborda las representaciones sobre lo étnico que se construyen en una institución escolar que lleva a cabo un proyecto de educación intercultural en la ciudad de Santiago de Chile. Su objetivo es explorar etnográficamente las prácticas y discursos que son elaborados, supuestamente, para revalorizar lo indígena, en contraste con una historia de negación e invisibilización promovida históricamente por la escuela como un actor relevante en la formación de una idea de n...

  1. Analysis and projections of physics in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Zambra, Marcelo; Loewe, Marcelo; Gutiérrez, Gonzalo; Molina, Mario; Barra, Felipe; Lund, Fernando; Saavedra, Carlos; Haberle, Patricio

    2008-11-01

    In the present work, an assessment of the Physics research capacity in Chile is presented. For this, the period between 2000 and June 2005 has been studied. In this period almost 200 physicists have contributed to scientific production in terms of ISI publications. Amongst these 200, ~160 correspond to theoretical physicists and only ~40 to experimental physicists; ~178 are men and only ~22 are women. A more detailed analysis shows that ~160 physicists have at least one appearance in ISI publications per year considering the last 3 years. Ten years ago, a similar criteria (at least one appearance per year in ISI articles, considering mobile three-year periods), the number of active physicists in the Chilean community was estimated at 70. Therefore, the Chilean active physicists' community has doubled in 10 years. There exist 20 centres in which scientific research is developed: 18 university centres, a government institute and a private institute. As regards scientific productivity, both as related to disciplines or research areas, and well as in relation to research centres, it is found that, generally, scientific production, in a particular area in Physics or in a research centre, is directly related to the number of corresponding researchers; that is to say, the percentage of the national productivity in an area or research centre corresponds to its share in the total number of physicists in the country. A geographical analysis shows that 50% of the productivity corresponds to Santiago and 50% to the rest of the country. The impact of the different funds for research is assessed, also: FONDECYT, Presidential Chairs and large projects and centres of excellence. According to Physics researchers opinion, Fondo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (FONDECYT, National Fund fro Science and Technology) has become the best instrument to support researchi activities in Chile. However, the amount of projects awarded has practically not been increased, which is insufficient

  2. La expresión de impersonalidad en el español de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUZ MARCELA HURTADO CUBILLOS

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este es un estudio sobre la expresión de impersonalidad en el español hablado en Chile. Con base en la clasificación de María Luisa Hernanz (1990 se analizan como categorías impersonales elUSO dese, uno y las segundas personas usted y tú con referencias generalizadoras. La hipótesis de partida consiste en que el conocimiento de otra lengoa inIluye enla selección dela forma impersonal: en el español deValdivia, los hablantes filvorecen elimpersonal uno para las referencias generalizadoras, posiblemente porinIluencia del alemán, lengoa delos antigoos inmigrantes ylaprimera lengoa demuchos desus descendientes. Para corrobo- raresta hipótesis, se analizan 40 entrevistas recogidas enValdivia yenSantiago (Chile en1988 y2002. Con el enfoque de la lingüística de la variación yla incorporación de algonos delos factores previamente estudiados por Amparo Morales (1995, las oraciones codificadas se sometieron al programa estadistico VarbRul (Análisis de Regla Variable. De esta manera, se analizaron de forma simultánea las variables sociolingüisticas de bilingüismo (mapuche! alemán! inglés, edad, sexo, ocupación, ciudad (Valdivia / Santiago Y fecha de la entrevista (198812002. Los resultados del análisis cuantitativo revelan que las variables de bilingüismo y ocupación determinan el USO deuna forma impersonal especifica. En cuanto ala variable de ciudad elprograma mostró que esta variable notenia ningún efecto.

  3. complejidad en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alejandro Bustamante-Ubilla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio tiene por objetivo caracterizar el clima organizacional al interior de 2 hospitales dealta complejidad de Chile, determinando las dimensiones más y menos influyentes. Para su desarrollose aplicó un cuestionario que consta de 71 variables agrupadas en 14 dimensiones a una muestra de561 funcionarios. La interpretación de los resultados se realizó a través del análisis del valor prome-dio estandarizado y su confiabilidad ratificada mediante el alfa de Cronbach. A partir de lo anterior, sedeterminó que las dimensiones que influyen por encima del promedio fueron: identidad, motivaciónlaboral y responsabilidad; en tanto que las dimensiones que muestran un nivel de impacto por debajodel promedio resultaron ser: equipo y distribución de personas y material, administración del conflictoy comunicación.© 2015 Universidad ICESI. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. Este es un artículo Open Access bajo lalicencia CC BY (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

  4. Santiago Sebastián, 1931-1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Rodríguez Jiménez

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Con profundo dolor el Anuario registra la muerte del doctor Santiago Sebastián López, acaecida en Valencia (España el pasado año, a la edad de sesenta y cuatro años. Nació en una pequeña población rural del reino de Aragón (Villaquermado, el 25 de marzo de 1931. Licenciado por la Universidad Complutense de Madrid, ocupó distintas cátedras en las ciudades de Palma de Mallorca, Córdoba y Barcelona. En las últimas dos décadas se había radicado definitivamente en Valencia, en cuya universidad formó a valiosos especialistas en los campos de su interés. Realizó estancias académicas en las universidades de Heiderberg, Yale y en el Fine Arts Institute de Nueva York.

  5. Anglicism in the press of Santiago de Cuba city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusnel Tabares-Tabares

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The preliminary findings from an unfinished investigation having a synchronic approach are presented. The objective of this study is to analyze the English loanwords that appear in the press of Santiago de Cuba city at the beginning of the XX century. This analysis will allow to draw significant conclusions concerning the presence of anglicisms in the Spanish spoken in Cuba. The methodology is based on a random revision of “El Cubano Libre” newspaper, at the time it is counted some aspects, namely: how many anglicisms were found, their typology, grammatical category, their frequency of appearance, and the year they were published in the dictionary of the Spanish Royal Academy.  Among the outstanding results is remarkable that few English loanwords were registered in the dictionary of the Spanish Royal Academy, the topics more profitable to search were those of politics and sport, and the sort of anglicisms more frequent belong to the category of patent loanword.

  6. Che in Santiago de Cuba. His Universidad de Oriente visit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Corujo-Vallejo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ernesto Che Guevara begins his activity in the process of the Cuban Revolution since 1955, stamped by the meeting with Fidel Castro in Mexico. After the triumph, transformed in one of the Revolution´s Commandants for his distinguished attitude, develops a multifaceted and creative activity, in the process of the construction of the new society. For that reason, between 1959 and 1964, in some opportunities he visits the city of Santiago of Cuba. His presence is also felt in the University of Oriente, where he comes on his first visit to the city, checks the construction of the university city, interchanges with students and teachers about the relevance of the application of the scientific knowledge in the development of the new society.

  7. Santiago de Cuba: between july 1955 and november 1956

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Pevida-Pupo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the historical context of the city of Santiago de Cuba in the months prior to November 30, 1956, when the armed uprising took place in support of the landing of the Granma yacht expedition led by Fidel Castro Ruz; The material and human assurances made by the 26th of July Revolutionary Movement (MR-26-7 to provide all possible assistance to those arriving at the coast of the country; Among this action is the making of uniforms and the location of medical kits. It also emphasizes the role played by young teacher Frank País García at the front of the plan drawn up months before 

  8. Virtual Visit to the ATLAS Control Room by Manuel Peleteiro School in Santiago de Compostela

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this training is to prepare secondary school teachers for a visit with their students to the CERN exhibition that will arrive in Santiago de Compostela on May 2nd, 2013 and stay until May 20th.

  9. El ordenamiento territorial en Santiago del Estero: implicancias jurídicas y ambientales

    OpenAIRE

    Zemán, Claudia Roxana

    2013-01-01

    Los temas de la ponencia son los siguientes:1- Del ordenamiento territorial: concepto y principios rectores. 2- El ordenamiento territorial en Argentina. 3- De la situación en Santiago del Estero. 4- Conclusiones. 5- Bibliografía

  10. Un americanismo léxico de leyenda: Santiago como rayo en lengua de indios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Frago Gracia

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A lexical Americanism 'santiago' is documented in this article as 'ray', that apparently has not arrived until our days, although this can only confirm a better knowledge of American Spanish, though it really existed in the Andean world and it is representative of the nativesi adaptation in lexical form of the Hispanic belief in the Santiago ëkill Moorishí.

  11. Gestión de desempeño de las empresas inmobiliarias en Santiago de Chile, a través de modelos multicriterio = Performance management of real estate companies in Santiago, Chile, through multicriteria models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Angel Mellado Espinoza

    2016-08-01

    The development of this work is a management model of real states companies that allows analyze its performance in a time control period under a continuous improvement scheme, this model could be applied in all types of companies regardless of its size. This management model has been generated with value judgment of Chilean specialist in real states companies, through a project hierarchical analyze method. The Project Hierarchical Analyze method (AHP, used to evaluate the priority of each evaluation element, has allowed to establish precise, consistent and consequence values for measuring the development of real states management business. The process of target breakdown into grouped criteria under a structured scheme of 26 variables, allows to construct an integrated control panel, showing the most relevant indicators for the real states business, of which 9 can explain near 70% of the key performance indicators. Highlighting a balanced concern among profitability, growth and stability, which shows that companies aim their stay in the market and not just a return on investment . Similarly the model shows a significant concern for the external customers of the company and also the internal customer, since keeping people happy, higher productivity and achieving the objectives of the companies is achieved.

  12. Novas espécies e nota sobre Lamiinae (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae neotropicais da coleção Arriagada, Santiago, Chile New species and note on Neotropical Lamiinae (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae of the Arriagada's collection, Santiago, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available New species described: Acanthoderini - Acanthoderes (Psapharochrus piraiuba sp. nov.from Argentina (San Luis; Acanthoderes (Acanthoderes uyapensis sp. nov. from Bolivia (La Paz; Dufauxia simplex sp. nov. from Paraguay (Caazapá; Aerenicini - Antodice quadrimaculata sp. nov. from Paraguay (Caazapá; Calliini - Drycothaea maculata sp. nov. from Bolivia (La Paz; Falsamblesthiini - Obereoides antennatus sp. nov. from Bolívia (La Paz. Color variation of Phoebe spegazzinii Bruch, 1908 is discussed.

  13. Comercio, espacio público y gestión local: el caso de Providencia en Santiago de Chile./ Trade, public space and local governance: the case of Providencia in Santiago, Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zapata, Isabel

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Sobre la apertura de pasajes peatonales ejecutados por el Municipio de Providencia a partir de 1970, se expone y evalúa la propuesta inicial versus su desarrollo durante los últimos treinta años, al tiempo que se examinan los cambios normativos que la operación ha desencadenado. Destaca la continuidad del proceso en el tiempo, que ha podido adaptarse a los cambios políticos y a los no menos importantes vaivenes económicos del país. Un conjunto de factores parecen haber hecho posible este proceso: un equipo técnico municipal visionario y pragmático con respaldo político de la autoridad, implementando una gestión urbana que ha aunado constanciapara la persecución de los objetivos fundamentales y flexibilidad para la adaptación de la normativa y de los lugares de intervención planificados originalmente./The author of this article analyzes and evaluates the original project of the pedestrian sidestreets by the Municipality of Providencia and the development of said project from 1970 and the following 30 years, also the normative changes caused by the completion of the project are examined here. The process of opening these pedestrian streets has had continuity through time, being able to adapt to the political changes and the considerable economic fluctuations. Some of the factors that have made possible this process are: the municipal technical team that was visionary and pragmatic and also had the political back up of the ones in power. There has been a constant persecution of the fundamental goals of the project and also there has been flexibility to adapt to the normative factors and the places where the intervention was originally planned.

  14. Algunas consideraciones sobre la interpretación prejudicial obligatoria en el derecho andino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Daniel Perotti

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Interesante análisis que ahonda el tema de la interpretación prejudicial para la resolución de conflictos respecto a asuntos que trascienden las consideraciones jurídicas internas y que hacen necesario conocer las posiciones de Tribunales de justicia o supranacionales para tomar decisiones uniformes, frente a situaciones materia de tratados Internacionales relacionados con la Comunidad Andina.

