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  1. Santa Maria de Garona NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candas, C.

    2004-01-01

    Three especially significant milestones determine the positive assessment of Santa Maria de Garona nuclear power plant operation in 2003: the beginning of Project 2019, the quality and safety results in the Refueling Outage, and the good assessment obtained by the plant in the follow-up review of the OSART Mission. The operating factor of 91.52% obtained in 2003 is the Plant's best historical result in a year with a refueling outage. This factor is an indication of reasonable Plant operation throughout the year, and also of the results of the optimization and quality efforts made in preparing and executing the refueling outage. The collective dose indicator is also the best historical datum in year with a refueling outage and keeps our Plant in a relevant position among the world's BWR plants. The objective set by INPO is clearly achieved. The result is the outcome of the improvement studies and ALARA actions taken during job preparation and planning and also of equipment and installation improvements and modernization. The three differential follow-up objective of the NUCLENOR Corporate Project are: Strengthening of the Safety Culture, Operating License Renewal and Improved in-Plant Task Management

  2. Modernization projects in Santa Maria e Garona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcos, R.; Alutiz, J. I.; Garcia Sanchez, M.

    2011-01-01

    This article shows a vision of the Santa Maria de Garona power Plant modernization guidelines and it also presents the most significant projects deployed in the last decade at the power plant grouped in mechanics projects, electrical projects, instrumentations projects and IT projects. At the same time three projects are explained in more detail: the change of one of the main transformers, the evolution from paper recorders to paperless video graphic recorders and the new plant data information system. (Author)

  3. "Santa Maria" forever : Eesti ja Portugali kirjandussuhetest / Toomas Haug

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haug, Toomas, 1956-

    2012-01-01

    Jaanuaris 1961 Portugali diktaatorlikule režiimile protestiks kaaperdatud laevast "Santa Maria", mis sai omamoodi vabaduse ja vastuhaku sümboliks ka okupeeritud Eestis. Artiklis käsitletakse sellest sündmusest mõjutatud teoseid, täpsemalt Aleksander Suumanni maali "Santa Maria" ja Paul-Eerik Rummo samanimelist luuletust

  4. "Santa Maria" forever : Eesti ja Portugali kirjandussuhetest / Toomas Haug

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haug, Toomas, 1956-

    2015-01-01

    Jaanuaris 1961 Portugali diktaatorlikule režiimile protestiks kaaperdatud laevast "Santa Maria", mis sai omamoodi vabaduse ja vastuhaku sümboliks ka okupeeritud Eestis. Artiklis käsitletakse sellest sündmusest mõjutatud teoseid, täpsemalt Aleksander Suumanni maali "Santa Maria" ja Paul-Eerik Rummo samanimelist luuletust

  5. Modernization projects in Santa Maria e Garona; Proyectos de modernizacion en Santa Maria de Garona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcos, R.; Alutiz, J. I.; Garcia Sanchez, M.

    2011-07-01

    This article shows a vision of the Santa Maria de Garona power Plant modernization guidelines and it also presents the most significant projects deployed in the last decade at the power plant grouped in mechanics projects, electrical projects, instrumentations projects and IT projects. At the same time three projects are explained in more detail: the change of one of the main transformers, the evolution from paper recorders to paperless video graphic recorders and the new plant data information system. (Author)

  6. Geology and paleontology of the Santa Maria district, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodring, W.P.; Bramlette, M.N.

    1950-01-01

    Stratigraphy, paleontology, and geologic history.-A basement' consisting of igneous rocks of the Jurassic(?) Franciscan formation and sediments of the Upper Jurassic Knoxville formation, and formations of Tertiary and Quaternary age are exposed in the Santa Maria district. The outcrop section, exclusive of the Franciscan, has a maximum thickness of about 10,000 feet, the subsurface section about 27,000 feet. At no locality, however, is either outcrop or subsurface section as thick as the total maxima for the formations.

  7. Diagnosis of the retail flower market of Santa Maria, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Farias Menegaes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to diagnose the flowers retail market and ornamental plants in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, by means of a research in loco, from January to June of 2013, based on questionnaires and interviews applied to the managers of the establishment, as well as of an application of a visual and phytosanitary scale to other establishments that sell flowers and ornamental plants, such as agricultural shops, fairs of horticultural products, supermarkets and providers of funeral services - cemeteries and funeral homes. The diagnosis aims to know the steps of the dynamics observed from the market of flowers until the final consumer, and to segment the types of floricultures, distinguishing them according to the commercial focus — floricultures of arrangements and bouquets, and producing flowers and landscape floricultures. Based on the diagnosis it can be concluded that the Santa Maria retail flowers and ornamental plants follows the national trend of floral arrangements and bouquets shops, with the increase of the companies focused on landscaping and gardening. Among the most marketed plants are the rose as the best-selling cut flower, the begonia as potted flower, the fern for foliage arrangements, the cactus as potted plant, the raffia as garden plant and the pansy as the best-selling plant in boxes.

  8. Characterization of clay of Santa Maria Madalena-RJ (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, R.A.; Borges, B.F.; Rosario, S. do; Alexandre, J.; Beiral, W.V.; Anderson, R.B.; Pessanha, E.F.

    2011-01-01

    The city of Santa Maria Madalena, located in the mountainous region of Rio de Janeiro State, has a region of rocky and extensive area of native forest. Its economy is primarily intended for farming, agriculture and tourism. Characterization studies were conducted in this region, aiming to determine the optimal production process for its application in the ceramics industry. The tests were conducted in the laboratories of the Universidade Estadual Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro - UENF and were determined and the physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristic. Were performed Granulometric Analysis, Atterberg Limit, Chemical Analysis, X Ray Diffraction. The specimens used in evidence were extruded and then fired at the following temperatures: 750 ° C and 850 ° C, and subsequently conducted measurements of absorption, linear shrinkage and resistance to flexion-compression. (author)

  9. Analisis dan Perancangan Sistem Informasi Manajemen Aset TIK Studi Kasus: Asmi Santa Maria YOGYAKARTA

    OpenAIRE

    Maryono, Y; Suyoto, Suyoto; Mudjihartono, Paulus

    2010-01-01

    . Analysis and Design of Communication and Information Technology Management Information System Case Study: Asmi Santa Maria Yogyakarta. The management of asset in ASMI Santa Maria has been done by MS Excel application. This application has limitations such as lack of detailed records of assets, difficulty doing complex calculations such as valuation of assets, limited access to others in need, and less able to handle the administration of information assets of items that can provide real-tim...

  10. Pengaruh Kepemimpinan Situasional terhadap Semangat Kerja Perawat Rumah Sakit Santa Maria Pekanbaru

    OpenAIRE

    Sutrisna, Endang; Anggrenni, Dian Prapty

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to find the implications of leadership on keep spirit of nurses in Santa Maria Hospital Pekanbaru. Leadership as an independent variable (X) consist of leadership telling, selling, participating, and delegating. And keep spirit as the dependent variable (Y) cosist pf salary, incentive and allowance and improvement of welfare.The research used sample of the nurses in Santa Maria Pekanbaru. The number of this sample is 67 persons with slovin. This research is also used Strati...

  11. Capela Santa Maria dos Anjos: uma obra alternativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edite Galote Carranza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Celebrando cem anos de nascimento da arquiteta Lina Bo Bardi, seu trabalho continua incitando a curiosidade de pesquisadores, artistas e arquitetos de todo o mundo, devido tanto à qualidade, à subjetividade artística, às ideias, aos ideais e à filosofia de fundo como à amplitude da obra nas áreas de cenografia, design, crítica, museologia e arquitetura. Entre suas obras arquitetônicas, a Capela Santa Maria dos Anjos, de 1978, em Vargem Grande Paulista, SP, merece maior atenção. Embora possa ser considerada singela, a Capela é uma obra densa e representativa da Arquitetura Alternativa ao status quo arquitetônico paulista. Este artigo analisa a Capela e sua relação com os conceitos de nacional-popular e Te-Ato, a fé franciscana e as culturas erudita e popular, a fim de contribuir para o melhor entendimento da obra que dialoga com a cena cultural e política da época.

  12. Wano peer review in Santa Maria de Garona NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Blas, J. M.

    1998-01-01

    WANO (World Association of Nuclear Operators) implemented a program known as PEER REVIEW at the Santa Maria de Garona NPP in 1996. It was as follows, an international team consisting of professionals with experience in nuclear power plants observed different activities in the plant, hold interviews and meetings, and finally they checked all the information during three weeks, in order to compare the plant with the WANO's Excellence Criteria at work. The result was that the plant was in a good state and most of the implemented activities and practices of work were done properly, further the usual demands and rules. However it was noticed that some of the activities could be improved, If we compare them with the optimum practices. The plant started a work plan defined as an objective in the COMPANY PROJECT it self, in order to implement the corrective actions which could resolve the proposed improvements by WANO. Following the PEER REVIEW program, approximately one year and a half later, a WANO team came back to the plan for a week in June 1998, they came back to implement what is known as a FOLLOW UP, that is today, a control resting on the monitoring of facts of the fulfillment level for the improvements which had been recommended. After finishing this monitoring work, the result of the FOLLOW UP was that the plant has attained a very remarkable implantation of the recommendations showed in the PEER REVIEW. (Author)

  13. 75 FR 81846 - Expansion of the Santa Maria Valley Viticultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... decision. SUMMARY: This Treasury decision expands the Santa Maria Valley viticultural area in Santa Barbara... may purchase. DATES: Effective Date: January 28, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Elisabeth C... origin of their wines to consumers and helps consumers to identify wines they may purchase. Establishment...

  14. 75 FR 9827 - Proposed Expansion of the Santa Maria Valley Viticultural Area (2008R-287P)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ...,'' by Harry P. Bailey, University of California Press, 1966). The maritime fringe climate derives from... California Press, 1975.) Soils: According to the petition, the current Santa Maria Valley viticultural area... viticultural area in Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo Counties, California, by 18,790 acres. We designate...

  15. Performance of 'Rocha' and 'Santa Maria' pears as affected by planting density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus da Silveira Pasa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of 'Rocha' and 'Santa Maria' pears at two planting densities. The experiment was carried out during the 2011/2012, 2012/2013, and 2013/2014 growing seasons, in one-year-old orchards (2011/2012 of 'Rocha' and 'Santa Maria' pears, trained in a central-leader system and planted in two densities (2,000 and 4,000 trees per hectare. The assessed parameters were: production per hectare, production per tree, yield efficiency, number of fruit per tree, average fruit weight, trunk diameter increment, fruit firmness, and soluble solid contents. The cumulative yield of 'Rocha' is greater at the higher planting density, whereas the yield efficiency of 'Santa Maria' increases at the lower planting density, as the trees get more mature. Trunk diameter of 'Rocha' also increases at the lower planting density. However, fruit quality parameters in both cultivars are little affected by planting density.

  16. Virtual Astronaut for Scientific Visualization—A Prototype for Santa Maria Crater on Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward A. Guinness

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To support scientific visualization of multiple-mission data from Mars, the Virtual Astronaut (VA creates an interactive virtual 3D environment built on the Unity3D Game Engine. A prototype study was conducted based on orbital and Opportunity Rover data covering Santa Maria Crater in Meridiani Planum on Mars. The VA at Santa Maria provides dynamic visual representations of the imaging, compositional, and mineralogical information. The VA lets one navigate through the scene and provides geomorphic and geologic contexts for the rover operations. User interactions include in-situ observations visualization, feature measurement, and an animation control of rover drives. This paper covers our approach and implementation of the VA system. A brief summary of the prototype system functions and user feedback is also covered. Based on external review and comments by the science community, the prototype at Santa Maria has proven the VA to be an effective tool for virtual geovisual analysis.

  17. Chemical decontamination of Santa Maria de Garona NPP recirculation loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coello, R. [Santa Maria de Garona NPP - NUCLENOR, S.A. (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    Santa Maria de Garona is a boiling water reactor (BWR-3) with a Primary Containment type Mark 1. Its electrical power is 466 Mw and began its commercial operation in 1971. The plant currently operates in 24 month cycles. The reactor water recirculation system (RWRS) is composed of two independent loops. Each of them has a one stage vertical centrifugal recirculation pump, with a nominal flow of 2020 l/s, and ten jet pumps. It is worthy of mention that in 1986 it was started to inject hydrogen into the feedwater (concentration = 0,3 mg/l) in order to implement the chemical condition known as hydrogen water chemistry (HWC) in the primary circuit. The objective was to create an electrochemical potential below -230 mV in the RWRS which is assumed to be low enough to mitigate the intergranular stress corrosion cracking phenomena (IGSCC) in the sensitized austenitic stainless steels. Later, in 1994, the hydrogen concentration in the feedwater was increased to 0,9 mg/l in order to obtain the protection's ECP in the bottom of the reactor vessel. This feedwater hydrogen concentration has been maintained since then. The nature of the oxides that are formed in the RWRS is strongly affected by the electrochemical conditions (ECP) which have been maintained in this system. It is frequent to find oxides like Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (hematite), Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} (magnetite), NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (trevorite), Cr{sub 2} FeO{sub 4} (chromite), Fe{sub 3-x-y} Cr{sub x} Ni{sub y} O{sub 4} (spinels), etc. However, it is normal to find a combination of all of them in various proportions, depending on the ECP established. Radioactive isotopes of the transition metals ({sup 60}Co, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 51}Cr, {sup 59}Fe, etc.) also participate in these oxides and contribute greatly to increase the dose rate in the circuit. The chemical decontamination processes are designed for the effective dissolution of the metallic oxides present and therefore the type of process to be applied will depend

  18. Colesterolemia, trigliceridemia e excesso de peso em escolares de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil Blood lipids abnormalities and overweight prevalence in students of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Cruz Lunardi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O nível de colesterol na infância é um preditor do nível de colesterol na vida adulta. As consequências do colesterol elevado, somadas a outros fatores de risco constituem problema mundial de saúde pública. OBJETIVO: Estimar a prevalência de hipercolesterolemia, hipertrigliceridemia e excesso de peso em estudantes do município de Santa Maria-RS. Métodos: Estudo transversal com 374 crianças de 10 a 12 anos de idade, de escolas das redes pública e privada, realizado no segundo semestre de 2005 na cidade de Santa Maria-RS. Foram determinados os níveis de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e estado nutricional. RESULTADOS: As prevalências de hipercolesterolemia, hipertrigliceridemia e excesso de peso encontradas foram de 4,7%, 8,9% e 20,7%, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significante entre sexo e rede pública e privada. As crianças com excesso de peso apresentaram maior prevalência de alterações lipídicas. CONCLUSÕES: A prevalência de alterações lipídicas pode ser considerada baixa, mas a prevalência de excesso de peso dos estudantes de Santa Maria mostrou-se relativamente alta, alertando à importância de políticas públicas e à necessidade de assistência pediátrica nessa faixa etária, visando o seu diagnóstico precoce e, principalmente, o aconselhamento nutricional e incentivo à prática esportiva, uma vez que as dislipidemias e o excesso de peso têm sido apontados como fatores de risco para as doenças cardiovasculares.INTRODUCTION: Cholesterol level in childhood is a predictor of cholesterol level in adult life. The consequences of high cholesterol levels summed to other risk factors constitute a worldwide public health problem. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of blood lipid abnormalities and overweight among school students of the city of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Methods: A cross-sectional study with 374 children, aged between 10 and 12 years, from public and private schools of the

  19. Análise de distribuição de chuva para Santa Maria, RS Analysis of rainfall distribution for Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel C. da Silva

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo em pauta teve como objetivo analisar a distribuição da quantidade diária de precipitação e do número de dias com chuva e determinar a variação da probabilidade de ocorrência de precipitação diária, durante os meses do ano, em Santa Maria, RS. Os dados de precipitação utilizados foram obtidos durante 36 anos de observação, na Estação Climatológica do 8º Distrito de Meteorologia, localizada na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (29º 43' 23" de latitude Sul e 53º 43' 15" de longitude Oeste, altitude 95 m. Analisaram-se as seguintes funções de distribuição de probabilidade: gama, Weibull, normal, log-normal e exponencial. As funções que melhor descreveram a distribuição das probabilidades foram gama e Weibull. O maior número de dias com chuva ocorreu durante os meses de inverno porém o volume de precipitação é menor nesses dias, resultando em total mensal semelhante para todos os meses do ano.The objectives of this study were to analyze the distribution of total daily rainfall data and the number of rainy-days, and to determine the probability variation of daily precipitation during the months of the year in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A 36-year rainfall database measured at the Climatological Station of 8th District of Meteorology, located in Santa Maria Federal University (29º 43' 23" S and 53º 43' 15" W were used in the study. The following probability distribution functions were tested: gamma, Weibull, normal, lognormal and exponential. The functions that best described the frequency distribution were gamma and Weibull. There were more number of rainy days in the winter, but with less amount of rainfall, resulting in similar monthly total precipitation for the twelve months of the year.

  20. Solar radiation availability for tomato cropping during winter in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estefanel, V.; Buriol, G.A.; Andriolo, J.L.; Lima, C.P.; Luzzi, N.

    1998-01-01

    The probability of occurrence of days with solar radiation bellow the critical value for the development of tomato inside greenhouse in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, were calculated during May, June, July and August. It was considered the flue density of solar radiation of 200 cal cm -2 dia -1 as the lowest value to tomato growth and 180 cal cm -2 dia -1 as the low value reference of solar radiation for crop growth. Daily values of solar radiation were estimated by sunshine duration during the time period from 1912 to 1996. Results showed that the availability of solar radiation in Santa Maria was lower than the required by tomato crop inside plastic greenhouse during Winter, mainly in June and July. (author) [pt

  1. Produtividade e qualidade de sementes de flores produzidas em Santa Maria Productivity and quality of flower seeds produced in Santa Maria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Antônio Bellé

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o potencial de produção e a qualidade de sementes, foram cultivadas 15 espécies deflores nas condições de Santa Maria (Latitude 29°41'S e Longitude 53°48'W. O experimento foi realizado a campo no delineamento blocos ao acaso com quatro repetições. A grande maioria das espécies produz rendimento médio de sementes elevado apesar da variabilidade. Nas condições de benefïciamento oferecidas, as espécies Dianthus, Eschscholtzia, Nigella e Fhlox produziram sementes com alta germinação. As espécies Anthirrinum, Gelosia, Gailiardia, Nicotina, Scabiosa e Zinnia possuem potencial de produção de sementes de melhor qualidade, desde que se melhore, principalmente, o beneficiamento.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the potential and quality of flowers seeds. Fifteen species were tested for Santa Maria (24°41'S latitude and 53°48'W longitude. The majority of the species had high seed production despite of variability. Considering the local conditions of seeds cleaning and processing the species Dianthus, Eschscholtzia, Nigella and Phlox produced seeds with high germination. The species Anthirrinum, Gelosia, Gaillardia Nicotinic, Scabbiest and Zinnia have potential to potential to produce seeds of high quality, specially, when seed cleaning and processing are improved.

  2. Frequency of suspected cases of neurocysticercosis detected by computed skull tomography in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, J E; Diefenthäler, A P; Palma, J K

    2000-01-01

    Due to the lack of studies about neurocysticercosis in the South of Brazil, an investigation was conducted to determine the percentage of suspected cases of neurocysticercosis in computed tomography diagnoses in Santa Maria, RS, from January 1997 to December 1998. Of 6300 computed tomographies (CT) of the skull performed at the private Hospital de Caridade Astrogildo de Azevedo, 80, i.e., 1.27% were suspected of neurocysticercosis. Fifty were women (62.5%) and 30 were men (37.5%). The most frequent radiological manifestation indicating neurocysticercosis was the presence of calcifications (isolated or associated), with a 95% rate (76 cases), while the presence of hypodense lesions reached a 5% rate (4 cases). After routine analysis, each CT was evaluated again and the suspected cases were confirmed. The percentage of suspected cases of neurocysticercosis detected by CT in the present study carried out in Santa Maria was considered low (1.27%). This can be explained by the fact that tomography is not accessible to the economically underprivileged population of Santa Maria. We hope that the present study can alert the population and the professionals to the fact that neurocysticercosis is a more frequent disease than indicated by the few diagnoses made.

  3. Pietro Filippo Bernini, son of Gianlorenzo, and the mediation of the courts of Madrid and Paris for the concession of his prebend in Santa Maria Maggiore of Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita de Alfonso Caffarena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The intervention of queen Maria Teresa of Austria at the court of Madrid resulted in the concession of a prebend to Pietro Filippo Bernini, the eldest son of Gianlorenzo and canon of Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome.

  4. Perfil de adolescentes privados de liberdade em Santa Maria/RS Profile of adolescents deprived of freedom in Santa Maria/RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Gonçalves Zappe

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta as primeiras análises dos resultados da pesquisa intitulada "Adolescentes privados de liberdade: quem são, de onde vêm e para onde vão?", que teve como objetivo construir o perfil dos adolescentes que cumpriram medida socioeducativa de internação no Centro de Atendimento Socioeducativo Regional de Santa Maria durante o período de 1998 a 2007. As análises foram feitas através do programa Statistical Package for Social Sciences (Versão 14.0, e as características analisadas foram as seguintes: idade de ingresso, etnia, escolaridade e motivo do ingresso. Relacionamos esses resultados com a literatura sobre a situação social e psicológica em que se encontram os adolescentes autores de atos infracionais, constituindo-se como uma contribuição à construção de conhecimentos acerca dessa temática.This study presents the first analyzes of the data about the research entitled "Adolescents deprived of freedom: who are they, where do they come from and where do they go to?", which aimed to build up the profile of adolescents who have attended Socio-Educational Regional Care Center from Santa Maria, in the period of 1998 to 2007. The analyses were done by using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (Version 14.0 Program. The variables analyzed were admission age, race/colour, educational records and reason for admission. We related these results with the literature on social and psychological situation of the adolescents who committed the infractional acts as a contribution to construct a body of knowledge on this subject.

  5. [Violence and social distress among transgender persons in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Martha Helena Teixeira de; Malvasi, Paulo; Signorelli, Marcos Claudio; Pereira, Pedro Paulo Gomes

    2015-04-01

    The authors conducted an ethnographic research with transgender persons in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in 2012, using participant observation, semi-structured interviews, and following their everyday lives. These individuals invariably experienced physical and symbolic violence and the resulting distress, a condition they had to deal with in their careers and daily practices and tasks. The article discusses the violence experienced by transvestites (in the family, school, police precincts, and health services), specifically seeking to understand how such violence relates to their experiences with health services and how the latter respond.

  6. Coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumble, M J

    1925-07-02

    Coke is obtained from coal, lignite, peat, or wood by heating the material in a retort and distilling off the volatiles by the passage of superheated steam or hot vapors, the hot porous residue being treated with a liquid hydrocarbon and the temperature being so maintained the latter is cracked and carbon deposited on the coke. The vapors or light oils are condensed and the incondensable gases are used as fuel.

  7. Dale Coke: Coke Farm

    OpenAIRE

    Farmer, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Dale Coke grew up on an apricot orchard in California’s Santa Clara Valley. In 1976 he bought ten acres of farmland near Watsonville in Santa Cruz County but continued to work repairing fuel injection systems rather than farming at his new home. In 1981, a struggle with cancer inspired him to rethink his life and become an organic farmer. His neighbor, who had grown strawberries using pesticides and chemical fertilizers, asserted that strawberries could not be grown organically. Coke set out ...

  8. Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea visiting flowers in the Botanical Garden of the Federal University of Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Barros de Morais

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban environments, such as parks and gardens, may offer many alimentary resources, besides shelter and favorable conditions, for butterfly survival. This study aimed to make an inventory of butterflies visiting flowers in the Botanical Garden of the Federal University of Santa Maria (UFSM. From March 2006 to March 2007, the floral visitors were observed weekly for 2h. After 108 hours’ observations, 1114 visits by 39 butterfly species, associated with 43 plant species (21 families, were confirmed. Among the butterflies, Nymphalidae had the highest richness of species (S= 18, followed by Hesperiidae (S= 8, Pieridae (S= 7, Papilionidae (S= 4 and Lycaenidae (S= 2. The pierid Phoebis philea philea was the most frequent species (188 visits, followed by hesperiids Urbanus proteus proteus (100, U. teleus (73 and the nymphalid Heliconius erato phyllis (71. Lantana camara (Verbenaceae, Eupatorium laevigatum (Asteraceae, Russelia equisetiformis (Scrophulariaceae and Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Verbenaceae were the most visited plants. The Botanical Garden of UFSM is an example of an urban park that seems to provide floral resources for the feeding of many butterfly species, being also a potential refuge for species from forest areas nearby.

  9. The effects of land-use change on arthropod richness and abundance on Santa Maria Island (Azores)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Seline S.; Whittaker, Robert J.; Borges, P. A. V.

    2011-01-01

    and abundance change with increasing distance from the native forest in adjacent habitat types in Santa Maria Island, the Azores. Arthropods were sampled in four 150 m long transects in each habitat type. Arthropods were identified to species level and classified as Azorean endemic, single-island endemic (SIE...

  10. Sm-Nd isochrone of 2,1 Ga in ores of two samples from Santa Maria Chico Granulite Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    Sm and Nd isotopes were determined on garnet and plagioclasse from a metapelite and on garnet and clinopyroxene from a mafic gneiss. The age of this metamorphic event in the Santa Maria Chico Granulite Complex is 2.1 Ga. The age of generaion of the protoliths is 2.6 Ga, as determined on total rock samples. (author) [pt

  11. Prayer in stone: symbols cosmatesque in the Basilica of Santa-Maria-Maggiore in Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsykunov I.V.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available All the architectural elements of a medieval temple, like itself, are common symbolic space where all details represent the idea of God and face either the faithful or to the Creator himself. And in this system are not the masters of mosaic floors Cosmati alien element - in fact, it is nothing like prayer, created in stone, but the prayer of living presented in the complex language of mosaic figures of Christian imagery. In the article on the example of the Roman basilica of Santa-Maria-Maggiore are considered rich semiotic cosmatesque opportunity to express ideas and concepts of his age. Author restores the value style characters, based on the texts of the era and the reconstruction of views of the Middle Ages made by historians of art and religion.

  12. Impact of the Implementation of Photovoltaic Panels at Cayo Santa Maria Electric System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallego Landera, Yandi Aníbal; Casas Fernandez, Leonardo; Garcia Sanchez, Zaid; Rivas Arocha, Yanet

    2017-01-01

    The global interest in encouraging the use of renewable energy has triggered a massive opening unconventional generation units. In view of the current incentives at country level for the installation of photovoltaic panels (PFV), it is possible to foresee that in the future there will be high penetration of distributed generation of this type connected to the electrical system. In our province, Cayo Santa Maria isolated system has three areas for the installation of PFV. As stated above and considering that high penetration levels of photovoltaic generation produces static and dynamic effects in connected isolated systems, it is essential to conduct studies systemically to determine the impact that would produce this connection, taking into consideration its location, technology, modeling and penetration level. The analysis allows to know how beneficial or harmful the installation of photovoltaic generators can be in that system. (author)

  13. Use of design as competitive advantage in the furniture industry at Santa Maria/RS

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    Leoni Pentiado Godoy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the contribution of innovative and proactive professional design to increase the competitiveness of the supply chain sector. Thus, the question that motivates the study were: how the design as a strategy, aligned to quality, can act as a competitive to micro and small enterprise in the furniture sector? The study conducted individual interviews with furniture industry managers and used questionnaires to furniture consumers in Santa Maria, located in the center of Rio Grande do Sul State. The research has shown that the search for mechanisms that create competition between companies is increasingly intense and the race for innovative methods to achieve efficiency has great importance. The design adds value to product in terms of aesthetics, ergonomics, comfort and functionality, besides being a very important element in the rationalization of production

  14. A economia popular solidária em Santa Maria – RS e suas interfaces

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    Juliana Franchi da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem por objetivo apresentar e analisar o crescimento da economia solidária no contexto da sociedade capitalista e compreender como se processou e tem se mantido o projeto da feira popular solidária da cidade de Santa Maria – RS que já completou 20 anos de existência. A Economia Solidária constitui-se como uma forma alternativa de gestão para que os produtores urbanos e rurais se organizem para também competirem no mercado convencional. E assim, diferencia-se dos princípios que regem o sistema capitalista, pois está centrada na perspectiva de relações sociais solidárias e não em competição.

  15. Metal concentrations in demersal fish species from Santa Maria Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico (Pacific coast).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan, M P; Aurioles-Gamboa, David; Villegas, Lorena Elizabeth Campos; Bohórquez-Herrera, Jimena; Hernández-Camacho, Claudia J; Sujitha, S B

    2015-10-15

    Concentrations of 11 trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn, Cd, As, Hg) in 40 fish species from Santa Maria Bay, Baja California Sur, Mexico, the strategically important area for marine mammals and organisms were analyzed. Based on their concentrations the ranking of metals Fe>Zn>Ni>Cr>Mn>Pb>Cu>Co>As>Cd>Hg suggests that organism size, metabolism and feeding habits are correlated with metal concentrations. Local geological formations affect the concentrations of different metals in the aquatic environment and are subsequently transferred to fishes. The correlation analysis suggests that metabolism and nurturing habits impact the concentration of metals. Concentrations of Fe and Mn appear to be influenced by scavenging and absorption processes, which vary by species. The considerable variability in the metal concentrations obtained in different species underscores the importance of regular monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of ground-water quality in the Santa Maria Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jerry L.

    1977-01-01

    The quality and quantity of recharge to the Santa Maria Valley, Calif., ground-water basin from natural sources, point sources, and agriculture are expressed in terms of a hydrologic budget, a solute balance, and maps showing the distribution of select chemical constituents. Point sources includes a sugar-beet refinery, oil refineries, stockyards, golf courses, poultry farms, solid-waste landfills, and municipal and industrial wastewater-treatment facilities. Pumpage has exceeded recharge by about 10,000 acre-feet per year. The result is a declining potentiometric surface with an accumulation of solutes and an increase in nitrogen in ground water. Nitrogen concentrations have reached as much as 50 milligrams per liter. In comparison to the solutes from irrigation return, natural recharge, and rain, discharge of wastewater from municipal and industrial wastewater-treatment facilities contributes less than 10 percent. The quality of treated wastewater is often lower in select chemical constituents than the receiving water. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Mass-casualty Response to the Kiss Nightclub in Santa Maria, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Ponte, Silvana T; Dornelles, Carlos F D; Arquilla, Bonnie; Bloem, Christina; Roblin, Patricia

    2015-02-01

    On January 27, 2013, a fire at the Kiss Nightclub in Santa Maria, Brazil led to a mass-casualty incident affecting hundreds of college students. A total of 234 people died on scene, 145 were hospitalized, and another 623 people received treatment throughout the first week following the incident.1 Eight of the hospitalized people later died.1 The Military Police were the first on scene, followed by the state fire department, and then the municipal Mobile Prehospital Assistance (SAMU) ambulances. The number of victims was not communicated clearly to the various units arriving on scene, leading to insufficient rescue personnel and equipment. Incident command was established on scene, but the rescuers and police were still unable to control the chaos of multiple bystanders attempting to assist in the rescue efforts. The Municipal Sports Center (CDM) was designated as the location for dead bodies, where victim identification and communication with families occurred, as well as forensic evaluation, which determined the primary cause of death to be asphyxia. A command center was established at the Hospital de Caridade Astrogildo de Azevedo (HCAA) in Santa Maria to direct where patients should be admitted, recruit staff, and procure additional supplies, as needed. The victims suffered primarily from smoke inhalation and many required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. There was a shortage of ventilators; therefore, some had to be borrowed from local hospitals, neighboring cities, and distant areas in the state. A total of 54 patients1 were transferred to hospitals in the capital city of Porto Alegre (Brazil). The main issues with the response to the fire were scene control and communication. Areas for improvement were identified, namely the establishment of a disaster-response plan, as well as regularly scheduled training in disaster preparedness/response. These activities are the first steps to improving mass-casualty responses.

  18. Borboletas (Lepidoptera: Hesperioidea e Papilionoidea visitantes florais no Jardim Botânico da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Lemes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2008v21n4p91 Ambientes urbanos como parques e jardins podem oferecer muitos recursos alimentares, além de abrigo e condições favoráveis para a sobrevivência de borboletas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo fazer um inventário das borboletas visitantes florais e das plantas visitadas por esses insetos no Jardim Botânico da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM. No período de março de 2006 a março de 2007, foram feitas 2h de observações semanais das borboletas visitantes fl orais. Em 108h de observação, foram registradas 1114 visitas de 39 espécies de borboletas, associadas a 43 espécies de plantas (21 famílias. Nymphalidae teve a maior riqueza de espécies (S= 18, seguida de Hesperiidae (S= 8, Pieridae (S= 7, Papilionidae (S= 4 e Lycaenidae (S= 2. O pierídeo Phoebis philea philea foi a espécie mais freqüente (187 visitas, seguida dos hesperídeos Urbanus proteus proteus (100, U. teleus (73 e do ninfalídeo Heliconius erato phyllis (71. Lantana camara (Verbenaceae, Eupatorium laevigatum (Asteraceae, Russelia equisetiformis (Scrophulariaceae e Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Verbenaceae foram as plantas mais visitadas. O Jardim Botânico da UFSM é um exemplo de parque urbano que parece possuir recursos florais para alimentação de várias espécies de borboletas, sendo também potencial refúgio para espécies de áreas florestais do entorno.

  19. Spatial and temporal distribution of dragonflies naiads in wetlands La Vaca and Santa Maria del Lago, Bogota, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno Pallares, Maria Ines; Guillot Monroy, Gabriel Hernando

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the spatial and temporal variation in communities of dragonfly's naiads and their association to the habitat rehabilitation status in La Vaca and Santa Maria del Lago wetlands. Four samplings were carried out in several sites of each during a year. Macroinvertebrates were collected at the entry and exit flow, and in open waters of the wetlands using standard techniques. We found a gradient in the distribution of the abundance of nymphs in both wetlands, where naiads community had the highest number of individuals in the places located farther from the dumping sites. Comparing the community s composition between wetlands La Vaca and Santa Maria del Lago through the beta diversity, heterogeneity was found in both ecosystems. The gradient in the distribution of the abundance of naiads observed in both wetlands fits with to a response of the species in terms of tolerance to the environmental variables.

  20. Frequency of suspected cases of neurocysticercosis detected by computed skull tomography in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jose Edson Paz da

    2000-01-01

    Due to the lack of studies about neurocysticercosis in the South of Brazil, an investigation was conducted to determine the percentage cases of neurocysticercosis in computed tomography diagnoses in Santa Maria, RS, from January 1997 to December 1998. Of 6300 computed tomographs (CT) of the skull performed at the private Hospital de Caridade Astrogildo de Azevedo, 80, i.e. 1.27% were suspected of neurocysticercosis. Fifty were women (62.5%) and 30 were men (37.5). The most frequent radiological manifestation indicating neurocysticercosis was the presence of calcifications (isolated or associated), with a 95% rate (76 cases), while the presence of hypodense lesions reached a 5% rate (4 cases). After routine analysis, each CT was evaluated again and the suspected cases were confirmed. The percentage of suspected cases of neurocysticercosis detected by CT in the present study carried out in santa Maria was considered low (1.27%). This can be explained by the fact that tomography is not accessible to the economically underprivileged population of Santa Maria. We hope that the present study can alert the population and the professionals to the fact neurocysticercosis is a more frequent disease than indicated by the few diagnoses made. (author)

  1. Frequency of suspected cases of neurocysticercosis detected by computed skull tomography in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jose Edson Paz da [Santa Maria Univ., RS (Brazil). Dept. de Analises Clinicas e Toxicologicas; Diefenthaeler, Ana Paula [Santa Maria Univ., RS (Brazil). Curso de Farmacia e Bioquimica; Palma, Jose Knoll [Hospital de Caridade Astrogildo de Azevedo, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2000-02-01

    Due to the lack of studies about neurocysticercosis in the South of Brazil, an investigation was conducted to determine the percentage cases of neurocysticercosis in computed tomography diagnoses in Santa Maria, RS, from January 1997 to December 1998. Of 6300 computed tomographs (CT) of the skull performed at the private Hospital de Caridade Astrogildo de Azevedo, 80, i.e. 1.27% were suspected of neurocysticercosis. Fifty were women (62.5%) and 30 were men (37.5). The most frequent radiological manifestation indicating neurocysticercosis was the presence of calcifications (isolated or associated), with a 95% rate (76 cases), while the presence of hypodense lesions reached a 5% rate (4 cases). After routine analysis, each CT was evaluated again and the suspected cases were confirmed. The percentage of suspected cases of neurocysticercosis detected by CT in the present study carried out in santa Maria was considered low (1.27%). This can be explained by the fact that tomography is not accessible to the economically underprivileged population of Santa Maria. We hope that the present study can alert the population and the professionals to the fact neurocysticercosis is a more frequent disease than indicated by the few diagnoses made. (author)

  2. Toxicological potential of metals found in soil of cemeteries in Santa Maria - RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Casanova Vilaverde Gomes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Contamination with toxic elements and cemetery leachate may result when proper geo-environmental and hydro geographic studies are not conducted and cemeteries are dug in soils without appropriate structure and chemical properties. This contamination may percolate through the water table, leading to groundwater contamination, which can dramatically affect natural resources and public health. The toxicity of soil from Santa Maria was evaluated in this context. In addition, concentrations of Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined and compared with the tolerance limits established by the National Environmental Council Resolution No. 420 of 2013. Oligochaetas of the Eisenia andrei species were used as bio indicators in the format bioassays-limit test (control versus treatment, in a completely randomized design with three replications, consisting of seven treatments and two levels. At the end of the exposure period, we evaluated the effects of acute toxicity in oligochaetas, considering the median lethal concentration (LC50. The results of acute and chronic toxicity studies in the two analyzed cemeteries (urban and rural showed toxicity (CL50 239,88 mg k-1 e 52,48 mg kg-1 and interference in the reproductive process of oligochaetas. We detected concentrations of toxic metals that exceeded legally established values.

  3. História da Revista de Enfermagem da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria

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    Maria de Lourdes Denardin Budó

    Full Text Available RESUMO Objetivo Relatar a história da Revista de Enfermagem da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Método Relato de experiência, a partir de informações de materiais secundários, como site e documentos. As informações foram agrupadas e apresentadas conforme a sequência temporal. Resultados A revista foi criada em 2010 e, nestes seis anos, houve um aumento no número de artigos publicados de 58 para 75, a aprovação para indexação em bases de dados e a obtenção do Qualis B3. Foram desenvolvidas ações direcionadas ao fortalecimento do periódico, como a busca de recursos financeiros, aumento da divulgação, do número de pareceristas e colaboradores. Conclusões A história da revista envolve diversas etapas as quais têm sido permeadas por desafios e conquistas que implicam a busca pelo fortalecimento contínuo do periódico e das publicações vinculadas.

  4. LITTER PRODUCTION AND NUTRIENT ADDITION IN ATLANTIC FOREST AREAS IN SANTA MARIA DE JETIBÁ, ES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geângelo Petene Calvi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was accomplished on Espíndula Farm, Santa Maria de Jetibá (ES, with the objective of evaluating the litter and nutrients deposition in areas with different succession stadiums. Two areas were selected with different vegetable coverings, defined as: (SF Secondary Forest, with about 25 ha of area, corresponding to an old area of cassava cultivation with about 50 years in process of ecological succession and where today there is a secondary forest and an Old Secondary Forest (OSF corresponding to a forest area that has just been submitted to a selective wood extraction for use of the farm itself. In each one of vegetal areas, approximately 0.1 ha was delimited and in these ten conical collectors were randomized distributed. The litter collections were accomplished monthly from November 2003 to October 2005. After drying, the material was stratified and the total contributed and the contribution of the different fractions, and the nutritious addition were evaluated. It was not verified significant differences among the total of litter deposited among the areas, being the highest production values observed in the summer, 5.70 Mg ha-1 (SF and 5.73 Mg ha-1(OSF, possibly due to the winds and rain mechanical action. The fraction of higher contribution was the foliar, corresponding to 74.62% for the SF area and 69.46% for the OSF area

  5. Fauna do solo em áreas com Eucalyptus spp. E Pinus elliottii, Santa Maria, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izabel Jacques Soares

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This work started in the spring in 1996 and finished in the winter in 1997 and it had as its objective to study the populational survey of soil fauna in the Pinus elliotti and Eucalyptus spp. in areas situaded in “Campus” at Federal University of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. An extractor was utilized to collect the soil from 10 sample points, in the 0-5, 5-10, 10-15 and 15-20 cm of soil depth, in each season of the year. With this study it was possible to identify some representants of Phylum Annelida and Arthropoda who belong to fauna-soil-vegetable context. The individual total, its percentile and number of individual for square meter were obtained. It was observed the predominance of Phylum Arthropoda and, in special, of Insecta class in the Eucalyptus spp. area; and the Phylum Annelida in the Pinus elliottii area. The depth variable originated mathematical models to explain the populational distribution for each studied areas. The seasons of year variable did not show a significative difference. It was not possible to establish a populational distribution model.

  6. Documenti per una storia dell'ospedale di Santa Maria della Scala di Siena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Piccinni

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available L’ospedale senese di Santa Maria della Scala si propone alla riflessione europea: per l’imponenza e la ricchezza artistica dell’edificio e per la fortissima identità civica di cui è portatore, dalla sua centralità materiale e simbolica nel tessuto urbano; per l’efficacia delle soluzioni e dell’impianto economico di supporto all’assistenza; per essere stato, dalla fine del Trecento, preso a modello in Italia e in Europa. E, infine, che è quello che più direttamente interessa qui, per la consistenza, varietà e potenzialità del suo patrimonio documentario. Dopo avere illustrato la struttura della documentazione, composta di 6.849 unità (dal 1240 al 1930 e da 5.566 pergamene del fondo diplomatico (dal 1194 al 1725 si richiama l’attenzione sulle potenzialità della documentazione ospedaliera di divenire fonte per la storia della società, dell’economia, delle istituzioni e della politica: tutto ciò attraverso esempi tratti dalla documentazione senese ma pensando che possano servire anche in una prospettiva comparativa più generale. Nel richiamare l’attenzione sul ruolo rivestito dagli ospedali all’interno del sistema sociale, economico e politico sul quale si reggevano le città italiane degli ultimi secoli del Medioevo, e nel dirigere lo sguardo verso l’economia dell’assistenza, Siena può, infatti, dire qualcosa di nuovo, proprio per la particolare ricchezza documentaria e per alcuni caratteri della sua storia e della sua economia.

  7. Un’altra storia: Nuove prospettive sul cantiere della cupola di Santa Maria del Fiore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Battista

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ‘Un’altra storia’ (Another History is a first attempt to test the potential of detailed administrative documentation to deepen and, where necessary, modify our understanding of the creative process around the great worksite of Florence Cathedral. It treats two case studies chosen to exemplify possible strategies of navigation in the vast documentary corpus now accessible online in the website, The Years of the Cupola. The first study centers upon the person of Jacopo di Sandro, a hitherto scarcely known master stonecutter employed in the Opera di Santa Maria del Fiore workforce during the entire documented period. He distinguished himself from the very beginning for exceptional flexibility of services rendered, from day labor to a series of special assignments, including the supervision of separate worksites and of the forests in Casentino; Jacopo also emerges as an occasional entrepreneur whose independent contracts coexisted with his status as daily wage earner. At the end of the period he entered the ranks of salaried executive personnel as the administrator of the Brunelleschian fortress of Vico Pisano, demonstrating a notable fluidity amongst labor typologies which are often treated as non-communicating vessels. The second query is dedicated to the documentation on the stone components commissioned for the ‘serraglio’, or closing ring, at the top of the dome, believed to function as stabilizer of the whole self-supporting structure up to the base of the lantern. A census of the sources reveals the number, dimensions, price and delivery dates of the various orders of sandstone blocks, typically supplied in multiples of eight, the number of segments of the octagonal structure. The results are presented as an invitation to look below the surface of the masonry and consider the rationale for so much strength and weight when analyzing the dynamics of this area.

  8. ASPECTOS FITOSSOCIOLÓGICOS DE FRAGMENTO DE FLORESTA ESTACIONAL DECIDUAL, SANTA MARIA, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solon Jonas Longhi

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado estudo da vegetação em fragmento de floresta estacional decidual em processo de sucessão, em área da Associação Tabor (29o43'S; 53o47'W, no município de Santa Maria (RS, Brasil. Utilizaram-se dezesseis unidades amostrais de 10 x 20 m distribuídas de forma sistemática para avaliação (medição e identificação dos indivíduos com Circunferência à Altura do Peito (CAP igual ou maior de 30 cm e subunidades circulares com raios de 1,78 m para identificação e contagem da regeneração (indivíduos menores de 30 cm. Observou-se a ocorrência de 64 espécies arbóreas e arbustivas de 54 gêneros e 31 famílias. As espécies com maior valor de importância foram Myrocarpus frondosus, Cupania vernalis, Ocotea puberula, Patagonula americana, Casearia sylvestris, Luehea divaricata, Enterolobium contortisiliquum e Helietta apiculata. Na regeneração, as espécies com maior densidade de indivíduos foram Trichilia elegans, Nectandra megapotamica, Actinostemon concolor, Piper gaudichaudianum, Cupania vernalis, Hybanthus bigibbosus, Aiouea saligna e Parapiptadenia rigida. Constatou-se o contínuo processo de sucessão por meio da substituição de espécies nos estratos da floresta e algumas bem-representadas desde a regeneração até o estrato superior.

  9. FAUNA DO SOLO EM ÁREAS COM Eucalyptus spp. E Pinus elliottii, SANTA MARIA, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izabel Jacques Soares

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho, com início na primavera de 1996 e término no inverno de 1997, teve como objetivo realizar o levantamento populacional da fauna do solo em áreas com Eucalyptus spp. e Pinus elliottii, situadas no Campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Para a coleta do solo, utilizou-se um extrator, formando-se amostras em dez pontos, nas profundidades de 0-5, 5-10, 10-15 e de 15-20 cm, em cada estação do ano. Por meio deste estudo, pôde-se identificar alguns representantes dos Phylum Annelida e Arthropoda que participam do contexto fauna-solo-vegetação. O total de indivíduos, seu respectivo percentual e número de indivíduos por metro quadrado foram obtidos. Observou-se o predomínio do Phylum Arthropoda e, mais especificamente, da classe Insecta na área com Eucalyptus spp. e do Phylum Annelida na área com Pinus elliottii. A variável profundidade originou modelos matemáticos que explicam a distribuição populacional dentre as áreas estudadas. A variável estação do ano não apresentou uma diferença significativa. Não foi possível, portanto, estabelecer um modelo de distribuição populacional.

  10. Estimativa da radiação solar global a partir dos dados de insolação, para Santa Maria - RS Estimation of global radiation from insolation data for Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galileo Adeli Buriol

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram determinados os coeficientes a e b da equação de Angströn-Prescott para a estimativa da radiação solar global para Santa Maria, RS. Utilizaram-se os dados diários da intensidade de fluxo de radiação solar global e de insolação (brilho solar registrados na Estação Meteorológica pertencente ao 8° Distrito de Meteorologia, localizada no Campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria - UFSM, período 2002-2008. Os dados foram copiados no banco de dados do 8° Distrito de Meteorologia - 8° DISME, em Porto Alegre, e calculados os valores diários de radiação solar global no topo da atmosfera e de insolação máxima possível, considerando a latitude local. Com esses dados, foram determinadas as equações mensais e estacionais de regressão para a estimativa da radiação solar global em função da insolação. Constatou-se que existe alta correlação entre os dados de radiação solar global com aqueles de insolação, sendo, assim, possível estimar a radiação solar global em função da insolação.Coefficients a and b of the Angströn - Prescott equation to estimate global solar radiation for Santa Maria, RS were determined. Daily data of global solar radiation and sunshine, were obtained from the Meteorological Station which belongs to the 8th District of Meteorology, located on the campus of the Federal University of Santa Maria - UFSM, period from 2002 to 2008. The mentioned data were copied from the database of the 8th District of Meteorology - 8th DISME in Porto Alegre. Top of atmosphere radiation and possible maximum sunshine were calculated considering local latitude. With such elements, monthly regression equations were determined for the estimation of solar radiation as a function of insolation. We found a high correlation between insolation and global solar radiation and it's possible to estimate the solar radiation depending on the measured insolation.

  11. THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODELING OF THE ROMANESQUE CHURCH OF SANTA MARIA DE CASTRELOS (VIGO – SPAIN USING TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNER

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    A. Soria-Medina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the results obtained in the three dimensional survey of the church of Santa Maria of Castrelos realized through a terrestrial Laser Scanner. The Church of Santa Maria of Castrelos, which was built in the early thirteenth century, is located in Vigo Spain. It is a Romanesque style church with a nave and semicircular apse with three gates decorated with rosettes and typically Romanesque geometrical figures. The survey was conducted by the laboratory of Close Range Photogrammetry of Natural Resources Department, Mining School, at University of Vigo – Spain, jointly with the Geomatics Department, Federal University of Parana – Brazil. This work explores the use of laser scanning for the surveying, three-dimensional modeling and documentation of historical monuments but also the generation of quoted plans and cross sections of this Romanesque church in the city of Vigo. The resolution of point clouds used to obtain the models varied according to need. Namely, the point cloud used for three-dimensional model for the general external and internal church was used with an approximate step width of 10 cm, while 5 cm and 1 cm step widths were used for details of geometric figures and rosettes. The results of both the three-dimensional model and the plans and sections are in accordance with the specifications and scales of representation usually used in conventional surveys of historic monuments recommended in the specialized literature in the area. The objective of this study is showing the potential of the use of terrestrial laser scanner in the documentation of historical heritage through achieving the 3D model by joining external and internal point clouds and the generation of planes and sections of the church of Santa Maria of Castrelos, Vigo.

  12. Relatório de Estágio Curricular – Guarda Unida Desportiva & UDR Santa Maria (Futebol)

    OpenAIRE

    Lage, André

    2015-01-01

    O meu estágio foi realizado em duas instituições. Primeiramente, fui acolhido pela Guarda Unida Sport Club, como treinador adjunto da sua equipa de Juvenis que disputou o Campeonato Distrital de Juvenis da Associação de Futebol da Guarda. Devido a problemas de ordem familiar optei por regressar a Lisboa no segundo semestre, onde exerci as funções de treinador adjunto da equipa de Infantis 7 da União Desportiva e Recreativa de Santa Maria, que participou no Campeonato Distrital de Infantis...

  13. Danos físicos em estufas plásticas causados pelo vento em Santa Maria, RS Plastic greenhouses damaged by wind in Santa Maria, RS. Case report

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    Nereu Augusto Streck

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram observados danos físicos causados por rajadas de vento ocorridos na madrugada do dia 19/05/97 no plástico das estufas localizadas no Campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. Os valores de intensidade e direção das rajadas máximas do vento foram registradas em um anemográfo universal tipo IH 1023 a 10m de altura, instalado a aproximadamente 100m ao sul das estufas. Os danos ocorreram quando a velocidade das rajadas máximas ultrapassou 20m s-1 (72km h-1Plastic greenhouses located at the Federal University of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil were damaged by wind on May 19th, 1997. Wind speed and direction at 10m height were measured at the Climatological Station located approximatly 100m from the greenhouses. The damage in the greenhouses occured when the maximum gusts reached up speed higher than 20m s-1 (72km h-1.

  14. Frequency of suspected cases of neurocysticercosis detected by computed skull tomography in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil Freqüência de casos suspeitos de neurocisticercose em tomografias computadorizadas de crânio em Santa Maria, RS, Brasil

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    José Edson Paz da SILVA

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the lack of studies about neurocysticercosis in the South of Brazil, an investigation was conducted to determine the percentage of suspected cases of neurocysticercosis in computed tomography diagnoses in Santa Maria, RS, from January 1997 to December 1998. Of 6300 computed tomographies (CT of the skull performed at the private Hospital de Caridade Astrogildo de Azevedo, 80, i.e., 1.27% were suspected of neurocysticercosis. Fifty were women (62.5% and 30 were men (37.5%. The most frequent radiological manifestation indicating neurocysticercosis was the presence of calcifications (isolated or associated, with a 95% rate (76 cases, while the presence of hypodense lesions reached a 5% rate (4 cases. After routine analysis, each CT was evaluated again and the suspected cases were confirmed. The percentage of suspected cases of neurocysticercosis detected by CT in the present study carried out in Santa Maria was considered low (1.27%. This can be explained by the fact that tomography is not accessible to the economically underprivileged population of Santa Maria. We hope that the present study can alert the population and the professionals to the fact that neurocysticercosis is a more frequent disease than indicated by the few diagnoses made.Com o objetivo de iniciar um estudo sobre a neurocisticercose no Sul do Brasil, foi verificada a porcentagem de casos suspeitos de neurocisticercose em tomografia computadorizada de crânio (TCC em Santa Maria, entre janeiro de 1997 e dezembro de 1998. Os resultados mostraram que entre 6300 TCC realizadas no Hospital de Caridade Astrogildo de Azevedo, 80, isto é, 1,27% eram suspeitas de neurocisticercose. Constatamos que 50 eram mulheres (62,5% e 30 homens (37,5%. A manifestação radiológica mais freqüente para indicar neurocisticercose foi a calcificação (isolada ou associada com 95% (76 casos, enquanto a presença de lesões hipodensas foi de 5% (4 casos. Após a análise de rotina cada TCC foi

  15. ZONEAMENTO GEOAMBIENTAL DO PERÍMETRO URBANO DE SANTA MARIA – RS, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto da Fonseca Pires

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho de pesquisa tem por objetivo a caracterização geoambiental da paisagem, através da elaboração de Zoneamento Geoambiental do Perímetro Urbano de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul. O perímetro urbano, cujos limites foram definidos pela municipalidade, possui uma área de 13.092 ha e engloba as áreas urbanas e as de possível urbanização. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida tendo como referencial teórico a análise sistêmica, utilizando-se da paisagem como categoria de análise, e como instrumental metodológico a utilização de geotecnologias, especialmente de SIGs. O tratamento metodológico segue a proposta metodológica desenvolvida pelo LAGEOLAM/UFSM, com algumas adaptações. Os atributos utilizados na análise geoambiental compreendem as características climáticas, o substrato geológico, a hidrologia, a geomorfologia, as feições superficiais e o uso e ocupação do solo. A espacialização destes componentes da paisagem, exceto as informações climáticas, através da elaboração de mapas temáticos, e a posterior integração, por meio de uma representação de síntese, foi realizada no software Spring 4.3.3, que permitiu a manipulação de dados de diferentes fontes. Como produto final estabeleceu-se uma hierarquia composta por nove unidades geoambientais, seis subunidades e quatro feições. A elaboração do zoneamento geoambiental, através do estudo integrado da paisagem, constitui numa importante ferramenta no gerenciamento dos recursos da área.

  16. PERSPECTIVAS PEDAGÓGICAS NA ESCOLA DE SURDOS DE SANTA MARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Quinhones Pereira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este texto resulta de uma pesquisa realizada no ano de 2001, tendo como objetivo identificar, junto ao professor ouvinte, a sua concepção de educação de Surdos e sua visão perante a implementação da mesma; bem como verificar as diferenças evidenciadas na sua atuação prática atual em relação às experiências vivenciadas anteriormente. A proposta metodológica que norteia esse trabalho é a abordagem qualitativa. Realizou-se, neste estudo, uma descrição pautada na revisão bibliográfica sobre a temática proposta e a análise dos dados obtidos através da entrevista semi-estruturada, aplicada a três professores da Escola de Surdos de Santa Maria-RS. Nessa entrevista, os professores relataram suas experiências frente à Educação de Surdos, visando o desenvolvimento e a aprendizagem desses e a expectativa em relação à Escola de surdos, considerando o espaço e a concepção adotada. A análise dos dados indica que a abordagem bilíngüe permeia toda a prática dos professores, instrutores e alunos surdos. A expectativa é contemplar todos os anseios da comunidade surda. Esta pesquisa mostrou que os profissionais, assim como a comunidade escolar, estão conscientes e desencadeando um processo de construção coletiva para que a referida escola seja um ambiente que favoreça o desenvolvimento e aprendizagem de seus educandos, considerando suas características específicas da surdez e vislumbrando uma educação bilíngüe para Surdos.Palavras-chave: perspectivas, educação, surdos.

  17. Fauna do solo em áreas com Eucalyptus spp. e Pinus elliottii, Santa Maria, RS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Izabel Jacques Soares

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Este trabalho, com início na primavera de 1996 e término no inverno de 1997, teve como objetivo realizar o levantamento populacional da fauna do solo em áreas com Eucalyptus spp. e Pinus elliottii, situadas no Campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Para a coleta do solo, utilizou-se um extrator, formando-se amostras em dez pontos, nas profundidades de 0-5, 5-10, 10-15 e de 15-20 cm, em cada estação do ano. Por meio deste estudo, pôde-se identificar alguns representantes dos Phylum Annelida e Arthropoda que participam do contexto fauna-solo-vegetação. O total de indivíduos, seu respectivo percentual e número de indivíduos por metro quadrado foram obtidos. Observou-se o predomínio do Phylum Arthropoda e, mais especificamente, da classe Insecta na área com Eucalyptus spp. e do Phylum Annelida na área com Pinus elliottii. A variável profundidade originou modelos matemáticos que explicam a distribuição populacional dentre as áreas estudadas. A variável estação do ano não apresentou uma diferença significativa. Não foi possível, portanto, estabelecer um modelo de distribuição populacional.

  18. Ações da elite médica em Santa Maria/RS na segunda metade do século XIX = Actions of elite medical in Santa Maria/RS in the second half of XIX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossi, Daiane Silveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Em um período em que estão em voga os debates ambientais, chama atenção o fato de que em uma cidade já massivamente urbana como Santa Maria/RS, 40% da sua população ainda enfrente problemas relacionados ao esgoto a céu aberto. Com base neste dado, procurou-se compreender qual o ponto de partida destes problemas sanitários da cidade, fazendo uma análise do seu primeiro projeto de saneamento, datado de 1918. Entretanto, ao investigar a respeito disto, notou-se que os debates em torno da salubridade local eram ainda mais longínquos, sendo encontradas discussões desde meados do século XIX. Portanto, para esta comunicação optou-se por fazer um balanço histórico a respeito da preocupação dos governantes locais com a saúde da população e com a higiene do espaço urbano de Santa Maria. Para tanto, serão abordados dois aspectos: a inserção dos médicos diplomados na cidade e a consolidação da elite médica local através de suas medidas de saúde pública. Dessa forma, acredita-se que será possível compreender como transcorreu todo o processo de construção das políticas públicas de saúde e higiene em Santa Maria/RS entre meados do século XIX e início do século XX. Destaca-se que esta ideia está pautada no conceito de saúde pública como todo tipo de ação coletiva visando melhorar os ambientes, elaborado por Dorothy Porter. Também se utiliza como base conceitos de políticas públicas em torno da saúde, compreendendo-as como um maior poder de intervenção do Estado nestas questões, cuja referência é o historiador Gilberto Hochman

  19. The Book of the Sick of Santa Maria della Morte in Bologna and the Medical Organization of a Hospital in the Sixteenth-Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savoia, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    In 2012 a manuscript was rediscovered in the Biblioteca dell'Archiginnasio of Bologna, titled Libro degli infermi dell'Arciconfraternita di S. Maria della Morte. It is the record of incoming patients of one for the main hospitals of the city, devoted exclusively to the sick poor and not just to the poor, called Santa Maria della Morte, compiled by a young student assistant (astante) for the period 1558-1564. I publish here a transcription of a portion of this Libro pertaining to the year 1560. My introduction situates the manuscript within the context of the history of early modern Italian hospitals, describes the organization of the hospital of Santa Maria della Morte based on archival sources of the period, and finally highlights the connections between surgical and anatomical education and the internal organization of the hospital.

