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Sample records for santa elena andes

  1. Ecotourism: The Santa Elena Rainforest Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearing, Stephen

    1993-01-01

    Describes an ecotourism project in which the community of Santa Elena, Costa Rica, are developing a rainforest reserve on government land leased permanently to the local high school. Discusses the impact of the project on the community's economy and environment. (Contains 30 references.) (MDH)

  2. Santa Elena. Ready to reshape its transport energy matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreano, Hernan [Universidad Estatal Peninsula de Santa Elena (Ecuador). Inst. de Investigacion Cientifica y Desarrollo Tecnologico (INCYT)

    2012-07-01

    The renewable energy issue opens the door to an ambient of opportunities. Santa Elena, one of the coastal provinces of Ecuador has the chance to go from a fossil fuel energy culture to a new energy scheme based on the use of environmental friendly fuels like natural gas and other renewable energy carriers like hydrogen. The marginal production of oil and natural gas from the Gustavo Galindo Velasco field and the updated gas reserves from the Gulf of Guayaquil make it possible. Infrastructure for natural gas production and distribution for vehicles is almost ready and any of the three refineries can generate hydrogen from natural gas. This provides the opportunity to reshape the Santa Elena transport energy matrix, where vehicles can burn natural gas and inter country buses can work with hydrogen. Traditional Fishing boats can be fitted with hydrogen storage and fuel systems later on. Santa Elena should face this challenge through a joint effort of public and private parties. Santa Elena State University and its partners as a focus point to create: The Campus of Energy Knowledge, where research, science and technology will serve companies that work in the energy business with a strong synergy, which will create jobs for the Santa Elena people. (orig.)

  3. ELENA

    CERN Multimedia

    Caraban Gonzalez, Noemi

    2016-01-01

    ELENA is a compact ring for cooling and further deceleration of 5.3 MeV antiprotons delivered by the CERN Antiproton Decelerator. The AD physics program is focused on trapping antiprotons in Penning traps where antihydrogen is formed after recombination with positrons. The ultimate physics goal is to perform spectroscopy on antihydrogen atoms at rest and to investigate the effect of the gravitational force on matter and antimatter.

  4. DISPONIBILIDAD DE RAÍCES ADVENTICIAS DE TRES ESPECIES SILVESTRES COSECHADAS PARA LA ELABORACIÓN DE ARTESANÍAS EN SANTA ELENA, ANTIOQUIA (COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA MARÍA BENAVIDES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En los Andes colombianos, un gran número de artesanías se fabrican a partir de raíces adventicias de plantas nativas que crecen de forma silvestre. Sin embargo, la deforestación y las prácticas no sustentables han diezmado la disponibilidad de plantas silvestres productoras de fibra. En este estudio evaluamos la disponibilidad de fibras de tres especies en Santa Elena (Antioquia, Colombia: Asplundia sarmentosa, Philodendron aff. sagittifolium y Clusia multiflora. Después de una búsqueda exhaustiva en la zona de estudio ubicamos menos de 30 individuos adultos de cada especie. Para cada planta se midieron las variables asociadas al tamaño de la planta y se registró el número y la longitud de raíces maduras e inmaduras. Se pesaron fragmentos de raíces para estimar la biomasa. El crecimiento de raíces de cada planta fue monitoreado mensualmente durante siete meses. La disponibilidad actual de fibra (raíces maduras es de ca. 3 352 m (Asplundia 1 481 m, Clusia de 952 m, Philodendron 918 m, con esta cantidad de material se pueden elaborar entre 419 a 838 canastos. De acuerdo a la tasa de crecimiento mensual, una nueva raíz podría alcanzar un tamaño para ser cosechado entre el mes 38 y 71. Plantas más grandes tienen mayor cantidad de raíces maduras, sin embargo, la tasa de crecimiento no está asociada al tamaño de la planta. Nuestros resultados proveen evidencia de que las plantas en Santa Elena presentan una relación (tamaño de la planta, número de raíces maduras que es similar a plantas que se encuentran en zonas no intervenidas, no obstante, la cosecha de fibras en Santa Elena no es una actividad sostenible debido al bajo número de individuos susceptibles de ser cosechados, la lenta tasa de crecimiento de raíces y la alta demanda de fibras. Es necesario implementar estrategias como el enriquecimiento del bosque con estas tres especies para garantizar una actividad sustentable para recolectores y artesanos en Santa Elena y

  5. Vulnerabilidades frente amenazas naturales en establecimientos de salud de la Provincia de Santa Elena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertha De Monserrate

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Un equipo de análisis de riesgos de la Universidad Estatal Península de Santa Elena y Cooperazione Internationale durante el año 2010, llevó a cabo un estudio de vulnerabilidad de los establecimientos de salud de la provincia de Santa Elena frente a amenazas naturales de tsunami, inundación, erosión y movimiento en masa. El objetivo: evaluar los establecimientos de salud por tipos y nivel de atención, mediante la aplicación de los estándares establecidos en el Manual de Licenciamiento de Ministerio de Salud Pública y diagnosticar el grado de vulnerabilidad de la ubicación geográfica de los establecimientos de salud frente a las amenazas naturales, mediante la superposición de mapas de distribución geográfica y los mapas preliminares de amenazas a desastres naturales de la Secretaria General de Riesgos definida desde las amenazas en base a la guía para implementar el análisis de vulnerabilidades a nivel cantonal de esta secretaría. Resultados: la provincia de Santa Elena cuenta con 75 unidades de salud, 29 pertenecen al Ministerio de Salud Pública y 46 a Organizaciones no gubernamentales, el 75% brindan atención de primer nivel y el 25% segundo nivel básico. El estudio de vulnerabilidad mostró que el hospital de Manglaralto, los subcentros de San Francisco de las Núñez, San Pablo, Monteverde y el dispensario de la Superintendencia de la Libertad califican muy alto, mientras que el resto se considera de alto a medio. El Ministerio de Salud Pública debe reubicar aquellos establecimientos calificados como muy alto y alto.

  6. Composición del plancton en la Puntilla Santa Elena durante agosto 2002 (Ecuador)

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, G.; Calderón, G.; Franco, V.; Cedeño, E.; Calderón, T.; Salazar, E.

    2004-01-01

    Esta investigación comprende los estudios del fitoplancton-zooplancton-ictioplancton, realizados en tres sitios de la Península Santa Elena durante agosto 2002, área designada para la proyección de "Arrecife Artificial de las Fuerzas Militares del Ecuador": un avión, barco y tanque de guerra, estructuras artificiales consideradas como basura chatarra (de gran tamaño), que serían recicladas para la bio-exploración artificiales hacia la seguridad de los recursos marinos del Ecuador. En el Estud...

  7. New findings of Pleistocene fossil turtles (Geoemydidae, Kinosternidae and Chelydridae from Santa Elena Province, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin A. Cadena

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available New Pleistocene fossilized turtle remains from five localities of western Ecuador (Santa Elena Province are described here. All these shell (carapace and plastron fossil remains come from the Tablazo Formation and belong to three different lineages of cryptodires (“hidden-necked” turtles. The most abundant remains belong to geoemydids, attributed here to the genus Rhinoclemmys (indeterminate species. Less abundant in occurrence are the kinosternidids, attributed to Kinosternon (indeterminate species, and the first fossil record of chelydrids, Chelydra(indeterminate species, in the entirety of Central and South America.

  8. Manual de control interno para el área contable de la empresa industrial Santa Elena S.A. Empindecu, del cantón La Libertad, provincia de Santa Elena, año 2015.

    OpenAIRE

    Carrera Rivera, Stefanía Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    El presente trabajo de investigación previa la obtención del título de Licenciada en Contabilidad y Auditoría, tiene como objetivo primordial evaluar la incidencia de la gestión contable en las políticas y procedimientos, mediante un análisis situacional y la aplicación de técnicas de investigación, direccionados a la elaboración de un manual de control interno para el área contable de la Empresa Industrial Santa Elena S.A. EMPINDECU del cantón La Libertad provincia de Santa Elena. La empresa...

  9. Estrategias de comercialización de las distribuidoras de productos de consumo masivo de la provincia de Santa Elena.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nury Vera Campuzano

    2017-05-01

    The objective of the present scientific article is to diagnose the perception of the consumers of the distributors of products of mass consumption of the province of Santa Elena. The theoretical contribution lies in the conception of theory and practice in strategic marketing actions, taking into account the context, the definition and characterization of marketing management, in order to determine the decisive and success factors for the companies, constitutes the contribution Theoretical to argue the research carried out. An exploratory investigation was conducted for consumers of mass products between 20 and 54 years of Santa Elena province and interviews were conducted with three distributors of mass consumer products. The results recommend that with the application of assertive marketing strategies based on the preferences of the target group, and market trends, organizational performance would be improved by attracting prospects and generating loyalty ties of current clients.

  10. ANÁLISIS DE LAS ESTRUCTURAS DE CAPITAL EN EL ECUADORPÈSQUERO DE LA PROVINCIA DE SANTA ELENA

    OpenAIRE

    González Suárez, Gissel Mariana

    2017-01-01

    El incremento de la capacidad productiva demanda diferentes fuentes de financiamiento ya sea a corto o a largo plazo, el financiamiento con la banca tiene ventajas y desventajas, incluyendo el pago de intereses que reduce la utilidad contable y por ende ayuda a pagar menos impuesto a la renta. La presente investigación buscó analizar las diferentes estructuras de capital que mantienen las empresas de la provincia de Santa Elena, particularmente aquellas cuya actividad principal...

  11. Model of Ecological Connectivity of Andean Forest Fragments in Santa Elena (Medellín, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Jaime Colorado Zuluaga

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Forest fragmentation and the associated potential habitat loss is one of the main causes of biodiversity loss. One strategy that promotes its maintenance at a landscape scale is the establishment of biological corridors that enhance structural and functional connectivity of the biotic components. However, the applicability and functionality of this tool is limited due to the lack of planning at the moment of the design and establishment of corridors or connectivity networks that are guided by detailed and rigorous methods. In this research, we developed a theoretical proposal of ecological connectivity for the Santa Elena village, Medellin municipality, Colombia, using tools from landscape ecology. Initially, 21 forest fragments or nucleus were selected based on their minimum size (larger than 5 ha, core area (larger than 1 ha, and shape index (rounded or nearly rounded. Then, based on a friction matrix, we designed a potential network that would allow to connect 1356.35 ha of remnants forests through 31 ecological corridors of 100 m wide, comprising 208.33 ha in total. Finally, we discussed the importance of promoting this kind of strategies based on landscape ecology that enhance both habitat conservation and landscape connectivity in areas near large Latin-American cities.

  12. Plan de manejo integral del sitio arqueológico Santa Elena, Tabasco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto González Licón

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se destaca la importancia histórica, cultural y turística del sitio arqueológico de Santa Elena, en el Estado de Tabasco, México. Mediante la ejecución de un proyecto de investigación arqueológica y Plan de Manejo Integral se pretende desarrollar todos estos aspectos para la recuperación del sitio y su entorno ecológico. Con la participación de los más amplios y diversos sectores públicos y privados interesados de los tres niveles de gobierno –federal, estatal y municipal–, se plantea el diseño de un Plan de manejo local y regional que permita el desarrollo sustentable de la zona y de su entorno para que sea abierta al público en general. Lo anterior será una fuente de información y conocimiento histórico, cultural, identitario y ecoturístico, que coadyuvará en el desarrollo integral de las comunidades actuales vecinas y cercanas.

  13. Plan de manejo integral del sitio arqueológico Santa Elena, Tabasco, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto González Licón

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se destaca la importancia histórica, cultural y turística del sitio arqueológico de Santa Elena, en el Estado de Tabasco, México. Mediante la ejecución de un proyecto de investigación arqueológica y Plan de Manejo Integral se pretende desarrollar todos estos aspectos para la recuperación del sitio y su entorno ecológico. Con la participación de los más amplios y diversos sectores públicos y privados interesados de los tres niveles de gobierno –federal, estatal y municipal–, se plantea el diseño de un Plan de manejo local y regional que permita el desarrollo sustentable de la zona y de su entorno para que sea abierta al público en general. Lo anterior será una fuente de información y conocimiento histórico, cultural, identitario y ecoturístico, que coadyuvará en el desarrollo integral de las comunidades actuales vecinas y cercanas.

  14. Identificación y Caracterización de Cepas Nativas de Rhizobium en la Provincia de Santa Elena.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Soto

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available En los sistemas agrícolas de subsistencia, el nitrógeno es un macronutriente esencial para el buen desarrollo de las plantas; es utilizado en forma de nitrato o amonio. Las bacterias del género Rhizobium poseen la capacidad de fijar el nitrógeno, mediante una relación de simbiosis con leguminosas e influyen en la producción de sustancias promotoras de crecimiento en las plantas no leguminosas. En la península de Santa Elena no existen evidencias del uso y aplicación de biofertilizantes de origen microbiano nativo, por lo que el presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo caracterizar y seleccionar cepas del género Rhizobium procedentes de los nódulos de leguminosas de dos zonas de la provincia de Santa Elena. Los experimentos Aislamiento, identificación y caracterización bioquímica de cepas de Rhizobium encontradas en diferentes zonas de la península de Santa Elena comprende: a Estudio de la morfología nodular de leguminosas; b Presencia de la enzima Leghemoglobina en los nódulos, c Aislamiento de microorganismos de los nódulos de leguminosas, d Respuesta de la enzima catalasa ante el peróxido de hidrógeno, e Crecimiento en diferentes fuentes de carbono , f Crecimiento en tres porcentajes cloruro de sodio; y e Producción de 3-ketolactasa en agar LLA para descartar contaminantes frecuentes como Agrobacterium.

  15. Análisis Estructural de Fallas Geológicas y Potenciales Deslizamientos en Anconcito, Provincia de Santa Elena

    OpenAIRE

    Kervin Chunga

    2015-01-01

    El sector costero de Anconcito, localizado al suroeste de la provincia de Santa Elena, es afectado por fenómenos geológicosinducidos por la dinámica costera de la zona de estudio: (1) socavamiento de los acantilados causado por la dinámica de la erosión marina y posterior derrumbe de estratos rocosos, y (2) deslizamientos de estratos rocosos a través de planos lístricosde fallas geológicas de tipo normal con componentes de desplazamientos laterales dextrales. El análisis estructural permitió ...

  16. Medicina preventiva en la Educación Superior de la Universidad Península de Santa Elena, año 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Cochea Perlaza, Wilson Nicolás

    2012-01-01

    PDF La Organización Panamericana de la Salud y la OMS dentro de sus recomendaciones está el fortalecimiento del talento humano, para la prevención de las enfermedades y el fomento y Proción de la Salud.En la Provincia de Santa Elena, funciona desde hace trece años la Universidad Península de Santa Elena, donde se forman cerca de siete mil estudiantes en veintiséis carreras; existiendo la Facultad de Ciencias Sociales y de la Salud conformada por las carreras de Enfermería...

  17. Methane Dynamics in a Tropical Serpentinizing Environment: The Santa Elena Ophiolite, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melitza Crespo-Medina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Uplifted ultramafic rocks represent an important vector for the transfer of carbon and reducing power from the deep subsurface into the biosphere and potentially support microbial life through serpentinization. This process has a strong influence upon the production of hydrogen and methane, which can be subsequently consumed by microbial communities. The Santa Elena Ophiolite (SEO on the northwestern Pacific coast of Costa Rica comprises ~250 km2 of ultramafic rocks and mafic associations. The climatic conditions, consisting of strongly contrasting wet and dry seasons, make the SEO a unique hydrogeological setting, where water-rock reactions are enhanced by large storm events (up to 200 mm in a single storm. Previous work on hyperalkaline spring fluids collected within the SEO has identified the presence of microorganisms potentially involved in hydrogen, methane, and methanol oxidation (such as Hydrogenophaga, Methylobacterium, and Methylibium spp., respectively, as well as the presence of methanogenic Archaea (such as Methanobacterium. Similar organisms have also been documented at other serpentinizing sites, however their functions have not been confirmed. SEO's hyperalkaline springs have elevated methane concentrations, ranging from 145 to 900 μM, in comparison to the background concentrations (<0.3 μM. The presence and potential activity of microorganisms involved in methane cycling in serpentinization-influenced fluids from different sites within the SEO were investigated using molecular, geochemical, and modeling approaches. These results were combined to elucidate the bioenergetically favorable methane production and/or oxidation reactions in this tropical serpentinizing environment. The hyperalkaline springs at SEO contain a greater proportion of Archaea and methanogens than has been detected in any terrestrial serpentinizing system. Archaea involved in methanogenesis and anaerobic methane oxidation accounted from 40 to 90% of total

  18. Methane Dynamics in a Tropical Serpentinizing Environment: The Santa Elena Ophiolite, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespo-Medina, Melitza; Twing, Katrina I; Sánchez-Murillo, Ricardo; Brazelton, William J; McCollom, Thomas M; Schrenk, Matthew O

    2017-01-01

    Uplifted ultramafic rocks represent an important vector for the transfer of carbon and reducing power from the deep subsurface into the biosphere and potentially support microbial life through serpentinization. This process has a strong influence upon the production of hydrogen and methane, which can be subsequently consumed by microbial communities. The Santa Elena Ophiolite (SEO) on the northwestern Pacific coast of Costa Rica comprises ~250 km 2 of ultramafic rocks and mafic associations. The climatic conditions, consisting of strongly contrasting wet and dry seasons, make the SEO a unique hydrogeological setting, where water-rock reactions are enhanced by large storm events (up to 200 mm in a single storm). Previous work on hyperalkaline spring fluids collected within the SEO has identified the presence of microorganisms potentially involved in hydrogen, methane, and methanol oxidation (such as Hydrogenophaga, Methylobacterium , and Methylibium spp., respectively), as well as the presence of methanogenic Archaea (such as Methanobacterium ). Similar organisms have also been documented at other serpentinizing sites, however their functions have not been confirmed. SEO's hyperalkaline springs have elevated methane concentrations, ranging from 145 to 900 μM, in comparison to the background concentrations (<0.3 μM). The presence and potential activity of microorganisms involved in methane cycling in serpentinization-influenced fluids from different sites within the SEO were investigated using molecular, geochemical, and modeling approaches. These results were combined to elucidate the bioenergetically favorable methane production and/or oxidation reactions in this tropical serpentinizing environment. The hyperalkaline springs at SEO contain a greater proportion of Archaea and methanogens than has been detected in any terrestrial serpentinizing system. Archaea involved in methanogenesis and anaerobic methane oxidation accounted from 40 to 90% of total archaeal

  19. EVALUACIÓN PSICOSOCIAL DEL ADULTO MAYOR EN LA PROVINCIA DE SANTA ELENA. 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Sornoza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Los adultos mayores constituyen un grupo poblacional significativo, que por tiempos ha estado desatendido, a pesar de que en el año 1990 se dicta la Ley del Anciano aún las personas mencionadas no gozan de todos los beneficios que contiene dicha ley ya que hasta la actualidad dicha ley no se aplica en su totalidad por falta de socialización, desconocimiento de sus beneficios e implementación de los espacios adecuados entre otras limitantes. El objetivo de la investigación fue el de Realizar una evaluación psicológica y social a los adultos mayores de la provincia en mención, tomando como muestras a las diferentes agrupaciones existentes en varias comunidades y cantones, para crear un modelo de evaluación integral para la optimización de la atención primaria de la salud geriátrica en la Provincia de Santa Elena, al igual que se pretende diseñar propuestas de trabajo que mejoren su condición de vida, puesto que es un sector generalmente abandonado y vulnerable con fácil tendencia a la depresión ; en este estudio participan docentes y estudiantes de la carrera de psicología, y el apoyo coordinado del Ministerio de Inclusión Económica y Social con sus organizaciones y agrupaciones quienes se constituyeron en población y muestra; se aplicó métodos cuantitativo y cualitativo para la evaluación el aspecto psicológico, funciones mentales, entorno familiar y social con la aplicación de los siguientes instrumentos: Mini Mental, Test de Funcionamiento Familiar, ficha social, test de autoestima, ansiedad y depresión, los mismos que nos permitieron comprender cada una de las áreas mencionadas para tener una mirada del contexto general de la población investigada. Entre los hallazgos más relevantes tenemos síntomas de depresión, sentimientos de inutilidad y expectativas de encontrar espacios en los que puedan sentirse productivos y a la vez ocupar su tiempo; así mismo soledad, percepción de abandono familiar entre otros.

  20. Dilemma in new clean and renewable energy alternatives for Santa Elena and its university. Opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreano, Hernan [Universidad Estatal Peninsula de Santa Elena (Ecuador). Inst. de Investigacion Cientifica y Desarrollo Tecnologico (INCYT)

    2011-07-01

    The fate of finite fossil fuel sources for the coming decades and the need to migrate to renewable energy in a joint effort among governments, academia and private companies which make business in the energy arena are discussed and also the energy balance in Ecuador which shows a strong dependence of fossil fuels to satisfy demand from both: thermoelectric plants and transport, however, Santa Elena, the newly created province at the south western of Ecuador has the chance to turn the country energy situation into an opportunity and face the challenge to be the leader in energy alternatives because of its resources and chances to migrate sooner to environmental friendly fuels and later on to renewable energies, but a number of actions should be taken in a joint effort with its local university (UPSE), government bodies and private companies in order to create the ''Campus of Energy Knowledge'' to carry out the program: Energy Alternatives for Santa Elena, which includes 7 projects to make the province a leader one on the energy issue in Ecuador and in the continent, acting on a cluster initiative scheme. (orig.)

  1. EL MANEJO COSTERO INTEGRADO COMO PROBLEMA DE INVESTIGACIÓN TRANSDISCIPLINARIO EN LA UNIVERSIDAD PENÍNSULA DE SANTA ELENA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Soria

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available La investigación generativa es uno de los dominios sobre los cuales las universidades deben mostrar fortalezas para justificar su pertinencia y permanencia en el sistema ecuatoriano de educación superior. En enfoque transdisciplinario o de orquestación de ciencias se ha mostrado como el más apreciado dentro de la actual modelo de universidad, y una propuesta válida para responder a dicha exigencia es el estudio del manejo costero integrado como eje transversal dentro de la Universidad Estatal Península de Santa Elena. A través de la literatura científica se ha estudiado el manejo costero integrado como una forma de gobernanza ambiental cuyo origen se encuentra en los documentos generados en la Cumbre de la Tierra de Río de Janeiro en el año 1992. Dentro de la provincia de Santa Elena el Manejo Costero Integrado busca incidir en dos aspectos: fortalecimiento institucional y participación ciudadana. El deficiente control ambiental en la faja costera existente exige un modelo de gestión a escala local basado en tres ejes: el fortalecimiento de las capacidades institucionales de las instituciones públicas desconcentradas; el ordenamiento territorial para una adecuada determinación y delimitación de las competencias en materia ambiental costera; y la participación ciudadana a nivel del régimen de las comunas en coordinación con los distintos niveles de gobierno. Se propone articular la investigación en la materia tanto a nivel interdisciplinario como interinstitucional, coordinando agendas de investigación de las instituciones públicas y privadas con las estrategias de los distintos actores políticos involucrados en el desarrollo sustentable de las zonas costeras. Finalmente se presentan los resultados preliminares de una investigación que se ha iniciado en la Facultad de Ciencias Administrativas sobre las características específicas de cada comuna ubicada en la faja costera para posteriormente proponer para cada una de ellas

  2. Geochemical evidence for active tropical serpentinization in the Santa Elena Ophiolite, Costa Rica: An analog of a humid early Earth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Murillo, Ricardo; Gazel, Esteban; Schwarzenbach, Esther M.; Crespo-Medina, Melitza; Schrenk, Matthew O.; Boll, Jan; Gill, Ben C.

    2014-05-01

    Serpentinization is a planetary process that has important consequences on geochemical cycles, supporting microbial activity through the formation of H2 and CH4 and having the potential to sequester atmospheric CO2. We present geochemical evidence of active serpentinization in the Santa Elena Ophiolite, Costa Rica which is sustained by peridotites with a degree of serpentinization less than 50% with no evidence of an internal heat source. Average spring water temperatures are 29.1°C. Two hyperalkaline spring systems were discovered, with a spring fluid pH up to 11.18. The fluids are characterized by low Mg (1.0-5.9 mg/L) and K (1.0-5.5 mg/L) and relative high Ca (29-167 mg/L), Na (16-27 mg/L), Cl (26-29 mg/L), hydroxide (41-63 mg/L), and carbonate (31-49 mg/L). Active CH4 (24.3% v/v) vents coupled with carbonate deposits (δ13CCO2 =-27 to -14‰; δ18OCO2 =-17 to - 6‰) also provide evidence for active serpentinization and carbonation. Isotope ratios of the alkaline fluids (δ18O = -7.9‰, δ2H = -51.4‰) and groundwater (δ18O = -7.6‰; δ2H = -48.0‰) suggests that, during base flow recession, springs are fed by groundwater circulation. Methanogenic Archaea, which comprises a relatively high percentage of the 16S rRNA gene tag sequences, suggests that biological methanogenesis may play a significant role in the system. Santa Elena's extreme varying weather results in a scenario that could be of significant importance for (a) improving the knowledge of conditions on a humid early Earth or Mars that had periodic changes in water supply, (b) revealing new insights on serpentinizing solute transport, and (c) modeling hydrogeochemical responses as a function of recharge.

  3. Is There any Relationship Between the Santa Elena Depression and Chicxulub Impact Crater, Northwestern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefticariu, L.