  15. [Socio-demographic characteristics, subjective well-being, and homophobia experienced by a sample of gay men from three cities in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrientos-Delgado, Jaime; Cárdenas-Castro, Manuel; Gómez-Ojeda, Fabiola

    2014-06-01

    This article describes the socio-demographic characteristics of a sample of gay men in three cities in Chile, as well as experience with homophobia and subjective well-being. Snowball sampling was used to interview 325 gay men. The main findings included high levels of perceived discrimination and victimization, but interviewees reported higher levels of social well-being compared to studies elsewhere in the country. Age was related to differences in levels of social well-being, but not other variables. Individuals with university education reported higher levels of victimization and greater impact of discrimination on their lives. Gay men in Santiago reported a higher relative impact from incidents of aggression, but better levels of social well-being and happiness compared to those in other regions of Chile.

  16. Wildfires in Chile: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Úbeda, Xavier; Sarricolea, Pablo

    2016-11-01

    This paper reviews the literature examining the wildfire phenomenon in Chile. Since ancient times, Chile's wildfires have shaped the country's landscape, but today, as in many other parts of the world, the fire regime - pattern, frequency and intensity - has grown at an alarming rate. In 2014, > 8000 fires were responsible for burning c. 130,000 ha, making it the worst year in Chile's recent history. The reasons for this increase appear to be the increment in the area planted with flammable species; the rejection of these landscape modifications on the part of local communities that target these plantations in arson attacks; and, the adoption of intensive forest management practices resulting in the accumulation of a high fuel load. These trends have left many native species in a precarious situation and forest plantation companies under considerable financial pressure. An additional problem is posed by fires at the wildland urban interface (WUI), threatening those inhabitants that live in Chile's most heavily populated cities. The prevalence of natural fires in Chile; the relationship between certain plant species and fire in terms of seed germination strategies and plant adaptation; the relationship between fire and invasive species; and, the need for fire prevention systems and territorial plans that include fire risk assessments are some of the key aspects discussed in this article. Several of the questions raised will require further research, including just how fire-dependent the ecosystems in Chile are, how the forest at the WUI can be better managed to prevent human and material damage, and how best to address the social controversy that pits the Mapuche population against the timber companies.

  17. The prevalence of irritable bowel symptoms in a population of shopping mall visitors in Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Madrid-Silva

    2013-10-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of IBS symptoms in the population studied is one of the highest described. Therefore, health teams should have the necessary knowledge and skill required for its management.

  18. Consumo, características y perfil del consumidor de suplementos nutricionales en gimnasios de Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jorquera Aguilera

    2016-09-01

    Conclusión: Un número considerable de personas que asiste regularmente a los gimnasios consume suplementos sin la orientación especializada y posiblemente sin tener que utilizarlos realmente, pero es necesario regular el uso irracional y potencialmente inseguro de los suplementos nutricionales en mejora del rendimiento físico.

  19. Agricultura urbana en metrópolis iberoamericanas: estudio de casos en Santiago de Chile y Lisboa, Portugal

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Isabel María Madaleno; Gladys Armijo

    2012-01-01

    ... por políticas indusivas, tanto sociales, culturales, como económicas y ambientales. La agricultura practicada al interior del tejido urbano o en su entorno, sobre todo cuando evita el uso de sustandas...

  20. Las consecuencias del urbanismo fragmentador en la vida cotidiana de habitantes de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jirón, Paola

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the multiple urban transformations taking place in large metropoles, this paper analyzes, through various means, the way in which contemporary urbanism practices serve to fragment...

  1. Nominal Address and Rapport Management in Informal Interactions among University Students in Quito (Ecuador), Santiago (Chile) and Seville (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placencia, María Elena; Fuentes Rodríguez, Catalina; Palma-Fahey, María

    2015-01-01

    Nominal and pronominal address forms, which play a central role in the construction of interpersonal relations (cf. Bargiela et al. 2002; Clyne et al. 2009), have been the focus of attention in different linguistics subfields for several decades now. Less attention, however, has been paid to these forms from a variational pragmatics (Schneider and…

  2. "Fue famosa la chingana…". Diversión popular y cultura nacional en Santiago de Chile , 1820-1840

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Donoso Fritz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. Las chinganas fueron lugares sub-urbanos de divertimiento popular fuertemente criticados por la elite pipiola y pelucona, por las conductas “inmorales” que practicaban sus asistentes. Sin embargo, el ambiente chinganero logró penetrar hacia el centro de la ciudad, invadiendo los cafés y teatros, junto a su baile por excelencia, la zamacueca. Fue tal el impulso de estas formas que fueron integradas como parte de la cultura nacional y las fiestas cívicas, debido a que la elite no tuvo la capacidad de entregar un fundamento cultural a su discurso nacional. El discurso nacional fue creado por la elite para fortalecer y difundir su proyecto de nación, pero fueron las tradiciones populares las que le dieron un contenido real. Palabras Claves: Pueblo, Nación, Chingana, Cultura. ABSTRACT. The “chinganas” were suburban sites of popular amusement strongly criticized by liberal and conservative elites, on account of the “immorality” practiced by their patrons. However, the “chinganero” atmosphere managed to penetrate the city center, invading theaters and coffee-houses with its characteristic dance, the “zamacueca”. The influence of these cultural forms was such that they became part of the national culture and the official celebrations, as the elite proved incapable of supplying its own cultural bases for its nation-building discourse. This national discourse was created by the elite to support and propagate its national project, but it was the popular traditions that gave it real content. Keywords: People, Nation, “Chingana”, Culture.

  3. Groups of Galaxies in the Nearby Universe Proceedings of the ESO Workshop held at Santiago de Chile

    CERN Document Server

    Saviane, Ivo; Borissova, Jordanka

    2007-01-01

    For every galaxy in the field or in clusters, there are about three galaxies in groups. The Milky Way itself resides in a group, and groups can be found at high redshift. The current generation of 10-m class telescopes and space facilities allows the observation of the members of nearby groups with exquisite detail, and their properties can be correlated with the global properties of their host group. Groups in the local Universe offer us the chance to study galaxies in environments characterized by strong interactions. In the cosmological context, groups trace large-scale structures better than clusters, and the evolution of groups and clusters appears to be related. All these aspects of research on groups of galaxies are summarized in this book written by scientists working in various fields.

  4. DETERMINANTES INDIVIDUALES Y DEL ENTORNO RESIDENCIAL EN LA PERCEPCIÓN DE SEGURIDAD EN BARRIOS DEL GRAN SANTIAGO, CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Tocornal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La percepción de seguridad de los habitantes en sus entornos residenciales más inmediatos se nutre de diversos factores tanto personales como del territorio y de las relaciones sociales entre vecinos. Este trabajo explora mediante el método estadístico de Regresión Lineal Multivariada los principales determinantes de la percepción individual de seguridad. Esta metodología se aplica con una perspectiva multinivel que considera el nivel de determinantes individuales (sexo, edad, años de educación, ingreso del hogar, como el nivel de determinantes de las relaciones sociales y del territorio residencial del individuo. Los resultados a nivel de variables individuales son coherentes con la evidencia previa. Diversas variables asociadas a la interacción social en el barrio inciden en la percepción de seguridad. En particular, con¿ anza e interacción entre vecinos junto a la antigüedad de los barrios son relevantes en la determinación de la percepción de seguridad. El rol de las señales de desorden físico no parece relevante. La presencia de programas de seguridad ciudadana a nivel municipal en el territorio es signi¿ cativa, indicando la relevancia de estas iniciativas en frenar el temor de las comunidades.

  5. ASPECTOS CAUSALES DEL PRECIO DE DEPARTAMENTOS NUEVOS EN LA COMUNA DE ÑUÑOA, SANTIAGO DE CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Aguirre N.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo busca establecer de forma preliminar relaciones de causalidad entre atributos de barrio o microbarrio y los precios de los departamentos nuevos en un mercado en expansión. En ese sentido, se estableció un análisis mediante un modelo de producto y se sometió la base de datos resultante a un análisis geográfico y espacial. Posteriormente se aplicó un análisis multivariado, con miras a estimar coeficientes significativos de causalidad. La conclusión confirma el atributo inmobiliario más valorado es la distancia al centro de la microzona y que las áreas verdes se sitúan como un sustituto para proyectos que están más alejados del centro.

  6. Aspectos causales del precio de departamentos nuevos en la Comuna de Ñuñoa, Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Aguirre N.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo busca establecer de forma preliminar relaciones de causalidad entre atributos de barrio o microbarrio y los precios de los departamentos nuevos en un mercado en expansión. En ese sentido, se estableció un análisis mediante un modelo de producto y se sometió la base de datos resultante a un análisis geográfico y espacial. Posteriormente se aplicó un análisis multivariado, con miras a estimar coeficientes significativos de causalidad. La conclusión confirma el atributo inmobiliario más valorado es la distancia al centro de la microzona y que las áreas verdes se sitúan como un sustituto para proyectos que están más alejados del centro.

  7. Pérdida auditiva por contaminación acústica laboral en Santiago de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Bugueño, Ana María

    2013-01-01

    [spa] La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) ha estimado que, aproximadamente, 278 millones de personas presentan déficit auditivo en el mundo; que el 50% de las pérdidas auditivas podrían evitarse mediante prevención, un diagnóstico precoz y una gestión eficaz y que, más de 4.000.000 de años de vida saludable se perdieron debido a las pérdidas auditivas inducidas por ruido. Lo anterior hace necesario establecer un modelo para predecir la pérdida auditiva por contaminación acústica laboral...

  8. Estrategias de cortesia verbal utilizadas en debates semipautados de jovenes y adultos mayores de Santiago de Chile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aguilar Pena, Paula

    2015-01-01

    ...: adultos mayores y jovenes. De forma general, los resultados expresan diferencias en la descripcion de estrategias corteses usadas por jovenes y adultos en el contexto comunicativo de intercambio de ideas...

  9. Kenneth Kraft, Budismo solidario. Un nuevo mapa del sendero, Editorial Maitri, Santiago de Chile, 2001, 106 p.

    OpenAIRE

    Gottlieb, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    El budismo actual presenta dos grandes ramas. La más antigua es la hinayana, el “pequeño vehículo”, representado actualmente por la escuela Theravada, arraigada fundamentalmente en Birmania, Laos, Tailandia, Camboya, Sri Lanka y Malasia. La otra, es el budismo mahayánico, el “gran vehículo”, surgido en el siglo segundo antes de nuestra era, y característico de China, Mongolia, Corea,  Tíbet y Japón, y de la cual el budismo zen es una de su principales expresiones. La escuela Theravada tiene c...

  10. DETERMINANTES INDIVIDUALES Y DEL ENTORNO RESIDENCIAL EN LA PERCEPCIÓN DE SEGURIDAD EN BARRIOS DEL GRAN SANTIAGO, CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    Ximena Tocornal; Pablo Henríquez; Javier Núñez

    2012-01-01

    La percepción de seguridad de los habitantes en sus entornos residenciales más inmediatos se nutre de diversos factores tanto personales como del territorio y de las relaciones sociales entre vecinos. Este trabajo explora mediante el método estadístico de Regresión Lineal Multivariada los principales determinantes de la percepción individual de seguridad. Esta metodología se aplica con una perspectiva multinivel que considera el nivel de determinantes individuales (sexo, edad, años de educaci...

  11. Santiago de Chile y Mendoza, Argentina: La red social que apoyó a exiliados chilenos (1973-1976

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paredes, Alejandro

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes the social networks that helped those exiled Chileans that arrived at the city Argentina of Mendoza after the overthrow of the socialist Chilean President Salvador Allende in 1973. Between 1973 and 1989, the Chilean community exiled in Mendoza was large. This writing stops in period 1973-1976, because in 1976 a military coup in Argentina deeply changed the social situation of the country, which would justify another article. The used sources are, mainly, letters that belong to the file of the Ecumenical Committee of Social Action, institution that supported the Chileans who received status of Political Refugees by High the Commissioners of the Nations United for Refugees (UNHCR.