  20. Optimization and improvement of the technical specifications for Santa Maria de Garona and Cofrentes nuclear power plants; Optimizacion y mejora de las especificaciones tecnicas de funcionamiento para las centrales de Santa Maria de Garona y Cofrentes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norte Gomez, M D [Empresarios Agrupados, A.I.E., Madrid (Spain); Alcantud, F [Iberdrola C.N., Cofrentes, (Spain); Hoyo, C del [Nuclenor C.N., Santa Maria de Garona (Spain)

    1993-12-15

    Technical Specifications (TS) form one of the basic documents necessary for licensing nuclear power plants and are required by the Government in accordance with Article 26 of the Regulation for Nuclear and Radioactive Facilities. They contain specific plant characteristics and operating limits to provide adequate protection for the safety and health of operators and the general public. For operator actuation, TS include all the surveillance requirements and limiting operating conditions (operation at full power, startup, hot and cold shutdown, and refueling outage) of safety-related systems. They also include the conventional support systems which are necessary to keep the plant in a safe operating conditioner to bring it to safe shutdown in the event of incidents or hypothetical accidents. Because of the large volume of information contained in the TS, the NRC and American utility owners began to simplify and improve the initial standard TS, which has given way to the development of a TS Optimization Program in the USA under the auspices of the NRC. Empresarios Agrupados has been contracted by the BWR Spanish Owners' Group (GPE-BWR) to develop optimized TS for the Santa Maria de Garona and Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plants. The optimized and improved TS are simplified versions of the current ones and facilitate the work of plant operators. They help to prevent risks, and reduce the number of potential transients caused by the large number of tests required by current TS. Plant operational safety is enhanced and higher effective operation is achieved. The GPE-BWR has submitted the first part of the optimized TS with their corresponding Bases to the Spanish Nuclear Council (CSN), for comment and subsequent approval. Once the TS are approved by the Spanish Nuclear Council, the operators of the Santa Maria de Garona and Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plants will be given a training and adaptation course prior to their implementation. (author)

  1. MOCAT project: support tool to the management of the emergencies in the nuclear power plant of Santa Maria of Garona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calleja, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    Santa Maria de Garona NPP, as part of its continuous improvement philosophy, has decided to undertake the modernization of its Technical Support Center (CAT with the aim of improving the emergency management, provided in the Internal Emergency Plan. To this end, Tecnatom, applying the know-how acquired and within its line of technological innovation, has designed the Technical Support Center modernization project, MOCAT, in collaboration with Garona NPP. This project is basically the application of new information and communications technologies to the management of the information available on the CAT, and the computerization of the procedures for the responsible from the different areas of the CAT, which it is going to contribute significantly to the improvement of the security, allowing a better understanding of the state of the plant in emergency as well as a faster and smoother decision making, and an improved training and education of those responsible for the CAT in emergency management. (Author) 8 refs.

  2. Relação entre Valores Pessoais e Comprometimento Organizacional: O Caso das Empresas Juniores de Santa Maria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Medianeira Cruz Rodrigues

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine if there is relationship between personal values and organizationalcommitment in members of junior companies. These companies are non-profit associations thataim to provide to students, improvements of theoretical knowledge acquired during their academiceducation. Questionnaires were used in a sample of 119 students members of eight juniorcompanies of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul The instrument used for data collection wascomposed of three parts. The initial part aims to identify the profile of the sample, the second part,based on Medeiros (2003, looks to verify the organizational commitment and the third part,developed from the study by Gouveia et al. (2008,aims to identify the personal values. Dataanalysis was performed tests of descriptive statistics, and correlations between personal values andconstructs of organizational commitment and application of regression models. The results showedthat personal values:ObedienceandPrestigeare the only ones that showed significant correlationswith all the constructs of organizational commitment.

  3. What deaf students from the Federal University of Santa Maria say about their conditions of study in higher education

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    Luiz Renato Martins da Rocha

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at describing some results from the investigation on how deaf students from the Federal University of Santa Maria, according to their own perception, have been assisted in their linguistic and pedagogical needs in the graduation courses. Their choice of this institution is due to the fact that it has a selection test for the Brazilian Sign Language (Libras, Brazilian Portuguese abbreviation using video recording. This makes the institution have a greater number of deaf students when compared to other universities and creates an environment which is different from other university contexts. The study comprised descriptive and exploratory research; data collection was carried out through the application of an electronic questionnaire (online to 18 deaf students. The results revealed that despite the differentiated access to this university, there are still many similarities when compared to other university contexts. The conclusions point out to the maintenance of precarious conditions for the permanence of these students in the classroom.

  4. Optimization and improvement of the technical specifications for Santa Maria de Garona and Cofrentes nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norte Gomez, M.D.; Alcantud, F.; Hoyo, C. del

    1993-01-01

    Technical Specifications (TS) form one of the basic documents necessary for licensing nuclear power plants and are required by the Government in accordance with Article 26 of the Regulation for Nuclear and Radioactive Facilities. They contain specific plant characteristics and operating limits to provide adequate protection for the safety and health of operators and the general public. For operator actuation, TS include all the surveillance requirements and limiting operating conditions (operation at full power, startup, hot and cold shutdown, and refueling outage) of safety-related systems. They also include the conventional support systems which are necessary to keep the plant in a safe operating conditioner to bring it to safe shutdown in the event of incidents or hypothetical accidents. Because of the large volume of information contained in the TS, the NRC and American utility owners began to simplify and improve the initial standard TS, which has given way to the development of a TS Optimization Program in the USA under the auspices of the NRC. Empresarios Agrupados has been contracted by the BWR Spanish Owners' Group (GPE-BWR) to develop optimized TS for the Santa Maria de Garona and Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plants. The optimized and improved TS are simplified versions of the current ones and facilitate the work of plant operators. They help to prevent risks, and reduce the number of potential transients caused by the large number of tests required by current TS. Plant operational safety is enhanced and higher effective operation is achieved. The GPE-BWR has submitted the first part of the optimized TS with their corresponding Bases to the Spanish Nuclear Council (CSN), for comment and subsequent approval. Once the TS are approved by the Spanish Nuclear Council, the operators of the Santa Maria de Garona and Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plants will be given a training and adaptation course prior to their implementation. (author)

  5. Magmatic storage conditions, decompression rate, and incipient caldera collapse of the 1902 eruption of Santa Maria Volcano, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Benjamin J.

    2014-08-01

    Phase equilibria experiments and analysis of natural pumice and phenocryst compositions indicate the 1902 Santa Maria dacite was stored at ~ 140-170 MPa and 840-850 °C prior to eruption. H2O-saturated, cold-seal experiments conducted in vessels with an intrinsic log fO2 of NNO + 1 ± 0.5 show that the natural phase assemblage (melt + plagioclase + amphibole + orthopyroxene + Fe-Ti oxides + apatite) is stable from approximately 115-140 MPa at temperatures below ~ 825 °C, to ~ 840-860 °C at 150 MPa, to > 850 and Ridolfi et al., 2010) applied to experimental samples suggest two populations of amphiboles, phenocrysts grown during the experiments and inherited xenocrysts, but the pressure-temperature conditions returned by the geothermobarometer are routinely > 50 MPa and > 50 °C greater than experimental run conditions; precise estimates of magmatic conditions based solely upon amphibole composition are likely inaccurate. The experimental results and analysis of natural crystals suggest that although the natural amphiboles likely record a broad range of magmatic conditions, only the lower bounds of that range reflect pre-eruptive storage conditions. Comparison of Santa Maria microlite abundances with decompression experiments examining other silicic systems from the literature suggests that the 1902 dacite decompressed at the rate of ~ 0.005 to 0.01 MPa/s during the eruption. Applying the decompression rate with the previously described eruption rate of approximately 2-3 × 108 kg/s (Williams and Self, 1983; Carey and Sparks, 1986) to the conduit model CONFLOW reveals that the eruption conduit was dike-like with an along-strike length > 1 km. Despite depositing ~ 20 km3 of dacite tephra (equivalent to ~ 8.5 km3 magma), the 1902 eruption did not form an obvious caldera. This work suggests that collapse of the dike-like conduit terminated the eruption, preventing full caldera collapse.

  6. Dos trilhos aos palacetes: refletindo sobre o acervo arquitetônico da Av. Rio Branco, Santa Maria, RS

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    Maria Dinair Machado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo propõe uma análise sobre a preservação e conservação do patrimônio cultural edificado no centro do município de Santa Maria, mais precisamente o patrimônio localizado na Avenida Rio Branco, na área central da cidade. O município possui sua história vinculada à ferrovia que se pode observar no patrimônio cultural edificado,  sua riqueza e diversidade, localizado no centro urbano. O nosso recorte espacial é focado na antiga Avenida Progresso, atual Avenida Rio Branco, eixo que ligava a estação férrea a Praça Saldanha Marinho e a Rua do Acampamento na área central. Para este trabalho foi  realizada  pesquisa  exploratória qualitativa, utilizando-se de observação por meio de registros fotográficos do centro histórico de Santa Maria, delimitando-se à  Avenida Rio Branco. No trabalho consta um breve histórico desta avenida, uma descrição dos prédios de valor histórico e as ações realizadas ao longo dos últimos anos. Nas conclusões, é proposta uma possibilidade de intervenção territorial a partir das necessidades como políticas públicas de preservação decorrentes do atual estado de abandono das edificações naquele local.

  7. Balance of longwave radiation employing the rate of solar radiation for Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Zanini Righi

    Full Text Available New coefficients were determined for the weighting term for cloudiness in the Brunt-Penman equation using the rate of solar radiation (RK in place of the rate of sunshine duration (n/N. The coefficients in the Brutsaert method proposed for daytime in southern Brazil were also tested and adjusted, and the method was selected which gave the more accurate daily results in relation to the original Brunt-Penman equation, for Santa Maria in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (RS. Meteorological data covering 2,472 days obtained from the automatic and conventional weather stations in Santa Maria were used. The coefficients were adjusted by linear and nonlinear regression methods depending on the model, using 2/3 of the data. The adjusted equations were tested with the remaining 1/3 of the data. The Brunt-Penman equation modified by the term for cloudiness weighted both for solar radiation incident on the surface with no cloudiness (RK,R and for solar radiation incident at the top of the atmosphere (RK,K, were those that resulted in the best statistical indices relative to the original Brunt-Penman equation. In those equations the boundary conditions, 0.3 ≥ RK,R ≥ 1 or RK,K ≤ 0.22, were imposed. Although having similar statistical indices, a sensitivity analysis showed that the Brutsaert equation and other weightings for cloudiness resulted in larger deviations when compared to the original Brunt-Penman equation, in addition to having greater complexity for practical application.

  8. Antibodies against rabies virus in dogs with and without history of vaccination in Santa Maria - RS - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Gonzalez Fernandes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the frequency and magnitude of neutralizing antibodies to rabies virus (RABV in dogs with and without historic of vaccination in Santa Maria/RS. Group A included serum samples from 440 dogs with recent historic of vaccination against rabies, obtained during the 2015 rabies vaccination campaign. Group B included 300 serum samples from dogs submitted to the Veterinary Hospital of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria in 2015, whose historic of rabies vaccination was unknown. Serum samples were submitted to the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT to detect neutralizing antibodies against RABV. In group A, 70.6% (310/440 of the samples had neutralizing antibody titers ≥0.5 international units per milliliter (IU mL-1, considered an indicative of protection against rabies by the World Health Organization. However, approximately 30% of the dogs did not contain antibodies in adequate levels. In group B, 42.3% (127/300 of the samples contained neutralizing antibody titers ≥0.5IU mL-1 and 57.7% (173/300 were negative or contained titers below of the value considered immunized. These results demonstrate that an important proportion of vaccinated dogs (~30% did not develop adequate antibody levels, mainly those receiving a single vaccine dose. Serologic testing of animals with unknown historic of vaccination revealed relatively low vaccine coverage in the general dog population. Thus, reformulation of immunization strategies - especially the recommendation of a boost vaccination 30 days after the primary dose - and extension of vaccination campaigns are necessary to reach adequate levels and coverage of immunity against RABV in the canine population.

  9. Obesity and Fractures in Postmenopausal Women: A Primary-care Cross-Sectional Study at Santa Maria, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copês, Rafaela Martinez; Comim, Fabio Vasconcellos; Langer, Felipe Welter; Codevilla, Antonio Aurelio da Silveira; Sartori, Giovani Ruviaro; de Oliveira, Cristina; Cocco, Aline Rubin; de Almeida, Adriana Maria; de Almeida, Luciana Leiria; Dal Osto, Léo Canterle; Compston, Juliet Elizabeth; Premaor, Melissa Orlandin

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and osteoporosis are chronic disorders with increasing prevalence worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between obesity and fracture in postmenopausal women from Santa Maria, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was carried out at Santa Maria (parallel 29° south), Brazil. Postmenopausal women aged ≥55 yr who had at least 1 appointment at the primary care in the 2 years before the study were recruited from March 1, 2013 to August 31, 2013. The Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women study questionnaire was applied with permission of The Center for Outcomes Research, University of Massachusetts Medical School. Height and weight were measured according to the World Health Organization protocol. Bone fractures (excluding hand, feet, and head) that occurred after the age of 45 yr were considered as the outcome. Overall, 1057 women completed the study, of whom 984 had body mass index measured. The mean (standard deviation) age and body mass index of the women included in the study were 67.1 (7.6) yr and 29.2 (5.5) kg/m(2), respectively. The prevalence of fractures in obese and nonobese women was similar (17.3% vs 16.0%); 41.4% of all fractures occurred in obese women. Obese postmenopausal women make a substantial contribution to the overall burden of prevalent fractures in this population. Our results provide further evidence in support of the concept that obesity is not protective against fracture. Copyright © 2015 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Geração de imagem georreferenciada do município de Santa Maria utilizando imagem de satélite e sistemas de informações geográficas Generation of georreferenced image of Santa Maria county utilizing satellite image and geographic information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luís Piroli

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi desenvolvido no Laboratório de Sensoriamento Remoto e Geoprocessamento, do Departamento de Engenharia Rural, da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, tendo como objetivo a criação de uma imagem georreferenciada do Município de Santa Maria - RS. Foram utilizados para o seu desenvolvimento os sistemas de informações geográficas IDRISI e SITER e imagens do satélite Landsat 5 - TM. Os procedimentos para a obtenção da imagem georreferenciada foram basicamente de elaboração de composição falsa-cor, georreferência e corte da área abrangida pelo Município de Santa Maria. Os aplicativos SIG utilizados e as imagens de satélite foram suficientes e eficazes para a elaboração de imagem georreferenciada do município de Santa Maria.This work was developed at the laboratory of Remote Sensing and Geoprocessing of Department of Rural Engineering of University Federal of Santa Maria, had as objective the creation of a georreferenced image of Santa Maria county - RS. Made possible the development through the associated by the digital Landsat 5 - TM and they Geographic Information System IDRISI and SITER. The proceedings to again imagery georeferenced were elaborated from the color compositae, georreferencing techniques and the out line municipality boundary. The softwares GIS and the satellite image utilized were effective to reach the main goal of this work.

  11. Temperature, salinity, radioisotopes, sediments, and other data from Phase II Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Monitoring Program in the Santa Maria Basin, California from 21 Oct 1986 to 08 Mar 1987 (NODC Accession 8900198)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data are part of the data collected for the California Phase II OCS Monitoring Program of the Santa Maria Basin by Dr. Hyland from Battelle Ocean Science and...

  12. DIVERSIDADE DE QUINZE ESPÉCIES DE BORBOLETAS (LEPIDOPTERA, PAPILIONIDAE EM SETE COMUNIDADES DE SANTA MARIA, RS DIVERSITY OF FIFTEEN SPECIES OF BUTTERFLIES (LEPIDOPTERA, PAPILIONIDAE IN SEVEN COMMUNITIES OF SANTA MARIA, RS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Schwartz

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho compara a diversidade estimada para sete áreas de Santa Maria, RS, com diferentes níveis de antropização, com base na abundância, similaridade e constância de 15 espécies de papilionídeos. O estudo foi realizado de Setembro de 1994 a Março de 1995, e de Novembro de 1995 a Fevereiro de 1996. As capturas foram efetuadas em intervalos médios de trinta dias, utilizando rede entomológica convencional, durante intervalos médios de 4 horas. As borboletas foram transportadas em envelopes glicinados, individualizados e etiquetados, para o laboratório do Departamento de Biologia da UFSM. Os dados sugerem que a cobertura vegetal desempenha uma função importante na distribuição e abundância dessas borboletas, e os mecanismos que agem em escalas geográficas mais amplas podem ser diferentes daqueles que atuam em escalas menores. Habitats, como capões e ambientes urbanos, representam locais favoráveis onde as borboletas podem usar esses ambientes complexos, exibindo uma norma de reação que minimiza a competição e a ação de inimigos naturais.The research has as objective to compare the esteemed diversity for seven of Santa Maria's counties, RS, Brazil, with different urbane levels, based on the study of abundance, similarity and steadiness among 15 Papilionidae species, from September 1994 to March 1995 and November 1995 to February 1996. Captures were performed in intervals of thirty days, using entomological net, during intervals of 4 hours average. The butterflies were transported in glassine envelopes, individualized, properly labeled to the Laboratory at UFSM Biology Department. The results suggest that the canopy carries out an important function in the distribution and abundance of those butterflies. The mechanisms that act in wider geographical scales can be different from those that act in smaller scales. Coppices and urban landscapes can represent locals, where butterflies can use these complex environments

  13. Análise Multitemporal da Cobertura Florestal da Microbacia do Arroio Grande, Santa Maria, RS Multitemporal Analysis of Forest Cover in the Arroio Grande Small Hydrological Basin, Santa Maria, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Juliano Kleinpaul

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Este trabalho teve como objetivo realizar uma análise multitemporal da cobertura florestal da microbacia do Arroio Grande, Santa Maria, RS. Foram utilizadas quatro imagens de satélite: LANDSAT 5 (1987, LANDSAT 5 (1995, LANDSAT 7 (2002 e CBERS 2 (2005. As imagens foram classificadas empregando-se o algoritmo Bhattacharya. Após a classificação das imagens, foi realizado o cruzamento dos mapas temáticos. Como resultado, obteve-se mapas com os seguintes usos da terra: cobertura florestal, regeneração e desmatamento, ou seja, as florestas que permaneceram inalteradas de uma época para outra, as que regeneraram e as que foram desmatadas. Para um período de 18 anos, a cobertura florestal aumentou 10,24% na área da microbacia, passando de 14.135,42 ha (40,01% em 1987 para 17.752,20 ha (50,25% em 2005. Isto ocorreu devido à entrada em vigor do Código Florestal Estadual, à conscientização dosproprietários rurais e à implantação em maiorescala de povoamentos de espécies exóticas no estado. 
    This work aims to carry out a multitemporal analysis of the forest cover of Arroio Grande small hydrological basin located in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Four satellite images were used: LANDSAT 5 (1987, LANDSAT 5 (1995, LANDSAT 7 (2002 and CBERS 2 (2005. The images were classified according to the Bhattacharya algorithm. After the classification of such images, the crossing of the thematic maps was accomplished. Maps with different land uses were obtained: unaffected forest cover, regeneration and deforestation for the period 1987 – 2005. During 18 years, the forest cover increased 10,24% in the basin area, changing from 14.135,42 ha (40,01% in 1987 to 17.752,20 ha (50,25% in 2005. This happened because the State Forest Law has become effective as well as the rural owners’ consciousness and also due to increment of exotic forest plantations in the State. 

  14. Assessment by the CSN of the request for renewal for 10 years of the Santa Maria de Garona Operating Permit; Evaluacion por el CSN de la solicitud de renovacion de la autorizacion de explotacion de Santa Maria de Garona por un periodo de 10 anos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellado, I.

    2009-07-01

    Summary of the report and resolution of the Nuclear Safety Council regarding the request for renewal of the Operating Permit of the Santa Maria de Garona nuclear power plant for a period of ten years, approved with conditions by the Plenary Session of the Council on June 5th last. (Author)

  15. Archaeometric investigation and evaluation of the decay of ceramic materials from the church of Santa Maria del Carmine in Pavia, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Setti, M.; Lanfranchi, A.; Cultrone, G.; Marinoni, L.

    2012-01-01

    We performed an archaeometric study of the ceramic materials from the façade of the church of Santa Maria del Carmine in Pavia (Italy). We obtained useful information about the firing temperatures, the provenance of raw materials and the type of oven used. The ceramics used in the façade are mineralogically rich in quartz, feldspar and phyllosilicates, and newly formed calcium silicate phases were detected in some samples. Microtextural observations revealed the presence of incipient reaction...

  16. Guilt and indignation in Folha de S. Paulo readers’ letters: a study about the discursive construction of the tragedy in Santa Maria

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Roberto Gonçalves Segundo

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to describe and analyze, through a representational and negotiative approach, the discursive construction of the fire that took place in the dance club Kiss, in Santa Maria, in January 2013, based on a corpus composed by readers’ letters published in the newspaper Folha de S. Paulo in the days that followed the event. In order to do so, we used theoretical presuppositions and analytical categories related to systemic functional linguistics, focusing on the relation between l...

  17. Distribuição temporal e espacial de anuros em área de Pampa, Santa Maria, RS Temporal and spatial distribution of anurans in the Pampa Region (Santa Maria, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Gomes dos Santos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a riqueza, a constância de ocorrência, os modos reprodutivos, o padrão de distribuição da abundância, a temporada de vocalização e testar a correlação das variáveis climáticas sobre a atividade de vocalização dos anuros em uma região do Bioma Pampa, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul. Durante o período de novembro de 2001 a outubro de 2002 foram realizadas coletas mensais empregando o método de ‘busca em sítio de reprodução’ e exame de exemplares depositados na Coleção Herpetológica do Setor de Zoologia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (ZUFSM. Foi registrada a ocorrência de 25 espécies de anuros. A anurofauna registrada corresponde a 30% das espécies encontradas no Rio Grande do Sul e normalmente está associada a áreas abertas encontradas no estado e em países vizinhos. Foram registrados quatro modos reprodutivos: modo 1 (14 espécies; 58,3%; modos 11 e 30 (nove espécies; 37,5% e modo 24 (uma espécie; 4,2%. A baixa diversificação de modos reprodutivos provavelmente está relacionada à homogeneidade do hábitat primariamente campestre. A maior parte das espécies mostrou-se constante ou acessória na área estudada e o padrão de distribuição da abundância das espécies apresentou ajuste aos modelos Broken Stick e Log-normal, caracterizados pela homogeneidade na distribuição da abundância das espécies. A maioria das espécies apresentou grande plasticidade na ocupação de hábitats, mas poucas foram plásticas no uso dos sítios de vocalização. Houve correlação positiva, ainda que fraca, da riqueza de espécies com a precipitação mensal acumulada e da abundância com a temperatura média máxima. As correlações obtidas indicaram que na área estudada a temperatura parece atuar mais sobre a abundância de machos em atividade de vocalização e a precipitação sobre a riqueza, apesar da riqueza de espécies ser significativamente maior durante o per

  18. A campanha da legalidade: a percepção dos Sargentos da Brigada Militar de Santa Maria sobre sua participação = A campaign of legality: perceptions of Sergeants Brigade Military from Santa Maria about your participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos, Elheovandro José dos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available No ano de 1961 o Brasil passou por uma das maiores crises políticas da sua história. Esta crise mobilizou tanto a sociedade civil como a militar, e foi deflagrada com a renúncia do então Presidente da República Jânio Quadros, no dia 25 de Agosto de 1961, sob alegação de que “forças terríveis” levantaram-se contra ele. O Governador do Rio Grande do Sul, Leonel de Moura Brizola, levantou-se contra a tentativa dos Ministros Militares tomarem o poder. Essa resistência ficou conhecida como Campanha da Legalidade. A maior força bélica que o governo estadual pode contar foi a Brigada Militar. Após a reconstrução de um breve histórico da Polícia Militar do Rio Grande do Sul, conhecida como Brigada Militar, foi feita uma reconstituição dos principais fatos ocorridos durante aqueles dias, com ênfase na atuação das forças militares estaduais. Entender como os Sargentos da Brigada Militar de Santa Maria percebem na atualidade sua participação é o objetivo deste artigo. Para alcança-lo nos valemos da história oral

  19. A LEI DA NOVA POLÍTICA NACIONAL DOS RESÍDUOS SÓLIDOS FACE AO SISTEMA DE COLETA SELETIVA DO MUNICÍPIO DE SANTA MARIA

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    Tatiéle Cardoso Monteiro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo fazer uma breve análise acerca de alguns dos instrumentos de inovação trazidos pela Lei 12.305/10, no que se refere ao tratamento de resíduos sólidos urbanos face ao incremento do consumo da sociedade, destacando a relevância dada à coleta seletiva e às associações de catadores, como forma de viabilizar um meio ambiente sustentável. Ainda, deter-se-á a uma análise da realidade local, tentando demonstrar de que forma tem sido implementada esta política no Município de Santa Maria, através de dados e informações obtidas diretamente com a Associação de Selecionadores de Materiais Recicláveis de Santa Maria, responsável pela realização de tal serviço. Por fim, serão analisadas algumas das dificuldades enfrentadas pelos catadores no Município de Santa Maria, levantando-se a questão sobre o estímulo e suporte, por parte da administração pública municipal, às atividades destes agentes socioambientais.

  20. Malocclusion and articulation disorders in mouth breathing children from public schools in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Toniolo da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the occurrence and types of malocclusion and articulation disorders in mouth breathing children at public schools.Methods: An evaluation was made of 219 children of both genders, between 5 and 12 years of age, attending two public schools in the city of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; with 121 mouth breather children being selected for this study. Orthodontic and phonoaudiological evaluation were made to verify the breathing mode and presence or absence of malocclusion and articulation disorders.Results: It was observed that 100% of the mouth breather children presented malocclusion, 49.60% being Angle’s Class II, 48.76% ClassI and 1.65% Class III. It was also verified that 18.2% of the mouth breather children presented articulation disturbance. Conclusion: All mouth breathing children presented some type of malocclusion, the majority being Angle’s Class II, followed by Class I. The articulation disorders most frequently observed was anterior lisping.

  1. O Comportamento da Receita Pública Municipal: Um Estudo de Caso no Município de Santa Maria (RS

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    Cristiano Sausen Soares

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to identify the behavior of government revenue in the municipality of Santa Maria (RS, comparing revenue with own revenues and transfers relating the possible actions that the government can justify such behavior. To understand the behavior of the public revenue of the mu - nicipality, there was a qualitative study which analyzed secondary data from the period 2004-2011. Additionally, unstructured interviews were conducted with experts such as superintendents, managers and tax collection. The results showed an increase in revenues of the municipality, especially from the year 2008. As for the recipes themselves, it was found that the largest increase occurred with the ISS (Service Tax of any kind, reaching 90.5% during the period. On the revenue transferred by the union and states, there is a greater share of the ICMS (Tax on Goods and Services, with an increase of 50.58%. It is worth noting the significant increase of Fundeb (Fund for the Maintenance and Development of Basic Education and Enhancement of Professional Education with 118.47% over the period. According to respondents, from 2008, there was an increase in school enrollment in the city, leading to greater participation in the Fund. In general, it was noted that, over the years, the public revenue of the municipality has increased, this behavior being attributed to government actions aimed at his elevation. Due to the limitations of this research, it is suggested to carry out further comparative studies with other municipalities.

  2. Santa Maria de Garoña, goals of I&C at its Long Term Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alutiz, J. L.

    2016-07-01

    Santa Maria de Garoña (SMG) Nuclear Power Plant is a GE BWR/3 connected to the grid in 1971 and operated by Nuclenor, S.A. It is owned by two of the largest spanish electrical utilities, Endesa and Iberdrola, each with 50% ownership. Garoña was powered down in December 2012 due to financial reasons and was formally closed for decommissioning in July 2013. One year later, SMG has applied to re-open the plant until 2031. To ensure the continued safe, reliable and efficient operation of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), it is essential to address obsolescence, aging and reliability Instrumentation and Control (I&C) Issues, and must therefore take into consideration these two major issues with the following goals: (1) To ensure that current analog and digital I&C systems are not life-limiting issues for the operation of the plant. (2) To implement digital Instrumentation,Information & Control systems (II&C) technologies, improving efficiency and performance of the internal work processes, and, to monitor the main assets of the plant, targeting operation and management costs. This paper will describe the strategy developed for a single unit, in this case the SMG NPP, to face the above mentioned challenges. (Author)

  3. FORMAÇÃO DE NOMES DEVERBAIS NAS CANTIGAS DE SANTA MARIA: UM ESTUDO MORFOFONOLÓGICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Cristine Prado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar três processos morfofonológicos – justaposição, alomorfia da vogal temática e fusão de vogais – que ocorrem na formação de palavras envolvendo os sufixos –çon e –mento em um corpus composto pelas 420 Cantigas de Santa Maria. Os casos analisados nesta pesquisa ocorreram com nomes a partir de verbos da primeira, segunda e terceira conjugações. Podemos notar através da análise desses processos que o sufixo –çon desencadeia mais processos morfofonológicos do que o sufixo –mento. No entanto, embora os processos sejam bastante produtivos, notamos que a maioria dos nomes foi formado a partir da justaposição dos sufixos – sobretudo nos derivados em -mento – o que mostra uma tendência a regularidade na formação de nomes deverbais com esses derivados.

  4. Uma visão arquivística sobre o registro de projetos da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Fladimar Rodrigues Viana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1518-2924.2012v17n34p86   Este trabalho propõe-se a apresentar uma análise e discussão das informações arquivísticas, obtidas através do Sistema de Informações para o Ensino – SIE, da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria - UFSM, no âmbito do Centro de Processamento de Dados- CPD e da Pró-Reitoria de Planejamento - PROPLAN, sobre o módulo de registro e alterações de projetos, assim como a partir de entrevistas realizadas com os responsáveis pelo referido sistema. Com base nessas entrevistas e nas demais observações sobre o funcionamento do SIE, foram levantadas algumas situações críticas encontradas e analisadas no que se refere à autenticidade e à fidedignidade das informações arquivísticas.

  5. Uma visão arquivística sobre o registro de projetos da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Flores

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho propõe-se a apresentar uma análise e discussão das informações arquivísticas obtidas através do Sistema de Informações para o Ensino (SIE da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM, no âmbito do Centro de Processamento de Dados (CPD e da Pró-Reitoria de Planejamento (PROPLAN, sobre o módulo de registro e alterações de projetos, cujos tipos são: Ensino, Pesquisa, Extensão e Desenvolvimento Institucional. Também foram realizadas entrevistas com os responsáveis pelo referido sistema. Com base nessas entrevistas e nas demais observações sobre o funcionamento do SIE, foram levantadas algumas situações críticas encontradas e estas foram analisadas no que se refere à autenticidade e à fidedignidade das informações arquivísticas.

  6. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, dissolved inorganic carbon, pH, alkalinity, salinity and other variables collected from underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the SANTA LUCIA and Santa Maria in the Caribbean Sea, English Channel and others from 2002-02-22 to 2007-12-22 (NODC Accession 0110259)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0110259 includes biological, chemical, meteorological, physical and underway - surface data collected from SANTA LUCIA and Santa Maria in the...

  7. Contaminação por compostos organoclorados em salsichas hot-dog comercializadas na cidade de Santa Maria (RS, Brasil Contamination for organochlorine compounds in hot-dog sausages, commercialized in the city of Santa Maria (RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislau Bogusz Junior

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de monitorar os resíduos de compostos tóxicos em alimentos, verificou-se a freqüência e os níveis de praguicidas organoclorados (OC e bifenilas policloradas (PCBs em amostras de salsichas Hot-Dog, comercializadas na Cidade de Santa Maria, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS e, compararam-se os valores com aqueles estabelecidos pela Legislação. Para as análises, procedeu-se a extração da gordura das amostras. A partir da purificação desta, obteve-se um extrato do qual se determinaram os resíduos organoclorados por cromatografia gasosa com detector de captura eletrônica (CG - µECD63Ni. Verificou-se que o lindano e o HCB foram os pesticidas que apresentaram as maiores concentrações médias (0,001798ppm e 0,001652ppm, respectivamente. O somatório dos níveis médios dos pesticidas organoclorados detectados foi de 0,015783ppm, sendo que deste total 0,011165ppm pertencia aos metabólitos do DDT. Quanto as bifenilas policloradas, as maiores concentrações médias corresponderam às PCBs 10 (0,001817ppm e 28 (0,000317ppm. O somatório das PCBs foi de 0,002172ppm. As concentrações de praguicidas organoclorados e PCBs encontradas nas amostras analisadas estavam abaixo dos limites máximos permitidos pela legislação.With the objective of monitoring toxic compounds residues in food, the frequency and levels of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls were verified in sausage samples, hot dog type, commercialized in the city of Santa Maria (RS, Brazil. Values were compared with the ones established by Brazilian legislation. For the analyses the extraction of fat from the samples was done. From the purification of the fat, there was acquisition of an extract in which was determined the organochlorine contaminants residues by gas chromatography with electronic capture detector (CG - µECD63Ni. It was learned that the lindane and HCB were the pesticides that presented the biggest concentration averages (0

  8. Sistemas de previsão de requeima em cultivos de batata em Santa Maria, RS Forecast systems of late blight in potato crops in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

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    Leosane Cristina Bosco

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Os sistemas de previsão constituem alternativa para o controle eficiente da requeima em batata e consequente redução da quantidade de fungicidas utilizados, dos custos de produção e da poluição ambiental. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os sistemas de previsão de ocorrência de requeima, Blitecast e Prophy, em cultivos de primavera e outono de batata, cultivar Macaca, suscetível a requeima, na região produtora de Santa Maria (RS. Os experimentos foram desenvolvidos na primavera de 2006 e outono de 2007 com a cultivar Macaca. Os dados meteorológicos foram coletados no centro da área experimental com uma estação automática e com psicrômetros instalados em diferentes níveis. Os tratamentos foram arranjados no delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, sendo diferenciados por meio dos valores de severidade acumulados, calculados pelos sistemas de previsão Blitecast e Prophy. Os valores de severidade acumulados foram utilizados como indicadores do momento de aplicação de fungicida para o controle da requeima. Verificou-se que a utilização do sistema de previsão de requeima Prophy, com acúmulo de 15, 20 ou 25 valores de severidade e do sistema Blitecast com 24 valores de severidade acumulados, para o genótipo de batata suscetível, Macaca, permite reduzir o número de aplicações de fungicidas sem afetar significativamente a produtividade de tubérculos comerciais.The forecast systems are an alternative to the efficient control of late blight potatoes and consequent reduction in the amount of fungicide and thereby reduce production costs and environmental pollution. The objective of this study was to evaluate forecast systems, Blitecast and Prophy, for late blight occurrence in Macaca potato cultivar in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The experiments were carried out during Spring 2006 and Autumn 2007 with the Macaca cultivar characterized as susceptible to late blight. Meteorological

  9. Natural Offshore Oil Seepage and Related Tarball Accumulation on the California Coastline - Santa Barbara Channel and the Southern Santa Maria Basin: Source Identification and Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, T.D.; Hostettler, Frances D.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Peters, Kenneth E.; Dougherty, Jennifer A.; Kvenvolden, Keith A.; Gutmacher, Christina E.; Wong, Florence L.; Normark, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Oil spillage from natural sources is very common in the waters of southern California. Active oil extraction and shipping is occurring concurrently within the region and it is of great interest to resource managers to be able to distinguish between natural seepage and anthropogenic oil spillage. The major goal of this study was to establish the geologic setting, sources, and ultimate dispersal of natural oil seeps in the offshore southern Santa Maria Basin and Santa Barbara Basins. Our surveys focused on likely areas of hydrocarbon seepage that are known to occur between Point Arguello and Ventura, California. Our approach was to 1) document the locations and geochemically fingerprint natural seep oils or tar; 2) geochemically fingerprint coastal tar residues and potential tar sources in this region, both onshore and offshore; 3) establish chemical correlations between offshore active seeps and coastal residues thus linking seep sources to oil residues; 4) measure the rate of natural seepage of individual seeps and attempt to assess regional natural oil and gas seepage rates; and 5) interpret the petroleum system history for the natural seeps. To document the location of sub-sea oil seeps, we first looked into previous studies within and near our survey area. We measured the concentration of methane gas in the water column in areas of reported seepage and found numerous gas plumes and measured high concentrations of methane in the water column. The result of this work showed that the seeps were widely distributed between Point Conception east to the vicinity of Coal Oil Point, and that they by in large occur within the 3-mile limit of California State waters. Subsequent cruises used sidescan and high resolution seismic to map the seafloor, from just south of Point Arguello, east to near Gaviota, California. The results of the methane survey guided the exploration of the area west of Point Conception east to Gaviota using a combination of seismic instruments. The

  10. Levantamento de leishmaniose visceral em cães de Santa Maria e municípios próximos, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul

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    Marcondes Carlos Brisola

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de relato de diagnóstico de leishmaniose visceral em cinco cães dos municípios de Santa Maria, Itaara e Júlio de Castilhos, no centro do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, foi realizado levantamento sorológico através de teste de imunofluorescência indireta em sangue obtido em papel de filtro de 40 cães de Santa Maria, 20 de Itaara e 11 de Júlio de Castilhos, em geral relacionados aos cinco cães considerados como positivos. Além destes, foi também examinado o sangue de 44 cães vadios de Júlio de Castilhos, 68 de Cachoeira do Sul e 20 de Caçapava do Sul. Soros fracamente reagentes com títulos < 1:40 foram avaliados em ensaios de Ensaio Imuno-enzimático. Amostras de fígado, baço, pulmão e linfonodos de um sexto cão de Santa Maria, considerado como positivo à necropsia, foram examinadas através de histopatologia e PCR. Todos os resultados dos 204 cães foram negativos, indicando que, apesar de não ser impossível a ocorrência de leishmaniose visceral na região, por vários fatores aqui discutidos, ela deve ser pelo menos extremamente rara, sendo necessários estudos mais detalhados do material dos cinco cães tidos como positivos.

  11. Influence of rootstocks on growth, yield, fruit quality and leaf mineral element contents of pear cv. 'Santa Maria' in semi-arid conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ikinci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rootstocks play an essential role to determining orchard performance of fruit trees. Pyrus communisand Cydonia oblonga are widely used rootstocks for European pear cultivars. The lack of rootstocks adapted to different soil conditions and different grafted cultivars is widely acknowledged in pear culture. Cydonia rootstocks (clonal and Pyrus rootstocks (seedling or clonal have their advantages and disadvantages. In each case, site-specific environmental characteristics, specific cultivar response and production objectives must be considered before choosing the best rootstock. In this study, the influence of three Quince (BA 29, Quince A = MA, Quince C = MC and a local European pear seedling rootstocks on the scion yield, some fruit quality characteristics and leaf macro (N, P, K, Ca and Mg and micro element (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and B content of 'Santa Maria' pear (Pyrus communis L. were investigated. RESULTS: Trees on seedling rootstock had the highest annual yield, highest cumulative yield (kg tree−1, largest trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA, lowest yield efficiency and lowest cumulative yield (ton ha−1 in the 10th year after planting. The rootstocks had no significant effect on average fruit weight and fruit volume. Significantly higher fruit firmness was obtained on BA 29 and Quince A. The effect of rootstocks on the mineral element accumulation (N, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and B was significant. Leaf analysis showed that rootstocks used had different mineral uptake efficiencies throughout the early season. CONCLUSION: The results showed that the rootstocks strongly affected fruit yield, fruit quality and leaf mineral element uptake of 'Santa Maria' pear cultivar. Pear seedling and BA 29 rootstock found to be more prominent in terms of several characteristics for 'Santa Maria' pear cultivar that is grown in highly calcareous soil in semi-arid climate conditions. We determined the highest N, P (although insignificant, K, Ca, Mg, Fe

  12. A gestão socioambiental em uma empresa de transporte coletivo urbano no município de Santa Maria-RS / Environmental management in a company of urban collective transport in the city of Santa Maria-RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Rossi de Freitas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available É notável o compromisso das empresas com posturas socialmente corretas, ambientalmente sustentáveis e economicamente viáveis em suas práticas de gestão. É neste sentido que a responsabilidade socioambiental torna-se uma variável importante na estratégia competitiva das empresas para que estas procurem atingir e demonstrar para a sociedade um desempenho ambiental correto, controlando os impactos no meio ambiente. Assim, no que tange às políticas públicas dos transportes, as empresas privadas, que detêm a concessão dos serviços dos transportes urbanos, precisam adotar medidas que vão além do mero cumprimento legal exigido pelos órgãos reguladores e fiscalizadores, adotando práticas de responsabilidade social e ambiental que minimizem os impactos negativos e melhorem a qualidade dos serviços de transportes prestados. É neste sentido que se torna relevante o estudo das práticas de responsabilidade socioambientais da empresa de transporte em estudo. A crescente valorização das questões ambientais deve estar adequada à legislação, às demandas sociais e alinhada à estratégia da organização. Neste sentido, a presente pesquisa estuda a gestão socioambiental adotada em uma empresa de transporte coletivo urbana na cidade de Santa Maria, RS; especificamente pretende verificar as práticas de gestão em relação às questões ambientais e sociais, bem como o seu alinhamento com a estratégia empresarial. Sendo assim, trata-se de uma pesquisa exploratória, que se utiliza do estudo de caso por tratar-se de um conhecimento profundo e exaustivo de um único objeto. Assim, o desenvolvimento desse estudo busca a definição de um conjunto de dados que deverão auxiliar o processo de descrição de fases ou totalidade do processo social da empresa MEDIANEIRA TRANSPORTES LTDA. As conclusões limitam-se ao contexto unicamente da empresa, indicando que as estratégias de sustentabilidade estão alinhadas à filosofia de neg

  13. Anthropogenic impact in the Santa Maria di Leuca cold-water coral province (Mediterranean Sea): Observations and conservation straits

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Onghia, G.; Calculli, C.; Capezzuto, F.; Carlucci, R.; Carluccio, A.; Grehan, A.; Indennidate, A.; Maiorano, P.; Mastrototaro, F.; Pollice, A.; Russo, T.; Savini, A.; Sion, L.; Tursi, A.

    2017-11-01

    The Santa Maria di Leuca (SML) cold-water coral (CWC) province is a proposed priority conservation area according to several conservation initiatives in the Mediterranean Sea. Part of it is a Fisheries Restricted Area (FRA). Anthropogenic impacts due to fishing on this FRA were investigated using a towed camera system during 2005. The geographic distribution of fishing effort in the SML CWC province was examined through an observers' program of longline and trawl fishing activities during 2009 and 2010 and Vessel Monitoring by satellite System (VMS) data from 2008 to 2013. Using the video system, it was possible to observe evidence of impacts in the FRA due to longlines, proved by remains of lines on the bottoms and/or entangled in corals, and those due to trawl nets, proved by trawl door scars on the bottom. The application of Generalized Liner Models indicates that the impacts due to longline were significantly related to a geographic site characterized by carbonate mounds while those from trawl net were significantly related to the soft bottoms, consisting of bioturbated fine-grained sediments. The presence of waste of various types was also observed in the FRA; plastic was the most widespread waste and was significantly related to a macrohabitat characterized by the presence of corals. The geographic distribution of fishing effort for each type of fishing were rather superimposed in the two years of the observers' program and six years of VMS data with a significantly greater fishing effort outside the FRA than inside this area. The trawlers generally fished on the muddy bottoms of the upper and middle slope within the SML CWC province and near and inside the northward limit of the FRA. The longliners fished mainly on the shelf in north and off the FRA. The coral by-catch was only recorded during 2009 in 26% of the trawl hauls. No coral by-catch was recorded from longlining in either year. The catches from longlining mainly consisted of Chelidonichthys lucerna

  14. Assessment of MSIV full closure for Santa Maria de Garona Nuclear Power Plant using TRAC-BF1 (G1J1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo, J.L.

    1993-06-01

    This document presents a spurious Main Steam Isolation Value (MSIV) closure analysis for Santa Maria de Garorta Nuclear Power Plan describing the problems found when comparing calculated and real data. The plant is a General Electric Boiling Water Reactor 3, containment type Mark 1. It is operated by NUCLENOR, S.A. and was connected to the grid in 1971. The analysis has been performed by the Apphed Physics Department from the University of Cantabria and the Analysis and Operation Section from NUCLENOR, S.A. as a part of an agreement for developing an engineering simulator of operational transients and accidents for Santa Maria de Gamma Power Plant. The analysis was performed using the frozen version of TRAC-BFI (GlJl) code and is the second of two NUCLENOR contributions to the International Code Applications and Assessment Program (ICAP). The code was run in a Cyber 932 with operating system NOS/VE, property of NUCLENOR, S.A.. A programming effort was carried out in order to provide suitable graphics from the output file

  15. DETERMINAÇÃO DOS VALORES MÉDIOS DAS ENZIMAS AST, DHL, gGT E FAS NO SORO DE EQUINOS SADIOS EM SANTA MARIA, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Terezinha dos Anjos Lopes

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram usados 50 eqüinos sadios provenientes do Batalhão de Polícia Montada da Brigada Militar em Santa Maria, RS, sendo 43 machos e 7 fêmeas com idade variadas a partir de 3 anos. Foram colhidos 10ml de sangue da jugular para determinação dos valores da atividade sérica das enzimas aspartato-aminotransferase (AST, desidrogenase lática (DHL, gama-glutamiltransferase (gGT e fosfatase alcalina sérica (FAS. Os resultados encontrados para AST foi de 101 - 190U/I com média de 130UI; DHL foi de 100 - 421 U/l com média de 182U/I; gGT foi de 2 - 27U/I com média de 6.5U/I e FAS foi de 103 - 335U/I com média de 190U/I. A partir de outubro/1992 estes valores passaram a ser referência no laboratório de Patologia Clínica do Hospital de Clinicas Veterinárias da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria.

  16. Identification by PCR and evaluation of probiotic potential in yeast strains found in kefir samples in the city of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela CASSANEGO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Kefir is a product elaborated from the symbiotic fermentation of different microorganisms. The Kluyveromyces and Saccharomyces genera are the major representatives of the yeasts found in kefir microbiota. The only pobiotic yeast commercialized as an oral medication, is the Saccharomyces boulardii. The present work involved the microbiological quality examination of six kefir samples in the city of Santa Maria/RS, the yeasts isolation present in the samples and the identification of them by PCR (Polymerase chain reaction. Then, their probiotic potential was evaluated by in vitro technique. After that, microbiological analysis confirmed that kefir samples were suitable for consumption once the microbiological quality was established. Nineteen yeast strains were isolated from six different kefir samples; it was identified, by PCR analysis, but only three species were identified from these microorganisms in the present article: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Hanseniospora uvarum and Kazachstania unispora. Nevertheless, by simulating the passage of isolated strains through the gastrointestinal environment, it was observed that they could not be considered probiotics. The results indicate that, in an isolated way, the yeast presents in kefir samples, in the city of Santa Maria, RS, can´t be considered probiotics according to the tests performed.

  17. Data integration from gamma radiation decay from uranium: a case-study in the region of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Joao Eduardo; Silva, Jose Luiz Silverio da; Pires, Carlos Alberto; Strieder, Adelir Jose

    2008-01-01

    This work consists of data integration of uranium concentrations, parts per million (ppm), associated to the different rock formations belonging to Parana Basin in the region of Santa Maria, in the Rio Grande do Sul state southern Brazil. This study was developed from primary data generated by the Companhia de Pesquisas de Recursos Minerais as part of the AERO/Camaqua; Project, 1010 code series, digitalized in the 1997 Geosoft XYZ format. Through an irregular net of values of uranium concentration, with 25806 observations were spatially oriented by Universal Transverse Mercator/ UTM coordinates. Which were varied from west to east 206190 to 276813 E, and from north to south 6670888 to 6735665 N, totalizing an area of 4574.75 km 2 . Using Statistica 7.1 software licensed to the Department of Statistics at the Federal University of Santa Maria, the mean values of and the confidence limits with alpha = 0.05, the standard deviations of uranium concentrations for each rock formation. The comparisons between the mean values were made through the Tuckey's Test and the spatial variation of the concentrations in relation to the geographical coordinates were adjusted to a polynomial model. The results obtained showed that the uranium concentrations occur in a distinct way in the different geological formations studied (aluvionar unconsolidated sediments, sandstones and igneous volcanic acid and basic rocks). The uranium variable, when spatialized in relation to the geographical coordinates UTM were adjusted to a second order polynomial model. (author)

  18. Mutations of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Durham, Santa-Maria and A+ Variants Are Associated with Loss Functional and Structural Stability of the Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Manzo, Saúl; Marcial-Quino, Jaime; Vanoye-Carlo, America; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio; De la Mora-De la Mora, Ignacio; González-Valdez, Abigail; García-Torres, Itzhel; Martínez-Rosas, Víctor; Sierra-Palacios, Edgar; Lazcano-Pérez, Fernando; Rodríguez-Bustamante, Eduardo; Arreguin-Espinosa, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common enzymopathy in the world. More than 160 mutations causing the disease have been identified, but only 10% of these variants have been studied at biochemical and biophysical levels. In this study we report on the functional and structural characterization of three naturally occurring variants corresponding to different classes of disease severity: Class I G6PD Durham, Class II G6PD Santa Maria, and Class III G6PD A+. The results showed that the G6PD Durham (severe deficiency), and the G6PD Santa Maria and A+ (less severe deficiency) (Class I, II and III, respectively) affect the catalytic efficiency of these enzymes, are more sensitive to temperature denaturing, and affect the stability of the overall protein when compared to the wild type WT-G6PD. In the variants, the exposure of more and buried hydrophobic pockets was induced and monitored with 8-Anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (ANS) fluorescence, directly affecting the compaction of structure at different levels and probably reducing the stability of the protein. The degree of functional and structural perturbation by each variant correlates with the clinical severity reported in different patients. PMID:26633385

  19. Mutations of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Durham, Santa-Maria and A+ Variants Are Associated with Loss Functional and Structural Stability of the Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saúl Gómez-Manzo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is the most common enzymopathy in the world. More than 160 mutations causing the disease have been identified, but only 10% of these variants have been studied at biochemical and biophysical levels. In this study we report on the functional and structural characterization of three naturally occurring variants corresponding to different classes of disease severity: Class I G6PD Durham, Class II G6PD Santa Maria, and Class III G6PD A+. The results showed that the G6PD Durham (severe deficiency, and the G6PD Santa Maria and A+ (less severe deficiency (Class I, II and III, respectively affect the catalytic efficiency of these enzymes, are more sensitive to temperature denaturing, and affect the stability of the overall protein when compared to the wild type WT-G6PD. In the variants, the exposure of more and buried hydrophobic pockets was induced and monitored with 8-Anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (ANS fluorescence, directly affecting the compaction of structure at different levels and probably reducing the stability of the protein. The degree of functional and structural perturbation by each variant correlates with the clinical severity reported in different patients.

  20. New Systems for the Management of Data. The Case Study of the Chapter House of Santa Maria Novella in Florence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, C.

    2013-02-01

    analysis of data collected and, at the same time, also creates the possibility of access to users not experts in the field of 3D graphics; this has been made possible through the development the project "3DWS" (3D | WEB | SURVEY). The project involved the creation of a container structured as a web site, in which were placed the materials collected and processed including sketches, photographs, vector data, three-dimensional models and analysis issues. Within this system, three-dimensional models developed were then used as a communication tool with immediate visual link to sub-pages with a greater degree of definition. It is a simple and intuitive tree structure that allows both the visitor to the specialist scholar to focus on portions too small and detail of the product, without losing sight of the general configuration of departure. To make feasible a further degree of usability of information, the system has been implemented with image viewers metrics in high definition. The images produced are a fundamental basis, strictly from the point of view of science and technology, for the conservation, management and enhancement of the historical and artistic heritage. The case study investigated is the Chapter House of Santa Maria Novella in Florence.

  1. A espacialização da violência criminal na cidade de Santa Maria, RS La spatialisation des crimes et delits dans la ville de Santa Maria, RS The distribution of criminal violence in the city of Santa Maria, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Melara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Violência e criminalidade são temáticas abrangentes e, de acordo com a abordagem utilizada, podem ser explicadas sob diferentes vieses. Neste trabalho foi priorizado o que se denominou de violência criminal, com enfoque no mapeamento de informações. Nosso intuitofoiproblematizar a espacialização diferenciada das ocorrências criminais no espaço urbano de uma cidade média no sul do Brasil - Santa Maria, focando como os diferentes tipos de crimes estão distribuídos pelos bairros da cidade, considerando características socioeconômicas nesta análise. Metodologicamente, utilizamos o mapeamento dos dados fornecidos pelo IBGE e aqueles provenientes das ocorrências criminais obtidos junto à brigada militar do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Fizemos uso também de relatos de diversos atores da cidade, uma vez que seus posicionamentos foram importantes para ajudar a entender a dinâmica da violência criminal na cidade. Nossos resultados apontam que as ocorrências criminais relacionadas ao tráfico de drogas concentram-se numa área onde os níveis de renda e instrução são baixos, porém muitos traficantes e consumidores são residentes de outras partes da cidade e caracterizados por pertencer a diferentes classes sociais, embora essas informações não apareçam com frequência nas estatísticas. Além disso, observamos que, a partir desse tipo de crime, ocorrem outros, como: roubos, furtos e agressões. Verificamos também que os crimes contra a pessoa, de modo geral, distribuem-se diferentemente dos crimes contra o patrimônio, e que em muitos casos essa diferenciação pode estar relacionada a fatores sociais, econômicos e de infraestutura urbana do bairro. É importante acrescentar que a ocorrência de alguns tipos de crimes seguiu padrões específicos. Assim, nesse estudo, foi preciso questionar as fontes de dados pesquisadas, o porquê da ocorrência diferenciada dos crimes nos bairros, possíveis vítimas e agressores, por que

  2. The first 100 Mw Brazil - Argentina interconnection. The design of the 500/525 Kv Rincon de Santa Maria-Garabi-Ita power transmission line; Primeira interconexao 1000 MW Brasil-Argentina. Projeto da LT 500/525 kV Rincon de Santa Maria-Garabi-Ita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Joao Batista Guimaraes Ferreira da; Guimaraes, Rogerio Peixoto; Menezes, Luciene Oliveira; Amaro, Rania Carla Peixoto [ABB, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: joao-batista.ferreira@br.abb.com; Silva, Vilson Renato da [Engelineas Consultoria e Projetos Ltda., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Menezes, Ruy Carlos Ramos de [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Nolasco, Joao Felix [JFNolasco Consultoria Ltda., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Bugallo, Francisco [Companhia de Interconexao Energetica (CIEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    This document reports the main design aspects and also displays how the implantation challenges had been overcome in relation to the Brazil-Argentina energetic first interconnection, through the frequency converter station in Garabi and the 500 Kv / 50 Hz Rincon de Santa Maria-Garabi transmission line and 500 Kv / 60 Hz Garabi-Ita transmission line, resulting in a total of 490 Kilometers. Firstly, it is presented the basic design characteristics involving the drawing definitions and electrical parameters determination. Afterwards, are presented the transmission line mechanical aspects, as well as the main obtained results. Finally, the project technical viability and the reached benefits had been discussed as well.

  3. Constituição e funcionamento do Conselho Municipal de Educação frente ao processo de democratização da gestão: um estudo dos municípios de Santa Maria e Santa Rosa/RS Constituición y funcionamiento del Consejo Municipal de Educación frente al proceso de democratización de la gestión: un estudio de los municipios de Santa Maria y Santa Rosa/RS Constitution and operation of the Municipal Council of Education before regarding the process of democratizing management: a study about the municipalities of Santa Maria and Santa Rosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Menezes Pereira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O artigo parte de um estudo qualitativo, calcado em uma pesquisa bibliográfica e documental com objetivo de discutir aspectos referentes à constituição e funcionamento do Conselho Municipal de Educação (CME, como órgão colegiado que se reveste de importante significado para a democratização da gestão educacional. A ênfase da análise recai sobre os CMEs dos municípios gaúchos de Santa Maria e Santa Rosa que, dadas as suas diferenças e peculiaridades, projetam tais órgãos ainda atrelados a uma estrutura formal intermediária. O desafio dos CMEs é funcionar de forma autônoma frente as suas inúmeras atribuições de modo a dar respostas que sinalizem à criação de novos caminhos à educação pública municipal. Atuar de forma diferenciada em um cenário onde a maioria dos conselhos se alinham a uma lógica formal e burocratizada e onde ainda são vistos como órgão de assessoramento do poder governamental é, sem dúvida, uma meta a ser perseguida na busca da democratização deste espaço público.El artículo parte de un estudio cualitativo, basado en una investigación bibliográfica y documental con el objeto de discutir aspectos referentes a la constitución y al funcionamiento del Consejo Municipal de Educación (CME, como órgano colegiado que tiene importante significado para la democratización de la gestión educacional. El énfasis del análisis se concentra en los CMEs (Consejos Municipales de Educación de los municipios de Santa María y Santa Rosa del Estado de Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, que, en razón de sus diferencias y peculiaridades proyectan los referidos órganos todavía arraigados a una estructura formal intermediaria. El desafio de los CMEs es poder funcionar de forma autónoma frente a sus innumerables atribuciones para dar respuestas que orienten la creación de nuevos caminos hacia la educación pública municipal. Actuar de manera distinta en un escenario en que la mayoría de los consejos se

  4. Sant Tomàs Becket i el programa iconogràfic de les pintures murals de Santa Maria de Terrassa

    OpenAIRE

    Guàrdia, Milagros

    1998-01-01

    L'anàlisi del programa iconogràfic de les pintures romàniques de Terrassa parteix de la filiació d'una de les escenes més rellevants, la mort de Becket, respecte dels models establerts a la catedral de Canterbury en les dues darreres dècades del segle XII i dels tituli que es traslladen a les inscripcions pintades a Santa Maria. S'intenta una interpretació del conjunt tot proposant la identificació de sant Esteve com a referència al darrer dels màrtirs en la conca de l'absis, així com a l'est...

  5. Calculating seismic of slabs ITA NNP Garona; Calculo sismico de las losas del ATI de C.N. Santa maria de Garona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeberry, J. I.; Guerrero, A.; Gamarra, J.; Beltran, F.

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the methodology that Idom has employed to perform the seismic evaluation of slabs within the ITA project of the NPP Santa Maria de Garona. Seismic calculations that have been conducted include consideration of the effects of the interaction of soil structure as well as the possible take-off containers with respect to slab during the earthquake. Therefore, the main contribution of the work is the study of the coupling of rolling containers with the flexibility of the whole ground-slab For calculations has been used ABAQUS/Explicit program, allowing to solve effectively the nonlinearities listed above using explicit integration algorithms over time. The results of the calculations reflect the importance of jointly analyse the seismic responses of slab and containers. (Author)

  6. Eficácia de Atrativos Alimentares na Captura de Zaprionus indianus (Gupta em Pomar de Figo em Santa Maria – RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Batistella Pasini

    2011-07-01

    Abstract. Aiming to evaluate the efficiency of food baits for monitoring and alternative control of fig fly [Zaprionus indianus (Gupta], held this job. The study was conducted in Sector Fruit of the Polytechnic College, University of Santa Maria, from January 22 to April 22, 2009 in fig orchard (Ficus carica L.. As model of trap we used Pet. bottles of 1 L. Guava juice, jelly palm juice and fig juice with different solvents were use as food baits, with 200 ml solution per bottle. The values were subjected to statistical analysis. The solutions fig juice + rum (50% +50% and fig juice + water (50% +50% showed higher levels of adult capture of Z. indianus, suggesting its use in fly monitoring. The alcohol-based solutions are inefficient.