    2005-05-01

    The Terminal Cretaceous Chicxulub Impact Crater had a strong control on the depositional and diagenetic history of the northern Yucatan Platform during most of the Cenozoic Era. The Chicxulub Sedimentary Basin (henceforth Basin), which approximately coincides with the impact crater, is circumscribed by a concentration of karstic sinkholes known as the Ring of Cenotes. Santa Elena Depression (henceforth Depression) is the name proposed for the bowl-shaped buried feature, first contoured by geophysical studies, immediately south of the Basin, in the area where the Ticul 1 and UNAM 5 wells were drilled. Lithologic, petrographic, and biostratigraphic data on PEMEX, UNAM, and ICDP cores show that: 1) Cenozoic deposits are much thicker inside the Basin than inside the Depression, 2) in general, the Cenozoic formations from inside the Depression are the thickest among those outside the Basin, 3) variably dolomitized pelagic or outer-platform wackestone or mudstone occur both inside the Basin and Depression, 4) the age of the deeper-water sedimentary carbonate rocks is Paleocene-Eocene inside the Basin and Paleocene?-Early Eocene inside the Depression, 5) the oldest formations that crop out are of Middle Eocene age at the edge of the Basin and Early-Middle Eocene age inside the Depression, 6) saline lake deposits, that consist chiefly of anhydrite, gypsum, and fine carbonate, and also contain quartz, chert, clay, zeolite, potassium feldspar, pyrite, and fragments of wood, are present in the Cenozoic section of the UNAM 5 core between 282 and 198 m below the present land surface, 7) the dolomite, subaerial exposure features (subaerial crusts, vugs, karst, dedolomite), and vug-filling cement from the Eocene formations are more abundant inside the Depression than inside the Basin. The depositional environments that are proposed for explaining the Cenozoic facies succession within the Santa Elena Depression are: 1) deeper marine water (Paleocene?-Early Eocene), 2) relatively

  4. Herramientas de Marketing y Gerenciales que se emplean en las diferentes Unidades de Negocios de la provincia de Santa Elena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Álvarez

    2015-10-01

    The company like cell of the economy has to be studied because it turns in actor of the first order. The good health of the company is the good health of the economic one and vice versa. The company is what his manager is; the person interests then brain of the organization. Inside this context this study is realized in search of the organization and activity of the company of the province of Santa Elena. It has been considered so much of marketing a set of variables as managerial that use these units of production and / or commercialization for the attainment of his aims: positioning and economic growth. There takes a sample that includes the most wide business range: companies of retail and wholesale commercialization, of services, of commercialization, of production and of another type. The information obtains across surveys, which then are tabulated, which allows to obtain the tools that use the business in the province. The companies declare the utilization of tools, but his administrators cannot explain form and the procedures in each of the cases, that is to say, do it of intuitive form, more not because they possess the technical knowledge of the same ones.

  5. El estilo de apego en la violencia contra la mujer, en la provincia de Santa Elena, Ecuador.

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    Holguer Romero

    2015-10-01

    The objective is to determine the style of attachment S. What influences the permission of Violence against Women, evaluating the type of violence, which is prevalent in the Province of Santa Elena, in women assaulted by their romantic partners. Analysis Unit is violated That woman accepts Be Part of the Study By signing the Informed Consent. The UN is Metodo JOINT Focus: Comparative correlational, with a quasi-experimental design ex post facto, on the basis of Mixed Media: research based on observation. Information Sera primary and secondary source, the focus is Quantitative and qualitative interview technique employing one profundity and filling the questionnaires. Risk scale Apostolic Violence, CaMir Questionnaire. The personological Features Each with Data Analysis Report of the expert analyzes, para establish A triangulation With The Other Instruments results. With the evaluation of the type of violence, verifying attachment style, Determined The reasons for this addiction abused woman, With obtaining affective-cognitive characteristics; facilitate the evaluation is diagnosed expert, benefiting Rescue of Victims of Violence.

  6. La inserción de los juegos ancestrales practicados por los moradores de la Provincia de Santa Elena

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    Ana Gallegos Samaniego

    2016-06-01

    Es de suprema importancia la recuperación de todos estos juegos ancestrales, tomados de la naturaleza de la atracción a lo desconocido, de la admiración a lo incomprendido y del coexistir cotidiano con el medio, para acoplarlos en el currículo de educación infantil para los niños de la generación actual, que se encuentran invadidos con la tecnología y que lejos de apreciar sus beneficios, adquieren una absoluta dependencia para realizar estas actividades recreativas. En este contexto se realizaron encuestas a los adultos mayores de las comunas de la zona norte de la provincia de Santa Elena, y se logró determinar que los juegos ancestrales se están dejando de practicar y están quedando en el olvido. La presente investigación no ha sido referenciada por lo que toma relevancia su estudio.

  7. Comportamiento del cultivo del limón (citrus aurantifolia swingle en dos localidades de Santa Elena, Ecuador

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    Mercedes Santistevan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una investigación entre agosto y diciembre del 2015, con el objetivo de conocer el comportamiento del cultivo de limón (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle en dos localidades de la Provincia de Santa Elena, Ecuador. Se seleccionaron dos plantaciones de ocho años de edad, en Manglaralto y Colonche. En cada localidad se marcaron 50 plantas, en las que se hicieron las evaluaciones. El ensayo no tuvo un diseño experimental, pero el análisis estadístico se hizo como si fuera un Diseño Completamente al Azar (DCA, considerando cada localidad como un tratamiento y cada planta como una repetición. Se encontró que la mayor incidencia de plagas y enfermedades se presentó en Manglaralto. El mayor diámetro del fruto, correspondió a Colonche, con una diferencia estadísticamente significativa con respecto a Manglaralto. El mayor peso del fruto y el mayor rendimiento, correspondió a Colonche; pero las diferencias no fueron estadísticamente significativas con respecto a Manglaralto

  8. Adaptación del Trigo (Triticum, en diferentes épocas de cuatro localidades, Provincia de Santa Elena.

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    Néstor Orrala B

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available EL Ecuador importa el 98 % de los requerimientos internos de trigo. Tradicionalmente se cultiva en la Sierra, cuya clima tiene características parecidas a la provincia de Santa Elena en determinada época, lo que podría ser soporte para adaptar este cultivar a las condiciones agroecológicas de la península. La investigación tuvo objetivo verificar el comportamiento agronómico de variedades de trigo en San Vicente de Colonche, Sinchal, Zapotal, San Vicente de Loja con los materiales Cojitambo, Zhalao, Trigo Blanco, Seri-Atila y Tinamou x Lira x Veree, sembradas en diferentes épocas bajo el diseño Bloques Completamente al Azar. Variables experimentales estudiadas: encañado, espigado, altura de la planta, número de macollos; longitud de espiga sin aristas; cantidad de granos llenos y vanos; peso de 1 000 semillas, expresado en gramos; rendimiento por hectárea en kilogramos mas análisis económico. Las etapas fenológicas son más cortas en la Costa con relación a la Sierra; sobresale la localidad San Vicente de Colonche, la primera época y la variedad Zhalao. Algunas variables agronómicas se acercan a los descriptores del INIAP.

  9. DETERMINACION DE FACTORES DE RIESGO DE MOBBING EN LAS EMPRESAS ESTATALES DE LA PROVINCIA DE SANTA ELENA

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    Bertha Maggi De Monserrate

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available El Mobbing es una patalogía considerada por la Organizacion Mundial de la Salud y la Organizacion Panamericana como una entidad clinica muy violenta que en los ultimos dias ha tomado un auge considerable afectando el desarrollo de las naciones y constituyendo una amenaza para la salud publica a nivel mundial. Este término proviene del vocablo anglosajón que se traduce como acoso moral, psicoterror laboral, violencia psicológica, en resumen una medida de conducta agresiva hacia el trabajador victima, por parte de otro trabajador agresor. Los especialistas coinciden en que se trata de un problema de salud publica, alcanzando el grado de epidemia - pandemia. El objetivo de proyecto es determinar los factores de riesgo que inducen al Mobbing en los trabajadores de los Establecimientos Estatales de la Provincia de Santa Elena, en una muestra al azar de 400 trabajadores. El instrumento de Recoleccion de datos será el Inventario de Acoso Moral de Leyman. El resultado será diagnostico de Mobbing en los trabajadorobjeto de estudio para la intervención psicológica respectiva.

  10. Efecto de NPK en la Producción de Citrus Aurantifolia Swingle V. Sutil en Sinchal, Santa Elena.

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    Néstor Orrala B

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación evaluó variables agronómicas y de calidad postcosecha en el limón sutil bajo el efecto de diferentes dosis de nitrógeno fosforo y potasio, solas o en combinación aplicados al suelo durante un año calendario, dividida en tres dosis en la comuna Sinchal, cantón Santa Elena. Se utilizó un diseño de completamente aleatorio. Las variables evaluadas fueron de producción: diámetro del fruto, peso del fruto, grosor de la cáscara, rendimiento por árbol y de calidad pos-cosecha: sólidos solubles totales (Grados Brix, porcentaje de acidez títulable, índice de madurez, porcentaje de jugo y análisis económico. Las variables agronómicas y de calidad postcosecha giran alrededor de lo obtenido por investigadores de América Latina y del Ecuador. Tukey 5 % señala diferencias significativas en el rendimiento por planta durante el año analizado. El tratamiento testigo alcanzó 39,43 kg/planta a diferencia del tratamiento 12, que obtuvo 98,11 kg/planta. El análisis económico estableció que los tratamientos N750P150K0, N750P0K0, N1000P150K0, N1250P150K0, N1250P0K0, N750P150K300, superaron la tasa de retorno mínima aceptable, establecida en 100 %; inclusive el tratamiento 8, al tener menor costo que varía con relación al testigo, puede servir a los pequeños productores

  11. Characterizing the nature of melt-rock reaction in peridotites from the Santa Elena Ophiolite, NW Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, D.; Loocke, M. P.; Snow, J. E.; Gazel, E.

    2017-12-01

    The Santa Elena Ophiolite (SEO), located on the northwestern coast of Costa Rica, consists primarily of preserved oceanic mantle and crustal rocks thrust above an accretionary complex. The SEO is predominantly characterized by mantle peridotites (i.e., primarily spinel lherzolite with minor amounts of harzburgite and dunite) cut and intruded by minor pegmatitic gabbros, layered gabbros, plagiogranites, and doleritic and basaltic dykes. Previous studies have concluded that the complex formed in a suprasubduction zone (SSZ) setting based on the geochemical nature of the layered gabbros and plagiogranites (i.e., depleted LREE and HFSE and enriched LILE and Pb), as well, as the peridotites (i.e., low-TiO2, Zr, and V, and high MgO, Cr, and Ni)(Denyer and Gazel, 2009). Eighteen ultramafic samples collected during the winter 2010/2011 field season (SECR11) exhibit abundant evidence for melt-rock reaction (e.g., disseminated plagioclase and plagioclase-spinel, clinopyroxene-spinel, and plagioclase-clinopyroxene symplectites) and provide a unique opportunity to characterize the textural and chemical nature of melt-rock reaction in the SEO. We present the results of a petrologic investigation (i.e., petrography and electron probe microanalysis) of 28 thin sections (19 spinel lherzolites, of which 14 are plagioclase-bearing, 4 pyroxenite veins, and 5 harzburgites) derived from the SECR11 sample set. The results of this investigation have the potential to better our understanding of the nature of melt generation and migration and melt-rock interaction in the SEO mantle section and shed further light on the complex petrogenetic history of the SEO. Denyer, P., Gazel, E., 2009, Journal of South American Earth Sciences, 28:429-442.

  12. Los juegos tradicionales se han perdido en la memoria cultural actual de los niños y niñas de la provincia de Santa Elena

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    Patricia Ortega Ramírez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo de investigación se inicio en la Península de Santa Elena, pues es ahí donde nació nuestra cultura ancestral. Nuestro propósito fue confirmar la hipótesis de si los niños y niñas aún participan en actividades lúdicas ancestrales. Se seleccionaron quince comunas de la Provincia de Santa Elena (La Entrada, Olón, Montañita, Dos Mangas, Sacachún, Cadeate, Salinas, Ancón, Atahualpa, Valdivia, Libertador Bolívar, El Tambo, San Vicente, Ayangue y Santa Elena a fin de realizar el estudio, se aplicaron encuestas, se realizaron entrevistas, se escucharon referencias de vida, y se observaron actividades de juego. Los resultados de las encuestas nos dicen que efectivamente un gran porcentaje de niños y niñas ya no conocen ni practican juegos ancestrales, algunos ni siquiera los conocen. Este trabajo pretende que los niños y niñas de las comunas en las que se realizó la investigación disfruten participando en los juegos con los que también se divirtieron sus antepasados, donde además ejercitaran sus habilidades y destrezas, que les permitirá estimular su imaginación y creatividad, fisicamente potenciaran el desarrollo de su esquema corporal y psíquicamente sus emociones, aprenderán a través del juego a sentirse orgullosos de su linaje, de sus raíces y de su tradición.

  13. Propuesta de políticas sociales para erradicar la pobreza de las comunidades de la península de Santa Elena

    OpenAIRE

    Leon, Monica Irene; Martinez, Joan; Zavala Aguiar, Laila; Espinel, Ramon

    2009-01-01

    En el presente estudio se realizó el análisis de la pobreza en la Península de Santa Elena, por ser esta la zona geográfica de mayor concentración en la provincia del Guayas tomando como base la deficiencia en los niveles educativos de los habitantes de la Península y su influencia en la pobreza por medio del ingreso. Utilizando como herramienta el modelo econométrico presentado por Pablo Samaniego al Banco Central del Ecuador. En primer lugar se mencionan los antecedentes y definición del pr...

  14. Incidencia de la inteligencia competitiva en el desarrollo económico de las empresas de la provincia de Santa Elena.

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    Nathyn Collins Ventura

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo fue analizar la incidencia de la inteligencia competitiva en el desarrollo económico de las empresas. La inteligencia competitiva ayuda a las empresas a definir y conocer la industria, así como a identificar las fortalezas y debilidades de sus rivales, lo que incluye actividades de inteligencia para reunir datos sobre los competidores e interpretarlo; si se hace correctamente, ayuda a la compañía a evitar sorpresas porque se anticipan los movimientos de los competidores y se disminuye el tiempo de respuesta. Se implementó una investigación exploratoria correlacional para poder diagnosticar el desempeño organizacional de las empresas de la provincia de Santa Elena. Los métodos implementados son deductivo e inductivo, mediante técnicas de observación descriptiva, entrevistas a gerentes de las empresas y encuestas a trabajadores de las empresas para conocer la situación real. Se seleccionó 32 empresas de la provincia de Santa Elena en las que se efectuaron entrevistas a gerentes. Los resultados demuestran que, con la potenciación de fortalezas de la empresa, y por ende el aprovechamiento de oportunidades del entorno, se generará un desarrollo económico de la empresa que implemente acciones sólidas y oportunas.   Abstract The objective of this article was to analyze the incidence of competitive intelligence in the economic development of companies. Competitive intelligence helps companies define and know the industry, as well as identify the strengths and weaknesses of their rivals, which includes intelligence activities to gather data about competitors and interpret it; If done correctly, helps the company to avoid surprises because they anticipate the movements of competitors and decreases the response time. An exploratory correlational research was implemented to diagnose the organizational performance of companies in the province of Santa Elena. The methods implemented are deductive and inductive

  15. Mejoras productivas en el tratamiento de Paja Toquilla en el Centro de Tratamiento de Paja Toquilla de la comuna Barcelona, parroquia Manglaralto, provincia de Santa Elena, Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Lucin

    2015-10-01

    The community of Barcelona, parish ManglaraltoCantón Santa Elena, is known for its treatment of the straw shawl floor (Carludovicapalmata. In its acres of land in the mountains adjacent to the Chongón-Colonche range, this plant grows wild it is harvested in about three years of cultivation. In the village, families headed by women workers, performing the treatment plant for cleaning, cooking, drying and packaging processes, which will be directed to areas in the country where they make the famous Panama hats. In order to improve the process of this treatment, the NOBS group, The Provincial Council of Santa Elena and PORAMÉRICA,   have signed a cooperation agreement that has managed to achieve the objectives. The drying process, which was a problem in times of lack of sun, has been solved with installation of industrial dryers and simultaneously marginalized cooking process and do it with wood stove, achieving efficiency in this process with the use of burners with industrial gas, lowering environmental impact. The administrative process improved with the implementation of documents and control of the production process and costs.

  16. Observatorio turístico: Una herramienta de gestión para el turismo de sol y playa en la provincia de Santa Elena

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    Efren Mendoza

    2016-12-01

    Tourism in the province of Santa Elena has become a sector of great importance, which has been not only supported by government policies, but also by initiatives of businessmen and communities. Tourism planning has become the best tool for successful and sustainable development of the activity aiming towards the objectives set in the National Plan for Good Living, by following the guidelines established by PLANDETUR (Strategic Development Plan for Sustainable Tourism in Ecuador 2020, while accepting at the same time, the recommendations based on reality where tourism arises. One of the tangible needs is based on the lack of reliable information available about the characteristics of the demand in respect to the Sun and Beach tourism offer; which is the leading product of the province.  This data is significant to support decision-making for each of the actors that make up this vast sector.  This paper shows some results obtained in the investigation through the application of actions taken to design a tourist observatory targeted to the Sun and Beach tourism in Santa Elena, and monitored through the establishment of a base for the guidelines of a management system for tourism information, and by the establishment of the profile of domestic demand.

  17. Coordinación de las protecciones de la subestación de distribución en la península de Santa Elena

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Chicas, Robinson David; Espinel Encalada, José Leonidas; Aguilar Sánchez, Yasmani Leonardo; Saavedra Mera, Juan

    2014-01-01

    El presente trabajo desarrolla el estudio de la coordinación de protecciones aplicados a la subestación de distribución “SALINAS”, ubicada en la península de Santa Elena. Partiendo primero desde la descripción de las instalaciones, para conocer los elementos que la componen; posteriormente, se realiza un estudio de flujo de carga en condiciones de máxima y mínima carga y un estudio de cortocircuito de la subestación aplicados a la barra de 69kV y 13.8kV, esto nos servirá como datos preliminar...

  18. Efecto de variante de riego en la producción de maíz (zea mays l. En la Comuna Río Verde, cantón Santa Elena, Ecuador.

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    Ángel León

    2016-11-01

    Effect of irrigation variant in the corn production (Zea mays L. at Río Verde commune, Santa Elena, Ecuador. The test was conducted at the Production and Practice Center Río Verde, owned by the Santa Elena Peninsula State University, located in Río Verde commune, Santa Elena canton, the research aimed to evaluate the effect of irrigation variations into agronomic performance of corn under different irrigation sheets using as measuring tool evaporation A class Pan. The treatments were five doses of irrigation 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100% of evapotranspiration, treatments were placed in a complete randomized design of blocks with four replications, the averages compared with the Tukey test (p> 0.05. The regression analysis fits a quadratic equation and the coefficient of determination R2 0,91 which shows the high degree of dependence of results based on irrigation variants. The highest production was obtained by the treatment with 90% with 12,18 t.ha-1.

  19. Energía Undimotriz, alternativa para la producción de Energía Eléctrica en la Provincia de Santa Elena

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    Rolando Calero

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available La energía undimotriz, es la energía que permite obtener electricidad a partir de energía mecánica generada por el movimiento de las olas. Es uno de los tipos de energías renovables con más recientes estudios, y presenta enormes ventajas frente a otras energías renovables debido a que se tendría mayor facilidad para predecir condiciones geológicas óptimas que permitan la mayor eficiencia en sus procesos. Debido a que es más fácil llegar a predecir condiciones óptimas de oleaje, en comparación con la obtenida con  los vientos para obtener energía eólica, donde su variabilidad es menor.En este trabajo se espera aportar y dilucidar con datosespecíficos sobre la morfología de la zonamarítima en la provincia de Santa Elena, tratando depredecir si las características propias del lugar son idóneas  para producir electricidad en base a la implementación de energíaundimotriz, como fuente renovable no convencional utilizando las tecnologías actuales para este propósito.

  20. Minería de datos con técnica cluster, caso de estudio: estudiantes de Universidad Estatal Península de Santa Elena.

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    Mariuxi De La Cruz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo fue realizado para la Universidad Estatal Península de Santa Elena, muestra el proceso de minería de datos aplicando la técnica cluster o conglomerado, con herramientas de software libre como: PostgreSQL, apropiada para el almacenamiento de los datos y R para el análisis estadístico y la generación de los algoritmos que implica la técnica. El análisis cluster fue implementado en datos sociales, económicos y académicos de los estudiantes inscritos en la Facultad de Sistemas y Telecomunicaciones de esta institución de educación superior. El proceso es detallado en tres secciones, la primera donde se describe los conceptos  asociados a minería de datos, técnica cluster y las herramientas tecnológicas utilizadas para explotación de información. En la segunda sección  se describe el proceso de aplicación la técnica cluster con el método particional y con el método jerárquico. En la sección tres se muestra los conglomerados obtenidos al aplicar la técnica en el grupo de datos. Finalmente se presentan las conclusiones y recomendaciones de este trabajo.

  1. Estudio sobre la Salud y Nutrición de los Estudiantes de la Universidad Estatal Península de Santa Elena

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    Karina Bricio

    2015-10-01

    A good physical activity with a good performance in all environments depends on the nutritious habits and good health that this represents, In fact universities today care about the quality of the education and keeping its healthy students; which is part of the teaching activities also having obligation to inculcate healthy habits within their study programs, and thereby to promote a healthy lifestyle. The objective of this research is to analyze which is the current state of health, and the types of foods consumed by the students of the state university of Santa Elena Peninsula UPSE, to determine strategies and to be able to implement campaigns and talks about health and nutrition. The investigation determined that the students are not feeding well, due to the fact that their diets do not incorporate, fruits, vegetable, and not taking any vitamin supplement, in addition it is analyzed that have a high stress problem, and generally are always suffering from gastritis. The diet should be balanced which these provides a positive balance to our body.

  2. Caracterización de un Andisol de la cuenca alta de la quebrada Santa Elena, Oriente Antioqueño, Colombia.

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    Nicolás Pérez Echavarría

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizó detalladamente un Andisol derivado de ceniza volcánica de la cuenca alta de la quebrada Santa Elena, Oriente Antioqueño (Colombia, con el fin de realizar en él otros estudios más detallados de pedogénesis. El suelo estudiado presentó un bajo contenido de bases y de fósforo disponible y una alta acidez, lo que indica un bajo nivel de fertilidad natural. El alto contenido de materia orgánica superficial está en concordancia con el clima frío húmedo de la zona y con la formación de complejos organometálicos que la protegen de la mineralización. Los horizontes superficiales del perfil estudiado se clasificaron como no alofánicos mientras que los horizontes subsuperficiales se clasificaron como alofánicos. El suelo estudiado mostró evidencias de ser poligenético, así como de fenómenos de erosión asociados a cambios climáticos drásticos y fue clasificado como un Acrudoxic Fulvudand, medial, mezclado, isotérmico.

  3. Las reformas al impuesto al valor agregado y su efecto en la economía del consumidor en la provincia de Santa Elena. Año 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Asencio Cristóbal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente reporte es elaborar un análisis de las reformas tributarias del IVA implementadas en el país en el año 2016 y referir su  impacto en la economía del consumidor en la provincia de Santa Elena. Desde una perspectiva teórica, se define la estructura impositiva del país y su importancia en la generación de ingresos públicos para la consecución objetivos sociales; así como también los fines que conllevan las reformas tributarias tendientes a regular la economía, fomentar el empleo, incentivar la producción, la demanda y el consumo. En la investigación que dio origen a este artículo se aplicaron procedimientos metodológicos  deductivo, cuantitativo, y documental provenientes de fuentes oficiales y  técnicas de investigación que permitieron obtener información relevante para el análisis descriptivo  de las reformas, cuyos resultados reflejan la necesidad de que el gobierno, previa a la adopción de estas medidas,  realice con profundidad un estudio  socio-económico, que permita valorar las incidencias que tendrían en el sector productivo del país y en el consumido específicamente.  En la investigación se describen las últimas reformas tributarias del IVA para luego referir su efecto general en el consumo de bienes y servicios del consumidor peninsular.   Abstract The objective of the present report is to develop an analysis of VAT tax reforms implemented in the country in the year 2016 and see its impact on the economy of the consumer in the province of Santa Elena. From a theoretical perspective, defines the country's tax structure and its importance in the generation of revenue to achieve social objectives; as well as also the purposes involving tax reforms aimed at regulating the economy, promoting employment, encourage the production, demand and consumption. In the research that gave origin to this article is applied procedures methodological deductive, quantitative, and documentary from of

  4. Modelos explicativos del cambio en la cobertura del suelo en el crecimiento del uso urbano de la provincia de Santa Elena - Ecuador

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    Dany Salazar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available En el año 2009, el gobierno vigente del Ecuador plantea a los gobiernos autónomos descentralizados, los requerimientos de una planificación y ordenamiento en sus respectivos territorios, para que su uso sea sostenible. Por ende, la demanda de insumos de información estadística y geográfica ha sido una prioridad dentro de este ámbito gubernamental. Así tenemos que, la presente contribución investigativa propone brindar insumos de información que de soporte a la planificación y ordenamiento territorial de la Provincia de Santa Elena, Área de Planificación Nº 5 - Ecuador. Siendo uno de los insumos prioritarios la identificación de factores explicativos que inciden en el crecimiento urbano, tales como el biofísico, socioeconómico y de accesibilidad. Para ello se ha seleccionado como unidad de mínima integración de información al pixel y como técnica estadística Regresión Logística. Entre los principales resultados tenemos la implementación de la estandarización, bajo el criterio lineal decreciente para la homogenización de las variables de accesibilidad potenciando al modelo seleccionado y la utilización de herramientas potentes de las Tecnologías de la Información Geográfica, que ha permitido la implementación de modelos con volumen significativo de datos.

  5. Estimación de la demanda energética mensual mediante encuesta aplicada en la provincia de Santa Elena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Pavón

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available En el dimensionamiento óptimo de una micro red es de mucha importancia identificar en el lugar de estudio, el potencial energético renovable y la demanda de consumo energético mensual de las familias. El presente trabajo muestra la metodología y resultados de una encuesta de consumo de energía eléctrica que se aplicó in situ a una muestra de la población de hogares de la parroquia rural Atahualpa, provincia de Santa Elena. Luego, estos resultados recopilados fueron tabulados y procesados; y se estimó, mediante estadísticas de muestreo, la demanda de energía eléctrica promedio mensual de viviendas. El consumo mensual de energía eléctrica para viviendas familiares fue de 195 kWh y viviendas de negocio de 446 kWh. El consumo mensual per cápita familiar fue de 39 kWh. Finalmente, este estudio evidencia la importancia de la metodología y resultados obtenidos, los cuales pueden servir para tomar decisiones del ámbito energético tanto a nivel de región, como a nivel de país, mediante políticas públicas adecuadas para abordar el problema de una mejor redistribución energética.