  12. Darwin's Navidad embayment, Santiago region, Chile, as a model of the southeastern Pacific shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cecioni, G.

    1980-01-01

    The sedimentary sequence of Darwin's Navidad embayment overlies a Carboniferous metamorphic basement, and was deposited in a NNW-striking basin, open toward the sea. The sediments formed in a temperate climate and consist of three marine sequences-Cretaceous, Eocene, and Miocene-Pliocene. They exhibit some potential for oil and gas. The uppermost sediments of the Navidad Group were deposited in a more extensive sea, which was deeper, with lower wave energy. Near the present Pacific coastline, the sediments are tectonically disturbed. Farther east-and northward, the sediments are not affected by great disturbances. Some good types of stratigraphical traps, such as eolian sand beaches, may be expected. 3 figures.

  13. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection among women presenting for cervical cancer screening in Chile, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanda, Monserrat; Quiero, Andrea; Vergara, Nicolás; Espinoza, Gloria; Martín, Héctor San; Rojas, Giovanna; Ramírez, Eugenio

    2016-12-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in women worldwide. In Chile, cervical cancer is the second leading cause of death among women of reproductive age, causing more than 600 deaths annually. This study was carried out to determine the burden and confirm the predominant human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes among women presenting for cervical cancer screening in public health services in Chile. Women aged 18-64 years residing in the north and central areas covered by six primary care centers of Santiago, Chile, were invited to participate from March 2014 to August 2015. Cervical swabs were examined both HPV genotyping by PCR and Reverse Line Blot, and cervical cytology by Pap testing. A total of 1738 women were included in this study: 11.1 % were HPV positive, 9.7 % were high-risk types positive, 3.2 % were low-risk types positive, 1.4 % were Pap positive and 0.9 % were positive by both tests. The four most predominant genotypes were 16, 66, 51 and 59, with prevalence of 2.8, 1.4, 1.2 and 1.2 %, respectively. Multiple HPV infections were detected among 3.8 % participants. Age-specific prevalence of HPV showed a peak in HPV infection at younger ages (≤30 years), declining to a plateau in middle age. Among women with normal cytology, the 9.4 % were HPV positive, while 58.3 % of women with abnormal cytology were HPV positive. These findings show new epidemiological data confirming HPV 16 and 66 as the most predominant genotypes in Chile. These data are important for design successful strategies for prevention of cervical cancer in Chile.

  14. Socialisme i Chile efter Pinochet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristoffanini, Pablo Rolando

    2008-01-01

    Chile bliver ofte præsenteret som et paradigme for resten af det latinamerikanske kontinent: Et land med høj økonomisk vækst og politisk stabilitet. Landet har endda haft to socialistiske præsidenter siden 2000, den sidste den første kvindelige præsident. Succeshistorien har en bagside: De social...

  15. Forest nursery management in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rene Escobar R.; Manuel Sanchez O.; Guillermo Pereira C.

    2002-01-01

    The forest economy in Chile is based on products from artificial reforestation efforts on approximately 2 million ha. From these, about 1.5 million ha (75%) are planted with Pinus radiata, 400,000 ha (20%) with species of Eucalyptus, principally E. globulus and E. nitens, and the rest (5%) composed by other...

  16. Santiago Serrano (1970-1980: Hacia una pintura no aprehensible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Muñoz Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La pintura de Santiago Serrano en los años setenta, quizás la fase más brillante de toda su trayectoria, todavía no había sido estudiada desde un enfoque que conjugara la observación directa de su obra y la lectura de sus escritos inéditos. Este artículo es el resultado de una investigación sobre su trabajo artístico en aquella década, con el objetivo de averiguar las referencias, motivaciones y procedimientos que le llevaron, ya desde finales de 1970, a un grado tan radical de abstracción que entronca con Malevich, Rothko, Newman o Diebenkorn. Por su particular concepción y uso del color y la materia, Serrano se distinguió claramente de otras tendencias abstractas como el informalismo o las geometrías derivadas del minimalismo, el op art o el cinetismo.  Asimismo, se analiza el desarrollo de su obra en el contexto de la Pintura-Pintura, sobre todo con relación a las aportaciones de Supports/Surfaces, el grupo de Trama y los pintores italianos adscritos a la Pittura Analitica y Pittura-Pittura. Finalmente, se advierte cómo la pintura de Serrano en los setenta se ha proyectado sobre determinadas fases de su obra posterior.The painting of Santiago Serrano in the seventies, perhaps the most brilliant part of his whole production, had not yet been studied using an approach that combines the direct observation of his work and the reading of his unknown writings. This article is the result of the study of the development of his artistic work during that decade (in order to find the references, motivations and procedures which led him to such a radical level of abstraction that is connected with the art of Malevich, Rothko, Newman or Diebenkorn. Due to his particular conception and use of colour and material, Serrano´s work was clearly different from other abstract trends like Informalism or Geometric Art derived from Minimalism, Op Art or Kinetic Art. Furthermore, the development of his work is analysed in the context of Painting

  17. El pueblo de Santiago: un guetto en Lima virreynal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available Una de las formas de sometimiento de las masas aborígenes a la dominación española fueron las reducciones de indios. El pueblo de Santiago del Cercado, reducción establecida en los arrabales orientales de la Ciudad de Lima, fundada para residencia de los indios que debían servir a la ciudad y a los encomenderos de Lima, tuvo características peculiares en cuanto a su trazo, a su composición poblacional, organización y servicios. La función de las autoridades españolas descansan en las autoridades nativas, que fueron auxiliares insustituibles para el ejercicio de la dominación y explotación. Los servicios y establecimientos del poblado estuvieron destinados a españolizar e impregnar con la ideología de la dominación: la parroquia, la cárcel, el colegio de caciques, el hospital, etc. La parroquia bajo la conducción de los jesuitas en la mayor parte de la historia del poblado, fue el principal instrumento de captación de la mente de los habitantes nativos sin embargo no fueron pasivos receptores, ni dominados resignados, mostraron su rechazo en forma permanente, ya sea mediante resistencia pasiva o con acciones violentas, y con casi todos los movimientos nativos de envergadura estuvieron conectados. Fue el foco de la resistencia y conspiración nativa en Lima. One of the forms of subjection to Spanish domination of the aboriginal masses were the Indians reductions. The town of Santiago del Cercado, one of the indians settlements established on the eastern outskirts of the city of Lima, founded as living quarters for the indians who were to serve the city and the knights commander of Lima, was endowed with peculiar characteristics with regard to its design, its population component, organization and service. The functions of the Spanish authorities, who in turn were irreplaceable subordinates to carry out the domination and exploitation. The service and establishments of the populated areas were destined to become impregnated with

  18. First meeting "Cystic echinococcosis in Chile, update in alternatives for control and diagnostics in animals and humans".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Rojas, Cristian A; Fredes, Fernando; Torres, Marisa; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Alvarez, Juan Francisco; Pavletic, Carlos; Paredes, Rodolfo; Cortés, Sandra

    2016-09-13

    This report summarizes the outcomes of a meeting on cystic echinococcosis (CE) in animals and humans in Chile held in Santiago, Chile, between the 21st and 22nd of January 2016. The meeting participants included representatives of the Departamento de Zoonosis, Ministerio de Salud (Zoonotic Diseases Department, Ministry of Health), representatives of the Secretarias Regionales del Ministerio de Salud (Regional Department of Health, Ministry of Health), Instituto Nacional de Desarrollo Agropecuario (National Institute for the Development of Agriculture and Livestock, INDAP), Instituto de Salud Pública (National Institute for Public Health, ISP) and the Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (Animal Health Department, SAG), academics from various universities, veterinarians and physicians. Current and future CE control activities were discussed. It was noted that the EG95 vaccine was being implemented for the first time in pilot control programmes, with the vaccine scheduled during 2016 in two different regions in the South of Chile. In relation to use of the vaccine, the need was highlighted for acquiring good quality data, based on CE findings at slaughterhouse, previous to initiation of vaccination so as to enable correct assessment of the efficacy of the vaccine in the following years. The current world's-best-practice concerning the use of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool for the screening population in highly endemic remote and poor areas was also discussed.

  19. Revisiting J.M. Gilliss' astronomical expedition to Chile in 1849‒1852

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermosilla, Germán Hidalgo

    2017-08-01

    Between 1849 and 1852 the U.S. astronomer J.M. Gilliss led an expedition to Santiago, Chile, aimed at improving the accepted value for the solar parallax. Although this particular research project was not a success, the astronomers did make other useful astronomical contributions, and the expedition was the catalyst that led directly to the founding of the Chilean National Observatory. Meanwhile, Gilliss later went on to achieve further prominence as Superintendent of the U.S. Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C. The results of the Chilean expedition were published by Gilliss in a six-volume work titled The U.S. Naval Astronomical Expedition to the Southern Hemisphere during the Years 1849-50-51-52 that was issued over a 40-year period. In Volume I (published in 1855) Gilliss presented a 'warts-and-all' account of Chile, its politics and its people, which at the time—and subsequently—created considerable controversy. In this paper, after briefly reviewing Gilliss' Southern Hemisphere expedition we focus on the extensive non-astronomical narrative that Gilliss presents in this first volume.

  20. Transformative ties: gendered violence, forms of recovery, and shifting subjectivities in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parson, Nia

    2010-03-01

    Although a significant body of scholarship on trauma has emerged in medical anthropology, there has been little examination of how gendered expectations shape the aftermath of extreme human experience, forms of recovery, and subjectivity. Here, I show how domestic and other forms of violence have shaped Luz's suffering in the dictatorial (1973-90) and officially democratic (1990-present) eras in Chile. I then elucidate how Luz's engagement with Safe Space, an NGO connected to UN violence against women frameworks, and other globally connected women's groups, have allowed her to generate transformative ties with other women. These relationships provide support for Luz's self-defined project of transforming herself and society, largely in relationship to gendered expectations, so that her recovered sense of self will have more of a home in the world, outside the boundaries of narrowly defined gender roles. This analysis is based on ethnographic research in Santiago, Chile, over 19 months in 2000-04 and 2009, including participant-observation at two domestic violence centers and life history interviews with 18 women who sought help there.

  1. From state terrorism to state errorism: post-Pinochet Chile's long search for truth and justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyndham, Marivic; Read, Peter

    2010-02-01

    Patio 29 lies in the northern sector of Santiago's General Cemetery. To the naked eye, it is a grim unweeded field of some twelve hundred rusted tin crosses. But to the families of the 1,197 detained-disappeared during Augusto Pinochet's brutal dictatorship, Patio 29 is both a site of horror and a site of hope. Its story begins in September-December 1973 when 320 early victims of the repression were brought there in makeshift wooden crates that held as many as three bodies each, and buried in unmarked graves. A few years later, two hundred of those graves were exhumed by the military, and the remains presumably cremated. For another decade, the mass grave remained silent, yielding few of its secrets to the families' demands to know: Where are they? Today, nineteen years into the so-called transition to democracy, Patio 29--the most important single finding in relation to Chile's detained-disappeared-still refuses to reveal the identities of those victims, pressing upon the government of Michelle Bachelet a new question: Who are they? First state terror, now state error have conspired to make Patio 29 one of Chile's principal horror-cum-hopescapes.