  7. DIFUSÃO AUDIOVISUAL DO ARQUIVO HISTÓRICO MUNICIPAL DE SANTA MARIA COMO MEIO DE COMUNICAÇÃO COM A SOCIEDADE

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Chaves Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    É essencial que a sociedade de Santa Maria e região tenha ciência e reconheça o AHMSM, sua função, ações e serviços, e como gozar destes, e para isso é preciso que haja a difusão da instituição. A partir disto questionou-se: é possível desenvolver algum recurso de difusão audiovisual, como meio de comunicação com a sociedade, para divulgar o AHMSM, suas ações e serviços?. Com a intenção de responder a isto, tendo por tema a difusão do AHMSM, com enfoque na difusão audiovisual, buscou-se ating...

  8. [Description of communications of work accidents registered in the National Institute of Social Security of Santa Maria, RS, in the year 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhof, Ana Lúcia Cardoso; Capellari, Claudia

    2004-08-01

    The communication of work accident is the document which warrants to the worker who suffered an accident the right to social benefit, and also serves as a source of epidemiological data. This study described the work accidents notified to the National Institute of Social Security of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, in the year of 2000, attributing to them classifications that could be compared to Brazilian data and similar studies, among those the kind of accident, production sector and the worker's days off. It was possible to evidence the significant increase of notifications registered during the year of 2000 in relation to 1999, beyond the sub-register, specially in the scope of less serious accidents.

  9. Statistical analysis of the potassium concentration obtained through; Analise estatistica da concentracao de potassio obtida por aerolevantamentos geofisicos em diferentes formacoes geologicas na regiao de Santa Maria, RS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Joao Eduardo da Silva [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Estatistica]. E-mail: jesp61@gmail.com; Silva, Jose Luiz Silverio da; Pires, Carlos Alberto da Fonseca [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Lab. de Hidrogeologia; Strieder, Adelir Jose [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Lab. de Modelagem Geologica e Ambiental

    2007-07-01

    The present work was developed in outcrops of Santa Maria region, southern Brazil, Rio Grande do Sul State. Statistic evaluations were applied in different rock types. The possibility to distinguish different geologic units, sedimentary and volcanic (acid and basic types) by means of the statistic analyses from the use of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry integrating potash radiation emissions data with geological and geochemistry data is discussed. This Project was carried out at 1973 by Geological Survey of Brazil/Companhia de Pesquisas de Recursos Minerais. The Camaqua Project evaluated the behavior of potash concentrations generating XYZ Geosof 1997 format, one grid, thematic map and digital thematic map files from this total area. Using these data base, the integration of statistics analyses in sedimentary formations which belong to the Depressao Central do Rio Grande do Sul and/or to volcanic rocks from Planalto da Serra Geral at the border of Parana Basin was tested. Univariate statistics model was used: the media, the standard media error, and the trust limits were estimated. The Tukey's Test was used in order to compare mean values. The results allowed to create criteria to distinguish geological formations based on their potash content. The back-calibration technique was employed to transform K radiation to percentage. Inside this context it was possible to define characteristic values from radioactive potash emissions and their trust ranges in relation to geologic formations. The potash variable when evaluated in relation to geographic Universal Transverse Mercator coordinates system showed a spatial relation following one polynomial model of second order, with one determination coefficient. The statistica 7.1 software Generalist Linear Models produced by Statistics Department of Federal University of Santa Maria/Brazil was used. (author)

  10. Construção civil: análise do comportamento da mão de obra e da produtividade na cidade de santa maria (RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Candida Compagnoni Dos Reis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A construção brasileira retomou nos anos recentes o seu importante papel na receita do desenvolvimento. Após décadas de baixo investimento em infraestrutura e em habitação, o país reencontrou sua rota de progresso. Nesse novo cenário evidenciam-se grandes desafios, o principal deles, na trajetória de crescimento continuado, é o da produtividade. É neste contexto que se insere o presente trabalho, objetivando analisar a produtividade da mão de obra da Construção Civil no setor de habitação na cidade de Santa Maria (RS, bem como analisar qual é o perfil de funcionários mais utilizados nas construções. Para atingir os objetivos, este trabalho tem como referência os dados do Sindicato da Construção de Santa Maria – 8RS entre os anos de 2009 e 2014. Houve, no período analisado, avanços na produtividade induzidos pela própria dinâmica de crescimento e por investimentos em treinamento das construtoras da cidade. Verificou-se uma correlação forte entre área construída e mão de obra utilizada pelas construtoras. Constatou-se também um aumento dos estoques em 2012, seguido de uma alta da área construída nos meses de 2013, acarretando nesse ano o pico do número de empregados na Construção Civil na série em estudo.

  11. Tratamento de dados climáticos de Santa Maria, RS, para análise de desempenho térmico de edificações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giane de Campos Grigoletti

    Full Text Available Resumo O tratamento e a disponibilização de dados climáticos para projeto de edificações são importantes para seu desempenho térmico e eficiência energética. O Ano Climático de Referência (TRY, o Ano Meteorológico Típico (TMY2, a carta bioclimática, arquivos EPW e CVS, diagrama de ventos e o dia típico de projeto são os tratamentos mais comuns. Para Santa Maria - RS, algumas destas sistematizações já existiam, porém para um período de oito anos. O objetivo do estudo foi tratar e analisar dados climáticos para Santa Maria, complementando estudos anteriores, ampliando a base de dados para doze anos e atualizando seu tratamento. O estudo baseou-se em bibliografia científica e metodologias que vêm sendo empregadas por vários pesquisadores. Os resultados apontam maior desconforto por frio. A radiação solar é bem distribuída ao longo do ano, indicando aquecimento solar passivo, no inverno, e sombreamento, no verão. O arquivo TMY2 gerado no estudo tem comportamento similar ao TRY-INMET (2012 e apresenta diferenças mais significativas quando comparado ao SWERA. Observou-se a importância das orientações norte e nordeste, para aquecimento solar, e leste, para ventilação. Os métodos apresentados podem ser aplicados a outras localidades com dados horários disponíveis.

  12. O Flúor nas águas subterrâneas da Formação Santa Maria, na região de Santa Cruz do Sul e Venâncio Aires, RS, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Paula Casagrande Marimon

    2006-01-01

    Concentrações de fluoreto, até 11 mg L-1, têm sido detectadas no aqüífero da Formação Santa Maria, Sistema Aqüífero Guarani, na região central do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. As águas subterrâneas são utilizadas para abastecimento público e levaram a incidência de fluorose dental. Esta área é a maior produtora de tabaco no Brasil, com uma longa história de aplicação de fertilizantes. Duas hipóteses são investigadas na busca de elucidar a origem das anomalias de flúor, a primeira, se r...

  13. PROCESSO DE COLETA SELETIVA DE RESÍDUOS SÓLIDOS: UM ESTUDO DE CASO DE SUSTENTABILIDADE NA CIDADE DE SANTA MARIA/RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Luiz Oliveira de Almeida Júnior

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem por objetivo verificar se o processo seletivo utilizado pela Prefeitura Municipal de Santa Maria/RS proporciona sustentabilidade às associações de catadores participantes. A pesquisa se caracteriza como descritiva de cunho bibliográfica, com uso de técnicas de coleta de dados: questionário e observação sistemática. Os resultados comprovam que a população não está separando o lixo adequadamente visto o grande volume de resíduos não recicláveis encontrados pelas associações. Este fator pode ser revertido com práticas de divulgação e educação, enfatizando que a coleta seletiva é uma alternativa ecologicamente correta, pois evita a contaminação dos solos e água, contribuindo para a sustentabilidade planetária. As associações confirmam que o processo contribui para a sustentabilidade local e para a instituição pesquisada. Conclui-se que o processo seletivo de coleta de lixo que a Prefeitura Municipal está adotando proporciona sustentabilidade às associações e aos santa-marienses, pois contribui com o meio ambiente e com a melhoria na qualidade de vida da população.

  14. Data integration from gamma radiation decay from uranium: a case-study in the region of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul-Brazil;Integracao de dados de decaimento radiometrico de uranio: estudo de caso na regiao de Santa Maria (RS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Joao Eduardo; Silva, Jose Luiz Silverio da; Pires, Carlos Alberto, E-mail: jesp61@gmail.co, E-mail: silverio@smail.ufsm.b, E-mail: calpires@base.ufsm.b [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (CCNE/UFSM), RS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas. Dept. de Geociencias; Strieder, Adelir Jose, E-mail: adelir@ufrgs.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (DEM/UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Minas

    2008-09-15

    This work consists of data integration of uranium concentrations, parts per million (ppm), associated to the different rock formations belonging to Parana Basin in the region of Santa Maria, in the Rio Grande do Sul state southern Brazil. This study was developed from primary data generated by the Companhia de Pesquisas de Recursos Minerais as part of the AERO/Camaqua; Project, 1010 code series, digitalized in the 1997 Geosoft XYZ format. Through an irregular net of values of uranium concentration, with 25806 observations were spatially oriented by Universal Transverse Mercator/ UTM coordinates. Which were varied from west to east 206190 to 276813 E, and from north to south 6670888 to 6735665 N, totalizing an area of 4574.75 km{sup 2}. Using Statistica 7.1 software licensed to the Department of Statistics at the Federal University of Santa Maria, the mean values of and the confidence limits with alpha = 0.05, the standard deviations of uranium concentrations for each rock formation. The comparisons between the mean values were made through the Tuckey's Test and the spatial variation of the concentrations in relation to the geographical coordinates were adjusted to a polynomial model. The results obtained showed that the uranium concentrations occur in a distinct way in the different geological formations studied (aluvionar unconsolidated sediments, sandstones and igneous volcanic acid and basic rocks). The uranium variable, when spatialized in relation to the geographical coordinates UTM were adjusted to a second order polynomial model. (author)

  15. Influência de épocas de plantio e cultivares no rendimento total da cultura do alho (Allium sativum l. em Santa Maria, RS Planting date and cultivar influence on the total yield of garlic (Allium sativum L. in Santa Maria, RS

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    Jorge Nadir Trevisan

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido na Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS, no ano agrícola de 1984, afim de avaliar a influência de três épocas de plantio (27 de abril, 18 de maio e 14 de julho na produção total de bulbos de nove cultivares de alho (Allium sativum L.. Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. Os maiores rendimentos totais de bulbos foram obtidos no plantio de 18 de maio. Gigante Lavínia foi a cultivar mais produtiva. As cultivares São Lourenço e Gigante Inconfidentes destacaram-se pelos rendimentos, os quais não diferiram significativamente entre si.The experiment was carried out at the Federal University of Santa Maria, in southernmost Brazil, during the growing season of 1984, to determine the influence of three different planting dates (April 27, May 18 and July 14 on the yield of nine garlic, Allium sativum Z., cultivars. The experimental design was a split plot complete block, with planting dates as main plots and cultivars as subplots. Blocks were replicated four times. The highest yields were obtained with planting date May 18. Gigante Lavínia ranked first among cultivars. The outstanding performances of São Lourenço and Gigante Inconfidentes were not significantly different.

  16. Percepção de professoras de ensino médio e fundamental sobre a homofobia na escola em Santa Maria (Rio Grande do Sul/Brasil Elementary and High School teachers'perception on homophobia at school in Santa Maria (Rio Grande do Sul/Brazil

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    Zulmira Newlands Borges

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Em pesquisa com escolas estaduais na cidade de Santa Maria (RS, em que entrevistamos 20 professoras, observou-se que não existe a preocupação formal com questões de sexualidade na escola. Discriminações e brincadeiras em torno dos que são ou parecem ser homossexuais são geralmente ignoradas. Professoras entrevistadas relatam grandes dificuldades em tratar o tema homofobia em sala de aula. Os dados indicam que é necessário um trabalho educativo com diretoras de escolas e com orientadoras pedagógicas para que estas sejam sensibilizadas para a questão e possam dar suporte para as professoras que tomam para si a tarefa de abordar temas como a homofobia.In research on state schools in the city of Santa Maria (RS, in which 20 teachers were interviewed, it was observed that there is no formal concern with sexuality issues at school. Discrimination and jokes around those who are or appear to be homosexuals are generally ignored. Teachers interviewed reported great difficulty in dealing with the issue homophobia in the classroom. The data indicated that educational work with school principals and mentors is necessary so that they can be sensitized to the issue and can provide support for teachers who take upon themselves the task of addressing issues such as homophobia.

  17. Prevalência e fatores associados ao consumo de cigarros entre estudantes de escolas estaduais do ensino médio de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, 2002 Smoking prevalence and associated factors among public high school students in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 2002

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    Roselaine Ruviaro Zanini

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O tabagismo é a segunda principal causa mundial de morte, sendo responsável pela morte de um a cada dez adultos (5 milhões por ano. Se os padrões atuais se mantiverem, em 2020 o tabagismo será a causa de 10 milhões de óbitos anuais, segundo a Organização Mundial da Saúde. Realizou-se um estudo transversal, em 2002, no qual foram entrevistados 459 estudantes de oito escolas do ensino médio estadual em Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, para determinar a prevalência e os fatores associados ao tabagismo, obtendo-se um modelo logístico multivariável descrevendo como as chances de ser fumante estão relacionadas com as variáveis investigadas. A prevalência encontrada para o tabagismo foi de 18% (IC95%: 14,6-21,7, sendo que os estudantes começam a fumar, em média, aos 14 anos. Os resultados permitem concluir que os estudantes das escolas estaduais de Santa Maria começam a fumar precocemente, sendo influenciados pelos amigos fumantes (OR = 4,37; p = 0,000, pela renda familiar mensal (OR = 2,04; p = 0,013 e idade (OR = 1,86; p = 0,031, destacando-se a necessidade de se trabalhar, preventivamente, no grupo de risco observado.Smoking is the second cause of death in the world. It currently accounts for one out of ten deaths in adults worldwide (5 million per year. If current patterns persist, smoking will cause 10 million deaths a year by 2020 according to the World Health Organization. A prevalence study on smoking habits was conducted in 2002 among 459 students from eight public high schools in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. This study aimed to measure smoking prevalence and related factors by multivariate logistic regression. The overall smoking prevalence rate in the sample was 18% (95%CI: 14.6-21.7, and the students had begun smoking at a mean age of 14 years. Students from public high schools had begun smoking early, influenced by friends who smoked (OR = 4.37; p = 0.000, family income (OR = 2.04; p = 0.013, and

  18. Estudio arqueométrico y evaluación del deterioro de los materiales cerámicos de la fachada de la iglesia de Santa Maria del Carmine (Pavía, Italia)

    OpenAIRE

    Setti, M.; Lanfranchi, A.; Cultrone, G.; Marinoni, L.

    2012-01-01

    We performed an archaeometric study of the ceramic materials from the façade of the church of Santa Maria del Carmine in Pavia (Italy). We obtained useful information about the firing temperatures, the provenance of raw materials and the type of oven used. The ceramics used in the façade are mineralogically rich in quartz, feldspar and phyllosilicates, and newly formed calcium silicate phases were detected in some samples. Microtextural observations revealed the presence of incipient reaction...

  19. Qualidade higiênico-sanitária dos restaurantes cadastrados na Vigilância Sanitária de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, no período de 2006 a 2010 Hygienic-sanitary status of restaurants recorded in the health surveillance unit of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from 2006 to 2010

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    Laissa Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar, através dos roteiros de inspeção, as condições higiênico-sanitárias dos restaurantes cadastrados pela Vigilância Sanitária (VISA do município de Santa Maria - RS. Neste estudo, foram incluídos 315 roteiros de vistorias provenientes de 120 restaurantes com alvarás sanitários e fiscalizados no período de janeiro de 2006 a dezembro de 2010. As variáveis (a condições de armazenamento dos alimentos, (b equipamentos de conservação a frio e a quente, (c estrutura física do estabelecimento e (d condições higiênico-sanitária dos manipuladores dos alimentos foram compiladas e avaliadas. Os resultados foram analisados estatisticamente pelo programa SAS (Statistical Analysis System versão 9.2 e submetidos aos testes de Qui-quadrado e Fischer. Constatou-se que, no ano de 2009, ocorreram os maiores índices de desconformidades legais nos aspectos higênico-sanitários nos estabelecimentos pesquisados. Esse fato pode estar relacionado ao aumento do número de fiscais sanitários contratados, à descentralização do setor de fiscalização, o que possibilitou a realização de um maior detalhamento dos requisitos fundamentais a serem avaliados nos roteiros de vistoria e, consequentemente, havendo um aumento nas notificações oficiais. Além disso, no ano de 2010, os estabelecimentos apresentaram melhores índices de adequação às boas práticas de produção de alimentos. Com base nas informações obtidas, verificou-se que os serviços prestados pelo setor de alimentos da VISA de Santa Maria estão em crescente evolução.The present study was to evaluate, through the forms of inspection, the sanitary conditions of restaurants registered for Sanitary Surveillance (VISA in the municipality of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. This study included 315 inspection forms, from 120 restaurants with sanitary permits from January 2006 to December 2010. The following variables: (a food storage conditions

  20. [Oxacillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci bacteremia at a teaching hospital in Santa Maria, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigatti, Fabiane; Tizotti, Maísa Kraulich; Hörner, Rosmari; Domingues, Vanessa Oliveira; Martini, Rosiéli; Mayer, Letícia Eichstaedt; Khun, Fábio Teixeira; de França, Chirles Araújo; da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize the prevalence and susceptibility profile to oxacillin-resistant Coagulase-negative Staphylococci strains isolated from blood cultures in a teaching hospital, located in Santa Maria, RS. In addition, different methodologies for phenotypic characterization of mecA-mediated oxacillin resistance were compared with genotypic reference testing. After identification (MicroScan - Siemens), the isolates were tested for antimicrobial sensitivity using disk diffusion and automation (MicroScan - Siemens). The presence of mecA gene was identified by the polymerase chain reaction molecular technique. The most common species was Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=40, 67%). The mecA gene was detected in 54 (90%) strains, while analysis of the sensitivity profiles revealed a high rate of resistance to multiple classes of antimicrobial drugs. However, all isolates were uniformly sensitive to vancomycin and tigecycline. The cefoxitin disk was the phenotypic method that best correlated with the gold standard. Analysis of the clinical significance of CoNS isolated from hemocultures and the precise detection of oxacillin resistance represent decisive factors for the correct choice of antibiotic therapy. Although vancomycin constitutes the normal treatment in most Brazilian hospitals, reduction in its use is recommended.

  1. Guilt and indignation in Folha de S. Paulo readers’ letters: a study about the discursive construction of the tragedy in Santa Maria

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    Paulo Roberto Gonçalves Segundo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe and analyze, through a representational and negotiative approach, the discursive construction of the fire that took place in the dance club Kiss, in Santa Maria, in January 2013, based on a corpus composed by readers’ letters published in the newspaper Folha de S. Paulo in the days that followed the event. In order to do so, we used theoretical presuppositions and analytical categories related to systemic functional linguistics, focusing on the relation between lexicon-grammatical and discursive-semantic classes in terms of the ideational and interpersonal metafunctions. We concluded that these letters are marked by the prevalence of critical and exhortative text models, marked by a high incidence of negative judgments of social esteem and social sanction, focused on the construction of a frame of incapacity, omission and impropriety, responsible for the recurrence of this kind of events. Thus, there are, in this letters, evidences of the updating of a rhetoric-affective sequence of indignation – that supports the conception of several letters – embedded in the critical and exhortative models of textual production.

  2. Violência e sofrimento social no itinerário de travestis de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

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    Martha Helena Teixeira de Souza

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available No ano de 2012, realizamos pesquisa etnográfica com travestis de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, por meio de observação participante, entrevistas e acompanhamento de suas vidas cotidianas. Durante esse período, percebemos que as violências física e simbólica e o sofrimento delas decorrentes eram invariantes, condição com a qual tinham que lidar em seus itinerários, em suas práticas e afazeres diários. Este artigo discute as violências vivenciadas nas trajetórias percorridas pelas travestis (família, escola, delegacias, serviços de saúde, procurando, sobretudo, compreender como tais violências estão relacionadas às experiências nos serviços de saúde e como os serviços de saúde por elas acessados reagiram às violências.

  3. LEVANTAMENTO PARASITOLÓGICO EM Hoplias Malabaricus, Bloch, (1794 (TRAIRA DE ÁGUAS DA REGIÃO DE SANTA MARIA - RS

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    Ana Maria Weiblen

    1992-08-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho estudou-se os parasitos encontrados em 139 traíras coletadas nas diferentes estações do ano em lagoas e açudes do município de Santa Maria, RS. Os objetivos deste levantamento foram: determinar a localização preferencial dos parasites no hospedeiro, relacionar a prevalência dos parasites com as estações do ano e identificar os mesmos a nível de gênero e se possível espécie. Dos 139 peixes necropsiados, 2812 parasites foram coletados ficando assim distribuídos: 469 na primavera, 921 no verão, 482 no outono e 940 no inverno. Destes 2812 parasitos, 1637 foram nematódeos pertencentes as seguintes espécies: Contracaecum sp, Parasseuratum soaresi, Paracappilaria piscicola, Guyanema baudi, Spirocamallanus hilarii, Procamallanus peraccuratus e nematódeos não identificados; 931 trematódeos pertencentes a Ithyoclinostomulum dimorphum, Tylodelphylus sp. 1, Dendrorchis sp, Clinostomum sp e Halipegus overstreeti; 106 acantocéfalos pertencentes a Quadrigyrus machadoi; 138 microcrustáceos do gênero Ergasilus e 20 argulídeos do gênero Dolops.

  4. Laser doppler and radar interferometer for contactless measurements on unaccessible tie-rods on monumental buildings: Santa Maria della Consolazione Temple in Todi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gioffré, M; Cavalagli, N; Pepi, C; Trequattrini, M

    2017-01-01

    Non-contact measurements can be effectively used in civil engineering to assess the variation of structural performance with time. In the last decades this approach has received considerable interests from researchers working in the field of structural health monitoring (SHM). Indeed, non-contact measurements are very attractive because it is possible to perform non intrusive and non destructive investigations even being at a significant distance from the targets. Within this context, contactless measurements of the tie-rod vibrations in the Santa Maria della Consolazione Temple in Todi (Italy) are presented in this paper. In particular, laser vibrometer and radar interferometer measurements are used to estimate natural frequencies and mode shapes. This information is crucial to obtain the tensile axial force in the tie-rods, which can be used as an indicator of structural integrity or possible failure. Furthermore, a novel approach is proposed where drones (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) can be successfully used to improve the effectiveness and the accuracy of the experimental activities. (paper)

  5. Estudo dos Modos de Produção de Justiça da Lei Maria Da Penha em Santa Catarina

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    Regina Ingrid Bragagnolo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo objetiva descrever as práticas da justiça criminal construídas a partir da Lei 11.340/2006, Lei Maria da Penha, por juízes e juízas encarregados/as da aplicação deste dispositivo legal em uma Vara Criminal e Juizado de Violência contra a Mulher, em Santa Catarina. Trata-se de um estudo de inspiração etnográfica, que utilizou como fonte de pesquisa entrevistas com operadoras/os do direito e diários de campo, construídos a partir de observação de audiências e análise documental de processos penais. A pesquisa mostrou que as práticas rotineiras das/os operadoras/es do direito, no tratamento jurídico de casos tipificados como de “violência doméstica e familiar contra a mulher”, estavam orientadas pelos “estilos” pessoais de cada magistrado/a ao conduzir as audiências de ratificação, caracterizando formas de comunicação e interação de acordo com valores morais, marcados por diferentes concepções de gênero, família e justiça. A observação das práticas de equacionamento e julgamento evidenciou que os modos de produção de justiça estavam aliados à dimensão moral, de certa forma velada nos discursos dos/as operadores/as do direito, ao fazerem uso dos códigos legais. As posições políticas dessas/es profissionais, acerca do processo de criminalização da “violência doméstica e familiar contra a mulher”, resultaram, muitas vezes, em práticas contrárias às expectativas dos movimentos feministas com a criação da Lei Maria da Penha, mostrando a importância do debate sobre a judicialização das relações sociais no campo dos estudos de gênero.

  6. MAPEAMENTO GEOMORFOLÓGICO DA ÁREA ABRANGIDA PELA CARTA TOPOGRÁFICA DE SANTA MARIA – RS COMO SUBSÍDIO AO PLANEJAMENTO AMBIENTAL

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    Marilene Dias do Nascimento

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa geomorfológica tem como propósito reconhecer e interpretar os fenômenos que tenham como expressão as formas do relevo da terra. Nesse sentido, o presente trabalho de pesquisa teve como finalidade o mapeamento e a análise geomorfológica da área abrangida pela Carta Topográfica de Santa Maria – RS, baseado na metodologia dos estudos geomorfológicos, desenvolvidos no Leste Europeu. Esses são fundamentados nas idéias de Walter Penk, nos conceitos de Morfoestrutura e Morfoescultura de Gerasimov e Mescherikov (1968 e no tratamento técnico da Taxonomia de Relevo desenvolvido por Ross (1992, para fins de planejamento ambiental. Como material de apoio utilizou-se Cartas Topográficas de Santa Maria em escalas 1:250.000 e 1:50.000, mapas geomorfológicos, geológicos, climáticos, hidrográficos e de solos do RS, imagens de satélite e os Softwares Spring e Corel Draw. A unidade morfoestrutural identificada é a Bacia Sedimentar do Paraná que corresponde ao 1º táxon. Inseridas nessa unidade foram individualizadas três unidades morfoesculturais distintas, correspondentes ao 2º táxon. Ao norte a Porção Sul dos Planaltos e Chapadas da Bacia do Paraná, ao sul, a Depressão Periférica Sul-Rio-grandense e entre essas duas o Rebordo do Planalto da Bacia do Paraná. Na Porção Sul dos Planaltos e Chapadas da Bacia do Paraná predominam as formas denudacionais (3º táxon de superfícies planas (Dp, com topos convexos (Dc e com topos tabulares (Dt (4º táxon e vertentes convexas (5º táxon. Na Depressão Periférica Sul-rio-grandense predominam as formas agradacionais de planície fluvial (Apf e as formas denudacionais de topos convexos (Dc e de superfícies planas (Dp e vertentes côncavas a convexas. No Rebordo do Planalto da Bacia do Paraná, predominam as formas denudacionais, com topos convexos (Dc, com topos aguçados (Da e em formas de Escarpas (De, com padrão de dissecação muito elevados e vertentes retilíneas a

  7. O aterro da caturrita em Santa Maria – RS: uma atualização quanto aos potenciais da digestão anaeróbia

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    Tiago Luis Gomes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As oportunidades do processo de digestão anaeróbia, em aterros sanitários e controlados, são ligadas à formação de biogásatravés da biodegradação da matéria orgânica em ambiente predominantemente anaeróbio. Com isso, através de um ajuste decapacidade do aterro da Caturrita em Santa Maria-RS, que consiste no produto entre a massa de resíduos (467.929 toneladas quecomporta a célula e o fator de recuperação do gás metano (RF=0,7, sendo o mesmo relacionado, principalmente ao percentual deresíduos domésticos que chegam ao aterro (alto teor de matéria orgânica de fácil degradação, obteve-se um aproveitamento potencialde 327.550 toneladas de resíduos depositados, resultando num aterro com baixa capacidade de produção de biogás. A recuperaçãototal do metano entre 2013 e 2033, considerando um rendimento na captação de gases de 70%, resultou 17.529.657m3, através dautilização do método Scholl Canyon. O total da receita estimada para o mesmo período, admitindo uma comercialização conservadora(aterro Bandeirantes em São Paulo que é de € 19,20 de créditos de carbono em € 10,00 por tonelada equivalente de CO2 (eCO2, eenergia elétrica em um valor de € 0,0326/kWh que é referência para o projeto NovaGerar no Rio de Janeiro, seria de € 3.604.650, ouem torno de R$ 11.030.229, isto é, um faturamento mensal de R$ 45.960,00.Abstract The anaerobic digestion process opportunities,about sanitary and controlled landfills, are related to a biogasformation process through the biodegradation of organicsubstances in a predominantly anaerobic environment. Thus,through capacity adjustment of the Caturrita’s landfill in SantaMaria-RS reached an exploitation potential of 327,550 tons ofdeposited residues, resulting in a landfill, which has a lowbiogas production capacity. The methane recovered between2013 and 2033, considering an availability of 70%, came to be17,529,657m3. Admitting the carbon credits and electricenergy

  8. Avaliação da frequência de incontinência urinária em jogadoras de voleibol amadoras de Santa Maria-RS

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    Letícia Fernandez Frigo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As mulheres estão praticando voleibol com vistas a um corpo saudável e buscando melhorar a qualidade de vida e bem estar físico, porém, se não orientadas corretamente, podem desenvolver fraquezas e disfunções pélvicas. Objetivo: este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a frequência de incontinência urinária em jogadoras amadoras de voleibol de Santa Maria, RS. Método: a amostra foi composta por 23 mulheres praticantes de voleibol, com faixa etária de 23 a 42 anos. Foram realizados encontros em horários previamente agendados com as voluntárias, sendo aplicados os instrumentos de avaliação, a ficha de identificação e o questionário utilizado, a fim de avaliar os sintomas das perdas urinárias e sua história ginecológica. Resultados: sete apresentaram queixa de incontinência urinária; duas relataram perder urina com riso, quatro com tosse, duas com espirro e uma com agachamento, sendo que nove perdem urina em gotas. Das 23 jogadoras cinco apresentam incontinência urinaria leve e quatro moderada. Quanto ao tempo dos sintomas, duas relatam ser há mais de 20 anos, duas há menos de um ano e cinco há seis meses. Considerações finais: os resultados nos mostram fortes indícios para levantar a hipótese de que a Incontinência Urinária em jogadoras de voleibol está relacionada com a atividade e o treinamento de alto impacto, tornando importante a prevenção de tais disfunções para que as atletas não venham a desenvolver patologias no futuro.

  9. Resíduos sólidos em um sistema de drenagem urbana no município de Santa Maria (RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delmira Beatriz Wolff

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Com o crescimento da população e o consequente aumento da urbanização, o lançamento de resíduos sólidos nos sistemas de drenagem urbana tem aumentado nos últimos anos, principalmente nas regiões periféricas das cidades. Este estudo teve como objetivo qualificar e quantificar os resíduos sólidos no arroio Cancela-Tamandai, localizado em área urbana, no município de Santa Maria (RS. Foram coletados ao todo 1.153,2 kg de resíduos sólidos com uma precipitação pluviométrica total para o período de novembro de 2012 a janeiro de 2013 de 518,94 mm, sendo, desses, 93,9% composto por matéria orgânica, sendo a maioria vegetação. O arroio Cancela-Tamandai apresentou uma carga de resíduos sólidos igual a 17,27 ou 0,424 kg.hab-1.ano-1. A curva de previsão de resíduos sólidos orgânicos drenados em função da precipitação pluviométrica apresentou correlação de 76,4%, um parâmetro importante para a tomada de decisão dos gestores municipais em relação aos resíduos sólidos gerados. Assim, conceber estratégias para o monitoramento desses resíduos representa passo importante na busca de soluções que visem um melhor gerenciamento de bacias hidrográficas urbanas.

  10. Tendências das séries históricas do índice de calor no município de Santa Maria - RS

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    Stefanía Dalmolin da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo calcular e analisar as séries históricas mensais do Índice de Calor (IC para Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, no período de 1968 a 2011. As variáveis meteorológicas utilizadas neste trabalho foram pressão atmosférica, temperatura do bulbo seco e temperatura do bulbo úmido, no horário das 9h (12UTC, 15h (18UTC e 21h (00UTC. Foi realizada análise de tendência das séries históricas para o valor absoluto e a média mensais do IC através do teste de Mann-Kendall e análise de regressão linear simples para quantificar a tendência, com nível de significância de 95% (α=0,05. Para o valor máximo, no horário das 15h (18UTC, as séries históricas para os meses de janeiro e abril apresentaram acréscimo no valor do índice de calor na magnitude de 0,76°C década-1 e 0,92°C década-1, respectivamente. No horário das 21h (00 UTC, os meses de abril e novembro apresentaram aumento de 0,43°C década-1 e 0,55°C década-1, respectivamente. Porém os meses de maio e agosto apresentaram diminuição de 0,69°C década-1 e 0,31°C década-1, respectivamente.

  11. Composição da fauna edáfica em duas áreas de floresta em Santa Maria de Jetibá-ES, Brasil

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    Geângelo Petene Calvi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O tamanho, estrutura e diversidade vegetal dos fragmentos têm influência direta na taxa de decomposição da serrapilheira, por induzir uma comunidade específica da biota do solo. Este trabalho teve por objetivo a caracterização da fauna edáfica em áreas de floresta atlântica em diferentes estádios sucessionais em duas estações distintas do ano (verão e inverno no município de Santa Maria de Jetibá, ES. Utilizaram-se duas áreas com formações vegetais distintas em relação ao estádio sucessional, definidas como: floresta secundária ‘antiga’ (FSA e floresta secundária (FS. Para a coleta da fauna edáfica foram utilizadas armadilhas do tipo ‘pitfall’, onde em cada uma das áreas foi delimitado um talhão de aproximadamente 1 ha, e nestes foram distribuídas aleatoriamente 10 armadilhas. No total foram coletados 5009 indivíduos, separados em 29 grupos taxonômicos. O grupo taxonômico Díptera e o grupo funcional Holometábolos foram os mais representativos para a FSA no inverno e verão, e FS no inverno, diferindo deste comportamento, na FS no verão houve predomínio do grupo Formicidae e Sociais: Formicidae. Na área de FS, verifi cou-se maior número de indivíduos coletados, riqueza total e riqueza média em comparação com a FSA. Os melhores índices de diversidade e uniformidade foram verificados na estação inverno em ambas as áreas.

  12. Composição da fauna edáfica em duas áreas de floresta em Santa Maria de Jetibá-ES, Brasil

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    Lopes Machado Deivid

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O tamanho, estrutura e diversidade vegetal dos fragmentos têm influência direta na taxa de decomposição da serrapilheira, por induzir uma comunidade específica da biota do solo. Este trabalho teve por objetivo a caracterização da fauna edáfica em áreas de floresta atlântica em diferentes estádios sucessionais em duas estações distintas do ano (verão e inverno no município de Santa Maria de Jetibá, ES. Utilizaram-se duas áreas com formações vegetais distintas em relação ao estádio sucessional, definidas como: floresta secundária ‘antiga’ (FSA e floresta secundária (FS. Para a coleta da fauna edáfica foram utilizadas armadilhas do tipo ‘pitfall’, onde em cada uma das áreas foi delimitado um talhão de aproximadamente 1 ha, e nestes foram distribuídas aleatoriamente 10 armadilhas. No total foram coletados 5009 indivíduos, separados em 29 grupos taxonômicos. O grupo taxonômico Díptera e o grupo funcional Holometábolos foram os mais representativos para a FSA no inverno e verão, e FS no inverno, diferindo deste comportamento, na FS no verão houve predomínio do grupo Formicidae e Sociais: Formicidae. Na área de FS, verifi cou-se maior número de indivíduos coletados, riqueza total e riqueza média em comparação com a FSA. Os melhores índices de diversidade e uniformidade foram verificados na estação inverno em ambas as áreas.

  13. Eficácia de Chenopodium ambrosioides (erva-de-santa-maria no controle de endoparasitos de Coturnix japônica (codorna japonesa

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    Gilmar F. Vita

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo:O objetivo foi testar in vitro e in vivo a eficácia da planta medicinal Chenopodium ambrosioidesLinnaeus, 1786 (erva-de-santa-maria, nas formas fitoterápica e homeopática, como meios alternativos para o controle de endoparasitos de Coturnix japonica Temminck & Schlegel, 1849 (codorna japonesa, um sério problema que afeta a criação e desempenho de aves domésticas, ocasionando morte quando muito intenso, retardo de crescimento, redução de índice de conversão alimentar e aumento na suscetibilidade às doenças infecciosas. As metodologias utilizadas foram preconizadas por Coles et al. (1992, creditada pela World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP. A pesquisa evidenciou a presença dos gêneros Ascaridiae Eimeria. O ensaio in vitro demonstrou alta taxa de redução na inibição de eclosão de ovos de Ascaridiasp. (100,00% e significativa taxa de redução na destruição de oocistos de Eimeriasp. (47,06%. O ensaio in vivodemonstrou alta taxa de redução na contagem de ovos de Ascaridiasp. nas fezes (100,00% e expressiva taxa de redução na contagem de oocistos de Eimeriasp. nas fezes (60,33%. Chenopodium ambrosioides mostrou em certos momentos superioridade frente ao produto tradicional (Thiabendazole/Mebendazole e índices superiores aos preconizados pelo Ministério da Agricultura do Brasil e Organização Mundial da Saúde como indicativos de eficácia.

  14. The museum setup in the Benedictine dormitory of Monreale: the artworks of Santa Maria del Bosco and the textile artefacts of the Cathedral, Sicily, Italy

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    Maria Concetta di Natale

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent decision to convert the Benedictine Dormitory in Monreale into an exhibition site offers the opportunity to enjoy the whole monumental complex where the wonderful cloister is the core attraction. It is on this site that the Norman Cathedral stands, brightly decorated with golden mosaics. The new exhibition has gathered together the artworks from the ruined abbey of Santa Maria del Bosco in Calatamauro and added them to the artefacts already exhibited at the Diocesan Museum. They include marble gravestones from the 16th-17th century church and those dating to the 18th century; one stone is in polychrome marble of the family of the canons, Candes and Donato; another was used for the burial of the monks from the period of the Olivetan refoundation, characterized by the Order’s coat of arms and attributed to Girolamo Musca. There are also majolica tiles from the chapels in cornu evangelij (left side of the altar adorned with large vegetal-shaped decorations, provided by Palermitan manufacturers in the mid-eighteenth century. They are found next to the remnants of the majolica tiles still in situ, executed in 1762 by the potters from Burgio, in Sicily. Rosario Rosso (also Russo and Giuseppe Virgadamo. Also commissioned after the refoundation of the holy temple are the four artworks by the painter Ippolito Ferrante, three of which, Sacrificio di Isacco, Melchisedec and Giale e Sisar, are on exhibition in the prestigious museum. Alongside these artworks are noteworthy textile artefacts made between the second half of the 16th and second half of the 18th centuries some of which are linked to the munificent figures of archbishops such as Ludovico II Torres and Francesco Testa.

  15. Maturação fisiológica e coleta de sementes de Eugenia uniflora L. (Pitanga, Santa Maria, RS.

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    Angela Luciana de Avila

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Este estudo teve como objetivo acompanhar a maturação fisiológica, seus parâmetros indicadores e identificar o momento adequado para a coleta de sementes de Eugenia uniflora, avaliando também a incidência de fungos em frutos e sementes. A pesquisa foi realizada de agosto a outubro de 2004 em Santa Maria, RS. A coleta dos frutos e sementes ocorreu semanalmente, partindo de três árvores matrizes, com início aos 7 dias após a antese (DAA e término aos 77 DAA. As variáveis observadas foram: altura, diâmetro, peso verde e sanidade de frutos e sementes e teor de umidade, massa seca e germinação das sementes. Identificou-se que a época adequada para a coleta das sementes, no período e local de estudo, ocorreu entre 56 e 63 DAA, quando os frutos apresentavam coloração vermelha e as sementes elevada germinação. Nesse período, o tamanho e o peso de frutos e sementes atingiram seus valores máximos e o teor de umidade e matéria seca das sementes mostraram tendência à estabilização. Os gêneros fúngicos Cladosporium sp. e Alternaria sp.  apresentaram as maiores taxas de incidência nos frutos e nas sementes e podem influenciar o armazenamento e a germinação das sementes de mudas de Eugenia uniflora.

  16. Comparing deep-sea fish fauna between coral and non-coral "megahabitats" in the Santa Maria di Leuca cold-water coral province (Mediterranean Sea.

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    Gianfranco D'Onghia

    Full Text Available Two experimental longline surveys were carried out in the Santa Maria di Leuca (SML cold-water coral province (Mediterranean Sea during May-June and September-October 2010 to investigate the effect of corals on fish assemblages. Two types of "megahabitat" characterized by the virtual absence of fishing were explored. One was characterized by complex topography including mesohabitats with carbonate mounds and corals. The other type of megahabitat, although characterized by complex topographic features, lacks carbonate mounds and corals. The fishing vessel was equipped with a 3,000 m monofilament longline with 500 hooks and snoods of 2.5 m in length. A total of 9 hauls, using about 4,500 hooks, were carried out both in the coral megahabitat and in the non-coral megahabitat during each survey. The fish Leucoraja fullonica and Pteroplatytrygon violacea represent new records for the SML coral province. The coral by-catch was only obtained in the coral megahabitat in about 55% of the stations investigated in both surveys. The total catches and the abundance indices of several species were comparable between the two habitat typologies. The species contributing most to the dissimilarity between the two megahabitat fish assemblages were Pagellus bogaraveo, Galeus melastomus, Etmopterus spinax and Helicolenus dactylopterus for density and P. bogaraveo, Conger conger, Polyprion americanus and G. melastomus for biomass. P. bogaraveo was exclusively collected in the coral megahabitat, whereas C. conger, H. dactylopterus and P. americanus were found with greater abundance in the coral than in the non-coral megahabitat. Differences in the sizes between the two megahabitats were detected in E. spinax, G. melastomus, C. conger and H. dactylopterus. Although these differences most probably related to the presence-absence of corals, both megahabitats investigated play the role of attraction-refuge for deep-sea fish fauna, confirming the important role of the whole

  17. Gestión de nuevos cultivares de frijol común en las condiciones de la UBPC “Santa Maria 4”

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    Juan Miguel Avila Concepción

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación se real izó en la UBPC Santa Maria 4 perteneciente a la UEB Antonio Guiteras del municipio Puerto padre, provincia Las Tunas, en el período comprendido entre el 28 de noviembre de 2012 hasta el 16 de febrero de 2013, con el objetivo de evaluar el comportamiento agroproductivo de siete cultivares de frijol común (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. , en un suelo Pardo sialítico mullido carbonatado con vista a incrementar la biodiversidad y elevar el rendimiento agrícola de este cultivo. Los cultivares evaluados fueron (Velazco Largo, Colorado E-120, frijol Rayado, Rojo E-114, Frijol Crema Japones, Rojo E-130, frijol Blanco Español, se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro réplicas, la fitotecnia aplicada fue la tradicional establecida para este cultivo, los aspectos evaluados fueron los siguientes, altura de las plantas, número de hojas, grosor del tallo, altura de la primera vaina, granos por vainas, peso de 100 granos, rendimiento agrícola, incidencia de las principales plagas y valoración económica de la producción. El cultivar que obtuvo mayor rendimiento fue el Velazco Largo y los de menor el Rojo E-114 y el Rayado, los valores obtenidos permiten asegurar que desde el punto de vista económico es factible la realización de estas siembras, pues se pueden obtener incrementos en el ingreso por ventas de $ 6242.90 – 20108.85 pesos por hectárea. En el experimento las condiciones edafoclimáticas fueron favorables en todo el ciclo del cultivo, no se registraron altos niveles de infestación de plagas y enfermedades.

  18. COMPOSIÇÃO FLORÍSTICA E ESTRUTURA DA COMUNIDADE ARBÓREA DE UM FRAGMENTO FLORESTAL NO MUNICÍPIO DE SANTA MARIA-BRASIL

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    Leandro W. Charão

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetiva descrever a composição florística e a estrutura de uma comunidade arbórea em um fragmento florestal e discutir algumas características dendrométricas das espécies componentes do mesmo. Esta comunidade enquadra-se na região da Floresta Estacional Decidual, estando localizada no Município de Santa Maria, na região da Depressão Central do Estado do RS. Foram locadas, de maneira sistemática, 18 parcelas de 200 m² no interior do fragmento. Na área amostrada foram mensuradas 56 espécies vegetais com CAP ³ 15 cm, distribuídas em 46 gêneros e 28 famílias botânicas. As famílias Rutaceae, Rubiaceae, Flacourtiaceae e Myrsinaceae apresentaram as maiores riquezas em relação ao número de espécies e indivíduos. Helietta apiculata, Casearia sylvestris, Faramea marginata, Myrsine umbellata, Chomelia obtusa e Cabralea canjerana foram as espécies mais importantes da comunidade vegetal estudada. As alturas variaram de 3,5 m, para árvores do estrato inferior até 22 m, para árvores emergentes. A maior parte das árvores vegetam em baixa competição, pois apresentam relação h/d igual ou inferior a 1. Pela distribuição das freqüências das circunferências, verifica-se que 42,25% dos indivíduos tem CAP entre 15 e 25 centímetros e que somente 4,25% tem CAP superior a 65 cm.

  19. Dalla Selva alla Cupola: Il trasporto del legname dell’Opera di Santa Maria del Fiore e il suo impiego nel cantiere brunelleschiano

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    Ilaria Becattini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The essay describes the conditions and process of the supply of timber from the forests managed by Opera of Santa Maria del Fiore during the construction of Brunelleschi’s dome. Furthermore it analyzes the employ of wooden structural elements in support of the building’s masonry and for scaffolding and other temporary apparatuses devised by the Florentine architect. The numerous supply contracts and payments allocated to the haulage contractors reveal the route followed by wooden materials from the forest to building yard and allow the identification of the various types of labor involved in the felling of trees, the preparation of logs and their transport. These documents specify the amount of timber ordered from each hauler and, in some cases, even the linear and volumetric dimensions of the wooden elements ordered by Opera. Such information has permitted the formulation of hypotheses about the structure and dimensions of temporary wooden scaffolding. The number of logs ordered, calculated year by year and related to the successive phases of the construction, reflect the changing requirements of wood for the building process as well as the political and economic situation of the city of Florence (wars, financial crises during the two decades of the construction of the cathedral’s great cupola. The resolutions of the consuls of Wool Guild and the Opera wardens regarding the forest administration testify to the existence of a bureaucratic structure charged with overseeing the woodland heritage. These sources vividly render the difficulties encountered in reconciling the intense exploitation of the forest for economic ends with the livelihood of the local population and, at the same time, with the necessity of ensuring the regeneration of a precious but exhaustible resource entrusted to the Opera’s care.

  20. Eficácia de Chenopodium ambrosioides (erva-de-santa-maria no controle de endoparasitos de Gallus gallus (galinha caipira

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    Gilmar F. Vita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi desenvolvida no Laboratório de Zoologia da Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro e Setor de Parasitologia Animal da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, estado do Rio de Janeiro, no período de 2011 a 2012. O objetivo foi testar in vitro e in vivo a eficácia da planta medicinal Chenopodium ambrosioides Linnaeus, 1786 (erva-de-santa-maria, nas formas fitoterápica e homeopática, como meios alternativos para o controle de endoparasitos de Gallus gallus Linnaeus, 1758 (galinha caipira, um sério problema que afeta a criação e desempenho de aves domésticas, ocasionando morte quando muito intenso, retardo de crescimento, redução do índice de conversão alimentar e aumento na suscetibilidade às doenças infecciosas. As metodologias utilizadas foram preconizadas por Coles et al. (1992, creditada pela World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP. O ensaio in vitro demonstrou alta taxa de redução na inibição de eclosão de ovos (97,18%, e o ensaio in vivo, elevada taxa na redução da contagem de ovos nas fezes (91,67%. A pesquisa evidenciou a presença dos gêneros Ascaridia (35,00%, Capillaria (30,00%, Heterakis (25,00% e Strongyloides (10,00%. C. ambrosioides mostrou em certos momentos superioridade frente ao produto tradicional (Thiabendazole/Mebendazole e índices superiores aos preconizados pelo Ministério da Agricultura do Brasil e Organização Mundial da Saúde como indicativos de eficácia.

  1. OCORRÊNCIA E DURAÇÃO DAS TEMPERATURAS MÍNIMAS DIÁRIAS DO AR PREJUDICIAIS À FECUNDAÇÃO DAS FLORES DO ARROZ EM SANTA MARIA, RS: .II - ESTIMATIVA DO NÚMERO DIÁRIO DE HORAS COM TEMPERATURAS BAIXAS

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    Valduino Estefanel

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou testar os modelos analíticos utilizados por ANGELOCCI et al (1979, HELDWEIN (1983 e os propostos com ajustes para o verão de Santa Maria (Santa Maria, I, II e III para estimar o número diário de horas com temperatura do ar ≤ 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 e 17,0°C, para os meses de dezembro, Janeiro, fevereiro e março para Santa Maria, RS. A comparação entre os valores obtidos diretamente dos termogramas e os estimados por cinco modelos analíticos (ANGELOCCI et al, 1979; HELDWEIN,1983; Santa Maria I, II e III foi feita em função dos valores médios diários de horas dos dias com temperaturas baixas, coeficientes de determinação, linear e angular da equação de 1° grau entre os valores reais e os estimados. Verifica-se que é possível estimar, com precisão satisfatória, o número diário de horas com temperatura do ar ≤ 17, 16, 15, 14, 13 e 12,0°C, utilizando os modelos analíticos de ANGELOCCI et al (1979 e o Santa Maria III.

  2. Soroprevalência das infecções por parvovírus, adenovírus, coronavírus canino e pelo vírus da cinomose em cães de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Seroprevalence of parvovirus, adenovirus, coronavirus and canine distemper virus infections in dogs of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Renata Dezengrini

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available As infecções pelo vírus da cinomose (CDV, por parvovírus (CPV, adenovírus (CAV e coronavírus (CCoV são importantes causas de morbidade e de mortalidade em cães de todo o mundo, porém pouco se sabe sobre a sua incidência e prevalência no Brasil. Para determinar-se a prevalência dessas infecções na população canina de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, amostras de sangue foram coletadas de 817 cães não-vacinados de 14 bairros do município e testadas para a presença de anticorpos específicos. Anticorpos contra o CDV foram detectados em 27,3% (223/817 das amostras, contra o CPV em 68,7% (561/817, contra o CAV em 43% (353/817 e contra o CCoV em 50,4% (412/817 dos cães. Observou-se um aumento gradativo da prevalência de anticorpos de acordo com a idade para o CDV, o CAV e o CCoV. Os índices de positividade para o CPV, o CAV e o CCoV foram um pouco superiores entre machos, e semelhantes entre os sexos para o CDV. Os animais que convivem com outros cães em casa ou na rua apresentaram prevalência maior de anticorpos para o CDV e o CCoV do que cães sem contato ou convívio, enquanto que, para o CPV e o CAV, não houve diferença. Esses resultados demonstram que esses vírus estão difundidos na população canina dos bairros da cidade. Por outro lado, demonstram também que uma parte considerável da população é soronegativa e, portanto, está desprotegida frente a esses agentes, indicando a necessidade de se ampliar a cobertura vacinal.Canine distemper virus (CDV, parvovirus (CPV, adenovirus (CAV and coronavirus (CCoV infections have been associated with significant morbidity and mortality among dogs worldwide yet very little is known about these infections in Brazil. As to determine the prevalence of these infections in the canine population of Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, 817 blood samples were collected from non-vaccinated dogs of 14 neighborhoods and tested for specific antibodies. Antibodies to CDV were detected in 27.3% (223/817 of

  3. L’acqua come fonte di reddito e di discordia. Le pertinenze dei monasteri di S. Maria del Sagittario e San Nicola in Valle: opifici idraulici nella media Valle del Sinni durante il medioevo / Water as a source of income and discord. Appurtenances of the monasteries of Santa Maria del Sagittario and San Nicola in Valle: hydraulic factories in the middle Valley of Sinni in the Middle Ages

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    Valentino Vitale

    2015-12-01

    Holders of this economic power, during the buckets. XII-XVI AD, were the Cistercian monastery of Santa Maria of Sagittarius and the Certosa di San Nicola Valley, foundations willed by the families the Clermont and the Sanseverino in Count of Chiaromonte.

  4. The rural after the exodus: the implications of the depopulation of the fields in Arroio do Só - Santa Maria/RS, Brazil O rural depois do êxodo: as implicações do despovoamento dos campos no distrito de Arroio do Só, município de Santa Maria/RS, Brasil

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    Fabricio Teló

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to understand the sociospatial transformations resulting from the depopulation of the fields and their effects on the rural landscape of Arroio do Só in Santa Maria - RS. To this end, we attempted to identify changes in the way of life of rural people, their activities and relationships and understand how this process has occurred, its causes and its impact on quality of life and social structure of the population that remained in place. The discussion on the modernization of agriculture is key to understanding this process. This district was chosen as a research site because it is a town that, in the past, had a very big socioeconomic dynamism, and now, according to the bankruptcy of several companies and the consequent emigration of much of the population, the sociospatial dynamic has changed. It was collected data from a secondary source of FIBGE and FEE in order to periodize population dynamics of the district, county and state. The qualitative research was conducted through interviews with the subjects in the field and their representatives, with the help of the Field DiaryEste trabalho tem por objetivo apreender as transformações socioespaciais decorrentes do processo de despovoamento dos campos e seus reflexos sobre a paisagem rural do distrito de Arroio do Só, em Santa Maria – RS. Para isso buscou-se identificar as mudanças no modo de vida da população rural, suas atividades e relações e compreender como se deu esse processo, suas causas e suas repercussões na qualidade de vida e na estrutura social da população que permaneceu no local. A discussão sobre a modernização da agricultura é fundamental para a compreensão desse processo. Esse distrito foi escolhido como local de pesquisa por ser uma localidade que, no passado tinha um grande dinamismo socioeconômico, e agora, em função das falências das várias empresas e da consequente emigração de grande parte da população, a dinâmica socioespacial

  5. Análise da dinâmica espacial da ocupação das terras e seus conflitos de uso no perímetro urbano de Santa Maria - RS (1975 - 2002 Spatial dynamic analysis of the land occupation and their conflicts of use in the urban perimiter of Santa Maria - RS (1975 - 2002

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    Fabrício de Araújo Pedron

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available As cidades brasileiras, em escala variável, têm apresentado problemas resultantes do uso indevido do espaço urbano, principalmente, em relação aos recursos naturais. Neste caso, o estudo da dinâmica de uso das terras é importante na compreensão dos processos ocorridos no ambiente urbano. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a dinâmica espacial e temporal de ocupação das terras em áreas urbanas de Santa Maria - RS, determinando seus conflitos de uso através do Sistema de Avaliação do Potencial de Uso Urbano das Terras (SAPUT, considerando informações do período de 1975 a 2002. O uso urbano das terras cresceu de 9%, em 1975, para 33%, em 2002. Os conflitos de uso das terras aumentaram de 19%, em 1975, para 37%, em 1995, reduzindo para 33% em 2002. Os principais problemas de uso indevido das terras se relacionam à fragilidade do material geológico e do recurso solo para uso em construções e agricultura urbana.The Brazilian cities have been facing problems due to the improper use of the urban space, mainly, related to the natural resources. In this case, the study of the dynamics of land use is important in the understanding of the processes occured in the urban environment. This research was aimed at analysing the space and temporal dynamics of land occupation in urban areas of Santa Maria - RS, Brazil, determining the conflicts of the land use through the Urban Land Use Potencial System (SAPUT, considering information from 1975 to 2002. The urban land use raised from 9% in 1975 to 33% in 2002. The conflicts of land use have increased from 19% in 1975, to 37% in 1995, reducing to 33% in 2002. The main problems of the improper land use are linked to the fragility of the geological material and soil resource when used for constructions and urban agriculture.

  6. Transplantação Renal Pediátrica - Experiência de 8 Anos - Unidade de Nefrologia do Serviço de Pediatria do Hospital de Santa Maria

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, Rosário; da Silva, J. Esteves; Simão, Carla; Mendonça, Erica; Maio, Rui; Gonçalves, Miroslava; do Vale, J. Mendes; Almeida, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    A Unidade de Nefrologia do Serviço de Pediatria do Hospital de  Santa Maria, diferenciada desde 1975, iniciou o seu programa de transplantação renal pediátrica em Setembro de 1995, Propomo-nos analisar a actividade desenvolvida em termos de movimento» resultados, evolução e complicações, e ponderar alguns aspectos relevantes de um programa nacional de transplantação renal pediátrico, com o objectivo de optimizar o acesso dos doentes a esta modalidade de tratamento da insuficiência renal termi...

  7. Standardization of tests of quality control with the aid of quality tools used in management systems of processes at the Sector of Nuclear Medicine of the University Hospital of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Cas, E.V.; Weis, G.L.; Bahunhardt, T.; Shuch, L.A.; Lopes, L.F.D.