  6. Parque temático turístico cultural como alternativa de diversificación de la oferta turística en la ciudad de Santa Elena.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Freire Rendón

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available El turismo de sol y playa es el segmento que genera mayor flujo de turistas y representa un motor importante para el desarrollo de la actividad en muchos países. Sin embargo, el hacinamiento, el deterioro ambiental, los cambios en la demanda y el aumento de la competencia han generado preocupación por el futuro de los destinos consolidados de sol y playa. Dada esta afirmación, y siendo Santa Elena una localidad con estas características, se hace relevante buscar alternativas de diversificación de la oferta turística que permitan dinamizar procesos de desarrollo sostenible del sector. El Objetivo de esta investigación, consiste en determinar el parque temático turístico cultural como alternativa de diversificación de la oferta turística en la ciudad de Santa Elena. La metodología utilizada se basó en un enfoque cualitativo-cualitativo apoyado en la recolección de datos con el diseño de entrevistas en profundidad con actores comunitarios como informantes clave para determinar las categorías a evaluar y establecer elementos esenciales del diagnóstico. Los principales resultados determinaron que en la ciudad de Santa Elena a pesar de la existencia del museo Amantes de Sumpa con enfoque cultural no hay lugar o atracción turística con temática que relacione lo recreativo y cultural, representando costumbres y tradiciones locales para la satisfacción de los visitantes.   Abstract The tourism of sun and beach is the segment that generates greater flow of tourists and represents an important motor for the development of the activity in many countries. However, overcrowding, environmental deterioration, changes in demand and increased competition have generated concern about the future of consolidated sun and beach destinations. Given this assertion, and being Santa Elena a locality with these characteristics, it becomes relevant to look for alternatives of diversification of the tourist supply that allow to dynamize processes of

  7. Proyecto de producción, comercialización y exportación de artesanías de paja toquilla en la península de Santa Elena

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Cruzatti, Margarita; Sisalema Morejon, Lila

    2009-01-01

    Las artesanías en paja toquilla han estado presentes en el Ecuador desde 1700. La Península de Santa Elena presenta excelentes condiciones climáticas para el desarrollo de una agricultura empresarial y económicamente autosuficiente, permitiendo la implantación de un grupo muy amplio de cultivos. El producto que más se demanda es el sombrero de paja toquilla, cuya producción se destina un 10% al mercado local, y el restante 90% al mercado mundial, de acuerdo al Banco Central del Ecuador. ...

  8. Impacto cultural de los proyectos de desarrollo. Parque Regional Ecoturístico Arví. Corregimiento de Santa Elena, municipio de Medellín: Propuesta de evaluación

    OpenAIRE

    Ocampo Madrigal, John Jader

    2015-01-01

    Resumen: se analiza la alteración de la dinámica cultural con la inclusión del proyecto de desarrollo Parque Regional Ecoturístico Arví en el corregimiento de Santa Elena – Medellín, en el marco de entendimiento del concepto de configuración cultural, a través de cuatro indicadores cualitativos relacionados con la comprensión del territorio, las redes culturales, la actitud social frente a los espacios públicos y la percepción patrimonial. Los resultados de esta tarea, fueron evaluados a la l...

  9. Evaluación de ideas irracionales en los postulantes de diversas carreras que oferta la Universidad Estatal Península de Santa Elena en el segundo semestre del periodo 2013 – 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Rocío Ponce

    2015-01-01

    La presente investigación realizada en la Universidad Península de Santa Elena evalúa los sistemas de creencias que se vienen incrementando en las carreras sociales y tecnológicas en las que el sentido de valores es importante e indispensable, los postulantes de las ocho carreras ofertadas tales como Contadores Públicos, Enfermería, Turismo, Informática, Ingeniería civil, ingeniería en petróleos, Administración y Biología Marina mantienen sistemas de creencias puede incidir en el rendimiento ...

  10. Incidencia del estilo de vida en el rendimiento académico de los estudiantes, mediante un análisis interno en la Universidad Estatal Península de Santa Elena UPSE, de la provincia de Santa Elena año 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Bricio

    2015-10-01

    The present investigation has as objective to evaluate the incidence of the lifestyle in the academic yield of the students of the University State Peninsula of Santa Elena UPSE, the project is framed in knowing the lifestyles of the students that activities make in their free times, and in many of the cases because its academic yield diminishes, by means of technical of observation and interviews it was determined that the students spend stressed, they don't take a healthy lifestyle, they carry out little sport, they pass navigating in the social nets, they like to see the television a lot, and they dedicate few hours to study. It is for it the importance and the development of this project to give to know to the authorities that make their students outside of the university and in that use their free times. The methodology that you applies was of two types, quantitative and qualitative investigation, between the results of the analysis of the questionnaires and the focus groups, was determined that the students dedicate two hours to study, they don't sometimes attend classes for illness, laziness, or they are sleeping, they like to play soccer, to leave to parties, they consume alcoholic drinks, they consume tobacco, they navigate two hours and more in the social nets, they travel little for lack of resources, and in most of the cases they don't have breakfast, they read little, which affects its academic yield in great measure.

  11. INCIDENCIA DE LOS SISTEMAS DE CONTROL CONTABLE EN LA GESTION ADMINISTRATIVA DE LAS EMPRESAS PRIVADAS EN LA PROVINCIA DE SANTA ELENA AÑO 2014

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    Karina Bricio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigaciones tiene como objetivo evaluar la incidencia de los  sistemas de control contable en la gestion administrativa de las emoresas privadas en la provincia de Santa Elena, el proyecto está enmarcado dentro del área de gestion administrativa, comunicación organizacional, control contable, informes financieros, control de registros contables, entre otros, se han venido desarrollando desde hace años los procesos administrativos de una manera manual y se han implementadi sistemas de control financieras, sin embargo en las empresas ecuatorianas la contabilidad se ha convertido en  una tecnica que se ocupa de registrar, clasificar y resumir las operaciones mercantiles de un negocio con el fin de interpretar sus resultados. Por consiguiente los gerentes o directores através de la contabilidad podrán orientarse sobre el curso que siguen sus negocios mediante sistemas o software contable. Los resultados podrán orientarse sobre el curso que siguen sus negocios y conocer las estabilidad y solvencia de la compañia, la corriente de cobros y pagos, las  tendencias de las ventas, costos y gastos  generales, con la técnica de observacion y mediantes entrevistas se determinó que en muchas empresas de provincia no hay sistemas de controles contables, el cual no manejan de forma eficiente los procesos contables ni administrativos, tambien se observó que se utilizó para el analisis correspondiente fue de tipo cuantitativo el cual se realizó encuestas a las personas que trabajan en las areas  administrativas de las empresas de la provincia, entre los resultados encontrados se mecniona lo siguiente: los  sistemas de control contable que utilizan actualmente las empresas son, el sistema Mónica, sistema Sagitario, el sistema Siscom,mennioaron tambien que la falta de sistemas de control contable retrasa la gestion administrativa de le empresa, necesitan cursos de capacitaciones y actualizaciones en temas de tributacion, sistemas

  12. Compositional diversity in peridotites as result of a multi-process history: The Pacific-derived Santa Elena ophiolite, northwest Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escuder-Viruete, Javier; Baumgartner, Peter O.; Castillo-Carrión, Mercedes

    2015-08-01

    The Santa Elena ophiolite (SEO) is an ultramafic nappe of more than 270 km2 overlying a tectonic serpentinite-matrix mélange in northwest Costa Rica. It is mainly composed of Cpx-rich and Cpx-poor harzburgites (~ 2.5 km-thick), with minor lherzolite, dunite and chromitite, as well as intrusive mafic sills and subvertical dikes, which coalesce into an upper Isla Negritos gabbroic sill complex. Minerals and whole-rock features of the Cpx-rich and Cpx-poor harzburgites share features of the abyssal and supra-subduction zone (SSZ) peridotites, respectively. To explain these characteristics two-stages of melting and refertilization processes are required. By means of trace element modeling, the composition of Cpx-rich harzburgites may be reproduced by up to ~ 5-10% melting of a primitive mantle source, and the composition of Cpx-poor harzburgites and dunites by ~ 15-18% melting of an already depleted mantle. Therefore, the Cpx-rich harzburgites can be interpreted as product of first-stage melting and low-degrees of melt-rock interaction in a mid-ocean ridge environment, and the Cpx-poor harzburgites and dunites as the product of second-stage melting and refertilization in a SSZ setting. The mafic sills and the Isla Negrito gabbros are genetically related and can be explained as crystallization from the liquids that were extracted from the lower SSZ mantle levels and emplaced at shallow conditions. The Murciélagos Island basalts are not directly related to the ultramafic and mafic rocks of the SEO. Their E-MORB-like composition is similar to most of the CLIP mafic lavas and suggests a common Caribbean plume-related source. The SEO represents a fragment of Pacific-derived, SSZ oceanic lithosphere emplaced onto the southern North America margin during the late Cretaceous. Because of the predominance of rollback-induced extension during its history, only a limited amount of crustal rocks were formed and preserved in the SEO.

  13. Fortalecimiento del sector de la soldadura en la Provincia de Santa Elena a través de actividades del Centro de Capacitación de Soldadura LINDE-UPSE

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    Jorge Lucin

    2015-10-01

    Abstract The generation of grands projects that the country has, in its execution bears the important contribution of technical work such as welding. The University Santa Elena Peninsula, UPSE and multinational LINDE, ex AGA S.A.,  in order to strengthen the area of welding work in the province of Santa Elena, have signed a cooperation agreement with a duration of 5 years. For this purpose, is installed, an Training Center first order with equipment, machinery, tooling and supplies needed to offer quality work. Physical resources are given to UPSE, while knowledge and technique gives the multinational facilitator through highly qualified instructor.  The courses   to offering are approbation. The work is organized upon circulation, registration, training, evaluation, approval and final reports for each course, which is based on the statistics and media documents. Thus, over the first 3 years of work, has trained 229 people, with a total of 240 hours in 12 basic curs for welders support. Representative institutions in these works have been favored by updating technical knowledge and taught at the Center. The agreement remaining 1.5 years to finish but given its fruitful work, surely renew contributions towards this important technical work such as welding.

  14. INCIDENCIA DE UN PLAN DE DESARROLLO TURÍSTICO EN LA SOSTENIBILIDAD Y COMPETITIVIDAD DE LA COMUNA EL REAL, PARROQUIA CHANDUY, CANTÓN SANTA ELENA, PROVINCIA DE SANTA ELENA” AÑO 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Freire

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tiene como objetivo determinar la incidencia de un plan de desarrollo turístico en la sostenibilidad y competitividad de la Comuna El Real, de la Provincia de Santa Elena, en el cual se debe aprovechar el recurso natural y cultural que tiene la comuna, donde se propicie la generación de una dinámica auténtica para la captación del turismo rural con la lógica y generación de un desarrollo desde adentro, contribuyendo de este modo al buen vivir de la comuna. Entre los problemas que se evidenciaron se encuentra la sostenibilidad, no cuenta con un desarrollo ambiental, económico, y social, proyectos de emprendimiento, se plantea estrategias sostenibles y competitivas desde la perspectiva del turismo rural. Para la elaboración de este trabajo se utilizó la metodología basada en investigación cuantitativa y cualitativa. Se describió las características generales de la problemática existente, permitiendo elaborar una diagnostico situacional de tipo integral, con la implementación de estrategias como son, los convenios con las instituciones del estado, cursos de capacitaciones a los comuneros para que puedan realizar una eficiente administración comunal, buen trabajo en equipo, ejecución de programas y proyectos, participación oportuna de los habitantes para el logro de un crecimiento permanente para la comuna, sus organizaciones y asociaciones ubicadas dentro de su territorio.  Palabras clave: recursos turísticos, recursos culturales, desarrollo sostenible, estrategias competitivas Abstract This research aims to determine the incidence of a plan of tourist in the sustainable environmental, economic and social development, through an internal of the Commune diagnosis the Real, of the Province of Santa Elena, which should benefit from the natural and cultural resource that has the commune, where is conducive to the generation of a real dynamic for the acquisition of rural tourism with the logical

  15. Aplicación del Diagnóstico Morfofuncional de la Población Estudiantil comprendida en dos Planteles Educativos en edades de 6 a 12 años en las Escuelas Teodoro Wolf y Escuela N°13 Ballenita del Cantón Santa Elena de la Provincia de Santa Elena.

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    Katherine Aguilar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Son numerosos los estudios que han surgido ligados a la cineantropometría desde su aparición como ciencia, con un cuerpo doctrinal propio, en el Congreso Internacional de la Actividad Física de Montreal en 1976 (Chamorro, 1993. Como nos señala la Sociedad Internacional para el Avance de la Kinantropometría (ISAK, 2001, los estudios antropométricos incluyen una serie de herramientas con cómputos diversos para el análisis de datos, tales como el somatotipo, el fraccionamiento de la masa corporal, estimaciones de la proporcionalidad o la predicción de la densidad corporal con diversas ecuaciones de regresión. Desde esta última perspectiva, Norton et al. (2004 señalan que dentro del amplio número de factores que influyen en el rendimiento deportivo, las medidas antropométricas en un deportista son variables que pueden jugar un rol importante en la determinación del éxito potencial en determinados deportes. Estos mismos autores, indican la necesidad de estudiar los perfiles morfológicos de los mejores deportistas de cada especialidad. De ahí que el objetivo de este estudio sea obtener un perfil morfológico de referencia, centrándose en el somatotipo y la composición corporal de la población estudiantil de ocho colegios de la Provincia Santa Elena con edades comprendidas de los 11 a 15 años

  16. Elaboración de hormigones que minimicen el impacto al ambiente, empleando neumáticos usados de vehículos livianos y pesados, en la provincia de Santa Elena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Saltos

    2016-04-01

    En su segunda etapa se realizará el diseño de hormigón incluyendo las partículas de neumáticos triturados, en el que se dará a conocer cuál es el porcentaje óptimo que se incluirá este material con respecto al hormigón. Por lo tanto con la ejecución de este proyecto se reduciría sustancialmente la contaminación que produce este tipo de desechos, además de proporcionar un uso adecuado en términos de construcción en la provincia de Santa Elena.

  17. Breve síntesis histórica y reflexiones acerca de la continuidad étnica, sentido de etnicidad e identidad cultural en la región de Santa Elena, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick López Reyes

    2016-12-01

    Abstract   This paper presents a brief summary of the pre-Hispanic and colonial history of the Santa Elena region, from the first arrival of human groups in the area until the early days of the new Republic of Ecuador. By giving narrative body to a series of data dispersed product of archaeological research, and historical documentaries, made in the region since early last century actually. Based on them then arises a necessary and relevant reflection on issues such as ethnic continuity, ethnicities, culture and identity of the current human groups, descendants of the previous, now inhabit, also raising the importance this has in ongoing processes, and those potential to undertake, for the advancement and local socio-economic development through New tourism or innovation tourism.

  18. Encuentros con Elena Poniatowska

    OpenAIRE

    Uzquiza González, José Ignacio

    2008-01-01

    El autor analiza, desde su encuentro con Elena Poniatowska, la vertiente de la literatura testimonial como literatura de mujeres. Un análisis interior de la relación entre realidad y ficción, entre Elena, Jesusa o Tinísima. The author analyzes testimonial literature from the perspective of female literature through his meeting with Elena Poniatowska. An analysis of reality vs. Fiction in Elena, Jesusa and Tinisima.

  19. Análisis técnico y económico para la reducción de pérdidas técnicas y comerciales en la empresa eléctrica de la peninsula de Santa Elena ca (emepe)

    OpenAIRE

    Estrada Mendez, Jorga Armando; Nieto Pasquel, Ronny Elias; Rivera Paredes, Jorge Hernando; Salcedo Guerrero, Adolfo

    2009-01-01

    En el siguiente proyecto de tesis se presenta un análisis técnico económico de la empresa eléctrica de la península de Santa Elena (EMEPE), para la reducción de pérdidas técnicas y comerciales. Se procederá a calcular las pérdidas técnicas y pérdidas comerciales del año 2004, para ello se obtendrá la información correspondiente en la empresa eléctrica de la península de Santa Elena y además se realizaran levantamientos eléctricos del sistema de distribución para realizar los cálculos pert...

  20. Efecto de la vinculación con la colectividad en el beneficio económico de las asoociaciones de producción. Caso de estudio: Paja Toquilla en la Comuna Barcelona, Parroquia Manglaralto. Provincia de Santa Elena, año 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C Carriel

    2015-12-01

    Abstract The State University of Santa Elena Península and Accounting and Auditing Career; in the framework of a process of linking with the community, allows the interaction of the institution with the society, through the design and implementation of projects that contribute to the development, constituting itself as a benefit in the advancement of knowledge, training of human talent, the exchange of ideas and the solution of specific problems. In Ecuador, artisans occupy an important place, as regards to economic development is further directed to have laws backup as the law of defense of the artisan, the law to promote artisanal production code, whose common goal It is to enable economic growth of artisans and contribute to meeting the objective 1, 3, 10 of the National Plan for Good Living. So the implementation of links with the community was framed for artisans who are engaged in the production of straw shawl in the commune Barcelona, Manglaralto parish, canton Santa Elena, Province of Santa Elena, in order to contribute to the socioeconomic improvement associations union through the exchange of knowledge and generate from its production processes; accounting, where the level of profitability of the activity is known, and also have a reliable database for timely decision-making; allowing the sustainable development of the producer.

  1. Elena App for Android

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ternier, Stefaan; Rusman, Ellen; Storm, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    The ‘ELENA goes shopping' mobile game is developed within the ELENA-project. This European project develops materials to teach children between 4 and 8 years the basics of French, German and Dutch. The aim is to familiarize children from border regions with languages that are available in their

  2. Elaboración de hormigones que minimicen el impacto al ambiente, empleando neumáticos usados de vehículos livianos y pesados, en la provincia de Santa Elena.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Saltos

    2015-10-01

    Waste from rubbers tires are considered to be an environmental and sanitary risk worldwide. As an example in Ecuador, every year nearly 2.4 million rubber tires of various types are discarded as trash, which is equivalent to 55000 tons, according to the Proactive Corporation for Investment Promotion (INVEC. A small porcentage of the waste, are reused to be re-rubberized. But the majority is incinerate or deposited in dumping grounds open to the environment, which is a huge risk to the environment and the health of individuals. The project seeks to create a design of concrete including particles of rubber from discarded tires. The tires will undergo a rigorous selection process, a controlled threading process, and a fabrication according to the specifications of the international standards of concrete of the American Concrete Institute (ACI and the Construction Ecuatorian Standards (NEC, and based on these specifications, the goal is to obtain an acceptable concrete apt to be used in low traffic streets, sidewalks, pedestrian zones, and other concrete structures, minimizing the environmental impact to the misuse of tires in the province of Santa Elena.

  3. Evaluación de Dosis de Nitrógeno en combinación con Vitazyme en el rendimiento de la Sandía, en Sinchal, Provincia de Santa Elena.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Orrala B

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available La investigación tuvo como objetivo evaluar la interacción del bioestimulante Vitazyme en combinación con varias dosis de fertilizantes nitrogenados, en la productividad del híbrido Doña Flor, sandía tipo Charleston Grey, en Sinchal Santa Elena. Diseño utilizado bloques completamente al azar con 8 tratamientos y 4 repeticiones. Cada unidad experimental conformada por 45 plantas. Resultados sometidos al análisis de la varianza y las medias de los tratamientos, comparadas según Prueba de Rango Múltiple de Duncan al 5 %. Variables evaluadas: longitud de guía a los 40 y 60 días después del trasplante, número de flores femeninas, número de frutos comerciales por planta, longitud, diámetro, peso del fruto y rendimiento por hectárea, más análisis económico. El nitrógeno más una base PK, así como también el nitrógeno más una base PK más el bioestimulante Vitazyme aumenta el número de frutos comerciales por planta, repercutiendo en el rendimiento y la rentabilidad, sobresaliendo el tratamiento N150P80K200 + Vitazyme que alcanzó 117,08 toneladas por hectárea.

  4. Incidencia de la gestión de marketing y procedimientos de injerencia contable en las empresas privadas de la Provincia de Santa Elena, año 2014-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libi Caamaño

    2015-12-01

    Abstract Accounting control systems allow the company to know about the economic situation and make decisions; secondly marketing management facilitates compliance with business objectives, to capture the attention of the target market, encouraging customers to purchase action, and current customer loyalty, these two components enable companies to take advantage of any kind environmental opportunities to know the current situation, so the negative impact is minimized. This study aims to assess the impact of accounting control systems and marketing in the administration of private enterprises in the province of Santa Elena, the process of gathering information was aimed at obtaining information from the company managers, financial personnel and public relations in the absence of marketing department in the majority of companies. It was evident that no innovative strategic actions in companies, that will generate knowledge effectively brand in the target market, however, the accounting systems used are appropriate, whether made mostly traditional way, not technological tools are used. The importance of implementing accounting control systems that improve the administrative management of private enterprise in the province, as well as marketing efforts to improve compliance with business objectives entities was determined.

  5. Interrelación de la productividad en el sector artesanal y la vinculación con la colectividad: red de artesanos de la parroquia Atahualpa, provincia de Santa Elena, año 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Arriaga Baidal

    2016-12-01

      One of the areas of the work of the universities is their relationship with the community, which must generate a productivity interrelationship in both parts. Thus, she connects with teaching and invigorates it. The Santa Elena Peninsula State University and the Department of Linkage through the Accounting and Auditing Career develop this process, with the design and execution of projects that contribute to the development and generate alternative solutions to the problems of the communities. It is currently debated, if the link is understood as the moment in which the university relates to external social actors, without considering the participation of students and teachers in that process, and its effects, both in the community and in University teaching. In the pursuit of productivity, each linking teacher prepares and executes a series of actions, in order to have a positive impact on the student's and the trainee's training process, and their participation in linking projects, a valuable moment that is also considered as an indicator Of productivity - quality, in the field of teaching.

  6. Evaluación de ideas irracionales en los postulantes de diversas carreras que oferta la Universidad Estatal Península de Santa Elena en el segundo semestre del periodo 2013 – 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Ponce

    2015-10-01

    Abstract This research conducted at the Santa Elena Peninsula University evaluates the belief systems that have been increasing in the social and technological careers in the sense of values is important and essential, applicants offered eight careers such as Accountants, nursing, Tourism, IT, civil engineering, petroleum engineering, Administration and Marine Biology held belief systems can affect school performance and expectations with entering the higher education system. Ten areas of the TCI Test Irrational ideas are revised and abbreviated version Need for acceptance test, the presence of self expectations, guilt, frustration intolerance, levels of worry and anxiety, emotional irresponsibility, problem avoidance, dependence are evaluated , helplessness and perfectionism. This is a first test survey on belief system based on other higher studies in similar populations and the results show similar levels of belief systems among students majoring in question and then a comparative study with a population of the School of Psychology that is graduating. Statistical analysis of the data would show the areas where from the Student Welfare Department should work to change certain ways of thinking that do not allow the normal development of academic activities. An analysis of the percentages for items of irrationality in the areas further ago. In order to meet our student population and to anticipate better performance in their step and their permanence in the institution of higher education. Were evaluated without regard to the whole population has been called because that way you can check more accurately the data in question. Is proposed on the basis of these data to initiate a program of psychological intervention to strengthen comprehensively changes belief systems and values that will promote technological change in line with the social area and rescue principles and ways of thinking from the region and to be based on good living. The projection having on

  7. Estudio sobre las Competencias Demandadas por las Empresas, para la Inserción Laboral de los Profesionales en la Provincia de Santa Elena año 2013.

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    Jairo Cedeño

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación tiene como objetivo determinar las competencias demandadas por las empresas tanto públicas y privadas de la provincia y analiza la inserción laboral de los profesionales. Hoy en día las empresas crecen, se expanden y esa es la oportunidad para que las universidades oferten estudiantes con habilidades, destrezas y conocimientos de acuerdo a lo que las empresas demandan. Por ello la importancia de este estudio el cual determinó las competencias que demandan las empresas para poder insertar a nuestros profesionales en las diversas áreas laborales, para que se puedan explotar esas capacidades adquiridas en la universidad. Se realizó un estudio cuantitativo el cual determinó que en las empresas de la provincia de Santa Elena se encuentran laborando jóvenes entre las edades de 25 a 35 años. En su proceso de reclutamiento de personal están considerando como primera instancia, experiencia laboral, seguido formación profesional, título académico, cursos de actualización entre otros. Entre las principales actividades que realizan los profesionales corresponde a las áreas contables, gestión del talento humano, evaluación y formulación de proyectos, presupuesto y compras públicas. Se determinó además entre las principales destrezas que deben de tenerlos profesionales al momento de incorporar en el ámbito laboral es; trabajo en equipo, liderazgo, ética profesional y conocimiento en el idioma Ingles. La provincia se destaca por su turismo, relaciones humanas, y conocimientos administrativos.

  8. Evaluación estructural y rehabilitación sísmica del Hotel Samarina de propiedad de la Universidad Península de Santa Elena, para la creación de un modelo disipador de energía.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Saltos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El Hotel Samarina está ubicado frente al mar, en la cota +12 m s.n.m., en el cantón La Libertad, Provincia de Santa Elena. Fue construido al final de la década de los 50. El hotel Samarina terminado en un 70%, se compone de planta baja y tres pisos altos y estructuras de hormigón armado. La superficie total del mencionado hotel es de 2638 m2. Actualmente, se conoce que en el Ecuador y principalmente en la Provincia de Santa Elena, presenta una alta sismicidad por estar ubicada cercana a la zona de subducción de la placa de nazca y la placa sudamericana. A través de una evaluación y diagnóstico estructural, conforme a las normas ecuatorianas NEC 2011 o códigos uniformes de edificación UBC 97 la actual edificación no cumple el diseño sismoresistente, y de acuerdo al conocimiento actual se elaboró un diseño moderno donde se mejoró su nivel de desempeño o comportamiento sismo resistente ante la acción de un sismo moderado, y con la aplicación de un software libre denominado ETAB's se implementó un modelo con sistema de reforzamiento, compuesto de disipadores de energía colocados en las caras laterales y reforzamiento de columnas en los cuatro niveles que componen el edificio.   ABSTRACT The Samarina Hotel is located close to the sea, at 12 m s.n.m., at La Libertad, Province of Santa Elena. It was constructed at the end of the decade of the 50. The hotel has a ground floor and three high floors and it has reinforced concrete structures with surface of 26382. In the Ecuador and principally at Province of Santa Elena, has a high seismicity conditions because of it are located near to the zone of subduction of the Nazca South plates. An evaluation and structural diagnosis was performed, according to NEC 2011 proceeding, and also with the uniform codes of building UBC97. It is important to indicate that the actual building does not fulfill the design seismic resistant requirements. To improve the level resistant earthquake was

  9. The ELENA facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartmann, Wolfgang; Belochitskii, Pavel; Breuker, Horst; Butin, Francois; Carli, Christian; Eriksson, Tommy; Oelert, Walter; Ostojic, Ranko; Pasinelli, Sergio; Tranquille, Gerard

    2018-03-01

    The CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD) provides antiproton beams with a kinetic energy of 5.3 MeV to an active user community. The experiments would profit from a lower beam energy, but this extraction energy is the lowest one possible under good conditions with the given circumference of the AD. The Extra Low Energy Antiproton ring (ELENA) is a small synchrotron with a circumference a factor of 6 smaller than the AD to further decelerate antiprotons from the AD from 5.3 MeV to 100 keV. Controlled deceleration in a synchrotron equipped with an electron cooler to reduce emittances in all three planes will allow the existing AD experiments to increase substantially their antiproton capture efficiencies and render new experiments possible. ELENA ring commissioning is taking place at present and first beams to a new experiment installed in a new experimental area are foreseen in 2017. The transfer lines from ELENA to existing experiments in the old experimental area will be installed during CERN Long Shutdown 2 (LS2) in 2019 and 2020. The status of the project and ring commissioning will be reported. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue `Antiproton physics in the ELENA era'.