  2. Exploring the Masculine Identity in the Context of HIV Prevention in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Lilian; Cianelli, Rosina; Villegas, Natalia; Reed, Reiley; Bernales, Margarita; Repetto, Paula; Hufstader, Theodore; Lara, Loreto; Irarrázabal, Lisette; Peragallo-Montano, Nilda

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to describe human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related knowledge and beliefs, as well as understanding attitudes towards masculinity in the context of HIV prevention, held among Chilean men. This study reports the qualitative findings of a sequential qualitative-quantitative mixed methodology study: Bringing men into HIV Prevention in Chile, NIH R01 TW007674-03. Twenty in-depth interviews using a qualitative, descriptive approach to elicit information for the study were conducted among men residing in two communities of low socio-economic status in Santiago, Chile. Content analysis of interviews revealed three main themes regarding machismo and how it relates to HIV: sexuality and machismo, the changing nature of machismo, and violence against women. Addressing HIV and intimate partner violence through developing education programs tailored to meet the needs of Chilean men are needed to include men in HIV prevention efforts. Specifically, incorporating ideas of what men consider healthy masculinity and working to destigmatize men who have sex with men are important steps in addressing the negative aspects of machismo. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  3. Clima y sociedad en Argentina y Chile durante el periodo colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Gascón

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza las principales fluctuaciones climáticas globales en algunos territorios, que actualmente pertenecen a las repúblicas de Argentina y de Chile, durante el periodo colonial. Las colonias involucradas son Santiago, en Chile; y Mendoza, Córdoba y Buenos Aires, en Argentina. El periodo colonial inicia con la Pequeña Edad Glacial y sus condiciones de mayor frío y humedad; a mediados del siglo XVII fue notorio el Mínimo de Maunder; y, finalmente, en la segunda mitad del siglo XVIII, se registró el Remonte Termal, caracterizado por el calor y la sequía. Prestamos atención a El Niño Oscilación del Sur (ENOS en sus diferentes efectos locales. El objetivo principal es enriquecer las interpretaciones del pasado desde finales del siglo XVI hasta principios del siglo XIX, al aportar elementos referidos a la historia del clima. El eje del análisis es que el clima afecta los ambientes y los recursos naturales disponibles, la vida urbana y las rutas, de modo que no puede estar ausente de las diversas explicaciones del pasado colonial.

  4. The avoidable health effects of air pollution in three Latin American cities: Santiago, São Paulo, and Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Michelle L; Davis, Devra L; Gouveia, Nelson; Borja-Aburto, Víctor H; Cifuentes, Luis A

    2006-03-01

    Urban centers in Latin American often face high levels of air pollution as a result of economic and industrial growth. Decisions with regard to industry, transportation, and development will affect air pollution and health both in the short term and in the far future through climate change. We investigated the pollution health consequences of modest changes in fossil fuel use for three case study cities in Latin American: Mexico City, Mexico; Santiago, Chile; and São Paulo, Brazil. Annual levels of ozone and particulate matter were estimated from 2000 to 2020 for two emissions scenarios: (1) business-as-usual based on current emissions patterns and regulatory trends and (2) a control policy aimed at lowering air pollution emissions. The resulting air pollution levels were linked to health endpoints through concentration-response functions derived from epidemiological studies, using local studies where available. Results indicate that the air pollution control policy would have vast health benefits for each of the three cities, averting numerous adverse health outcomes including over 156,000 deaths, 4 million asthma attacks, 300,000 children's medical visits, and almost 48,000 cases of chronic bronchitis in the three cities over the 20-year period. The economic value of the avoided health impacts is roughly 21 to 165 billion Dollars (US). Sensitivity analysis shows that the control policy yields significant health and economic benefits even with relaxed assumptions with regard to population growth, pollutant concentrations for the control policy, concentration-response functions, and economic value of health outcomes. This research demonstrates the health and economic burden from air pollution in Latin American urban centers and the magnitude of health benefits from control policies.

  5. Expansión Hare Krishna en contextos de crisis: resignificando la movilización social desde una perspectiva religiosa en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahamondes González, Luis Andrés

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the expansion of the Hare Krishna movement in Santiago, Chile, analysing mobilization discourse and mechanisms adopted in the face of the social upheavals of the new millennium. It seeks to understand not only recent internal transformation of the Hare Krishna movement, but also to identify social action strategies and independent policies concerning social issues in the public arena. We will analyse the active position the religious group has embraced in a context of growing social demands and how its actions are guided by the philosophical and spiritual conception of its doctrine.La presente investigación se focalizará en la expansión del movimiento Hare Krishna en Santiago de Chile, analizando los discursos y mecanismos de movilización que desarrollan sus integrantes frente al escenario de agitación social vivido con la llegada del nuevo milenio. Con ello no solo se buscará vislumbrar las transformaciones internas acaecidas en el movimiento durante el último tiempo, sino además pretendemos identificar estrategias de acción social y políticas independientes frente a inquietudes o problemas sociales instalados en la agenda pública. De esta forma, analizaremos la manera como este grupo religioso se posiciona activamente en un escenario de demandas sociales y guía su accionar desde la particularidad filosófica y espiritual de su doctrina.

  6. Aves de paso. Los trabajadores estacionales de Santiago del Estero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasso, Alberto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Todos los años cerca de 40.000 trabajadores de Santiago del Estero se trasladan a otras provincias de Argentina para realizar tareas agrícolas temporarias. En este artículo se indaga en algunas características de tal migración laboral que constituye un fenómeno de larga duración. Para ello se aportan encuadres históricos, demográficos y agroecológicos. Se examinan las condiciones laborales de los trabajadores ‘golondrina’ y su perfil social y cultural. Luego se plantean interrogantes acerca de la calidad de esta ocupación estacional y en qué medida ella reúne, o no, las condiciones de lo que debiera ser un trabajo ‘decente’. Finalmente, se sugiere a partir de los datos presentados, la formulación de políticas y líneas de acción con el propósito del mejoramiento de la situación laboral, productiva y social de los trabajadores rurales migrantes temporarios.

  7. Watershed management program on Santiago Island, Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Vicente L.; Meyer, John

    1993-01-01

    The Watershed Management Program (WMP) was put into operation in early 1985 on Santiago Island, Cape Verde, with the stated purpose, “to develop and protect the soil and water resources of the Program-designated watersheds … to stabilize the natural environment and increase agricultural production potential in the Program area.” The approach to soil and water conservation in the program has been to build erosion and flood control structures (engineering approach) and plant trees (biological approach) to decrease rill and gully erosion, trap sediment behind control structures, provide flood protection, increase infiltration, increase fuelwood and fodder production, and increase water supplies for irrigation. There have been many successes resulting from specific management activities, but flawed approach or implementation in a few key areas has acted to impede the program's complete success, including lack of a scientific basis for evaluating its impact on soil and water conservation; poor design, placement, and maintenance of some major hydraulic structures; inadequate intervention in stabilizing farmlands or education of farmers and landowners in the need for and benefits of agroforestry; and incomplete integration of engineering and biological approaches.

  8. Entrevista a Santiago Álvarez de Mon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio López

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Santiago Álvarez de Mon es un profesor de obligada referencia académica y profesional en el ámbito de los valores humanos en la alta dirección empresarial. Doctor en sociología y ciencias políticas por la Universidad de Salamanca (España, es profesor en el Instituto de Estudios Superiores de la Empresa de la Universidad de Navarra (IESE, actualmente considerada como una de las diez escuelas de negocios más prestigiosas del mundo. Álvarez de Mon es autor de varios artículos y libros sobre el liderazgo empresarial, entre los que destacan “El mito del líder” o “Desde la adversidad: liderazgo, cuestión de carácter”, basado en las historias de vida e investigación sobre destacados personajes como Nelson Mandela, Hellen Keller, José Carreras o Lance Armstrong, entre otros. Ha trabajado como directivo en la banca española, así como en el sector de grandes cadenas de distribución, y actualmente combina su labor docente con el asesoramiento a varias compañías en materias de liderazgo y trabajo en equipo.

  9. Familial periodontal disease in the Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Octavio A; Orraca, Luis; Kensler, Terry B; Gonzalez-Martinez, Janis; Maldonado, Elizabeth; Ebersole, Jeffrey L

    2016-01-01

    Substantial ongoing research continues to explore the contribution of genetics and environment to the onset, extent and severity of periodontal disease(s). Existing evidence supports that periodontal disease appears to have an increased prevalence in family units with a member having aggressive periodontitis. We have been using the nonhuman primate as a model of periodontal disease for over 25 years with these species demonstrating naturally occurring periodontal disease that increases with age. This report details our findings from evaluation of periodontal disease in skulls from 97 animals (5-31 years of age) derived from the skeletons of the rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) on Cayo Santiago. Periodontal disease was evaluated by determining the distance from the base of the alveolar bone defect to the cemento-enamel junction on 1st/2nd premolars and 1st/2nd molars from all four quadrants. The results demonstrated an increasing extent and severity of periodontitis with aging across the population of animals beyond only compensatory eruption. Importantly, irrespective of age, extensive heterogeneity in disease expression was observed among the animals. Linking these variations to multi-generational matriarchal family units supported familial susceptibility of periodontitis. As the current generations of animals that are descendants from these matrilines are alive, studies can be conducted to explore an array of underlying factors that could account for susceptibility or resistance to periodontal disease. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Chiliques volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A January 6, 2002 ASTER nighttime thermal infrared image of Chiliques volcano in Chile shows a hot spot in the summit crater and several others along the upper flanks of the edifice, indicating new volcanic activity. Examination of an earlier nighttime thermal infrared image from May 24,2000 showed no thermal anomaly. Chiliques volcano was previously thought to be dormant. Rising to an elevation of 5778 m, Chiliques is a simple stratovolcano with a 500-m-diameter circular summit crater. This mountain is one of the most important high altitude ceremonial centers of the Incas. It is rarely visited due to its difficult accessibility. Climbing to the summit along Inca trails, numerous ruins are encountered; at the summit there are a series of constructions used for rituals. There is a beautiful lagoon in the crater that is almost always frozen.The daytime image was acquired on November 19, 2000 and was created by displaying ASTER bands 1,2 and 3 in blue, green and red. The nighttime image was acquired January 6, 2002, and is a color-coded display of a single thermal infrared band. The hottest areas are white, and colder areas are darker shades of red. Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.Both images cover an area of 7.5 x 7.5 km, and are centered at 23.6 degrees south latitude, 67.6 degrees west longitude.These images were acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER will image Earth for the next 6 years to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18,1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U

  11. Estudio del propoleos de Santiago del Estero, Argentina Estudo de própolis de Santiago del Estero, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucrecia Lucía Chaillou

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue determinar las características físico-químicas del propóleos de la provincia de Santiago del Estero. Las muestras se recolectaron de colmenas ubicadas en los departamentos Capital, Banda y Robles. Se determinaron: color, olor, sabor consistencia y aspecto. Las muestras por lo general, se presentaron en trozos irregulares con brillo, de estructura homogénea, consistencia dura. El color fue marrón oscuro, olor resinoso aromático y sabor picante. El porcentaje de impurezas mecánicas, cera y resinas se encuentran de valores normales. El índice de oxidación, las concentraciones de compuestos fenólicos y flavonoides y la actividad antibacteriana frente a Staphylococcus aureus permiten concluir que la calidad del propóleos de los departamentos estudiados es buena.O objetivo principal deste trabalho foi a determinação das caracteristicas físico-químicas de própolis de Santiago del Estero. As amostras foram coletadas de departamentos Capital, Banda e Robles. A cor, o odor, o sabor, a consistência e a aparência externa foram analisados. As impurezas mecânicas, a cera, a resina, o índice da oxidação, os compostos fenólicos e os flavonóides foram testados. A atividade antimicrobiana foi determinada. As amostras foram apresentadas com estrutura homogênea, em parcelas irregulares brilhantes e a consistência era dura ou pouco macia na maioria dos casos. A cor era marrom-escura e o aroma resinoso aromático e o sabor picante. Porcentagem das impurezas, das ceras, da resina estavam entre valores normais. O índice de oxidação, as concentrações de compostos fenólicos e de flavonóides e a atividade antimicrobiana na Staphylococcus aureus permitam concluir que a qualidade dos própolis de departamentos Capital, Banda e Robles é boa.