    2009-01-01

    This work tries to standardize the tests of quality control at the Sector of Nuclear Medicine at the University Hospital of Santa Maria, using tools of the quality used in systems of management of processes such as, PDCA, brainstorming, diagram of cause and effect (Ishikawa), 5W2H, verifying list and fluxogram. The tests of quality control refer to the scintillation camera (center of rotation, intrinsic uniformity, intrinsic spatial resolution and linearity, energy resolution for each radionuclide), to the dose calibrator (accuracy, reproducibility and linearity), to the Geiger-Mueller detector (reproducibility of the detector). (author)

  8. Standardization of tests of quality control with the aid of quality tools used in management systems of processes at the Sector of Nuclear Medicine of the University Hospital of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul;Padronizacao de testes de controle de qualidade com o auxilio de ferramentas da qualidade utilizadas em sistemas de gerenciamento de processos, junto ao Setor de Medicina Nuclear do Hospital Universitario de Santa Maria, RS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Cas, E.V.; Weis, G.L.; Bahunhardt, T.; Shuch, L.A. [Hospital Universitario de Santa Maria, RS (Brazil). Servico de Fisica Medica; Lopes, L.F.D. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Estatistica. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Producao

    2009-07-01

    This work tries to standardize the tests of quality control at the Sector of Nuclear Medicine at the University Hospital of Santa Maria, using tools of the quality used in systems of management of processes such as, PDCA, brainstorming, diagram of cause and effect (Ishikawa), 5W2H, verifying list and fluxogram. The tests of quality control refer to the scintillation camera (center of rotation, intrinsic uniformity, intrinsic spatial resolution and linearity, energy resolution for each radionuclide), to the dose calibrator (accuracy, reproducibility and linearity), to the Geiger-Mueller detector (reproducibility of the detector). (author)

  9. Prevalência das dermatopatias não-tumorais em cães do município de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul (2005-2008 Prevalence of non-tumorous canine dermatopathies in dogs from the municipality of Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (2005-2008

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    Tatiana M. Souza

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo principal determinar a prevalência das dermatopatias não-tumorais que acometem cães do município de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Para isso, foram acompanhados os atendimentos dermatológicos no Hospital Veterinário Universitário, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, e em um consultório veterinário particular no período de março de 2005 a junho de 2008. Durante esse período foram atendidos 480 cães com problemas dermatológicos, desses, em 393 (81,9% foi possível estabelecer o diagnóstico definitivo e em 87 (18,1% o diagnóstico não foi conclusivo. Esses 393 cães com diagnóstico conclusivo totalizaram 502 diagnósticos, sendo 424 diagnósticos primários e 78 diagnósticos secundários. A distribuição dos diagnósticos em relação às categorias de dermatopatias diagnosticadas foi a seguinte: dermatopatias alérgicas (190/502 [37,8%], dermatopatias bacterianas (103/502 [20,5%], dermatopatias parasitárias (97/502 [19,3%], dermatopatias relacionadas ao ambiente (28/502 [5,6%], dermatopatias fúngicas (20/502 [4,0%], dermatopatias endócrinas (13/502 [2,6%], defeitos da ceratinização (11/502 [2,2%], dermatopatias psicogênicas (9/502 [1,8%], alopecias adquiridas (6/502 [1,2%], dermatopatias auto-imunes (6/502 [1,2%], dermatopatias hereditárias (6/502 [1,2%], anormalidades pigmentares (1/502 [0,2%], dermatopatias nutricionais (1/502 [0,2%] e outras dermatopatias (11/502 [2,2%]. No geral, as 10 principais dermatopatias não-tumorais, em ordem decrescente de freqüência, foram: atopia, dermatite alérgica à picada de pulga, foliculite bacteriana superficial, sarna demodécica, foliculite bacteriana profunda/furunculose, sarna sarcóptica, miíase, alergia alimentar, dermatite piotraumática e malassezíase. Essas 10 condições perfizeram juntas aproximadamente três quartos de todas as doenças de pele de cães diagnosticadas neste estudo.The current study was aimed at determine the

  10. ANÁLISE DENDROECOLÓGICA DE Ocotea pulchella Nees et Mart. ex Nees (CANELA LAGEANA NA SERRA GERAL DE SANTA MARIA, RS, BRASIL

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    Peter Spathelf

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas as relações entre variáveis climáticas e o incremento em diâmetro do tronco de cinco árvores de Ocotea pulchella localizadas às margens de uma barragem no município de Itaára, RS. Os dados de crescimento, em diâmetro, foram obtidos mediante análise de tronco, utilizando-se seções transversais retiradas na altura de 1,3 m (DAP, sendo os incrementos radiais determinados por meio da média de quatro raios, diametralmente, opostos. As seqüências médias dos incrementos foram estandartizadas para salientar a variação a curto prazo. Os dados climáticos são oriundos da estação meteorológica do município de Santa Maria, RS. Foram calculadas grandezas climáticas compostas, como a evapotranspiração e o balanço hídrico, para melhor descrever as condições hídricas de crescimento das árvores. Foram determinados anéis de crescimento característicos e sensitividades das seqüências de crescimento. Possíveis mudanças no estado de competição das árvores e seu efeito no crescimento foram estudados. Além disso, foram relacionados o incremento radial e as variáveis climáticas selecionadas por intermédio de análise de correlação. Não foi possível identificar nenhuma variável climática que, coerentemente, tenha influenciado no incremento durante o período observado. Os resultados mostram que o excesso de água influencia no crescimento diamétrico das árvores.

  11. Propensão ao Endividamento no Município de Santa Maria (RS: verificando diferenças em variáveis demográficas e culturais

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    Vieira, Kelmara Mendes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study tried to investigate, considering regard the individuals’ possible financial difficulties and the importance of indebtedness for economy, the propensity to indebtedness from inhabitants of Santa Maria (RS, with the aim to know the spending’ profile, as well as demographic and cultural variables related to propensity to indebtedness. We conducted a survey research, having sampled 1,046 respondents. The data has been collected through a structured questionnaire composed by two sections, the first section is related to demographic and social respondents’ variables, and also questions about credit and spending, the second one is related to the propensity to indebtedness. With regard to the analysis of results, descriptive statistics has been used to demographic and cultural variables, and ANOVA analysis to evaluate the differences in average between groups. The comparison between groups have shown difference in propensity to indebtedness in relation to marital status, schooling level, occupation, income, religion, age and spending. It can be observed that most groups with more tendency to indebtedness are single and widowers, with lower schooling level (primary and secondary school, with no occupation, low income, with no religion, young people (until 22 years old and who spend more than they earn. In general, this study has shown that inhabitants of Santa Maria can be characterized in a more conservative behavior, showing low level to indebtedness.

  12. Santa Maria de Garona NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candas, C.

    2005-01-01

    The year 2004 was characterized by achievement of the quantitative goals established early in the year and by consolidation of the differential objectives derived from the Corporate Project, a reference framework on which we have been basing our operations for some years and that we have used to establish an Operating Plan that sets the most important objectives for the five-year period of 2004-2008. In this plan, we try to maintain the results considered as good and succeed in keeping them among those obtained by the best plants with our technology. The load factor obtained in 2004 (98.9%) is the best historical result of our plant. Likewise, the collective dose indicator (226 mSvxh) is the best historical datum. This result allows us to maintain a position of leadership in the group of plants similar to ours. All this is the result of ALARA action improvement studies developed during job preparation and planning and of the upgrading and modernization of equipment and installations. A planned maintenance outage during the month of April has helped to achieve these results. A detailed job planning made it possible to satisfactory complete different activities on schedule, including servicing of the mechanical pressure regulator, maintenance of a main steam isolation valve, and replacement of the two primary recirculation pumps. The figure of operating indicator correspond to the month of December summarizes the results achieved during 2004. The graphic includes the three differential follow-up objectives: Strengthening of the Safety Culture, Operating License Renewal and Improvement In-Plant Task Management. (Author)

  13. Avaliação da qualidade do leite cru comercializado informalmente em feiras livres no município de Santa Maria-RS / Quality assessment of raw milk informally commercialized in street markets in the city of Santa Maria-RS

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    Márcia Liliane Rippel Silveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade do leite cru comercializado informalmente em feiras livres no município de Santa Maria, RS. Amostras de leite cru foram adquiridas diretamente dos feirantes em feiras livres e a avaliação da qualidade do leite foi realizada por meio de análises físico-químicas e microbiológicas. Dez amostras de leite cru informal foram analisadas, mas apenas duas não apresentaram alterações em relação à acidez titulável. Dessas duas amostras, os parâmetros de densidade e gordura apresentaram resultado satisfatório, ao contrário do índice crioscópico, teor de proteína e extrato seco desengordurado, que apresentaram valores em desacordo com os padrões estabelecidos. Em relação às análises microbiológicas, 30% das amostras apresentaram contagem de micro-organismos mesófilos superior a 6,0x105 UFC/mL e a presença de coliformes termotolerantes foi confirmada em todas as amostras de leite cru, porém nenhuma apresentava contaminação por Salmonella sp. Considerando que este produto é comercializado de forma clandestina, os resultados obtidos evidenciam a precariedade higiênica do leite comercializado nas feiras livres. O consumo do leite cru sem qualquer tipo de controle higiênico-sanitário expõe a saúde do consumidor a riscos. ------------------------------------------------------------------------ The objective of this paper was to evaluate the quality of raw milk informally commercialized in street markets in the city of Santa Maria, RS. Samples of raw milk were purchased directly from merchants in street markets and the milk quality evaluation was performed through physical-chemical and microbiological analysis. Ten samples of informal raw milk were analyzed, but only two showed no variation from the titrable acidity. In these two samples, the parameters of density and fat showed satisfactory results, in opposition to the cryoscopic index, protein and fat dry extract that

  14. Bacteremias por Staphylococcus coagulase negativos oxacilina resistentes em um hospital escola na cidade de Santa Maria, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul Oxacillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococci bacteremia at a teaching hospital in Santa Maria, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Fabiane Rigatti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Neste estudo, objetivou-se caracterizar a prevalência e o perfil de suscetibilidade de cepas de Staphylococcus coagulase negatives resistentes à oxacilina isoladas de culturas de sangue, em um hospital escola, localizado na Cidade de Santa Maria. Além disso, buscou-se comparar ao teste genotípico de referência, diferentes metodologias fenotípicas para a caracterização da resistência mediada pelo gene mecA. MÉTODOS: Após identificação (MicroScan® - Siemens, os isolados foram submetidos a testes de sensibilidade antimicrobiana a partir da difusão do disco e automação (MicroScan® - Siemens. A presença do gene mecA foi evidenciada através da técnica molecular de reação em cadeia da polimerase. RESULTADOS: A espécie prevalente foi Staphylococcus epidermidis (67%. O gene mecA foi detectado em 90% das cepas e conforme análise dos perfis de sensibilidade, observou-se um índice elevado de resistência a várias classes de antimicrobianos. Contudo, todos os isolados mostraram-se uniformemente sensíveis à vancomicina e tigeciclina. O disco de cefoxitina foi a metodologia fenotípica que melhor correlacionou-se com o padrão ouro. CONCLUSÕES: A análise da significância clínica de SCN isolados de hemoculturas e a detecção precisa da resistência à oxacilina representam fatores decisivos para a instituição correta da antibioticoterapia. Apesar da vancomicina constituir o tratamento usual na maioria dos hospitais brasileiros, tem a redução de seu emprego recomendada.INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to characterize the prevalence and susceptibility profile to oxacillin-resistant Coagulase-negative Staphylococci strains isolated from blood cultures in a teaching hospital, located in Santa Maria, RS. In addition, different methodologies for phenotypic characterization of mecA-mediated oxacillin resistance were compared with genotypic reference testing. METHODS: After identification (MicroScan® - Siemens, the

  15. Estudo da sobrevida de pacientes com câncer de mama atendidas no hospital da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Survival study of breast cancer patients treated at the hospital of the Federal University in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    Anaelena Bragança de Moraes

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo retrospectivo de base hospitalar foi descrever as condições de saúde e estimar a sobrevida de 252 pacientes, com diagnóstico prévio de câncer de mama, tratadas e acompanhadas no Ambulatório de Mastologia do Hospital Universitário de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, no período de 1980 a 2000. Para a análise estatística foram utilizados o estimador de Kaplan-Meier e o modelo de Cox. A idade média das pacientes foi 54 anos, sendo que 73,4% apresentaram diagnóstico histológico de carcinoma ductal invasor, 63,9% não apresentaram comprometimento dos linfonodos regionais e 57,6% encontravam-se no estadiamento clínico II. Ao final do estudo, 64,7% das mulheres estavam vivas e sem câncer de mama, e 5,1% morreram por outra causa. A sobrevida estimada em 5 anos, foi de 87,7%, sendo os fatores prognósticos associados: tamanho do tumor (RR = 12,03; > 5cm, comprometimento (RR = 3,08; N1 e número de linfonodos ressecados (RR = 4,66; Nenhum, receptor de estrógeno (RR = 0,34 e c-erbB-2 (RR = 2,51. Com base nos achados deste estudo, destaca-se a importância de ações intensivas de orientação para implementar o rastreamento do câncer de mama, levando a diagnósticos em estádios precoces dessa neoplasia.This retrospective hospital-based study aimed to describe health conditions and to estimate the survival of 252 patients diagnosed with breast cancer and treated at the Mastology Outpatient Clinic at the University Hospital of the Federal University in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, from 1980 to 2000. Analysis followed the Kaplan-Meier and Cox model. Mean age was 54, and 73.4% of the patients had a histological diagnosis of invasive ductal carcinoma, 63.9% showed no lymph node involvement, and 57.6% were clinical stage II. At the end of the study, 64.7% were alive and free of breast cancer and 5.1% had died of other causes. Five-year survival was 87.7% for all women, and prognostic factors associated

  16. Composição da fauna edáfica em duas áreas de floresta em Santa Maria de Jetibá-ES, Brasil Edaphic fauna composition in two forest areas in Santa Maria do Jetibá-ES, Brazil

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    Geângelo Petene Calvi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O tamanho, estrutura e diversidade vegetal dos fragmentos têm influência direta na taxa de decomposição da serrapilheira, por induzir uma comunidade específica da biota do solo. Este trabalho teve por objetivo a caracterização da fauna edáfica em áreas de floresta atlântica em diferentes estádios sucessionais em duas estações distintas do ano (verão e inverno no município de Santa Maria de Jetibá, ES. Utilizaram-se duas áreas com formações vegetais distintas em relação ao estádio sucessional, definidas como: floresta secundária ‘antiga’ (FSA e floresta secundária (FS. Para a coleta da fauna edáfica foram utilizadas armadilhas do tipo ‘pitfall’, onde em cada uma das áreas foi delimitado um talhão de aproximadamente 1 ha, e nestes foram distribuídas aleatoriamente 10 armadilhas. No total foram coletados 5009 indivíduos, separados em 29 grupos taxonômicos. O grupo taxonômico Díptera e o grupo funcional Holometábolos foram os mais representativos para a FSA no inverno e verão, e FS no inverno, diferindo deste comportamento, na FS no verão houve predomínio do grupo Formicidae e Sociais: Formicidae. Na área de FS, verifi cou-se maior número de indivíduos coletados, riqueza total e riqueza média em comparação com a FSA. Os melhores índices de diversidade e uniformidade foram verificados na estação inverno em ambas as áreas.The vegetal fragments size, structure and diversity have direct influence on the litter decomposition rate of decomposition, by inducing a soil biota specific community. This study was carried out to characterize the soil fauna in forest Atlantic areas with different successional stages in two different seasons (summer and winter in Santa Maria de Jetibá, ES, Brazil. Were used two areas with different vegetation types in relation to successional stage, defi ned as: Secondary Forest "Old" (SFO and Secondary Forest (FS. To edaphic fauna collect, were used "pit fall" traps where in

  17. A relação entre o preço pago pelo consumidor de carne bovina em Santa Maria e o recebido pelo produtor de gado de corte no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Relationship between price paid by consumers in Santa Maria and prices paid to beef cattle farmers in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

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    João Garibaldi Almeida Viana

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisa em que medida os preços pagos pelos consumidores de carne bovina - ponto final da cadeia - são repassados ao produtor. Os preços dos diferentes cortes de carne foram coletados através de pesquisa mensal de preços, em quatro supermercados de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil. Depois de obtidos os valores percentuais dos diferentes cortes na composição da carcaça, estes valores foram multiplicados pelo preço pago pelo consumidor, obtendo-se assim os preços e as proporções dos cortes referentes ao valor ajustado de um quilo de carcaça pago pelo consumidor. Para a obtenção do preço médio do kg do boi vivo recebido pelos produtores, foram considerados os preços coletados pela EMATER-RS. Verificou-se uma baixa variação ao longo do ano das partes componentes da carcaça, na contribuição do preço total. Na média, o dianteiro contribui com 26,10%, o costilhar com 13,40% e o traseiro com 60,50% do preço total da carcaça. O setor a jusante na cadeia bovina tem função reguladora do preço final ao consumidor, com uma margem de operação de 7,61 pontos ao longo do ano. Nos três quadrimestres ao longo do ano, a associação entre o preço recebido pelo produtor (PRP e o pago pelo consumidor (PPC teve um comportamento diferenciado. As associações verificadas foram fraca, negativamente forte e positivamente muito forte para o primeiro, segundo e terceiro quadrimestres, respectivamente.This study analyses how much of prices paid by the consumers of beef meat are passed on to the farmer. The prices of different types of beef cuts were collected monthly in four supermarkets in Santa Maria-RS, Brazil. The percentage values of different cuts were obtained and multiplied by the price paid by consumers. Thus, it was calculated the adjusted price of kilogram of carcass commercialized at supermarket. The average price per kilogram of live steers received by the farmer was collected by EMATER-RS. There was a low price variation

  18. Florística e fitossociologia do componente arbóreo de uma floresta ribeirinha, arroio Passo das Tropas, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil Floristic composition and structure of arboreal species in a riverine forest, Passo das Tropas River, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

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    Jean Carlos Budke

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Florestas ribeirinhas são caracterizadas por alta heterogeneidade ambiental, onde diferentes fatores físicos e bióticos regulam o mosaico vegetacional. Embora sejam áreas prioritárias à conservação, devido a sua fragilidade e importância, poucos estudos vêm sendo desenvolvidos nestes ambientes, em especial no Rio Grande do Sul. O objetivo do presente estudo é caracterizar a composição florística e a estrutura fitossociológica de um trecho de floresta ribeirinha em Santa Maria, RS. Para o levantamento, foram demarcadas 100 parcelas de 10x10m cada, dispostas paralelamente ao curso do rio, onde todos os indivíduos arbóreos PAP > 15cm foram amostrados. Foram amostrados 2.195 indivíduos vivos e mais 137 mortos ainda em pé. Os indivíduos vivos pertencem a 57 espécies de 47 gêneros distribuídos em 26 famílias. As espécies com maiores valores de importância foram Gymnanthes concolor Spreng, Sebastiania commersoniana (Baill. Smith & Downs, Eugenia uniflora L., Plinia rivularis (Camb. Rotman e Sebastiania brasiliensis Spreng. O índice de diversidade (H' foi de 2,73 nats/indivíduos e a equabilidade (J' 0,69 nats/indivíduos, valores considerados intermediários em comparação a outros levantamentos. A maioria das espécies amostradas (57% provém do oeste do Estado, características das bacias do Paraná-Uruguai, enquanto que 41% são de ampla distribuição e apenas uma espécie provém do corredor atlântico.Riverine forests have great environmental diversity, where many factors, physical and biotical, play a role on the vegetation mosaic. Although riverine forests are hot spots for conservation, because of their fragility and ecological importance, few studies has been made in these areas, especially in Rio Grande do Sul State. The aim of this work is to determine the floristic composition and the vegetation structure of arboreal species in a riverine forest in Santa Maria municipality. All individuals with PBH > 15 cm were

  19. Uma análise dos mitos que envolvem os alunos com altas habilidades: a realidade de uma escola de Santa Maria/RS An analysis of the myth that involves high ability students: the reality of a school from Santa Maria/RS

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    Andréia Jaqueline Devalle Rech

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, ainda existem poucas pesquisas sobre a temática das altas habilidades, suscitando, assim, maiores discussões no campo da educação, em particular, da educação especial. Diante disso, alguns mitos ou idéias equivocadas perpassam a trajetória acadêmica dos alunos com altas habilidades. Isso se deve ao fato do desconhecimento, por parte de alguns professores, sobre como reconhecer e estimular as habilidades desses alunos. Neste artigo são apresentados os resultados de uma pesquisa proposta para investigar se os mitos que envolvem os alunos com altas habilidades prevalecem na concepção dos docentes do ensino fundamental de uma escola da rede pública estadual de Santa Maria/RS. Dez professoras do turno da tarde, que lecionam de 1ªà 4ª série, participaram da pesquisa. O instrumento definido para a coleta dos dados foi a entrevista semi-estruturada, aplicada individualmente em um ambiente reservado. Para o registro dos dados foi utilizado gravador, mediante autorização prévia das entrevistadas. A análise de conteúdo foi utilizada como forma de "leitura" das falas dos sujeitos participantes da pesquisa. Como resultado, à incidência dos mitos nas entrevistas das dez participantes, foi constatado que a professora "A" pode ser observada em 60% dos mitos citados, as demais não ultrapassaram a 20%. Esse fato pode ser explicado, pois essa professora não participou da pesquisa desenvolvida na escola nos anos de 2002 e 2003. As considerações finais apontam para a importância da conscientização dos professores que atuam em sala de aula regular, para que eles saibam identificar, atender e/ou encaminhar alunos com características de superdotação para um atendimento especializado.ABSTRACT In Brazil, there is little research about the thematic of high abilities causing larger discussions in the Education Field, particularly, in the Special Education Field. Consequently, some myth or erroneous ideas pass along the academic

  20. O uso do caranguejo maria-farinha Ocypode quadrata (Fabricius (Crustacea, Ocypodidae como indicador de impactos antropogênicos em praias arenosas da Ilha de Santa Catarina, Santa Catarina, Brasil

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    Arno Blankensteyn

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Os principais impactos antropogênicos em praias arenosas são atividades recreacionais e ocupação desordenada da zona litoral. É necessário um manejo destes ecossistemas, pois representam importantes áreas para a ecologia e economia litorânea, que necessitará de estratégias eficientes para reduzir os impactos. O número de tocas do caranguejo maria-farinha O. quadrata (Fabricius, 1787 indica a presença destes animais na praia. Recentemente foi demonstrado que esta espécie é útil como bioindicadora, podendo representar uma ferramenta para a análise de impactos ambientais. Para testar a hipótese de que os impactos antropogênicos sobre praias arenosas provocam reduções populacionais do caranguejo maria-farinha, a abundância relativa (no.de tocas/m2; N = 60 foi comparada em três praias da Ilha de Santa Catarina, sul do Brasil. Em cada praia foram selecionadas duas condições de impactos antropogênicos: reduzido e forte.Para o levantamento foram escolhidos dois níveis mareais, médio litoral inferior e superior e as amostragens foram feitas no inverno/2002 e verão/2003. Como resultado, em ambas estações do ano, as abundâncias relativas do O. quadrata foram significativamente menores nas praias submetidas a fortes impactos. Considerando as praias, Ingleses apresentou abundâncias relativas do O. quadrata significativamente mais altas, e Barra da Lagoa apresentou as abundâncias relativas menores, tanto no inverno como no verão. Apenas no verão foi registrada a maior abundância relativa do O. quadrata no médio litoral inferior. O estudo mostrou que a Praia de Ingleses no local submetido a forte impacto antropogênico continha a maior abundância relativa, provavelmente devido a atividade noturna da espécie e eventual uso dos restos alimentares deixados na praia. Na praia de Pântano do Sul submetida a fortes impactos do trânsito de veículos foi registrada a ausência da espécie. O presente estudo discute a utilidade

  1. The Chivalric Order of the ‘Nodo’, or of the Holy Spirit, and the Patronage of Niccolò Orsini in the church of Santa Maria Jacobi in Nola

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    Cristiana Di Cerbo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the Angevin Kingdom of Naples, in the early fourteenth century the Orsini family initiated an urban enrichment in the Campanian city of Nola, that lasted for the entire century. This renovatio urbis focused on the representation of Orsini identity and authority in a variety of settings: during the 1354-1359, Count Niccolò, in fact, promoted the decoration of the conventual female church of Santa Maria Jacobi ordinis sanctae Clarae, making use of both secular and sacred themes, inspired by the medieval bestiaries, the courtly literature (the Lay of Aristotle, the Ovid's Metamorphoses and the st. Augustine's De Musica. The elaborate iconographic program, with its ties to the monarchical order of the Knot - or the Holy Spirit -, shows the role attributed to the nobility as champion of virtue and defensor of the Divine Order upon earth.

  2. Utilização do sistema de avaliação do potencial de uso urbano das terras no diagnóstico ambiental do município de Santa Maria - RS

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    Pedron Fabrício de Araújo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A expansão urbana acelerada tem provocado diversos impactos negativos ao ambiente. A necessidade de novas metodologias que permitam um planejamento mais adequado dos recursos naturais é cada dia mais evidente. O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um diagnóstico ambiental em áreas urbanas de Santa Maria - RS, determinando-se os conflitos de uso das terras através, do Sistema de Avaliação do Potencial de Uso Urbano das Terras (SAPUT. Foram utilizados produtos e técnicas de sensoriamento remoto e geoprocessamento de imagens. Os problemas de uso indevido das terras identificados estão relacionados com a fragilidade do material geológico e do recurso solo. Até 33% da área vem apresentando utilização acima do seu potencial devido ao seu uso inadequado para construções e agricultura urbana.

  3. Épocas de semeadura do milho com menor risco de ocorrência de deficiência hídrica no município de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nied Astor Henrique

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se determinar as épocas de semeadura (ES com menor e maior risco de deficiência hídrica para a cultura do milho no município de Santa Maria (RS. Para isso, utilizaram-se 34 anos de dados, coletados na estação meteorológica de Santa Maria, no cálculo do balanço hídrico (BH seqüencial diário, com base no modelo de Thornthwaite e Mather adaptado. Simularam-se 42 ES, de agosto a fevereiro, para os três grupos de maturação de variedades da cultura. A duração dos subperíodos e do ciclo foi estimada a partir da soma térmica efetiva com temperatura base de 10degreesC. Foi realizado o BH considerando-se a fração de água disponível no solo, abaixo da qual iniciam as deficiências hídricas. A evapotranspiração de referência (ETo foi estimada pelo método de Penman. Verificou-se que nas épocas de semeadura de outubro e novembro e na primeira quinzena de dezembro, as probabilidades de ocorrência de deficiência hídrica são maiores no total do ciclo. As épocas de semeadura de dezembro ao início de janeiro apresentam os menores riscos de deficiência hídrica no período mais crítico para a cultura. Nestas ES, no entanto, deve-se efetivar a semeadura somente se houver condição de umidade no solo adequada para a germinação e emergência.

  4. Estimativa da biomassa e do comprimento de raízes finas em Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake no município de Santa Maria-RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witschoreck Rudi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estimar a biomassa e o comprimento de raízes finas (< 2 mm de diâmetro, em diferentes profundidades do solo, para a espécieEucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake, com 10 anos de idade. O estudo foi realizado no município de Santa Maria-RS, no campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. O talhão plantado com eucalipto tem 27 m de comprimento por 14 m de largura, em espaçamento 3 x 2 m. Foram amostrados quatro monolitos de 25 x 25 x 60 cm. Os monolitos foram divididos em seis perfis geométricos, nas profundidades de 0-10, 10-20, 20-30, 30-40, 40-50, 50-60 cm. A separação das raízes do solo foi por meio de um conjunto de duas peneiras (2 e 1 mm de malha e jatos d'água. Na determinação do comprimento de raízes foi utilizado o método de intersecção, produzindo fotos com o uso de scanner. Os resultados revelaram alta concentração das raízes finas nos primeiros 20 cm de solo. A biomassa total de raízes finas encontradas para o Eucalyptus urophylla foi de 1.451,6 kg/ha, devendo ser ressaltado que 57,9% estavam concentradas nos primeiros 20 cm de solo. Constatou-se que o comprimento total de raízes finas foi de 27.968,9 km/ha e que 64,3% destes estavam nos primeiros 20 cm de profundidade.

  5. El projecte fundacional del monestir de Santa Maria de Pedralbes i el palau de la reina Elisenda de Montcada a través de dos inventaris del 1364

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castellano-Tresserra, Anna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this paper is to revisit two known inventories of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria de Pedralbes, written in 1364 at the time of the death of both Queen Elisenda of Montcada and the abbess,Francesca Saportella. Drawing together these two texts with other documents and complementary studies of the history and architecture of the siteclearly reveals that the founding and initial design of the site were the result of a previously conceived overall plan, behind which the queen’s devotional life and work can be surmised. The religious community, represented by the abbess Francesca Saportella, participated in the project, as did other noblewomen who accompanied the queen and the abbess in their objective.[ca] Aquest treball pretén dur a terme una relectura de dos inventaris ja coneguts del Reial Monestir de Santa Maria de Pedralbes, redactats a la mort de la reina i de l’abadessa Francesca Saportella l’any 1364. La posada en comú dels dos textos, amb el suport d’altres documents i estudis complementaris, en el marc actual dels coneixements de què es disposa sobre l’evolució històrica i arquitectònica de l’indret, permet observar amb tota claredat que la fundació i confi guració del conjunt inicial va respondre a un pla preconcebut en la seva globalitat, rere del qual s’endevina de forma clara el projecte vital i devocional de la sobirana, compartit per la comunitat religiosa, representada per la seva abadessa, Francesca Saportella, i per algunes dones de la noblesa, que les van acompanyar en el seu propòsit.

  6. Coke retorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S; MacDonald, J D

    1916-07-15

    To charge vertical coke retorts while preventing escape of gases the coal is fed by a revolving drum to an archimedean screw at the base of the retort, the coke being discharged at the top through a water seal. The feed pockets of the drum which revolves between plates, deliver coal from the hopper to the revolving screw. The coke is forced under the hood to the water seal and is removed by rake conveyor, the gases escaping through the pipe to the main.

  7. Coke production in large coke ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuravskii, A.A.; Sytenko, I.V.; Zhupraner, Z.S.; Vasil' ev, Yu.S.; Karpukhin, E.A.; Pliner, G.E.; Rud' , A.I.; Bulyga, N.I. (NPO Koksokhimiya (USSR))

    1990-08-01

    Analyzes operation of the No 9 battery with coke ovens with a volume of 41.6 m{sup 3}. Factors that influence coke oven operation and coke quality are analyzed. The following problems are evaluated: composition of coal mixtures (G, Zh, K, OS, GZh coal types), methods for coal mixture preparation (crushing degree, selective crushing), temperature distribution in a coke oven and effects of heating system, coke shrinkage during coking and factors that influence shrinkage, optimizing pressure used for coke pushing, chemical, mechanical and physical properties of coke. Regression equations used for forecasting coke properties are derived: the M10 coke wear index, M25 coke strength index, ash content etc. Recommendations for optimum coking conditions are made. 6 refs.

  8. Programa de integração da cadeia produtiva da construção civil: O casodo Sinduscon Santa Maria (RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Schmidt Cortez

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The companies of the sector of the civil construction of Saint Maria, normally of small port, acting in the market of incorporation and construction of residentials/commercials workmanships, engaged in programs of quality and productivity since 1993, search each time facilitating to the process of grouping and organization of these information through a data base in benefit of the sector of the civil construction. O Sinduscon-Sm that in accord with the SEBRAE, she stimulated and she aroused the interest of the companies of the civil construction of Saint Maria to search new forms of management and improvement of its processes, being looked for individually to reduce the essential and the little organization of the companies of the sector. The necessity appears then of the formation of a new model of composed organization of economic activities that if articulate gradually, since the beginning of the elaboration of a product (it includes the substances intermediate cousins, machines, equipment, products... until the end item, the distribution and the commercialization, calling it of Program of Integration of the Productive Chain of the Civil Construction. Keywords: Productive Chain, standardization, optimization process

  9. Estudio arqueométrico y evaluación del deterioro de los materiales cerámicos de la fachada de la iglesia de Santa Maria del Carmine (Pavía, Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setti, M.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We performed an archaeometric study of the ceramic materials from the façade of the church of Santa Maria del Carmine in Pavia (Italy. We obtained useful information about the firing temperatures, the provenance of raw materials and the type of oven used. The ceramics used in the façade are mineralogically rich in quartz, feldspar and phyllosilicates, and newly formed calcium silicate phases were detected in some samples. Microtextural observations revealed the presence of incipient reaction rims, phyllosilicate sintering and partial vitrification of the matrix. Ceramics show high porosity (32 to 45% and pore sizes of between 0.4 and 1.3 µm. Our study of the different types of decay collected on the façade of the church (green and black patinas and efflorescences revealed the presence of gypsum, whewellite, thenardite and moolooite.

    Se ha llevado a cabo un estudio arqueométrico de los materiales cerámicos de la fachada de la iglesia de Santa Maria del Carmine en Pavía (Italia. Se han obtenido valiosas informaciones sobre las temperaturas de cocción, la procedencia de las materias primas arcillosas y el tipo de hornos utilizados. Mineralógicamente, las cerámicas utilizadas en la iglesia son ricas en cuarzo, feldespato y filosilicatos y en algunas muestras se han detectado silicatos de calcio de neoformación. Las observaciones microtexturales han revelado la presencia de incipientes bordes de reacción, la sinterización de los filosilicatos y la parcial vitrificación de la matriz. Las cerámicas poseen una porosidad elevada (del 32 al 45% y radio de poros comprendido entre 0,4 y 1,3 μm. El estudio de los diferentes tipos de deterioro muestreados en la fachada de la iglesia (pátinas verdes y negras y eflorescencias ha revelado la presencia de yeso, whewellita, thenardita e moolooita.

  10. Avaliação comparativa de iscas atrativas a partir da riqueza de espécies de formigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae numa floresta de Eucalyptus grandis, em Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardel Boscardin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo objetivou avaliar diferentes iscas atrativas, buscando eficiência quanto à riqueza de espécies de formigas epigéicas, potenciais bioindicadores da qualidade ambiental, em uma área antropizada, com Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex. Maiden (Myrtaceae, com 16 anos, e aproximadamente cinco hectares, localizada no campus da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, em Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul. As coletas foram realizadas utilizando-se cinco tipos de iscas: sardinha com óleo (SO, sardinha com tomate (ST, patê de frango (FR, patê de fígado de frango (FG e atum sólido (AT distribuídas aleatoriamente na área, em intervalos de cinco metros, com cinco repetições, totalizando 25 unidades experimentais, amostradas a cada estação do ano, de novembro de 2007 a agosto de 2008. Após 60 minutos de exposição, todo o material presente sobre a armadilha foi recolhido e acondicionado em recipientes com álcool 70 % e em seguida, encaminhado ao laboratório de entomologia para separação em morfo-espécies para posterior identificação. Coletaram-se 3072 indivíduos, distribuídos em 14 espécies pertencentes a oito gêneros e quatro subfamílias. Não houve diferença estatística significativa entre as riquezas médias observadas de espécies nas iscas (DMS = 2,3252 ; g.l. = 19, p > 0,05. A isca constituída de sardinha com óleo apresentou maior riqueza média observada de espécies (SM = 5,75, porém a isca a base de patê de fígado de frango apresentou maior riqueza de espécies (S = 13, sendo que, Pseudomyrmex termitarius ocorreu somente nestas duas. Das espécies amostradas, nenhuma apresentou preferência por uma única isca atrativa específica, espécies de Brachymyrmex, Camponotus, Pheidole, Wasmannia e Solenopsis foram comuns nas cinco iscas. Portanto, no momento da escolha de uma das iscas avaliadas para a realização da amostragem de formigas epigéicas, sugere-se ponderar, além da riqueza específica, a não- presen

  11. Making coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wodehouse-Temple, C G

    1929-07-12

    Semi-coke is produced by mixing low-value absorbent solid carbonaceous material such as coal dust, slack, gas-works coke, lignite, torbanite, raphilite, cannel, or shale with not more than 20% of a carbonaceous binding material such as petroleum distillation residue, tarry residues, pitch bitumen, Trinidad asphalt, Manjak or the substance known under the registered Trade Mark Gilsonite and subjecting the mixture without briquetting to a temperature not exceeding 550/sup 0/C. According to the first Provisional Specification, the mixture may if desired be briquetted before being heated and the second constituent may be present to the extent of 30%.

  12. Indicadores de desempenho zootécnico observados nas unidades de produção familiar associadas à Cooperativa dos Produtores de Leite de Santa Maria (COOPROL, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Portela Jorge Nunes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de identificar o desempenho zootécnico das unidades de produção familiar (UPFs associadas à Cooperativa dos Produtores de Leite de Santa Maria (COOPROL, RS, que desenvolvem a atividade leiteira combinada ou não com outras atividades vegetal e/ou animal. Foram coletadas as informações de um grupo de 53 UPFs, sendo identificados nove sistemas de produção. Nestes sistemas, a idade média ao primeiro parto (IPP variou de 2,5 a 3 anos, o intervalo entre partos (IEP de 456 a 520 dias, o período seco (PS de 91 a 260 dias, a taxa de natalidade de 70 a 80%, a duração média das lactações (DML de 365 a 387 dias e a produtividade de leite de 2,52 a 13,5 /vaca/dia. Estes valores indicam a necessidade de ações visando readequar o manejo reprodutivo e o sistema alimentar dos rebanhos de cada sistema de produção identificado.

  13. The prevalence of psychotherapy and psychopharmacotherapy at the Integrated Health and Social Well Being Center of Santa Maria, state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS - DOI: 10.3395/reciis.v3i4.248en

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Cassol Dalmolin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to verify the prevalence of psychopharmacotherapy and psychotherapy and the therapeutic interaction between these at the Integrated Health and Social Well Being Center (Cisbes located in the town of Santa Maria/RS. For this purpose, a descriptive survey of the therapeutic practices used in the said service during the period from January to July 2005 was carried out, along with a survey of the user profile, using sociodemographic variables. The results show that 1456 people were undergoing treatment during the time of research. Out of these people, 78% (1140 received psychopharmacological treatment, 9% (132 received psychotherapy and 13% (184 had therapeutic interaction. It was seen that the average user age was 36, most were married, 75% lived with family members, 69% were women and 51% had basic schooling. The study looks at factors that may be associated to the results obtained, both in relation to the mental health care model in Brazil and also the possible difficulties faced by the mental health services in the public network.

  14. An Investigation on the Ecology of Triatoma vitticeps (Stal, 1859 and its Possible Role in the Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, in the Locality of Triunfo, Santa Maria Madalena Municipal District, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalves Teresa Cristina M

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available From January 1989 to April 1995, 465 specimens of Triatoma vitticeps were collected in the locality of Triunfo, 2nd District of Santa Maria Madalena municipal district, State of Rio de Janeiro. The bugs were found indoors by local residents with predominance of adults. The flight activity was high in hot months when the incidence in the domicile also increased. Two hundred and two bugs (111 alive and 91 dead were examined for Trypanosoma cruzi infection. This was detected in 31 of the dead bugs (34% and 88 (79% of the live bugs examined. With a view to investigate the possible vertebrate hosts of the T. cruzi isolates, the blood of 122 mammals was examined through Giemsa-stained smears, hemocultures and xenodiagnosis. T. cruzi was detected in three specimens of Didelphis marsupialis and T. (M. theileri was detected in one specimen of Bos taurus. The parasites were isolated from triatomine feces, xenoculture and hemoculture. No evidence of human infection was detected in 58 inhabitants examined, as evaluated by indirect imunofluorescence technique using T. cruzi epimastigotes as antigens. These results show that T. vitticeps is still a sylvatic species although nymphs have been found inside the domicile. Thus, an epidemiological vigilance is necessary to know the behaviour of this species following the continuous modifications promoted by the presence of man.

  15. The coke dilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champagne, P E; Lewis, J A

    1989-08-01

    Coke-making capacity reductions and the current status of coke oven batteries in the USA are surveyed, as well as prior forecasts of the steel and coke markets. The future position is then analysed and it is concluded that the US coke supply situation should improve up to 1995, but that there could be major domestic coke production deficits in the period 1996-2000; critical decisions will soon have to be made about replacement of coking capacity.

  16. Study of the Effect of the Strategy of Heating on the Mudejar Church of Santa Maria in Ateca (Spain) for Preventive Conservation of the Altarpiece Surroundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Fernández-Navajas, Ángel; Beltrán, Pedro; Merello, Paloma

    2013-01-01

    The mudéjar church of Santa María (Ateca) is valuable for its architecture and the altarpiece contained inside. Ateca is a village with continental climate characterized by cold winters and hot summers. In this paper we are interested in analysing the effect of temperature and relative humidity (RH) changes produced by the heating system on the altarpiece. Therefore, a monitoring system of 15 temperature and 15 relative humidity sensors was installed with a recording frequency of a data point per minute. The main contribution of this paper is the quantitative study of the effect of the heating system on the thermo-hygrometric parameters using statistical techniques such as ANOVA, mean daily trajectories or bivariate plots, and the proposal of an innovative dynamic contour plot. As results, the heating system produces a substantial increase (decrease) of temperature (RH) causing an hourly variation of these physical parameters detrimental to the conservation of the altarpiece, especially in its higher areas. PMID:24064599

  17. Giotto troonilt tõugatud / Maria-Kristiina Soomre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomre, Maria-Kristiina, 1978-

    2000-01-01

    Itaalia kunstiajaloolane Tomassio Strinati leidis Roomas Aracoeli Santa Maria kirikus keskaegsed freskod, mis sarnanevad Trastevere Santa Cecilia kiriku omadele - atribueeritud Pietro Cavallinile - ja ka Assisi Püha Franciscuse tsükli kujutusviisile, mida omistatakse Giottole. Lisaks Cavallinile usutakse Assisis töötanud olevat Filippo Rusutit, Jacopo Torritit

  18. Coking processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollason, A

    1913-09-01

    In the production of light hydrocarbon oils from coals, cannels, or shales which are high in oxygen, from 3 to 5% of limestone or other suitable carbonate is added to the coking-charge. The carbonate added is proportionate to the oxygen contained in the coal etc. The charge is slowly heated up to a temperature of about 500/sup 0/C., water is driven off between 85 and 105/sup 0/C., and carbon dioxide is evolved at a low temperature and retards the evolution of combustible gases until a temperature between 130 and 175/sup 0/C., is reached. Upon formation of the endothermic hydrocarbons, the temperature of the charge becomes lowered, a large volume of light oils of the benzol series is produced, and an increased yield of ammonia is obtained, leaving the carbon in graphitic form.

  19. Fine art of coking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresner, S.

    1984-01-01

    The art and science of coking are discussed. Coke is the solid carbon made from the heavy, viscous residue left after the more useful products such as gasoline and diesel fuel have been refined out of the crude oil. Fuel grade coke can be a substitute for steam coal in many applications. Low-sulfur fuel coke is used in blast furnaces for steelmaking. The operations of Conoco's refineries for producing coke is described.

  20. Atendimento às vítimas de lesão inalatória por incêndio em ambiente fechado: o que aprendemos com a tragédia de Santa Maria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estevão Bassi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Em janeiro de 2013, uma catástrofe ocorrida em Santa Maria (RS, decorrente de um incêndio em ambiente fechado, resultou em 242 mortes, a maioria por lesões inalatórias. Em novembro de 2013, quatro vítimas necessitaram de suporte intensivo após inalação de fumaça em incêndio no Memorial da América Latina, em São Paulo (SP. Este artigo relata a evolução clínica e o manejo dos pacientes com lesão inalatória vítimas de uma catástrofe. Os pacientes ERL e OC apresentaram insuficiência respiratória precoce com broncoaspiração de material carbonáceo e intoxicação por monóxido de carbono. Foi instituído suporte ventilatório com oxigênio a 100%, retirada do material aspirado por broncoscopia, e terapia empírica com nitrito de sódio e tiossulfato de sódio para intoxicação por cianeto. O paciente RP apresentou tosse e queimação retroesternal. Evoluiu com insuficiência respiratória por edema de via aérea alta e infecção pulmonar precoce, manejados com ventilação pulmonar protetora e antimicrobianos. Foi extubado após melhora do edema no seguimento broncoscópico. O paciente MA, asmático, apresentou intoxicação por monóxido de carbono e broncoespasmo, sendo tratado com hiperóxia normobárica, broncodilatadores e corticoterapia. A estadia na unidade de terapia intensiva variou de 4 e 10 dias, e todos os pacientes apresentaram boa recuperação funcional no seguimento. Em conclusão, nos incêndios em ambientes fechados, as lesões inalatórias têm papel preponderante. O suporte ventilatório invasivo não deve ser postergado em caso de edema significativo de via aérea. A hiperóxia deve ser instituída precocemente como terapêutica para intoxicação por monóxido de carbono, bem como terapia farmacológica empírica para intoxicação por cianeto em caso de suspeita.

  1. Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... That People Abuse » Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts Listen Cocaine is a white ... 69 KB) "My life was built around getting cocaine and getting high." ©istock.com/ Marjot Stacey is ...

  2. Santa Maria de Garona. Modernization of computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oostende, T. van

    2005-01-01

    Nuclenor has installed their new RTP 2300R data-acquisition system as part of the plant computer. After a period of four years of preliminary testing, design, implementation and validation, they installed the system and put it in operation. (Author)

  3. estudo em Santa Maria da Feira

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Daniel Tavares

    2010-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado apresentada à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Ciência Política e Relações Internacionais. Com o presente trabalho procurou-se descortinar os factores sociais e económicos que influenciam a percepção dos Feirenses sobre a evolução do Modelo Social Europeu. Realizou-se uma apresentação dos conceitos mais abordados ao longo do trabalho e das particularidades inerentes à população Portuguesa. Para alé...

  4. Mastering MariaDB

    CERN Document Server

    Razzoli, Federico

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended for intermediate users who want to learn how to administrate a MariaDB server or a set of servers. It is aimed at MariaDB users, and hence working knowledge of MariaDB is a prerequisite.

  5. Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2006-06-30

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were

  6. USE OF CUTTING-EDGE HORIZONTAL AND UNDERBALANCED DRILLING TECHNOLOGIES AND SUBSURFACE SEISMIC TECHNIQUES TO EXPLORE, DRILL AND PRODUCE RESERVOIRED OIL AND GAS FROM THE FRACTURED MONTEREY BELOW 10,000 FT IN THE SANTA MARIA BASIN OF CALIFORNIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2005-02-01

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area by Temblor Petroleum with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper

  7. Use of Cutting-Edge Horizontal and Underbalanced Drilling Technologies and Subsurface Seismic Techniques to Explore, Drill and Produce Reservoired Oil and Gas from the Fractured Monterey Below 10,000 ft in the Santa Maria Basin of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Witter; Robert Knoll; William Rehm; Thomas Williams

    2005-09-29

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that oil and gas can be drilled and produced safely and economically from a fractured Monterey reservoir in the Santa Maria Basin of California by employing horizontal wellbores and underbalanced drilling technologies. Two vertical wells were previously drilled in this area with heavy mud and conventional completions; neither was commercially productive. A new well was drilled by the project team in 2004 with the objective of accessing an extended length of oil-bearing, high-resistivity Monterey shale via a horizontal wellbore, while implementing managed-pressure drilling (MPD) techniques to avoid formation damage. Initial project meetings were conducted in October 2003. The team confirmed that the demonstration well would be completed open-hole to minimize productivity impairment. Following an overview of the geologic setting and local field experience, critical aspects of the application were identified. At the pre-spud meeting in January 2004, the final well design was confirmed and the well programming/service company requirements assigned. Various design elements were reduced in scope due to significant budgetary constraints. Major alterations to the original plan included: (1) a VSP seismic survey was delayed to a later phase; (2) a new (larger) surface hole would be drilled rather than re-enter an existing well; (3) a 7-in. liner would be placed into the top of the Monterey target as quickly as possible to avoid problems with hole stability; (4) evaluation activities were reduced in scope; (5) geosteering observations for fracture access would be deduced from penetration rate, cuttings description and hydrocarbon in-flow; and (6) rather than use nitrogen, a novel air-injection MPD system was to be implemented. Drilling operations, delayed from the original schedule by capital constraints and lack of rig availability, were conducted from September 12 to November 11, 2004. The vertical and upper curved sections were

  8. Hot testing of coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balon, I D

    1976-07-01

    Earlier investigations failed to take full account of the factors affecting coke behavior within the blast furnace. An apparatus was accordingly developed for testing coke, based on a cyclone furnace where the sample could be held in a flow of hot oxidizing gases, simulating conditions in the blast furnace hearth. The results are said to be suitable for comprehensive assessment of the coke, including abrasive strength and its rate of gasification in a flow of carbon dioxide. Coke of size 6-10 mm tested at 1,100/sup 0/C in an atmosphere of oxidizing gases close to those obtaining in the blast furnace hearth, indicated that destruction and total gasification of the coke occurs after 5 minutes for a weak coke and 8 minutes for strong coke, depending on the physico-chemical and physico-mechanical properties of the particular coke. When samples were treated for a fixed period (3 minutes), the amount of coke remaining, and the percentage over 6 mm varied between 22 and 40 and between 4 and 7 percent respectively.

  9. Mineral matter reactions in cokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. French; R. Sakurovs; M. Grigore [CSIRO Energy Technology (Australia)

    2009-07-15

    Some cokes appear to be particularly susceptible to weakening in the blast furnace. A mechanism which has been postulated to explain this is silica reduction by coke. Thus this project was initiated to ascertain the behaviour of quartz and silicates in coke with an emphasis on the role of the clay minerals. It is now possible to obtain quantitative mineralogical data and, the case of coal, to also obtain quantitative data on mineral grain size, shape and association through the use of automated electron beam image analysis techniques. This new ability can allow relationships between the amount of minerals in a coke and its reactivity to be established for the first time. Samples of five Australian coking coals were selected based upon quartz and clay mineral contents, mineral grain size and association. Samples were also provided by BlueScope Steel of coal, feed coke, and tuyere coke samples from the bosh, deadman and raceway regions of the blast furnace. The analytical work program conducted was as follows: Preparation of cokes by CSIRO; Petrography of starting coals and cokes; QEMSCAN of coals; LTA and XRD of starting coals and cokes; Coke reactivity tests (NSC and small scale); Petrography, LTA and XRD of reacted cokes; Petrographic and XRD examination of heat treated cokes. This study indicates that the NSC reactivity test does not adequately reflect the behaviour of coke in the lower part of the blast furnace. Further investigation of the behaviour of coke in the lower part of the blast furnace is required.

  10. Arquitetura do espaço escolar, adequação da edificação aos parâmetros ambientais: estudo de caso Ctism - Colégio Técnico Industrial de Santa Maria - Scholar space`s architecture, adequation of edification environmental parameters: case study of Ctism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalena Russi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumo A constante busca por conforto térmico nas habitações tem como um impasse o crescente apelo pela redução do consumo da energia elétrica. O presente artigo trata das estratégias possíveis para o melhoramento do conforto ambiental térmico nos ambientes escolares. Para definir parâmetros de conforto térmico nas edificações escolares e evidenciar estratégias de condicionamento térmico, utilizamos os resultados do preenchimento das cartas bioclimáticas de Givoni e o método de Mahoney, consagrados estudiosos sobre a questão térmica em edificações em clima temperado. Escolheu-se o Colégio Técnico Industrial de Santa Maria - Ctism - para demonstrar as possibilidades que permeiam uma edificação existente. Como principais estratégias foram identificadas a adequação do tamanho e posição solar das esquadrias, com vistas à melhorar a ventilação interna da edificação e diminuir a carga solar recebida. Além disso, sugere-se a utilização de cores claras nos fechamentos laterais e na cobertura para diminuir a carga térmica absorvida. Palavras-chave: conforto térmico, cartas de Mahoney, método de Givoni, sustentabilidade. SCHOLAR SPACE`S ARCHITECTURE, ADEQUATION OF EDIFICATION ENVIRONMENTAL PARAMETERS: CASE STUDY OF CTISM - COLÉGIO TÉCNICO INDUSTRIAL DE SANTA MARIA Abstract The constant search for thermal comfort in residences has one great barrier to overcome, the emerging plea of electrical energy consumption reduction. This paper discuss some strategies to improve thermal comfort in educational environments.To set parameters for thermal comfort in educational buildings and to point strategies for thermal conditioning we used the Givoni`s bioclimatic charts results, through Mahoney`s method, they were experts in the field of thermal building in temperate climates. For demonstration, the Colégio Técnico Industrial de Santa Maria - Ctism - was chosen as study case, in order to demonstrate the possibilities

  11. Producing metallurgic coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, T.; Isida, K.; Vada, Y.

    1982-11-18

    A mixture of power producing coals with coal briquets of varying composition is proposed for coking in horizontal chamber furnaces. The briquets are produced from petroleum coke, coal fines or semicoke, which make up less than 27 percent of the mixture to be briquetted and coals with a standard coking output of volatile substances and coals with high maximal Gizeler fluidity. The ratio of these coals in the mixture is 0.6 to 2.1 or 18 to 32 percent, respectively. Noncaking or poorly caking coals are used as the power producing coals. The hardness of the obtained coke is DJ15-30 = 90.5 to 92.7 percent.

  12. Coking oven for continuous coke production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vabrousek, R

    1979-07-15

    The coking oven has a vertical rectangular chamber with lateral heating walls to which heat exchangers are attached. The roof from the face of the chamber is a hermetic chute, whose vertical walls are connected to the lateral walls of the chamber and which has the feed conveyor with an unloading and evening device; to the upper wall of which a hermetic loading funnel for coal is attached and a lead-off for gas. The bottom of the chamber consists of segmented locks that are taken up by the hermetic chute. The chute's vertical walls are connected to the vertical walls of the chamber and its horizontal wall has a hermetic unloading funnel with a conveyor for coke removal. Height and width of the chamber are similar to standard chambers; their length reaches 100 to 200 m and longer. Length depends on coke preparation time and speed with which the unloading device can transfer coal. For normal operation, the conveyor belt must function properly in conjunction with the unloading device and segmented locks that form the bottom of the chamber.

  13. Pace studying worldwide coke production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Pace Consultants Inc., Houston, has started a multiclient study of world-wide petroleum coke production, examining environmental initiatives and eventually forecasting prices of fuel grade coke. Pace expects coker expansions, increased operating severity, and reduced cycle times to boost coke supply to more than 50 million metric tons/year in 2000, compared with 39.7 million metric tons in 1992. Increased supply and tightened environmental rules in countries consuming large amounts of petroleum coke will be the main factors affecting coke markets. The paper discusses coke quality and the Japanese market

  14. Substitutes for metallurgical coke in pyrometallurgical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshkarov, V.Ya.

    1982-08-01

    A briquetting process using sulphurous petroleum coke and a bituminous binder is described. The characteristics of briquettes made of petroleum coke, blends of coal and petroleum coke, and coal and metallurgical coke are compared. The prospect of replacing 25 to 50% of the metallurgical coke used in lime kilns with non-calcined petroleum coke briquettes is described. (4 refs.)

  15. OCORRÊNCIA E DURAÇÃO DAS TEMPERATURAS MÍNIMAS DIÁRIAS DO AR PREJUDICIAIS À FECUNDAÇÃO DAS FLORES DO ARROZ EM SANTA MARIA. RS. III: PROBABILIDADES DE OCORRÊNCIA DA DURAÇÃO DAS TEMPERATURAS BAIXAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Miguel Schneider

    1992-04-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando os valores das temperaturas mínimas, máximas e das 21 h, hora local, dos meses de dezembro, janeiro, fevereiro e março registradas na Estação Climatológica Principal de Santa Maria, RS, determinaram-se as probabilidades de ocorrência da duração máxima de horas com temperatura do ar ≤ 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 e 17,0°C e de seqüências de dias consecutivos com no mínimo uma hora de duração com temperatura do ar ≤ 15, 16 e 17,0°C. Essas probabilidades foram obtidas para cada decêndio dos meses estudados. Os resultados evidenciam que o risco de ocorrência de temperaturas prejudiciais à fecundação das flores da cultura do arroz é bem menor no 2° e 3° decêndio do mês de fevereiro. Deve-se, portanto, semear e/ou escolher ciclo de cultivar de arroz que possibilite que a fase de floração ocorra durante o 2° e 3° decêndio do mês de fevereiro.

  16. 80. special meeting on coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    There were 12 papers presented at the special meeting on coke. These have the following headings: relationship between coal properties and optical anisotropic textures of coke; development of optical texture of chemically modified low rank coal; relationship between fluid and swelling properties of Akabira coal; estimation of coal fluidity; present state and future of robotics; on the thermal stress during the carbonisation process of coals; development of estimation model for coke porosity distribution in the coke oven using X-ray CT; carbonization reaction of coke oven; relationship between qualities of coke and width of coke oven; development of carbonization model in coke ovens - estimation of growing clearance between heating wall and charge; development of automatic transparency analyzer for activated sludge process.

  17. Coke quality requirements in POSCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, J.; Yi, J.; Wang, H. [POSCO (Republic of Korea). Cokemaking Dept.

    2001-07-01

    The 26 overheads describes coke quality requirements in POSCO, Republic of Korea. It is concluded that it is necessary to develop new coal and to prompt technical development in order to produce high quality coke. To improve coke quality. Posco had applied DMAIC (define, measurement, analysis, improvement, control) technique which is part of Six-Sigma activity.

  18. Cooperation with COMECON members in coke chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medricky. Z

    1987-05-01

    Discusses activities of the coking industry division of the standing committee for iron metallurgy of the COMECON. The following cooperation fields are analyzed: raw material basis for coking industry, coal charge preparation and methods for reducing proportion of coking coal in a coal charge (heat treatments, formed coke processes, partial briquetting, pelletizing, increasing coking temperature, packing etc.), coking technology, coke quenching, screening, chemical processing of coal gas, environmental protection in the coking industry, environmental effects of coking, pitch coke production, methods for increasing labor productivity. Research programs coordinated by member countries are reviewed. Programs in which Czechoslovakia participates are discussed.

  19. Record coking coal settlements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, C.

    2005-02-01

    The US$100/tonne psychological barrier in coking coal prices has been well and truly smashed. The article examines developments in coal pricing. It includes quotes from many senior executives in the coal industry as collected at McCloskey's Australian Coal.04 conference held in Sydney, 18-19 November 2004. 2 photos.

  20. High coking value pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  1. Cultura escolar e história eclesiástica: reflexões sobre a ação romanizadora pedagógica na formação de sacerdotes católicos e o Seminário Diocesano de Santa Maria (1915-1919

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Levy Albino Bencostta

    Full Text Available O artigo propõe apresentar, explicar e analisar como a cultura escolar se manifestou em ambientes de instrução eclesiástica, utilizando o contexto histórico dos seminários de tradição tridentina. Sabemos que no Brasil, até meados do século XIX, não existiam seminários tridentinos para a formação do clero. Somente com a ação dos bispos ultramontanos, d. Romualdo Seixas, prelado da diocese de Salvador, d. Antônio Ferreira Viçoso, da diocese de Mariana e d. Antônio Joaquim de Melo, da diocese de São Paulo, todos eles, especialmente os dois últimos, perceberam que era quase impossível reformar o clero sem criar seminários tridentinos. Para eles, os seminários fechados, onde os internos entravam antes da puberdade, para não conhecer a maldade do mundo, sendo isolados do convívio social, era um procedimento eficaz na formação de um clero moralizado, ilustrado e ultramontano. Seguindo a compreensão de Dominique Julia (La culture scolaire comme objet historique, o principal objetivo deste artigo é entender e explicar a cultura escolar como definidora de saberes e condutas que permitiram a transmissão e a incorporação de valores no comportamento dos internos do Seminário Diocesano de Santa Maria, entre os anos de 1915 e 1919.

  2. Cultura escolar e história eclesiástica: reflexões sobre a ação romanizadora pedagógica na formação de sacerdotes católicos e o Seminário Diocesano de Santa Maria (1915-1919

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bencostta Marcus Levy Albino

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O artigo propõe apresentar, explicar e analisar como a cultura escolar se manifestou em ambientes de instrução eclesiástica, utilizando o contexto histórico dos seminários de tradição tridentina. Sabemos que no Brasil, até meados do século XIX, não existiam seminários tridentinos para a formação do clero. Somente com a ação dos bispos ultramontanos, d. Romualdo Seixas, prelado da diocese de Salvador, d. Antônio Ferreira Viçoso, da diocese de Mariana e d. Antônio Joaquim de Melo, da diocese de São Paulo, todos eles, especialmente os dois últimos, perceberam que era quase impossível reformar o clero sem criar seminários tridentinos. Para eles, os seminários fechados, onde os internos entravam antes da puberdade, para não conhecer a maldade do mundo, sendo isolados do convívio social, era um procedimento eficaz na formação de um clero moralizado, ilustrado e ultramontano. Seguindo a compreensão de Dominique Julia (La culture scolaire comme objet historique, o principal objetivo deste artigo é entender e explicar a cultura escolar como definidora de saberes e condutas que permitiram a transmissão e a incorporação de valores no comportamento dos internos do Seminário Diocesano de Santa Maria, entre os anos de 1915 e 1919.

  3. Design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant, Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Kravchenko; D.P. Yarmoshik; V.B. Kamenyuka; G.E. Kos' kova; N.I. Shkol' naya; V.V. Derevich; A.S. Grankin [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    In the design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant (Poland), coking of rammed coke with a stationary system was employed for the first time. The coke batteries are grouped in blocks. Safety railings are provided on the coke and machine sides of the maintenance areas.