  10. Mejoramiento de las capacidades lingüísticas en el idioma inglés a través de la modalidad Blended Learning para el personal docente de la universidad estatal península de santa elena en el período académico 2015 - 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Almeida

    2015-10-01

    This article is the result of teamwork by the Research Team of The English Teaching Career at Peninsula of Santa Elena State University  “U P S E ”.  The basis of this publication is the previous research done by the English career in the years 2012 - 2013.  From this work important data has been selected exclusively from the part in which educators manifested their interest in improving their English competence with the Blended Learning System which offers flexible schedules and classes. There is also an approved project to be executed in the year 2015-2016.  Using these two previous papers as reference this article has been written.

  11. Natural dam failure in the eastern slope of the Central Andes of Argentina. Numerical modelling of the 2005 Santa Cruz river outburst flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, I.; Daicz, S.; Zlotnik, S.; Derron, M.-H.; Jaboyedoff, M.

    2012-04-01

    In the Central Andes of Argentina, ephemeral river blockage due to landslides deposition are common phenomena. During the first fortnight of January 2005, 11.5 * 106m3 of rock collapsed from the east slope of the Santa Cruz valley (San Juan province, Argentina). The rock mass displaced from 4300 m a.s.l., down to the valley bottom, at 2900 m a.s.l., and ran up the opposite flank of the valley. This produced the blockage of the Santa Cruz river and generated the Los Erizos lake. The rapid snow melting during the spring season caused the increase of the water level of the reservoir, leading to a process of overtopping on November 12th of 2005. 30 * 106m3 of water were released from the reservoir and the consequent outburst flood displaced along 250 km. From local reports of arrival times, we estimated that the outburst flood reduced its velocity from around 40 km/h near the source area to 6 km/h in its distal section. A road, bridges, and a mining post where destroyed. 75 tourists had to be rescued from the mountains using helicopters, and people from two localities had to be evacuated. Near its distal part, the flood damaged the facilities of the Caracoles power dam, which was under construction, and its inauguration had to be delayed one year due to the damage. The outburst flood produced changes in the morphology of the valley floor along almost all its path (erosion of alluvial fans, talus and terraces, and deposition of boulders). The most significant changes occurred in the first 70 km, especially upstream narrow sections, showing the importance of the backwater effects due to hydraulic ponding. In this work we carried out numerical simulations to obtain the velocity patterns of the flood, and compared them with those obtained from local reports. Furthermore, we analyze the relationship between the dynamics of the flood with the patterns of erosion and deposition near the source area.

  12. ELENA Project - Experiment soon complete

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2016-01-01

    ELENA is a compact ring for cooling and further deceleration of 5.3 MeV antiprotons delivered by the CERN Antiproton Decelerator. The AD physics program is focused on trapping antiprotons in Penning traps where antihydrogen is formed after recombination with positrons. The ultimate physics goal is to perform spectroscopy on antihydrogen atoms at rest and to investigate the effect of the gravitational force on matter and antimatter.

  13. La profesionalización de los Docentes en los procesos de Acreditación de la Universidad Estatal Península Santa Elena. Propuesta Centro de Capacitación Docente- Metodológico de la UPSE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Candell

    2015-10-01

    The current transformations taking place in education in general and particularly in higher education, as part of the educational policies of our country, and the results achieved by UPSE in the inspections made by the former CONEA and CONESUP in 2009, which placed UPSE under category “E”, with 33 indicators in the academic area assessed as unsatisfactory, demand the need to refine the improvement plan for the professional performance of teachers.  This research responds to one of the main priorities in relation to the continuous training of teachers with a view to the appropriate development of the professionalization process of the teachers in order to meet the institution’s evaluation and accreditation.   The methodology used in this project is that of a feasible project based on a qualitative-quantitative research, results obtained in the field research show the necessity of perfecting the process of professional improvement of the faculty.  In this sense the author proposes the creation of the Methodological Training Center of UPSE.  A diagnosis of the educational reality is carried out from a system of dimensions and indicators and the main strengths and limitations are analyzed in order to solve the problem.  The main characteristics and requirements are proposed and founded for the implementation of the Methodological Training Center of UPSE for the continuous training of teachers through the integration of improvement, methodological work and scientific activity.  Its components and actions are explained for the development of professional competencies of the teachers at PENINSULA DE SANTA ELENA State University.   Verification on a theoretical level has made it possible to recognize its viability, with a view to improving the teaching staff, considering the demands of Higher Education in Ecuador

  14. The ELENA project at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Oelert, W

    2015-01-01

    CERN has a longstanding tradition of pursuing fundamental physics on extreme low and high energy scales. The present physics knowledge is successfully described by the Standard Model and the General Relativity. In the anti-matter regime many predictions of this established theory still remain experimentally unverified and one of the most fundamental open problems in physics concerns the question of asymmetry between particles: why is the observable and visible universe apparently composed almost entirely of matter and not of anti-matter? There is a huge interest in the very compelling scientiic case for anti-hydrogen and low energy anti-proton physics, here to name especially the Workshop on New Opportunities in the Physics Landscape at CERN which was convened in May 2009 by the CERN Directorate and culminated in the decision for the final approval of the construction of the Extra Low ENergy Antiproton (ELENA) ring by the Research Board in June 2011. ELENA is a CERN project aiming to construct a small 30 m ci...

  15. The ELENA Beam Diagnostics Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tranquille, G

    2013-01-01

    The Extra Low ENergy Antiproton ring (ELENA) to be built at CERN is aimed at substantially increasing the number of antiprotons to the low energy antiproton physics community. It will be a small machine which will decelerate low intensity beams (<4x107) from 5.3 MeV to 100 keV and will be equipped with an electron cooler to avoid beam losses during the deceleration and to significantly reduce beam phase space at extraction. To measure the beam parameters from the extraction point of the Antiproton Decelerator (AD), through the ELENA ring and all the way to the experiments, many systems will be needed to ensure that the desired beam characteristics are obtained. Particular attention needs to be paid to the performance of the electron cooler which depends on reliable instrumentation in order to efficiently cool the antiprotons. This contribution will present the different monitors that have been proposed to measure the various beam parameters as well as some of the developments going on to further improve th...

  16. Holocene soft-sediment deformation of the Santa Fe-Sopetrán Basin, northern Colombian Andes: Evidence for pre-Hispanic seismic activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, F.; Martínez, J. I.; Vélez, M. I.

    2011-04-01

    The detailed study of four deformed intervals from the Holocene fluvio-lacustrine deposits of the Santa Fe-Sopetrán Basin in northern Colombia shows 17 types of soft-sediment deformation (SSD) structures. Evidence indicates that seismic activity was responsible for the SSD structures, a conclusion reached after considering the environmental conditions at the time of sediment deposition and shortly after, and the detailed analysis of the driving force systems. Other triggers (i.e. overloading and rapid sedimentation), however, are not discarded. Intervals showing SSD structures occurred at centennial frequencies and apparently resulted from Mw 6-7 earthquakes. The Holocene age of these major shaking events should be seriously considered when evaluating the seismic hazard and risk for the middle Cauca Valley and the nearby city of Medellín with 3 million inhabitants.

  17. Significant Silence in Elena Garro's "Los Perros"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Elena Garro's one-act play "Los perros" (1958) confronts the difficult issue of sexual violence in rural Mexico, a problem that persists today. The characters struggle with the social reality of rape, alluding to the threat of sexual violence while avoiding addressing it directly. While words are granted an almost magical power in…

  18. Design Study: ELENA Bending Magnet Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Schoerling, D

    2013-01-01

    The ELENA bending magnet prototype shall prove that the proposed design meets the requirements set by the ELENA beam dynamics. The following points will be discussed in detail: (i) production process of a magnetic yoke diluted with stainless steel plates, (ii) the stability and repeatability of the field homogeneity of such a yoke over the full working range, (iii) choice of soft magnetic steel, (iv) hysteresis effects, (v) mechanical deformations, (vi) thermal insulation to intercept heat load from baking for activation of NEG coating in the vacuum chamber, (vii) end shim design. In order to verify these points the following measurements will be performed: (i) Hall probe scanning, (ii) integrated field homogeneity measurement (DC), (iii) integrated field homogeneity measurement (AC).

  19. ELENA gets a roof over its head

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    Today, Friday 11 April, CERN inaugurated the ELENA building (393) after less than a year's construction work.   Tacked on to the side of the Antiproton Decelerator (AD), this building will soon house a cleaning room, workshops and generators for the kickers in order to free space in the AD hall, where the future Extra Low ENergy Antiproton ring, ELENA, will be installed. “Today we’re celebrating the completion of a project which, I’m happy to say, has gone very well,” exclaims François Butin, technical coordinator of the ELENA project (EN-MEF Group). “The deadlines and budgets have been perfectly respected and the building fully complies with our specifications. A great vote of thanks to GS-SE and the outside contractors who have enabled us to complete this project.” Some 10,000 tonnes of earth had to be moved by around 500 trucks. The presence of the TT2 transfer tunnel directly beneath the building posed a number...

  20. Helena Paz-Elena Garro: La Memoria Compartida Helena Paz-Elena Garro: La Memoria Compartida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Alba Villalobos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available En el texto se analizan las Memorias de Helena Paz, a la luz de los textos autobiográficos y biográficos acerca de la vida de Elena Garro. El planteamiento estriba en que hay muchos elementos que permiten afirmar que una parte sustancial de las memorias (inéditas de Elena Garro se encuentran insertas en las Memorias de su hija, Helena Paz. Se muestran aquí los argumentos para tal aseveración y los fragmentos que corresponderían a las vivencias de la madre, más que de la hija This text analyzes Helena Paz’s Memoirs, in the light of the autobiographical and biographical texts about Elena Garro’s life. The thesis of the text is that there are many elements supporting the statement that a substantial part of Elena Garro’s unedited memoirs are found inserted in her daughter’s (Helena Paz’s Memoirs. Arguments for such an assertion are presented, together with the excerpts which would correspond more to the experiences of the mother than to those of the daughter.

  1. Revelaciones: los textos fotográficos de Elena Poniatowska

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho de Schmidt, Aurora

    2008-01-01

    Indagación en la simbiosis entre palabra y fotografía en la obra de Elena Poniatowska, como integración de la imagen en la literatura testimonial. A look at the symbiosis of the word and photography in the works of Elena Poniatowska as the integration of the image in testimonial literature.

  2. The AD and ELENA orbit, trajectory and intensity measurement systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Hernández, R.; Alves, D.; Angoletta, M. E.; Marqversen, O.; Molendijk, J.; Oponowicz, E.; Ruffieux, R.; Sánchez-Quesada, J.; SØby, L.

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes the new Antiproton Decelerator (AD) orbit measurement system and the Extra Low ENergy Antiproton ring (ELENA) orbit, trajectory and intensity measurement system. The AD machine at European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) is presently being used to decelerate antiprotons from 3.57 GeV/c to 100 MeV/c for matter vs anti-matter comparative studies. The ELENA machine, presently under commissioning, has been designed to provide an extra deceleration stage down to 13.7 MeV/c. The AD orbit system is based on 32 horizontal and 27 vertical electrostatic Beam Position Monitor (BPM) fitted with existing low noise front-end amplifiers while the ELENA system consists of 24 \\gls{BPM}s equipped with new low-noise head amplifiers. In both systems the front-end amplifiers generate a difference (delta) and a sum (sigma) signal which are sent to the digital acquisition system, placed tens of meters away from the AD or ELENA rings, where they are digitized and further processed. The beam position is calculated by dividing the difference signal by the sum signal either using directly the raw digitized data for measuring the turn-by-turn trajectory in the ELENA system or after down-mixing the signals to baseband for the orbit measurement in both machines. The digitized sigma signal will be used in the ELENA system to calculate the bunched beam intensity and the Schottky parameters with coasting beam after passing through different signal processing chain. The digital acquisition arrangement for both systems is based on the same hardware, also used in the ELENA Low Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) system, which follows the VME Switched Serial (VXS) enhancement of the Versa Module Eurocard 64x extension (VME64x) standard and includes VITA 57 standard Field Programmable Gate Array Mezzanine Card (FMC). The digital acquisition Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and Digital Signal Processor (DSP) firmware shares many common functionalities with the LLRF system but

  3. ELENA prepares a bright future for antimatter research

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    At its recent session in June, the CERN Council approved the construction of the Extra Low ENergy Antiproton ring (ELENA) – an upgrade of the existing Antiproton Decelerator. ELENA will allow the further deceleration of antiprotons, resulting in an increased number of particles trapped downstream in the experimental set-ups. This will give an important boost to antimatter research in the years to come.   Layout of the AD experimental hall: the Antiproton Decelerator ring (purple); the ALPHA, ASACUSA, and ATRAP experiments (green); the ACE experiment (not pictured); and the new ELENA ring (blue). The Antiproton Decelerator (AD) is CERN’s widely recognized facility for the study of antimatter properties. The recent successes of the AD experiments are just the latest in a long list of important scientific results that started with LEAR (Low Energy Antiproton Ring). The scientific demand for low-energy antiprotons at the AD continues to grow. There are now four experiments runnin...

  4. Concept for ELENA Extraction and Beam Transfer Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Borburgh, J; Balhan, B; Barna, D; Bartmann, W; Fowler, T; Pricop, V; Sermeus, L; Vanbavinckhove, G

    2013-01-01

    In 2011 the ELENA decelerator was approved as a CERN project. Initially one extraction was foreseen, which should use a kicker and a magnetic septum which can be recuperated from an earlier installation. Since then a second extraction has been approved and a new solution was studied using only electric fields to extract the beam. This will be achieved by fast pulsing a separator, allowing single-bunch but also a full single-turn extraction from ELENA towards the experiments. The extraction and transfer requirements of ELENA are described, followed by the principal differences between the magnetic and electric field concepts. The design of electrostatic focussing and bending devices for the transfer lines will be presented. Finally the field quality which can be achieved with the separator and the concept of its power supply will be discussed.

  5. CERN Antiproton Decelerator Beam Instrumentation for the ELENA era

    CERN Document Server

    Ludwig, M; Gasior, M; Søby, L; Tranquille, G; Fernandes, M

    2014-01-01

    CERN is currently constructing an Extra Low ENergy Antiproton ring (ELENA), which will allow the further deceleration of antiprotons from the currently exploited Antiproton Decelerator (AD). In order to meet the challenges of ELENA the beam instrumentation systems of the CERN AD are being consolidated and upgraded. An updated controls architecture with a more flexible timing system needs to be adopted and obsolete systems must be replaced. This paper presents the status and plans for improved performance and measurement availability of the AD beam instrumentation with a decreased risk of failure.

  6. Geometry and Optics of the Electrostatic ELENA Transfer Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Vanbavinckhove, G; Barna, D; Bartmann, W; Butin, F; Choisnet, O; Yamada, H

    2013-01-01

    The future ELENA ring at CERN will decelerate the AD anti-proton beam further from 5.3 MeV to 100 keV kinetic energy, to increase the efficiency of anti-proton trapping. At present there are four experiments in the AD hall which will be complemented with the installation of ELENA by additional three experiments and an additional source for commissioning. This paper describes the optimization of the transfer line geometry, ring rotation and source position. The optics of the transfer lines and error studies to define field and alignment tolerances are shown, and the optics particularities of electrostatic elements and their optimization highlighted.

  7. Personajes y escenarios en las performances de Elena Tejada

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza, Mihaela Radulescu de Barrio de

    2017-01-01

    The paper focuses on the enunciative aspects of the art performances of the Peruvian artist Elena Tejada to deepen the effects of meaning generated by the theatrical performance. The construction of characters and scenarios provides the necessary contents for the rituals of integration of the public in the symbolic experience that the performances generate info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion

  8. Pilots with mobile game ‘ELENA goes shopping’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Ternier, Stefaan

    2014-01-01

    Within the ELENA mobile game pilots we explored the functionality that a mobile phone offers to familiarize children (6-8 years) with a neighbouring, unfamiliar language (German) in a ‘real world context’, in an interactive, playful and independent way, outside the classroom. Another

  9. Andes: An intelligent homework helper

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, Brett; Vanlehn, Kurt; Treacy, Don; Shelby, Bob; Wintersgill, Mary

    2007-03-01

    Andes (www.andes.pitt.edu) is an intelligent tutor homework system designed for use as the homework portion of an introductory physics course. It encourages students to use good problem solving techniques and provides immediate feedback on each step of a problem solution along with hints on request. I will discuss how Andes works, from a student perspective, and present research demonstrating its effectiveness as a pedagogical tool. Then, I will discuss using Andes as a tool for conducting education research, briefly reviewing several studies conducted using Andes. Finally, I will show how logs of student solutions to Andes problems can be used to develop cognitive models of student learning.

  10. ELENA from the first ideas to the project

    CERN Document Server

    Tranquille, G; Eriksson, T; Maury, S; Oelert, W

    2013-01-01

    Successful commissioning of the CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD) in 2000 was followed by significant progress in the creation of anti-hydrogen atoms. The extraction energy of the decelerated antiprotons is nevertheless very high compared to that required by the experiments and results in a trapping efficiency of only 0.1% to 3%. To improve this value by an order of magnitude the study of an Extra Low ENergy Antiproton ring (ELENA) started in 2003 and was approved as a CERN construction project in 2011. During these years the choice of the main machine parameters such as the beam extraction energy, emittance and bunch length were defined, taking into account requests from the physics community. The main challenges were also identified, such as dealing with the large space charge tune, the ultra- high vacuum required and the tight requirements for the electron cooler. Housing the ELENA ring within the AD hall ...

  11. Sfera Politicii's Archive - Elena Ceausescu in the records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Tănase

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available I don’t know why the idea that Elena Ceauşescu was the key element of her husband’s regime slowly stared to take shape. It is said that by growing older he started to lose his capacity of taking decisions, so he was more and more dependent on her. The idea is credited by a serious number of historians. However, this is a false perspective.

  12. ELENA: From the first ideas to the project

    CERN Document Server

    Tranquille, G; Eriksson, T; Maury, S; Oelert, W

    2012-01-01

    Successful commissioning of the CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD) in 2000 was followed by significant progress in the creation of anti-hydrogen atoms. The extraction energy of the decelerated antiprotons is nevertheless very high compared to that required by the experiments and results in a trapping efficiency of only 0.1% to 3%. To improve this value by an order of magnitude the study of an Extra Low ENergy Antiproton ring (ELENA) started in 2003 and was approved as a CERN construction project in 2011. During these years the choice of the main machine parameters such as the beam extraction energy, emittance and bunch length were defined, taking into account requests from the physics community. The main challenges were also identified, such as dealing with the large space charge tune, the ultra-high vacuum required and the tight requirements for the electron cooler. Housing the ELENA ring within the AD hall significantly reduced the project cost as well as simplifying the beam transfer from AD to ELENA and fro...

  13. Unlocking investment in cities: ELENA-EIB technical assistance facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicmanova, Jana; Garabetian, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Energy Cities prepared a review of projects undertaken in the cities of Paris, Malmoe (in association with Lund and Helsingborg), Barcelona, Bristol and Brussels-Capital that received support from the ELENA-EIB facility. The aim of this study is to identify the ways in which technical assistance programs such as ELENA-EIB can help unlock investment in cities. The projects we reviewed (developed by Energy Cities' members) cover a wide array of sectors, from public building refurbishment to public transport or renewable energy production. These five projects illustrate how cities can focus on developing capacity in a long-term perspective, looking at the expected benefits of an investment or a support mechanism beyond that of the project itself. Overall, we found that project development assistance mechanisms such as ELENA can be beneficial to trigger investment for climate action in cities. Cities maximise the benefits of such a program by looking at how their climate-protection actions can generate benefits for the citizens, or how to systematically integrate climate action in other investment projects. Project development assistance (PDA) affects cities by allowing them to develop a new vision of the way they prepare an investment program. The search of synergies and the override of silo mentalities were a core element in the projects we reviewed. Indeed, the support provided by the European Union through ELENA-EIB is used by the local authorities to develop a transversal approach to climate action. The grant provided for PDA and the requirements of the ELENA-EIB facility represent an opportunity for local authorities to set up a new strategy regarding energy efficiency and renewable energy actions. It can be the necessary push for cities and local authorities to change the way they plan their investments, and develop projects to achieve their climate objectives. Besides, the grant is used for building long-term capacity in the development of investment

  14. El lenguaje figurativo de antes y de ahora en la provincia de Santa Elena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Tomalá

    2014-12-01

    appropriate, by the computer, since all written work usually is printed . And if it comes to writing standards, the computer does its job, he helps the person who writes placing automatically the respective punctuation, intonation and possibly to the auxiliary, on the other hand, corrects him without asking, the structure of each word.

  15. A new tropical Oligocene dolphin from Montañita/Olón, Santa Elena, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Abella, Juan; Aguirre-Fernández, Gabriel; Gregori, Maria; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2017-01-01

    A new small probable Oligocene dolphin from Ecuador represents a new genus and species, Urkudelphis chawpipacha. The new taxon is known from a single juvenile skull and earbones; it differs from other archaic dolphins in features including widely exposed frontals at the vertex, a dorsally wide open vomer at the mesorostral groove, and a strongly projected and pointed lateral tuberosity of the periotic. Phylogenetic analysis places it toward the base of the largely-extinct clade Platanistoidea. The fossil is one of a few records of tropical fossil dolphins.

  16. A new tropical Oligocene dolphin from Montañita/Olón, Santa Elena, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Juan; Aguirre-Fernández, Gabriel; Gregori, Maria; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2017-01-01

    A new small probable Oligocene dolphin from Ecuador represents a new genus and species, Urkudelphis chawpipacha. The new taxon is known from a single juvenile skull and earbones; it differs from other archaic dolphins in features including widely exposed frontals at the vertex, a dorsally wide open vomer at the mesorostral groove, and a strongly projected and pointed lateral tuberosity of the periotic. Phylogenetic analysis places it toward the base of the largely-extinct clade Platanistoidea. The fossil is one of a few records of tropical fossil dolphins. PMID:29261688

  17. La herencia cultural en Santa Elena: etnicidad y memoria oral en La Libertad (Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Anda

    2015-10-01

    This paper illustrates in a general and schematic way the cultural manifestations related to ethnicity and oral memory of the people in La Libertad in 2014. It does no intend to show a complete and detailed analysis of these aspects, however it seeks to highlight important cultural dynamics of the region. The research focused on ethnical construction and in the registration of cultural data of intangible heritage, understanding it as the practices, representations, expressions, knowledge and techniques that are transmitted from generation to generation among groups and individuals. The overall objective is to present some records of oral memory that conform part of the local intangible heritage, prioritizing a wide range of views on memory and social praxis of minorities, which often are left voiceless in the official history and without evidence in theoretical writing. To do this, an ethnographic study was necessary. The local testimonies provided key information for the reconstruction of their social, cultural, economic and ecological history. This research rescues cultural dynamics that are relevant in the construction of their social identity. Therefore, the registration of intangible heritage in La Libertad is not only the key for cultural safeguard, it also is a tool to build the basis for diagnostic, research and planning safeguard lines, providing transmission, recovery and dissemination of cultural knowledge in the context of constructing a plurinational and intercultural State.

  18. ANÁLISIS INTERNO DEL SECTOR TURÍSTICO DE DOS MANGAS, PROVINCIA DE SANTA ELENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhony Yumisaca Tuquinga

    2017-01-01

    analyzes  the  empirical  raid  Dos  Mangas  in  this  activity  and  functionality  of  its  components  supply, demand,  competition  and  trends  that  revolve  around  these.  The  study  revolved  around  the  empirical method and systemic methodology that considers the tourism sector as a multiplier subsystem in the rest of the  part  economic  system,  for  which  on  the  one  hand  demand  is  analyzed  in  its  components  number  of tourists,  daily  expenditure  and  the  average  stay  and,  moreover  considering  the  offer  to  its  structure, management and its variable employment generated in the local tourism productive; resulted in a diagnosis of  tourism  system  of  the  commune  Dos  Mangas,  from  which  it  may  propose  strategies  for  tourism development in this destination offers.

  19. EVALUACIÓN PSICOSOCIAL DEL ADULTO MAYOR EN LA PROVINCIA DE SANTA ELENA. 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Jenny Sornoza

    2016-01-01

    Los adultos mayores constituyen un grupo poblacional significativo, que por tiempos ha estado desatendido, a pesar de que en el año 1990 se dicta la Ley del Anciano aún las personas mencionadas no gozan de todos los beneficios que contiene dicha ley ya que hasta la actualidad dicha ley no se aplica en su totalidad por falta de socialización, desconocimiento de sus beneficios e implementación de los espacios adecuados entre otras limitantes. El objetivo de la investigación fue el de Realizar u...

  20. Elena: A case of dissociative identity disorder from the 1920s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmenti, Adriano

    2017-01-01

    In 1930, Italian psychiatrist Giovanni Enrico Morselli described the history, diagnosis, and treatment of his patient Elena. The case of Elena has been considered in literature as one of the most remarkable cases of multiple personality ever published. In fact, before treatment, Elena showed alternating French- and Italian-speaking personalities, with the Italian personality knowing nothing of her French counterparts. After a difficult treatment involving recovered memories of incestuous attacks by her father, which were proven to be true, Elena fully recovered from her symptoms. In this article, the author presents details of the case that were not available in the international literature before. He also discusses Elena's psychological and somatoform symptoms according to a contemporary perspective on the relationally traumatic origins of dissociation and dissociative identity disorder.

  1. ELENA – An Updated Cost and Feasibility Study

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, M-E; Borburgh, J; Breuker, H; Buzio, M; Capatina, O; Chiggiato, P; Ducimetière, L; Eriksson, T; Fowler, T; Hori, M; Lacroix, J-M; LeGodec, G; Lelong, P; Maury, S; Möhl, D; Newborough, A; Nisbet, D; Oelert, W; Pasinelli, S; Puccio, B; Sermeus, L; Soby, L; Tommasini, D; Tranquille, G; Vorozhtsov, A

    2010-01-01

    To produce dense antiproton beams at very low energies (100 keV), it has been proposed to install a small decelerator ring between the existing AD ring and the experimental area. Phase-space blowup during deceleration is compensated by electron cooling such that the final emittances are comparable to the 5MeV beam presently delivered by the AD. An immediate consequence is a significant increase in the number of trapped antiprotons at the experiments as outlined in the proposal CERN/SPSC-2009-026; SPSC-P-338. This report describes the machine parameters and layout of the proposed ELENA (Extra Low ENergy Antiproton) ring and also gives an approximate estimate of cost and manpower needs. Since the initial estimate, published in 2007 (CERN-AB-2007-079), the ELENA design has evolved considerably. This is due to a new location in the AD hall to accommodate for the possibility of another experimental zone, as suggested by the SPSC, and also due to improvements in the ring optics and layout. The cost estimate that is...