  12. Pilgrimage, Past and Present. Norwegian Perspectives with emphasis on Santiago de Compostela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Jensen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we discuss the phenomenon of pilgrimage from a Norwegian perspective, exemplified by the past and present role and significance of Santiago de Compostela as a holy site and destination for pilgrims. By taking a historical view, the transformation of meaning and role is stressed. In the Middle Ages, Santiago was an important pilgrimage destination for people living in Northern Europe. Following the subsequent Protestant Reformation and the era of confessionalization, Santiago came to exemplify all the problems and challenges related to pilgrimage and the name of the city became a derogatory word. From this background, the present-day rediscovery of pilgrimage in Norway and the role of the city of Santiago, as the foremost example of the renaissance of the pilgrimage phenomena in present day postmodern times, are discussed. It is argued that the “rehabilitation” of Santiago and the new interest in pilgrimage in Norway were made possible due to the redefinition of pilgrimage that has taken place on what can be characterized as an ideological level. It is a redefinition that reflects the postmodern renaissance of pilgrimage and which is documented in recent social scientific empirical studies on the Camino.

  13. ESO Delegation to Visit Chile: the Chile-Eso Treaty and Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The ESO Council, in its extraordinary session on 28 April 1994, among other matters discussed the relations with the Republic of Chile and the situation around Paranal mountain [1], the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). Council decided to send a high ranking delegation to Santiago de Chile to discuss with Chilean authorities the pending problems, including the finalisation of the new Treaty between the Republic of Chile and ESO and the legal aspects of the Paranal location. The ESO delegation will consist of Dr. Peter Creola (President of ESO Council), Dr. Catherine Cesarsky (Vice-President of ESO Council), Dr. Henrik Grage (Former Vice-President of ESO Council) and Professor Riccardo Giacconi (ESO Director General), the latter accompanied by his advisers. The delegation will arrive in Chile during the second half of May 1994. The ESO delegation will meet with the Chilean Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Carlos Figueroa, and the Secretary of State in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Mr. Jose Miguel Insulza. Other meetings at high level are being planned. The delegation will report about these discussions to the ESO Council during its ordinary session on 7 - 8 June 1994. FOUR PARANAL PHOTOS AVAILABLE A series of four photos which show the current status of the work at Paranal has been prepared. Photographic colour prints for use by the media can be requested from the ESO Information and Photographic Service (please remember to indicate the identification numbers). [1] See ESO Press Release 07/94 of 21 April 1994. PHOTO CAPTIONS ESO PR PHOTO 08/94-1: CERRO PARANAL This aerial photo of the Paranal mountain, the designated site for the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT), was obtained on 22 March 1994. Paranal is situated in the driest part of the Chilean Atacama desert, approx. 130 km south of the city of Antofagasta, and about 12 km from the Pacific Ocean. In this view towards the West, the ocean is seen in the background. The altitude is 2650 metres

  14. Intercultural bilingual education in Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa, Williams Ibarra; Pontificia Universidad Católica Argentina, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras.; Leyton, Elia Calderón; Universidad de Santiago de Chile.

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on analysis of the actions of public bodies and institutions that are being created in Chile to meet demand in Intercultural Bilingual Education (IBE). The aim is to analyze the practical training of students in initial teacher training in intercultural basic education at the Catholic University of Temuco. In addition, reveal the working methods of collaborative field between family-school- community partnership in key initial identification and subsequent components and...

  15. Serious fungal infections in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez Duarte, E; Denning, D W

    2017-06-01

    The incidence and prevalence of fungal infections in Chile are unknown. Here, we have estimated the burden of serious fungal diseases from data obtained from clinical reports, WHO reports, Chilean census, OECD reports and comprehensive literature search available on PubMed and SciELO, among other scientific resources. Due the lack of official data about fungal diseases, frequencies were calculated based on the specific populations at risk. Recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (>4 episodes/year) is estimated to occur in 3108/100,000. Using a low international average rate of 5/100,000, we estimate 878 candidaemia cases and 132 patients with intra-abdominal candidiasis. Due to the low incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Chile, limited numbers of patients with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis are likely: a total of 1212, 25% following TB. Invasive aspergillosis is estimated to affect 296 patients following leukaemia therapy, transplantation and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 1.7/100,000. In addition, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and severe asthma with fungal sensitisation (SAFS) were estimated to be around 97.9/100,000 and 127/100,000 respectively, in 675,772 adult asthmatics and 1700 CF patients. Given a 38,000 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) population, with around 2189 new cases of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) annually, cryptococcal meningitis and Pneumocystis pneumonia are estimated at 0.12/100,000 and 4.3/100,000, respectively. In total, 325,000 (1.9%) people in Chile develop serious fungal infections annually. Respiratory fungal disease predominates in Chile; a national action plan for fungal disease is urgently needed, including epidemiological studies to validate the estimates.

  16. Application of Time-Domain Electromagnetic Method in Investigating Saltwater Intrusion of Santiago Island (Cape Verde)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Rui; Farzamian, Mohammad; Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Represas, Patrícia; Mota Gomes, A.; Lobo de Pina, A. F.; Almeida, Eugénio P.

    2017-08-01

    Santiago Island, the biggest and most populated island of the Cape Verde Republic, is characterised by limited surface waters and strong dependence on groundwater sources as the primary source of natural water supply for extensive agricultural activity and human use. However, as a consequence of the scarce precipitation and high evaporation as well as the intense overexploitation of the groundwater resources, the freshwater management is also in a delicate balance with saltwater at coastal areas. The time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) method is used to locate the extent of saltwater intrusion in four important agricultural regions in Santiago Island; São Domingos, Santa Cruz, São Miguel, and Tarrafal. The application of this method in Santiago Island proves it to be a successful tool in imaging the fresh/saltwater interface location. Depths to the saline zones and extensions of saline water are mapped along eight TDEM profiles.

  17. Application of Time-Domain Electromagnetic Method in Investigating Saltwater Intrusion of Santiago Island (Cape Verde)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Rui; Farzamian, Mohammad; Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Represas, Patrícia; Mota Gomes, A.; Lobo de Pina, A. F.; Almeida, Eugénio P.

    2017-11-01

    Santiago Island, the biggest and most populated island of the Cape Verde Republic, is characterised by limited surface waters and strong dependence on groundwater sources as the primary source of natural water supply for extensive agricultural activity and human use. However, as a consequence of the scarce precipitation and high evaporation as well as the intense overexploitation of the groundwater resources, the freshwater management is also in a delicate balance with saltwater at coastal areas. The time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) method is used to locate the extent of saltwater intrusion in four important agricultural regions in Santiago Island; São Domingos, Santa Cruz, São Miguel, and Tarrafal. The application of this method in Santiago Island proves it to be a successful tool in imaging the fresh/saltwater interface location. Depths to the saline zones and extensions of saline water are mapped along eight TDEM profiles.

  18. “Freud para todos”: psicoanálisis y cultura de masas en Chile, 1920-1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Ruperthuz Honorato

    Full Text Available Resumen El trabajo aborda la circulación e implantación temprana en los circuitos masivos de la sociedad chilena de principios del siglo XX, recuperando las primeras menciones de Sigmund Freud en los medios de comunicación chilenos, la oferta de cursos de autoayuda en clave freudiana, la aparición del personaje del psicoanalista en algunas novelas de fantasía y los cursos abiertos sobre psicoanálisis que dictaba el primer juez de menores de Santiago, el abogado Samuel Gajardo Contreras. Se profundiza en las expectativas que se proyectaron en el freudismo por parte de las elites chilenas y cómo las teorías de Freud ayudaron a repensar la infancia, la familia y la vida emocional en Chile durante el periodo de 1920-1950.

  19. HPV vaginal self-sampling among women non-adherent to Papanicolaou screening in Chile Autotoma vaginal para detección de virus del papiloma humano en mujeres no adherentes a tamizaje con Papanicolaou en Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javiera Léniz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate acceptance, preference and compliance with referral of vaginal self-sampling for the detection of Human papillomavirus (HPV among women non-adherent to Papanicolaou (Pap screening in Santiago, Chile. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using multistage sampling we identified women aged 30-64 years who reported not receiving a Pap test in the previous three years and offered them Pap testing at the health center or vaginal self-sampling for HPV testing at home. Self-collected samples were analyzed with hybrid capture. All HPV+ women were referred for colposcopy, biopsy and treatment when needed. RESULTS: 1 254 eligible women were contacted; 86.5% performed self-sampling and 8.1% refused; 124 women were HPV+ (11.4%: 95%CI 9.6-13.5 of whom 85.5% attended colposcopy; 12 had CIN2+ (1.1%: 95 %CI 0.5-1.7. CONCLUSION: HPV vaginal self-sampling can be easily implemented in Chile and could improve coverage, successfully reaching women who drop out of the screening program.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la aceptación, preferencia y adherencia a seguimiento de la autotoma vaginal para detección del virus del papiloma humano (VPH en mujeres inasistentes a Papanicolaou (Pap en Santiago, Chile. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Mediante un muestreo polietápico se identificaron mujeres entre 30 y 64 años inasistentes a Pap por < 3 años, invitándolas a realizarse un Pap en su centro de salud o una autotoma vaginal a domicilio. Las muestras fueron analizadas con captura de híbridos. Las mujeres VPH+ fueron referidas a colposcopía, biopsia y tratamiento en caso necesario. RESULTADOS: 1 254 mujeres elegibles fueron contactadas; 86.5% aceptó la autotoma vaginal y 8.1% la rechazó; 124 mujeres resultaron VPH+ (11.4%: IC95% 9.6-13.5 de las que 85.5% asistió a colposcopía; 12 tenían CIN2+ (1.1%: IC95% 0.5-1.7. CONCLUSIÓN: La autotoma vaginal para detección de VPH es implementable en Chile y su utilización podría mejorar la cobertura del programa rescatando a mujeres

  20. Consideraciones bioéticas del tamizaje neonatal: pautas para su regulación integral

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo A. Cifuentes

    2016-01-01

    El tamizaje neonatal pretende detectar al nacimiento anomalías susceptibles de tratamiento antes de la apari-ción de enfermedad. Su objetivo es evitar discapacidad e incluso la muerte de algunos recién nacidos. Con los desarrollos tecnológicos los beneficios se han extendido a la familia y a la sociedad. Contrariamente, también se han documentado daños psicológicos, sociales e incluso físicos. La probabilidad de daño está influenciada por consideraciones asociadas con principios bioéticos com...

  1. El Hotel Burj Al Arab. Consideraciones de su desempeño sostenible.

    OpenAIRE

    Avila Higuera, Luis Fernando; Caicedo Lemus, José Fabio; Reyes Gaona, Javier Andrés; Tibaquirá Quintero, Carlos Alberto; Villamizar Bermúdez, María Clara

    2013-01-01

    El Hotel Burj Al Arab, ubicado en Dubai, Emiratos Árabes Unidos fue concebi-do y construido debido a la necesidad económica de convertir al emirato en un destino turís-tico, considerando que la actividad petrolera predominante en la región, no perdurará. Con un clima bastante exigente (Tropical húmedo), el edificio ha debido ser diseñado teniendo en cuenta consideraciones bioclimáticas y sostenibles. El artículo presenta un análisis bioclimático y de automatización del edificio considera...

  2. Consideraciones sobre la naturaleza contractual y comercial de las sociedades en el derecho colombiano

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Oviedo Albán

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo, el autor plantea algunas consideraciones en relación con el debate doctrinal presentado en Colombia en relación con la naturaleza contractual de las sociedades y los criterios a los que debe acudirse para calificarlas como civiles o comerciales. A partir de las reformas legislativas correspondientes se sostiene que en la actualidad resulta más preciso referirse al negocio jurídico societario que al contrato de sociedad, toda vez que se admite la conformación de socie...

  3. CONFORMACIÓN DE COMUNIDADES DE APRENDIZAJE: ALGUNAS CONSIDERACIONES (FORMATION OF LEARNING COMMUNITIES: SOME CONSIDERATIONS)

    OpenAIRE

    Mora-Vicarioli, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    La comunidad de aprendizaje apoyada por la virtualidad se perfila como un recurso novedoso, el cual permite la interacción y colaboración en torno a una determinada temática educativa, de forma muy diferente a la que puede conseguirse en un curso virtual.  El presente artículo pretende mostrar posibles espacios para la conformación de comunidades de aprendizaje, así como las características mínimas requeridas por este tipo de recursos. También se describen algunas consideraciones iniciales pa...