  4. Programmed heating of coke ovens for increased coke size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, D.R.; Mahoney, M.R. [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia)

    2010-11-15

    Large, uniform sized coke is desirable for blast furnace use. It has previously been shown that the coke oven flue temperature in the first few hours of coking is a key determinant of coke size. In this paper, the authors present a new programmed heating approach, which is called pulsed heating, aiming to increase coke mean size at a given average flue temperature. The approach takes into account the charging sequence in coke oven batteries and the authors demonstrate how existing operating practice can be modified in batteries with suitable heating systems to achieve the desired heating programme. A mathematical model of fissure formation provides a prediction of the increase in coke mean size using pulsed heating, compared with standard heating. Pilot scale experiments have also been performed to validate the modelling approach. The results of the modelling indicate that the mean coke size can be increased by several millimetres in some cases, although results from the pilot scale show that pulsed heating increases coke size, but by a smaller amount than that predicted by the model. The potential advantages and limitations of pulsed heating are discussed, as well as opportunities for further investigation of the approach.

  5. Materials for making coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, L

    1936-08-19

    In the preparation of carbonized fuel briquettes, material such as bituminous, lignitic, or anthracitic coal, slack, waste or shale is treated with an electropositive solution such as hydrochloric acid or an acidic chloride to bring ash-forming constituents into colloidal form. The mixture is pressed with a colloid precipitating electro-negative solution such as sodium hydroxide, and moulded, the product being heated in the absence of air and coked. In an example bituminous coal is ground and then masticated with dilute hydrochloric acid. Some dilute manganese chloride is added followed by a solution of sodium hydroxide which precipitates the metals and silica as colloidal gels while the mixture is thoroughly agitated. The plastic mass is briquetted and dried at about 125/sup 0/C and then coked in vertical ovens at 700/sup 0/C. Chlorides recovered with the distillate gases may be utilized as solvent instead of hydrochloric acid. If the coal contains a large amount of sulfur acidified manganese chloride including a large proportion of iron is used as colloid forming material, the oxides of manganese and iron subsequently precipitated forming stable compounds with the non-volatile sulfur on coking or combustion.

  6. World coking coal markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCloskey, G.

    2010-01-01

    This article discussed conditions in world coking coal markets. There is increased demand from Asia for metallurgical coal imports. World iron production was up 22 percent in first 7 months of 2010. Supply is up in Australia, the United States, Canada, New Zealand, Russia, and Mongolia, but the unexpected surge in supply caused prices to drop following a robust start to the year. Coking coal exports are up for the United States and Australia, but a delay in expanded production is expected until 2014. There is increased demand from Brazil, India, Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan as well as new plants in Thailand, Indonesia, and Brazil. Unexpectedly, Australia is backing out of the Chinese market but increasing exports to Japan and South Korea. India is seeing flat performance in iron production and imports, and the United States has surged back into Asia. A considerable increase is expected in the seaborne import requirement by 2020. Prices are expected to fall and then rise. This presentation also discussed whether coking coal index pricing is impossible or inevitable. 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  7. MariaDB cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Bartholomew, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    A practical cookbook, filled with advanced recipes , and plenty of code and commands used for illustration,which will make your learning curve easy and quick.This book is for anyone who wants to learn more about databases in general or MariaDB in particular. Some familiarity with SQL databases is assumed, but the recipes are approachable to almost anyone with basic database skills.

  8. Production of rubbly culm coke from lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenigs, H B [Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke A.G., Koeln (Germany, F.R.). Hauptabteilung Kohleverarbeitung; Kurtz, R [Rheinische Braunkohlenwerke A.G., Frechen (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Verkokung und Chemie

    1977-08-01

    The article deals with the coke supply of the iron and steel industry, the design, function, and special features of the open-hearth, and describes the coking properties and applications of the culm coke produced from lignite.

  9. Production of fine coke from brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenigs, H B

    1977-08-01

    The coke supply of the iron and steel industry, the design, function, and special features of the open-hearth are described, including coking properties and applications of the culm coke produced from brown coal. (In German)

  10. Environmental recovery of the Scoglio of S. Maria in Tropea (Southern Italy). A case of geologic and preservation normative in environmental wealth; Aspetti geologici e normativi del recupero conservativo dei beni ambientali culturali. Lo scoglio di Santa Maria dell'Isola di Tropea (Calabria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ietto, F. [Arcavacata Universita' della Calabria, Arcavacata, CS (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    The environmental wealth, like architectural landscape wealth and urban settlement, represents a property of the italian countries. However, the public and private property are often in such degrading conditions that is not possible to guarantee them persistence during the time. Structural deterioration, anthropic bad use of the environment, earthquakes and erosion are added to a consolidate lack of social attention, maintenance and safeguard; unless in limited zones of particular history and tradition. Recently, the sensibility towards the environmental problems has changed, it receives not only the cultural aspect but the possible economics advantages induced from its recovery and its correct use also, it is promoting a series of public interventions on all the national territory. A substantial program is on its way in Calabria where are the most serious and the most diffused degradation of all the territory and of all the urban installations. Among the different contracted interventions (Tropea, Gerace and Pizzo): the Island of Tropea and the archiepiscopal Citadel of Gerace are those more representative. In this job is discussed in simplifying way the Environmental Recovery of the Scoglio of S. Maria in Tropea with the purpose of underline the particularity of the planning. Normally the recovery of the environmental wealth requires the different use of techniques with environmental impact (visual, polluting, architectural maintenance and/or naturalistic) low or void. The choice and the organisation at the techniques to adopt constitutes a first problem. A second one concerns the normative type, which leads to the intervention: from the planning, to the contract, to the execution. It springs out from the partial reliability of the forecasts projects as regards the reality, which often presents itself in during works. Often the intensity of the degrades obliterates those evidences that could make really executive a planning. Those evidences, once put out

  11. Maria Antonia: um mito?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena Bueno Trigo

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é fazer uma reconstrução do espaço da Faculdade de Filosofia da USP quando funcionava na rua Maria Antonia, décadas de 50 e 60, tomando como base depoimentos (publicados de alunos, depois professores, dessa instituição. O texto examina os códigos de sociabilidade praticados pelo grupo universitário e pretende, ainda, examinar os ritos instituídos, mostrando como essa reconstrução do passado deu origem a uma memória mítica

  12. Yellowcake from Panna Maria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The Standard Oil Company of California has opened a uranium mine and processing plant at Panna Maria, Texas to produce 3,500 pounds of yellowcake a day at $45 per pound. The deposit is estimated at six million pounds of recoverable uranium oxide and will be used to fuel four Texas utilities. Mining and reclamation techniques were selected on the basis of environmenal impact studies. Nearly all the land will be restored as pasture and measures will be taken to preserve air and water quality. The complex consists of an open pit mine, an adjacent processing mill, and associated facilities for offices, shops, vehicles, drainage ponds, and tailings retention

  13. Coking of residue hydroprocessing catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, M.R.; Zhao, Y.X. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; McKnight, C.A. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Komar, D.A.; Carruthers, J.D. [Cytec Industries Inc., Stamford, CT (United States)

    1997-11-01

    One of the major causes of deactivation of Ni/Mo and Co/Mo sulfide catalysts for hydroprocessing of heavy petroleum and bitumen fractions is coke deposition. The composition and amount of coke deposited on residue hydroprocessing catalysts depends on the composition of the liquid phase of the reactor. In the Athabasca bitumen, the high molecular weight components encourage coke deposition at temperatures of 430 to 440 degrees C and at pressures of 10 to 20 MPa hydrogen pressure. A study was conducted to determine which components in the heavy residual oil fraction were responsible for coking of catalysts. Seven samples of Athabasca vacuum residue were prepared by supercritical fluid extraction with pentane before being placed in the reactor. Carbon content and hydrodesulfurization activity was measured. It was concluded that the deposition of coke depended on the presence of asphaltenes and not on other compositional variables such as content of nitrogen, aromatic carbon or vanadium.

  14. Percepção da população de Santa Maria de Itabira (MG acerca da implantação de uma mina de minério de ferro na região de Morro Escuro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ferreira de Andrade

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A atividade minerária representa um dos setores fundamentais para a economia mundial, atuando no suprimento de matérias-primas para os mais variados seguimentos e na manutenção da qualidade de vida da população. No entanto, a mineração desencadeia impactos sociais, econômicos e ambientais, os quais requerem o estabelecimento de políticas que possibilitem o desenvolvimento desta atividade em bases mais eficientes. Neste contexto, esta pesquisa objetivou analisar a percepção da população de Santa Maria de Itabira (MG acerca da implantação de uma mina de minério de ferro ao longo da Serra de Morro Escuro e dos impactos socioeconômicos e ambientais decorrentes de tal atividade. Para tal, foram aplicados questionários a 371 moradores desse município. Dessa forma, foi possível avaliar que apesar da população identificar os impactos socioambientais negativos desencadeados pela atividade minerária, tais como degradação, poluição, desmatamento, contaminação, risco de acidentes e problemas de saúde, uma parcela significativa considera importante a instalação de tal atividade na cidade, dada a possibilidade de geração de empregos e crescimento econômico do município. Ressalta-se a importância da realização de novas pesquisas voltadas para a compreensão dos anseios e percepções dos diferentes atores sociais envolvidos na extração mineral, de modo que esta atividade possa promover práticas sustentáveis que permitam aos cidadãos o direito de suprir suas necessidades, sem comprometer àquelas relacionadas à geração futura.

  15. Petroleum coke as energy source: an update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinelli, G.

    2008-01-01

    A previous review presented a critical evaluation of the use of petroleum coke as energy source. After some years, with reference to increased petroleum coke production, that paper is revised. In particular, the attention is now focused on world petroleum coke market trends and, in regard to petroleum coke used as fuel, on new Italian environment laws. [it

  16. PROSPECTS FOR COKE BREEZE RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Mihnovets

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Researches give grounds to believe in the possibility of receiving briquettes from coke waste mixed with peat dry coal and their use for smelting iron in the cupola or as a household fuel.

  17. Health Effects of Petroleum Coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant quantities of fugitive dust from pet coke storage and handling operations present a health risk. EPA’s research suggests that petcoke does not pose a different health risk than similar-sized particulate matter (PM10).

  18. Local Economic Development in Catacamas and Santa Maria del ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It further aims to mobilize these actors and resources into a crucial motor for local development in the face of ever more aggressive globalization. This grant will support the training of key professionals from the National Agricultural University (UNA), as well as municipal and business leaders, in RMD with a view to adapting ...

  19. Professor dr hab. Maria Lisiewska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Stasińska

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the biography and scientific achievements of Professor Maria Lisiewska. She earned master’s degree and Ph.D. in natural sciences from Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań. After earning her doctoral degree, she stayed at Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań and conducted her thrilling research on mycology and taught until now. Prof. Maria Lisiewska is an author of many books, articles, and other scholarly reports.

  20. Developing new technology of coal coking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkin, L.I.; Nefedov, P.Ya.

    1981-03-01

    This paper characterizes types of coke (grain size, compression strength, abrasion, porosity) used by: blast furnaces, shaft furnaces, ferroalloys and phosphorus production, and ore agglomeration. Development of formed metallurgical coke production on the basis of technologies worked out by the Eastern Research Scientific Institute for Coal Chemistry is analyzed. The following phases in the investigations are stressed: optimization of coal blends (increasing proportion of coals with poor caking properties, pressing briquets, carbonization, temperature distribution and temperature control, using heat emitted by hot coke for coal preheating (heat consumption of coking is reduced to 200 kcal/kg). On the basis of technology developed and tested by VUKhIN formed coke consisting of 60% G6 coal and 40% 2SS coal has been produced. Using the coke in blast furnaces increases furnace capacity by 5% and reduces coke consumption in a furnace by 2.6%. It is suggested that wide use of the proposed technology of formed metallurgical coke production in the Kuzbass (using coals with poor caking properties from surface mines) would increase coke production of the region to 50 Mt for a year. technology of producing formed foundry coke from: 80 to 86% anthracites, semianthracites and coals with poor caking properties, 5 to 10% coking coal, and 8% binder is evaluated. Formed foundry coke produced from the blend reduces coke consumption in a foundry by 25 to 30% and increases cast iron temperature by 20 to 50/sup 0/C. Technologies of producing coke for phosphorus industry by continuous coking of coals difficult to coke in vertical coke ovens and production of coke for ore agglomeration are also discussed. (In Russian)

  1. The mechanism of coking pressure generation I: Effect of high volatile matter coking coal, semi-anthracite and coke breeze on coking pressure and plastic coal layer permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiji Nomura; Merrick Mahoney; Koichi Fukuda; Kenji Kato; Anthony Le Bas; Sid McGuire [Nippon Steel Corporation, Chiba (Japan). Environment and Process Technology Center

    2010-07-15

    One of the most important aspects of the cokemaking process is to control and restrain the coking pressure since excessive coking pressure tends to lead to operational problems and oven wall damage. Therefore, in order to understand the mechanism of coking pressure generation, the permeability of the plastic coal layer and the coking pressure for the same single coal and the same blended coal were measured and the relationship between them was investigated. Then the 'inert' (pressure modifier) effect of organic additives such as high volatile matter coking coal, semi-anthracite and coke breeze was studied. The coking pressure peak for box charging with more uniform bulk density distribution was higher than that for top charging. It was found that the coking pressure peaks measured at different institutions (NSC and BHPBilliton) by box charging are nearly the same. The addition of high volatile matter coking coal, semi-anthracite and coke breeze to a low volatile matter, high coking pressure coal greatly increased the plastic layer permeability in laboratory experiments and correspondingly decreased the coking pressure. It was found that, high volatile matter coking coal decreases the coking pressure more than semi-anthracite at the same plastic coal layer permeability, which indicates that the coking pressure depends not only on plastic coal layer permeability but also on other factors. Coking pressure is also affected by the contraction behavior of the coke layer near the oven walls and a large contraction decreases the coal bulk density in the oven center and hence the internal gas pressure in the plastic layer. The effect of contraction on coking pressure needs to be investigated further. 33 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Santa Maria de Garona. Modernization of computer; Santa Maria de Garona. Modernizacion del ordenador de la central

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oostende, T. van

    2005-07-01

    Nuclenor has installed their new RTP 2300R data-acquisition system as part of the plant computer. After a period of four years of preliminary testing, design, implementation and validation, they installed the system and put it in operation. (Author)

  3. Behavior of coke in large blast furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, N

    1978-01-01

    Three blast furnaces were quenched in operation and the contents were examined; the temperature distribution was also measured, using Tempil pellets. The furnaces examined included a low productivity one, which was examined to see what was wrong. Changes in the quality of coke as it descends in the furnace, and coke behavior in the raceway and hearth are reported. The functions required of coke, and the effects of poor coke quality, are explained, together with the coke quality required in large blast furnaces. A theoretical study of the role of coke in large blast furnaces is included.

  4. Coke gasification costs, economics, and commercial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, F.C.; Falsetti, J.S.; Wilson, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    The disposition of petroleum coke remains a problem for modern high conversion refineries. Market uncertainty and the price for coke can prevent the implementation of otherwise attractive projects. The commercially proven Texaco Gasification Process remains an excellent option for clean, cost effective coke disposition as demonstrated by the new coke gasification units coming on-line and under design. Previous papers, have discussed the coke market and general economics of coke gasification. This paper updates the current market situation and economics, and provide more details on cost and performance based on recent studies for commercial plants

  5. Análise e aplicação do ICA-AtoM como ferramenta para descrição e acesso ao Patrimônio Documental e Histórico do município de Santa Maria – RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Flores

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Apresenta resultados preliminares de uma pesquisa de mestrado que discute e avalia a utilização do Software Livre ICA-AtoM na atividade de descrição arquivística e, acesso por meio da internet, ao acervo fotográfico do Arquivo Histórico Municipal de Santa Maria (AHMSM, RS. Esta ferramenta é amplamente compartilhada e utilizada com sucesso entre os arquivistas canadenses e espanhóis, o que abre caminho para nós, brasileiros, adaptá-la à realidade arquivística brasileira e usufruir dos recursos oferecidos por ela.Objetivo: Avaliar a utilização do ICA-AtoM como ferramenta de auxílio para a descrição arquivística do acervo fotográfico do AHMSM, proporcionando o acesso via internet ao acervo, apresentando ao usuário as informações arquivísticas obrigatórias para cada fotografia, conforme as normas nacionais que regem a função de descrição arquivística.Metodologia: Pesquisa exploratória, descritiva e qualitativa. A revisão da literatura acerca dos requisitos teóricos exigidos para descrição arquivística e a elaboração da descrição de parte do acervo fotográfico da instituição possibilitaram uma discussão inicial sobre os aspectos funcionais do software em relação a essa função arquivística.Resultados: Constatou-se nesta primeira fase da pesquisa que o ICA-AtoM possui uma gama de recursos técnicos que flexibilizam e facilitam a atividade de descrição arquivística; auxilia na preservação e difusão de informações sobre o acervo e providencia o acesso à documentação por meio de representantes digitais, permitindo um alcance global através de sua interface multilíngue na internet.Conclusões: A partir dos resultados obtidos nesta primeira fase da pesquisa, pode-se afirmar que o uso adequado do ICA-AToM, se aplicado de acordo com os critérios arquivísticos exigidos, pode facilitar atividades e trazer benefícios à instituição detentora do acervo. As reflexões decorrentes

  6. Relationship between coal and coke microstructure and the high temperature properties of coke. [Temperature dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuyuguchi, K; Yamaji, M; Sugimoto, Y

    1980-02-01

    This paper considers the relationship of the properties of coke and parent coal with the high temperature properties, including reactivity, of coke. Aspects considered include coke texture and grade, and the optical reflectivity of coal and coke. (8 refs.) (In Japanese)

  7. 46 CFR 148.04-15 - Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and calcined (mixture). 148.04-15 Section 148.04-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... Requirements for Certain Material § 148.04-15 Petroleum coke, uncalcined; petroleum coke, uncalcined and...

  8. The mechanism of coking pressure generation II: Effect of high volatile matter coking coal, semi-anthracite and coke breeze on coking pressure and contraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrick Mahoney; Seiji Nomura; Koichi Fukuda; Kenji Kato; Anthony Le Bas; David R. Jenkins; Sid McGuire [BHP Billiton Technology, Shortland, NSW (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    One of the most important aspects of the cokemaking process is to control and limit the coking pressure since excessive coking pressure can lead to operational problems and oven wall damage. Following on from a previous paper on plastic layer permeability we have studied the effect of contraction of semi-coke on coking pressure and the effect of organic additives on contraction. A link between contraction (or simulated contraction) outside the plastic layer and coking pressure was demonstrated. The interaction between this contraction, local bulk density around the plastic layer and the dependence of the permeability of the plastic layer on bulk density was discussed as possible mechanisms for the generation of coking pressure. The effect of blending either a high volatile matter coal or one of two semi-anthracites with low volatile matter, high coking pressure coals on the coking pressure of the binary blends has been explained using this mechanism. 25 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Trends in the automation of coke production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; K.G. Lavrov [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Up-to-date mathematical methods, such as correlation analysis and expert systems, are employed in creating a model of the coking process. Automatic coking-control systems developed by Giprokoks rule out human error. At an existing coke battery, after introducing automatic control, the heating-gas consumption is reduced by {>=}5%.

  10. Major growth in coke production takes place

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    U.S. petroleum coke production has increased 64% during the 10-year period from 1980 to 1990. This dramatic rise makes it timely to discuss the history and future of U.S. coking capacity, production, and processing. The article covers the properties and uses of the various grades of petroleum coke, as well as pricing and market trends

  11. Power, cement industries shape coke future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, E.J.

    1991-01-01

    The production of petroleum coke by U.S. refineries is expected to continue to increase in the coming years. Process and market trends also indicate the likelihood of further increases in fuel-grade coke production. In this article, the properties and uses of the various grades of petroleum coke, as well as pricing and market trends, will be discussed

  12. Bio-coke as an alternative to petroleum coke and metallurgical coke; Bio-cokes als alternatief voor petroleumcokes en metallurgische cokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croezen, H.J.; Van Lieshout, M. [CE Delft, Delft (Netherlands); Sevenster, M.N. [Sevenster Environmental Consultancy, Australian Capital Territory ACT (Australia)

    2012-11-15

    In the framework of elaborating the Dutch Roadmap Chemistry 2030), CE Delft has conducted an exploratory study for the Association of the Dutch Chemical Industry (VNCI) on the options of replacing (petroleum) coke in the chemical sector by biocokes. Coke is used as a reducing agent and/or raw material in four companies in the Dutch chemical industry (Tronox, ESD-SIC, Thermphos, Aluchemie). Replacing coke at these four companies can potentially yield a direct CO2 reduction of expectedly several hundreds of kilotons per year. For a first exploration of the options of bio-coke, CE Delft first conducted a desk study to get information on the quality and production costs for bio-coke. Subsequently, CE Delft had contact with the four chemical companies and a made a number of company visits. Moreover, the technical, economic and organizational capabilities, constraints and requirements with regard to a possible (partial) switch to biocokes have been explored. Based on the information available so far it can be concluded that biocokes seems to be a technically and economically interesting innovation. For implementation to finally take place, it is necessary to gain better insight in the technical and economic potential [Dutch] In verband met de uitwerking van de Routekaart Chemie 2030 heeft CE Delft voor VNCI een verkenning uitgevoerd naar de mogelijkheden voor vervanging van (petroleum)cokes in de chemische sector door biocokes. Cokes wordt gebruikt als reductiemiddel en/of grondstof bij een viertal bedrijven in de Nederlandse chemie (Tronox, ESD-SIC, Thermphos, Aluchemie). Het vervangen van cokes bij deze vier bedrijven kan in potentie een directe CO2-reductie van naar verwachting enkele honderden kilotonnen/jaar opleveren. Voor een eerste verkenning van de mogelijkheden van bio-cokes heeft CE Delft eerst een bureaustudie uitgevoerd naar informatie over kwaliteit van en productiekosten voor bio-cokes. Vervolgens heeft CE Delft contact gehad met de vier chemische

  13. Coke from partially briquetted preheated coal mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belitskii, A.N.; Sklyar, M.G.; Toryanik, Eh.I.; Bronshtein, A.P.

    1988-07-01

    Analyzes effects of partial coal charge briquetting on coking and on quality of coke for metallurgy. Effects of mixing hot coal briquets on temperature and moisture of coal were investigated on an experimental scale in a coking plant. Coal with a moisture content of 12% was used. Coking mixture consisted of 30% briquets and 70% crushed coal. Fifteen minutes after briquet mixing with coal, the mean coal charge temperature increased to 100-105 C and moisture content was lower than 2-5%. Results of laboratory investigations were verified by tests on a commercial scale. Experiments showed briquetting of weakly caking or non-caking coal charge components to be an efficient way of preventing coke quality decline. Adding 15-20% briquets consisting of weakly caking coal did not influence coke quality. Mixing hot coal briquets reduced moisture content in crushed coal, increased its temperature and reduced coking time.

  14. Geologic structure of shallow maria. [topography of lunar maria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehon, R. A.; Waskom, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Isopach maps and structural contour maps of the eastern mare basins (30 deg N to 30 deg S; 0 deg to 100 deg E), constructed from measurements of partially buried craters, are presented and discussed. The data, which are sufficiently scattered to yield gross thickness variations, are restricted to shallow maria with less than 1500-2000 m of mare basalts. The average thickness of basalt in the irregular maria is between 200 and 400 m. Correlations between surface topography, basalt thickness, and basin floor structure are apparent in most of the basins that were studied. The mare surface is commonly depressed in regions of thick mare basalts; mare ridges are typically located in regions of pronounced thickness changes; and arcuate mare rilles are confined to thin mare basalts. Most surface structures are attributed to shallow stresses developed within the mare basalts during consolidation and volume reduction.

  15. Fissure formation in coke. 2: Effect of heating rate, shrinkage and coke strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.R. Jenkins; M.R. Mahoney [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Mathematical and Information Sciences

    2010-07-15

    We investigate the effects of the heating rate, coke shrinkage and coke breakage strength upon the fissure pattern developed in a coke oven charge during carbonisation. This is done principally using a mechanistic model of the formation of fissures, which considers them to be an array of equally spaced fissures, whose depth follows a 'period doubling' pattern based upon the time history of the fissures. The model results are compared with pilot scale coke oven experiments. The results show that the effect of heating rate on the fissure pattern is different to the effect of coke shrinkage, while the effect of coke breakage strength on the pattern is less pronounced. The results can be seen in both the shape and size of resulting coke lumps after stabilisation. The approach gives the opportunity to consider means of controlling the carbonisation process in order to tune the size of the coke lumps produced. 7 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. The world coke market. Problems and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Outlooks to the world coke market are considered with regard to supply and demand as well as the current state of capacities for its production in some countries of Asia, Western and Eastern Europe, USA. In experts opinion increase of coke import from China, increase in service life of currently operating coke furnaces, as well as more extensive use of PCI coal mixture are among the most feasible opportunities for its Western consumers [ru

  17. Briquetting of Coke-Brown Coal Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ïurove Juraj

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the research of briquetting a coke-brown coal composite The operation consists of the feeding crushed coal and coke to moulds and pressing into briquettes which have been made in the Laboratories at the Mining Faculty of Technical University of Košice (Slovakia. In this research, all demands will be analyzed including the different aspects of the mechanical quality of briquettes, the proportion of fine pulverulent coal and coke in bricks, the requirements for briquetting the coke-brown coal materials.

  18. Research and development in production of special coke types

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nefedov, P.Ya.; Unterberger, O.G.; Strakhov, V.M. (Vostochnyi Nauchno-Issledovatel' skii Uglekhimicheskii Institut (USSR))

    1991-03-01

    Discusses methods for increasing quality of foundry coke and quality of special coke types used in non-ferrous metallurgy. Types of coal from various coal basins for production of foundry coke, types of petroleum and coal-derived additives improving caking and coking properties of the standard coal mixtures and effects of partial coal charge briquetting are discussed. Three types of partial coal charge briquetting are comparatively evaluated: continuous coking of the briquetted mixtures of weakly caking lean coal types, anthracites and coking coal mixed with thermosoftening binders; continuous coking of identical mixtures briquetted with non-thermosoftening binders; coking coke dust mixed with thermoreactive binders and briquetted at 200-300 C. Coking conditions, the final coking temperature, binder consumption rates, dimensions of coal briquets, ash content, sulfur content and coke mechanical properties (compression strength and wear) are comparatively evaluated.

  19. Production of blast furnace coke from soft brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, G.; Wundes, H.; Schkommodau, F.; Zinke, H.-G. (VEB Gaskombinat Schwarze Pumpe (German Democratic Republic))

    1988-01-01

    Reviews experimental production and utilization of high quality brown coal coke in the GDR during 1985 and 1986. The technology of briquetting and coking brown coal dust is described; the superior parameters of produced coke quality are listed in comparison to those of regular industrial coke made from brown and black coal. Dust emission from high quality brown coal coke was suppressed by coke surface treatment with dispersion foam. About 4,200 t of this coke were employed in black coal coke substitution tests in a blast furnace. Substitution rate was 11%, blast furnace operation was positive, a substitution factor of 0.7 t black coal coke per 1 t of brown coal coke was calculated. Technology development of high quality brown coal coke production is regarded as complete; blast furnace coke utilization, however, requires further study. 8 refs.

  20. Coal and coke applied to metallurgy. Vol. 2. Carvao e coque aplicados a metalurgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masuda, H.

    1983-01-01

    Papers include: coking; control of pollution from coking plants; handling and storage of coal; preparation of coal for coking; politics of the supply of coal; coke for blast furnaces; selective preparation and briquetting of coal for coking; cooling and drying of coke; preheating of coal for coking; formed coke.

  1. Getting started with MariaDB

    CERN Document Server

    Bartholomew, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A practical, hands-on, beginner-friendly guide to installing and using MariaDB.Getting Started with MariaDB is for anyone who wants to learn more about databases in general or MariaDB in particular. No prior database experience is required. It is assumed that you have basic knowledge of software installation, editing files with a text editor, and using the command line and terminal.

  2. O Tombo de 1560/1565 da Granja da Silva do mosteiro de Santa Maria de Oia. Aspectos da evolução e consolidação do património medieval do mosteiro de Oia no Entre-Lima-e-Minho português através da análise de um documento de Época Moderna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leite Rodrigues, Ana Paula

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The monastery of Santa Maria de Oia, located on the southwestern coast of Pontevedra province, between Baiona and A Guarda, provides us an excellent subject to the investigation of the medieval Galician and northwest Portuguese border. Oia’s abbey owned properties in Portugal since the very begging of its foundation. The efficient and cautious management of its acreage, in accordance with the Cistercian tradition, made possible to the monastery to multiply the number of its properties in Portugal and to organize them into two main groups: the one of the Granja da Silva, which integrated all the possessions in the northwest territory, and the other one including properties in Lisbon and Torres Vedras. The first of those main groups is the subject of the Tombo da Granja da Silva (1560/1565, a document in which are recorded almost all the properties of Oia’s monastery. The aim of this text is to evaluate all the possible contributions the tombo may offers to the research of Oia’s medieval patrimony in Portugal, as a terminus ad quem of its evolution through the Middle Ages until the XVIth century.

    El monasterio de Santa María de Oia, situado en la costa del sudoeste de la provincia de Pontevedra, entre Baiona y A Guarda, representa un excelente objeto de investigación en el ámbito del estudio de la frontera medieval entre Galicia y la región portuguesa delimitada por los ríos Límia y Miño. Desde sus comienzos, la abadía de Oia contó con propiedades en Portugal. Una eficaz y cautelosa gestión patrimonial, en conformidad con la tradición cisterciense, conllevó a la multiplicación de los bienes del territorio portugués, bien como a la concentración de los mismos en dos núcleos principales: la Granja da Silva, que reunía todas las posesiones del noroeste de Portugal, y el conjunto de los bienes situados en Lisboa y en el término de Torres Vedras. La reflexión que a continuación presentamos se centrará en

  3. New designs in the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.S. Larin; V.V. Demenko; V.L. Voitanik [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    In recent Giprokoks designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems, high-productivity vibrational-inertial screens have been employed. This permits single-stage screening and reduction in capital and especially operating expenditures, without loss of coke quality. In two-stage screening, >80 mm coke (for foundry needs) is additionally separated, with significant improvement in quality of the metallurgical coke (25-80 mm). New designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems employ mechanical treatment of the coke outside the furnace, which offers new scope for stabilization of coke quality and permits considerable improvement in mechanical strength and granulometric composition of the coke by mechanical crushing.

  4. Production of conductive coke for cathodic protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mogollon, E.G.; Henao, L.E.; Pacheco, L.A.; Ortiz, J.L.; Diaz, J.J. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia). Departamento de Quimica

    1999-07-01

    The reduction of resistivity of coke by means of the cocarbonization of mixtures of coking coals was studied using coal tar as an additive. Optimum temperature and blending conditions for decreased resistivity were investigated. The effect of particle size on the dependency of coal rank was investigated. 2 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Microwave-assisted grinding of metallurgical coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruisanchez, E.; Juarez-Perez, E. J.; Arenillas, A.; Bermudez, J. M.; Menendez, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Metallurgical cokes are composed of graphitic carbon (s2p2) and different inorganic compounds with very different capacities to absorb microwave radiation. Moreover, due to the electric conductivity shown by the metallurgical cokes, microwave radiation produces electric arcs or microplasmas, which gives rise to hot spots. Therefore, when these cokes are irradiated with microwaves some parts of the particle experiment a rapid heating, while some others do not heat at all. As a result of the different expansion and stress caused by thermal the shock, small cracks and micro-fissures are produced in the particle. The weakening of the coke particles, and therefore an improvement of its grind ability, is produced. This paper studies the microwave-assisted grinding of metallurgical coke and evaluates the grinding improvement and energy saving. (Author)

  6. Alternative coke production from unconventional feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smoot, D.; Eatough, C.N.; Heaton, J.S.; Eatough, S.R.; Miller, A.B. [Combustion Resources, Provo, UT (US)

    2004-07-01

    This presentation reports on US Department of Energy and company sponsored research and development to develop a technology and process for making metallurgical-quality coke from alternate feedstocks, including by-product and waste carbonaceous materials. The basic patent-pending process blends and presses these carbon-containing materials into briquettes of specified size. This product is referred to as CR Clean Coke because pollutant emission levels are carefully controlled to low levels with little or no vagrant emissions during processing. A wide range of feedstock materials has been investigated in over 600 tests for run-of-mine and waste coal fines of various rank with blends of coal tars and pitches, coal and biomass chars, met-coke breeze or petroleum coke. For various coal/pet-coke/tar feedstocks, CR has produced uniform-sized briquettes in commercial-scale briquettes in three nominal sizes: one inch, two inch, and three inch. These products have been successfully qualified according to stringent requirements for conventional met-coke use in a blast furnace. Several formulation have met and frequently exceeded these established met-coke specifications. One specific product containing coal, tar and pet-coke was selected as a base formulation for which preliminary process design and cost estimates have been completed for construction and operation of a demonstration plant capable of producing 120,000 tons per year of CR Clean Coke. Plant design elements and blast furnace test plans are presented. Tailoring of CR Clean Coke products to other prospective end users including foundry, sugar, soda ash, and ferrometals industries presents additional opportunities. The text is accompanied by 30 slides/overheads. 14 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. Thermal expansion of coking coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlik, M.; Klimek, J. (Vyzkumny a Zkusebni Ustav Nova Hut, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia))

    1992-12-01

    Analyzes expansion of coal mixtures in coke ovens during coking. Methods for measuring coal expansion on both a laboratory and pilot plant scale are comparatively evaluated. The method, developed, tested and patented in Poland by the Institute for Chemical Coal Processing in Zabrze (Polish standard PN-73/G-04522), is discussed. A laboratory device developed by the Institute for measuring coal expansion is characterized. Expansion of black coal from 10 underground mines in the Ostrava-Karvina coal district and from 9 coal mines in the Upper Silesia basin in Poland is comparatively evaluated. Investigations show that coal expansion reaches a maximum for coal types with a volatile matter ranging from 20 to 25%. With increasing volatile matter in coal, its expansion decreases. Coal expansion increases with increasing swelling index. Coal expansion corresponds with coal dilatation. With increasing coal density its expansion increases. Coal mixtures should be selected in such a way that their expansion does not cause a pressure exceeding 40 MPa. 11 refs.

  8. Solar thermochemical production of syngas from petroleum coke: feasibility study for injection of coke slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, A.; Romero, M.; Kritter F; Steinfeld A

    2006-01-01

    The steam-gasification of pet-coke using concentrated solar radiation is proposed as a viable alternative to solar hydrogen production. Pet-coke is major solid byproduct from the processing of heavy and extra-heavy oils using delay-coking technology. This report summarizes the major accomplishments to develop a cheap and efficient feeding of petroleum coke by coke water slurries without the need of a carrier gas. The samples were Delayed coke of different grain sizes, in particular from 1,8 to 200 mm (as received). In order to analyse the flow properties of the slurries, some tests were conducted to measure the viscosity of the samples. Then, the pet-coke water slurries were injected into the reactor to study the gasification process. In these experiments, some operational parameters were: molar ratio from 2 to 3 (water/coke), temperature up to 1000 C, residence times from 5 to 9 s. In those conditions, the coke is converted primarily to CO, H 2 , CO 2 and small amounts of methane. Concentration of outlet gases of about 30-50 of H 2 ; 15-20 of CO, 10-15 CO 2 , 1-2% CH 4 were obtained with X coke ∼ 65 to 85%. (authors)

  9. Coking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, D; Simpson, A

    1917-03-08

    Oil is obtained from bituminous shales and the like by downward distillation at such restricted temperature that the volatile products only are obtained without liberation of the so-called fixed carbon, the distilled vapors being treated in a de-sulfurizing reaction chamber subsequent to being condensed into oil.

  10. Determination of electrical resistivity of dry coke beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidem, P.A.; Tangstad, M.; Bakken, J.A. [NTNU, Trondheim (Norway)

    2008-02-15

    The electrical resistivity of the coke bed is of great importance when producing FeMn, SiMn, and FeCr in a submerged arc furnace. In these processes, a coke bed is situated below and around the electrode tip and consists of metallurgical coke, slag, gas, and metal droplets. Since the basic mechanisms determining the electrical resistivity of a coke bed is not yet fully understood, this investigation is focused on the resistivity of dry coke beds consisting of different carbonaceous materials, i.e., coke beds containing no slag or metal. A method that reliably compares the electrical bulk resistivity of different metallurgical cokes at 1500{sup o} C to 1600{sup o}C is developed. The apparatus is dimensioned for industrial sized materials, and the electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, petroleum coke, and metallurgical coke has been measured. The resistivity at high temperatures of the Magnitogorsk coke, which has the highest resistivity of the metallurgical cokes investigated, is twice the resistivity of the Corus coke, which has the lowest electrical resistivity. Zdzieszowice and SSAB coke sort in between with decreasing resistivities in the respective order. The electrical resistivity of anthracite, charcoal, and petroleum coke is generally higher than the resistivity of the metallurgical cokes, ranging from about two to about eight times the resistivity of the Corus coke at 1450{sup o}C. The general trend is that the bulk resistivity of carbon materials decreases with increasing temperature and increasing particle size.

  11. Genesis of natural cokes: Some Indian examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ashok K.; Sharma, Mamta [Central Institute of Mining and Fuel Research, Dhanbad, PIN-828108 (India); Singh, Mahendra P. [Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, PIN-221005 (India)

    2008-06-13

    In Indian coalfields huge amounts of natural coke have been produced due to magmatic intrusions. Jharia Coalfield in eastern part of India alone contains approximately 2000 Mt of baked coking coal as a consequence of these intrusions in the form of discordant and concordant bodies. This paper is an effort to investigate the effect of carbonization in two intrusion affected coal seams of Ena (seam XIII) and Alkusa (seam XIV) collieries of Jharia Coalfield. Natural coke is derived from coking coal under in-situ conditions due to intense magmatic induced heat and overburden pressure. Natural coke is characterized by the presence of low volatile matter and high ash contents and organic constituents showing isotropy and anisotropy. Through physical, petrographic and chemical properties of natural coke or 'jhama' as determined by various methods it has been established that the reactives in the unaltered coals (vitrinite, liptinite, pseudovitrinite, reactive semifusinite, etc.) are < 25.0 vol.%, moisture < 2.5%, volatile matter < 15.0% and hydrogen < 4.0%. The temperatures attained in the coal seams have been deciphered using some standard models, which indicate that a temperature {proportional_to} 1000 C was attained. This produced huge amount of anisotropic and deposited carbons. An attempt has been made to understand the factors that influence the genesis of natural coke and heat altered maceral products in coals in Indian coalfields. (author)

  12. The influence of microporosity on resistance and carboxyreactivity of cokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medek, J.; Weishauptova, Z. [Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic). Inst. of Rock Structure and Mechanics

    1997-12-31

    Large sample collection of metallurgical cokes from Ostrava-Karvina coking plants, were used for correlation of the resistivity of the coke matter (carbon solid phase plus micropores) and carboxyreactivity of cokes with the value of microporosity. It results, from this correlation, that the characteristic values of the two mentioned quantities appartain to the solid phase of all metallurgical cokes studied, while the individual values of these quantities are caused by the different microporosity of the coke matter. The microporosity as a structure characteristic is a consequence of the discontinuity of the coke solid phase and can be quantitatively expressed as the degree of solid phase dispersion. (orig.)

  13. Experimental and numerical investigations of coke descending behavior in a coke dry quenching cooling shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yanhui; Zhang Xinxin; Yu Quan; Shi Zhongyin; Liu Zhicheng; Zhang Hu; Liu Huafei

    2008-01-01

    A viscous flow model based on the Navier-Stokes equation is developed to describe coke descending behavior in the 1/7-scaled-down experimental setup of an actual 75 t/h cooling shaft. It is found that the internal friction due to cokes viscosity significantly influences the descending behavior of cokes in the lower part of the shaft, while the external wall friction dominates the sluggish flow of the cokes in the shaft. An asymptotic friction coefficient expression is proposed for granular mixtures flowing along the shaft wall modified from normal wall tress, and the concept of bulk solid viscosity is introduced to describe the internal friction between coke particles. The results simulated by the present model are compared with those by the potential flow and the kinematic model without friction. The viscous flow model is quite good to simulate the bulk coke flow as the physically important frictions are engaged

  14. The coke drum thermal kinetic effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldescu, Maria M.; Romero, Sim; Larson, Mel [KBC Advanced Technologies plc, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    The coke drum thermal kinetic dynamics fundamentally affect the coker unit yields as well as the coke product properties and unit reliability. In the drum the thermal cracking and polymerization or condensation reactions take place in a semi-batch environment. Understanding the fundamentals of the foaming kinetics that occur in the coke drums is key to avoiding a foam-over that could result in a unit shutdown for several months. Although the most dynamic changes with time occur during drum filling, other dynamics of the coker process will be discussed as well. KBC has contributed towards uncovering and modelling the complexities of heavy oil thermal dynamics. (author)

  15. Cancer mortality among coke oven workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Redmond, C K

    1983-01-01

    The OSHA standard for coke oven emissions, which went into effect in January 1977, sets a permissible exposure limit to coke oven emissions of 150 micrograms/m3 benzene-soluble fraction of total particulate matter (BSFTPM). Review of the epidemiologic evidence for the standard indicates an excess relative risk for lung cancer as high as 16-fold in topside coke oven workers with 15 years of exposure or more. There is also evidence for a consistent dose-response relationship in lung cancer mort...

  16. A hydraulic device for unloading coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretinin, M.V.; Abizgildin, U.M.; Kirillov, T.S.; Makarov, M.I.; Prokopov, O.I.; Solov' ev, A.M.

    1979-07-15

    A hydraulic device for unloading petroleum coke from slow carbonization chambers is characterized by an arrangement whereby in order to increase the output of large size coke by controlling the increment of the cutting line of the coke, the mechanism used to move the rod in the hydraulic cutter is built in the form of a rod rotation rotor; a gear wheel is mounted on the immobile section of this rotor, and on the mobile section a multi-stage regulator is installed. The drive gear of the regulator is engaged with the gear wheel, while the driven gear is connected to the rack, which is fastened to the rod.

  17. Scientific and technical problems in the production of coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glushchenko, I M

    1979-05-01

    This paper lists several scientific and technological problems facing the producers of coke in the future. The demand for coke on the world market is steadily increasing despite the efforts of metallurgists to find non-coke methods of ore smelting. The major problems are held to be the gap between very successful results of research and the lack of their application to industry, unsatisfactory coke oven construction, problems in quenching and imperfections in the formed coke process. (In Russian)

  18. Operation car for horizontal coke ovens. Bedienungswagen fuer waagrechte Verkokungsoefen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwasnik, H J; Piduch, H G

    1981-07-30

    An operation car which is driveable on the coke side of a coke oven battery is described. The operation car is equipped with a door lifter, a door and frame cleaner, a coke guiding grid and a collection hood for emissions developed on coke pushing. The car has a portal construction and it is driveable on both sides of the path of the coke receiving car. The operation has a considerable lower weight than usual cars. (HGOE).

  19. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2003-09-26

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  20. New and revised standards for coke production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.A. Kotsyuba; M.I. Alpatov; Y.G. Shapoval [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    The need for new and revised standards for coke production in Ukraine and Russia is outlined. Such standards should address improvements in plant operation, working conditions, environmental protection, energy conservation, fire and explosion safety, and economic indices.

  1. Using helical compressors for coke gas condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Privalov, V E; Rezunenko, Yu I; Lelyanov, N V; Zarnitzkii, G Eh; Gordienko, A A; Derebenko, I F; Venzhega, A G; Leonov, N P; Gorokhov, N N

    1982-08-01

    Coke oven gas compression is discussed. Presently used multilevel piston compressors are criticized. The paper recommends using helical machines which combine advantages of using volume condensing compressors and compact high-efficiency centrifugal machines. Two kinds of helical compressors are evaluated: dry and oil-filled; their productivities and coke oven gas chemical composition are analyzed. Experiments using helical compressors were undertaken at the Yasinovskii plant. Flowsheet of the installation is shown. Performance results are given in a table. For all operating conditions content of insolubles in oil compounds is found to be lower than the acceptable value (0.08%). Compressor productivity measurements with variable manifold pressure are evaluated. Figures obtained show that efficient condensation of raw coke oven gas is possible. Increasing oil-filled compressor productivity is recommended by decreasing amount of oil injected and simultaneously increasing rotation speed. The dry helical compressor with water seal is found to be most promising for raw coke oven gas condensation. (10 refs.)

  2. Gasification of oil sand coke: review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E. [IMAF Group, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1998-08-01

    The production of synthetic crude from the tar sands in Western Canada has been steadily increasing. Most of the delayed coke produced by Suncor is combusted on site, whereas all fluid coke produced by Syncrude is stockpiled.The database on the chemical and physical properties of the oil sand coke, including the composition and fusion properties of the mineral matter, has been established. The reactivity of the coke was determined by oxygen chemisorption, fixed bed and fluid bed bench scale gasification and pilot plant gasification. The reactivity of the oil sand coke for gasification is rather low and comparable to high rank coals, such as anthracite. Slurrability tests revealed that a solid concentration in water, approaching 70 wt%, can be achieved. Gasification is the front runner among clean technologies for the conversion of carbonaceous solids to useful products. Several commercial gasifiers are available to cover the wide range of severity. Because of the low reactivity of oil sands coke, high severity conditions are required to achieve high gasification conversion. Such conditions can be attained in entrained bed gasifiers. Gasifiers employing both dry and slurry feeding systems are suitable. A high efficiency, low SO{sub x} and NO{sub x} emissions, as well as a low solid waste production are among the key advantages of the gasification technology compared with thecompeting technologies. Commercial gasification of oil sands coke is delayed because of the availability of natural gas on the site of the upgrading plants. Potential for the transportation of the oil sand coke to USA for electricity generation using the integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology was evaluated. 27 refs., 17 figs., 9 tabs.

  3. Advanced coking process control at Rautaruukki Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritamaki, O.; Luhtaniemi, H. [Rautaruukki Engineering (Finland)

    1999-12-01

    The paper presents the latest development of the Coking Process Management System (CPMS) at Raahe Steel. The latest third generation system is based on the previous system with the addition of fuzzy logic controllers. (The previous second generation system was based simultaneous feed forward and feedback control.) The system development has resulted in balanced coke oven battery heating, decreased variation in process regulation between shifts and increase of process information for operators. The economic results are very satisfactory. 7 figs.

  4. Polish scenery of coking industry activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, H.

    1994-01-01

    The cooking industry in Poland and the world depends on conditions of iron and steel industry. Nowadays it is observed depression of this industry. On the other hand it is occurred a strong public pressure to reduce pollution by coking works. It is known that modernizing enterprises need a great deal of funds, but they are necessary, in order to keep coking industry on market. (author). 2 tabs

  5. Method of determining coking temperature of coke. [Experimental method of determining final coking temperature using a small sample and calibration graph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mel' nichuk, A.Yu.; Bondarenko, A.K.; Fialkov, B.S.; Khegay, L.U.; Khvan, L.A.; Muzyzhuk, V.D.; Zakharov, A.G.; Zelenskiy, V.P.

    1985-01-01

    The coking temperature of coke should be determined from the magnitude of the ionization current of the medium during heating (3/sup 0//min) of a coke sample (2 g, fraction < 0.2 mm) in an oxidation medium with air supply (1 1/min). The coking temperature is determined from the maximum magnitude of current using a graduated graph constructed during analysis of coke samples obtained with different final coking temperatures. The discrepancy between the established coking temperature and that defined from the proposed method is 8-19/sup 0/, and that defined from electrical resistance of coke is 26-43/sup 0/. In addition to high accuracy, this method reduces the time outlays for making the analysis.

  6. Special analyses reveal coke-deposit structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, L.F.

    1988-01-01

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDAX) have been used to obtain information that clarifies the three mechanisms of coke formation in ethylene furnaces, and to analyze the metal condition at the exit of furnace. The results can be used to examine furnace operations and develop improved ethylene plant practices. In this first of four articles on the analyses of coke and metal samples, the coking mechanisms and coke deposits in a section of tube from an actual ethylene furnace (Furnace A) from a plant on the Texas Gulf Coast are discussed. The second articles in the series will analyze the condition of the tube metal in the same furnace. To show how coke deposition and metal condition dependent on the operating parameters of an ethylene furnace, the third article in the series will show the coke deposition in a Texas Gulf Coast furnace tube (Furnace B) that operated at shorter residence time. The fourth article discusses the metal condition in that furnace. Some recommendations, based on the analyses and findings, are offered in the fourth article that could help extend the life of ethylene furnace tubes, and also improve overall ethylene plant operations

  7. Flower Still Life, Maria Van Oosterwijck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtrop, Emily

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes the life of Maria van Oosterwijck. It also discusses her art and its significance and symbolism. A list of suggested activities for elementary, middle, and high school students is included.

  8. Hula Black - Eesti haute couture / Maria Ulfsak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ulfsak, Maria, 1981-

    2003-01-01

    Esitleti uut Hula noortekomplekti Black, mille autorid on Anu Lensmant, Marit Ahven, Reet Ulfsak, Eve Hanson, Ruta Tepp, Ketlin Bachmann ja ehtekunstnikud Andrus Rumm, Julia-Maria Pihlak, Tanel Veenre

  9. Hydrotreating catalyst deactivation by coke from SRC-II oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Kumata, F.; Massoth, F.E.

    1988-10-01

    Samples of a CoMo/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalyst were partially deactivated with SRC-II feed in an autoclave reactor to give coked samples of 5 to 18% C. The coked catalysts were analyzed for surface area, pore volume, coronene adsorption and diffusivity, and their catalytic activity determined for hydrodesulfurization (HDS), hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and C-N hydrogenolysis (CNH) using model compounds. All of the above measurements decreased with increase in coke content. Property data indicate that some pores are blocked by coke and diffusivity results show narrowing of pore mouths with increasing coke content. Catalyst deactivation versus coke level was identical for HDS and HDO, but less for CNH. A simple model of coke deactivation was developed to relate activity to coke content. Coke is envisioned as forming wedge-like deposits in the catalyst pores. 11 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Giprokoks proposals for improvement in air quality at coke battery 1A of Radlin coke plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.F. Trembach; A.G. Klimenko [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Coke battery 1A, which uses rammed batch, has gone into production at Radlin coke plant (Poland), on the basis of Giprokoks designs. Up-to-date dust-trapping methods are used for the first time within the aspiration systems in the coal-preparation shop and in improving dust collection within the production buildings.

  11. Results of tuyere coke sampling with regard to application of appropriate coke strength after reaction (CSR for a blast furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiau J-S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Raising pulverized coal injection (PCI will decrease coke rate, but increase the residence time of coke and abrasion in the blast furnace (BF. Thus, insufficient coke strength will generate more coke fines in the lower BF and result in lower permeability and production of hot metal (HM. For understanding the behavior of coke at various HM productivities, a tuyere coke sampler was used to collect the coke samples for measuring the coke strength. Firstly, the difference of sampled coke under the conditions of various HM productivities was explored. Secondly, the BF operating conditions and causes of generating more coke fines was correlated by testing the coke reaction rate after reaction. Finally, according to the above analysis results, the relative regression equations had been obtained for sampling coke properties, BF operation conditions and BF permeability. Furthermore, the coke strength after reaction (CSR quantitative target and its online system at various blast conditions were set to provide some reference for coke and HM production.

  12. Increasing efficiency of reconstruction and technological development of coking enterprises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenfel' d, M.S.; Martynenko, V.M.; Tytyuk, Yu.A.; Ivanov, V.V.; Svyatogorov, A.A.; Kolomiets, A.F. (NIISP, Voroshilovgrad (USSR))

    1989-07-01

    Discusses problems associated with reconstruction of coking plants in the USSR. Planning coking plant reconstruction is analyzed. Duration of individual stages of plant reconstruction is considered. A method developed by the Giprokoks research institute for calculating reconstruction time considering duration of individual stages of coke oven battery repair is analyzed: construction of storage facilities, transport of materials and equipment, safety requirements, coke oven cooling, dismantling, construction of coke oven walls, installation of machines and equipment. Advantages of using the methods for analysis of coke oven battery reconstruction and optimization of repair time are discussed.

  13. Ways of improving preparatory stage and reconstruction of coking plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozenfel' d, M.S.; Martynenko, V.M.; Svyatogorov, A.A.; Kvitkin, I.A.; Zhurba, A.I.; Gurtovnik, P.F.

    1987-06-01

    Discusses economic and technological aspects of coking plant reconstruction and modernization in the USSR. Effects of standardized technologies on plant reconstruction are analyzed. A standardized planning procedure jointly developed by research institutes in the USSR for plant modernization or reconstruction is discussed: selecting the optimum reconstruction and repair time, sequence of operations without stoppage of a coke oven battery, coke oven cooling, repair of coke oven liners, heating systems, coke oven equipment, drying, initial heating, testing battery equipment. The procedure is aimed at reducing coke losses and eliminating delays during reconstruction operations. A graphic method for modelling plant reconstruction is discussed.

  14. Santa and the Moon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barthel, P.

    This article reflects on the use of illustrations of the Moon in images of Santa Claus, on Christmas gift-wrapping paper and in children's books, in two countries which have been important in shaping the image of Santa Claus and his predecessor Sinterklaas: the USA and the Netherlands. The

  15. Coking coal consumption of POSCO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, B.C.

    1991-01-01

    Pohang Iron and Steel Company Limited (POSCO) was established in 1968. Molten iron was first produced in July 1973 after a 3 year construction period. The long awaited start up of Korea's first integrated steel works provided the momentum for the fast growth of our steel industry. In 1973, the first year of operation, POSCO purchased 770,000 tons of coal from the United States and Australia. The import tonnage was more than doubled in 1976 when we completed the second stage of Pohang Works and has continued to increase reaching 13.1 million tons last year. POSCO's coal consumption will increase one more time next year as the fourth stage of Kwangyang works starts to operate a new blast furnace with an annual molten iron production capacity of 2.8 million tons. Even though the new blast furnace will have the same capacity as the other 3 in Kwangyang, the additional coking coal requirement will be much smaller than the tonnages we needed for the other stages of the works. This paper reports that this is due to the increased use of pulverized coal

  16. 77 FR 15123 - Foundry Coke From China; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ... submitted by ABC Coke, Erie Coke, Tonawanda Coke Corporation, and Walter Coke Co. to be individually... Analyst... Cynthia Foreso (205-3348). Attorney Charles St. Charles (205-2782). Supervisory Investigator...

  17. Coke fouling monitoring by electrical resistivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bombardelli, Clovis; Mari, Livia Assis; Kalinowski, Hypolito Jose [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Eletrica e Informatica Industrial (CPGEI)

    2008-07-01

    An experimental method to simulate the growth of the coke fouling that occurs in the oil processing is proposed relating the thickness of the encrusted coke to its electrical resistivity. The authors suggest the use of the fouling electrical resistivity as a transducer element for determining its thickness. The sensor is basically two electrodes in an electrically isolated device where the inlay can happen in order to compose a purely resistive transducer. Such devices can be easily constructed in a simple and robust form with features capable to face the high temperatures and pressures found in relevant industrial processes. For validation, however, it is needed a relationship between the electrical resistivity and the fouling thickness, information not yet found in the literature. The present work experimentally simulates the growth of a layer of coke on an electrically insulating surface, equipped with electrodes at two extremities to measure the electrical resistivity during thermal cracking essays. The method is realized with a series of consecutive runs. The results correlate the mass of coke deposited and its electrical resistivity, and it can be used to validate the coke depositions monitoring employing the resistivity as a control parameter. (author)

  18. Maria Minerva - Eesti esimene hüpnagoogilise popi staar / Siim Nestor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nestor, Siim, 1974-

    2011-01-01

    Maria Minerva nime all tegutsevast Londonis õppivast muusikust Maria Juurest. Muusiku USA-s plaadifirma Not Not Fun poolt välja antud helikassetist Maria Minerva "Tallinn At Down" ja heliplaadist Maria Minerva "Noble Savage"

  19. Evaluation of coke microstructure and its effects on graphite fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fotourehchian, S.; Ahmadi, S.

    2001-01-01

    A variety of applications for cokes (metallurgy, petroleum, etc.) have been defined in parallel to the new industrial technology growth. Coke is rich in carbon and has the main role in manufacturing carbonaceous materials such as graphite, steel, silicon carbide, titanium carbide, etc. Among the most important applications of different variety of cokes is their usage for different graphite fabrications. The crystalline structure of graphite (hexagonal with sp 2 hybrid) is based upon the microstructure of coke and it causes anisotropy in properties of produced graphite. Thus, the study of macrostructure and anisotropy degree of cokes is of importance. There are several theoretical and experimental methods to determine the Coke's microstructure and anisotropy. Numerous tests have been conducted on different variety of cokes based on the used method. Here, it is attempted to introduce an applied method to determine the microstructure and anisotropy degree of cokes based upon the kind of application

  20. Soil fauna in forest and coffee plantations from the Sierra Nevada de Santa Mar ta, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camero R, Edgar

    2002-01-01

    Two research stations (M inca, 700 m altitude and Maria Ter esa, 790 m altitude) were established in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Mar ta in places to study the soil fauna associated with forest and coffee plantations. Soil fauna was collected using pitfall and Bailer's traps. Samples were taken from litter as well as from horizons 0, A and B. individuals collected were identified to family level. Diversity, abundance and frequency indexes were used to compare fauna composition at both sites. Significant differences were found between the two research sites as well as with data from other high altitude forest in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Mar ta

  1. La documentació del retaule de Santa María de Salas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José i Pitarch, Antoni

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is strictly documentary. Its object is to show some unpublished records —although, in some cases, their content was known— and join together a group of data obtained from the Archives about the retable of Santa Maria de Salas (Huesca, Aragon, in order to offer a first documentary "corpus".[fr] Le propos de cet article est strictement documentaire. Son objet c'est de donner à connaître quelques documents inédits —quoique, dans certain cas, son contenu était déjà connu— et grouper les donnés conservés aux Archives sur le rétable de Santa Maria de Salas (Huesca, Aragon afin d'offir un premier "corpus" documentaire.

  2. Fissure formation in coke. 3: Coke size distribution and statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.R. Jenkins; D.E. Shaw; M.R. Mahoney [CSIRO, North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Mathematical and Information Sciences

    2010-07-15

    A model of coke stabilization, based on a fundamental model of fissuring during carbonisation is used to demonstrate the applicability of the fissuring model to actual coke size distributions. The results indicate that the degree of stabilization is important in determining the size distribution. A modified form of the Weibull distribution is shown to provide a better representation of the whole coke size distribution compared to the Rosin-Rammler distribution, which is generally only fitted to the lump coke. A statistical analysis of a large number of experiments in a pilot scale coke oven shows reasonably good prediction of the coke mean size, based on parameters related to blend rank, amount of low rank coal, fluidity and ash. However, the prediction of measures of the spread of the size distribution is more problematic. The fissuring model, the size distribution representation and the statistical analysis together provide a comprehensive capability for understanding and predicting the mean size and distribution of coke lumps produced during carbonisation. 12 refs., 16 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Closed-cycle process of coke-cooling water in delayed coking unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, P.; Bai, Z.S.; Yang, Q.; Ma, J.; Wang, H.L.