  2. Elena Guardincerri: Tracking muons to reduce nuclear threats and help preserve architectural treasures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Mauro, Diana [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Guardincerri, Elena [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-29

    When Elena Guardincerri was a physics PhD student at the University of Genova, she considered muons a nuisance. She built muon detectors to snare these secondary cosmic rays, which were interfering with her experiments to study elusive neutrinos.

  3. Elena Natale ja Mikko Fritze: kultuuripealinna tiimi motivatsioon on töö ise / Elena Natale, Mikko Fritze ; intervjueerinud Tiina Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Natale, Elena

    2009-01-01

    SA Tallinn 2011 tegevjuht Mikko Fritze ja administratiivjuht Elena Natale vastavad küsimustele, mis puudutavad Eesti töökultuuri, , toimiva koostöö saavutamist meeskonnas, kasutatavaid motivatsiooni- ja juhtimissüsteeme, personalivalikut, majanduskriisi mõju SA Tallinn 2011 tegevusele

  4. Extra Low Energy Antiproton ring ELENA : from the conception to the implementation phase

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W; Breuker, H; Butin, F; Carli, C; Eriksson, T; Maury, S; Pasinelli, S; Tranquille, G; Oelert, W

    2014-01-01

    The Extra Low Energy Antiproton ring (ELENA) is a CERN project aiming at constructing a small 30 m circumference synchrotron to further decelerate antiprotons from the Antiproton Decelerator AD from 5.3 MeV to 100 keV. Controlled deceleration in a synchrotron equipped with an electron cooler to reduce emittances in all three planes will allow the existing AD experiments to increase substantially their antiproton capture efficiencies and render new experiments possible. The ELENA design is now well advanced and the project is moving to the implementation phase. Component design and construction are taking place at present for installation foreseen during the second half of 2015 and beginning of 2016 followed by ring commissioning until the end of 2016. New electrostatic transfer lines to the experiments will be installed and commissioned during the first half of 2017 followed by the first physics operation with ELENA. Basic limitations like Intra Beam Scattering limiting the emittances obtained under electron ...

  5. Charles Darwin in the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzo, Nelio; Bizzo, Luis Eduardo Maestrelli

    2006-01-01

    Considering geological time as an important epistemological obstacle to the construction of ideas on biological evolution, a study was carried out on the so-called "Darwin Papers". The conclusion was that Charles Darwin's excursion in the Andes during March-April 1835 was a crucial step in this regard. An expedition was carried out in…

  6. Field Simulations and Mechanical Implementation of Electrostatic Elements for the ELENA Transfer Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Barna, D; Borburgh, J; Carli, C; Vanbavinckhove, G

    2014-01-01

    The Antiproton Decelerator (AD) complex at CERN will be extended by an extra low energy anti-proton ring (ELENA) [1] further decelerating the anti-protons thus improving their trapping. The kinetic energy of 100 keV at ELENA extraction facilitates the use of electrostatic transfer lines to the experiments. The mechanical implementation of the electrostatic devices are presented with focus on their alignment, bakeout compatibility, ultra-high vacuum compatibility and polarity switching. Field optimisations for an electrostatic crossing device of three beam lines are shown.

  7. Santa and the Moon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barthel, P.

    This article reflects on the use of illustrations of the Moon in images of Santa Claus, on Christmas gift-wrapping paper and in children's books, in two countries which have been important in shaping the image of Santa Claus and his predecessor Sinterklaas: the USA and the Netherlands. The

  8. INCIDENCIA ECONÓMICA, CULTURAL Y TURÍSTICA, EN LAS NECESIDADES INSATISFECHAS DE LA COMUNA SAN PABLO CANTÓN SANTA ELENA, PROVINCIA SANTA ELENA AÑO 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Isabel Bricio Samaniego

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen La presente investigación tiene como objetivo principal analizar los aspectos: culturales, económicos, y turísticos de la comuna San Pablo, que permita identificar las necesidades insatisfechas en la Comuna, en la actualidad está compuesta por la zona económica que se encuentra conformada por negocios comerciales de diferentes productos o servicios, la zona empresarial conformada por numerosos laboratorios de crianza de larvas de camarón, empresas industriales pesqueras, nuevos negocios o microempresas familiares de diversas actividades económicas o productivas. Para la elaboración de este trabajo se utilizó la metodología basada en investigación cuantitativa y cualitativa. Se describió las características generales de la problemática existente, permitiendo elaborar una diagnostico situacional de tipo integral, identificando los programas, proyectos y acciones que van a ser evaluados mediante indicadores de gestión de eficiencia, y eficacia, con la implementación de estrategias como son los convenios con las instituciones del estado, capacitación a los directivos para realizar una eficiente administración comunal, buen trabajo en equipo, ejecución de programas y proyectos, participación oportuna de los habitantes para el logro de un crecimiento permanente para la comuna, sus organizaciones y asociaciones ubicadas dentro de su territorio. Palabras clave: Aspectos económicos, sociales, culturales, Comunas, desarrollo turístico Abstract he present investigation has as main objective to analyze the aspects: cultural, economic, and tourist of the commune San Pablo that allows to identify the unsatisfied necessities in the Commune, at the present time is composed by the economic area that is confirmed by commercial business of different products or services, the managerial area conformed by numerous laboratories of upbringing of shrimp larva’s, companies industrial fishing and new business or family microempresas of diverse economic or productive activities. For the elaboration of this work the methodology was used based on quantitative and qualitative investigation. It was described the general characteristics of the existent problem, allowing to elaborate one diagnoses situational of integral type, identifying the programs, projects and actions that will be evaluated by means of indicators of administration of efficiency, and effectiveness, with the implementation of strategies like they are the agreements with the institutions of the state, training the directive to carry out an efficient administration communal, good work in team, execution of programs and projects, the inhabitants' opportune participation for the achievement of a permanent growth for the commune, their organizations and associations located inside their territory. Words key: Economic, social, cultural aspects, Communes, tourist developmen

  9. Illicit crops and armed conflict as constraints on biodiversity conservation in the Andes region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjeldså, Jon; Alvarez, María D; Lazcano, Juan Mario; León, Blanca

    2005-05-01

    Coca, once grown for local consumption in the Andes, is now produced for external markets, often in areas with armed conflict. Internationally financed eradication campaigns force traffickers and growers to constantly relocate, making drug-related activities a principal cause of forest loss. The impact on biodiversity is known only in general terms, and this article presents the first regional analysis to identify areas of special concern, using bird data as proxy. The aim of conserving all species may be significantly constrained in the Santa Marta and Perijá mountains, Darién, some parts of the Central Andes in Colombia, and between the middle Marañón and middle Huallaga valleys in Peru. Solutions to the problem must address the root causes: international drug markets, long-lasting armed conflict, and lack of alternative income for the rural poor.

  10. Análisis Estructural de Fallas Geológicas y Potenciales Deslizamientos en Anconcito, Provincia de Santa Elena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kervin Chunga

    2015-10-01

    Los factores que pueden incrementar la tasa de velocidad de deslizamiento de masas de tierra pueden ser: (1 altasprecipitaciones durante el fenómeno del Niño, y (2 la recurrencia de terremotos locales con magnitud moderada Mw≈5 o el arribo de amplificaciones de ondas sísmicas desde terremotos lejanos con magnitudes mayores de Mw>7. En conclusión, el sector de Anconcito debe ser motivo de análisis en detalle que permita establecer técnicas adecuadas para la recuperación de zona de playa y construcción de espigones que permitirán disminuir la alta energía de las ondas marinas.

  11. Elena Poniatowska y la Generación de Medio Siglo: Lilus, Jesusa, Angelina, Tina ... y la errancia sin fin

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce Novoa, Juan

    2008-01-01

    Estudio que trata de circunscribir la figura de Elena en la relación con sus contemporáneos, con los que coincide en la actitud rebelde e iconoclasta. El sentido documental de la literatura aporta una nueva faceta a la escritura de México. This study is an attempt to define the character of Elena in relation to contemporary rebellious iconoclastic attitudes in other characters. The documentary like style adds a new feature to Mexican writing.

  12. Sotsiaalne kunst kui kodanikuõigus ja -kohustus / Rael Artel, Elena Šmakova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Artel, Rael, 1980-

    2010-01-01

    Vastukaja: Siram. Kunst, mis ei räägi inimestega (Eesti Ekspress, 2010, 8. apr., lk. 32). Kuraator Rael Artel Kumu Kunstimuuseumis eksponeeritud näitusest "Räägime rahvuslusest! Ideoloogia ja identiteedi vahel", kaasaegse kunsti mõistmisest. Elena Šmakova Rael Arteli kureeritud näitusest ja Tallinna Kunstihoones avatud Kristina Normani isikunäitusest "Me ei ole universumis üksi", kaasaegse kunsti kohta ilmunud kriitilistest artiklitest

  13. Longitudinal beam diagnostic from a distributed electrostatic pick-up in CERN's ELENA ring

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, M E; Federmann, S; Molendijk, J; Sanchez-Quesada, J; Secouet, P J; Søby, L; Pedersen, F; Timmins, M

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Extra Low ENergy Antiproton (ELENA) Ring is a new synchrotron that will be commissioned in 2016 to further decelerate the antiprotons coming from CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator (AD). Required longitudinal diagnostics include the intensity measurement for bunched and debunched beam and the measurement of Dp/p to assess the electron cooling performance. A novel method for the calculation of these parameters is proposed for ELENA, where signals from the twenty electrostatic Pick-Ups (PU) used for orbit measurements will be combined to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. This requires that the signals be digitally down-converted, rotated and summed so that the many electrostatic PUs will function as a single, distributed PU from the processing system viewpoint. This method includes some challenges and will not be used as the baseline longitudinal diagnostics for the initial ELENA operation. This paper gives an overview of the hardware and digital signal processing involved, as well as of the challenges t...

  14. Santa Fe Linac Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The 1981 Linear Accelerator Conference, organized by Los Alamos National Laboratory, was held from 19-23 October in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The surroundings were superb and helped to ensure a successful meeting. There were more than two hundred and twenty participants, with good representation from Japan and Western Europe

  15. Santa Fe Accelerator Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The 10th USA National Particle Accelerator Conference was hosted this year by the Los Alamos National Laboratory in Santa Fe from 21-23 March. It was a resounding success in emphasizing the ferment of activity in the accelerator field. About 900 people registered and about 500 papers were presented in invited and contributed talks and poster sessions

  16. Glacier loss and hydro-social risks in the Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Bryan G.; French, Adam; Baraer, Michel; Carey, Mark; Bury, Jeffrey; Young, Kenneth R.; Polk, Molly H.; Wigmore, Oliver; Lagos, Pablo; Crumley, Ryan; McKenzie, Jeffrey M.; Lautz, Laura

    2017-12-01

    Accelerating glacier recession in tropical highlands and in the Peruvian Andes specifically is a manifestation of global climate change that is influencing the hydrologic cycle and impacting water resources across a range of socio-environmental systems. Despite predictions regarding the negative effects of long-term glacier decline on water availability, many uncertainties remain regarding the timing and variability of hydrologic changes and their impacts. To improve context-specific understandings of the effects of climate change and glacial melt on water resources in the tropical Andes, this article synthesizes results from long-term transdisciplinary research with new findings from two glacierized Peruvian watersheds to develop and apply a multi-level conceptual framework focused on the coupled biophysical and social determinants of water access and hydro-social risks in these settings. The framework identifies several interacting variables-hydrologic transformation, land cover change, perceptions of water availability, water use and infrastructure in local and regional economies, and water rights and governance-to broadly assess how glacier change is embedded with social risks and vulnerability across diverse water uses and sectors. The primary focus is on the Santa River watershed draining the Cordillera Blanca to the Pacific. Additional analysis of hydrologic change and water access in the geographically distinct Shullcas River watershed draining the Huaytapallana massif towards the city of Huancayo further illuminates the heterogeneous character of hydrologic risk and vulnerability in the Andes.

  17. [Elena de Cespedes: The eventful life of a XVI century surgeon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo Esper, Raúl; Carrillo Córdova, Jorge Raúl; Carrillo Córdova, Luis Daniel; Carrillo Córdova, Dulce María; Carrillo Córdova, Carlos Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the history of surgery there have been exceptional cases of surgeons around the world. One of them is Elena/o of Cespedes. Born as a girl, this hermaphrodite dedicated all his life to acting as a man, doing jobs that were only for men such as a soldier, peasant, and surgeon. She was the first licensed surgeon in Spain and maybe in all Europe. She married a woman and then was tried for sodomy by the Spanish Inquisition commanded by inquisitor Lope de Mendoza. She was founded guilty and punished with 200 lashes and a 10-year service at a hospital, dressed as a woman.

  18. Angelina Beloff y Leonora Carrington bajo la mirada de Elena Poniatowska

    OpenAIRE

    Gras Cruz, Irene

    2015-01-01

    El presente estudio se centra en la mirada que otorga una de las grandes escritoras de nuestros tiempos, la mexicana Elena Poniatowska (París, 1932), a artistas como la pintora y grabadora rusa Angelina Petrovna Belova, llamada comúnmente Angelina Beloff (1879-1969), a quien le dedica su novela Querido Diego, te abraza Quiela (1978) o a la pintora surrealista y escritora inglesa Leonora Carrington (1917-2011) con su Leonora (2011). Mujeres que comparten un destino común, México, tierra de luz...

  19. ANDES: An Underground Laboratory in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Claudio O.

    ANDES (Agua Negra Deep Experiment Site) is an underground laboratory, proposed to be built inside the Agua Negra road tunnel that will connect Chile (IV Region) with Argentina (San Juan Province) under the Andes Mountains. The Laboratory will be 1750 meters under the rock, becoming the 3rd deepest underground laboratory of this kind in the world, and the first in the Southern Hemisphere. ANDES will be an international Laboratory, managed by a Latin American consortium. The laboratory will host experiments in Particle and Astroparticle Physics, such as Neutrino and Dark Matter searches, Seismology, Geology, Geophysics and Biology. It will also be used for the development of low background instrumentation and related services. Here we present the general features of the proposed laboratory, the current status of the proposal and some of its opportunities for science.

  20. 'ELENA goes mobile': a mobile assisted early foreign language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages

    OpenAIRE

    Rusman, Ellen; Ternier, Stefaan; Sassen, Derk

    2013-01-01

    Rusman, E., Ternier, S., & Sassen, D. (2013, 14-15 November). 'ELENA goes mobile': a mobile assisted early foreign language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages. Presentation (virtual) at the 6th ICT for Language learning Conference, Florence, Italy. (URL of virtual presentation, including audio, will follow).

  1. 'ELENA goes mobile': a mobile assisted early foreign language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Ternier, Stefaan; Sassen, Derk

    2013-01-01

    Rusman, E., Ternier, S., & Sassen, D. (2013, 14-15 November). 'ELENA goes mobile': a mobile assisted early foreign language learning pilot for familiarizing children with neighbouring languages. Presentation (virtual) at the 6th ICT for Language learning Conference, Florence, Italy. (URL of virtual

  2. ELENA MODENA, L'altrOrfeo. Considerazioni analitiche sulla vocalità, Roma, Aracne, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Guarnieri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Il volume propone un’indagine sulla vocalità ispirata al «metodo funzionale della voce» di Gisela Rohmert, didatta e fondatrice del Lichtenberger Institut für angewandte Stimmphysiologie, attivo in Germania dal 1982 . Da quell'esperienza – un metodo di pedagogia della voce fondato sullo studio della fisiologia vocale e del «fatto vocale» in quanto evento acustico e stimolo percettivo – Elena Modena ha derivato e illustra in questo libro una sua proposta di «analisi funzionale» della vocalità, storicamente considerata e rivolta, insieme, all’àmbito dell’emissione e a quello dell’ascolto.

  3. AEgIS at ELENA: outlook for physics with a pulsed cold antihydrogen beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doser, M.; Aghion, S.; Amsler, C.; Bonomi, G.; Brusa, R. S.; Caccia, M.; Caravita, R.; Castelli, F.; Cerchiari, G.; Comparat, D.; Consolati, G.; Demetrio, A.; Di Noto, L.; Evans, C.; Fanì, M.; Ferragut, R.; Fesel, J.; Fontana, A.; Gerber, S.; Giammarchi, M.; Gligorova, A.; Guatieri, F.; Haider, S.; Hinterberger, A.; Holmestad, H.; Kellerbauer, A.; Khalidova, O.; Krasnický, D.; Lagomarsino, V.; Lansonneur, P.; Lebrun, P.; Malbrunot, C.; Mariazzi, S.; Marton, J.; Matveev, V.; Mazzotta, Z.; Müller, S. R.; Nebbia, G.; Nedelec, P.; Oberthaler, M.; Pacifico, N.; Pagano, D.; Penasa, L.; Petracek, V.; Prelz, F.; Prevedelli, M.; Rienaecker, B.; Robert, J.; Røhne, O. M.; Rotondi, A.; Sandaker, H.; Santoro, R.; Smestad, L.; Sorrentino, F.; Testera, G.; Tietje, I. C.; Widmann, E.; Yzombard, P.; Zimmer, C.; Zmeskal, J.; Zurlo, N.

    2018-03-01

    The efficient production of cold antihydrogen atoms in particle traps at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator has opened up the possibility of performing direct measurements of the Earth's gravitational acceleration on purely antimatter bodies. The goal of the AEgIS collaboration is to measure the value of g for antimatter using a pulsed source of cold antihydrogen and a Moiré deflectometer/Talbot-Lau interferometer. The same antihydrogen beam is also very well suited to measuring precisely the ground-state hyperfine splitting of the anti-atom. The antihydrogen formation mechanism chosen by AEgIS is resonant charge exchange between cold antiprotons and Rydberg positronium. A series of technical developments regarding positrons and positronium (Ps formation in a dedicated room-temperature target, spectroscopy of the n=1-3 and n=3-15 transitions in Ps, Ps formation in a target at 10 K inside the 1 T magnetic field of the experiment) as well as antiprotons (high-efficiency trapping of ?, radial compression to sub-millimetre radii of mixed ? plasmas in 1 T field, high-efficiency transfer of ? to the antihydrogen production trap using an in-flight launch and recapture procedure) were successfully implemented. Two further critical steps that are germane mainly to charge exchange formation of antihydrogen-cooling of antiprotons and formation of a beam of antihydrogen-are being addressed in parallel. The coming of ELENA will allow, in the very near future, the number of trappable antiprotons to be increased by more than a factor of 50. For the antihydrogen production scheme chosen by AEgIS, this will be reflected in a corresponding increase of produced antihydrogen atoms, leading to a significant reduction of measurement times and providing a path towards high-precision measurements. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue `Antiproton physics in the ELENA era'.

  4. em Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Helena Hahn Lüchmann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to analyze the capacity of inclusion of the poorer sectors of the population in the processes of participative experiences, taking as empirical reference some data on the profile of the representatives and political participants in different spheres of Brazilian political performance (in special, the managing councils of public policies and Participative Budgets - PBs anchored, more specifically, on the data of cities in Santa Catarina State (south of Brazil. A brief discussion on the political participation is carried on in the beginning, rescuing the main theoretical sources of this debate, followed by a presentation of some empirical data regarding the social economical profile (focusing the data of income and scholar of the political representatives in the experiences analyzed herein. Finaly, we formulate some possible theoretical explanations for the differences found in the profile of the participants of the managing councils and PBs.

  5. Tectonic control on denudation rates in the central Bolivian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Gerold; Kober, Florian; Hippe, Kristina; Lendzioch, Theodora; Grischott, Reto; Pillco Zolá, Ramiro; Christl, Markus

    2013-04-01

    Effects of a positive feedback loop between erosion and tectonics have been shown by analogue and numerical models and have been inferred from field observations at the scale of mountain ranges. We present new data from the Bolivian Andes supporting these observations, although common geomorphic parameters do not indicate a simple correlation. The upper Rio Grande segment, located between Cochabamba, Santa Cruz and Sucre, drains a major catchment in the central Bolivian Cordillera, from the Eastern Cordillera (EC) in the W, through the Interandean Zone (IAZ) and the Subandes (SA) in the E. The catchment covers an area of 58939 km² with an altitude range from 400 to 5150 m above sea level. Geologically, the Bolivian Andes comprise (from W to E) the Altiplano, the EC, the IAZ and the SA fold and thrust belts. The Altiplano represents an almost perfectly closed basin with distinct barriers defined by the Western Cordillera and Eastern Cordillera. The Rio Grande does not reach the Altiplano (unlike Rio La Paz and Rio Consata) but has its western drainage divide along the high peaks of the EC that experienced a period of intense shortening between Late Oligocene and Miocene. Near Cochabamba, the EC comprises metasedimentary siliciclastic rocks of Ordovician age. These rocks are overlain by Cretaceous to Paleocene and / or Neogene sediments with an angular unconformity. The IAZ and SA form an east-vergent fold and thrust belt and comprise Paleozoic and Mesozoic units. Farther east, the structures of the SA progressively include Neogene foreland strata of the Chaco foreland basin. The Chaco basin rests on the Brazilian shield east of the Subandean Belt and forms the modern foreland basin, where the lower Rio Grande catchment is sited. We obtained 58 cosmogenic 10Be catchment wide denudation rates for the Rio Grande catchments upstream of Abapó. They range from 7 mm/kyr to 1550 mm/kyr thus integrating at maximum over the last 10.000 years, with a mean of 262 mm/kyr. In

  6. Kogesime suurepärast meeskonnatööd / Liisi Lembinen, Elena Sipria-Mironov ; intervjueerinud Õnne Mets, Ene Riet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lembinen, Liisi

    2014-01-01

    Tartu Ülikooli Raamatukogu osales EOD-projektis 2009. aasta maist kuni 2014. aasta aprillini. Kuidas projekt toimis ja mida saavutati, vastavad direktori kt Liisi Lembinen ja projektijuht Elena Sipria-Mironov

  7. Andes: An Intelligent Homework System for Introductory Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, Brett; VanLehn, K.; Hausmann, R.; Treacy, D.; Shelby, R.

    2006-12-01

    We know that students benefit from solving homework problems under the guidance of an expert (human) tutor. The Andes system (http://www.andes.pitt.edu) is designed for students to solve homework problems under the guidance of an expert computer tutor. Andes encourages students to use sound problem solving techniques and provides immediate right/wrong feedback on each step of a solution. On request, Andes also provides hints based on previous student actions. I will discuss how Andes works, from a student's perspective, and summarize research that demonstrates its effectiveness as a pedagogical tool. I will also discuss how Andes can function as a tool for conducting educational research, presenting an investigation of students' hint usage as an example.

  8. ciudad de Santa Marta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Alfredo Ferreira Ospino

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación evalúa los resultados de un programa de Formación en Derechos con madres comunitarias para la solución de conflictos en la Comuna Ocho de la ciudad de Santa Marta. El programa buscó el desarrollo de la capacidad de análisis y discernimiento para la toma de decisiones, que les permitan participar activamente en la solución de problemas de la comunidad, tendientes a mejorar las condiciones de vida de los miembros de la ésta. El proyecto se enmarca en un diseño de investigación cuasiexperimental con grupo control y medida pre y post, de forma que puedan medirse no sólo los resultados del programa, sino su efectividad para la resolución de conflictos en la comunidad. Se utilizó el cuestionario adaptado a la Teoría de Rahim y otros autores de la teoría del conflicto con el fin de determinar la manera como se resuelven los conflictos en la comunidad. Esta investigación se centró en demostrar objetivamente la efectividad del programa y las diferencias deliberativas y discursivas más relevantes entre los sujetos que recibieron formación en derechos.

  9. AEgIS at ELENA: outlook for physics with a pulsed cold antihydrogen beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doser, M; Aghion, S; Amsler, C; Bonomi, G; Brusa, R S; Caccia, M; Caravita, R; Castelli, F; Cerchiari, G; Comparat, D; Consolati, G; Demetrio, A; Di Noto, L; Evans, C; Fanì, M; Ferragut, R; Fesel, J; Fontana, A; Gerber, S; Giammarchi, M; Gligorova, A; Guatieri, F; Haider, S; Hinterberger, A; Holmestad, H; Kellerbauer, A; Khalidova, O; Krasnický, D; Lagomarsino, V; Lansonneur, P; Lebrun, P; Malbrunot, C; Mariazzi, S; Marton, J; Matveev, V; Mazzotta, Z; Müller, S R; Nebbia, G; Nedelec, P; Oberthaler, M; Pacifico, N; Pagano, D; Penasa, L; Petracek, V; Prelz, F; Prevedelli, M; Rienaecker, B; Robert, J; Røhne, O M; Rotondi, A; Sandaker, H; Santoro, R; Smestad, L; Sorrentino, F; Testera, G; Tietje, I C; Widmann, E; Yzombard, P; Zimmer, C; Zmeskal, J; Zurlo, N

    2018-03-28

    The efficient production of cold antihydrogen atoms in particle traps at CERN's Antiproton Decelerator has opened up the possibility of performing direct measurements of the Earth's gravitational acceleration on purely antimatter bodies. The goal of the AEgIS collaboration is to measure the value of g for antimatter using a pulsed source of cold antihydrogen and a Moiré deflectometer/Talbot-Lau interferometer. The same antihydrogen beam is also very well suited to measuring precisely the ground-state hyperfine splitting of the anti-atom. The antihydrogen formation mechanism chosen by AEgIS is resonant charge exchange between cold antiprotons and Rydberg positronium. A series of technical developments regarding positrons and positronium (Ps formation in a dedicated room-temperature target, spectroscopy of the n =1-3 and n =3-15 transitions in Ps, Ps formation in a target at 10 K inside the 1 T magnetic field of the experiment) as well as antiprotons (high-efficiency trapping of [Formula: see text], radial compression to sub-millimetre radii of mixed [Formula: see text] plasmas in 1 T field, high-efficiency transfer of [Formula: see text] to the antihydrogen production trap using an in-flight launch and recapture procedure) were successfully implemented. Two further critical steps that are germane mainly to charge exchange formation of antihydrogen-cooling of antiprotons and formation of a beam of antihydrogen-are being addressed in parallel. The coming of ELENA will allow, in the very near future, the number of trappable antiprotons to be increased by more than a factor of 50. For the antihydrogen production scheme chosen by AEgIS, this will be reflected in a corresponding increase of produced antihydrogen atoms, leading to a significant reduction of measurement times and providing a path towards high-precision measurements.This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue 'Antiproton physics in the ELENA era'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  10. From Odessa to Florence: Elena Comparetti Raffalovich. A Jewish Russian Woman in Nineteenth-Century Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asher Salah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century, Italy held a strong appeal for Russian travelers. Several of these Russian émigrés were women of Jewish lineage, who had come with their families or were sent abroad on their own in order to complete their education at one of the newborn kingdom’s prestigious universities. Elena Raffalovich (Odessa 1842 – Florence 1918 is one of the earliest and most intriguing examples of this phenomenon. While her intellectual trajectory, as a pioneer in children’s education and an advocate of women’s rights, is representative of that of many other Russian Jewish women living in Italy at that time, it also challenges a number of historiographic commonplaces about Jewish women and their emancipation process in nineteenth-century Europe. Moreover, through the archives of different prominent members of the Raffalovich dynasty, it is possible to follow its vicissitudes over at least five generations, completing our knowledge of Elena’s biography and reassessing the importance of her intellectual contribution to Italian culture.