  4. Algunas consideraciones generales acerca de la etiología del autismo: factores innatos y ambientales

    OpenAIRE

    Abal, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo se enmarca en el proyecto de investigación denominado “Las variedades del autismo: Sistematización y Evaluación de la Demanda Asistencial. Segunda Etapa” (2015-2017), acreditado y subsidiado por el Programa de Incentivos a la Investigación, UNLP, Dir. Lic. María Cristina Piro. En líneas generales pretende repasar algunas (y sólo algunas) de las consideraciones más sobresalientes sobre el autismo, las hipótesis etiológicas y sus implicancias a la hora de un abordaje tera...

  5. Consideraciones anatómicas durante la cirugía periodontal

    OpenAIRE

    P. Solano Mendoza; A. Bascones Martínez

    2014-01-01

    En el presente trabajo hemos realizado una revisión bibliográfica de la literatura con el objetivo de esclarecer las consideraciones anatómicas que deben tenerse en cuenta a la hora de realizar cirugía periodontal, que posibles estructuras anatómicas podemos encontrarnos al elevar un colgajo y cómo podemos evitar la lesión de las mismas. También aportamos un breve repaso sobre conceptos y referencias anatómicas que los especialistas debemos tener presentes durante el manejo de los tejidos bla...

  6. El poema sacro Melo-dramático de Buono Chiodi (Santiago de Compostela, 1773

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Alén, M.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Several authors allude in their studies to the existence of an “opera” composed by the teacher of the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, Buono Chiodi, for the 1773 Holy Year. At this moment it has not been possible to fi nd any track of the music of such a work, consequently we cannot declare on the quality of this one. Despite everything, it’s of supreme interest the libretto appeared recently between the funds of the National Library. For the subject that approaches —the Adjournment of the body of Apostle Santiago at the expense of their disciples, from Jerusalem to the current Compostela—, as well as for the circumstances that surround their premiere in the festivity of the Holy Boss of Spain, supported by the Chapter of Santiago, undoubtedly, it can be considered a manifestation submitted to the cathedral clergy power opposite to other power, civil and religious, of the town.

    Varios autores aluden en sus estudios a la existencia de una “ópera” compuesta por el maestro de la catedral de Santiago de Compostela Buono Chiodi, para el Año Santo de 1773. Hasta la actualidad no ha sido posible hallar ningún rastro de la música de tal obra, por lo que no podemos pronunciarnos sobre la calidad de la misma. Pese a todo, es de sumo interés el libreto, recientemente aparecido entre los fondos de la Biblioteca Nacional. Tanto por la temática que aborda —la Traslación del cuerpo del Apóstol Santiago desde Jerusalén a Compostela— como por haber estado auspiciado su estreno por el Cabildo de Santiago, sin duda, puede considerarse una obra al servicio del poder del clero catedralicio frente a otros poderes, civiles y religiosos, de la ciudad.

  7. UNIVERSIDAD Y TRANSFORMACIONES DE LA SOCIEDAD DE LA INFORMACIÓN EN CHILE. OPINIONES DEL PROFESORADO Y ALUMNADO DE INSTITUCIONES PRIVADAS ACREDITADAS Y NO ACREDITADAS (UNIVERSITY AND TRANSFORMATIONS OF THE INFORMATION SOCIETY IN CHILE. OPINIONS OF TEACHERS AND STUDENTS IN PRIVATE INSTITUTIONS ACCREDITED AND NON ACCREDITED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres Rojas, Emilio

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Las universidades han cambiado junto con la historia. La globalización, la economía de mercado, la sociedad de la información y los procesos de acreditación y aseguramiento de la calidad han significado cambios profundos en las operaciones del sistema universitario. En Latinoamérica se advierte un impacto aún difuso de estas transformaciones sobre otros procesos universitarios, como la enseñanza-aprendizaje, la innovación en planes de estudio, la creación de carreras, la formación de redes, la administración y los procesos de acreditación institucional. El artículo caracteriza las opiniones que sustenta el profesorado y alumnado sobre la sociedad de la información en Santiago de Chile, mediante una encuesta representativa aplicada a universidades acreditadas y no acreditadas.Abstract: Universities have changed along with history. Globalization, market economy, information society and the processes of accreditation and quality assurance have meant profound changes in the operations of the university system. In Latin America, warns a diffuse impact of these changes have on other academic processes, such as teaching and learning, innovation in curriculum, career building, networking, management and institutional accreditation processes. This article discusses the views that supported the teachers and students on the Information Society in Santiago of Chile, by a representative survey applied to accredited and non-accredited universities.

  8. Santiago, four Decades and a Half from the University of East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynier Rodríguez-Pérez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The text introduces the Taller Literario and the Revista de la Universidad de Oriente as direct antecedent of the Santiago magazine, in that sense it places the magazine in the center of an editorial process generated by the university after the addition to the institution of Nils Castro, a professor from Panama. The text also values the circumstances of the period were the Santiago magazine abandons it printed format and projects the way followed by the institution in the next years. In adittion, the review celebrates the role of the editor of scientific magazines in the communication of science and technological innovation results of universities.

  9. Mérida , clave en la fundación de la Orden de Santiago

    OpenAIRE

    José Antonio Ballesteros Díez

    2004-01-01

    En este articulo se expone qué la razón por la cual la Orden de los Fratres de Caceras se transformó en la Orden Militar de Santiago, a instancias del obispo de Compostela, radicó en que, a cambio de unos beneficios que éste concedió a Pedro Fernández, el maestre de los cacereños, la nueva Orden, en su avance reconquistador hacia el Sur, no debería reclamar la restauración de la sede arzobispal de Mérida, trasladada interinamente a Santiago mientras su sede emeritense estuviera ocupada por lo...

  10. Pour une vision régionale de Santiago du Chili

    OpenAIRE

    Ubilla-Bravo, Gerardo; Antier, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Description générale du processus de la planification régionale et de l’aménagement depuis ces quarante dernières années dans la Région Métropolitaine de Santiago. De même, nous décrivons l’enjeu du Plan d’aménagement du territoire proposé par le Gouvernement Métropolitain de Santiago, pour dépasser le regard sectoriel actuel des Ministères au Chili.

  11. Television's influence in the Zutujil community of Santiago Atitlán, Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Caballeros Gálvez, Gabriel Arturo

    2010-01-01

    Television's influence in the Zutujil community of Santiago Atitlán, Guatemala Description of the Subject Santiago Atitlán is a town in the province of Sololá in the highlands of Guatemala. It's population is constituted by indígenas of the Mayan-Zutujil-ethnic group. The culture of the Zutujil's is characterized by a well organized social structure that allowed them in 1990, after the military massacre of 13 persons -still within the Civil War period- to be the only indigenous...

  12. Cultural consumption in Santiago de Cuba: an analysis from the social stratification in Enramadas Street

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia de la C. Martínez-Tena

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available At present, the existence of a close interrelation between the processes of development of the culture, the consumptions and the urban dynamics is evident. In a scenario of intense social relations, such as the city of Santiago de Cuba, being the preferential spaces of localization, they are acquiring a relevance in the studies of cultural consumption, with diverse optics and plural gnoseological frameworks. The objective of this article is to evaluate the emergence of segments of Santiago society, mainly composed of young people, which point to the presence of an idle, non - productive class associated with consumption.

  13. Counternarcotic Efforts in the Southern Cone: Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-30

    within its scope is drug trafficking. -. The Ministry of Health. The Instituto de Salud Publica (National Institute of Public Heath, part of the...Instituto de Salud Publica ) issued a writen reply to a questionaire. Additional information on health matters was provided by Dr. Roberto Laihacar, psychiatrist of the Military Hospital in Santiago. 37

  14. Variaciones de un glaciar de montaña en los Andes de Chile central en las últimas dos décadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available VARIATIONS D’UN GLACIER DE MONTAGNE DANS LES ANDES DU CHILI CENTRAL AU COURS DES DEUX DERNIÈRES DÉCENNIES. Les résultats du bilan de masse du glacier Echaurren Norte sont présentés. Il s’agit d’un glacier de montagne de 0,4 km2 situé dans les Andes du Chili central, à 50 km à l’est de Santiago, à une altitude moyenne de 3 750 m. Ce programme de la Direction Générale d’Eaux du Chili a permis de recueillir régulièrement une information sur les bilans de masse pendant 18 ans, entre les années 1975 et 1993. C’est le seul registre de bilan de masse d’un glacier au Chili. L’ablation pendant la période de fonte a été de 252 cm d’eau en moyenne annuelle, avec une accumulation hivernale moyenne de 280 cm d’eau. Le bilan net est positif pour la période, mais on observe une grande variation interannuelle. Le bilan positif du glacier Echaurren Norte contraste avec le recul généralisé des autres glaciers du Chili central. Se presentan resultados del balance de masa del glaciar Echaurren Norte, un glaciar de montaña de 0,4 km2 ubicado a una altitud media de 3 750 m.s.n.m., en los Andes de Chile central, 50 km al este de Santiago. Los datos, recolectados como parte de un programa regular de la Dirección General de Aguas, Chile, cubren un período de 18 años, desde 1975 a 1993 y constituyen el único registro de balance de masa de un glaciar en Chile. La ablación durante el período de deshielo fue de 252 cm eq. en agua anuales en promedio, con una acumulación invernal promedio de 280 cm eq. en agua. El balance neto para el período es positivo, pero existe una gran variación interanual. El balance positivo del glaciar Echaurren Norte contrasta con el retroceso generalizado en otros glaciares de Chile central. VARIATIONS OF A MOUNTAIN GLACIER IN THE CENTRAL CHILEAN ANDES DURING THE LAST TWENTY YEARS. Mass balance results for Echaurren Norte Glacier are presented. This mountain glacier, with an area of 0,4 km2, is located at

  15. EL IMAGINARIO "VERDE" Y EL VERDE URBANO COMO INSTRUMENTO DE CONSUMO INMOBILIARIO: CONFIGURANDO LAS CONDICIONES AMBIENTALES DEL ÁREA METROPOLITANA DE SANTIAGO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Irarrázaval Irarrázaval

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La mercantilización e instrumentalización de diversos elementos y procesos naturales ha condicionado perfectas plataformas para la acumulación de riquezas. Esto ha sido posible en la medida que existen las condiciones políticas, sociales y económicas para que suceda. Además, en el caso de las condiciones ambientales urbanas, se suma un "imaginario verde" en un amplio espectro de la población, la cual presenta un gran interés por vivir en espacios dotados de naturaleza. Estas condiciones han determinado que en las ciudades se desarrolle una desigual distribución de las condiciones ambientales, dado que cuando la gestión urbana queda en manos del sector privado, sólo las elites con poder adquisitivo pueden acceder a áreas verdes y al arbolado urbano. La presente investigación busca reconocer a la naturaleza urbana como un "instrumento de consumo" inmobiliario, así como sus implicancias en la distribución de las condiciones ambientales en Santiago de Chile. Para esto se reconoce el espacio urbano en ciudades capitalistas como un eslabón dentro de las plataformas de acumulación de capital. A su vez, se integra la perspectiva de los imaginarios ofertados/empleados por el sector inmobiliario como un tema central para concretar la plataforma de acumulación.

  16. Ciudades satélites en Lampa, Santiago: un caso de co-gobierno urbano entre el municipio y holdings inmobiliarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Cáceres Seguel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde los años noventa del siglo pasado, Santiago de Chile exhibe un desarrollo urbano liderado predominantemente por agentes privados. Entre los proyectos arquetípicos se encuentran las ciudades satélites construidas por grupos inmobiliarios en la comuna periurbana de Lampa. Estos proyectos dan cuenta de un proceso de urbanización de holdings que redefine la función del agente inmobiliario, desde un papel de constructor de viviendas, a un rol complejo de planificador y administrador de asentamientos de tamaño medio. Usando la metodología de «análisis de gobierno» en las ciudades satélites de Larapinta y Valle Grande, se argumenta que estos proyectos transforman la política urbana local al ser administrados desde ensamblajes de co-gobierno entre municipio y empresa. Aunque el co-gobierno urbano se funda sobre vacios normativos y acuerdos informales, persisten motivados por un beneficio económico mutuo. Estos proyectos convierten el gobierno local en un escenario dinámico y multi-agente, donde el municipio carece de instrumentos de gestión capaces de promover alianzas público-privadas.