    2008-01-01

    Synthesized processes are commonly used to treat coke-cooling wastewater. These include cold coke-cut water, diluting coke-cooling water, adding chemical deodorization into oily water, high-speed centrifugal separation, de-oiling and deodorization by coke adsorption, and open nature cooling. However, because of water and volatile evaporation loss, it is not suitable to process high-sulphur heavy oil using open treatments. This paper proposed a closed-cycling process in order to solve the wastewater treatment problem. The process is based on the characteristics of coke-cooling water, such as rapid parametric variation, oil-water-coke emulsification and steam-water mixing. The paper discussed the material characteristics and general idea of the study. The process of closed-cycle separation and utilization process of coke-cooling water was presented along with a process flow diagram. Several applications were presented, including a picture of hydrocyclones for pollution separation and a picture of equipments of pollution separation and components regeneration. The results showed good effect had been achieved since the coke-cooling water system was put into production in 2004. The recycling ratios for the components of the coke-cooling water were 100 per cent, and air quality in the operating area reached the requirements of the national operating site circumstance and the health standards. Calibration results of the demonstration unit were presented. It was concluded that since the devices went into operation, the function of production has been normal and stable. The operation was simple, flexible, adjustable and reliable, with significant economic efficiency and environmental benefits. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  4. Calcinating petroleum coke in a furnace with a rotating hearth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmetov, M M; Ezhov, B M; Galeeva, Z G; Goriunov, V S; Karpinskaia, N N; Zaitseva, S A

    1980-01-01

    A scheme is described for an industrial device with a bottom furnace for calcinating coke from slow coking. The consumption and operational indicators of the process during the calcination of standard and needle cokes are given, together with data on the quality of dry and calcinated cokes under different conditions. The basic drawbacks in the operation of the device are described, and measures are proposed for increasing its operational effectiveness.

  5. Mean-term forecast of coke production in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukhmylova, G.S.

    1996-01-01

    The causes of decrease in consumption of metallurgical coke in the world in the ninetieth and at the present time are analyzed. Reduction of reliable coke supply sources to the world market is noted. The data on the coke import and export in the world in 1990-1994 are presented and corresponding forecasts for 2000 and 2005 are given

  6. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk Jr., Michael; Wisecarver, Keith D.; Sheppard, Charles M.

    2003-02-07

    The coking test facilities include three reactors (or cokers) and ten utilities. Experiments were conducted using the micro-coker, pilot-coker, and stirred-batch coker. Gas products were analyzed using an on-line gas chromatograph. Liquid properties were analyzed in-house using simulated distillation (HP 5880a), high temperature gas chromatography (6890a), detailed hydrocarbon analysis, and ASTM fractionation. Coke analyses as well as feedstock analyses and some additional liquid analyses (including elemental analyses) were done off-site.

  7. Blast-furnace coke production in high capacity coke oven batteries from the viewpoint of domestic raw material resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, W

    1977-05-01

    The problem is treated in a complex manner taking into account such technological improvements as: oiling, drying, charge preheating, dry quenching of coke as well as mechanical processing of coke which taken together will give blast furnace coke of the highest quality from domestic coals.

  8. Basic characteristics of new shape formed coke in burden distribution; Shingata seikei cokes no sonyu bunpu tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichida, M; Yamamoto, T; Komaki, I; Oda, H; Matsunaga, S; Matsuzaki, S; Deno, T; Konno, N [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-01

    Basic characteristics in burden distribution and charging pattern of new shape formed coke developed in order to improve the properties of small size and low void fraction that pillow-type formed coke h s were conducted by 1/3 scale charging model and mathematical model of blast furnace. Basic characteristics, those are, inclination angle, coke-collapse and trajectory of new shape formed coke are almost the same as those of conventional coke. In the case of wall charging of new shape formed coke, until 60% of total charged coke, new shape formed coke is able to be charged without it`s rolling to the center. It is possible to apply RABIT model to new shape formed coke charging without it`s major modification. In the case of new shape formed coke wall charging, the fluctuation in furnace is supposed to be smaller than that in the case of pillow-type formed coke wall charging. Moreover, it`s center charging is supposed to be applied to actual blast furnace. More accurate estimation of in-furnace phenomena by mathematical model considering coke reactivity, is a subject to be worked out in future. 11 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver

    2005-10-01

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  10. Emission and source characterization of monoaromatic hydrocarbons from coke production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Q.S.; Wang, X.M.; Sheng, G.Y.; Fu, J.M. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou (China). State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry

    2005-09-15

    Monoaromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) from indigenous and industrial coking processes are studied in Shanxi province. They are sampled on the top of coke ovens and in the chimneys using stainless steel canister and determined by GC/MSD after preconcentration with liquid nitrogen. Benzene, toluene and xylene are the main components among MAHs emitted from coking processes. Benzene and the total MAHs concentrations were as high as 3421.0 microg/m3 and 4 865.9 microg/m3 in the air from indigenous coking, 548.7 microg/m3 and 1 054.8 microg/m3 in the oventop air from industrial coking, and 1 376.4 microg/m3 and 1 819.4 microg/m3 in stack gas from industrial coking, respectively. The MAHs concentrations vary greatly during the indigenous coking process, which in the prophase (from firing to 10 days) is obviously higher than in the anaphase (10 days to quenching the coke). In industrial coking the MAHs in the oventop air are highest when charging the coal and next when transferring the hot coke, but in stack gas they are highest when charging coal and lowest when transferring the coke. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) in industrial coking samples show good linearity, indicating that MAHs in industrial coking might come predominantly from coal pyrolysis; but BTEX distribute dispersedly in indigenous coking samples, indicating that its emission might be affected by many factors. In all samples BTEX ratios especially high B/E ratio, is unique among MAHs sources, and might be helpful to characterize pollution from coking.

  11. [Emission and source characterization of monoaromatic hydrocarbons from coke production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiu-Sheng; Wang, Xin-Ming; Sheng, Guo-Ying; Fu, Jia-Mo

    2005-09-01

    Monoaromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) from indigenous and industrial coking processes are studied in Shanxi province. They are sampled on the top of coke ovens and in the chimneys using stainless steel canister and determined by GC/MSD after preconcentration with liquid nitrogen. Benzene, toluene and xylene are the main components among MAHs emitted from coking processes. Benzene and the total MAHs concentrations were as high as 3421.0 microg/m3 and 4 865.9 microg/m3 in the air from indigenous coking, 548.7 microg/m3 and 1 054.8 microg/m3 in the oventop air from industrial coking, and 1 376.4 microg/m3 and 1 819.4 microg/m3 in stack gas from industrial coking, respectively. The MAHs concentrations vary greatly during the indigenous coking process, which in the prophase (from firing to 10 days) is obviously higher than in the anaphase (10 days to quenching the coke). In industrial coking the MAHs in the oventop air are highest when charging the coal and next when transferring the hot coke, but in stack gas they are highest when charging coal and lowest when transferring the coke. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) in industrial coking samples show good linearity, indicating that MAHs in industrial coking might come predominantly from coal pyrolysis; but BTEX distribute dispersedly in indigenous coking samples, indicating that its emission might be affected by many factors. In all samples BTEX ratios especially high B/E ratio, is unique among MAHs sources, and might be helpful to characterize pollution from coking.

  12. Reducing dust emissions at OAO Alchevskkoks coke battery 10A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.F. Trembach; E.N. Lanina [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Coke battery 10A with rammed batch is under construction at OAO Alchevskkoks. The design documentation developed by Giprokoks includes measures for reducing dust emissions to the atmosphere. Aspiration systems with dry dust trapping are employed in the new components of coke battery 10A and in the existing coke-sorting equipment. Two-stage purification of dusty air in cyclones and bag filters is employed for the coke-sorting equipment. This system considerably reduces coke-dust emissions to the atmosphere.

  13. 77 FR 32998 - Foundry Coke From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United... China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the... Publication 4326 (May 2012), entitled Foundry Coke from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-891 (Second Review...

  14. Water protection in coke-plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.I. Alekseev [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Wastewater generation, water consumption, and water management at coke plants are considered. Measures to create runoff-free water-supply and sewer systems are discussed. Filters for water purification, corrosion inhibitors, and biocides are described. An integrated single-phase technology for the removal of phenols, thiocyanides, and ammoniacal nitrogen is outlined.

  15. Alternative method for assessing coking coal plasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dzuy Nguyen; Susan Woodhouse; Merrick Mahoney [University of Adelaide (Australia). BHP Billiton Newcastle Technology Centre

    2008-07-15

    Traditional plasticity measurements for coal have a number of limitations associated with the reproducibility of the tests and their use in predicting coking behaviour. This report reviews alternative rheological methods for characterising the plastic behaviour of coking coals. It reviews the application of more fundamental rheological measurements to the coal system as well as reviewing applications of rheology to other physical systems. These systems may act as potential models for the application of fundamental rheological measurements to cokemaking. The systems considered were polymer melts, coal ash melts, lava, bread making and ice cream. These systems were chosen because they exhibit some physically equivalent processes to the processes occurring during cokemaking, eg, the generation of bubbles within a softened system that then resolidifies. A number of recommendations were made; the steady and oscillatory shear squeeze flow techniques be further investigated to determine if the measured rheology characteristics are related to transformations within the coke oven and the characteristics of resultant coke; modification of Gieseler plastometers for more fundamental rheology measurements not be attempted.

  16. The impact of liquid-liquid-vapour phase behaviour on coke formation from model coke precusors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minicucci, D.; Shaw, J.M. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2000-08-01

    Catalysts used in the hydroprocessing of heavy feedstocks deactivate due to coke deposition. Although the mechanism for coke formation is not fully understood, condensation reactions of polynuclear aromatic compounds present in the feeds are a key aspect. The effect of coke deposition on catalyst performance is typically modelled using accelerated aging agents comprising model coke precursors. Mixtures employed in such studies polynuclear aromatic compounds such as anthracene as the coke precursor, and long chain alkanes such as hexadecane as a diluent. We show in this paper that binary and pseudo binary mixtures of polynuclear aromatic compounds and n-alkanes present TYPE II, TYPE IV, or TYPE III phase behaviour according to the van Konynenburg and Scott (1980) phase projection nomenclature, Incubation periods and the apparent autocatalytic effects associated with coke deposition in such systems are explained through a combination of high temperature phase equilibrium experiments and computations with the model systems n-alkane + anthracene + hydrogen, n-alkane + pyrene + hydrogen, and n-alkane + dibenzo[a,k]chrysene + hydrogen. (au)

  17. Nitrogen Chemistry and Coke Transformation of FCC Coked Catalyst during the Regeneration Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junjun; Guan, Jianyu; Guo, Dawei; Zhang, Jiushun; France, Liam John; Wang, Lefu; Li, Xuehui

    2016-06-01

    Regeneration of the coked catalyst is an important process of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) in petroleum refining, however, this process will emit environmentally harmful gases such as nitrogen and carbon oxides. Transformation of N and C containing compounds in industrial FCC coke under thermal decomposition was investigated via TPD and TPO to examine the evolved gaseous species and TGA, NMR and XPS to analyse the residual coke fraction. Two distinct regions of gas evolution are observed during TPD for the first time, and they arise from decomposition of aliphatic carbons and aromatic carbons. Three types of N species, pyrrolic N, pyridinic N and quaternary N are identified in the FCC coke, the former one is unstable and tends to be decomposed into pyridinic and quaternary N. Mechanisms of NO, CO and CO2 evolution during TPD are proposed and lattice oxygen is suggested to be an important oxygen resource. Regeneration process indicates that coke-C tends to preferentially oxidise compared with coke-N. Hence, new technology for promoting nitrogen-containing compounds conversion will benefit the in-situ reduction of NO by CO during FCC regeneration.

  18. Young employees of the coking industry for technological progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladyzhinskii, V.M.; Shul' ga, I.V.

    1986-11-01

    A conference is reported on technology development in the Soviet coking industry held on December 9-10, 1985 at the Khar'kov Scientific-Research Coal-Chemistry Institute. Representatives of leading research institutes and coking plants delivered 25 papers on the following topics: increasing flotation efficiency by means of new flotation reagents, drum feeders for charging cars, new design of coke oven doors, mathematical models of coal transport to coke ovens, some characteristics of packing coal mixtures in coke ovens, heat treatments of coal mixtures at the Khar'kov experimental coking plant, investigating properties of long-flame and gas coal from the Donbaas used for manufacturing formed coke, modernization of the IGI-DMeTI method for determining properties of coal mixtures for formed coke processes, basic problems associated with environmental protection in formed coke processes, specific problems of coal gasification at 900-1050 C and its effects on coking, evaluating properties of formed coke produced from black coal from the Western Donbass for metallurgy, mixing hot briquets with coal slurries during partial briquetting of the coal charge.

  19. Upgrading oil sands bitumen with FLUID COKING and FLEXICOKING technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamienski, P.; Phillips, G. [ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co., Fairfax, VA (United States); McKnight, C.; Rumball, B. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This presentation described EMRE's Fluid Coking and Flexicoking technologies that are well suited for upgrading Alberta's heavy crudes and oil sands bitumen into pipelineable crudes or synthetic crudes, which can be further processed into transportation fuels. The Fluid Coking technology uses a fluidized bed reactor that thermally converts the heavy oils into light gases, liquids and coke. The metals and much of the sulphur are concentrated in the coke. Combustion of the coke provides process heat and the remaining coke is sold or stored on site for later recovery. Syncrude Canada currently operates 3 Fluid Coking units in northern Alberta. Flexicoking extends fluid coking by integrating air gasification to produce a carbon monoxide/hydrogen rich fuel gas that helps meet fuel and energy requirements of bitumen recovery and upgrading. The yields of light gas and liquids are similar to those of the Fluid Coking process. The partial combustion of coke provides the process heat for the thermal conversion and gasification steps. The remaining coke is gasified and desulphurized using Flexsorb technology. At present, there are 5 Flexicoking units in operation around the world. Interest in the technology is growing, particularly in locations with large demand for clean fuel or electricity. It is also suitable for steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) operations in Alberta. This presentation outlined the operating principles of the Flexicoking integrated gasification system and compared it with more expensive oxygen gasification processes. tabs., figs.

  20. Gasification reactivities of cokes derived from Athabasca bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furimsky, E.

    1985-10-01

    Gasification reactivities of cokes obtained from Athabasca bitumen by delayed coking and fluid coking were compared in fixed and fluidized bed systems. In both systems the C + O/sub 2/ reaction accounted for the most of converted carbon. The C + H/sub 2/O reaction proceeded to a smaller extent. The bulk reactivity of the fluid coke was higher than that of delayed coke, when comparing -20 to +60 mesh particles in fluidized bed and -14 to +20 mesh particles in fixed bed, respectively. However, the reactivity of the delayed coke expressed per unit of surface area was markedly higher than that of the fluid coke. 9 figs., 7 tabs., 6 refs. (A.V.)

  1. Analysis of industrial coke samples by activation with cyclotron protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhri, M.A.; Lee, M.M.; Spicer, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    A Melbourne Petrochemical Company was experiencing excessive coke formation in its ''cracking furnaces'', which was causing unnecessary stoppage of production and wastage of energy due to additional insulation. In order to investigate the possible causes of this excessive coke formation, we analyzed various coke samples and other coke-like materials obtained from these furnaces by activation with cyclotron-protons. Our results showed that, out of the two suspected coke promoters As and Sb whose small concentration in feed would produce greatly accelerated coke formation, As could not be detected in any of the eight samples investigated, while Sb was present in only one sample. However, we did observe Ca, Cr and Fe in all the samples, with surprisingly high concentrations in some of them. It has, therefore, been suggested that Ca, and perhaps Cr and Fe, but not As or Sb, could have been responsible for the excessive coke formation in the ''cracking furnaces''

  2. Fluid coking : a competitive option for heavy feed processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, D.G.; Feinberg, A.S.; McCaffrey, D.S.

    1997-01-01

    Fluid coking is a proven thermal conversion process for converting heavy hydrocarbon feeds to lighter products. Fluid coking was commercialized by Exxon over 40 years ago. A total of 13 units have been built with over 330 years of cumulative operating experience. Fluid coking can process many different feeds at once and is usually insensitive to feed contaminants such as sulfur, nitrogen and metals. New developments in coke utilization and flue gas desulfurization/departiculation have prompted new economic studies. Fluid coking is competitive and is the most attractive option compared to delayed coking, particularly for very heavy feed stocks such as deasphalter bottoms. Viewgraphs describe the fluid coking process, its advantages, utilization, and commercial viability. 7 tabs., 3 figs

  3. Maria Sklodowska-Curie - scientist, friend, manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavchev, A.

    2009-01-01

    Great names in science represent an inexhaustible source and richness of inspiration, satisfaction and consolation, a moving and victorious force. Throughout her exemplifying life, Maria Sklodowska remained modest but with a keen sense of humor, of an outstanding style, a mine of knowledge and experience, of innovative ideas and a rich inner life. Full of love, of passion to give and to share, of natural optimism, mixed with a light melancholy, so typical for sages. She vehemently defended the love of scientific research, of the spirit of adventure and entrepreneurship and fought for international culture, for the protection of personality and talent. Maria Sklodowska left her passion to science, her dedication to work including education and training of young people, her passionate adherence to her family, her belief in her friends, her pure and profound humanity and warmth! The paper should be a homage to her, an appreciation of her work over the years, but not less a correspondence, a conversation with her! On the other hand, the present solemn occasion resuscitates the personalities of Maria and Pierre Curie and their work, in particular of Maria Sklodowska in her own native land! In this manner, it truly contributes to her immortality!

  4. What is Estonian sound art? / Maria Juur

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juur, Maria, 1988-

    2011-01-01

    Eesti helikunstist, kunstnikest ja nende töödest. Maria Juure Eesti Kunstiakadeemia Kunstiteaduse Instituudi lõputöö teema oli "Helikunsti määratlemine ja spetsiifika. Erinevad lähenemised helile Eesti uuemas kunstis" (2010)

  5. Maria Rubies I Garrofe (1932-1993)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baste, Carme Amoros

    2004-01-01

    This article profiles educator Maria Rubies I Garrofe. Rubies was a woman committed to education and the reconstruction of her country, Spain, equipped solely with the force of her convictions and her faith in dialogue. It is difficult to separate her personal commitment from her educational, social and political commitment. From the very outset…

  6. Eesti seep saab hoo sisse / Maria Ulfsak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ulfsak, Maria, 1981-

    2003-01-01

    Kanal 2s algab uus kodumaine komöödiasari "Õpetajate tuba", mille käsikiri on Peep Pedmansonilt, lavastus Ivo Eensalult, näitlejad on Ita Ever, Eino Baskin, Madis Milling, Henrik Normann, Maria Klenskaja, Margus Tabor jt., tootjafirmaks "Ruut"

  7. The American Odyssey of Maria Montessori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornegay, William

    Dr. Maria Montessori's 1913 visit and lecture tour to the United SLates is described in detail with numerous citations from newspaper coverage of the event. The enthusiastic reception extended to the European physician and educator is reviewed, and her meetings, notably with Mr. and Mrs. Alexander Graham Bell, President and Mrs. Woodrow Wilson,…

  8. Chevron's Panna Maria mill process description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Key features of Chevron's Uranium Mill located near Panna Maria, Texas, are described. The mill is designed to process a nominal 2500 dry tons/day of uranium bearing ore containing 15% uncombined moisture. The following operations at the mill are highlighted: ore receiving, grinding, leaching, countercurrent decantation and tailings disposal, filtering, solvent extraction, solvent stripping, precipitation, drying, and packaging

  9. Kerjav kunstnik / Anna Hints, Maria Rõhu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hints, Anna, 1982-

    2011-01-01

    Tallinna Linnagaleriis oli 17.03.-10.04.2011 avatud Anna Hintsi ja Maria Rõhu näitus "Nälg". Autorid näituse taotlusest, raha taotlemisest, aktsioonist "Kerjav kunstnik", külastajate suhtumisest sellesse. Näituse aruanne

  10. Bioanalysis young investigator: Maria Rambla-Alegre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambla-Alegre, Maria

    2012-06-01

    Maria Rambla-Alegre obtained the European doctorate in March 2011, with the maximum qualification: Excellent "Cum Laude", and has already published 33 articles in reputable scientific journals, presented 61 communications in international symposia, participated in nine research projects, as well as received several awards since 2006. Nowadays, Maria is contracted at Ghent University (Belgium) where she is completing a post-doc. During the time I have known her, I have frequently been impressed by her exceptional capabilities to quickly learn new skills to develop and validate new liquid chromatographic procedures, and by her constant initiative to bring together innovative analytical methods. Maria has always adopted a positive, critical view and shows eagerness to better herself. Besides her exceptional knowledge in LC, she has a sound scientific background in capillary electrophoresis, GC, sample preparation and optimization procedures that allows her to complement her investigations and has resulted in significant papers in the analytical chemistry field. Our research group has greatly benefited from Maria's capabilities, as can be seen in recent publications in the Journal of Chromatography A, Talanta, Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry and other specialized journals that directly represent her work, mainly as corresponding author. It is extremely remarkable that she has published a review of her PhD results. Not everyone has the possibility to publish it. This is a clear sign of the high quality of her research. Compared to other fellows that I have supervised, Maria is undoubtedly the best one. I can, beyond all doubt, give a score of 10/10 to the quality of her research activity. Finally, I would personally like to add that she is an outstanding, serious, independent thinker who is always well informed about the topics she tackles. Maria is also very friendly, a good worker and always willing to help others, which has been a most positive characteristic

  11. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Donald L. Toman; Christopher J. Zygarlicke

    1999-09-01

    Petroleum coke, a byproduct of the petroleum-refining process, is an attractive primary or supplemental fuel for power production primarily because of a progressive and predictable increase in the production volumes of petroleum coke (1, 2). Petroleum coke is most commonly blended with coal in proportions suitable to meet sulfur emission compliance. Petroleum coke is generally less reactive than coal; therefore, the cofiring of petroleum coke with coal typically improves ignition, flame stability, and carbon loss relative to the combustion of petroleum coke alone. Although petroleum coke is a desirable fuel for producing relatively inexpensive electrical power, concerns about the effects of petroleum coke blending on combustion and pollution control processes exist in the coal-fired utility industry (3). The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) completed a 2-year technical assessment of petroleum coke as a supplemental fuel. A survey questionnaire was sent to seven electric utility companies that are currently cofiring coal and petroleum coke in an effort to solicit specific suggestions on research needs and fuel selections. An example of the letter and survey questionnaire is presented in Appendix A. Interest was expressed by most utilities in evaluating the effects of petroleum coke blending on grindability, combustion reactivity, fouling, slagging, and fly ash emissions control. Unexpectedly, concern over corrosion was not expressed by the utilities contacted. Although all seven utilities responded to the question, only two utilities, Northern States Power Company (NSP) and Ameren, sent fuels to the EERC for evaluation. Both utilities sent subbituminous coals from the Power River Basin and petroleum shot coke samples. Petroleum shot coke is produced unintentionally during operational upsets in the petroleum refining process. This report evaluates the effects of petroleum shot coke blending on grindability, fuel reactivity, fouling/slagging, and

  12. Coking coal of Checua Lenguazaque area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arboleda Otalora, Carlos Ariel

    1987-06-01

    In this report a summary of the main characteristics of the coal of the area of Checua-Samaca is presented. Using the main works carried out on this area, the most important geologic, physical-chemical, technological and petrographic aspects are compiled that are considered essential to carry out a technical evaluation of these coal and all the analyses they take to conclude that in this area, bituminous coal are presented with very good coking properties, on the other hand, it is demonstrated by the use that is given to the coal extracted by the small existent mining. However, keeping in mind the demands of the international market of the coking coal, it becomes necessary to improve the existent geologic information to be able to make reliable stratigraphic correlations

  13. South Bank Coke Ovens heating performance improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, A.J. [South Bank Coke Ovens (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    The coke oven batteries at South Bank Coke Ovens had a history of refractory failure, overheating, and poor environmental performance despite repeated attempts to solve the problem. The fundamental design was poor, but previous upgrade attempts had a history of short term improvements followed by renewed decline, suggesting that the problem may not merely with the equipment. An audit of the area showed multiple morale, equipment and communications problems, although a significant proportion of the workforce were interested in improving the situation. A group of those interested in performance improvements was called together and objectives agreed upon. Communications were upgraded and problem walls analysed for their particular weaknesses. A team approach was used for maintenance, leading to slowly improving pushing emission factors. Temperature control equipment ensured better environmental performance and lower electricity consumption. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Characterisation of coking activity during supercritical hydrocarbon pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gascoin, Nicolas; Gillard, Philippe; Bernard, Stephane [Laboratoire Energetique, Explosion, Structure, UPRES-EA 1205, 63, avenue de Lattre de Tassigny, 18020 Bourges Cedex (France); Bouchez, Marc [MBDA France, 8, rue Le Brix, 18000 Bourges (France)

    2008-12-15

    The active cooling of the Supersonic Combustion Ramjet engine, for hypersonic flight purpose, is ensured thanks to fuel, n-dodecane for the present study. The endothermic fuel pyrolysis, starting above 800 K, could generate an unwanted coke formation. Experimental tests up to 1125 K and between 1 MPa and 6 MPa have been performed on the hydrocarbon fuel pyrolysis to evaluate the coking activity. 316L stainless steel, low carbon steel and titanium reactors have been considered. A witness of the coke formation, based on its thermal insulation and pressure loss effects, has been found. A correlation between methane production and coke deposit was found. The coke has been studied with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Energy Dispersion Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffractometer and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The porosity, the density and the permeability of the coke have been estimated. (author)

  15. Impact on surface water quality due to coke oven effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghose, M.K.; Roy, S.

    1994-01-01

    Large quantities of water are used for the quenching of hot coke and also for washing the gas produced from the coke ovens. Liquid effluents thus generated are highly polluted and are being discharged into the river Damodar without proper treatment. Four coke plants of Bharat Coking Coal Ltd.(BCCL) have been surveyed for characterization and to assess the impact on surface water quality. About 175-200 kilolitres of waste water is being generated per day by each of the coke plants. The concentration of CO, BOD, COD, TSS, phenol and cyanide in each of the coke plants were found to exceed the limits specified by pollution control board. Ammonia, oil and grease and TDS were found to be 19.33 mg/l, 7.81 mg/l, 1027.75 mg/l respectively. Types of samples collected, sampling frequencies, sample preservation and the results obtained have been discussed. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  16. Santa Fe Accelerator Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The 10th USA National Particle Accelerator Conference was hosted this year by the Los Alamos National Laboratory in Santa Fe from 21-23 March. It was a resounding success in emphasizing the ferment of activity in the accelerator field. About 900 people registered and about 500 papers were presented in invited and contributed talks and poster sessions

  17. Santa Fe Linac Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The 1981 Linear Accelerator Conference, organized by Los Alamos National Laboratory, was held from 19-23 October in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The surroundings were superb and helped to ensure a successful meeting. There were more than two hundred and twenty participants, with good representation from Japan and Western Europe

  18. Dependence of microhardness of coke on carbon content and final coking temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaloc, M.; Dvorak, P.

    1995-12-31

    At present time is important the coke-quality, tested by various methods again. The new methods of evaluation of coke quality as e.g. CSR, CRI, ACRI etc. demonstrate, that the mechanical stability parameters are in connection of microstructure of coke mass. The purpose of present paper is to investigate the dependence of microhardness on the carbon content and the final carbonisation temperature in the coal-coke series. The samples prepared experimentally in more series from different coal blends from 20{degrees}C to 1100{degrees}C were investigated both mega- and microscopically. The tests of microhardness are based on the use of the Hanemann microhardness tester. Principally this method consists in impressing the diamond pyramid into the surface of the sample. The data on the pressure applied are subtracted on the scale of load. An important factor influencing the results is the choice of the points from which the sample is to be withdrawn. The choice is dependent on the aim to be achieved. For the determination of an average microhardness it is sufficient to take sample from the middle part of the coke block representing the half width of the coking chamber. The choice of the point is also of great importance. In strong and homogeneous walls, sharply bounded, impressions can be found with a distinct diagonal cross. In thin walls the impressions are distinguished by distinct boundaries, the middle part, however, not being distinct as the pyramidal point did not penetrate the wall. Impressions providing accurate values are those distinctly bounded by a distinct diagonal cross. The walls not having been chosen correctly, the errors reveal themselves as the scattering of the points in the diagrams of microhardness.

  19. Coke breakage behaviour in relation to its structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peirce, T J; Horton, A E; Tucker, J

    1980-06-14

    The relationship between coke macrostructure and volumetric (coarse) breakage behaviour, and the manner in which both features are affected by the coal charge composition are discussed. Coke pieces which are extensively fissured fail spontaneously after only a few revolutions in the drum; coke pieces which are less fissured require an extended treatment in the drum and finally fail in a manner consistent with that of fatigue crack growth induced by repeated impact. This heterogeneity in breakage behaviour was demonstrated in terms of an abrupt change in gradient of the Weibull distribution function for the coke. Heterogeneity may be removed by fully stabilising the coke or by the use of a more energetic test method. The role of fatigue crack growth in coke breakage was studied by cutting fissures of defined depth in full stabilised coke and assessing the rate of crack growth as a function of fissure depth and fracture toughness. The form of the results was consistent with that given by the Paris-Erdogan law and the rate of crack growth (for a given stress intensity level) was shown to increase with reducing coke toughness. Explanations are suggested to account for the role of blend additives in modifying the fissured properties and fracture toughness of coke made from high-volatile coal.

  20. Briquetting and coking behavior of Bobov-Dol coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naundorf, W.

    1987-01-01

    Hard Bulgarian glance brown coal (23.2% ash content, 16% coal moisture 2.39% sulfur) was studied for its general suitability for partial black coal coke substitution in coking plants and for the possibility of producing pyrolysis briquets for coking purposes. Laboratory briquetting variants include coal briquetting without binders, with sulfite lye as binder, briquetting after partial demineralization by wet classification, briquetting of different screening fractions (0 to 4 mm), briquetting as a mixture with type 35 caking black coal as well as mixed with type 34 less caking black coal under addition of black coal tar, pitch or bitumen. Coking of the briquets produced was carried at with and without charge compacting. Graphs and tables provide briquetting and coking results. It is concluded that high strength coke can be produced from this brown coal, but it can only be used commercially as heating coke due to its high ash and sulfur content. Briquetting and coking of partially demineralized brown coal in a mixture with black coal and binders resulted in suitable metallurgical coke. Maximum percentage of brown coal in the briquetting mixture was 30%. 4 refs.

  1. Process for the preparation of isotropic petroleum coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kegler, W.H.; Huyser, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of a process for preparing isotropic coke from oil residue charge. It includes blowing air into the residue until it reaches a softening temperature of around 49 to 116 deg C, the deferred coking of the residue having undergone blowing at a temperature of around 247 to 640 deg C, at a pressure between around 1.38x10 5 and 1.72x10 6 Pa, and the recovery of isotropic coke with a thermal expansion coefficient ratio under 1.5 approximately. The isotropic coke is used for preparing hexagonal graphite bars for nuclear reactor moderators [fr

  2. System for reducing emissions during coke oven charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuecker, Franz-Josef

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a process which reduces emissions from coke production in coke plants. The focus is on the charging process, which can be partly responsible for the fact that statutory emissions limits, which were originally met, are exceeded as coke plants get older. This article presents a solution in the form of a newly developed system that allows the oven charging system - the charging car - to respond to age-related changes in the geometry of a coke oven and thereby reduce the level of emissions.

  3. Full scale treatment of phenolic coke coking waste water under unsteady conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suschka, Jan [Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas, Katowice (Poland); Morel, Jacek; Mierzwinski, Stanislaw; Januszek, Ryszard [Coke Plant Przyjazn, Dabrowa Gornicza (Poland)

    1993-12-31

    Phenolic waste water from the largest coke coking plant in Poland is treated at a full technical scale. From the very beginning it became evident that very high qualitative variations in short and long periods were to be expected. For this purpose, the biological treatment plant based on activated sludge is protected through preliminary physical-chemical treatment and the results are secured by a final chemical stage of treatment. Nevertheless, improvements in the performance of the treatment plant have been found necessary to introduce. In this work, the experience gained over the last five years is described and developed improvements were presented. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Full scale treatment of phenolic coke coking waste water under unsteady conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suschka, Jan [Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas, Katowice (Poland); Morel, Jacek; Mierzwinski, Stanislaw; Januszek, Ryszard [Coke Plant Przyjazn, Dabrowa Gornicza (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Phenolic waste water from the largest coke coking plant in Poland is treated at a full technical scale. From the very beginning it became evident that very high qualitative variations in short and long periods were to be expected. For this purpose, the biological treatment plant based on activated sludge is protected through preliminary physical-chemical treatment and the results are secured by a final chemical stage of treatment. Nevertheless, improvements in the performance of the treatment plant have been found necessary to introduce. In this work, the experience gained over the last five years is described and developed improvements were presented. 3 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  5. EPA Administrative Order on Consent (AOC) with ERP Compliant Coke, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Administrative Order on Consent with ERP Compliant Coke was effective August 2016. The Walter Coke facility located in North Birmingham was purchased by ERP Compliant Coke, LLC in February 2016 out of bankruptcy proceedings.

  6. Maria Teatri gala pakkus tasemel meelelahutust / Brigitta Davidjants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Davidjants, Brigitta, 1983-

    2005-01-01

    14. veebr. andsid Maria Teatri balletisolistid Tallinna Linnahallis galakontserdi. Esinesid teatri solistid Natalja Sologub, Darja Pavlenkova, Igor Kolb, Anton Korsakov ja tõmbenumbrina reklaamitud Farukh Ruzimatov

  7. Indagini Stratigrafiche e Sistemi Informativi Architettonici: il GIS della chiesa di S. Maria in Valle Porclaneta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trizio, Ilaria

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The church of Santa Maria in Valle Porclaneta and its accessories are what remains of an ancient Benedictine monastery, built in the heart of Abruzzo region (Magliano dei Marsi, L’Aquila at the end of the XII century. Even if literature, starting from the end of XIX century, has been often interested in this architectural manufactured, the process of historical-critical knowledge of the complex revealed itself difficult due to the absence of archaeological data, the shortage of the documents and, above all, the numerous interventions of restoration that, followed during all last century, have deeply modified the original compages of it. Due to the difficulties met, the overlap between the few documental data and the data derived from the direct investigation of the structures, performed with the aid of an Architectural Informative System, made possible to hypothesize a chronological reconstruction of the principal phases of life of the monastic complex.[it] La chiesa di Santa Maria in Valle Porclaneta e i suoi ambienti accessori sono quanto resta di un antico monastero benedettino, edificato nel cuore del territorio abruzzese (Magliano dei Marsi, L’Aquila sul finire del XII secolo. Sebbene la letteratura, a partire dalla fine dell’Ottocento, si sia spesso occupata di questo manufatto, il processo di conoscenza storico-critica del complesso si è rivelato difficoltoso a causa dell’assenza di dati archeologici, della scarsità di fonti documentarie pervenute, e, soprattutto a causa del susseguirsi di numerosi interventi di restauro che, succedutisi senza soluzione di continuità per tutto il secolo scorso, ne hanno letteralmente stravolto la compagine originale. A fronte delle difficoltà incontrate, la sovrapposizione tra i pochi dati documentali e i dati derivati dall’indagine diretta delle strutture, eseguita con l’ausilio di un Sistema Informativo Architettonico ha consentito di ipotizzare una ricostruzione cronologica delle

  8. Statistical assessment of coal charge effect on metallurgical coke quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlína Pustějovská

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies coke quality. Blast furnace technique has been interested in iron ore charge; meanwhile coke was not studied because, in previous conditions, it seemed to be good enough. Nowadays, requirements for blast furnace coke has risen, especially, requirements for coke reactivity. The level of reactivity parameter is determined primarily by the composition and properties of coal mixtures for coking. The paper deals with a statistical analysis of the tightness and characteristics of the relationship between selected properties of coal mixture and coke reactivity. Software Statgraphic using both simple linear regression and multiple linear regressions was used for the calculations. Obtained regression equations provide a statistically significant prediction of the reactivity of coke, or its strength after reduction of CO2, and, thus, their subsequent management by change in composition and properties of coal mixture. There were determined indexes CSR/CRI for coke. Fifty – four results were acquired in the experimental parts where correlation between index CRI and coal components were studied. For linear regression the determinant was 55.0204%, between parameters CRI – Inertinit 21.5873%. For regression between CRI and coal components it was 31.03%. For multiple linear regression between CRI and 3 feedstock components determinant was 34.0691%. The final correlation has shown the decrease in final coke reactivity for higher ash, higher content of volatile combustible in coal increases the total coke reactivity and higher amount of inertinit in coal increases the reactivity. Generally, coke quality is significantly affected by coal processing, carbonization and maceral content of coal mixture.

  9. The Bricoke process for producing metallurgical coke in conventional ovens from blends containing a high percentage of non-coking coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, R; Munnix, K; Dellieu, J

    1980-06-01

    The article discusses the following aspects:- description of the BRICOKE process; trials in pilot plant, showing the influence of the different parameters on the coke quality and delimiting the range of the suitable non-coking coals; industrial scale trials of long term with 33% of non-coking coal briquettes in the charge; influence on the coking process as well as on the blast furnace working and increase of the output of usual coke-oven by the BRICOKE process. (11 refs.)

  10. Dry purification of aspirational air in coke-sorting systems with wet slaking of coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.F. Trembach; A.G. Klimenko [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Coke transportation after wet slaking is accompanied by the release of dust in the production building and in the surrounding atmosphere. Wet methods are traditionally used to purify very humid air. Giprokoks has developed designs for highly efficient dry dust-removal methods in such conditions.

  11. The occupational health of Santa Claus

    OpenAIRE

    Straube, Sebastian; Fan, Xiangning

    2015-01-01

    Previous publications in the field of Santa studies have not focused on health and safety issues arising from Santa?s workplace activities. However, it should be acknowledged that unique occupational hazards exist for Santa Claus. Major occupational health issues affecting Santa are discussed, along with suggestions for future research directions.

  12. Japanese coke plant follows US lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-06-01

    Nippon Steel has acquired the first licence for a US Steel/Firma Carl Still process for cleaning coke oven flushing liquor. The process is installed at 3 US Steel preheated coal batteries and is now being used at Nippon Steel's Muroran works. The process is important to the re-use of the water for quenching and is a vital first step in making the liquor harmless to the environment. It is particularly useful in plants using preheated coal where there is likely to be carry over of fine coal particles.

  13. Possibilities of using pulverized non coking coals in ironmaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijk, Olle; Mathiesen, Mihkel; Eketorp, Sven

    1977-08-01

    The use of pulverized coal in iron making suggests solutions to the mounting problems created by the increasing scarcity of coking coals, and other fossil fuels such as oil and natural gas. The unavailability of coke can be met with two principally different measures. Blast furnace coke rates can be decreased by substituting injected pulverized coal or other carbon containing fuels for part of the coke burden, and the coke itself may be substituted by formed coke. A more radical solution is to abandon the blast furnace process, and instead produce the raw iron in processes not requiring coke. Two such processes are discussed in the paper, the Inred process, developed by Boliden Kemi AB, Sweden, and the smelting reduction process by means of injection, currently being developed at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm. Both processes have potential advantages over the coke oven/sintering plant/blast furnace-complex especially concerning energy requirements and structure, but also in economical terms. The injection process seems to present a further advantage in the possibility of gasifying coal in the process, thus yielding a synthesis gas for methanol production in addition to the raw iron.

  14. Fluid coking of heavy hydrocarbons and apparatus therefor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-07-11

    A process for the conversion of hydrocarbon oils comprises injecting a plurality of streams of oil into an enlarged coking vessel containing a mass of finely divided solids, thereby, preventing agglutination of the solids, circulating the solids through an external heating zone and back to the coking vessel to maintain the vessel at a coking temperature between 850 and 1,200/sup 0/F, passing gaseous material upwardly through the coking vessel at a superficial velocity of between 0.1 and 5.0 feet per second, controlled to maintain the body of solids in a dense turbulent fluidized state, maintaining the oil within coking the vessel for a period sufficient to convert into vapors and coke, withdrawing vapors from the top of the vessel through an outlet, separating high-boiling ends from vapors, returning at least a portion of the high-boiling ends to the coking vessel for further cracking and withdrawing excess of coke formed in the process.

  15. Coke degradation by surface breakage in a modified tumble drum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litster, J D

    1987-01-01

    The surface breakage rate constant for three Australian battery cokes was measured in a specially modified tumble drum using a previously developed technique. The effect of experimental test parameters - coke size, sample mass, drum speed, lifter height and lifter number - on the surface breakage rate constant was examined. The motion of coke particles within a tumble drum was filmed in a simulation experiment with a 0.31 m diameter drum. Particles were raised on the lifters, fell and collided with the bottom of the drum. These collisions were the main source of fines (minus 1 mm) production rather than true abrasion as depicted by a rubbing, rolling action. Hence the term 'surface breakage' is more appropriate than 'abrasion' to describe the breakage process. By measuring the volume of coke carried by each lifter and the height of fall of the coke, the effect of drum speed, sample mass, lifter height and number on the rate of surface breakage was successfully explained. The surface breakage rate constant was found to be proportional to particle size to the power 0.33 for the three cokes studied. A normalized surface breakage rate constant was derived which allowed comparison of cokes with different size distributions. This parameter characterises the coke surface breakage resistance.

  16. Combustion kinetics of the coke on deactivated dehydrogenation catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luo, Sha; He, Songbo; Li, XianRu; Li, Jingqiu; Bi, Wenjun; Sun, Chenglin

    2015-01-01

    The coke combustion kinetics on the deactivated catalysts for long chain paraffin dehydrogenation was studied by the thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry (TG–DTG) technique. The amount and H/C mole ratio of the coke were determined by the TG and elemental analysis. And the

  17. Study on the Inference Factors of Huangling Coking Coal Pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Meili; Yang, Zongyi; Fan, Jinwen

    2018-01-01

    In order to reasonably and efficiently utilize Huangling coking coal resource, coal particle, heating rate, holding time, pyrolysis temperature and others factors were dicussed for the influence of those factor on Huangling coking coal pyrolysis products. Several kinds of coal blending for coking experiments were carried out with different kinds of coal such as Huangling coking coal, Xida coal with high ash low sufur, Xinghuo fat coal with hign sulfur, Zhongxingyi coking coal with high sulfur, Hucun lean coal, mixed meager and lean coal. The results shown that the optimal coal particle size distribution was 0.5~1.5mm, the optimal heating rate was 8°C/min, the optimal holding time was 15min, the optimal pyrolysis temperature was 800°C for Huangling coking coal pyrolysis, the tar yield increased from 4.7% to 11.2%. The maximum tar yield of coal blending for coking under the best single factor experiment condition was 10.65% when the proportio of Huangling coking coal was 52%.

  18. Maria Montessori a different children glance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittoria Bosna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Maria Montessori was  one of the most important female figures in the 20th-century Italian pedagogical overview. She deeply examined the child and his/her “absorbing” mind in a way that clarified the significant role played by the environment in cognitive and emotional education. Il metodo della pedagogia scientifica (1909 was her first study where she pointed out that science should analyse how the child’s personality develops in social interaction. Maria Montessori claimed children’s rights with respect to the adults’ world by underlining the traditional error -in psychological and educational terms-which used to compel the child to act not complying with his/her own nature. To this end, she organized the child’s educational context-that is the kindergarten- like an ideal place where the child could live his/her educational experiences by freely acting and by being appropriately stimulated. Montessori’s thought has led to fruitful implications related to such pedagogical topics as those currently tackled in contemporary pedagogy: i.e.: the relation between environment and education, the  organization of the teaching and  learning process, the use of procedures, methodologies and materials designed for a relevant pedagogical intervention.How to reference this articleBosna, V. (2015. Maria Montessori uno sguardo diverso sull’infanzia. Foro de Educación, 13(18, pp. 37-50. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.14516/fde.2015.013.018.002 

  19. Il periodo indiano di Maria Montessori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Cives

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available On Maria Montessori (1870-1952, Italian educator of the twentieth century the most successful in the world, there is, also a growing if belated, interest in more recent times also in Italy. So to confine ourselves to two thousand years, studies have appeared on his life and works of great interest, finally showing that its value is recognized beyond resistance of the idealistic and Catholic area survived for a long time. The author investigates these new frontiers of research on the Montessori starting from a new biography dedicated to her which gives attention also to the Indian period.

  20. Coke formation on hydrodesulphurization catalysts. [Including effects of different promoters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ternan, M.; Furimsky, E.; Parsons, B.I.

    1979-02-01

    The extent of coke formation was measured on a number of different hydrodesulfurization catalysts, primarily as a function of the catalyst chemical composition. Variations in the concentration of MoO/sub 3/ on the alumina, the type of catalyst promoter, the promoter/MoO/sub 3/ ratio, the presulfiding material and the reaction temperature were made. Increases in the reaction rate caused by either changes in the catalyst composition or by moderate changes in the reaction temperature were compared to the catalyst coke content. It was suggested that two types of coke were present on the catalyst, a reactive coke which is subsequently converted to reaction products and an unreactive coke which blocks catalytic sites.

  1. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer amd magnetometer survey: Santa Maria. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Fourteen uranium amonalies meet the minimum statistical requirements as defined in Volume I. These anomalies are tabulated and are shown on the uranium anomaly interpretation map, together with the interpretation of the magnetic data

  2. Study of copper extraction in mineral from La Virgen, Santa Maria de la Cabeza (Jaen)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batuecas Rodriguez, T.; Sanz Garcia, H.; Urgell Comas, M.; Perez Bustamante, J. A.; Sevilla Benito, A.; Cruz Castillo, F. de la; Fernandez Cellini, R.

    1957-01-01

    Extraction conditions of copper are studied by leaching in an acid medium. The mineral is from the ore La Virgen in the mining area Sta. M. de la Cabeza, proprietor the JEN. From obtained results a previous toasting of the mineral is considered to be convenient, and after an attack of it while hot and with a 5% sulphuric acid approximately. the use of different acids in place of sulphuric as leaching agents does not affect the efficiency manifestly in the copper extraction. (Author) 13 refs

  3. Développement économique local à Catacamas et à Santa Maria ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le volet recherche consistera en une étude de cas du processus menée sous la houlette de la Red de Desarrollo Sostenible (réseau pour un développement durable) du Honduras. Les leçons tirées de l'exécution du projet pourront ensuite être transmises à d'autres initiatives de développement économique local du pays.

  4. [The activities of Santa Maria Della Scala through 1318 status and its frescoes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinault, Claire

    2002-01-01

    Siena's Hospital was created in the 10th or 11th century, and still owns a rich documentation of his history, stored at the city's state Archives the general organization of the Hospital in the 14th century is accurately described in the 1318 statue. Moreover, during the 15th century frescoes representing its activities were commissioned by the Hospital. They decorated the Pellegrinaio, the main room and the infirmary. The comparison of these two sources from different periods enables us to ask ourselves why the hospital felt compelled to issue what could appear as redundant illustration of the hospital activities.

  5. Microscopic characterisation of old mortars from the Santa Maria Church in Evora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adriano, P.; Santos Silva, A.; Veiga, R.; Mirao, J.; Candeias, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    Evora Cathedral (one of the most emblematic monuments of Evora - Portugal) has suffered several conservation and restoration interventions through the ages, without, however, any type of previous knowledge about mortars and materials used. This work was carried out in order to identify the mortar's composition in different locations, which were attributed to different construction or conservation periods. The characterisation methodology involved a multidisciplinary set of chemical, physical, microstructural and mechanical techniques, and gave special attention to the use of microstructural characterisation techniques, particularly petrographical analysis and scanning electron microscopy for the identification of the mortar's constituents as well as in the evaluation of the state of conservation. The test results showed that two types of aerial binders were used, dolomitic and calcitic limes, the former being predominant. The aggregates used have a siliceous nature and are similar in composition to the granodiorites of the region around Evora. The mortars differ in the aggregate contents and, in some cases, crushed bricks were used as an additive.

  6. Occupational exposure at Santa Maria de Garona nuclear power station 1971-1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Puebla, J.C.O.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents in its first part the evolution of occupational exposure from plant start-up in May 1971. Also, and in order to obtain standardization of results, correlations with gross energy generated and man-hours worked in the periods in question are presented. From the joint study of these data and the evolution of the radiation levels in various areas of the plan, the tendency may be foreseen. The second part presents some generic resources which would allow the reduction of occupational dose in a nuclear power plant in operation

  7. Santa Maria de Garona: ten years of experience under commercial operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, J.L.

    1981-10-01

    The problems encountered during the operation of this Spanish nuclear power plant are in the author's view similar to those in other counters. The great development in nuclear technology has not always been reflected in the applicable legislation. Also, the diversity of provisions on transport, the environment, public health etc. must be closely studied for correct application. The lengthy procedure for obtaining licences is also described as are problems of supply contracts with foreign firms. Finally, nuclear third party liability questions in the context of the Paris Convention and domestic regulations on transport are analysed in details. (NEA) [fr

  8. A new method for manufacturing ICEM form coke and its coking in slanted furnaces. Part II. Obtaining ICEM form coke in slanted furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbu, I; Coposescu, V; Kost, J; Manolescu, A; Michailidis, N; Solceriu, R; Stoicoi, A

    1978-01-01

    An engineering scheme of the process is given, together with the characteristics of the chamber furnaces with an inclined hearth and the quality of the coke obtained in the industrial assembly at a gas factory. The assembly consists of 56 chamber furnaces with a volume up to 10 cubic meters. The height of the chambers is 4000 mm on one side and 4295 mm on the other with a length of 7500 mm and a width of 360-480 mm. The heating temperature is 1200/sup 0/, and the coking time is 22-24 hours. The annual production of the batteries for metallurgical coke is 90 thousand tons, and the average strength of the coke is M40-66.0; M10-15.51.

  9. Utilization of HSC-ROSE residue as coking aid for the production of high quality coke from brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohlmann, D.; Limmer, H.; Naundorf, W.; Hood, R.L.; Washimi, K. (VEB Petrolchemisches Kombinat, Schwedt (German Democratic Republic))

    1989-04-01

    Evaluates suitability of HSC-ROSE petroleum pitch as binder for production of brown coal coke. This pitch has been available in the GDR since installation in 1988 of a 750 kt/a HSC (high conversion soaker cracking) plant, which processes 360 C visbreaker residue from Soviet crude oil, and the building of a ROSE (residue oil supercritical reaction) plant. Laboratory as well as semi-industrial experiments were carried out at the Freiberg Academy, GDR on pulverizing, briquetting and coking various brown coal types with HSC-ROSE pitch. Briquetting and coking results are shown in tables. Experiments showed that the resulting coke has 124% higher compression strength and 100% higher abrasion strength than regular brown coal coke without HSC-ROSE binder. The high quality coke is adequate for use as metallurgical blast furnace coke. An economic assessment of modifying an existing brown coal coking plant to process 2 Mt/a brown coal with 10% pitch binder is made. Required investment amounts to 54 million US dollars, estimated annual profits based on 1987 prices are 19.5 million US dollars. 4 refs.

  10. Furnace coking simulations in a laboratory apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, Paul [Champion Technologies Inc (United States)], email: paul.eaton@champ-tech.com; Newman, Bruce [ConocoPhillips (United States)], email: Bruce.A.Newman@conocophillips.com; Gray, Murray; Kubis, Alan; Derakhshesh, Marzie; Holt, Chris; Mitlin, David [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This work deals with simulating fouling behavior of crude oil in a delayed coker furnace. Fouling on different heated metal probes was investigated; these were mainly stainless steel, iron, or mild steel probes. Heat transfer theory was used to calculate the system fouling factor, and this parameter was recorded as a function of time to model in-situ fouling intensity. Physical and chemical properties such as buildup thickness and composition were investigated using different measuring techniques, most important of which were extractive-iron-nickel ion chromatography, optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron dispersion spectroscopy (EDS). Changes in surface layers of the metallic probe during coke formation along with microstructures of the coke were examined using a focused-ion beam (FIB). It was shown that the iron probe exhibited more buildups on its surface than stainless steels, and fouling of mild steel came in between. As for oils with different concentrations, fouling of diluted atmospheric tower bottom (ATB) was greater than that of undiluted ATP.

  11. Influence of rubber granulate in the coal blend on important process parameters of the coking plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Winter; K. Pilz; A. Gahleitner; G. Woisetschlaeger; Monika Friedl [Voestalpine Stahl GmbH (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The talk is outlined in a series of 14 slides/overheads. It discusses the use of scrapped tires in coking plant and traces the amount of zinc present in every product of the coking plant, blast furnaces and sintering plant - coke, coke breeze, sinter and waste water produced.

  12. Effect of nut coke on the performance of the ironmaking blast furnace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Q.

    2013-01-01

    The blast furnace consumes a large amount of high quality metallurgy coke (size 35-80 mm) in addition to ore in the form of pellets and sinter. This coke is the coarse fraction, derived from the coke plant. The fine fraction (8 -35 mm), arise after sieving, named nut coke, can’t be directly used in

  13. The reaction of Polish market to last year's changes on international coke and steel market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czornik, G.; Gabriel, D. [Polski Koks S.A. (Poland)

    2004-07-01

    The presentation, outlined in 16 slides/overheads, discussed the following: Poland's position in the world market; the Polish coking industry and the world coke and steel industry; the reaction of Polish coke plants; the effect of the increase in coke prices; ownership changes in Poland's coking industry scenarios for the future; the role of Polski Koks in Poland's coking industry; and sales and exports of coke by Polski Koks.

  14. Coking industry of China (conclusion of visit to People's Republic of China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sklyar, M.G. (NPO Koksokhimiya (USSR))

    1990-12-01

    Presents a report on the coking industry in China, in particular, research programs on coking. The report was prepared by Soviet specialists who visited China in March 1990 within the framework of an exchange program. The following aspects are discussed: characteristics of iron metallurgy and the coking industry in China, research institutes that specialize in problems of iron metallurgy and coking, main research programs of Chinese research institutes (development of a 12-category classification of black coal from China, coal preparation prior to coking including selective crushing, formed coke processes, quality of the products of bituminous coal coking, coal gasification and hydrogenation), installations used for research programs in China (delayed coking of black coal, hydrogenation of long-flame coal, coal briquetting), characteristics of selected coking plants in China, training for specialists in the coking industry in China.

  15. Surface structure and oxidation reactivity of oil sand coke particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbridge, C.; Palmer, A.D.; Ng, S.H.; Furimsky, E.

    1987-05-01

    Fractions of particles of varying mean diameter were isolated from coke obtained from the fluid coking of Athabasca bitumen. Correlations were established between the rate of oxygen sorption and the apparent surface area as measured by carbon dioxide adsorption. The rate of oxygen sorption, r/sub o/, could be related to particle radius, R, by r/sub o/ varying with R/sup D/ T over a range of particle size where D is the fractal dimension of the coke. The existence of such correlations may be related to the iterative processes which form the particles. 14 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Numerical analysis of macro-crack formation behavior within the lump coke; Cokes sonai kiretsu shinten kiko no kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, H; Sato, H; Miura, T [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-03-15

    The thermal stress analysis within lump coke was studied in order to investigate macro-crack formation and deformation behavior which strongly influence heat and mass transfer in a coke oven chamber. The dilatation of plastic layer, heating rate dependence of thermophysical and mechanical properties of coal/coke, creep in the plastic and semi-coke layers, macro-crack propagation and radiative heat transfer within the macro-crack were considered in an analytical model. The macro-crack propagation was determined from the estimated crack tip stress intensity factor, K{sub I}, at the macro-crack tip compared with the plane strain fracture toughness, K{sub IC}, through the unsteady-state calculation. Calculated results on crack formation and deformation behavior of lump coke were in good agreement with experimental observations in a laboratory-scale oven chamber. The analytical model could predict micro-crack formation within the lump coke normal to the heated wall and the coke surface close to the heated wall. 12 refs., 13 figs.

  17. Effects of heat treatments of coal on coke destruction under blast furnace conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shkoller, M.B.; Dinel' t, V.M.; Korchuganova, G.S.; Petrov, V.B.

    1983-09-01

    This paper discusses results of investigations on effects of chemical reactions in a blast furnace on coke disintegration and destruction. The investigations were carried out by the VUKhIN Institute branch in Kuznetsk. Effects of silicates and carbonates of sodium, potassium and zinc on mechanical coke properties were investigated under laboratory conditions. Coke samples were placed in a reactor and were treated by vapors of metal compounds. Coke produced from a coal mixture with conventional moisture content and from preheated coal mixture was used. Coal properties are given in a table. Design of laboratory equipment used for tests is shown in 2 schemes. Heat treatments influenced coke porosity and its structural strength. Proportion of large pores accessible to sodium and potassium in coke from preheated coal was 4.5 times lower than in coke from a conventional mixture. Adsorption of sodium and potassium on coke from preheated charge was lower (from 0.22% to 0.24%) than on coke from a conventional mixture (from 2.5% to 2.9%). Adsorption of alkali metals on coke reduced its structural strength and increased coke oxidation rate by carbon dioxide. Use of heat treatments of coal for coking reduced adsorption of alkali metals on coke in a blast furnace, increased coke structural strength and reduced coke oxidation rate by carbon dioxide. (16 refs.) (In Russian)

  18. Scientific research in the area of coking and coking by-products (based on material from the All-Union Coordinating Conference)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydkevich, M.I.; Tselik, M.P.; Belkina, T.V.

    1985-06-01

    Subjects covered in the all-union coordinating conference on coking and chemical by-products of coking, which took place on 13-15 July 1984, are discussed. One hundred forty eight on-going and new research themes accepted as research projects for 1985-86 were discussed. Areas of research include coals from the eastern deposits and Pechora basin as raw materials for coking; coals from the southern deposits as coking raw materials; technology of coal preparation for coking; technology for producing blast furnace coke and methods of assessing its quality; technology for producing other kinds of coke and carbon graphite materials; methods for extraction processing and producing chemical products from coking.

  19. Baking and coking properties of hard coal under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, H.D.

    1981-09-01

    For a better assessment of the baking and coking properties of hard coal under high pressure as in modern coal beneficiation processes, the determination of the swelling index and the dilatation curve are investigated.

  20. KCBX Petroleum Coke Storage Pile Sampling Logbook and Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    This documentation of KCBX's petcoke sampling locations and methods demonstrates adherence to the pet coke sampling plan previously submitted and approved by EPA, at both North Terminal and South Terminal stockpiles.

  1. Coke briquets for metallurgy based on a thermoreactive binder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tjutjunnikov, J.B.; Florinskij, V.N.; Orechov, V.N.; Nefedov, P.J.; Sasmurin, V.I.; Kirenskij, V.N. (Khar' kovskii Inzhenerno-Ehkonomicheskii Institut (USSR))

    1992-02-01

    Describes a process for production of briquets for metallurgy with binder and coke fines or anthracite. The suggested binder is waste phenol resin from the production of phenol (cumene method). Resin properties are given. Possible reaction mechanisms yielding solidified matter are discussed. The production process requires 10-15% binder and applies charge heating up to 200 C over 30 min. Catalytic amounts of sodium hydroxide or sulfuric acid were also employed. The production process is shown in a flowsheet. Properties of produced briquets are tabulated. The briquets were used in a 8 t/h cupola furnace and their performance was compared to that of KL-1 coke. Performance was found to be comparable; the cost of coke briquets was less than that of heating coke. 2 refs.

  2. Prediction of coking dynamics for wet coal charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kardaś Dariusz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional transient mathematical model describing thermal and flow phenomena during coal coking in an oven chamber was studied in the paper. It also accounts for heat conduction in the ceramic oven wall when assuming a constant temperature at the heating channel side. The model was solved numerically using partly implicit methods for gas flow and heat transfer problems. The histories of temperature, gas evolution and internal pressure were presented and analysed. The theoretical predictions of temperature change in the centre plane of the coke oven were compared with industrialscale measurements. Both, the experimental data and obtained numerical results show that moisture content determines the coking process dynamics, lagging the temperature increase above the water steam evaporation temperature and in consequence the total coking time. The phenomenon of internal pressure generation in the context of overlapping effects of simultaneously occurring coal transitions - devolatilisation and coal permeability decrease under plastic stage - was also discussed.