  11. Magnetic characterization of ferrite materials used in the ELENA magnetic pick-ups

    CERN Document Server

    Favia, Giorgia; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Extra Low ENergy Antiproton (ELENA) Ring is a new synchrotron designed for cooling and further decelerating the 5.3 MeV antiprotons delivered by the CERN Antiproton Decelerator (AD). The ring is equipped with two magnetic pick-ups used for longitudinal beam diagnostics. These ultra low noise AC beam transformers consist of a doubly shielded, ferrite-loaded cavity with a ceramic gap in the beam pipe, a secondary winding to which an ultralow noise JFET head amplifier with feedback is connected. The JFET head amplifier is mounted close to the cavity and the AC beam transformers are covering respectively the 0.003-3MHz frequency range (low frequency type) and 0.8-30 MHz frequency range (high frequency type) [1]. The ferrite material used to couple primary and secondary in the beam transformer, has a key impact in the noise characteristics of the amplifier. For this reason a magnetic characterization of the selected ferrite rings has been carried out and is reported in the following.

  12. [Implementation of a French cohort of children or adolescents with autism spectrum disorders: ELENA cohort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdadli, A; Loubersac, J; Soussana, M; Rattaz, C; Michelon, C

    2014-10-01

    Multidisciplinary cohort studies of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) followed from childhood to adulthood exist abroad but not in France. The objective of the ELENA French cohort is to study the developmental trajectories of children and adolescents with ASD and their risk or protective associated factors. This is an open, prospective and multicenter cohort study, including children and adolescents under 16 years of age with ASD recruited from services specialized in the assessment of developmental disorders. The patients will be monitored every 18 months for at least 36 months and during a maximum of 10 years. Clinical, social, environmental, and genetic data, as well as data relating to the parental quality of life will be collected. The primary endpoint will be the adaptive level in three domains of the Vineland II (communication, socialization and daily living skills). The secondary endpoints will be parental quality of life, comorbidities, interventions and severity of ASD. The inclusion of 1600 patients over a 10-year period is expected. This cohort should contribute to a better knowledge of the child developing an ASD, taking into account the physical, social and familial environment, the type of interventions and some genetic components. It should also lay the foundations for a national network of professionals working in the field of autism research by offering them a common tool for promoting translational studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. ELENA GARRO, A DESHORA: FIGURAS LITERARIAS DE LA ABYECCIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Hernando Marsal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The massacre of Tlatelolco in 1968 was the most bloody incident of Diaz Ordaz’s government in Mexico and promoted a severe process of persecution and repression of the student movement. One of its consequences was the suspicion of betrayal by Elena Garro of the movement’s intellectual authors. Since then, Garro embodied an abject character of collaboration, in constant harassment, leading to her exile during twenty years.This paper considers the implications of the accusation and the diagnosis of insanity that accompanies it. For some critics this insanity is redeemed in her literary work, which in this operation achieves prominence; but the insanity can be thought of as irreducible. Garro’s delirious gaze doesn’t sublimate the trauma, but repeats again and again the political violence, with harassed, exposed and out of place characters, in situations of daily totalitarianism. Figures of betrayal emerge in her histories, involving characters and knowledge outside the language of the official left (animal, children, women, the indigenous, marked by their helplessness and questioning the premises of political parties. 

  14. Caravan-submm, A Fisrt Black Hole Imager at Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, M.; Kasuga, T.; Ishitsuka Iba, J. K.; Oka, T.; Sekido, M.; Takefuji, K.; Takahashi, M.; Saida, H.; Takahashi, R.

    2017-07-01

    We introduce our Peruvian-Japanese black hole imaging project, Caravan-submm at Andes. By constructing a sub-millimeter wavelength (submm) VLBI network at Andes we aim to get images of black hole horizon and the surroundings of Sgr A*. The array contains at least two fixed VLBI stations and one mobile VLBI station.

  15. Changing Student Attitudes using Andes, An Intelligent Homework System

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Sande, Brett; Vanlehn, Kurt; Treacy, Don; Shelby, Bob; Wintersgill, Mary

    2007-03-01

    The size of introductory physics lectures often inhibits personal homework assistance and timely corrective feedback. Andes, an intelligent homework help system designed for two semesters of introductory physics, can fill this need by encouraging students to use sound problem solving techniques and providing immediate feedback on each step of a solution. On request, Andes provides principles-based hints based on previous student actions. A multi-year study at the U.S. Naval Academy demonstrates that students using Andes perform better than students working the same problems as graded pencil and paper homeworks. In addition, student attitude surveys show that Andes is preferred over other homework systems. These findings have implications for student attitudes toward, and mastery of, physics. See http://www.andes.pitt.edu for more information.

  16. Santa Gertrudis : Pétroglifo

    OpenAIRE

    Puaux , Olivier

    1986-01-01

    Las Milpillas ( site n°95 ), Santa Gertrudis, Municipio de Zacapu, Michoacán. Opéración 1. Groupo B. Estructura B1. Unidad Excavación Noroeste. Pétroglifo dibajo de los escombros, Fachaba Escalinatas. Coordenadas : 19°51'48" 101°49'.

  17. Central hydroelectric of Santa Ana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo A, German

    2000-01-01

    The paper is related to the construction of an alternating tunnel of conduction to take advantage of the available hydraulic load among the Wiesner Plant and Santa Ana's tanks and of Suba, works required to build a hydroelectric power station with a generation capacity of approximately of 12 MW

  18. Utilización de neumáticos usados como agregado en el hormigón: caso provincia de Santa Elena, Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Saltos

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available El proyecto encontró un diseño de hormigón con partículas provenientes de neumáticos usados, que después de un proceso de selección, trituración controlada, una dosificación acorde con los parámetros de las normas internacionales de diseño de hormigón del Instituto Americano del Concreto (ACI, la Norma Ecuatoriana de Construcción (NEC, la incorporación de hasta 10 % de caucho triturado como sustituto parcial de agregados gruesos en el diseño de hormigón, se obtienen resultados favorables y de buena resistencia lo que hace que  se pueda utilizar cumpliendo todas las normas ecuatorianas de la construcción. También se realizó un ensayo con un 10% de caucho triturado incorporado como sustituto parcial del agregado fino, resultando ser aún más apropiado para fines constructivos y de elaboración de hormigón. En el presente trabajo de investigación se realiza los ensayos como mezclas separadas. Se efectuaron pruebas de vigas con incorporación de agregados gruesos de hasta 15% cumpliendo las normas, pero no se ejecutó una serie completa. Palabras clave: neumático, agregado, hormigón, resistencia. Abstract The project found a concrete design with particles from used tires, which after a selection process, controlled grinding, a dosage in accordance with the parameters of the American Concrete Institute (ICA international standards of concrete design, Standard (NEC, the incorporation of up to 10% of tired rubber as a partial substitute of coarse aggregates in the concrete design, gives favorable results and good resistance which makes it possible to use all the Ecuadorian standards of the building. A test with 10% of crushed rubber incorporated as a partial substitute of the fine aggregate was also performed, making it even more suitable for construction and concrete processing purposes. In the present research work the tests are performed as separate mixtures. Beams were tested with incorporation of coarse aggregates of up to 15% complying with the standards, but a complete series was not performed. Keywords: Tire, aggregate, concrete, resistance.

  19. Sistema de monitoreo de embarcaciones de pesca artesanal de Anconcito, provincia de Santa Elena, Ecuador, utilizando tecnología AIS - Automatic Identification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Avilés Bastidas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ante la evidente crisis que se está presentando en Ecuador debido al incremento en los índices de robos en altamar, principalmente de los motores fuera de borda de las lanchas de pesca artesanal, es necesario implementar un sistema de control eficaz que ofrezca seguridad para la comunidad pesquera; con este fin se propone un sistema de detección de embarcaciones de pesca artesanal con tecnología AIS. En este estudio se explican todos los beneficios que ofrece esta tecnología que actualmente se usa para el monitoreo de buques, así como las aplicaciones para un sistema de monitoreo de embarcaciones pequeñas, las clases de equipos disponibles y sus principales características. Con este objetivo se propone el diseño de una red que permita ubicar las embarcaciones de la comunidad pesquera de Anconcito, que es una de las zonas más afectadas por la delincuencia. Además, se anticipan los resultados esperados con este diseño y varias alternativas técnicas para mejorar la cobertura del sistema. Abstract Given the evident crisis that is occurring in Ecuador due to the increase in the rates of robberies on the high seas, mainly of the outboard motorboats of the artisanal fishing boats, it is necessary to implement an effective control system that provides security for the fishing community. To this end, a system of detection of artisanal fishing vessels with AIS technology is proposed. In this study, all the benefits of this technology are explained which is currently used for monitoring ships, as well as the applications for a monitoring system of small boats, the kinds of equipment available and their main characteristics. With this objective, the design of a network that allows locate the vessels of the fishing community of Anconcito, which is one of the areas most affected by crime, is proposed. In addition, the expected results with this design and several technical alternatives to improve the coverage of the system are anticipated.

  20. Proyecto de producción de sandia para exportación en la península de Santa Elena

    OpenAIRE

    Alban Wong, Gina; Arnao Franco, Carmen; Mejia Coronel, Marco Tulio

    2009-01-01

    Según datos proporcionados por el Tercer Censo Agropecuario, en el Ecuador se sembraron 1.905 ha. de sandía como monocultivo, en 1.788 unidades de producción agropecuarias (UPAs.). La producción fue de 25.818 toneladas. Además, se sembraron las 363 ha de sandía en cultivos asociados que produjeron 273 t. La siembra de sandía en el Ecuador es desde mayo hasta octubre y se han presentado exportaciones entre los meses de septiembre y diciembre. La cosecha de sandía en el mercado interno...

  1. Liderazgo comunitario y fortalecimiento organizacional del comité barrial Otto Arosemena Gómez, cantón Santa Elena.

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes Muñoz, María Luisa

    2017-01-01

    En una comunidad, el liderazgo surge como una necesidad indispensable en la conducción de los requerimientos, considerado como un componente de vital importancia para las comunidades. El propósito de esta investigación es analizar el proceso de interacción entre el líder de la comunidad y el fortalecimiento organizacional. A través de la entrevista de forma descriptiva, se puede concluir que el líder comunitario es importante en el contexto de la comunidad para el desarrollo de las organizaci...

  2. INCIDENCIA DE LA INVESTIGACION BIBLIOGRAFICA EN EL APRENDIZAJE EN ESTUDIANTES DEL NIVEL BÁSICO DE LA CARRERA ADMINISTRACION DE EMPRESAS DE UNIVERSIDAD ESTATAL PENINSULA DE SANTA ELENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Caiche

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de Hábitos de lectura en estudiantes de educacion superior represent un verdadero reto para el docente, sobre todo porque dicha práctica impulsa la capacidad de analizar y de emitir juicios de valor y consolida las bases cognitivas que recibe en el proceso de aprendizaje, se ha identificado que, el estudiante de Administracion de empresas en el desarrollo de actividades academicas cita referencias bibliograficas que, de manera mayoritaria proviene de consultas de bajo nivel academico, por otro lado, es escaso el numero de referencias que incluyen, esta situacion limita el aprendizaje, y se reflejan en los resultadops de evaluacion del proceso. Este trabajo plantea como objetivo determinar el efecto que tiene en el aprendizaje la implementacion de una guia de investigacion bibliografica paa el nivel basico en los estudiantes de Carrera de Administracion de Empresas de la UPSE; para el efecto se recurre a un diseño de investigacion explicativo que a traves de la compracion del antes y el despues permita verificar el logro de tal objetivo.

  3. Utilización de neumáticos usados como agregado en el hormigón: caso provincia de Santa Elena, Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Saltos; Juan Garcés; Linda Ordoñez; Miguel Suarez; Humberto Guerrero

    2017-01-01

    El proyecto encontró un diseño de hormigón con partículas provenientes de neumáticos usados, que después de un proceso de selección, trituración controlada, una dosificación acorde con los parámetros de las normas internacionales de diseño de hormigón del Instituto Americano del Concreto (ACI), la Norma Ecuatoriana de Construcción (NEC), la incorporación de hasta 10 % de caucho triturado como sustituto parcial de agregados gruesos en el diseño de hormigón, se obtienen resultados favorables y ...

  4. Detección de compuestos presentes en una especie de Amanita micoparasitada, colectada en el corregimiento de Santa Elena (Antioquia, Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Aura Helena Corredor Q.; Liliana Londoño

    2005-01-01

    Para este trabajo se seleccionó una especie de Amanita, parasitada probablemente por un Hyphomycete, que presenta un crecimiento anormal y sobre la cual no existen trabajos previos. Inicialmente se hicieron extracciones etanólicas del material fresco en frío y con soxhlet. Se realizó una marcha fotoquímica preliminar del extracto obtenido y se detectaron coumarinas, alcaloides, fenoles y glicósidos cardiotónicos. Posteriormente se estandarizó que la cromatografía de capa fina con el sistem...

  5. A new species of poeciliid fish, Poeciliopsis santaelena, from Peninsula Santa Elena, Area de Conservación Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A Bussing

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available An undescribed freshwater fish was recently discovered during a biological inventory of Area de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica. This new species of Poeciliopsis is closely related to a group of widespread species of small spotted fishes designated as the Poeciliopsis gracilis complex in this study. The complex extends on both versants from southern Mexico to Nicaragua, and with this new finding, extends into Costa Rica. The new species is distinguished from its Central American relatives by its lack of lateral and ventral markings, higher pectoral and caudal-fin counts and more posterior placement of the dorsal fin. Poeciliopsis santaelena is endemic to the Río Potrero Grande, a river whose flow is reduced to just a few pools during the long dry season and flows fully only during very rainy weather. It is just another in a growing list of threatened or endangered species found in this unique peninsular environment. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (2: 829-838. Epub 2008 June 30.Recientemente se descubrió una especie no descrita de pez dulceacuícola durante un inventario biológico en Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG en el noroeste de Costa Rica. Esta especie nueva del género Poeciliopsis tiene un parentesco cercano con un grupo de especies con puntos en los costados ampliamente distribuidas que se designan en este informe como complejo de Poeciliopsis gracilis. El complejo se extiende en ambas vertientes desde el sur de México hasta Nicaragua. La especie nueva se distingue de sus parientes centroamericanos por su falta de manchas negras laterales y ventrales, mayor número de radios pectorales y caudales, y posición más posterior de la aleta dorsal. Poeciliopsis santaelena, especie endémica de un sólo riachuelo intermitente, es una especie más in la lista de especies en peligro que se encuentra en este peculiar ambiente peninsular.

  6. Posibilidades de Generación de Energía en base al Potencial Geotérmico de la Península de Santa Elena.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán E. Poveda Z.

    2015-10-01

    En este estudio, proponemos la posibilidad de utilizar esta energía natural para transformarla en electricidad. Aprovechando las condiciones de algunos de los afloramientos de manantiales de agua caliente y volcanes de lodo que existen en la provincia. Para lo cual hemos propuesto al Instituto Austriaco de tecnología, su asesoría y asistencia para proponer un proyecto al ministerio de electrificación y energías renovables.

  7. Modelo de atención integral de salud comunitaria, comuna San Antonio, parroquia Manglaralto - cantón Santa Elena

    OpenAIRE

    Cerón Tatac, Oscar Iván

    2014-01-01

    El estudio del Modelo de Atención Integral de Salud, aplicado en la Unidad Operativa de Salud de la comuna San Antonio, es un proyecto que va ligado a los requerimientos, demandas y expectativas de los comuneros, mediante la articulación y conjunción de las políticas, lineamientos estratégicos y normativas, adaptadas a la realidad local en la Unidad Operativa de Salud de la comuna San Antonio. En el Capítulo I consta la fundamentación teórica y referencial que guió todo el estudio, establecie...

  8. Arguedasmachine: Modernity and Affect in the Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Beasley-Murray

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Peruvian writer José María Arguedas’s final book, an unfinished and posthumously published novel entitled El zorro de arriba y el zorro de abajo, is set in the coastal boomtown of Chimbote during the late 1960s. Rapid industrialization has led to the town being dominated by fish-processing factories belching out smoke, and surrounded by slums in which thousands of recent immigrants from the Andes eke out a living at the margins of this intense capitalist exploitation. The novel’s main concern is with these margins, with the slums or barriadas in which all of Peru’s cultures and languages are thrown together in chaos and misery, if also in vital intercommunication and restless striving. But at the center of the novel is a strange scene of epiphany that takes place at the heart of the industrial enterprise.

  9. The Glaciation of the Ecuadorian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Carlos

    This pleasing book fills the gap in the knowledge about Pleistocene and recent glaciation between Colombia and Peru. A significant amount of data exists already for Colombia and Venezuela and for Peru, Bolivia, and, particularly, Chile. Hastenrath has now given us a description of glaciers and glaciation underneath the equator in the Andes.The book begins with brief summaries of the physiography and the atmospheric circulation, which give the general setting of Ecuador. Then follow detailed descriptions of the glaciers and glacial morphology of all the important mountains of the Western and Eastern Cordilleras. These are well illustrated, and a particularly useful feature is the comparison of old photographs and paintings of glaciers with modern photographs, many taken by the author. All illustrate the spectacular retreat of the glaciers in the Ecuadorian Andes during the last century and correlate quite well with observations elsewhere. This retreat is snown quantitatively in Table 4, in terms of decrease in glacier-covered area since the glacial advance of moraine stage III. The area of present-day glaciers is about 10% of the area during that stage (compared with about 1.5% in the Sierra Nevada de Mérida, Venezuela). A series of maps show the glacial morphology of the mountains (unfortunately, some of the maps have been included within the binding, thus losing some information; they could have been reduced somewhat to fit a single page or, if too large, could have been included in the pocket, together with the map of Chimborazo-Carihuairazo).

  10. The Regina Elena National Cancer Institute process of accreditation according to the standards of the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canitano, Stefano; Di Turi, Annunziata; Caolo, Giuseppina; Pignatelli, Adriana C; Papa, Elena; Branca, Marta; Cerimele, Marina; De Maria, Ruggero

    2015-01-01

    The accreditation process is, on the one hand, a tool used to homogenize procedures, rendering comparable and standardized processes of care, and on the other, a methodology employed to develop a culture of quality improvement. Although not yet proven by evidence-based studies that health outcomes improve as a result of an accreditation to excellence, it is undeniable that better control of healthcare processes results in better quality and safety of diagnostic and therapeutic pathways. The Regina Elena National Cancer Institute underwent the accreditation process in accordance with the standards criteria set by the Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI), and it has recently completed the process, acquiring its designation as a Comprehensive Cancer Center (CCC). This was an invaluable opportunity for the Regina Elena Institute to create a more cohesive environment, to widely establish a culture of quality, to implement an institutional information system, and to accelerate the process of patient involvement in strategic decisions. The steps of the process allowed us to evaluate the performance and the organization of the institute and put amendments in place designed to be adopted through 26 improvement actions. These actions regarded several aspects of the institute, including quality culture, information communication technology system, care, clinical trials unit, disease management team, nursing, and patient empowerment and involvement. Each area has a timeline. We chose to present the following 3 improvement actions: clinical trial center, computerized ambulatory medical record, and centrality of patient and humanization of clinical pathway.

  11. Finanzas de la Universidad de Los Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Aura Casal de Altuve

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo primario de este artículo es el de fungir de base comparativa para otros estudios de países latinoamericanos que podrían estar considerando síntomas similares en el área de la investigación contable. El punto de partida lo representa un estudio de caso de los profesores del Departamento de Contabilidad y Finanzas de la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Sociales de la Universidad de los Andes. El artículo analiza la relación entre investigación y enseñanza y si el departamento está o no cumpliendo con sus objetivos. Un objetivo secundario consiste en la determinación de los posibles factores que han tenido una influencia significativa en el desempeño de la investigación y de la enseñanza por parte de los investigadores. Basándose en entrevistas y recolección directa de datos, se consideran las estrategias institucionales para fijar los objetivos de las actividades de investigación

  12. Benito Fernández de Elena Garro: una mirada crítica sobre la historia mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Bustamante Bermúdez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available En 1957, Elena Garro escribió la obra teatral Benito Fernández, texto en el que hace una revisión crítica a la historia nacional, el poder, la simulación y la búsqueda de la identidad personal en medio de la sociedad creada a partir de la posrevolución mexicana. La obra de la escritora es un contradiscurso a la oficialidad, a la mitificación de los hechos y héroes nacionales; lo que le interesa es resaltar el carácter racista y clasista de una nueva sociedad de dirigentes políticos en busca del bienestar personal y de grupo por encima del bien colectivo, para ello, opta porque en su obra los personajes se preocupen por comprar una cabeza, es decir, una ideología que les haga saber que existen. In 1957, Elena Garro wrote the play Benito Fernández, a text in which she critically reviews Mexico's national history, issues of power, simulation and the quest for personal identity in the midst of a society emerged in the after effects of the Mexican Revolution. This work is a counter-discourse to Mexico's official narrative and the idealization of facts and national heroes. She is interested in the racist and classist aspects of the new dominating society, which is interested in their own personal welfare over those of the collective. To do so, she makes her characters concerned about buying a head, that is, an ideology to fundament their own existence.

  13. Efek Suplementasi ENERVON-C dan SANTA-e dalam Pakan terhadap Motilitas Spermatozoa Ayam Kampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triva Murtina Lubis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Supplementation of ENERVON-C and SANTA-e in Feed on Sperm Motility of Local Cocks ABSTRACT. This study aimed to observe the effect of supplementation of ENERVON-C and SANTA-e in feed on sperm motility of local cocks. The research was conducted at Reproduction Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh. The research used 12 local cocks divided into 4 treatment groups : P0 (feed of 521, P1 (feed of 521 + 200 mg ENERVON-C/kg of feed, P2 (feed of 521 + 200 mg SANTA-e/kg feed and P3 (feed of 521 + 100 mg ENERVON-C/kg of feed and 100 mg SANTA-e/kg of feed. During the research, all cocks were given 100 g of 521 feed/day. Feed with ENERVON-C and SANTA-e was given for 2 weeks before semen collections. Drink was given ad libitum. Data were analysed with analysis of variance and if there are effects among the treatments, analysis will be continued with Duncan Test. Results shows that supplementation of ENERVON-C or SANTA-e and their combination in feed can increase the percentage of sperm motility. There are significant differences (p<0,05 between control and treatment groups. To sum up, supplementation of ENERVON-C or SANTA-e in feed can improve the quality of sperm (motility of local cocks. The sperm quality is better after giving of ENERVON-C and SANTA-e together than single supplementation.

  14. Electrostatic protocol treatment lens. The purpose of this device is to transport Antiprotons from the new ELENA storage beam to all AD experiments. The electrostatic device was successfully tested in ASACUSA two weeks ago.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    Electrostatic protocol treatment lens. The purpose of this device is to transport Antiprotons from the new ELENA storage beam to all AD experiments. The electrostatic device was successfully tested in ASACUSA two weeks ago.

  15. Santa Barbara Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hacker, Angela; Hansen, Sherman; Watkins, Ashley

    2013-11-30

    This report serves as the Final Report for Santa Barbara County’s Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) BetterBuildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP) award from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This report explains how DOE BBNP funding was invested to develop robust program infrastructure designed to help property owners complete energy improvements, thereby generating substantial outcomes for the local environment and economy. It provides an overview of program development and design within the grant period, program accomplishments and challenges to date, and a plan for the future sustainability of emPower, the County’s innovative clean energy and building efficiency program. During the grant period, Santa Barbara County’s emPower program primarily targeted 32,000 owner occupied, single family, detached residential homes over 25 years old within the County. In order to help these homeowners and their contractors overcome market barriers to completing residential energy improvements, the program developed and promoted six voluntary, market-based service areas: 1) low cost residential financing (loan loss reserve with two local credit unions), 2) residential rebates, 3) local customer service, 4) expert energy advising, 5) workforce development and training, and 6) marketing, education and outreach. The main goals of the program were to lower building energy use, create jobs and develop a lasting regional building performance market. These services have generated important early outcomes and lessons after the program’s first two years in service. The DOE BBNP funding was extended through October 2014 to enable Santa Barbara County to generate continued outcomes. In fact, funding related to residential financing remains wholly available for the foreseeable future to continue offering Home Upgrade Loans to approximately 1,300 homeowners. The County’s investment of DOE BBNP funding was used to build a lasting, effective, and innovative

  16. Rock Glacier Response to Climate Change in the Argentinian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewes, J.; Korup, O.; Moreiras, S.