  17. Reevaluación del peligro sísmico probabilístico en Chile central Re-evaluation of probabilistic seismic hazard in central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Leyton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Chile es uno de los países más sísmicos del mundo, siendo testigo de terremotos que han ocasionado pérdidas tanto humanas como materiales. En ámbitos de la ingeniería, el peligro sísmico es una de las herramientas más utilizadas en la prevención de dichas pérdidas. El presente estudio revisa el estado del arte de la metodología pro-babilística, comparando tres aproximaciones para su cálculo y adaptándolas a Chile central. Se incorporan un conjunto de nuevos antecedentes, tales como la definición de las fuentes sismogénicas más importantes (interplaca, intraplaca de profundidad intermedia y corticales, reestimación de las leyes de Gutenberg-Richter y el uso de leyes de atenuación específicas a cada una de ellas. Con estos nuevos datos se generan mapas que muestran la aceleración horizontal maxima (PGA esperada para una cierta probabilidad en un determinado período de vida útil donde no solo influye la fuente interplaca, sino que también se observa el efecto de las fuentes intraplaca de profundidad intermedia y cortical. En la zona urbana de Santiago, se obtienen valores PGA de 55% de la aceleración de gravedad (g para un período de retorno de 475 años y de 72% g para un período de retorno de 1950 años, siendo solo un 13% inferiores a los encontrados en la zona costera (63% g y 83% g, respectivamente.Chile is one of the most seismically active countries in the world, having witnessed several large earthquakes that produced human and material losses; seismic hazard estimation is one of the most used tools to prevent such losses. The present study reviews the state-of-the-art of the probabilistic seismic hazard, comparing 3 different approaches and adapting them to central Chile. We include a series of new findings, such as the definition of the main seismogenic sources (interplate, intermediate-depth intraplate, and crustal earthquakes, new estimations of Gutenberg-Richter laws, and the use of specific attenuation laws

  18. Sistema de salud de Chile The health system of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Víctor Becerril-Montekio; Juan de Dios Reyes; Annick Manuel

    2011-01-01

    En este trabajo se describe el sistema de salud de Chile, incluyendo su estructura, financiamiento, beneficiarios y recursos físicos, materiales y humanos de los que dispone. Este sistema está compuesto por dos sectores, público y privado. El sector público está formado por todos los organismos que constituyen el Sistema Nacional de Servicios de Salud y cubre aproximadamente a 70% de la población, incluyendo a los pobres del campo y las ciudades, la clase media baja y los jubilados, así como ...

  19. Disminución de la participación de la población en organizaciones sociales durante los últimos trece años en Chile e implicaciones para la construcción de una política de planificación urbana más participativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Geraldine Herrmann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La Política Nacional de Desarrollo Urbano 2014 de Chile declara como un objetivo la participación ciudadana "efectiva". Sin embargo, como muestra este artículo, la participación de la población en asociaciones voluntarias ha decrecido significativamente en Chile en general, y en la ciudad de Santiago en particular. La presente investigación procesa analíticamente las estadísticas sobre participación ciudadana contenidas en las encuestas CASEN 2000 y CASEN 2009, y en la Encuesta Santiago Cómo Vamos 2013, para concluir que la participación en organizaciones sociales disminuyó casi a la mitad en la ciudad de Santiago en los últimos trece años y que, en general, no existe interés por parte de la ciudadanía en instrumentos de planificación participativa. Por último, se identifican las implicaciones que tiene esta prescindencia en la construcción de una política de planificación urbana más participativa, y los desafíos que tal situación plantea.

  20. Consideraciones didácticas para la aplicación de estrategias de lectura

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    Solé, Maira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El propósito de este escrito es el de establecer ciertas consideraciones didácticas para la correcta aplicación de las estrategias de lectura. La estrategia por sí sola no genera ningún producto, es necesario que la maestra o el maestro la domine íntegramente aplicando la técnica adecuada para la consecución de los objetivos propuestos en el contenido. Se expondrán tres bloques de consideraciones didácticas: las de índole contextual, las constructivas y las de orden operativo o de actividad. La finalidad es analizar cada una de ellas, conocer cómo influyen y por último efectuar su aplicación en el proceso de lectura.Abstract: The intention of this writing is to establish certain didactic considerations for the correct application of the reading strategies. The strategy by itself does not generate any product, is necessary that the teacher dominates it completely applying the technique adapted for the attainment of the objectives proposed in the content. Three blocks of didactic considerations will be exposed: those of contextual nature, the constructives and those of operative order or activity. The purpose is to analyze each one of them, to know how they influence and finally to carry out its application in the reading process.

  1. Rising Expectations in Brazil and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Gregory; Alves, Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Two themes connect Brazil and Chile: one is economic success; the other is social unrest. Protests rocked cities across Brazil in June 2013, and in Chile, recent student protests turned violent. Yet living conditions in both nations are better now than they've ever been. Successful economic and social reforms over the last two decades have led to…

  2. ¿Policentrismo o ampliación de la centralidad histórica en el Área Metropolitana del Gran Santiago?: Evidencia novedosa proveniente de la encuesta Casen 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rodríguez V

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Se usan los módulos de "movilidad cotidiana para trabajar" del censo de población de 2002 y de la Encuesta de Caracterización Socioeconómica Nacional (Casen de 2009, de Chile, para verificar las hipótesis del avance del policentrismo y de la "difusión del empleo" en el Área Metropolitana del Gran Santiago (AMGS, Chile, planteadas por estudios recientes. Ambas hipótesis se ajustan tanto a las predicciones de las teorías del cambio metropolitano predominantes, como a la experiencia de numerosas ciudades de los países desarrollados y de América Latina. Sin embargo, en ellas se tiende a desconocer el efecto que la segregación residencial socioeconómica a gran escala del AMGS tiene sobre la localización del empleo. La evidencia sistematizada en este trabajo sugiere un proceso mixto en el AMGS: nuevas sub-centralidades aparecen, pero no contrapesan aún el predominio económico de la centralidad histórica ampliada.

  3. Antecedentes geobotánicos de una cuenca andina de Chile Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quintanilla Pérez, V.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Like any other mountain ecosystem; the Andes Mountains show an outstanding phytoecological specificity. This is because of the influence of ecological conditions; as well as the presence of special vegetation groups. These groups of plants show a well defined structure and functionality; arising from the adaptation of biological behavior to the regional altitude. Nevertheless; despite the rigourous climatic conditions; plants do have access to water supplies. A latitudinal vegetation distribution is proposed; based on three vegetation belts: montane; subandine and andine. A remarkable similarity can be noticed between the montane plant communities and those corresponding to the central lower valleys. In addition; the influence of geomorphological processes on plant life and its distribution is presented. Finally; a case study in the highlands of the Andes; Santiago de Chile; is discussed.

    [fr] Comme tous les systèmes de montagne du monde; les Andes du Chili Central présentent une identité phytoécologique; qui se manifeste par l'action des conditions écologiques très particulières et par la présence de groupements végétaux qui montrent une individualité par rapport à ces caractères structurels et fonctionels; résultant de l'adaptation des plantes aux effets de l'altitude; avec des conditions climatiques difficiles; mais pourtant avec la possibilité de profiter des reserves du sol en eau. Dans ces montagnes on a établi une zonation en altitude; et on peut distinguer trois étages: montagnard; subandin et andin. Les seuils altimétriques des étages changent selon les versants; mais tous présentent une certaine richesse d'espèces endémiques. Cependant on remarque les ressemblances floristiques de l'étage montagnard avec les vallées centrales du pays. On présente aussi un aperçu des effets de la dynamique agressive des processus géomorphologiques de montagne sur la vie des plantes; avec une étude de cas dans les

  4. Size distribution of PM at Cape Verde - Santiago Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pio, C.; Nunes, T.; Cardoso, J.; Caseiro, A.; Cerqueira, M.; Custodio, D.; Freitas, M. C.; Almeida, S. M.

    2012-04-01

    The archipelago of Cape Verde is located on the eastern North Atlantic, about 500 km west of the African coast. Its geographical location, inside the main area of dust transport over tropical Atlantic and near the coast of Africa, is strongly affected by mineral dust from the Sahara and the Sahel regions. In the scope of the CVDust project a surface field station was implemented in the surroundings of Praia City, Santiago Island (14° 55' N e 23° 29' W, 98 m at sea level), where aerosol sampling throughout different samplers was performed during one year. To study the size distribution of aerosol, an optical dust monitor (Grimm 180), from 0.250 to 32 μm in 31 size channels, was running almost continuously from January 2011 to December 2011. The performance of Grimm 180 to quantify PM mass concentration in an area affected by the transport of Saharan dust particles was evaluated throughout the sampling period by comparison with PM10 mass concentrations obtained with the gravimetric reference method (PM10 TSI High-Volume, PM10 Partisol and PM10 TCR-Tecora). PM10 mass concentration estimated with the Grimm 180 dust monitor, an optical counter, showed a good correlation with the reference gravimetric method, with R2= 0.94 and a linear regression equation of PM10Grimm = 0.81PM10TCR- 5.34. The number and mass size distribution of PM at ground level together with meteorological and back trajectories were analyzed and compared for different conditions aiming at identifying different signatures related to sources and dust transport. January and February, the months when most Saharan dust events occurred, showed the highest concentrations, with PM10 daily average of 66.6±60.2 μg m-3 and 91.6±97.4 μg m-3, respectively. During these months PM1 and PM2.5 accounted for less than 11% and 47% of PM10 respectively, and the contribution of fine fractions (PM1 and PM2.5) to PM mass concentrations tended to increase for the other months. During Saharan dust events, the PM2

  5. Does consideration of GHG reductions change local decision making? A Case Study in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, L. A.; Blumel, G.

    2003-12-01

    While local air pollution has been a public concern in developing countries for some time, climate change is looked upon as a non-urgent, developed world problem. In this work we present a case study of the interaction of measures to abate air pollution and measures to mitigate GHG emissions in Santiago, Chile, with the purpose of determining if the consideration of reductions in GHG affects the decisions taken to mitigate local air pollution. The emissions reductions of both GHG and local air pollutants were estimated from emission factors (some derived locally) and changes in activity levels. Health benefits due to air pollution abatement were computed using figures derived previously for the cost benefit analysis of Santiago's Decontamination Plan, transferred to the different cities taking into consideration local demographic and income data. The Santiago estimates were obtained using the damage function approach, based on some local epidemiological studies, and on local health and demographic data. Unit social values for the effects were estimated locally (for cost of treatment and lost productivity values) or extrapolated from US values (mainly for WTP values) using the ratio of per-capita income and an income elasticity of 1. The average benefits of emission abatement (in 1997 US\\ per ton) are 1,800 (1,200-2300) for NOx, 3,000 (2,100-3900) for SO2, 31,900 (21,900 - 41,900) for PM, and 630 (430 - 830) for resuspended dust. Economic benefits due to carbon reduction were considered at 3.5, 10 and 20 UStCO2. Marginal abatement cost curves were constructed considering private and net costs (private less the potential sales of carbon credits) Due to the bottom-up approach to constructing the marginal cost curve, many abatement measures (like congestion tolls and CNG instead of diesel buses) amounting to 8% reduction of PM2.5 concentration, exhibit a negative private cost. If the health benefits are considered for the decision, a maximum reduction of 22% in PM2

  6. Drawing into abstraction. Practices of observation and visualisation in the work of Santiago Ramon y Cajal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rijcke, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Santiago Ramon y Cajal's neurohistological work marked a turning point in ongoing debates on the morphology of the nervous system. From 1888 onwards, he published extensively on the anatomic unity of the nerve cell. His experiments with the chrome silver stain resulted in highly particular ways of

  7. Os fantasmas pornô de Santiago Nazarian e seus adolescentes bizarros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aileen El-Kadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the book of short stories Pornofantasma (Record, 2011 by Santiago Nazarian. The focus of this analysis is the connections between the text and the genre of pornography and pop culture, as well as the way the author ques- tions centers and margins of power using the aforementioned genres.