  3. Variation in mineral composition of coal during enrichment and coking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.L. Ulanovskii; A.N. Likhenko [Ukrkoks Coke Producers' Association, Dnepropetrovsk (Ukraine)

    2009-06-15

    The parameters I{sub b} and B{sub b} used in developing an optimal coking-batch composition are determined from data on the chemical composition of the ash in Donetsk Basin and other coal. It is found that, when the ash content is reduced in deeper enrichment of coal with an increased content of fine pyrite, there will be accompanying increase in the Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} content and decrease in the SiO{sub 2} content of the ash in lighter fractions. This increases I{sub b}. In other words, reducing the ash content of the coal is an unpromising means of increasing CRI and CSR of the coke produced. Three ash-containing elements (silicon, aluminum, and iron) are experimentally proven to transfer from coal to coke. Specific behavior of calcium, magnesium, alkali metals, and sulfur during coking.

  4. Crystallinity and shape of crushed calcined coke particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fecioru, M.; Petrescu, M.; Georgeoni, P.

    1993-01-01

    The particle eccentricity is a very important property of the petroleum coke in determining the anisotropy of the properties of the final graphite and it affects the manner in which its properties change in the specific applications. (orig.)

  5. Crystallinity and shape of crushed calcined coke particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecioru, M. (DACIA Synthetic Diamonds Factory, Bucharest (Romania)); Petrescu, M. (DACIA Synthetic Diamonds Factory, Bucharest (Romania) Polytechnic Inst., Bucharest (Romania)); Georgeoni, P. (DACIA Synthetic Diamonds Factory, Bucharest (Romania))

    1993-11-01

    The particle eccentricity is a very important property of the petroleum coke in determining the anisotropy of the properties of the final graphite and it affects the manner in which its properties change in the specific applications. (orig.).

  6. Remediation and demolition of coke by-products plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiffler, M A; Gould, W C

    1992-08-01

    The programme undertaken by ICF Kaiser Engineers and LTV Steel Co. to clean up and demolish four closed coking plants is described, including PCB removal, asbestos abatement, pipe removal and cleaning, tank cleaning, demolition and soil bioremediation. Costs are discussed.

  7. New formulae for the manufacture of formed coke of the ICEM type and carbonization of this type of coke in oblique ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbu, I.; Georgescu, I.

    1978-01-01

    This paper presents the industrial experiences between 1971 and 1976 which led to the elaboration of new formulae for the manufacture of ICEM type coke briquettes, plus the results of coking the latter in a vertical oven. The possibility of using this type of coke in the chemical industry and in metallurgy instead of ordinary coke was simultaneously examined but this proved unsuccessful. Gives a detailed report of all the tests carried out by the State undertaking, Victoria-Galan.

  8. Demand outlook for sulfur and high-sulfur petroleum coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshkarov, V.Ya.; Danil' yan, P.G.; Feotov, V.E.; Gimaev, R.N.; Koshkarova, M.E.; Sadykova, S.R.; Vodovichenko, N.S.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of using sulfur and high-sulfur petroleum coke fines in pyrometallurgical processes and also in the chemical and coal-tar chemical industry is examined. Results of industrial tests on briquetting fines of petroleum coke with a petroleum binder are presented. The feasibility of using the obtained briquets in shaft furnace smelting of oxidized nickel ores, production of anode stock, and also in the chemical industry are demonstrated.

  9. Priorities in the design of chemical shops at coke plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; V.V. Grabko; L.A. Kazak [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Recent trends in the design of chemical equipment at coke plants are described, through the lens of experience at Giprokoks. The main priorities were to improve the removal of impurities from coke oven gas; to improve equipment design on the basis of new materials; to reduce reagent consumption; to reduce the materials and energy consumed in the construction of new equipment; and to minimize impacts on the environment and worker health. Some technological equipment is briefly characterized.

  10. Assessment of thermal efficiency of heat recovery coke making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, H. P.; Saxena, V. K.; Haldar, S. K.; Sriramoju, S. K.

    2017-08-01

    The heat recovery stamp charge coke making process is quite complicated due to the evolved volatile matter during coking, is partially combusted in oven crown and sole flue in a controlled manner to provide heat for producing metallurgical coke. Therefore, the control and efficient utilization of heat in the oven crown, and sole flue is difficult, which directly affects the operational efficiency. Considering the complexity and importance of thermal efficiency, evolution of different gases, combustion of gasses in oven crown and sole flue, and heating process of coke oven has been studied. A nonlinear regression methodology was used to predict temperature profile of different depth of coal cake during the coking. It was observed that the predicted temperature profile is in good agreement with the actual temperature profile (R2 = 0.98) and is validated with the actual temperature profile of other ovens. A complete study is being done to calculate the material balance, heat balance, and heat losses. This gives an overall understanding of heat flow which affects the heat penetration into the coal cake. The study confirms that 60% heat was utilized during coking.

  11. Coking coal outlook from a coal producer's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrasher, E.

    2008-01-01

    Australian mine production is recovering from massive flooding while Canadian coal shipments are limited by mine and rail capacity. Polish, Czech, and Russian coking coal shipments have been reduced and United States coking coal shipments are reaching their maximum capacity. On the demand side, the Chinese government has increased export taxes on metallurgical coal, coking coal, and thermal coal. Customers seem to be purchasing in waves and steel prices are declining. This presentation addressed the global outlook for coal as well as the challenges ahead in terms of supply and demand. Supply challenges include regulatory uncertainty; environmental permitting; labor; and geology of remaining reserves. Demand challenges include global economic uncertainty; foreign exchange values; the effect of customers making direct investments in mining operations; and freight rates. Consolidation of the coal industry continued and several examples were provided. The presentation also discussed other topics such as coking coal production issues; delayed mining permits and environmental issues; coking coal contract negotiations; and stock values of coking coal producers in the United States. It was concluded that consolidation will continue throughout the natural resource sector. tabs., figs

  12. Fissure formation in coke. 1: The mechanism of fissuring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.R. Jenkins; M.R. Mahoney; J.C. Keating [CSIRO Mathematical and Information Sciences, North Ryde, NSW (Australia)

    2010-07-15

    Pilot scale coke oven experiments, in which carbonisation has been arrested after 2 and 4 h, have been used to identify key aspects of the initial formation and propagation of fissuring in coke. The experiments show that the primary fissure network is formed within the first few hours of coking and the fissures propagate towards the centre of the oven as coking progresses. They also show that some of the initially formed fissures stop propagating, thus increasing the effective fissure spacing as coking continues. A model for the propagation of regular crack arrays has been used to identify the cause of the initial formation of the fissure network, evaluate the fissure spacing and explain the fissure coarsening effect. The coarsening is shown to be due to an instability, in the form of every second fissure stopping. The formation of lateral fissures is shown to be due to tensile stress formation near the tips of stopped fissures and also to increased shrinkage due to a maximum in the coke contraction coefficient at around 700{sup o}C. 45 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  13. O tempora, o mores! / Maria-Kristiina Lotman, Kai Tafenau

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lotman, Maria-Kristiina, 1974-

    2011-01-01

    Tutvustus: Sallustius. Catilina vandenõu / Gaius Sallustius Crispus ; ladina keelest tõlkinud Maria-Kristiina Lotman ja Kai Tafenau. Tallinn : Tallinna Ülikooli Kirjastus, 2011. (Bibliotheca antiqua (Tallinna Ülikool))

  14. Nuevos datos sobre estratigrafía del Ordovícico y estructura varisca en el Macizo de Santa María la Real de Nieva

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, F.; Rubio, F. J.; Martín Parra, L. M.; Rodríguez Fernández, L. R.

    2004-01-01

    We present a new geological map of the lower Ordovician materials cropping out in the Santa Maria la Real de Nieva Massif. The Ordovician sequence, Fm. Capas de Domingo García, comprises two separate stratigraphic units. The lower unit contains conglomerate with clasts of felsic volcanic rocks at its base, slates, and quartzite with cruziana. The upper unit is composed by the quartzite and slate, which is considered a regional equivalent of the sequence at the base of the Armorica...

  15. Fatigue behaviour of coke drum materials under thermal-mechanical cyclic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coke drums are vertical pressure vessels used in the delayed coking process in petroleum refineries. Significant temperature variation during the delayed coking process causes damage in coke drums in the form of bulging and cracking. There were some studies on the fatigue life estimation for the coke drums, but most of them were based on strain-fatigue life curves at constant temperatures, which do not consider simultaneous cyclic temperature and mechanical loading conditions. In this study, a fatigue testing system is successfully developed to allow performing thermal-mechanical fatigue (TMF test similar to the coke drum loading condition. Two commonly used base and one clad materials of coke drums are then experimentally investigated. In addition, a comparative study between isothermal and TMF lives of these materials is conducted. The experimental findings lead to better understanding of the damage mechanisms occurring in coke drums and more accurate prediction of fatigue life of coke drum materials.

  16. Investigating combined influence of petrology and technological parameters on strength of porous coke body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinel' t, V.M.; Shkoller, M.B.; Stankevich, A.S.; Korchuganova, G.S.

    1983-09-01

    The VUKhIN branch in Kuznetsk investigated effects of coal petrology and coking conditions on structural strength of coke in blast furnaces. Structural strength of coke produced from black coal from the Kuzbass as well as structural strength of coke partially gasified by carbon dioxide under conditions similar to those in blast furnaces was investigated. Fourteen samples of coal mixtures from the Kuzbass were used. Regression analysis was applied. Equations for forecasting coke properties on the basis of coal petrology and selected parameters characterizing coking were derived. Analyses showed that coke structural strength was decisively influenced by coefficients which characterized the average reflectivity of vitrinite in a coal mixture and its average density. After partial coke gasification by carbon dioxide effects of coefficients which characterized coal mixture nonhomogeneity (fluctuations of vitrinite reflectivity) and coal mixture density increased. Increasing coal density partially compensated negative effects of fluctuations of vitrinite reflectivity on coke structural strength. (10 refs.) (In Russian)

  17. Scientific Council of the State Committee for Science and Technology on the problem 'New processes in the coking industry', Coke-Chemistry Section of the Scientific-Technical Council of the Ministry of Ferrous Metallurgy of the USSR and of the Central Administration of the Scientific-Technical Branch of Ferrous Metallurgy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukvareva, O.F.

    1986-12-01

    A report is presented on 3 conferences on the development of the Soviet coking industry held in February and April 1986. Papers delivered at the conferences and selected recommendations for development of equipment for coking, coking systems, optimization of coal mixtures for coking, environmental protection and research programs on coking are reviewed. The following problems were discussed: modernization of coke oven design, selecting the optimum size of coke ovens, prospects for dry coke quenching in the USSR, evaluation of operation of systems for dry coke quenching, utilization of waste heat from coke quenching for heat treatment of coal mixtures for coking, research programs on coking in the 12th five-year plan (1986-1990), partial briquetting of coal mixtures for coking and selecting optimum binders for partial briqetting, formed coke processes, economic analysis of formed coke processes, fire-resistant bricks and elements for coke oven construction, new coking technologies, pollution control in coking plants.

  18. Enrichment of reactive macerals in coal: its characterization and utilization in coke making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Debjani; Kopparthi, P.; Dash, P. S.; Saxena, V. K.; Chandra, S.

    2018-01-01

    Macerals in coal are of different types: reactive and inert. These macerals are differ in their physical and chemical properties. Column flotation method has been used to separate the reactive macerals in a non-coking coal. The enriched coal is then characterized in order to understand the changes in the coking potential by different techniques. It is then used in making of metallurgical coke by proper blending with other coals. Enriched coal enhance the properties of metallurgical coke. This shows a path of utilization of non-coking coal in metallurgical coke making.

  19. FILOSOFIA E POESIA EM MARIA ZAMBRANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero Cunha Bezerra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Maria Zambrano é a intelectual espanhola mais importante do século XX. Discípula de Ortega e Zubiri, Zambrano foi capaz de captar o que melhor possibilitaria à formulaçáo de um pensamento, ao mesmo tempo, autônomo e profundo com relaçáo aos seus mestres. Republicana, enfrentou os horrores da Guerra civil espanhola e suas conseqüências sem, no entanto, deixar-se abater. Foi precisamente no exílio que nasceu a obra de que tratarei neste artigo: Filosofia e poesia (México: Fundo de Cultura, 2000. Meu objetivo maior é demonstrar, à luz do pensamento de Zambrano, em que medida é possível o postulado de uma razáo poética capaz de superar a ruptura estabelecida, com o surgimento do pensamento filosófico entre irracionalidade (poesia e razáo (filosofia, contribuindo, assim, para o estabelecimento de um campo comum em que o pensamento filosófico, mais do que expressáo das estruturas últimas da realidade (o Ser, é criaçáo e abertura para o inesperado (Devir.

  20. Monge João Maria na tradição religiosa popular do planalto meridional do Brasil = João Maria monk in popular religious tradition of southern plateau of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsburg, Alexandre de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente projeto de pesquisa vem sendo desenvolvido junto ao Programa de Pós Graduação em História da Universidade Federal de Pelotas e tem por objetivo reconstruir o processo histórico de uma das mais marcantes e duradouras devoções populares surgidas nas Américas: a crença no Monge João Maria. Iniciada na década de 1840 a partir da peregrinação do italiano João Maria de Agostini por vários países do continente americano, desde então a devoção vem sendo ressignificada pelas pessoas em um processo criativo e autônomo, servindo há mais de um século como elemento identitário e que estrutura a sociabilidade. Atingindo um vasto território que inclui pontos dos estados do Paraná, Santa Catarina e Rio Grande do Sul, com repercussões no norte da Argentina, a devoção configurou-se como verdadeiro patrimônio cultural e imaterial de pessoas que têm no monge um de seus principais santos. Além da pesquisa histórica propriamente dita, desejamos realizar um mapeamento dos locais de memória atualmente associados à devoção ao Monge João Maria. Este Mapa da Devoção será apresentado aos órgãos oficiais na tentativa de obter seu reconhecimento como patrimônio imaterial das populações, a fim de contribuir para a preservação de locais e crenças

  1. Pyrolisator Coal to be Cokes (Coal Cokes Casting Metal Industry Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukamto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolisis of coal is partial combustion to reduce total moisture, volatile matter and sulfur contens and increase the calorific value of coal. The results of pyrolysis of coal is coke. At the laboratory level studies, pyrolisis done in batch using different calorie, namely 5800, 6000, 6300 kcal/kg and a time of 15-60 minutes and the temperature 400-800°C. Maximum results obtained total moisture (0.44%, fixed carbon (89%, volatile matter (2.4%, sulfur content (undetected and ash (7.2%. Then applied to the scale miniplant with continuous processes using multitube pyrolisator which are designed to operate in the temperature range 400-800°C and a flow rate of 240-730 kg/h, obtained coal cokes that meets industry quality standards, namely TM (0.42%, FC (90.40%, VM (2.16%, S (not detected, Ash (6.8% incalori 6300 kcal/h, a flow rate of 240 kg / h and temperatures between 600-700°C

  2. [Pathography and biography of the Empress Maria Theresa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habek, D; Masić, I

    2001-01-01

    The empress and queen Maria Theresa Habsburg-Lorraine (May 13th, 1917-November 29th, 1780) bore sixteen children in the marriage with the emperor Franz I Stepha and was famous as "mother-in-law of Europe". Her brother Leopold died immediately after he was born, her sister Amalia died in the cradle and Maria Ana died of perinatal complications at the birth of a dead infant in 1744. The famous hereditary facial dysmorphia of the "Hasburg jawe" wasn't noticed in Maria Theresa's surviving children. In October of 1738, after giving birth to her daughter Ana, a manual lysis of the placenta was performed due to the retained placenta and postpartal bleeding. In 1741 her daughter Carolina died, and in 1767 her daughter Josepha died of small pox. Her daughter Elizabeth remained deformed by the pock marks, and Maria Christina got a puerperal sepsis, but surprisingly, didn't die. Maria Antoinette ended under a guillotine in France, along with her husband Luis XVI. Maria Theresa's father, Karl VI died of the cholecystopankreatitis and peritonitis, and her husband and co-ruler most probably died of acute coronary incident in August 18th, 1765. After her husband's death she started suffering from depression with steady necrophile obsessions. Maria Theresa suffered from a chronical obstructional pulmonary disease (asthma), rehumatic syndromes, hypertension and anxiodepressive syndromes. In 1767 she had small pox. In November 11th 1780 she caught a cold which grew into a pneumonia with high fever. She died of cardiopulmonal dedompensation preceded by pneumonia and asthma.

  3. Utilization coke dust as fuel in the cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, S.

    2006-01-01

    Utilization of coke dust available from coal carbonization plants, as a fuel in the cement industry has been undertaken and discussed in this research paper. The parameters studied include physical and chemical evaluation of the coke dust and its economic feasibility/ suitability as fuel for the cement plants. Detailed studies have been carried out on the above referred parameters. In addition a comparative study has been done to access its suitability in comparison to other fuels especially imported coal. It has been found that the coke dust contained about 66% fixed carbon, 29% ash, 4% volatile matter, 1% moisture and 0.48% sulphur. It gross calorific value was found to be 5292 Kcal/kg. The detailed analysis of coke dust ash was also performed to determine as to how its constituents will compare with the cement constituents. Keeping in view the experimental results/ data generated on the coke dust, it has been concluded that it can be quite a good substitute for imported coal. In doing so a substantial financial saving can be achieved which ranges 40-45%. (author)

  4. Fatigue life estimation on coke drum due to cycle optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, Andrey Stephan; Ambarita, Himsar; Kawai, Hideki; Daimaruya, Masashi

    2018-04-01

    In the last decade, due to the increasing demand of petroleum product, the necessity for converting the heavy oil are increasing. Thus, demand for installing coke drum in whole world will be increase. The coke drum undergoes the cyclic high temperature and suddenly cooling but in fact is not designed to withstand that kind of cycle, thus the operational life of coke drum is much shorter in comparison to other equipment in oil refinery. Various factors determine in order to improve reliability and minimize the down time, and it is found that the cycle optimization due to cycle, temperature, and pressure have an important role. From this research it is found that the fatigue life of the short cycle is decrease by a half compare to the normal cycle. It also found that in the preheating stage, the stress peak is far exceed the yield strength of coke drum material and fall into plastic deformation. This is happened because of the temperature leap in the preheating stage that cause thermal shock in the upper part of the skirt of the coke drum.

  5. Utilization of formed coke from HBNPC in the Dunkerque blast furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Scour, C; Capelani, R

    1978-01-01

    Recalls the aspects involved in the manufacture of formed coke together with the coke characteristics. Describes the features of blast-furnaces No. 1 and No. 2 at Dunkerque. The blend used for producing the ovoids is composed of 70 to 80% non-coking coal and the ovoids are carbonized at 900 C. The first stage of the tests was carried out with 25% formed coke and the second stage with 22%. The formed coke was charged separately. The results were as follows: the coke rate was comparable and the permeability identical; there was no change in the behaviour of the furnace chamber and no problems were experienced at the hearth stage. The replacement of 30% of the conventional coke by HBNPC formed coke seemed a practical proposition.

  6. Microstructures and microtextures of natural cokes: A case study of heat-affected coking coals from the Jharia coalfield, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ashok K. [Central Fuel Research Institute, CSIR, Dhanbad-828108 (India); Singh, Mahendra P. [Department of Geology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (India); Sharma, Mamta; Srivastava, Sunil K.

    2007-07-02

    In Jharia coalfield, nearly 1250 Mt of coking coal has been devolatilized due to igneous intrusives and {proportional_to} 1900 Mt due to mine fires. This paper is an effort to investigate the effect of carbonization in two intrusive affected coal seams of Ena (seam XIII) and Alkusa (seam XIV) collieries of this coalfield. Through petrographic studies by microscopy, characterization of normal and heat-affected coals was carried out. The microstructures and microtextures produced due to extraneous heat have been related to nature and extent of heat, location of heating source, and quality and quantity of natural coke produced. Based on the results of this study and earlier studies, an effort has been made to study the classification scheme for microtextures of natural cokes generated through in-situ carbonization of the coal seams. It has been observed that in case of such heat effects under overburden pressure, the anisotropy is much more pronounced as compared to laboratory-carbonized cokes. In the mildly carbonized coals (pre-plastic phase, < 300 C) the vitrinite attained higher reflectance than normal vitrinite, liptinite started disappearing, and inertinite remained unaffected. In the moderately affected coals (plastic phase, 300-500 C), mesophase spheres and fused natural cokes were generated from the reactives (vitrinite and liptinite maceral groups), the liptinites disappeared, and structurally, the inertinites remained almost unchanged with slight increase in the reflectance value. In the severely heat-affected coals (post plastic phase, > 500 C) the identified microtextures were mesophase spheres, different shapes and sizes of natural cokes, graphitic sphaeroliths, pyrolytic carbons, inerts with morpho-structural changes and slightly higher reflectance values, and altered and unaltered mineral matters. A gradual change in the heat-affected coals with increasing temperature was observed with respect to location of intrusive body. It has been concluded that

  7. Microporous Cokes Formed in Zeolite Catalysts Enable Efficient Solar Evaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jianjian

    2017-03-13

    Cokes are inevitably generated during zeolite-catalyzed reactions as deleterious side products that deactivate the catalyst. In this study, we in-situ converted cokes into carbons within the confined microporous zeolite structures and evaluated their performances as absorbing materials for solar-driven water evaporation. With a properly chosen zeolite, the cokederived carbons possessed ordered interconnected pores and tunable compositions. We found that the porous structure and the oxygen content in as-prepared carbons had important influences on their energy conversion efficiencies. Among various investigated carbon materials, the carbon derived from the methanol-to-olefins reaction over zeolite Beta gave the highest conversion efficiency of 72% under simulated sunlight with equivalent solar intensity of 2 suns. This study not only demonstrates the great potential of traditionally useless cokes for solar thermal applications but also provides new insights into the design of carbon-based absorbing materials for efficient solar evaporation.

  8. Steam versus coking coal and the acid rain program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The Clean Air Act of 1990 initiated a tradable permit program for emissions of sulfur dioxide from coal-fired power plants. One effect of this policy was a large increase in the consumption of low-sulfur bituminous coal by coal-fired power plants. However, low-sulfur bituminous coal is also the ideal coking coal for steel production. The analysis presented here will attempt to determine how the market responded to the increased consumption of low-sulfur bituminous coal by the electricity generation sector. Was there a decrease in the quality and/or quantity of coking coal consumption or did extraction increase? Most evidence suggests that the market for coking coal was unaffected, even as the extraction and consumption of low-sulfur bituminous coal for electricity generation increased substantially.

  9. Influence of thermal charge preparation on coke comminution under blast-furnace operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shkoller, M.B.; Dinel' t, V.M.; Korchuganova, G.S.; Petrov, V.B.

    1983-09-01

    Reactions of coke in the blast furnace are determined mainly by the nature of the coke itself which depends on the coal properties, its preparation and the coking conditions. In the blast furnace the coke reacts with alkali and alkaline earth metals in the burden. Preheated coal charges were found to absorb far less sodium and potassium carbonates than a conventional moist charge over an equivalent period, due to the smaller pore volume available.

  10. China's coke industry: Recent policies, technology shift, and implication for energy and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Hong; Lei, Yu; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Lijian; He, Kebin

    2012-01-01

    China is the largest coke producer in the world, accounting for over 60% of the world coke production, which makes the coke industry in China a significant coal consumer and air pollutant emitter. Recently, China has taken a series of measures to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions from the coke industry, including eliminating old and low energy-efficiency coking technologies, promoting advanced technologies, and strengthening energy and environmental requirements on coking processes. As a consequence, China's coke industry is experiencing an unprecedented technology shift, which was characterized by the elimination of old, inefficient, and polluting indigenous ovens and small machinery ones within 10 years. This study examines the policies and the prompt technology shift in China's coke industry, as well as the associated energy and environmental effects, and discusses the implications with respect to the development of the coke industry in China towards a more efficient and clean future. As China sets stricter requirements on energy efficiency and the ambient environment, a more significant change focusing on technologies of energy saving and emission reduction is urgently needed at present. Those mature technologies, including coke dry quenching, coke oven gas recycle, fine particle removal, etc., should be enforced in the near future. - Highlights: ► With 60% of world coke output, China's coke making has big energy/pollution issues. ► Actions were taken to improve energy and environmental performance of coke plants. ► China's coke industry is experiencing an unprecedented technology shift. ► Another shift, focusing on technologies of energy and emission saving, is needed. ► More measurement studies on coking emissions are needed given the importance.

  11. The coke formation during the pyrolysis of 1,2-dichloroethane - results of radiotracer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopinke, F.D.; Zychlinski, W.; Rodewald, D.

    1990-01-01

    The formation of coke-like deposits during the pyrolysis of dichloroethane has been investigated by means of 14 C-labelled compounds. Starting from industrial feedstocks coke is formed from dichloroethane and its primary reaction products as well as from trace impurities with comparable rates. Chloroprene has been revealed as an effective coke precursor. The coke formation from industrial feedstocks can be reduced significantly by suitable purification methods. (author)

  12. Scientific Council on problems on new processes in the coking industry. [Effect on coke consumption of moisture, sulfur and ash; substitution possibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippov, B.S.

    1981-07-01

    This paper presents a report on the Coking Section of the Scientific Council held on November 20, 1980 in Moscow. The following problems were discussed: indexes characterizing blast furnace coke (for furnaces with a volume of 5580 M/sup 3/); replacing metallurgical coke with other types of fuels; use of brown coal; liners of coke ovens. Papers delivered during the session are summarized. Reducing moisture content in blast furnace coke permits its consumption to be reduced by 2%. Reducing sulfur content in blast furnace coke by 0.1% permits its consumption to be reduced from 10 to 15 kg for 1 t of pig iron. Increase in ash content of coke by 1% causes coke consumption increase ranging from 1.5 to 2.0%. About 10 Mmt of coke class with grains above 25 mm in USSR is used for purposes other than blast furnaces. Possibilities of substituting coke with lean coal are evaluated (particularly from Kuzbass). A method for briquetting a mixture of black and brown coal is proposed. Briquets are a suitable fuel in metallurgy. A new type of liner, which consists of at least 92% silicon dioxide, is described. Physical and mechanical properties of the liners are discussed.

  13. Dust emission from wet, low-emission coke quenching process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komosiński, Bogusław; Bobik, Bartłomiej; Konieczny, Tomasz; Cieślik, Ewelina

    2018-01-01

    Coke plants, which produce various types of coke (metallurgical, foundry or heating), at temperatures between 600 and 1200°C, with limited access to oxygen, are major emitters of particulates and gaseous pollutants to air, water and soils. Primarily, the process of wet quenching should be mentioned, as one of the most cumbersome. Atmospheric pollutants include particulates, tar substances, organic pollutants including B(a)P and many others. Pollutants are also formed from the decomposition of water used to quench coke (CO, phenol, HCN, H2S, NH3, cresol) and decomposition of hot coke in the first phase of quenching (CO, H2S, SO2) [1]. The development of the coke oven technology has resulted in the changes made to different types of technological installations, such as the use of baffles in quench towers, the removal of nitrogen oxides by selective NOx reduction, and the introduction of fabric filters for particulates removal. The BAT conclusions for coke plants [2] provide a methodology for the measurement of particulate emission from a wet, low-emission technology using Mohrhauer probes. The conclusions define the emission level for wet quenching process as 25 g/Mgcoke. The conducted research was aimed at verification of the presented method. For two of three quench towers (A and C) the requirements included in the BAT conclusions are not met and emissions amount to 87.34 and 61.35 g/Mgcoke respectively. The lowest particulates emission was recorded on the quench tower B and amounted to 22.5 g/Mgcoke, therefore not exceeding the requirements.

  14. Partei tuhandete ja enda kommiraha eest 462 häält / Anna-Maria Galojan ; interv. Rainer Kerge

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Galojan, Anna-Maria, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Intervjuu parlamendivalimistel osalenud politoloogiamagistrant Anna-Maria Galojaniga tema osalemisest valimistel. Vt. samas: Kes on Anna-Maria Galojan? Küsimustele vastab Reformierakonna kampaaniajuht Arto Aas

  15. The influence of calcination on the physical and chemical properties of petroleum and mixed cokes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, K; Syrek, H

    1980-01-01

    Freshly prepared petroleum and coal-petroleum cokes, before utilization for the production of various materials, are subjected to calcining--thermal treatment in a neutral or reducing atmosphere without the admission of air at less than or equal to 1400/sup 0/. During calcining, stabilization of the physical and chemical properties of the cokes takes place. The properties of the obtained coke depend chiefly on the calcining time and temperature. During calcining, volatile substances are removed almost completely from the coke; the coke density is increased, and its structure is put in order; the electrical conductivity is improved; the mechanical strength is increased; and the reactivity of the coke is decreased. Laboratory studies were conducted on calcining mixed coal-petroleum cokes of two grades at 1200, 1250, and 1300/sup 0/ for 2-6 h. In the calcining products the content of volatile substances, the ash content, S content, and density were determined. It was ascertained that calcining of mixed coal-petroleum cokes goes analogously to calcining of pure petroleum cokes. Raising the temperature and increasing the time of calcining has a substantial effect on improvement of coke physical and chemical properties. For high-quality coke, calcining is to be carried out at greater than or equal to 1300/sup 0/ for 4-6 h, for ordinary coke at > 1200/sup 0/ and greater than or equal to 4 h. The results are regarded as starting data for an industrial study of the calcining process.

  16. 40 CFR 63.302 - Standards for by-product coke oven batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.302 Section 63.302 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.302 Standards for by-product coke oven batteries... oven emissions from each affected existing by-product coke oven battery that exceed any of the...

  17. 40 CFR 63.303 - Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... batteries. 63.303 Section 63.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.303 Standards for nonrecovery coke oven batteries... existing nonrecovery coke oven battery that exceed any of the following emission limitations or...

  18. Os retratos de Maria Isabel e Maria Francisca de Bragança, de Nicolas-Antoine Taunay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Dias

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicolas-Antoine Taunay, French landscape painter, produced also several portraits during his stay at the Rio de Janeiro Court. In this city, in 1816, he paints the queen Carlota Joaquina and all her daughters. In this group, two portraits have a very special way: the paintings still today catalogued as Maria Francisca and Maria Teresa, but probably being Maria Isabel and Maria Francisca de Assis - princesses that, in this year, left Brazil to marry the Spanish King Fernando VII, and his brother Carlos Maria Isidro de Bourbon. In this article, beyond to describe these portraits (and analyse the identities of the portrayed princesses, I analyse their functions in the Court society and the mains artists of this gender in Europe. I will discuss, as well, the hypothesis about the Taunay choices. In this sense, I will analyse the possible circulation of the typologies of portrait between Italy, Portugal, Spain and France, understanding these productions by Taunay and the functions occupied by these portraits in the political relations between Brazil and Europe.

  19. Coke detection in furnaces tubes by radiographic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, I.S. dos

    1987-01-01

    The coke detection technique by radiographic examinations allows to quantify the coke in furnace coils of Petroleum refineries and petrochemical industries. The paper describes how was determined the radiographic parameters, the wall apparent thickness calculation, the distance source-film, the position of the source and films, the chosen of films and the calculation of exposure time, aiming to obtain high producticity and good quality image. This technique is being used and improved for more than two years with good results. (E.G.) [pt

  20. Optimization of the coke-oven activated sludge plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raizer Neto, Ernesto [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Colin, Francois [Institut de Recherches Hydrologiques, 54 - Nancy (France); Prost, Christian [Laboratoire de Sciences de Genie Chimique, Nancy (France)

    1993-12-31

    In the coke-oven activated sludge plants one of the greatest problems of malfunction is due to inffluent variability. The composition and, or, concentration variations of the inffluent substrate, which can cause an unstable system, are function of the pollutant load. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the kinetic biodegradation of the coke-oven effluent represents the limiting factor to develop an effective biological treatment. This work describes a computational model of the biological treatment which was elaborated and validated from continuous pilot scale experiments and calibrated by comparing its predictions to the pilot experiment`s results. 12 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Study of phenol extraction from coke-chemical sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catana, E.; Mateescu, I.; Giurcaneanu, V.; Bota, T.

    1990-09-01

    The paper presents an experimental study of the phase equilibrium in the coke-chemical tarphenols-solvent system (NaOH) solution and (phenolate solution) implied in the extraction of the phenols from coke-chemical sources. The possibility of using the phenolate solution as an extraction agent, thus making possible the improvement of the specific consumption and also simplifying the problem of the corrosion and of the waste water at the same time is presented. The influence of the solvent tar mass ratio on the selectivity of the process is discussed, this criterion being considered for establishing the conditions of the extraction. 2 figs., 7 tabs., 13 refs.

  2. Application of flotational reagents obtained from coke-industry byproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.I. Nikitin; I.N. Nikitin; N.I. Toporkova [Khar' kov Polytechnic Institute (Ukraine)

    2007-06-15

    Today, the operational efficiency of coal-preparation shops at coke plants largely depends on the flotation process, since flotation is the basic method of regenerating the slurry water in the water-slurry systems and the basic enrichment process for small-grain coal slurries. At The Coal-Chemistry Institute, attempts have been made to address the growing demand for readily available and relatively inexpensive flotational reagents. In particular, a list of promising coke-industry byproducts for use as flotational reagents has been compiled, and the possibility of reducing their toxicity has been established. In addition, various industrial byproducts and wastes have been investigated in terms of flotational activity.

  3. Optimization of the coke-oven activated sludge plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raizer Neto, Ernesto [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Colin, Francois [Institut de Recherches Hydrologiques, 54 - Nancy (France); Prost, Christian [Laboratoire de Sciences de Genie Chimique, Nancy (France)

    1994-12-31

    In the coke-oven activated sludge plants one of the greatest problems of malfunction is due to inffluent variability. The composition and, or, concentration variations of the inffluent substrate, which can cause an unstable system, are function of the pollutant load. Nevertheless, the knowledge of the kinetic biodegradation of the coke-oven effluent represents the limiting factor to develop an effective biological treatment. This work describes a computational model of the biological treatment which was elaborated and validated from continuous pilot scale experiments and calibrated by comparing its predictions to the pilot experiment`s results. 12 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Contemporary art encompasses all the rest / Maria Lind ; intervjueerinud Eero Epner

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lind, Maria, 1966-

    2011-01-01

    Rootsi kuraator ja kunstikriitik Maria Lind retrospektiivnäituse formaadist, kaasaegsest kunstimaailmast, riigi kunstiinstitutsioonidest ja eragaleriidest, oma raamatust "Maria Lind. Selected Writings" (2010), kunstikriitikast ja -kirjutistest, kureerimise tähtsuse tõusust, nüüdiskunstist

  5. Santa Gertrudis : Pétroglifo

    OpenAIRE

    Puaux , Olivier

    1986-01-01

    Las Milpillas ( site n°95 ), Santa Gertrudis, Municipio de Zacapu, Michoacán. Opéración 1. Groupo B. Estructura B1. Unidad Excavación Noroeste. Pétroglifo dibajo de los escombros, Fachaba Escalinatas. Coordenadas : 19°51'48" 101°49'.

  6. Central hydroelectric of Santa Ana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo A, German

    2000-01-01

    The paper is related to the construction of an alternating tunnel of conduction to take advantage of the available hydraulic load among the Wiesner Plant and Santa Ana's tanks and of Suba, works required to build a hydroelectric power station with a generation capacity of approximately of 12 MW

  7. New process of co-coking of waste plastics and blend coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, H.; Yu, G.; Zhao, P. (and others) [Shougang Technical Research Institute, Beijing (China)

    2006-07-01

    To recycle and reuse waste plastics, as well as to get a new resource of coking, co-coking process of waste plastics and blend coal has been developed by Nippon Steel. However, the ratio of waste plastics in blend coal should be limited in the range of 1% to maintain the coke strength. This paper suggested a new process of co-coking of waste plastics and blend coal. The new process can add the waste plastics ratio up to 2-4%; when the waste plastics ratio is 2%, the coke strength after reaction with CO{sub 2} (CSR) increased 8%. 8 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Coke battery with 51-m{sup 3} furnace chambers and lateral supply of mixed gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.I. Rudyka; N.Y. Chebotarev; O.N. Surenskii; V.V. Derevich [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    The basic approaches employed in the construction of coke battery 11A at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat are outlined. This battery includes 51.0-m{sup 3} furnaces and a dust-free coke-supply system designed by Giprokoks with lateral gas supply; it is heated exclusively by low-calorific mixed gas consisting of blast-furnace gas with added coke-oven gas. The 82 furnaces in the coke battery are divided into two blocks of 41. The gross coke output of the battery (6% moisture content) is 1140000 t/yr.

  9. Practical aspects of coking in Cundinamarca y Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segundo Manuel Romero-Balaguera

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Taking advantage of the excellent qualities of the studied coals from the coalfields in Cundinamarca and terms of the types of coking ovens, for excellent performance and quality that allows them to be very competitive.The international market is very demanding in terms of the quality of coke and CRI and CSR indexes, that is why coals laboratories were implemented and improved the system of sampling and analysis of laboratories for more agile and modern. Mixtures were made with the test methodology and empirical methods combining swelling index and rank cals were the theree main types: high, medium and low volatile. But with studies and techological change and enviromental control, process is managed, allowing the coke industry to serve as a development center for the promotion of industries in the central area of this country. In the study the whole process is presented beginning with the explotaitation of coking coals, the care that must be taken into account to mainttain good quality, transport and enviromental measures, the process of crushing and grinding to prepare the optimal mix and laboratory tests necessary to maintain quality control, the types of ovens in Boyacá Colombia, yields and advances in the se technologies, and finally, the system shutdown process. All of the above was addressed in order to add value to the product with the fulfillment of the international market standards.

  10. Refractory compounds for repairing coke-oven brickwork

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanganu, M.; Dragomir, C. (and others)

    1984-01-01

    A number of refractory compounds are presented, based on aluminium phosphate, phosphoric acid, sodium silicate and fire-clay and mullitic zirconium mastic, including their composition, properties and application (by impregnation, spray application or pouring), which are suitable for repairing various types of coke-oven brickwork. The results obtained are given.

  11. The development of coke smelting and the industrial revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Abraham Darby and the origins of the industrial revolution in Britain. Alan Macfarlane talks to John about the reasons for the area near Birmingham becoming the epi-centre of the industrial development, and the development of coke furnaces and iron smelting.

  12. Retort for coking peat, brown coal, bituminous shale, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1902-05-14

    The retort leads the gases and vapors into the coking chamber, between the inside heater and the outer heating shaft-wall. Over-lapping, double-faced acting rings are arranged, over which the charge in two or more separate vertical layers is transported.

  13. Continuous moisture measurement in metallurgical coke with automatic charge correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watzke, H.; Mehlhose, D.

    1981-01-01

    A process control system has been developed for automatic batching of the coke amount necessary for metallurgical processes taking into account the moisture content. The measurement is performed with a neutron moisture gage consisting of an Am-Be neutron source and a BF 3 counter. The output information of the counter is used for computer-controlled batching

  14. Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Richard A.; Im, Chang J.; Wright, Robert E.

    1994-01-01

    A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

  15. modelling and modelling and simulation of coking in the riser

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    into the modeling of FCC riser by predicting catalyst coke content as a function of reaction by predicting ... understanding of the process, hence restricting scale up to within the ... MATLAB (R2009a) on a Compaq HP CQ61 laptop. The following ...

  16. On-line determination of moisture in coke on conveyor belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millen, M.J.; Rafter, P.T.; Sowerby, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    A fast neutron and γ-ray transmission technique is being developed for the on-line determination of moisture in coke on conveyor belts. Calculations show that the technique is capable of determining coke moisture to within 0.3 wt% for coke thicknesses down to 50 mm provided that count rates are measured to within 0.1% relative. Laboratory measurements on static and moving coke samples showed that coke moisture can be determined to within 0.25 and 0.45 wt% for crushed and lump coke, respectively. It is planned to carry out a long-term plant trial of the technique on lump coke feed to the No. 3 blast furnace at BHP, Newcastle, NSW, Australia. (author)

  17. New technological solutions in construction and operation of batteries with large coke ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volokita, G.I.; Bulyga, N.I.

    1988-11-01

    Describes design modifications to the No. 7 coke oven battery with 7.0 m high coke ovens in the Avdeevka coking plant. Temperature distribution in the large coke ovens was irregular due to the specific design of the heating system, distribution and dimensions of flue channels and thickness of flue channel walls. During coke battery reconstruction length of the peripheral flue channels was reduced by 70 mm, coke oven volume was reduced from 41.6 to 41.3 m/sup 3/. These design changes resulted in a more regular temperature distribution and reduced temperature difference between the coke oven center and zones close to the machine and pusher sides. Thickness of flue channel walls was reduced from 130 to 105 mm. Special reinforcing elements that guarantee more regular temperature distribution and increased wall service life were used.

  18. Avalikud ettevalmistused... iseseisvaks eluks? / Maria-Kristiina Soomre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soomre, Maria-Kristiina, 1978-

    2008-01-01

    2007. a. Tallinnas ilmunud artiklikogumikust "Public preparation" (koostanud Rael Artel ja Airi Triisberg, kujundanud Jaan Evart). Tallinnas Okupatsioonide Muuseumis 21.-23. II toimunud rahvusvahelisest seminarist "Translocal express. Jubilee edition" (korraldajad R. Artel ja A. Triisberg). Loetletud 12 esinejat, Eestist Flo Kasearu, Maria-Kristiina Soomre. Charles Esche, Sezgin Boyniki ja Minna Henrikssoni ettekannetest

  19. Maria Tallchief. Raintree/Rivilo American Indian Stories Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdrich, Heidi Ellen

    The great American ballerina, Maria Tallchief, was born in 1925 in Fairfax, Oklahoma. Her mother was White and her father was a full-blood Osage. Her younger sister, Marjorie, also became a famous dancer. The Osage originally lived in western Missouri. They lived in lodges or tepees and were farmers and hunters. The U.S. Government moved them to…

  20. Maria and Giuseppe: lives intertwined with CERN’s history

    CERN Multimedia

    Pauline Gagnon

    2014-01-01

    CERN will be celebrating its 60th anniversary this year. That means 60 years of pioneering scientific research and exciting discoveries. Two Italian physicists, Maria and Giuseppe Fidecaro, remember nearly all of it since they arrived in 1956. Most impressively, they are still hard at work, every day!   Giuseppe and Maria Fidecaro in Restaurant No. 1, at CERN, in 2014, 60 years after they joined the Organization. The couple is easy to spot, even in the cafeteria during busy lunchtimes, where they usually engage in the liveliest discussions. “We argue quite a lot,” Maria tells me with a big smile. “We have very different styles.” “But in general, in the end, we agree,” completes Giuseppe. In October 1954, Giuseppe went to the University of Liverpool as a CERN Fellow to do research at its brand new synchrocyclotron. Maria also joined, having obtained a fellowship from the International Federation of University Women. After getting m...

  1. Some aspects of the reproductive biology of Tilapia mariae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    made lake such as fecundity of female fishes was determined gravimetrically after the sex had been established. The ratio of male to female T. mariae of Umuoseriche Lake was 1:1.56. The numbers of female fishes were greater in 110 – 145 ...

  2. Maria Catrileo's Work in the Tagmemics of Mapuche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Frances

    The Mapuches, a tribe now numbering about 500,000 people in south central Chile are the descendants of the Araucanians of Spanish legend. Many still speak only their own idiom, which now shows much lexical influence of the surrounding Spanish. This paper is an exposition of Maria Catrileo Chiguailaf de Godo's research in her native language. It…

  3. Exhibition: Life and Achievements of Maria Sklodowska-Curie

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The exhibition "Life and Achievements of Maria Sklodowska-Curie” will be held at CERN (Pas Perdus Corridor, 1st floor, building 61) from the 8 to 24 March.   It is organised under the auspices of the Ambassador R. Henczel, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Poland to the UN Office at Geneva to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry given to Maria Sklodowska-Curie. The exhibition is also one of the events celebrating the 20th anniversary of Poland joining CERN as a Member State. Maria Sklodowska-Curie, Nobel Prize winner both in physics and chemistry, is one of the greatest scientists of Polish origin. The exhibition, consisting of 20 posters, presents her not only as a brilliant scientist, but also an exceptional woman of great heart, character and organizational talents, sensitive to contemporary problems. The authors are Mrs M. Sobieszczak-Marciniak, the director of the Maria Sklodowska-Curie Museum in Warsaw and Mrs H. Krajewska, the direct...

  4. Study of variation grain size in desulfurization process of calcined petroleum coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintowantoro, Sungging; Setiawan, Muhammad Arif; Abdul, Fakhreza

    2018-04-01

    Indonesia is a country with abundant natural resources, such as mineral mining and petroleum. In petroleum processing, crude oil can be processed into a source of fuel energy such as gasoline, diesel, oil, petroleum coke, and others. One of crude oil potentials in Indonesia is petroleum coke. Petroleum coke is a product from oil refining process. Sulfur reducing process in calcined petroleum cokes can be done by desulfurization process. The industries which have potential to become petroleum coke processing consumers are industries of aluminum smelting (anode, graphite block, carbon mortar), iron riser, calcined coke, foundry coke, etc. Sulfur reducing process in calcined petroleum coke can be done by thermal desulfurization process with alkaline substance NaOH. Desulfurization of petroleum coke process can be done in two ways, which are thermal desulfurization and hydrodesulphurization. This study aims to determine the effect of various grain size on sulfur, carbon, and chemical bond which contained by calcined petroleum coke. The raw material use calcined petroleum coke with 0.653% sulfur content. The grain size that used in this research is 50 mesh, then varied to 20 mesh and 100 mesh for each desulfurization process. Desulfurization are tested by ICP, UV-VIS, and FTIR to determine levels of sulfur, carbon, chemical bonding and sulfur dissolved water which contained in the residual washing of calcined petroleum coke. From various grain size that mentioned before, the optimal value is on 100 mesh grain size, where the sulfur content in petroleum coke is 0.24% and carbon content reaches the highest level of 97.8%. Meanwhile for grain size 100 mesh in the desulfurization process is enough to break the chemical bonds of organic sulfur in petroleum coke.

  5. Charakter Marias. - Darbringung Jesu im Tempel. II. Dogmatik. - Demut Mariens. I. Dogmatik. - Ehe. III. Dogmatik. - Engel/Erzengel. II. Dogmatik. - Erlösungsordnung. - Eschatologie. - Evangelisation. - Gericht. - Gnadenthron. - Gotteskind. - Gottesschau. - Häresie. - Heilsplan Gottes. - Himmelfahrt Mariae. I. Dogmatik. - Hingabe Marias. - Hoffnung. - Inkulturation. - Jesus Christus. - Josephsehe. - Jungfräulichkeit. II. Dogmatik. - Jungfräulichkeitsgelübde. - Jungfrau und Mutter. - Menschwerdung. II. Dogmatik. - Mitwirken Mariens. - Münzen. - Nachfolge Marias. - Nächstenliebe Marias. - Ohnmacht Mariens. I. Dogmatik

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegenaus, Anton

    1992-01-01

    Charakter Marias. - Darbringung Jesu im Tempel. II. Dogmatik. - Demut Mariens. I. Dogmatik. - Ehe. III. Dogmatik. - Engel/Erzengel. II. Dogmatik. - Erlösungsordnung. - Eschatologie. - Evangelisation. - Gericht. - Gnadenthron. - Gotteskind. - Gottesschau. - Häresie. - Heilsplan Gottes. - Himmelfahrt Mariae. I. Dogmatik. - Hingabe Marias. - Hoffnung. - Inkulturation. - Jesus Christus. - Josephsehe. - Jungfräulichkeit. II. Dogmatik. - Jungfräulichkeitsgelübde. - Jungfrau und Mutter. - Menschwerd...

  6. Achievements and research programs of the Institute for Chemical Coal Processing in the field of conventional coking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cieslar, R.; Kaziszyn, I.; Zawistowksi, J.

    1986-11-01

    This paper describes research programs of the Institute for Chemical Coal Processing in Zabrze on black coal coking and coke use in metallurgy from 1955 to 1990. In 1955-1970 the programs concentrated on coal mixture composition (selective crushing), optimization of coking conditions, mechanical coke treatment. In 1971-1980 research concentrated on coal preparation prior to coking and new coking systems for the Katowice steel plant (heat treatments, design of large coke ovens). The following research programs were implemented in 1981-1985: partial coal charge briquetting, production of foundry coke, coal charge preheating, production of blast furnace coke from black coal from Dobiensko, reducing coke consumption of blast furnaces. In 1986-1990 the Institute will concentrate on the following research programs: coal preparation schemes and coking schemes for coking low-quality weakly caking coals, optimization of coke oven design (e.g. use of packed charge), reducing coke consumption in metallurgy and heating systems, reducing air pollution from coking.

  7. Electrical conductivity of the screening residuals of coke production in context of ferrochromium production in a submerged arc furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousu, Arto; Mattila, Olli [Lab. of Process Metallurgy, Univ. of Oulu (Finland)

    2009-11-15

    Coke is used as a reducing agent in the production of ferrochromium in a submerged arc furnace (SAF). Its good electrical conductivity compared to other input materials makes it a dominant current conductivity substance in the burden. The resistance of the coke has to be high enough to ensure the proper functionality of the furnace. Used cokes for submerged arc furnace production are relatively small in size compared to e.g. blast furnace (BF) cokes. A common practice is to use screening residual coke, which is too small for the BF, in SAF. The goal of this study was to show differences in the electrical properties of screening residual cokes compared to coke formed in different parts of the coke battery, in dependence of particle size. The resistances of different cokes were measured and XRD measurements were performed to define the crystallographic structure of the selected cokes. The results indicate that small coke particles have higher overall resistance, which is due to their internal properties. This small weakly carbonized coke is formed in the middle of the coking battery and is subject to changes in varying coking practices. Continuous quality control of screening residual coke is needed to use it in the SAF. (orig.)

  8. Várias Marias: efeitos da Lei Maria da Penha nas delegacias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Carvalho Romagnoli

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute os dados qualitativos da pesquisa “Violência Doméstica perpetrada contra a mulher no município de Montes Claros: um recorte possível”, financiada pelo CNPq e pela FAPEMIG. O objetivo do estudo foi investigar quantitativamente e qualitativamente os atos violentos contra as mulheres na cidade de Montes Claros, Minas Gerais. A vertente qualitativa pretendia conhecer o sentido da violência para as mulheres envolvidas e seus reflexos na família, através de entrevistas semiestruturadas que não se efetivaram. A partir da Análise Institucional de René Lourau analisamos essa inviabilidade como dado qualitativo, examinando o cotidiano da delegacia após a lei Maria da Penha. Concluímos que a intervenção judicial não é suficiente para a inibição da violência contra a mulher, pois em certos casos afasta da delegacia mulheres com outras demandas acerca da violência, que sofrem e que não podem contar com a ajuda policial para a resolução dos seus conflitos.

  9. Geochemical characteristics of oil sands fluid petroleum coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesbitt, Jake A.; Lindsay, Matthew B.J.; Chen, Ning

    2017-01-01

    The geochemical characteristics of fluid petroleum coke from the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) of northern Alberta, Canada were investigated. Continuous core samples were collected to 8 m below surface at several locations (n = 12) from three coke deposits at an active oil sands mine. Bulk elemental analyses revealed the coke composition was dominated by C (84.2 ± 2.3 wt%) and S (6.99 ± 0.26 wt%). Silicon (9210 ± 3000 mg kg"−"1), Al (5980 ± 1200 mg kg"−"1), Fe (4760 ± 1200 mg kg"−"1), and Ti (1380 ± 430 mg kg"−"1) were present in lesser amounts. Vanadium (1280 ± 120 mg kg"−"1) and Ni (230 ± 80 mg kg"−"1) exhibited the highest concentrations among potentially-hazardous minor and trace elements. Sequential extractions revealed potential for release of these metals under field-relevant conditions. Synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction revealed the presence of Si and Ti oxides, organically-complexed V and hydrated Ni sulfate, and provided information about the asphaltenic carbon matrix. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy at the V and Ni K-edges revealed that these metals were largely hosted in porphyrins and similar organic complexes throughout coke grains. Minor differences among measured V and Ni K-edge spectra were largely attributed to slight variations in local coordination of V(IV) and Ni(II) within these organic compounds. However, linear combination fits were improved by including reference spectra for inorganic phases with octahedrally-coordinated V(III) and Ni(II). Sulfur and Fe K-edge XANES confirmed that thiophenic coordination and pyritic-ilmenitic coordination are predominant, respectively. These results provide new information on the geochemical and mineralogical composition of oil sands fluid petroleum coke and improve understanding of potential controls on associated water chemistry. - Highlights: • Oil sands fluid petroleum coke contains wide range of major, minor and

  10. Characterization of norm sources in petroleum coke calcining processes - 16314

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Ian S.; Halter, Donald A.; Fruchtnicht, Erich H.; Arno, Matthew G.; Haumann, Donald F

    2009-01-01

    Petroleum coke, or 'petcoke', is a waste by-product of the oil refining industry. The majority of petcoke consumption is in energy applications; catalyst coke is used as refinery fuel, anode coke for electricity conduction, and marketable coke for heating cement kilns. Roskill has predicted that long-term growth in petroleum coke production will be maintained, and may continue to increase slightly through 2012. Petcoke must first be calcined to drive off any undesirable petroleum by-products that would shorten the coke product life cycle. As an example, the calcining process can take place in large, rotary kilns heated to maximum temperatures as high as approximately 1400-1540 deg. C. The kilns and combustion/settling chambers, as well as some cooler units, are insulated with refractory bricks and other, interstitial materials, e.g., castable refractory materials, to improve the efficiency of the calcining process. The bricks are typically made of 70-85-percent bauxite, and are slowly worn away by the calcining process; bricks used to line the combustion chambers wear away, as well, but at a slower rate. It has been recognized that the refractory materials contain slight amounts of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) from the uranium- and thorium-decay series. Similarly, low levels of NORM could be present in the petcoke feed stock given the nature of its origin. Neither the petcoke nor the refractory bricks represent appreciable sources of radiation or radioactive waste. However, some of the demolished bricks that have been removed from service because of the aforementioned wearing process have caused portal alarms to activate at municipal disposal facilities. This has lead to the current investigation into whether there is a NORM concentrating mechanism facilitated by the presence of the slightly radioactive feed stock in the presence of the slightly radioactive refractory materials, at calcining-zone temperatures. Research conducted to date has been

  11. Granulation of coke breeze fine for using in the sintering process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Coke breeze is the main fuel used in the sintering process. The value of -3+1 mm. represents the most favorable particle size for coke breeze in the sintering process. About 20% of total coke fines (-0.5 mm are produced during different steps of preparation. Introducing these fines during the sintering process proves to be very harmful for different operating parameters. Thus ,this study aims at investigating the production of granules resulting from these fines using molasses as organic binder and its application in sintering of an iron ore. The results showed that the granules having the highest mechanical properties were obtained with 14.5 wt % molasses addition. The sintering experiments were performed by using coke breeze in different shapes (-3+1 mm in size, coke breeze without sieving and coke breeze granules -3+1 mm. The reduction experiments, microscopic structure and X-ray analysis for the produced sinter were carried out. The results revealed that, all sinter properties (such as shatter test, productivity of sinter machine and blast furnace, reduction time and chemical composition for produced sinter by using coke breeze with size -3+1 mm and coke breeze granules were almost the same. The iron ore sinter which was produced by using coke breeze without sieving yielded low productivity for both sinter machine and blast furnace. Furthermore, using coke breeze without sieving in sintering of an iron ore decreases the vertical velocity of sinter machine and increases the reduction time.

  12. Quantification of mineral matter in commercial cokes and their parent coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurovs, Richard; French, David; Grigore, Mihaela [CRC for Coal in Sustainable Development, CSIRO Energy Technology, PO Box 330 Newcastle 2300 (Australia)

    2007-10-01

    The nature of mineral matter in coke is an important factor in determining the behaviour of coke in the blast furnace. However, there have been few quantitative determinations of the types of mineral matter in coke and the feed coal. Here we use a technique of quantitative X-ray diffraction - SIROQUANT trademark - to determine the nature and quantity of mineral matter in eleven cokes and their parent materials, using samples of coals and their cokes utilised commercially in blast furnaces around the world. In some of these coals a considerable proportion of the phosphorus was present as goyazite, an aluminium phosphate. In the cokes, most of the iron was incorporated into amorphous aluminosilicate material; metallic iron accounted for about 15% of the iron present, and a similar amount was present as sulfides. Potassium and sodium were largely present as amorphous aluminosilicate material. Most of the quartz in the coal was unaffected by the coking, but a small fraction was transformed into other minerals. Quartz is not completely inert during coking. The amount of the catalytic forms of iron in the coke - iron, iron oxides and iron sulfides - was not related to the amount of pyrite and siderite in the starting coal, indicating that estimation of catalytic iron requires investigation of the mineral matter in coke directly and cannot be estimated from the minerals in the coal. (author)

  13. Modelling of Coke Layer Collapse during Ore Charging in Ironmaking Blast Furnace by DEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Yoichi; Mio, Hiroshi; Orimoto, Takashi; Nomura, Seiji

    2017-06-01

    A technical issue in an ironmaking blast furnace operation is to realize the optimum layer thickness and the radial distribution of burden (ore and coke) to enhance its efficiency and productivity. When ore particles are charged onto the already-embedded coke layer, the coke layer-collapse phenomenon occurs. The coke layer-collapse phenomenon has a significant effect on the distribution of ore and coke layer thickness in the radial direction. In this paper, the mechanical properties of coke packed bed under ore charging were investigated by the impact-loading test and the large-scale direct shear test. Experimental results show that the coke particle is broken by the impact force of ore charging, and the particle breakage leads to weaken of coke-layer strength. The expression of contact force for coke in Discrete Element Method (DEM) was modified based on the measured data, and it followed by the 1/3-scaled experiment on coke's collapse phenomena. Comparing a simulation by modified model to the 1/3-scaled experiment, they agreed well in the burden distribution.

  14. Problems of new processes in coking industry discussed at the Scientific Council of the GKNT and the Section of Coking Industry of the Scientific and Technological Council of the Ministry of Iron and Steel Industry of the USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ermolova, V.P.

    1983-03-01

    A report is given from the conference on new processes in the Soviet coking industry held in Moscow on 28-29 October 1982. The following papers were delivered: implementing research programs on new coking processes, new trends in coking plant design and construction in the 11th 5 year plan and in the time period until 1990, increasing efficiency of coking industry, research program of the Scientific Council in 1983. The report concentrates on new trends in coking plant design. Considering that the raw material basis of the Eastern regions of the USSR is poor in high quality coking coal the new coking processes and technologies should use weakly coking coal. The following schemes are discussed: heat treatments (especially useful in the case of black coal from the Kuzbass characterized by intensive fluctuations of petrology), selective crushing (schemes developed by the VUKhIN Institute), partial briquetting of coal mixtures (experiments carried out by the UKhIN in the Donbass in 1982). Other problems of coking such as development of new systems of smokeless fuel feeding to coke ovens, dry coke quenching, increasing capacity of coke chambers to 41.6 m/sup 3/, environmental protection in coking industry and production of special coke types from poor quality coal for metallurgy are also described.