    2017-12-01

    Rock glaciers are bodies of frozen debris and ice that move under the influence of gravity in permafrost areas. Rock glaciers may store a large amount of sediments and play an important role as prime movers of debris in the Andean sediment cascade. However, little is known about how much sediment and water rock glaciers may store at the mountain-belt scale, and the few existing estimates vary considerably. We address this question for the Argentinian Andes, for which a new glacial inventory containing more than 6500 rock glaciers gives us the opportunity to analyse their relevance within the sediment cascade. We examine the inventory for catchments in five sub-regions, i.e. the Desert Andes (22°-31°S); the Central Andes (31°-36°S); the Northern Andes of Patagonia (36°-45°S); the Southern Andes of Patagonia (45°-52°S); and Tierra del Fuego (52°-55°S), together with climate variables of the WorldClim datasets, and digital topographic data, to estimate how rock-glacier extents may change under different past and future climate scenarios. We observe for the northern Desert Andes that rock glacier toes are at 4000 to 5000 m a.s.l. and a mean annual temperature range of 3° and 8°C, though most rock glaciers are in areas with mean annual temperatures between -5 and 5°C, marking a distinct thermal niche. Rock glaciers are traditionally viewed as diagnostic of sporadic alpine permafrost and their toes are often near the annual mean 0°C isotherm. However, we find that only rock glaciers in the southern Desert Andes and Central Andes are located where annual mean temperature is -2°C. Future scenarios project an increase of > four degrees in these areas, which may further degrade ground ice and potentially change the rates at which rock glaciers advance. Where active rock glaciers become inactive their coarse material, which was formerly bound by ice, may be released into the sediment cascade, whereas accelerating or rapidly downwasting rock glaciers may either

  17. The SantaBot experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Tranberg; Svenstrup, Mikael; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    interactive mobile agents into public urban transit area. To investigate the hypothesis, an experiment was carried out using a robot capable of navigating autonomously based on the input of an onboard laser scanner. The robot would detect and follow random people, who afterwards were asked to fill out......The video shows how an autonomous mobile robot dressed as Santa Claus is interacting with people in a shopping mall. The underlying hypothesis is that it is possible to create interesting new living spaces and induce value in terms of experiences, information or economics, by putting socially...... a questionnaire for quantitative analysis of the experiment. The presented video is the corresponding video documentation of the experiment used in the evaluation. The results showed that people were generally positive towards having mobile robots in this type of environment where shopping is combined...

  18. The EU environmental-energy policy for urban areas: The Covenant of Mayors, the ELENA program and the role of ESCos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, Mariarosaria; Pazienza, Pasquale; Rana, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The Covenant of Mayors (CoM) is an initiative of the European Commission started in 2008 with the aim of involving cities more in the implementation of the 20-20-20 climate-energy package. To this end, a variety of tools to assist the realization of such a policy has been built. The European Local Energy Assistance (ELENA) program of the European Investment Bank (EIB) is one of the most relevant. In this work, we observe some data on the Italian participation in the CoM and ELENA program, while highlighting the role the Energy Service Companies have in these contexts. By referring to the specific experience of the Province of Foggia (an intermediary government body in southern Italy), we also discuss how some recent changes in the Italian legislation, aimed at abolishing the provinces (considered as preferred supporting structure of the CoM), imposed the identification of another supraterritorial entity. This is to substitute the Province of Foggia as coordinator in the dialog between the local territory and the European Union institutions on the climate-energy theme. In this sense, the choice of the Chamber of Commerce represents a novelty. With regard to this, some considerations on the appropriateness of this choice are developed. - Highlights: •The CoM is an EU environmental-energy initiative for local authorities. •The ELENA program supports technical energy efficiency activities within the CoM. •Chambers of Commerce can usefully coordinate ELENA projects submission. •Public bodies are committed to implement energy saving projects on their buildings. •The ESCOs develop and implement energy efficiency projects.

  19. Climate variability of the tropical Andes since the late Pleistocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bräuning

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Available proxy records witnessing palaeoclimate of the tropical Andes are comparably scarce. Major implications of palaeoclimate development in the humid and arid parts of the Andes are briefly summarized. The long-term behaviour of ENSO has general significance for the climatic history of the Andes due to its impact on regional circulation patterns and precipitation regimes, therefore ENSO history derived from non-Andean palaeo-records is highlighted. Methodological constraints of the chronological precision and the palaeoclimatic interpretation of records derived from different natural archives, such as glacier sediments and ice cores, lake sediments and palaeo-wetlands, pollen profiles and tree rings are addressed and complementary results concerning former climatic conditions are discussed in terms of possible implications of former atmospheric circulation patterns and main climatic forcing factors. During the last years, increasing tree-ring information is getting available from the tropical Andes, providing high-resolution climate-sensitive records covering the past centuries for the study of climate variability.

  20. Climate variability of the tropical Andes since the late Pleistocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuning, A.

    2009-10-01

    Available proxy records witnessing palaeoclimate of the tropical Andes are comparably scarce. Major implications of palaeoclimate development in the humid and arid parts of the Andes are briefly summarized. The long-term behaviour of ENSO has general significance for the climatic history of the Andes due to its impact on regional circulation patterns and precipitation regimes, therefore ENSO history derived from non-Andean palaeo-records is highlighted. Methodological constraints of the chronological precision and the palaeoclimatic interpretation of records derived from different natural archives, such as glacier sediments and ice cores, lake sediments and palaeo-wetlands, pollen profiles and tree rings are addressed and complementary results concerning former climatic conditions are discussed in terms of possible implications of former atmospheric circulation patterns and main climatic forcing factors. During the last years, increasing tree-ring information is getting available from the tropical Andes, providing high-resolution climate-sensitive records covering the past centuries for the study of climate variability.

  1. Healthy and Sustainable Horticulture Production in the Central Andes

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Healthy and Sustainable Horticulture Production in the Central Andes. Horticultural production in mid-altitude Andean valleys uses substantial amounts of highly hazardous and mutagenic pesticides. But, it is a growing source of income for farm families and fresh vegetables for metropolitan markets. Preliminary research ...

  2. Reflections on Andes' Goal-Free User Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanLehn, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Although the Andes project produced many results over its 18 years of activity, this commentary focuses on its contributions to understanding how a goal-free user interface impacts the overall design and performance of a step-based tutoring system. Whereas a goal-aligned user interface displays relevant goals as blank boxes or empty locations that…

  3. La Ex Hacienda de Santa Cruz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berta Pinto de Estrada

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available Ex hacienda Santa Cruz was chosen to show the differences in the geographic and economic structure, and the historic causes that originated them, as an example of ihe situation in the northem part of Campeche.

  4. Convective initiation in the vicinity of the subtropical Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, K. L.; Houze, R.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme convection tends to form in the vicinity of mountain ranges, and the Andes in subtropical South America help spawn some of the most intense convection in the world. An investigation of the most intense storms for 11 years of TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) data shows a tendency for squall lines to initiate and develop in this region with the canonical leading convective line/trailing stratiform structure. The synoptic environment and structures of the extreme convection and MCSs in subtropical South America are similar to those found in other regions of the world, especially the United States. In subtropical South America, however, the topographical influence on the convective initiation and maintenance of the MCSs is unique. A capping inversion in the lee of the Andes is important in preventing premature triggering. The Andes and other mountainous terrain of Argentina focus deep convective initiation in a narrow region. Subsequent to initiation, the convection often evolves into propagating mesoscale convective systems similar to those seen over the Great Plains of the U. S. and produces damaging tornadoes, hail, and floods across a wide agricultural region. Numerical simulations conducted with the NCAR Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model extend the observational analysis and provide an objective evaluation of storm initiation, terrain effects, and development mechanisms. The simulated mesoscale systems closely resemble the storm structures seen by the TRMM Precipitation Radar as well as the overall shape and character of the storms shown in GOES satellite data. A sensitivity experiment with different configurations of topography, including both decreasing and increasing the height of the Andes Mountains, provides insight into the significant influence of orography in focusing convective initiation in this region. Lee cyclogenesis and a strong low-level jet are modulated by the height of the Andes Mountains and directly affect the character

  5. A leading-edge hardware family for diagnostics applications and low-level RF in CERN's ELENA ring

    CERN Document Server

    Angoletta, M E; Jaussi, M; Leiononen, P; Levens, T E; Molendijk, J C; Sanchez-Quesada, J; Simonin, J

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Extra Low ENergy Antiproton (ELENA) Ring is a new synchrotron that will be commissioned in 2016 to further decelerate the antiprotons transferred from the CERN’s Antiproton Decelerator (AD). The requirements for the acquisition and treatment of signals for longitudinal diagnostics are very demanding, owing to the revolution frequency swing as well as to the digital signal processing required. The requirements for the Low-Level Radio-Frequency (LLRF) system are very demanding as well, especially in terms of revolution frequency swing, dynamic range and low noise required by the cavity voltage control and digital signal processing to be performed. Both sets of requirements will be satisfied by using a leading-edge hardware family, developed to cover the LLRF needs of all synchrotrons in the Meyrin site; it will be first deployed in 2014 in the CERN’s PSB and in the medical machine MedAustron. This paper gives an overview of the main building blocks of the hardware family and of th...

  6. The hELENa project - II. Abundance distribution trends of early-type galaxies: from dwarfs to giants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybilska, A.; Kuntschner, H.; van de Ven, G.; Vazdekis, A.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Peletier, R. F.; Lisker, T.

    2018-02-01

    In this second paper of The role of Environment in shaping Low-mass Early-type Nearby galaxies (hELENa) series we study [Mg/Fe] abundance distribution trends of early-type galaxies observed with the SAURON integral field unit, spanning a wide range in mass and local environment densities: 20 low-mass early-types (dEs) of Sybilska et al. (2017) and 258 massive early types (ETGs) of the ATLAS3D project, all homogeneously reduced and analyzed. We show that the [Mg/Fe] ratios scale with velocity dispersion (σ) at fixed [Fe/H] and that they evolve with [Fe/H] along similar paths for all early-types, grouped in bins of increasing local and global σ, as well as the second velocity moment Vrms, indicating a common inside-out formation pattern. We then place our dEs on the [Mg/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] diagram of Local Group galaxies and show that dEs occupy the same region and show a similar trend line slope in the diagram as the high-metallicity stars of the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud. This finding extends the similar trend found for dwarf spheroidal vs. dwarf irregular galaxies and supports the notion that dEs have evolved from late-type galaxies that have lost their gas at a point of their evolution, which likely coincided with them entering denser environments.

  7. Multi year aerosol characterization in the tropical Andes and in adjacent Amazonia using AERONET measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ramírez, Daniel; Andrade-Flores, Marcos; Eck, Thomas F.; Stein, Ariel F.; O'Neill, Norman T.; Lyamani, Hassan; Gassó, Santiago; Whiteman, David N.; Veselovskii, Igor; Velarde, Fernando; Alados-Arboledas, L.

    2017-10-01

    This work focuses on the analysis of columnar aerosol properties in the complex geophysical tropical region of South America within 10-20° South and 50-70° West. The region is quite varied and encompasses a significant part of Amazonia (lowlands) as well as high mountains in the Andes (highlands,∼4000 m a.s.l.). Several AERONET stations were included to study the aerosol optical characteristics of the lowlands (Rio Branco, Ji Parana and Cuiaba in Brazil and Santa Cruz in Bolivia) and the highlands (La Paz, Bolivia) during the 2000-2014 period. Biomass-burning is by far the most important source of aerosol in the lowlands, particularly during the dry season (August-October). Multi-annual variability was investigated and showed very strong burning activity in 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2010. This resulted in smoke characterized by correspondingly strong, above-average AODs (aerosol optical depths) and homogeneous single scattering albedo (SSA) across all the stations (∼0.93). For other years, however, SSA differences arise between the northern stations (Rio Branco and Ji Parana) with SSAs of ∼0.95 and the southern stations (Cuiaba and Santa Cruz) with lower SSAs of ∼0.85. Such differences are explained by the different types of vegetation burned in the two different regions. In the highlands, however, the transport of biomass burning smoke is found to be sporadic in nature. This sporadicity results in highly variable indicators of aerosol load and type (Angstrom exponent and fine mode fraction) with moderately significant increases in both. Regional dust and local pollution are the background aerosol in this highland region, whose elevation places it close to the free troposphere. Transported smoke particles were generally found to be more optical absorbing than in the lowlands: the hypothesis to explain this is the significantly higher amount of water vapor in Amazonia relative to the high mountain areas. The air-mass transport to La Paz was investigated using

  8. Macroeconomia do Turismo Argentino em Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Meurer

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O Estado de Santa Catarina experimentou um considerável crescimento do setor de turismo nas últimas décadas. O fluxo turístico de origem argentina revelou-se um ingrediente importante dessa trajetória. Este artigo focaliza um aspecto pouco explorado, aparentemente, da participação argentina no turismo estadual: a relação entre a situação macroeconômica do país vizinho e a demanda turística por Santa Catarina lá originada. Começa-se abordando brevemente a problemática geral da macroeconomia do turismo. Depois, discorre-se sobre o crescimento desse setor em Santa Catarina, destacando a presença de argentinos. A terceira parte desenvolve uma análise baseada em tratamento estatístico de dados sobre demanda e receita geradas por esses turistas no estado, com exame das correlações envolvendo taxa de câmbio e taxa de crescimento do PIB da Argentina. Palavras-chave: turismo; Santa Catarina; turistas argentinos; economia argentina Abstract The State of Santa Catarina has witnessed a considerable development of its tourist sector in the last decades. The demand from Argentina has proved to be an important factor of that growth. This article deals with a feature of the presence of Argentinians in the state which seems to be scarcely studied: the relationship between the macroeconomic situation of Argentina and the tourist demand in Santa Catarina originated from that country. The first part of the article considers briefly the general issue of tourism macroeconomics. The second one looks upon tourism growth in Santa Catarina, stressing the presence of visitors from Argentine. The third section develops an analysis based on statistical treatment of data concerning demand and income generated by such tourists in Santa Catarina, involving correlations that consider aspects like exchange rate and the rate of GDP increase in Argentina. Keywords: tourism; Santa Catarina; tourists from Argentina; Argentina’s economy

  9. A crustal model for the Venezuelan Andes using converted phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morandi, Maria T; Madrid, Juan

    1998-01-01

    The seismological network of the Venezuelan Andes consist of 10 permanent stations covering approximately 300 Km 2 along the Bocono fault. The Bocono fault is a section of the Bocono Moron El Pilar fault system in northern Venezuela, which is the main tectonic feature on the boundary of the Caribbean and the South American plates. In this work, are analyzed some of the earthquakes from the Bucaramanga Nest (in the northeastern part of Colombia) to obtain the thickness of the crust under the stations of the Venezuelan Andes seismological network. The identification of these and other phases consist of analyzing the total energy of the seismic signal (the energigrams) and the seismograms together. The results show a maximum crustal thickness of 62 km under the highest station (4.100 m) and a minimum thickness of 43 Km below one of the station nearest to the city of Merida

  10. Glacier shrinkage and water resources in the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francou, Bernard; Coudrain, Anne

    For more than a century glaciers around the world have been melting as air temperatures rise due to a combination of natural processes and human activity. The disappearance of these glaciers can have wide-ranging effects, such as the creation of new natural hazards or changes in stream flow that could threaten water suppliesSome of the most dramatic melting has occurred in the Andes mountain range in South America. To highlight the climatic and glacial change in the Andes and to encourage the scientific community to strengthen the glacier observation network that stretches from Colombia to the Patagonian ice fields, the Instituto Nacional de Recursos Naturales (INRENA), Perú, and the Institute of Research and Development (IRD), France, recently organized the second Symposium on Mass Balance of Andean Glaciers in Huaráz,Perú.

  11. Synchronous interhemispheric Holocene climate trends in the tropical Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polissar, Pratigya J; Abbott, Mark B; Wolfe, Alexander P; Vuille, Mathias; Bezada, Maximiliano

    2013-09-03

    Holocene variations of tropical moisture balance have been ascribed to orbitally forced changes in solar insolation. If this model is correct, millennial-scale climate evolution should be antiphased between the northern and southern hemispheres, producing humid intervals in one hemisphere matched to aridity in the other. Here we show that Holocene climate trends were largely synchronous and in the same direction in the northern and southern hemisphere outer-tropical Andes, providing little support for the dominant role of insolation forcing in these regions. Today, sea-surface temperatures in the equatorial Pacific Ocean modulate rainfall variability in the outer tropical Andes of both hemispheres, and we suggest that this mechanism was pervasive throughout the Holocene. Our findings imply that oceanic forcing plays a larger role in regional South American climate than previously suspected, and that Pacific sea-surface temperatures have the capacity to induce abrupt and sustained shifts in Andean climate.

  12. Zeolitización de rocas andesíticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plana, F.

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of some andesites from King George Island (South Shetland Islands, Anctartica has pointed out the existence of a hydrothermal alteration process going rise to a zeolitic secondary minerals of low-temperature assemblages. Two paragenesis have been identified (Smectite-Bytownite-Mordenite, Smectite-Albite-Laumontite which reflecting different conditions durign the hydrothermal alteration of these andesitic rocksEl estudio de rocas andesíticas de la Isla King George (Archipiélago de las Shetland del Sur, Antártida pone de manifiesto la existencia de procesos de alteración hidrotermal con la formación de minerales zeolíticos secundarios pertenecientes a asociaciones de baja temperatura. Se han identificado dos paragénesis (Esmectitas-Bytownita-Mordenita, Esmectitas-AlbitaLaumontita que reflejan distintas condiciones durante la alteración hidrotermal de dichas rocas andesíticas.

  13. Santa Muerte as Emerging Dangerous Religion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Bromley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Santa Muerte is one of the fastest growing folk saint movements in Mexico. She has a core following in Mexico among dispossessed populations, but also devotees from a broader swath of the Mexican population. This article analyzes the development of Santa Muerte veneration in Mexico since 2000. I argue that, from a structural analysis perspective, Santa Muerte veneration is on the threshold of designation and treatment as dangerous religion, although its eventual status remains contingent. The movement’s status will be determined by three interacting factors: (1 a core membership of outsider and dispossessed populations; (2 symbolic and social organization in a form that challenges the legitimacy and authority of the institutions of church and state; and (3 institutional control measures that contest the legitimacy of its symbolic presentation and organizational practices. I suggest several alternative developmental scenarios based on these factors.

  14. Characteristic of Dystrustepts in the Venezuelan Andes Características dos Dystrustepts nos Andes Venezuelanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Ochoa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority (60 % of the soils in the Venezuelan Andes are Inceptisols, a large percentage of which are classified as Dystrustepts by the US Soil Taxonomy, Second Edition of 1999. Some of these soils were classified as Humitropepts (high organic - C-OC-soils and Dystropepts by the Soil Taxonomy prior to 1999, but no equivalent large group was created for high-OC soils in the new Ustepts suborder. Dystrusepts developed on different materials, relief and vegetation. Their properties are closely related with the parent material. Soils developed on transported deposits or sediments have darker and thicker A horizons, a slightly acid reaction, greater CEC and OC contents than upland slope soils. Based on the previous classification into large groups (Humitropepts and Dystropepts we found that: Humitropepts have a slightly less acid and higher values of CEC than Dystropepts. These properties or characteristics seem to be related to the fact that Humitropepts have a higher clay and OC content than the Dystropepts. Canonical discrimination analysis showed that the variables that discriminate the two great soil groups from each other are OC and silt. Data for Humitropepts are grouped around the OC vector (defining axis 3, principal component analysis, while Dystropepts are associated with the clay and sand vectors, with significant correlation. Given the importance of OC for soil properties, we propose the creation of a new large group named Humustepts for the order Inceptisol, suborder Ustepts.Boa parte dos solos dos Andes Venezuelanos (60 % é classificada como "Inceptisol", e uma grande percentagem deles é Dystrustepts nas versões do Soil Taxonomy. Outros foram classificados como Humitropepts - solos com altos teores de C de compostos orgânicos (CO. Os Dystrustepts desenvolvem-se sobre diferentes materiais, relevo e vegetação. Suas características têm estreita relação com o tipo de material de origem. Os Dystrustepts desenvolvidos sobre

  15. The hELENa project - I. Stellar populations of early-type galaxies linked with local environment and galaxy mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybilska, A.; Lisker, T.; Kuntschner, H.; Vazdekis, A.; van de Ven, G.; Peletier, R.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Vijayaraghavan, R.; Janz, J.

    2017-09-01

    We present the first in a series of papers in The role of Environment in shaping Low-mass Early-type Nearby galaxies (hELENa) project. In this paper, we combine our sample of 20 low-mass early types (dEs) with 258 massive early types (ETGs) from the ATLAS3D survey - all observed with the SAURON integral field unit - to investigate early-type galaxies' stellar population scaling relations and the dependence of the population properties on local environment, extended to the low-σ regime of dEs. The ages in our sample show more scatter at lower σ values, indicative of less massive galaxies being affected by the environment to a higher degree. The shape of the age-σ relations for cluster versus non-cluster galaxies suggests that cluster environment speeds up the placing of galaxies on the red sequence. While the scaling relations are tighter for cluster than for the field/group objects, we find no evidence for a difference in average population characteristics of the two samples. We investigate the properties of our sample in the Virgo cluster as a function of number density (rather than simple clustrocentric distance) and find that dE ages correlate with the local density such that galaxies in regions of lower density are younger, likely because they are later arrivals to the cluster or have experienced less pre-processing in groups, and consequently used up their gas reservoir more recently. Overall, dE properties correlate more strongly with density than those of massive ETGs, which was expected as less massive galaxies are more susceptible to external influences.

  16. Santa soja: narrativa documental em fotolivro

    OpenAIRE

    Seidl, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    A partir do fotolivro Santa Soja como objeto e do resgate histórico das práticas jornalísticas de reportagem e de edição por meio de entrevistas com os cinco autores, esta pesquisa busca identificar o fotolivro como formato potencializador do fotodocumentarismo. Para tanto, foi proposta uma localização conceitual sobre o fotolivro, a linguagem e a narrativa fotográfica e sobre a vocação historiográfica e testemunhal da fotografia, a fim de contextualizar uma análise do fotolivro Santa Soja qu...

  17. A vitivinicultura de altitude em Santa Catarina

    OpenAIRE

    Losso, Flavia Baratieri

    2016-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geografia, Florianópolis, 2016. O presente estudo analisou as relações entre a formação sócio-espacial, a produção e o consumo de vinhos finos de altitude em Santa Catarina como indutores do desenvolvimento do Enoturismo no Estado mediante o entendimento de que este tipo de turismo poderá intervir na economia do vinho, agregando valor e influenciando o consumo des...

  18. Tectonics of the northern Venezuelan Andes from satellite images analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhont, D.; Backé, G.; Hervouët, Y.

    2003-04-01

    The northern part of the Venezuelan (or Merida) Andes is a complex area comprising a Cretaceous to Quaternary sedimentary sequence that recorded two main stages of deformation: (1) the uplifting of the Carribean belt in the Cretaceous-Eocene (Carribean stage), which is superimposed by (2) the building of the Venezuelan Andes since the Miocene (Andean stage). The study area is located at the junction between the Merida Andes and the Caribbean belt, and constitutes a key zone to understand the transition between these two orogens. Our aim is to implement the structural mapping in order to propose a new model of deformation at regional scale. The methodology is based on analysis of Landsat TM, SPOT, radarsat and DEM images, and is complemented by geological studies in the field. Integration of this complementary data set into a GIS enables a new understanding of the tectonics of the northern Venezuelan Andes during the Neogene-Quaternary. We focused on three main areas where the structures are clearly exposed. In the Mene Grande area, our structural analysis allows to precise the geometry and timing of deformations. The Cerro la Galera anticline is a fault bend fold propagating to the SW that developped along the Burro Negro fault during the Eocene-Oligocene and then eroded. The Cerro La Luna (or Cerro Misoa) is a pop-up structure that developped later during the Andean stage. In the Jirajara area, we have evidenced a releasing-bend basin at left-stepping offset of the Valera fault. To the east, this basin is surrounded by the relief of the Serrania de Jirajara which gravitationally collapses towards the lowland of the basin. In the Sierra de Barragua area, we mapped the left-lateral strike-slip Rio Diquiva fault 25 km east of the Valera fault. This fault is a major structure bounding two distincts areas of sedimentation during the Eocene. The synthesis of these observations shows that the northern Venezuelan Andes consist in a mosaic of independent crustal blocks

  19. Karim Benmiloud et Alba Lara-Alengrin, Tres escritoras mexicanas. Elena Poniatwoska, Ana García Bergua, Cristina Rivera Garza

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Las Presses Universitaires de Rennes acaban de publicar un volumen de crítica sobre tres escritoras mexicanas contemporáneas : Elena Poniatwoska, Ana García Bergua y Cristina Rivera Garza. El libro reúne dieciocho estudios de especialistas en la literatura y la cultura de ese país, y se completa con una introducción de los dos coordinadores, con una conclusión (“colofón”) de Alba Lara-Alengrin y con tres textos de presentación de las tres autoras. En estas páginas, las escritoras vuelven sobr...

  20. Santa Rosa, California: Solar in Action (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    This brochure provides an overview of the challenges and successes of Santa Rosa, CA, a 2008 Solar America City awardee, on the path toward becoming a solar-powered community. Accomplishments, case studies, key lessons learned, and local resource information are given.

  1. Polimorfismos hematológicos en Santa Rosa de los Pastos Grandes (Salta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caruso, Graciela

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Al igual que otras localidades puneñas, Santa Rosa de los Pastos Grandes (Departamento Los Andes, provincia de Salta, Argentina es una población pequeña (114 habitantes y se encuentra parcialmente aislada, por lo que es de interés la evaluación de sus niveles de endogamia asociados a la microdiferenciación. Se extrajeron muestras de sangre y se determinaron los grupos sanguíneos: ABO, MN, Ss, Cc, Dd, Ee, P, Diego y Kell-Cellano. Se calcularon las frecuencias génicas, genotípicas y haplotípicas, poniéndose a prueba la hipótesis del equilibrio. Se obtuvieron medidas de variabilidad y se estimó el Indice de Fijación (F para los sistemas MN, Ss, Cc y Ee a fin de detectar efectos de endogamia. Tres sistemas (Dd, Diego y Kell-Cellano resultaron monomórficos para los alelos D, Di*b y k. El locus ABO presenta los alelos I*O (0,982 y I*B (0,018. Según datos de familia, los fenotipos I*B son heterozigotos por flujo génico. Tres loci (MN, Ss y Ee no se encuentran en equilibrio, y presentan deficiencia de heterozigotos. Estos loci presentan Indices de Fijación (F positivos y significativamente diferentes de cero, debido a los efectos de endogamia. Es destacable la ausencia de Di*a del Sistema Diego ya que es considerado marcador de poblaciones americanas. Santa Rosa presenta variabilidad genética reducida: Heterozigosis Media (H = 0,136. Tres loci monomórficos, la falta de equilibrio en algunos sistemas, y los valores de H y de F, demuestran los efectos de la deriva.