  8. Mérida, clave en la fundación de la Orden de Santiago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Ballesteros Díez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En este articulo se expone qué la razón por la cual la Orden de los Fratres de Caceras se transformó en la Orden Militar de Santiago, a instancias del obispo de Compostela, radicó en que, a cambio de unos beneficios que éste concedió a Pedro Fernández, el maestre de los cacereños, la nueva Orden, en su avance reconquistador hacia el Sur, no debería reclamar la restauración de la sede arzobispal de Mérida, trasladada interinamente a Santiago mientras su sede emeritense estuviera ocupada por los musulmanes.In this article we are golng to expose that the reason for which the Order of the Fratres of Cáceres was transformed into the Military Order of Santiago at the request of the bishop of Compostela was possible because in exchange for some benefits that he gave Pedro fernández, the Knight of the cecereños, the new Orden in its reconquest advance to the South, shouldn't reclaim the retornatlon of the archiepiscopal see of Mérida, moved temporally to Santiago while it was occupied by the Moslem.

  9. El turismo cultural como factor estratégico de desarrollo: el Camino de Santiago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Precedo Ledo, Andrés

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation is to study one of the strategies of territorial marketing of greater success: the promotion of the Way of Santiago and the mark of the Xacobeo. The approach of the study attack from the perspective of its contribution to the territorial, as much rural development (the Galician section of the Way like urban (the city of Santiago de Compostela. The departure hypothesis is that, in both cases, the cultural tourism has worked like a complementary factor of development being necessary to insert it in a model of integrated development to optimize its potential of share capital.

    El objetivo de esta investigación es estudiar una de las estrategias de marketing territorial de mayor éxito: la promoción del Camino de Santiago y la marca del Xacobeo. El enfoque del estudio se aborda desde la perspectiva de su contribución al desarrollo territorial, tanto rural (el tramo gallego del Camino como urbano (la ciudad de Santiago de Compostela. La hipótesis de partida es que, en ambos casos, el turismo cultural ha funcionado como un factor complementario de desarrollo siendo necesario insertarlo en un modelo de desarrollo integrado para optimizar su potencial de capital social.

  10. Geochemical stratigraphy of submarine lavas (3-5 Ma) from the Flamengos Valley, Santiago, Cape Verde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Abigail K; Holm, Paul Martin; Peate, David W.

    2009-01-01

    New high-precision Pb-Sr-Nd isotope, major and trace element and mineral chemistry data are presented for the submarine stage of ocean island volcanism on Santiago, one of the southern islands of the Cape Verde archipelago. Pillow basalts and hyaloclastites in the Flamengos Valley are divided...

  11. Developing Strategies for Waste Reduction by Means of Tailored Interventions in Santiago De Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Robert; Brugger, Adrian; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces an approach to tailoring behavior-change campaigns to target populations using the example of solid waste reduction in Santiago de Cuba. Tailoring is performed in the following steps: (1) Psychological constructs are selected to detect problems in performing the target behavior, and data are gathered on these constructs.…

  12. Marine interstitial Amphipoda and Isopoda (Crustacea) from Santiago, Cape Verde Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.; Vonk, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    Three species of Amphipoda are recorded from interstices of a marine beach on the island of Santiago, Cape Verde Archipelago: Cabogidiella littoralis n. gen., n. sp. (Bogidiellidae), Psammogammarus spinosus n. sp. (Melitidae), and Idunella sketi Karaman, 1980 (Liljeborgiidae). The latter, widely

  13. The many arts in Santiago, by João Moreira Salles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Fux

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the documentary Santiago, by João Moreira Salles, exploring the many arts of the main character Santiago. Besides being very rich in its autobiographic approach, the film allows us to establish some connections with literature and some characters of Borges and Flaubert, as it relates to performance and documentary theories. Santiago, disguised as a butler for over four decades, began to accumulate delusions. While working at the residence of the Moreira Salles, he typed 30,000 cards, classified and cataloged his own story and the “history of great men”. His notes are the record of his passage through Literature and History. The film by João Moreira Salles ensures Santiago’s posterity, in the same way that reports of Dante and the creations and inventions of Borges ensure the existence of their characters. Santiago, as a Flaubert’s copyist, lives and is reinvented on the screen through his testimony, memory, art and through the auto fictional documentary by Salles.

  14. [Antimicrobial susceptibility in Chile 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes-D, Marcela; Silva, Francisco; García, Patricia; Bello, Helia; Briceño, Isabel; Calvo-A, Mario; Labarca, Jaime

    2014-04-01

    Bacteria antimicrobial resistance is an uncontrolled public health problem that progressively increases its magnitude and complexity. The Grupo Colaborativo de Resistencia, formed by a join of experts that represent 39 Chilean health institutions has been concerned with bacteria antimicrobial susceptibility in our country since 2008. In this document we present in vitro bacterial susceptibility accumulated during year 2012 belonging to 28 national health institutions that represent about 36% of hospital discharges in Chile. We consider of major importance to report periodically bacteria susceptibility so to keep the medical community updated to achieve target the empirical antimicrobial therapies and the control measures and prevention of the dissemination of multiresistant strains.

  15. Esquema de Multifondos en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Solange Berstein; Olga Fuentes; Nicolás Torrealba

    2011-01-01

    Este artículo analiza el sistema de multifondos para el caso de Chile, describiendo su evolución desde su creación, en lo que respecta a inversiones, la elección de tipo de fondo por parte de los afiliados, y su composición por tramos de edad. Se describen los aspectos más relevantes de la normativa vigente y se analiza el desempeño de los multifondos durante la crisis financiera. Respecto a este último punto, se detallan las medidas adoptadas y se analizan las características del sistema a l...

  16. EL RACISMO AMBIENTAL EN CHILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATÍAS MEZA-LOPEHANDÍA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available El problema de la desigualdad en Chile ha sido abordado desde diferentes puntos de vista como la cuestión de la distribución de la riqueza o el acceso a los derechos sociales. Es este trabajo se observa el mismo problema pero desde la perspectiva recientemente esbozada por los movimientos sociales: la del racismo ambiental o la desigual distribución de los deshechos del desarrollo y el consumo. De esta manera se revisan sucintamente los principales conflictos que han surgido en el último tiempo a lo largo del país entre empresas públicas y privadas y comunidades locales y originarias. Así mismo se examinan las formas de organización que estas últimas han asumido y el estado actual de articulación entre ellas. De la revisión de la situación se concluye que estamos ante el surgimiento de un actor de nuevo tipo, que surge de las contradicciones del Chile neoliberal y que se diferencia del movimiento ecologista por vincular sus reivindicaciones a la defensa del territorio y al derecho a la autodeterminación de los pueblos.

  17. President of Chile at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, in the ATLAS cavern with, from left to right, Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesman, Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, and Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General. Robert Aymar, CERN Director-General, and Vivian Heyl, CONICYT President, signing a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (CONICYT).The President of Chile, Michelle Bachelet, paid a visit to CERN during her three-day tour of Switzerland. The charismatic Michelle Bachelet and her large delegation were greeted by the CERN Director-General and then taken to see the ATLAS experiment and the LHC. She also took time to meet the Chilean community working at CERN, comprising several physicists in the Theory Group and the ATLAS experiment. The meeting was followed by the signing of a cooperation agreement between CERN and Chile’s Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científi...

  18. Where Are Socioeconomically Deprived Immigrants Located in Chile? A Spatial Analysis of Census Data Using an Index of Multiple Deprivation from the Last Three Decades (1992-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Andrea; Cabieses, Baltica; Tunstall, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Immigrants in Chile have diverse characteristics and include socioeconomically deprived populations. The location of socioeconomically deprived immigrants is important for the development of public policy intelligence at the local and national levels but their areas of residence have not been mapped in Chile. This study explored the spatial distribution of socioeconomic deprivation among immigrants in Chile, 1992-2012, and compared it to the total population. Areas with socioeconomically deprived populations were identified with a deprivation index which we developed modelled upon the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) for England. Our IMD was based upon the indicators of unemployment, low educational level (primary) and disability from Census data at county level for the three decades 1992, 2002 and 2012, for 332, 339 and 343 counties respectively. We developed two versions of the IMD one based on disadvantage among the total population and another focused upon the circumstances of immigrants only. We generated a spatial representation of the IMD using GIS, for the overall IMD score and for each dimension of the index, separately. We also compared the immigrants´ IMD to the total population´s IMD using Pearson´s correlation test. Results showed that socioeconomically deprived immigrants tended to be concentrated in counties in the northern and central area of Chile, in particular within the Metropolitan Region of Santiago. These were the same counties where there was the greatest concentration of socioeconomic deprivation for the total population during the same time periods. Since 1992 there have been significant change in the location of the socioeconomically deprived populations within the Metropolitan Region of Santiago with the highest IMD scores for both the total population and immigrants becoming increasingly concentrated in the central and eastern counties of the Region. This is the first study analysing the spatial distribution of socioeconomic

  19. Dog ownership, abundance and potential for bat-borne rabies spillover in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorga, F; Escobar, L E; Poo-Muñoz, D A; Medina-Vogel, G

    2015-03-01

    Rabies is a viral infectious disease that affects all mammals, including humans. Factors associated with the incidence of rabies include the presence and density of susceptible hosts and potential reservoirs. Currently, Chile is declared free of canine-related rabies, but there is an overpopulation of dogs within the country and an emergence of rabies in bats. Our objectives are to determine potential areas for bat-borne rabies spillover into dog populations expressed as a risk map, and to explore some key features of dog ownership, abundance, and management in Chile. For the risk map, our variables included a dog density surface (dog/km(2)) and a distribution model of bat-borne rabies presence. From literature review, we obtained dog data from 112 municipalities, which represent 33% of the total municipalities (339). At country level, based on previous studies the median human per dog ratio was 4.8, with 64% of houses containing at least one dog, and a median of 0.9 dog per house. We estimate a national median of 5.3 dog/km(2), and a median of 3680 dogs by municipality, from which we estimate a total population of 3.5×10(6) owned dogs. The antirabies vaccination presented a median of 21% of dogs by municipality, and 29% are unrestricted to some degree. Human per dog ratio have a significant (but weak) negative association with human density. Unrestricted dogs have a negative association with human density and income, and a positive association with the number of dogs per house. Considering dog density by municipality, and areas of potential bat-borne rabies occurrence, we found that 163 (∼48%) of Chilean municipalities are at risk of rabies spillover from bats to dogs. Risk areas are concentrated in urban settlements, including Santiago, Chile's capital. To validate the risk map, we included cases of rabies in dogs from the last 27 years; all fell within high-risk areas of our map, confirming the assertive risk prediction. Our results suggest that the use of

  20. Letter from Chile: Re-establishing health care in Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    Chile's long term social policy has produced very impressive outcomes in general health indicators, with a national health service established as early as 1952. During the years of the Pinochet dictatorship (1973-89) public health institutions were greatly affected, with sharp diminution in financing which affected investment and salaries. The democratic government initiated in 1990 faced a difficult situation, with underpaid staff and decrepit hospitals. The ministry took immediate action to improve salaries and start an ambitious health sector reform including investment in infrastructure, technology, and modern management. Decentralisation and autonomy, changes in payment for service mechanisms, and a public-private mix are the main objectives of this reform, keeping the public role as predominant in the proposed structure. This process has been affected by union unrest and public opinion dissatisfaction, which tend to present obstacles to progress in this complicated issue. Imagesp729-ap730-a