  15. Urgent reconstruction and re-equipping of coking plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvitkin, I.A.; Martynenko, V.M.; Rozenfel' d, M.S.; Svyatogorov, A.A.; Shvartsman, I.G.

    1986-03-01

    This paper discusses the various options involved: complete or partial reconstruction of existing buildings and equipment or new construction with new equipment and new underground and surface communications. It explains that reconstruction work is divided into three phases: initial phase (clearance, dismantling, closing down coking batteries); basic phase (fitting heat-resistant materials, prestart-up assembly work); final phase (drying out, heating up, adjustments, start-up). A structured scheme for a typical initial phase is described and a method of calculating the durations of the various phases is discussed. Conclusion is that there is an urgent requirement for a document to be produced for the control of reconstruction work; it should contain standard durations and could serve as a standard for coking plant reconstruction work.

  16. Heat input control in coke ovens battery using artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R.; Kannan, C.; Sistla, S.; Kumar, D. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India)

    2005-07-01

    Controlled heating is very essential for producing coke with certain desired properties. Controlled heating involves controlling the heat input into the battery dynamically depending on the various process parameters like current battery temperature, the set point of battery temperature, moisture in coal, ambient temperature, coal fineness, cake breakage etc. An artificial intelligence (AI) based heat input control has been developed in which currently some of the above mentioned process parameters are considered and used for calculating the pause time which is applied between reversal during the heating process. The AI based model currently considers 3 input variables, temperature deviation history, current deviation of the battery temperature from the target temperature and the actual heat input into the battery. Work is in progress to control the standard deviation of coke end temperature using this model. The new system which has been developed in-house has replaced Hoogovens supplied model. 7 figs.

  17. Benzole still reflux system - Dawes Lane Coke Ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardwick, J.

    2005-07-01

    The paper describes a project carried out at Dawes Lane coking plant (in Scunthorpe, UK) to access current performance of the batch reflux system with respect to the operation of personnel and to recommend a solution to eliminate naphthalene blockage and problems previously caused by the use of hot debenzolised oil (DBO) as make-up. A successful solution was found and implemented. The benzole product now being produced is within specification and regularly achieves the composition produced by the previous hot reflux system (83% benzole, 7% naphthalene) with an addition reduction in wash oil usage of 20%. Problems of naphthalene blockages in reflux pipework have been cured. The expenses on the project were small. The paper was presented at a COMA meeting at Monckton Coke Ovens on 19 May 2005. 6 figs.

  18. Composition and method for coke retardant during hydrocarbon processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, D.K.

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for inhibiting the formation and deposition of filamentous coke on metallic surfaces in contact with a hydrocarbon having a temperature of 600 0 -1300 0 F which comprises adding to the hydrocarbon a sufficient amount for the purpose of a boron compound selected from the group of boron oxide compounds, boric acid and metal borides, with the proviso that when boric acid is used, it is substantially free of water

  19. Understanding the mechanisms behind coking pressure: Relationship to pore structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Duffy; M. Castro Diaz; Colin E. Snape; Karen M. Steel; Merrick R. Mahoney [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre, School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2007-09-15

    Three low volatile coals A, B and C with oven wall pressures of 100 kPa, 60 kPa and 20 kPa respectively were investigated using high-temperature rheometry, {sup 1}H NMR, thermogravimetric analysis and SEM, with the primary aim to better understand the mechanisms behind the coking pressure phenomenon. Rheometer plate displacement measurements ({Delta}L) have shown differences in the expansion and contraction behaviour of the three coals, which seem to correlate with changes in rheological properties; while SEM images have shown that the expansion process coincides with development of pore structure. It is considered that the point of maximum plate height ({Delta}L{sub max}) prior to contraction may be indicative of a cell opening or pore network forming process, based on analogies with other foam systems. Such a process may be considered important for coking pressure since it provides a potential mechanism for volatile escape, relieving internal gas pressure and inducing charge contraction. For coal C, which has the highest fluidity {delta}L{sub max} occurs quite early in the softening process and consequently a large degree of contraction is observed; while for the lower fluidity coal B, the process is delayed since pore development and consequently wall thinning progress at a slower rate. When {Delta}L{sub max} is attained, a lower degree of contraction is observed because the event occurs closer to resolidification where the increasing viscosity/elasticity can stabilise the expanded pore structure. For coal A which is relatively high fluidity, but also high coking pressure, a greater degree of swelling is observed prior to cell rupture, which may be due to greater fluid elasticity during the expansion process. This excessive expansion is considered to be a potential reason for its high coking pressure. 58 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Assessment of PAH-exposure among coke oven workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahakangas, K. [and others] [Oulu University, Oulu (Finland)

    1992-12-31

    Levels of BaP diol epoxide - DNA adducts in urine and blood were monitored for workers at the Raahe coking plant, Finland, and other relevant information was collected. All adduct values were low, but oven battery workers had slightly higher values than matched controls. Antibodies to these adducts increased somewhat after work at the plant started, no differences between smokers and non-smokers were found.

  1. Combined XRD and Raman studies of coke types found in SAPO-34 after methanol and propene conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wragg, David S.; Grønvold, Arne; Voronov, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    oligomerisation (PO) reactions. The coke caused by MTO leads to two distinct sets of HRPD peaks which can be indexed by two SAPO-34 unit cells with different lattice parameters and coke contents. We believe that these unit cells represent different zones of the catalyst filled with different coke types. PO coking...... does not lead to splitting of the diffraction peaks. Raman spectra show differences between the coke types produced by MTO and PO with the same overall trend of increasingly polyaromatic coke with increasing coke mass. The intensity of the monocyclic and polyaromatic peaks in the MTO Raman spectra...... correspond to the phase fractions of the two cell types used in the Rietveld refinement, suggesting a link between the two phases and the two coke types. The PO Raman spectra have a stronger polyaromatic band at low coke, suggesting that polyaromatics form faster. In situ powder XRD studies suggest...

  2. Application of WIMSD-4 for ''MARIA'' reactor lattice calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrzejewski, K.; Kulikowska, T.

    1993-12-01

    A general description of the WIMSD-4 lattice code is given with the emphasis on available geometrical models. The difficulties encountered while modelling reactor lattices with the tubular type fuel elements are explained. Then the analysis of code options allowing to overcome these difficulties is carried out. Eventually, recommendations of options and input parameters for calculations of MARIA reactor lattice with satisfactory accuracy are given. During the work a set of modifications had to be introduced leading to a new code version called WIMS-S. Another version, under the name WIMS-T has been developed to allow for burnup calculations of the MARIA reactor lattice with improved resonance approach. (author). 14 refs, 6 figs, 10 tabs

  3. Nickel and vanadium extraction from the Syrian petroleum coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlewit, H.; Alibrahim, M.

    2007-01-01

    Syrian petroleum coke samples were characterized and submitted for salt-roasting treatment in electric furnace to evaluate the convenience of this procedure for the extraction of the vanadium, nickel and sulfur from coke. Both solution and solid residue remaining after salt roasting were separated by filtration and were analyzed for vanadium, nickel and sulfur. The solution was analyzed by UV-Visible spectroscopy for vanadium and nickel and gravimetrically for sulfur. The solid residue and the untreated samples of petroleum coke were analyzed by XRF spectrometry. Results showed that more than 90% of sulfur and 60% of vanadium could be extracted by salt roasting treatment. An alternative procedure has been suggested, in which, more than 80% of sulfur and small percentage of vanadium can be leached by 0.75 M of Na 2 CO 3 solution at 70-80 Co. Vanadium was selectively extracted by DEHPA/TBP from the loaded leached solution. The extraction procedure flowsheet was also suggested. (authors)

  4. Denitrification of coking wastewater with micro-electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yanli; Wang, Yanqiu; Shan, Mingjun; Shen, Xue; Su, Ying

    2011-06-01

    The denitrification for the coking wastewater was conducted by means of original battery principle with Fe-C micro-electrolysis. Fe-C serves as positive and negative electrodes, by which N02(-)-N and TN were reduced to nitrogen, and then the purpose of denitrifieation for coking wastewater was realized. The influences of pH value, carbon particle size, Fe/C ratio (mass ratio), reaction time and coagulation pH value on removal rate of N02(-)-N and TN were investigated. Coking wastewater originated from Jiamusi Coal Chemistry Engineering Company. The optimum conditions of treatment were as follows: the initial pH was 3.0, the dosage of Fe 73.5 g/L, reaction time 70 min, mass ratio of Fe/C ratio 1.0:1.3, coagulation pH 9.0 and sedimentation time 40 min. Under those conditions, nitrogen removal efficiencies of N02(-)-N and TN were beyond 50% and 45%, respectively. Copyright © 2011 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An additive for a petroleum coke and water suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khiguti, K.; Igarasi, T.; Isimura, Y.; Kharaguti, S.; Tsudzina, T.

    1983-03-04

    The patent covers an additive for a petroleum coke and watersuspension which contains soap of an aliphatic acid (AM) and or a salt of a maleic acid copolymer (SMK). The aliphatic acid soap is a salt of an alkaline earth metal of C6 to C22 aliphatic acid, an ammonium salt or a salt of a lower amine. The maleic acid copolymer is a salt (sodium, NH4) of a lower amine of a maleic anhydride copolymer with a copolymerizing vinyl additive. Capric acid, lauric acid, palmatic acid, aleic and other acids may be used as the aliphatic acid, while methylamine, trimethylamine, diethanolamine, morpholine and so on may be used as the lower amine salt. Ethylene, vinylchloride, methyl(meta)acrylate and so on are used as the polymerizing vinyl compound. The molar ratio of the maleic anhydride to the polymerizing vinyl compound is in a range from 1 to 1 to 1 to 10 (preferably 1 to 1 to 1 to 3). The maleic acid copolymer has a mean molecular mass within 1,000 to 5,000. The additive with the optimal composition contains a solvent, a thickener, an anticorrosion substance, anticoagulants, surfacants (PAV) and so on. A highly concentrated suspension of oil coke and water with a 50 to 75 percent concentration of powder form petroleum coke may be produced using the patented additive. Such a suspension is characterized by low viscosity, high stability and forms no foam during processing.

  6. Estimation of unit risk for coke oven emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moolgavkar, S.H.; Luebeck, E.G.; Anderson, E.L.

    1998-01-01

    In 1984, based on epidemiological data on cohorts of coke oven workers, USEPA estimated a unit risk for lung cancer associated with continuous exposure from birth to 1 microg/m 3 of coke oven emissions, of 6.2 x 10 -4 . This risk assessment was based on information on the cohorts available through 1966. Follow-up of these cohorts has now been extended to 1982 and, moreover, individual job histories, which were not available in 1984, have been constructed. In this study, lung cancer mortality in these cohorts of coke oven workers with extended follow-up was analyzed using standard techniques of survival analysis and a new approach based on the two stage clonal expansion model of carcinogenesis. The latter approach allows the explicit consideration of detailed patterns of exposure of each individual in the cohort. The analyses used the extended follow-up data through 1982 and the detailed job histories now available. Based on these analyses, the best estimate of unit risk is 1.5 x 10 -4 with 95% confidence interval = 1.2 x 10 -4 --1.8 x 10 -4

  7. Identification of causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puttaswamy, N.; Liber, K.

    2010-01-01

    The potential causes of oil sands coke leachate toxicity were investigated. Chronic 7-day toxicity tests were conducted to demonstrate that oil sands coke leachates (CL) are acutely toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia (C. dubia). CLs were generated in a laboratory to perform toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests in order to investigate the causes of the CL toxicity. The coke was subjected to a 15-day batch leaching process at 5.5 and 9.5 pH values. The leachates were then filtered and used for chemical and toxicological characterization. The 7-day estimates for the C. dubia survival were 6.3 for a pH of 5.5 and 28.7 per cent for the 9.5 CLs. The addition of EDTA significantly improved survival and reproduction in a pH of 5.5 CL, but not in a pH of 9.5 CL. The toxicity of the pH 5.5 CL was removed with a cationic resin treatment. The toxicity of the 9.5 pH LC was removed using an anion resin treatment. Toxicity re-appeared when nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) were added back to the resin-treated CLs. Results of the study suggested that Ni and V were acting as primary toxicants in the pH 5.5 CL, while V was the primary cause of toxicity in the pH 9.5 CL.

  8. Complete physico-chemical treatment for coke plant effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, M K

    2002-03-01

    Naturally found coal is converted to coke which is suitable for metallurgical industries. Large quantities of liquid effluents produced contain a large amount of suspended solids, high COD, BOD, phenols, ammonia and other toxic substances which are causing serious pollution problem in the receiving water to which they are discharged. There are a large number of coke plants in the vicinity of Jharia Coal Field (JCF). Characteristics of the effluents have been evaluated. The present effluent treatment systems were found to be inadequate. Physico-chemical treatment has been considered as a suitable option for the treatment of coke plant effluents. Ammonia removal by synthetic zeolite, activated carbon for the removal of bacteria, viruses, refractory organics, etc. were utilized and the results are discussed. A scheme has been proposed for the complete physico-chemical treatment, which can be suitably adopted for the recycling, reuse and safe disposal of the treated effluent. Various unit process and unit operations involved in the treatment system have been discussed. The process may be useful on industrial scale at various sites.

  9. Factors affecting coke size and fissuring during cokemaking part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrick Mahoney; Jeff Keating; Susan Woodhouse [BHP Billiton Newcastle Technology Centre (Australia)

    2007-12-15

    This work addressed the mechanism of fissuring during metallurgical cokemaking and extends on a previous ACARP project. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the mechanism by an integrated modelling work; experimental program. The work points to opportunities for controlling the carbonisation process to achieve required outcomes in terms of coke lump size and distribution. Key outcomes of the work included: A methodology for determination of the minimum spacing between fissures, and the time at which period doublings (i.e. every second fissure stopping) occur, has been developed and implemented. Implementation of the methodology allows the determination of the complete fissure pattern (at least those perpendicular to the oven walls) for a given coke oven/charge configuration. A plausible mechanistic explanation of the formation of lateral fissures (those that are parallel to the oven walls) has been developed. Knowledge of the fissure pattern, combined with the lateral fissuring explanation, enables the determination of typical size and shape of lumps after stabilisation of the coke.

  10. The combustion characteristics of refuse derived fuels using coke/waste tire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, M.H. [Dep. of Mechanical Eng., Samcheok Nat' l Univ., Samcheok (Korea); Shin, D.Y. [Research Center for Advanced Mineral Aggregate Composite Products, Kangwon Nat' l Univ., Chuncheon (Korea)

    2005-07-01

    Today every nation faces serious problems of energy supply. Reasonable technologies to make use of coal (including coke) can not only help the mining-related economy which is showing a downward trend but also may fit in with the governmental energy policy. In this research, we aim to supply heating systems in factories, homes, and farms with a substitute fuel by developing coke/waste tire compound fuel with high efficiency for rational use of energy and for recycling of industrial products. A coke/waste boiler was used for this experiment, and different kinds of fuel were experimented including coke, waste tire, coke/waste A and coke/waste B. Four kinds of exhaust gas were also sampled by a gas analyzer, including CO, CO{sub 2}, NO and NO{sub 2} at different temperatures. (orig.)

  11. Consumption of fuels and energy in the coking industry and ways of reducing consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasil' ev, Yu.S.; Tsel' ik, M.P.; Belkina, T.V. (Khar' kovskii Nauchno-Issledovatel' skii Uglekhimicheski Institut (USSR))

    1989-08-01

    Coking plants in the USSR consume 4,000 million kWh electric energy, 100 million GJ heat energy and 35,000 million m{sup 3} gaseous fuels per year. Structure of energy consumption is the following: 68% gaseous fuels, 24% steam and 8% electric energy. Processes of coal preparation, crushing, mixing, coking and quenching are analyzed from the point of view of energy consumption. The following methods for reducing energy consumption are discussed: using the FM-25 flotation machines for flotation of coking coal slurries, briquetting the whole coal charge for coking, optimization of air supply rates for combustion of gases used for coke oven heating, use of control systems for coke oven heating considering coal charge density, waste heat utilization from quenching. 4 refs.

  12. Discovery of the grave and identification of the remains of Matteo Maria Boiardo in Saint Mary's church, Scandiano (Reggio Emilia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Benazzi

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the documentary information and to the prospectings performed by means of the georadar, beneath the floor of the Church of Santa Maria of Scandiano (RE, it has been possible to locate the sepulchral crypts where the poet Matteo Maria Boiardo and other members of his family, such as his father Giovanni, his grandfather Feltrino and maybe his wife Taddea Gonzaga and one of his sons, Camillo, must have been buried. The exploration of these sepulchral crypts has led to the recovery of the skeletal remains belonging altogether to at least 20 persons (adults and children. Among them, 3 have been discovered into a sepulchral room and the rest into an adjacent tomb. Among the first ones, a person, with the same sex, age of death, sturdiness, height and physical characteristics of the poet Boiardo, has been identified. As confirmation of this probable identity, the genetic profile of this man, got from the nuclear dna sample taken from his body, has come out to be compatible with a possible father/child relationship, this result has been compared to the one gotten from the find found into the adjacent room where the poet's father and grandfather had to be buried. The body of a second person, of female sex and well on in years, with a genetic profile different from the previous ones, could be identified with Boiardo's wife. For what regards the body of the third man, besides it is not possible to exclude that it belongs to Camillo, the poet's son dead when he was very young, it has not been possible yet, to get enough proofs able to confirm this theory.

  13. Assessment of off-site consequences of nuclear accidents (MARIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haywood, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    A brief report is given of a workshop held in Luxembourg in 1985 on methods for assessing the off-site radiological consequences of nuclear accidents (MARIA). The sessions included topics such as atmospheric dispersion; foodchain transfer; urban contamination; demographic and land use data; dosimetry, health effects, economic and countermeasures models; uncertainty analysis; and application of probabilistic risk assessment results as input to decision aids. (U.K.)

  14. Neutron physics computation of CERCA fuel elements for Maria Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrzejewski, K.J.; Kulikowska, T.; Marcinkowska, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Neutron physics parameters of CERCA design fuel elements were calculated in the framework of the RERTR (Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors) program for Maria reactor. The analysis comprises burnup of experimental CERCA design fuel elements for 4 cycles in Maria Reactor To predict the behavior of the mixed core the differences between the CERCA fuel (485 g U-235 as U 3 Si 2 , 5 fuel tubes, low enrichment 19.75 % - LEU) and the presently used MR-6 fuel (430 g as UO 2 , 6 fuel tubes, high enrichment 36 % - HEU) had to be taken into account. The basic tool used in neutron-physics analysis of Maria reactor is program REBUS using in its dedicated libraries of effective microscopic cross sections. The cross sections were prepared using WIMS-ANL code, taking into account the actual structure, temperature and material composition of the fuel elements required preparation of new libraries.The problem is described in the first part of the present paper. In the second part the applicability of the new library is shown on the basis of the fuel core computational analysis. (author)

  15. Reference Monte Carlo calculations of Maria reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrzejewski, K.; Kulikowska, T.

    2002-01-01

    The reference Monte Carlo calculations of MARIA reactor core have been carried to evaluate accuracy of the calculations at each stage of its neutron-physics analysis using deterministic codes. The elementary cell has been calculated with two main goals; evaluation of effects of simplifications introduced in deterministic lattice spectrum calculations by the WIMS code and evaluation of library data in recently developed WIMS libraries. In particular the beryllium data of those libraries needed evaluation. The whole core calculations mainly the first MARIA critical experiment and the first critical core after the 8-year break in operation. Both cores contained only fresh fuel elements but only in the first critical core the beryllium blocks were not poisoned by Li-6 and He-3. Thus the MCNP k-eff results could be compared with the experiment. The MCNP calculations for the cores with beryllium poisoned suffered the deficiency of uncertainty in the poison concentration, but a comparison of power distribution shows that realistic poison levels have been carried out for the operating reactor MARIA configurations. (author)

  16. Automatic combustion control of the ArcelorMittal Tubarao coke oven batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Barbosa de Oliveira Mello; C.-H. Sampaio Dandrea; G.-H. Marietto Goncalves; A. Estevao Torres; N.-L. Biccas

    2008-05-15

    The objective of the automatic combustion control is to guarantee the operational stability of the coke batteries based on the control of the coking time and consequently, minimize the reduction of useful life of the ovens. This control is guided by a mathematical model whose inputs are process variables and raw materials parameters and outputs are combustion parameters. Therefore, this paper will present the evolution of the performance of the burning process, providing a stability of the coking time.

  17. 46 CFR 148.04-17 - Petroleum coke, calcined, at 130 °F or above.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petroleum coke, calcined, at 130 °F or above. 148.04-17...-17 Petroleum coke, calcined, at 130 °F or above. (a) The requirements of this part do not apply to bulk shipments of petroleum coke, calcined, on any vessel when the material is less than 130 °F. (b...

  18. Distribuição espacial de Mesadenella cuspidata (Lindl. Garay (Orchidaceae em uma floresta ribeirinha em Santa Maria, RS, Brasil Spatial distribution of Mesadenella cuspidata (Lindl. Garay (Orchidaceae in a riparian forest, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Carlos Budke

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Mesadenella cuspidata é uma orquídea terrícola encontrada no interior de florestas no Sul do Brasil. Apesar de seu valor ecológico e ornamental, pouco se conhece sobre a biologia desta espécie. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram identificar o padrão de distribuição espacial de M. cuspidata e verificar se há correlação entre o número de indivíduos jovens e adultos em uma floresta ribeirinha. Para o levantamento, foram amostradas 60 parcelas de 16m² cada. Durante agosto e setembro/2001 foram inventariados os indivíduos jovens e adultos das parcelas. Para identificar-se o padrão de distribuição espacial, utilizaram-se o índice de Morisita (MI e a razão de variância/média (R. Foram encontrados 463 indivíduos jovens e 178 adultos. Indivíduos jovens e adultos apresentaram distribuição espacial agrupada, sendo que os adultos (IM = 2,17; R = 4,52 estão mais agrupados que os jovens (IM = 1,82; R = 7,82. O coeficiente de correlação linear encontrado r = 0,61, demonstrou que a densidade de indivíduos adultos está altamente relacionada à densidade de indivíduos jovens.Mesadenella cuspidata (Lindl. Garay is a terrestrial orchid found inside Southern Brazilian forests. In spite of its ecological and ornamental value, little information is aviable on its biology. The aim of this work was the identification of the spatial distribution patterns of M. cuspidata in a riparian forest. We have sampled 60 quadrats of 16m² each. All the young and adult individuals of the quadrats were included. To identify the pattern of spatial distribution, the Morisita Index (MI and the variance/mean Reason (R were used. The linear correlation coefficient was used to verify if there is correlation between populations of the juvenils and adults. From 641 individuals sampled, 463 were juvenils and 178 were adults. Juvenils and adult individuals presented gregarious spatial distribution, but the adults (MI = 2,17; R = 4,52 were more gregarious than the juvenils (IM = 1,82; R = 7,82. The high relation between the densities of adults and juvenils had been demonstrated by the value of the linear correlation coefficient found, r = 0,61.

  19. Study of copper extraction in mineral from La Virgen, Santa Maria de la Cabeza (Jaen); Estudio de la extraccion de cobre en mineral de la mina La Vigen de Santa Maria de la Cabeza (Jaen)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batuecas Rodriguez, T; Sanz Garcia, H; Urgell Comas, M; Perez Bustamante, J A; Sevilla Benito, A; Cruz Castillo, F. de la; Fernandez Cellini, R

    1957-07-01

    Extraction conditions of copper are studied by leaching in an acid medium. The mineral is from the ore La Virgen in the mining area Sta. M. de la Cabeza, proprietor the JEN. From obtained results a previous toasting of the mineral is considered to be convenient, and after an attack of it while hot and with a 5% sulphuric acid approximately. the use of different acids in place of sulphuric as leaching agents does not affect the efficiency manifestly in the copper extraction. (Author) 13 refs.

  20. Graphitization of Coke and Its Interaction with Slag in the Hearth of a Blast Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kejiang; Zhang, Jianliang; Liu, Yanxiang; Barati, Mansoor; Liu, Zhengjian; Zhong, Jianbo; Su, Buxin; Wei, Mengfang; Wang, Guangwei; Yang, Tianjun

    2016-04-01

    Coke reaction behavior in the blast furnace hearth has yet to be fully understood due to limited access to the high temperature zone. The graphitization of coke and its interaction with slag in the hearth of blast furnace were investigated with samples obtained from the center of the deadman of a blast furnace during its overhaul period. All hearth coke samples from fines to lumps were confirmed to be highly graphitized, and the graphitization of coke in the high temperature zone was convinced to start from the coke surface and lead to the formation of coke fines. It will be essential to perform further comprehensive investigations on graphite formation and its evolution in a coke as well as its multi-effect on blast furnace performance. The porous hearth cokes were found to be filled up with final slag. Further research is required about the capability of coke to fill final slag and the attack of final slag on the hearth bottom refractories since this might be a new degradation mechanism of refractories located in the hearth bottom.

  1. Properties and potential of formed cokes derived from two Turkish lignites by carbonization of binderless briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayraktur, K.N.; Lawson, G.J.

    1984-09-01

    Two high-sulphur Turkish lignites were briquetted at room temperature under pressures of 113 or 212 MPa and the briquettes were carbonized to 1158-1173 K over special heating cycles. The lowerrank lignite gave a formed coke of superior mechanical strength, lower porosity and higher sulphur content than typical blast furnace cokes. The formed coke produced from the higher-rank lignite briquettes had slightly poorer mechanical strength, lower porosity and much higher ash and sulphur content than conventional cokes. The products were considered attractive for use in non-ferrous metallurgy.

  2. Raising lump coke formation capacity of semicoking briquets in the Deuben briquetting plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naundorf, W.; Trommer, D.; Schroeder, H.-W.; Dressler, H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes brown coal briquetting and coking experiments aimed at producing high quality lumpy coke suitable for heating, metallurgy and other industrial processes. The Deuben coking and gas plant produces low temperature carbonization briquets from coal with 13.2% ash content, 54.8% volatiles, 13.5% semicoking tar with the effect that coke produced from these briquets disintegrates completely into fines (0/15 mm grain size). The study centered on effects of briquetting and coking parameters including coal grain size, coal moisture, briquetting pressure, coking temperature, heating rate and application of sulfite liquor as binder. Graphs of briquetting and coking results are provided. The Deuben coal was shown to be suitable for producing lumpy coke (11.5 to over 20 MPa compression strength) from coal under the optimum briquetting parameters of 0/1 mm grain size, 11% coal moisture, briquetting temperature of 70 to 80 C and briquetting pressure over 120 MPa. Use of a binder was found to be advantageous but not necessary. The produced coke showed favorable combustion properties. 6 refs.

  3. Properties and potential of formed cokes derived from two Turkish lignites by carbonization of binderless briquettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayraktar, K.N.; Lawson, G.J.

    1984-09-01

    Two high-sulphur Turkish lignites were briquetted at room temperature under pressures of 113 or 212 MPa and the briquettes were carbonized to 1158-1173 K over special heating cycles. The lower-rank lignite gave a formed coke of superior mechanical strength, lower porosity and higher sulphur content than typical blast furnace cokes. The formed coke produced from the higher-rank lignite briquettes had slightly poorer mechanical strength, lower porosity and much higher ash yield and sulphur content than conventional cokes. The products were considered attractive for use in non-ferrous metallurgy. 38 references.

  4. Combined effects of petrographic and technological parameters on strength of porous coke substance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinel' t, V.M.; Shkoller, M.B.; Stankevich, A.S.; Korchuganova, G.S.

    1983-09-01

    The proportion of coke in modern blast furnaces has been reduced and at the same time ore burdens have increased. The coke itself now derives from a much wider range of coals. Laboratory tests related to the structural strength of cokes were carried out with charges composed of 14 representative coals. Results showed that vitrinite reflectance and bulk density were the critical parameters, followed by petrographic composition. Increasing bulk density of the charge from 0.6 to 0.9 g/cm/sup 3/ produces coke with a structural strength which counteracts the effects of increasing diversity in both petrography and reflectance in any one charge.

  5. A study of the performance of a reclamation soil cover placed over an oilsands coke deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, D.S.; Barbour, S.L. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Qualizza, C. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Coke is a solid, carbonaceous residue that forms during the cracking of high-boiling point distillates and is one of the by-products of petroleum extraction from oilsands. Coke is known as a possible future energy source and therefore, must be stored within the reclaimed landscape in a form that allows it to be recovered. In addition, it also could be used as a low-density capping material over soft tailings. This paper presented the results of a study that examined the effects of coke in the environment. The study involved construction of two small instrumented watersheds at Syncrude Canada's Mildred Lake Settling Basin. Preliminary field data, highlighting the moisture dynamics within the covers and the underlying coke were discussed. Sand tailings underlie the hydraulically placed coke deposit. Overlying the coke were two different reclamation soil covers constructed of a peat/mineral mix over glacial or glacial lacustrine soils. Placing the finer textured soil cover over coarser grained coke produced a textural or capillary break which enhanced moisture storage for plant use while minimizing deep percolation of infiltrating water. The site has been instrumented with a meteorological station; automated soil stations to monitor suction, water content and temperature through the cover profile; lysimeters to collect net percolation; access tubes for water content monitoring; gas sampling points at depth in the coke; and standpipe piezometers to monitor water chemistry and total head in the coke at depth. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 16 figs.

  6. On-Line Fuel Deoxygenation for Coke Suppression ASME GT-2002-30071

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spadaccini, Louis

    2002-01-01

    Fuel deoxygenation is being developed as a means for suppressing autoxidative coke formation in aircraft fuel systems, thereby increasing the exploitable cooling capacity of the fuel, enabling major...

  7. System for reducing emissions during coke oven charging; System zur Emissionsverringerung beim Fuellen von Koksoefen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuecker, Franz-Josef [ThyssenKrupp Industrial Solutions AG, Dortmund (Germany). Head of Oven Machine Dept., Coke Plant Technologies

    2014-10-01

    This article describes a process which reduces emissions from coke production in coke plants. The focus is on the charging process, which can be partly responsible for the fact that statutory emissions limits, which were originally met, are exceeded as coke plants get older. This article presents a solution in the form of a newly developed system that allows the oven charging system - the charging car - to respond to age-related changes in the geometry of a coke oven and thereby reduce the level of emissions.

  8. Investigations on high temperature coking of lignite with the help of radionuclide techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koennecke, H.G.; Luther, D.; Abendroth, H.C.

    1986-01-01

    The time characteristics and the varying flow characteristics of fine-grained briquettes during the high temperature coking of lignite according to Rammler and Bilkenroth were studied with the help of radionuclide technique. The process parameters (tsub(V), zsub(R), etc.) refer to the different zones of the coke furnace (bunker/dryer, coker/cooler). The different time charakteristics of the coke-grain fractions formed during the BHT-process enables a correlation of the retention time and the quality factors of the coke. The results obtained would enable a better operation of the individual furnaces in the plant and offer the basis for further process developments. (orig.) [de

  9. Carbon dioxide emission in hydrogen production technology from coke oven gas with life cycle approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burmistrz Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of Carbon Footprint (CF for technology of hydrogen production from cleaned coke oven gas was performed. On the basis of real data and simulation calculations of the production process of hydrogen from coke gas, emission indicators of carbon dioxide (CF were calculated. These indicators are associated with net production of electricity and thermal energy and direct emission of carbon dioxide throughout a whole product life cycle. Product life cycle includes: coal extraction and its transportation to a coking plant, the process of coking coal, purification and reforming of coke oven gas, carbon capture and storage. The values were related to 1 Mg of coking blend and to 1 Mg of the hydrogen produced. The calculation is based on the configuration of hydrogen production from coke oven gas for coking technology available on a commercial scale that uses a technology of coke dry quenching (CDQ. The calculations were made using ChemCAD v.6.0.2 simulator for a steady state of technological process. The analysis of carbon footprint was conducted in accordance with the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA.

  10. The SantaBot experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Svenstrup, Mikael; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    The video shows how an autonomous mobile robot dressed as Santa Claus is interacting with people in a shopping mall. The underlying hypothesis is that it is possible to create interesting new living spaces and induce value in terms of experiences, information or economics, by putting socially...... interactive mobile agents into public urban transit area. To investigate the hypothesis, an experiment was carried out using a robot capable of navigating autonomously based on the input of an onboard laser scanner. The robot would detect and follow random people, who afterwards were asked to fill out...

  11. Rapid production of metallurgical coke by a pressurized hot-briquetting method. Netsukan kaatsu seikei ni yoru cokes no jinsoku seizo no kokoromi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, K.; Hayashi, J.; Noguchi, N. (Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Research Laboratory of Carbonaceous Resources Conversion Technology); Hashimoto, K. (Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1993-09-20

    Rapid production of metallurgical coke from non- and slightly coking coals was studied by pressurized hot-briquetting method. Coal specimens were filled into the mold after pulverizing, and heated at a constant temperature rise rate up to caking temperature under loading pressure to obtain caked coal specimens. Such specimens were then carbonized in nitrogen gas at 800[degree]C. As a result, the coke obtained was superior in compressive strength as compared with commercial cokes, however, its CO2 reactivity was very high requiring heating up to 1,000[degree]C to decrease it, while the reactivity was strongly dependent on coal kind. The optimum processing conditions for slightly coking coal were as follows; loading pressure: 10 [times] 10[sup 5] Pa or more, temperature range under loading pressure: 300-450[degree]C, temperature rise rate: 2-100[degree]C/min, and caking temperature: nearly 500[degree]C. No coke could be produced from coking coals because no volatile matter could be removed from it in a short time under pressure. 13 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Development of the super coke oven for productivity and environment enhancement toward the 21st century (SCOPE 21); Sekitan kodo tenkan cokes seizo gijutsu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, T [Center for Coal Utilization, Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Nakashima, Y; Nishioka, K; Otsuka, J [The Japan Iron and Steel Federation, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-09-01

    Serious shortage is predicted on cokes for blast furnaces in the first half of the 21st century. In order to deal flexibly with the fluid world market in the future, it is necessary to have a technology developed, by which coals from coking coal to non-coking dust coal can be used. The Japan Iron and Steel Federation and the Center for Coal Utilization, Japan are working on research and development of a new process with enhanced environmentality and economy (SCOPE 21) as a coke manufacturing process to respond to the requirements arisen from the above situation. The process is assessed basing on basic technological seeds such as rapid coal heating and high-speed carbonization and reformation of middle to low temperature cokes. The organizations are moving forward an eight-year development program which has started in fiscal 1994. This paper reports the summary of the development, and results of investigations and researches performed during fiscals 1994 and 1995. Rapid heating tests, middle to low temperature coke reformation tests, and tests for plug transportation of high-temperature coal have been performed. It has been verified, for example, that rapid coal heating can improve coke strength. The development work is being promoted toward grain size distribution and upscaling problems. 5 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. You're a "What"? Santa Claus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royster, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Professional Santas entertain children and adults during the holiday season at all types of events. They work at shopping malls or stores; entertain crowds at parades and tree lightings; and make appearances at holiday parties, charity events, and people's homes. Most Santas work during the Christmas holiday season, which usually lasts from late…

  14. The Statherian itabirite-bearing sequence from the Morro Escuro Ridge, Santa Maria de Itabira, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira Braga, Flávia Cristina; Rosière, Carlos Alberto; Queiroga, Gláucia Nascimento; Rolim, Vassily Khoury; Santos, João Orestes Schneider; McNaughton, Neal Jesse

    2015-03-01

    The itabirite-bearing metasedimentary sequence from Morro Escuro Ridge comprises the basal units of the Espinhaço Supergroup and makes up a small tectonic inlier developed during one of the Brasiliano orogenic events (800-500 Ma), amongst horses of the Archean TTG gneisses, including sheared granites of the anorogenic Borrachudos Suite (˜1700 Ma). The metasedimentary rocks are comprised of low-to intermediate-amphibolite facies schists, quartzites, conglomerates and banded iron formation (itabirite) correlatable with the sequences of the Serro Group, which underlies the metasedimentary rocks of the Espinhaço Supergroup in the Serra da Serpentina Ridge. A maximum Statherian deposition age (1668 Ma) was established using SHRIMP U-Pb isotopic constraints on zircon grains from conglomerate and quartzite units overlying the itabirite. The itabirite is predominantly hematitic and its geochemical characteristics are typical of a Lake Superior-type BIF deposited in a platformal, suboxic to anoxic environment distant from Fe-bearing hydrothermal vents. Close to the contact zone with amphibolites of the Early Neoproterozoic Pedro Lessa mafic suite, an increase of the magnetite content and crystallization of metasomatic Mg-hornblende and Ce-allanite can be observed. These mineralogical changes developed preferentially along the igneous contact zone but are probably co-genetic with the formation of alteration haloes in zircon grains during the Neoproterozoic Brasiliano orogeny (506 ± 6 Ma).

  15. La canonica di Santa Maria del Fiore e i suoi abitanti nella prima metà del XV secolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Battista

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The essay analyzes the residence of the canons of the Cathedral of Florence in the period covered by The Years of the Cupola with attention both to its architectonic and social-political-cultural aspects in order to define the architectural natural and function of the complex and identify its residents and the circumstances of their common life. Through the systematic study of the documentation regarding the definition and management of the close it is possible to reconstruct the steps in the creation of a new dignified and comfortable cloistered space for the metropolitan clergy: a building complex that was appropriately detached from the new church, which had to remain magnificently free around its entire circumference. This new residence for canons, chaplains and other ecclesiastical collaborators, designed to accommodate the values of residency, common life and discipline, was realized in the tight urban fabric of the medieval city at great cost for the purchase of private real estate which was gradually incorporated into the project according to the predetermined ‘design’. It was defined along lines that remained unchanged until the 19th century following a policy of adapting structures previously destined to civil habitation and enclosing them in a cloistered environment sheltered from urban circulation with a single monumental entrance towards the church and its portal ‘of the Canons’. In order to understand the duties incumbent upon the canons and chaplains it was necessary to examine the synodal constitutions of previous periods. These documents offered a view of the common life in the canonry according to the dictates of the constitutions that regulated discipline: from the assignment of dwellings on the basis of seniority to the designation of places for the sharing of meals and, finally, the necessity of providing small personal spaces for meditation and study. The resident canons belonged to the highest rank of society, whether they were of ancient lineage or members of the gens nova emerging in the mercantile world, but they cohabited with chaplains, clerics, cantors, from all the various social strata.

  16. Ultrasound and Eddy-Current inspection of longitudinal shroud welds in the Santa Maria de Garona Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elorza, J.; Fernandez, F.

    1998-01-01

    This is the first time that this kind of inspection has been performed in the world with the Ultrasound (UT) and Eddy-Current (EC) techniques. The inspection, performed during the 19th refueling outage in March 1997, using the MIDAS acquisition and analysis system, which allows joint UT and EC inspection. MIDAS is the new inspection system developed by Tecnatom for vessel internals that integrates acquisition and evaluation of the data obtained from the use of Ultrasound and Eddy-Current inspection techniques. The inspection was completed in less than the scheduled time, and covered the programmed volumes without any noteworthy incidents. (Author)

  17. Reduced medical and occupational exposures by optimizing working procedures in fluoroscopy equipment in the University Hospital of Santa Maria (RS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, Guilherme L.; Claus, Thiago V.; Baumhardt, Tadeu; Shuch, Luiz A.

    2013-01-01

    This work seeks to reduce medical (patient) and occupational (workers) exposure by standardizing resources available in fluoroscopy equipment used in interventional procedures. Such procedures use transportable surgical arch type fluoroscopy equipment, with applications in orthopedics, angiography and pacemaker implantation. Improper use of these devices generates excessive radiation doses in both patients and the medical staff. It is observed that the equipment after being connected to the grid, is pre-selected to work in continuous fluoroscopy and no additional filtration, producing higher doses of radiation. For specific applications, changes in protocols should be undertaken according to medical indication. This work used a fluoroscopy equipment Shimadzu Active Opescope two radiation monitoring equipment, brand Radcal, models 9010 and 9015, two ionization chambers, of 60 cc and 180 cc and a low contrast phantom and a catheter, information that simulate the human body. Incidences were performed by changing the conditions of exposure as frame rates (fps - frames per second) and additional filtration. For each composition parameters was generated and filed an image, with the extent of their respective doses. These images were evaluated by radiologists. In more extreme cases we obtained a reduction of a factor 25 in occupational exposure (medical personnel) using the pulsed with the greatest 2 fps additional filter (0.3 mm Cu) compared to continuous system without any additional filtration. In medical exposure (of patients), decreased by a factor 39, the same conditions described above. With these arguments it is justified the optimization and standardization of the equipment used in fluoroscopy, which besides providing a dose reduction the patient and the medical personnel, increases the life of the X-ray tube while maintaining the quality of medical diagnosis. (author)

  18. Changes in the morphology of drainage channels of the hydrographic basin of Cadena stream, Santa Maria / RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Luis de Almeida Oliveira

    2006-06-01

    deepening or straightening of a channel which may be associated with considerable bank erosion which locally enlarges the width of a channel and it affects urban areas causing hazards. Moreover, the erosion increment may work its way up the tributaries as a series of knick points in response to urban’s stream changes. The analyses of the antropic intervention on the tributaries of Cadena stream divided the basins into low, medium and high intervention levels.

  19. Fenologia e visitantes florais de Erythrina crista-galli L. (Leguminosae: Faboideae em Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda Alice Coimbra Vieira Costa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2008v21n2p51 Erythrina crista-galli é uma espécie característica do bioma Pampa, também usada com fins ornamentais em arborização urbana. E. crista-galli  floresce mais intensamente de novembro a dezembro. A antese inicia entre 7h-11h, e as flores têm duração de cinco dias. Um total de 1.275 visitas florais foi registrado em 57h de observações. Abelhas da família Apidae (Trigona spinipes e Apis mellifera foram os visitantes fl orais mais freqüentes (88,23%, seguidos de moscas (Muscidae – 5,50%, formigas (Formicidae – 2,35%, vespas (Vespidae –  1,56% e besouros (Chrysomelidae – 1,56%. As flores também foram visitadas por beija-flores da família Trochilidae (Chlorostilbon aureoventris (0,79%. A abelha T. spinipes foi observada em todos os horários e apresentou comportamento de possível polinizadora, juntamente com A. mellifera e o beija-fl or C. aureoventris. E. crista-galli é autocompatível, apresentando produção de frutos e sementes após a polinização manual e sob condições naturais.

  20. Phenology and floral visitors of Erythrina crista-galli L. (Leguminosae: Faboideae in Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Barros de Morais

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina crista-galli is a characteristic species of the Pampa biome also used as an ornament in urban arborization. Erythrina crista-galli flourishes more intensively from November to Decem¬ber. Anthesis starts around 7:00 am to 11:00 am, and flowers last five days. A total of 1,275 floral visits were registered over 57h of observations. Apidae bees (Trigona spinipes and Apis mellifera were the most frequent visitors (88.23%, followed by Muscidae flies (5.50%, Formicidae ants (2.35%, Vespidae wasps (1.56%, and Chrysomelidae beetles (1.56%. Trochilidae hummingbirds (Chlorostilbon aureoventris (0.79% also visited the flowers. Trigona spinipes was observed at throughout the daytime and behaved as a probable pollinator, along with A. mellifera and C. aureoventris. E. crista-galli is autocompatible, producing fruits and seeds after manual pollination and under natural conditions.

  1. Effects of Coke Calcination Level on Pore Structure in Carbon Anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ning; Xue, Jilai; Lang, Guanghui; Bao, Chongai; Gao, Shoulei

    2016-02-01

    Effects of coke calcination levels on pore structure of carbon anodes have been investigated. Bench anodes were prepared by 3 types of cokes with 4 calcination temperatures (800°C, 900°C, 1000°C and 1100°C). The cokes and anodes were characterized using hydrostatic method, air permeability determination, mercury porosimetry, image analysis and confocal microscopy (CSLM). The cokes with different calcination levels are almost the same in LC values (19-20 Å) and real density (1.967-1.985 g/cm3), while the anode containing coke calcined at 900°C has the lowest open porosity and air permeability. Pore size distribution (represented by Anode H sample) can be roughly divided into two ranges: small and medium pores in diameter of 10-400 μm and large pores of 400-580 μm. For the anode containing coke calcined at 800°C, a number of long, narrow pores in the pore size range of 400-580 μm are presented among cokes particles. Formation of these elongated pores may be attributed to coke shrinkages during the anode baking process, which may develop cracking in the anode under cell operations. More small or medium rounded pores with pore size range of 10-400 μm emerge in the anodes with coke calcination temperatures of 900°C, 1000°C and 1100°C, which may be generated due to release of volatiles from the carbon anode during baking. For the anode containing coke calcined at 1100°C, it is found that many rounded pores often closely surround large coke particles, which have potential to form elongated, narrow pores.

  2. Coke Formation During Hydrocarbons Pyrolysis. Part One: Steam Cracking Formation de coke pendant la pyrolise des hydrocarbures. Première partie : vapocraquage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weill J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermal cracking is always accompanied by coke formation, which becomes deposited on the wall and limits heat transfers in the reactor while increasing pressure drops and possibly even plugging up the reactor. This review article covers undesirable coking operations in steam craking reactors. These coking reactions may take place in the gas phase and/or on the surface of the reactor, with coke being produced during pyrolysis by a complex mechanism that breaks down into a catalytic sequence and a noncatalytic sequence. After a brief description of different experimental set-ups used to measure the coke deposition, on the basis of research described in the literature, the different factors and their importance for coke formation are listed. In particular, we describe the effects of surface properties of stainless-steel and quartz reactors as well as the influence of the cracked feedstock, of temperature, of dilution, of residence time and of the conversion on coke deposition. Some findings about the morphology of coke are described and linked to formation mechanisms. To illustrate this review, some particularly interesting research is referred to concerning models developed to assess coke formation during propane steam cracking. Le craquage thermique est toujours accompagné de la formation de coke qui, en se déposant à la paroi, limite les transferts de chaleur au réacteur, augmente les pertes de charges et même peut boucher celui-ci. Cet article fait le point sur les réactions indésirables de cokage dans les réacteurs de vapocraquage. Ces réactions de cokage peuvent avoir lieu en phase gazeuse et/ou sur la surface du réacteur, le coke étant produit pendant la pyrolyse par un mécanisme complexe qui se décompose en une séquence catalytique et une séquence non catalytique. Après une brève présentation des différents montages expérimentaux utilisés pour mesurer le dépôt de coke, il est mentionné, à partir de travaux de la

  3. Effects of Two-stage Heat Treatment on Delayed Coke and Study of Their Surface Texture Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Ui-Su; Kim, Jiyoung; Lee, Seon Ho; Lee, Byung-Rok; Peck, Dong-Hyun; Jung, Doo-Hwan

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, surface texture features and chemical properties of two types of cokes, made from coal tar by either 1-stage heat treatment or 2-stage heat treatment, were researched. The relationship between surface texture characteristics and the chemical properties was identified through molecular weight distribution, insolubility of coal tar, weight loss with temperature increase, coking yield, and polarized light microscope analysis. Rapidly cleared anisotropy texture in cokes was observed in accordance with the coking temperature rise. Quinoline insolubility and toluene insolubility of coal tar increased with a corresponding increases in coking temperature. In particular, the cokes produced by the 2-stage heat treatment (2S-C) showed surface structure of needle cokes at a temperature approximately 50°C lower than the 1-stage heat treatment (1S-C). Additionally, the coking yield of 2S-C increased by approximately 14% in comparison with 1S-C.

  4. Pulsed corona discharge for improving treatability of coking wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming; Preis, Sergei; Kornev, Iakov; Hu, Yun; Wei, Chao-Hai

    2018-02-01

    Coking wastewater (CW) contains toxic and macromolecular substances that inhibit biological treatment. The refractory compounds remaining in biologically treated coking wastewater (BTCW) provide chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color levels that make it unacceptable for reuse or disposal. Gas-phase pulsed corona discharge (PCD) utilizing mostly hydroxyl radicals and ozone as oxidants was applied to both raw coking wastewater (RCW) and BTCW wastewater as a supplemental treatment. The energy efficiency of COD, phenol, thiocyanate and cyanide degradation by PCD was the subject of the research. The cost-effective removal of intermediate oxidation products with addition of lime was also studied. The energy efficiency of oxidation was inversely proportional to the pulse repetition frequency: lower frequency allows more effective utilization of ozone at longer treatment times. Oxidative treatment of RCW showed the removal of phenol and thiocyanate at 800 pulses per second from 611 to 227mg/L and from 348 to 86mg/L, respectively, at 42kWh/m 3 delivered energy, with substantial improvement in the BOD 5 /COD ratio (from 0.14 to 0.43). The COD and color of BTCW were removed by 30% and 93%, respectively, at 20kWh/m 3 , showing energy efficiency for the PCD treatment exceeding that of conventional ozonation by a factor of 3-4. Application of lime appeared to be an effective supplement to the PCD treatment of RCW, degrading COD by about 28% at an energy input of 28kWh/m 3 and the lime dose of 3.0kg/m 3 . The improvement of RCW treatability is attributed to the degradation of toxic substances and fragmentation of macromolecular compounds. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Santa Barbara Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, Angela; Hansen, Sherman; Watkins, Ashley

    2013-11-30

    This report serves as the Final Report for Santa Barbara County’s Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) BetterBuildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP) award from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This report explains how DOE BBNP funding was invested to develop robust program infrastructure designed to help property owners complete energy improvements, thereby generating substantial outcomes for the local environment and economy. It provides an overview of program development and design within the grant period, program accomplishments and challenges to date, and a plan for the future sustainability of emPower, the County’s innovative clean energy and building efficiency program. During the grant period, Santa Barbara County’s emPower program primarily targeted 32,000 owner occupied, single family, detached residential homes over 25 years old within the County. In order to help these homeowners and their contractors overcome market barriers to completing residential energy improvements, the program developed and promoted six voluntary, market-based service areas: 1) low cost residential financing (loan loss reserve with two local credit unions), 2) residential rebates, 3) local customer service, 4) expert energy advising, 5) workforce development and training, and 6) marketing, education and outreach. The main goals of the program were to lower building energy use, create jobs and develop a lasting regional building performance market. These services have generated important early outcomes and lessons after the program’s first two years in service. The DOE BBNP funding was extended through October 2014 to enable Santa Barbara County to generate continued outcomes. In fact, funding related to residential financing remains wholly available for the foreseeable future to continue offering Home Upgrade Loans to approximately 1,300 homeowners. The County’s investment of DOE BBNP funding was used to build a lasting, effective, and innovative

  6. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes by gasification of petroleum coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullayeva, S.H.; Musayeva, N.N.; Jabbarov, R.B.; Abdullayeva, S.H.; Musayeva, N.N.; Jabbarov, R.B.; Matsuda, T.

    2013-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes have been synthesized by using petroleum coke (PC) as carbon source. Different positions of the PC in the reactor chamber and some other factors markedly increase quantity of the synthesized CNTs and lead to changing of their characteristics such as crystallinity, diameter, straight and etc. confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) studies.The thickness of the Fe catalyst deposited on Si and SiO 2 substrates strongly influence to the quality, quantity and uniformity of the grown CNTs. Wet-coated thin films of FeCl 2 works well as catalyst, which can be profitable for mass production of CNTs

  7. Coke properties in relation to charge preparation techniques. [Selective crushing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, O S

    1979-01-01

    Selective crushing is essential to obtain the required coke properties, so that in the coarse fractions there is a considerable reduction in the middlings and dirt normally difficult to crush. These are at the same time enriched with vitrinite so that there is an increase in the coal substance as such, reflected in improved caking capacity in the coarse size range. Various methods of selective crushing are employed, including air entrainment mills, fluidised bed systems. Other advantages claimed for selective crushing are the uniform pore distribution and air permeability and also the diminished breakage stress.

  8. Processing of coke oven gas. Primary gas cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullrich, H [Otto (C.) und Co. G.m.b.H., Bochum (Germany, F.R.)

    1976-11-01

    The primary cooler is an indispensable part of all byproduct processing plants. Its purpose is to cool the raw gas from the coke oven battery and to remove the accompanying water vapor. The greater part of the cooling capacity is utilized for the condensation of water vapor and only a small capacity is needed for the gas cooling. Impurities in the gas, like naphthalene, tar and solid particles, necessitate a special design in view of the inclination to dirt accumulation. Standard types of direct and indirect primary gas coolers are described, with a discussion of their advantages and disadvantages.

  9. Dependence of coke properties on the method of charge preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morozov, O S

    1979-04-01

    Selective crushing is essential to obtain the required coke properties, so that in the coarse fractions there is a considerable reduction in the middlings and dirt normally difficult to crush. These are at the same time enriched with vitrinite so that there is an increase in the coal substance as such, reflected in improved caking capacity in the coarse size range. Various methods of selective crushing are employed, including air entrainment mills, fluidised bed systems. Other advantages claimed for selective crushing are the uniform pore distribution and air permeability and also the diminished breakage stress.

  10. 40 CFR 63.305 - Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds. 63.305 Section 63.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.305 Alternative standards for...

  11. Modelling and Simulation of Coking in the Riser of an Industrial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modelling and Simulation of Coking in the Riser of an Industrial Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) Unit. ... Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... The yields of LCO, gasoline, gas and coke that were predicted by the model for industrial risers were ... Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  12. Binderless briquetting of some selected South African prime coking, blend coking and weathered bituminous coals and the effect of coal properties on binderless briquetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangena, S.J. [Division of Mining Technology, CSIR, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa); du Cann, V.M. [Coal and Mineral Technologies (Pty) Ltd, SABS, PO Box 73656, Lynnwood Ridge, Pretoria, 0040 (South Africa)

    2007-07-02

    The binderless briquetting of some selected South African prime coking and blend coking coals, as well as the effects of weathering on the binderless briquetting of some inertinite-rich bituminous coals, were investigated in the laboratory. Selected properties of these coals were determined and the coals were briquetted at various moisture contents and pressures. Based on the results obtained in this study, binderless briquetting was found to be most successful in the cases of the fresh, vitrinite-rich coking and blend coking coals and satisfactory in the fresh inertinite-rich Witbank coals. However, the bonding process seemed to be adversely affected by weathering. The negative impact on bonding could be ameliorated to some extent by the presence of a significant kaolinite content when the percentage ash reports in the order of more than 15% (air-dry basis). It should, however, be noted that kaolinite may reduce the water resistance of the briquettes. (author)

  13. Body, spirit and gender in Maria Komornicka’s poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Lisowska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns three significant concepts in Maria Komornicka’s writings: body, spirit and gender. The first two are closely related to each other, thus initial paragraphs are devoted to them both. On the basis of these reflections, I draw some conclusion about the image of gender created by the poet. The notion of gender is analysed in terms of Young Poland discourse of gender and from the perspective of modern methodologies: feminist criticism as well as gender and queer studies. This paper aims at encouraging the reader to reinterpret M. Komornicka’s output with contemporary awareness.

  14. Feminism, Gender and the Possibilities of Maria Penha Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Dias Barbosa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the limits and possibilities of the Maria da Penha Law or Law 11.340 / 2006 in Brazil, from a critical and feminist perspective. The entire Law allowed a broad treatment of women victims of domestic violence or intra-family and managed the recognition of private space as a political site, should also cover institutions. Although the legal approach has advanced still face obstacles to their applicability in view of the impediment produced by androcentric imagery present in the law and in all other social areas, structured and symbolically dominated by patriarchy.

  15. Of Controversial Aspects from Maria da Penha’s Law

    OpenAIRE

    Galdino, Valéria Silva; Cesumar

    2008-01-01

    The present work aims at analyzing Maria da Penha’s Law which treats about the domestic violence in our country. Will be analyzed the new concept of family introduced by this law, its constitutionality and also the modifications occurred on the Criminal Code, on the Criminal Process Code and on the Law of Criminal Executions. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo evaluar la ley María da Penha que trata de la violencia domestica y familiar en nuestro país. Se hará el análisis del nuevo co...

  16. Feminism, Gender and the Possibilities of Maria Penha Law

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Dias Barbosa; Paulo César Corrêa Borges

    2016-01-01

    O presente artigo pretende discutir os limites e possibilidades da Lei Maria da Penha ou Lei 11.340/2006, no Brasil, a partir de uma perspectiva crítica e feminista. A integralidade da lei permitiu um amplo tratamento das mulheres vítimas de violência doméstica ou intrafamiliar e logrou o reconhecimento do espaço privado enquanto um local político, devendo abranger também as instituições. Embora a abordagem jurídica tenha avançado ainda enfrentam-se obstáculos em sua aplicabilidade tendo em v...

  17. 76 FR 52350 - Coke Oven Emissions Standard; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... Standard provide protection for workers from the adverse health effects associated with exposure to coke...' exposure to coke oven emissions, monitor worker health, and provide workers with information about their exposures and the health effects of exposure to coke oven emissions. II. Special Issues for Comment OSHA has...

  18. Enhanced specific capacitance of modified needle cokes by controlling oxidation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Sunhye; Kim, Ick-Jun; Choi, In-Sik; Soo Kim, Hyun; Tack Kim, Yu

    2010-01-01

    The electric double-layer performance of needle cokes can be affected by the morphology of structures. Hence, we introduce modified needle cokes by using simple oxidation treatment. The degree of graphitization with high specific capacitance is controlled by acid and heat treatment. The active sites of cokes are increased with increasing oxidation time. Dilute nitric acid (HNO 3 ) and sodium chlorate (NaClO 3 ) are used for the activation of cokes. In this case, the interlayer distance is dramatically increased from 3.5 to 8.9 A. The specific capacitances are 33 F g -1 and 30 F ml -1 , respectively, on a two-electrode system with a potential range of 0-2.5 V. The behaviors of double-layer capacitance are demonstrated by the charge-discharge process and the morphologies of modified needle cokes are analyzed by XRD, FE-SEM, BET and elemental analysis.

  19. Repair of walls of coke ovens with a volume of 41. 6 m/sup 3/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyatnitsa, V.A.; Bulyga, N.I.

    1988-11-01

    Discusses repair of coke oven walls and the heating system of a battery with coke ovens 7.0 m high in the Avdeevka plant. The following problems are evaluated: types of wall deformation and wear, distribution of wear zones, zones with maximum wear, coke oven repair without cooling and with cooling, repair of cracks in oven walls, effects of wall temperature (in schemes without cooling) on repair, behavior of walls in zones of temperature differences, sequence of repair operations, repair of heating channels, specific problems of wall repair at the machine side and at the pusher side of a coke oven battery, methods for reducing repair time, materials used for coke oven repair.

  20. Microwave-assisted grinding of metallurgical coke; Molienda asistida con microondas de un coque metalurgico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruisanchez, E.; Juarez-Perez, E. J.; Arenillas, A.; Bermudez, J. M.; Menendez, J. A.

    2014-10-01

    Metallurgical cokes are composed of graphitic carbon (s2p2) and different inorganic compounds with very different capacities to absorb microwave radiation. Moreover, due to the electric conductivity shown by the metallurgical cokes, microwave radiation produces electric arcs or microplasmas, which gives rise to hot spots. Therefore, when these cokes are irradiated with microwaves some parts of the particle experiment a rapid heating, while some others do not heat at all. As a result of the different expansion and stress caused by thermal the shock, small cracks and micro-fissures are produced in the particle. The weakening of the coke particles, and therefore an improvement of its grind ability, is produced. This paper studies the microwave-assisted grinding of metallurgical coke and evaluates the grinding improvement and energy saving. (Author)