  2. Steady-state exhumation pattern in the central Andes SE Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz, G.M.H.; Carlotto, V.; van Heiningen, P.S.; Andriessen, P.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Western Cordillera of SE Peru is part of the Central Andes and is situated to the west of the Eastern Andes from which it is separated by the northern termination of the Altiplano - the Inter-Andean Valley. It is a volcanic-volcano-detrital chain that developed in the Palaeogene, and is

  3. Preliminary geologic map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area, Santa Barbara County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Scott A.; Kellogg, Karl S.; Stanley, Richard G.; Stone, Paul; Powell, Charles L.; Gurrola, Larry D.; Selting, Amy J.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a new geologic digital map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area at a compilation scale of 1:24,000 (one inch on the map = 2,000 feet on the ground) and with a horizontal positional accuracy of at least 20 m. This preliminary map depicts the distribution of bedrock units and surficial deposits and associated deformation underlying and adjacent to the coastal plain within the contiguous Santa Barbara and Goleta 7.5' quadrangles. A planned second version will extend the mapping westward into the adjoining Dos Pueblos Canyon quadrangle and eastward into the Carpinteria quadrangle. The mapping presented here results from the collaborative efforts of geologists with the U.S. Geological Survey Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP) (Minor, Kellogg, Stanley, Stone, and Powell) and the tectonic geomorphology research group at the University of California at Santa Barbara (Gurrola and Selting). C.L. Powell, II, performed all new fossil identifications and interpretations reported herein. T.R. Brandt designed and edited the GIS database,performed GIS database integration and created the digital cartography for the map layout. The Santa Barbara coastal plain is located in the western Transverse Ranges physiographic province along a west-trending segment of the southern California coastline about 100 km (62 mi) northwest of Los Angeles. The coastal plain region, which extends from the Santa Ynez Mountains on the north to the Santa Barbara Channel on the south, is underlain by numerous active and potentially active folds and partly buried thrust faults of the Santa Barbara fold and fault belt. Strong earthquakes that occurred in the region in 1925 (6.8 magnitude) and 1978 (5.1 magnitude) are evidence that such structures pose a significant earthquake hazard to the approximately 200,000 people living within the major coastal population centers of Santa Barbara and Goleta. Also, young landslide deposits along the steep lower flank of the Santa

  4. Is tourism damaging ecosystems in the Andes? Current knowledge and an agenda for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Agustina; Monz, Christopher; Pickering, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Despite the popularity of tourism and recreation in the Andes in South America and the regions conservation value, there is limited research on the ecological impacts of these types of anthropogenic use. Using a systematic quantitative literature review method, we found 47 recreation ecology studies from the Andes, 25 of which used an experimental design. Most of these were from the Southern Andes in Argentina (13 studies) or Chile (eight studies) with only four studies from the Northern Andes. These studies documented a range of impacts on vegetation, birds and mammals; including changes in plant species richness, composition and vegetation cover and the tolerance of wildlife of visitor use. There was little research on the impacts of visitors on soils and aquatic systems and for some ecoregions in the Andes. We identify research priorities across the region that will enhance management strategies to minimise visitor impacts in Andean ecosystems.

  5. Book review, Animali da compagnia: tutele – diritti – responsabilità, Elena Bassoli (a cura di

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Graziani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available L'avvocato, docente universitario e presidente dell'Associazione Nazionale Giuristi Informatici e Forensi, Elena Bassoli, ha curato un manuale che affronta le problematiche relative ai diritti degli animali, approfondendo prima la legislazione internazionale e poi le singole pieghe di quella italiana. Il dato da cui si parte sembra secondario ma, invero, è assai rilevante, ovvero che nel nostro Paese si è passati molto lentamente da una concezione esclusivamente utilitaristica degli animali (tutelati in quanto proprietà di qualcuno all'affermazione dei diritti propri dell'animale in quanto tale.Animali da compagnia: tutele – diritti – responsabilità è utile soprattutto alla luce dei Trattati internazionali (D.U.D.A., Trattato di Amsterdam, Trattato di Lisbona che nel corso degli anni hanno introdotto la tutela dell'animale nelle legislazioni di tutto il mondo. La curatrice e i collaboratori hanno analizzato la recente giurisprudenza sugli animali da compagnia e le varie fonti del diritto nazionale, europeo e internazionale, passando in rassegna le norme di riferimento e indicandone l'applicabilità e le procedure con il fine dichiarato di: "Offrire al lettore uno strumento utile, rigoroso e scritto in modo chiaro e comprensibile anche per chi, per la prima volta, si trovi ad affrontare questa parte del diritto". Il manuale si presenta precipuamente come uno strumento di lavoro per i professionisti che trattano le problematiche relative al mondo degli animali domestici. Va segnalata, in proposito, la chiarezza non solo nell'esposizione dei concetti ma anche nell'architettura editoriale. I 10 capitoli che lo compongono forniscono un inquadramento sistematico delle implicazioni amministrative e penali, con rimandi a diverse note per una maggiore chiarezza del testo: dalle origini del diritto animale (dall'antica Grecia all'animalismo contemporaneo, con in mezzo Medioevo, Rinascimento e Darwinismo passando alla tutela degli animali nell

  6. Andes Mountain Snow Distribution, Properties, and Trend: 1979-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mernild, Sebastian H.; Liston, Glen E.; Hiemstra, Christopher A.

    2015-04-01

    Andes snow presence, absence, properties, and water amount are key components of Earth's changing climate system that incur far-reaching physical ramifications. Modeling developments permit relatively high-resolution (4-km horizontal grid; 3-h time step) Andes snow estimates for 1979-2014. SnowModel, in conjunction with land cover, topography, and 35-years of NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) atmospheric reanalysis data, was used to create a spatially distributed, time-evolving, snow-related dataset that included air temperature, snow precipitation, snow-season timing and length, maximum snow water equivalent depth, and average snow density. Regional variability is a dominant feature of the modeled snow-property trends from an area northeast of Quito (latitude: 2.65°S to 0.23°N) to Patagonia (latitude: 52.15°S to 46.44°S). For example, the Quito area annual snow cover area changed -45%, -43% around Cusco (latitude: 14.75°S to 12.52°S), -5% east of Santiago (including the Olivares Basin), and 25% in Patagonia. The annual snow covered area for the entire Andes decreased 13%, mainly in the elevation band between 4,000-5,000 m a.s.l. In spite of strong regional variability, the data clearly show a general positive trend in mean annual air temperature and precipitation, and a decreasing trend in snow precipitation, snow precipitation days, and snow density. Also, the snow-cover onset is later and the snow-cover duration - the number of snow cover days - decreased.

  7. Trigger Analysis and Modelling of Very Large Debris Flows in Santa Teresa, Cusco, Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buis, Daniel; Huggel, Christian; Frey, Holger; Giráldez, Claudia; Rohrer, Mario; Christen, Marc; Portocarrero, César

    2014-05-01

    The Peruvian Andes have repeatedly been affected by large mass movements such as landslides, avalanches and debris flows. In 1998, two very large debris flows in the region of Machu Picchu (Sacsara and Ahobamba), southern Peru, destroyed the town of Santa Teresa, an important hydropower scheme and further infrastructure. The debris flows on the order of 5 to 25 million m3 volume rank among the largest recently observed events of this type worldwide. Despite their extreme dimensions, these events have not been studied in detail. An important limitation for more insight studies is the remote location of the mass flows and the very sparse information and data available for the study region. Neither triggering processes nor mass flow process characteristics have been understood to date. This study tries to fill some of these gaps in understanding that are critical to improved assessment of hazards and eventual risk reduction measures. For the trigger analysis we used data and information from field work, a limited number of ground based meteorological data, and complementary satellite derived data. Results indicate that in the case of the Sacsara event, heavy rainfall likely was a main trigger. For Ahobamba, antecedent rainfall as well as snow and ice melt leading to saturation of glacial sediments must have played an important role. Simulations with a dynamic debris flow model (RAMMS) allowed us to constrain a number of flow parameters such as flow height and velocity, runout distance and flow and deposition volumes. Strong surging flow behavior was detected, resulting in very large runout distance (exceeding 20 km); which rather depends on the largest single surge volume, not the total event volume. Based on the identification of potential mass flow sources we modeled a number of scenarios. The assessment of related hazards, including a preliminary hazard map, showed that several communities in catchments draining towards Santa Teresa are endangered by mass movements

  8. Linchamientos y conflicto político en Los Andes Lynchings and Political conflict in The Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos M. Vilas

    2007-01-01

    En 2004, los alcaldes de dos municipalidades de la región aimara de los Andes fueron linchados en la aparente culminación de agudos conflictos políticos internos y entre las respectivas comunidades y el Estado central. En este artículo se discuten ambos casos con el fin de ilustrar las transformaciones experimentadas en años recientes en la organización y la dinámica interna de las comunidades andinas, y de la articulación conflictiva de la política local en los procesos e instituciones de má...

  9. Sea Level Rise in Santa Clara County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milesi, Cristina

    2005-01-01

    Presentation by Cristina Milesi, First Author, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA at the "Meeting the Challenge of Sea Level Rise in Santa Clara County" on June 19, 2005 Santa Clara County, bordering with the southern portion of the San Francisco Bay, is highly vulnerable to flooding and to sea level rise (SLR). In this presentation, the latest sea level rise projections for the San Francisco Bay will be discussed in the context of extreme water height frequency and extent of flooding vulnerability. I will also present preliminary estimations of levee requirements and possible mitigation through tidal restoration of existing salt ponds. The examples will draw mainly from the work done by the NASA Climate Adaptation Science Investigators at NASA Ames.

  10. EFECTOS PSICOSOCIALES Y CULTURALES DEL DESPLAZAMIENTO. MARTHA NUBIA BELLO, ELENA MARTÍN CARDINAL Y FERNANDO JIOVANI ARIAS (EDITORES. UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL DE COLOMBIA, DIVISIÓN DE EXTENSIÓN: PIUPC; SANTAFE DE BOGOTÁ, 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Lima

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A través de los editores, Martha Nubia Bello, Elena Martín Cardinal y Fernando Jiovani Arias, varios autorizados/as autores/as nos entregan interesantes artículos, sobre los efectos psicosociales y culturales del Desplazamiento forzado en Colombia.

  11. José María Díez Borque, dir., Álvaro Bustos Táuler and Elena Di Pinto Revuelta, eds., Hacia el gracioso: Comicidad en el teatro español del siglo XVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Gómez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Review of José María Díez Borque, dir., Álvaro Bustos Táuler and Elena Di Pinto Revuelta, eds., Hacia el gracioso: Comicidad en el teatro español del siglo XVI, Visor Libros, Madrid, 2014, 236 pp. ISBN: 9788498951547.

  12. Cómo mejorar las competencias de los docentes. Guía para la autoevaluación y el desarrollo de las competencias del profesorado (Autora: Elena Cano García. Barcelona: Editorial Graó, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Bausela-Herreras

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Publicación: Cómo mejorar las competencias de los docentes. Guía para la autoevaluación y el desarrollo de las competencias del profesorado (Autora: Elena Cano García. Barcelona: Editorial Graó, 2005

  13. Tectonic control of erosion in the southern Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val, Pedro; Venerdini, Agostina L.; Ouimet, William; Alvarado, Patricia; Hoke, Gregory D.

    2018-01-01

    Landscape evolution modeling and global compilations of exhumation data indicate that a wetter climate, mainly through orographic rainfall, can govern the spatial distribution of erosion rates and crustal strain across an orogenic wedge. However, detecting this link is not straightforward since these relationships can be modulated by tectonic forcing and/or obscured by heavy-tailed frequencies of catchment discharge. This study combines new and published along-strike average rates of catchment erosion constrained by 10Be and river-gauge data in the Central Andes between 28°S and 36°S. These data reveal a nearly identical latitudinal pattern in erosion rates on both sides of the range, reaching a maximum of 0.27 mm/a near 34°S. Collectively, data on topographic and fluvial relief, variability of rainfall and discharge, and crustal seismicity suggest that the along-strike pattern of erosion rates in the southern Central Andes is largely independent of climate, but closely relates to the N-S distribution of shallow crustal seismicity and diachronous surface uplift. The consistently high erosion rates on either side of the orogen near 34°S imply that climate plays a secondary role in the mass flux through an orogenic wedge where the perturbation to base level is similar on both sides.

  14. [Anophelines of Santa Catarina (Diptera: culicidae), Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portes, Maria da Graça Teixeira; Rossi, Juliana Chedid Nogared; Nascimento, João Cezar do; Zeccer, Suzana; Silva, Luis Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The Amazon region of Brazil is endemic for malaria. In the State of Santa Catarina, malaria was eliminated in the 1980s. Since then, a few sporadic isolated autochthonous cases have occurred. However, because malaria vectors are present within Brazilian territory and extensive endemic areas exist in this country, along with the great mobility of people in tourist areas of Santa Catarina, there is the likelihood of reintroduction of the disease. The following data were used: the database of the Entomology Group of the National Health Foundation, Santa Catarina (ACCES, 1997-2000); the epidemiological surveillance information system of the Health Surveillance Department (Malaria/SC); and the notifiable disease information system (SINAN/SC). These data were transferred to and analyzed in the Microsoft Office Excel 2007 software. Collections were carried out in 48 municipalities and 159 localities, and 12,310 culicids, 11,546 anophelines (93.7%) and 764 others (6.2%) were identified. Three subgenera and 13 species of anophelines were identified. Given that in the municipalities investigated, important vectors such as Anopheles cruzii and Anopheles albitasis were found to be present, with movements of infected individuals from endemic areas, these areas can be considered to be receptive and vulnerable to malaria. These species are suspected of being responsible for malaria transmission in this region, especially in the municipalities of Gaspar, Indaial and Rodeio.

  15. Adapting to Uncertain Futures: Glacier Recession and Livelihood Vulnerability in the Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, J.

    2008-12-01

    With a large portion of the world's population dependent on hydrologic resources linked to tropical glaciers, the decline of these natural "water towers" has important repercussions for the social and ecological systems that depend on these vital reservoirs of freshwater. In Peru's Cordillera Blanca (the highest and most extensively glaciated range in the tropics) glacial melt water makes up a critical percentage of the discharge of a wide array of water courses, ranging from first-order, highland streams to the Rio Santa, one of the largest and most economically important rivers on Peru's Pacific slope. Climate change-induced warming is occurring rapidly in this region and glaciers have lost a significant percentage of their mass in the past 50 years. While there have been indications that significant and temporary increases in glacial meltwater discharge flows will take place, predictions for the coming decades suggest that these flows will decrease and be more variable across seasons in even the most glaciated catchments of the range. Current population levels and patterns of water use in the Central Andes suggest that many human communities are highly vulnerable to decreasing or variable quantities of water and other changes associated with climate change. Here will be presented the first results from two years of field work assessing human vulnerability to increasing hydrological variability due to glacier-recession and evaluating how changing access to water resources is contributing to livelihood adaptation and potential conflicts over resources in the Cordillera Blanca region of Peru. The findings are drawn from stratified case-study research in two communities and are comprised of an extensive set of key interviews with national, regional and local key informants and semi-structured household surveys that were sampled utilizing stratified systematic unaligned techniques. The results provide insights into key elements of household vulnerability, how

  16. Adaptive institutions? Peasant institutions and natural models facing climatic and economic changes in the Colombian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feola, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    In the Colombian Andes, peasants have co-evolved with their environment for centuries, but it is uncertain whether traditional informal institutions and natural models are adapting to current and possibly unprecedented economic and climatic disturbances. This study investigated institutional

  17. A new species of Trechisibus from Peruvian Andes (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Trechinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Delgado

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work the new species Trechisibus (s. str. delestali sp. n., is described from the southern Peruvian Andes. The morphological differences with the geographically closest species of the subgenus are also presented and discussed.

  18. Reconnaissance Report for Navigation Improvements (Reduction of Shoaling) at Santa Cruz Harbor Santa Cruz County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    Central California Coast. Ghost Town Publications, Canmel CA 93921. Rickets , Edward F., Jack Calvin & Joel W. Hedgepeth. 1985. Between Pacific Tides...banning of DDT, birds have begun to return in force. The brown pelican now breeds in waters of southern California and Mexico and migrate into the Santa

  19. ANDES: Statistical tools for the ANalyses of DEep Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denison Mark R

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The advancements in DNA sequencing technologies have allowed researchers to progress from the analyses of a single organism towards the deep sequencing of a sample of organisms. With sufficient sequencing depth, it is now possible to detect subtle variations between members of the same species, or between mixed species with shared biomarkers, such as the 16S rRNA gene. However, traditional sequencing analyses of samples from largely homogeneous populations are often still based on multiple sequence alignments (MSA, where each sequence is placed along a separate row and similarities between aligned bases can be followed down each column. While this visual format is intuitive for a small set of aligned sequences, the representation quickly becomes cumbersome as sequencing depths cover loci hundreds or thousands of reads deep. Findings We have developed ANDES, a software library and a suite of applications, written in Perl and R, for the statistical ANalyses of DEep Sequencing. The fundamental data structure underlying ANDES is the position profile, which contains the nucleotide distributions for each genomic position resultant from a multiple sequence alignment (MSA. Tools include the root mean square deviation (RMSD plot, which allows for the visual comparison of multiple samples on a position-by-position basis, and the computation of base conversion frequencies (transition/transversion rates, variation (Shannon entropy, inter-sample clustering and visualization (dendrogram and multidimensional scaling (MDS plot, threshold-driven consensus sequence generation and polymorphism detection, and the estimation of empirically determined sequencing quality values. Conclusions As new sequencing technologies evolve, deep sequencing will become increasingly cost-efficient and the inter and intra-sample comparisons of largely homogeneous sequences will become more common. We have provided a software package and demonstrated its

  20. Late Pleistocene glacial fluctuations in Cordillera Oriental, subtropical Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Mateo A.; Kaplan, Michael R.; Strelin, Jorge A.; Astini, Ricardo A.; Schaefer, Joerg M.; Caffee, Marc W.; Schwartz, Roseanne

    2017-09-01

    The behavior of subtropical glaciers during Middle to Late Pleistocene global glacial maxima and abrupt climate change events, specifically in Earth's most arid low-latitude regions, remains an outstanding problem in paleoclimatology. The present-day climate of Cordillera Oriental, in arid northwestern Argentina, is influenced by shifts in subtropical climate systems, including the South American Summer Monsoon. To understand better past glacier-subtropical climates during the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 26.5-19 ka) and other time periods, we combined geomorphic features with forty-two precise 10Be ages on moraine boulders and reconstructed paleo-equilibrium line altitudes (ELA) at Nevado de Chañi (24°S) in the arid subtropical Andes. We found a major glacial expansion at ∼23 ± 1.6 ka, that is, during the global LGM. Additional glacial expansions are observed before the global LGM (at ∼52-39 ka), and after, at 15 ± 0.5 and 12 ± 0.6 ka. The ∼15 ka glacial event was found on both sides of Chañi and the ∼12 ka event is only recorded on the east side. Reconstructed ELAs of the former glaciers exhibit a rise from east to west that resembles the present subtropical climate trajectory from the Atlantic side of the continent; hence, we infer that this climate pattern must have been present in the past. Based on comparison with other low-latitude paleoclimate records, such as those from lakes and caves, we infer that both temperature and precipitation influenced past glacial occurrence in this sector of the arid Andes. Our findings also imply that abrupt deglacial climate events associated with the North Atlantic, specifically curtailed meridional overturning circulation and regional cooling, may have had attendant impacts on low subtropical Southern Hemisphere latitudes, including the climate systems that affect glacial activity around Nevado de Chañi.

  1. Complex brittle deformation pattern along the Southern Patagonian Andes (Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberón, Vanesa; Sue, Christian; Ronda, Gonzalo; Ghiglione, Matías

    2016-04-01

    The Southern Patagonian Andes is located in the southern extreme of the Pacific subduction zone, where the Antartic oceanic plate sinks underneath South America. The history of the area begins with compression during Paleozoic, Jurassic extension associated to the rift and opening of the South Atlantic Ocean, then a sag stage in the Lower Cretaceous followed by a foreland phase as a result of plate tectonics (Ghiglione et al., 2016). The kinematic study is concentrated in the Argentinean foothills, between 46°40' and 48° SL. We measured around 800 fault planes and their striaes with the sense of movement in order to characterize the stress field. The software used to make the stress inversion were Tensor (Delvaux, 2011) and Multiple Inverse Method MIM (Yamaji et al., 2011). The stress field map was built with the results of the MIM. We present new data from 48 sites located in the northern sector of the Southern Patagonian Andes. The measurements were made in several rocks from Paleozoic to Lower Cretaceous, even though most were taken in pyroclastic jurassic rocks from El Quemado Complex. Paleostress tensors obtained are mostly strike-slip, although a 25% is normal and there are a few compresional. The pattern of faults found is complex. In some sites the tensor can be locally linked to satellite images and observations from the field or be related to a major thrust front. There is no clear correlation between the age and/or lithology with the tensor since the youngest rocks measured are Lower Cretaceous. Probably there are several generations of family faults connected to different and recent tectonic phases then the paleostress tensors might correspond to the latest tectonic events.

  2. PROTOPLANETARY DISK STRUCTURE WITH GRAIN EVOLUTION: THE ANDES MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimkin, V.; Wiebe, D.; Pavlyuchenkov, Ya.; Zhukovska, S.; Semenov, D.; Henning, Th.; Vasyunin, A.; Birnstiel, T.

    2013-01-01

    We present a self-consistent model of a protoplanetary disk: 'ANDES' ('AccretioN disk with Dust Evolution and Sedimentation'). ANDES is based on a flexible and extendable modular structure that includes (1) a 1+1D frequency-dependent continuum radiative transfer module, (2) a module to calculate the chemical evolution using an extended gas-grain network with UV/X-ray-driven processes and surface reactions, (3) a module to calculate the gas thermal energy balance, and (4) a 1+1D module that simulates dust grain evolution. For the first time, grain evolution and time-dependent molecular chemistry are included in a protoplanetary disk model. We find that grain growth and sedimentation of large grains onto the disk midplane lead to a dust-depleted atmosphere. Consequently, dust and gas temperatures become higher in the inner disk (R ∼ 50 AU), in comparison with the disk model with pristine dust. The response of disk chemical structure to the dust growth and sedimentation is twofold. First, due to higher transparency a partly UV-shielded molecular layer is shifted closer to the dense midplane. Second, the presence of big grains in the disk midplane delays the freeze-out of volatile gas-phase species such as CO there, while in adjacent upper layers the depletion is still effective. Molecular concentrations and thus column densities of many species are enhanced in the disk model with dust evolution, e.g., CO 2 , NH 2 CN, HNO, H 2 O, HCOOH, HCN, and CO. We also show that time-dependent chemistry is important for a proper description of gas thermal balance.

  3. Glacial lakes of the Central and Patagonian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ryan; Glasser, Neil F.; Reynolds, John M.; Harrison, Stephan; Anacona, Pablo Iribarren; Schaefer, Marius; Shannon, Sarah

    2018-03-01

    The prevalence and increased frequency of high-magnitude Glacial Lake Outburst Floods (GLOFs) in the Chilean and Argentinean Andes suggests this region will be prone to similar events in the future as glaciers continue to retreat and thin under a warming climate. Despite this situation, monitoring of glacial lake development in this region has been limited, with past investigations only covering relatively small regions of Patagonia. This study presents new glacial lake inventories for 1986, 2000 and 2016, covering the Central Andes, Northern Patagonia and Southern Patagonia. Our aim was to characterise the physical attributes, spatial distribution and temporal development of glacial lakes in these three sub-regions using Landsat satellite imagery and image datasets available in Google Earth and Bing Maps. Glacial lake water volume was also estimated using an empirical area-volume scaling approach. Results reveal that glacial lakes across the study area have increased in number (43%) and areal extent (7%) between 1986 and 2016. Such changes equate to a glacial lake water volume increase of 65 km3 during the 30-year observation period. However, glacial lake growth and emergence was shown to vary sub-regionally according to localised topography, meteorology, climate change, rate of glacier change and the availability of low gradient ice areas. These and other factors are likely to influence the occurrence of GLOFs in the future. This analysis represents the first large-scale census of glacial lakes in Chile and Argentina and will allow for a better understanding of lake development in this region, as well as, providing a basis for future GLOF risk assessments.

  4. PRECENCIA DE LOS NEGROS EN SANTA MARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Rey Sinning

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Partimos de señalar que las investigaciones sobre los negros en la Provincia de Santa Marta, son escasas; sin embargo, podemos afirmar que dos trabajos dan cuenta de su presencia en la ciudad y en todo su territorio. El primero, de ellos es la reciente publicación sobre la esclavitud entre los años 1791- 1851, de Dolcey Romero Jaramillo que revisa el papel de los negros en dicha provincia y ciudad. El otro es nuestro estudio sobre 10s negros llegados a Santa Marta desde el Departamento de Bolívar, en la década de los 80 del siglo pasado, titulado "Cristo Rey: Un Espacio para permanecer en el Tiempo". El presente artículo elabora una cronología de la presencia de los negros esclavos que llegaron a Santa Marta desde 1525, año de su fundación. Se señala cómo durante los primeros años se fueron autorizando dos (2 esclavos negros para algunas personas importantes, destinados a1 servicio doméstico. Política que se comienza a modificar a partir de 1535, cuando se le autorizan cien (100 esclavos al Gobernador Pedro Fernández de Lugo, y desde entonces, es importante su presencia en oficios varios, sobre todo en las actividades de las haciendas cercanas a Santa Marta, hasta el siglo XIX. A finales de ese siglo y comienzos del XX, es significativa su vinculación a] muelle -más tarde puerto-, como "muelleros" o "portuarios", asumiendo la responsabilidad de garantizar las actividades de carga y descarga del puerto samario. Igualmente se muestra su papel determinante en la construcción de las líneas férreas que unirían a la ciudad-puerto con la "Zona Bananera". Es para esta última actividad, que se traen negros desde Jamaica conocidos como "yumecas", llamados "yumecas" por los samarios.

  5. Mujeres Latinas--Santas y Marquesas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Patricia

    2002-11-01

    This presidential address is a conceptualization and application of psychohistorical and mestizo psychology frameworks to address gender and ethnic identity conflicts for contemporary Latinas. Connections are made between historical and cultural icons and Latina literature of the 21st century with protagonists who give voice to the struggles of acculturated and self-empowered women. Spanish terms are used to communicate and give emphasis to the Latino landscape. The article comes to conclusion with personal reflections about María Morales de Zaldívar, or Mamá, the author's grandmother, who embodies the santa y marquesa life script.

  6. An elusive new species of Marsupial Frog (Anura: Hemiphractidae: Gastrotheca from the Andes of northern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Duellman

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of marsupial frog, genus Gastrotheca, is described from high-elevation grasslands in the Andes in Región Amazonas in northernPeru, where even calling males are well hidden in deep moss. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by its unique color pattern that includes a narrow, blackbordered, yellow middorsal stripe. The species apparently belongs to the Gastrotheca plumbea Group, which ranges in the Andes from northern Colombia to northern Peru.

  7. New ICT in the Peruvian Andes: Theoretical Foundation and Bibliographical Balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Sánchez-Dávila

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available On the one hand, this paper explains the theoretical foundations on which this proposal for digital anthropology in the Peruvian Andes is based (on the origins of digital anthropology, discussions on oral and written technology, and theories of digital technology as social practice. And, on the other hand, this paper presents a bibliographical balance of the studies on the new ICT in the Peruvian Andes (on identity expression, productive development and formal education in the Andean world.

  8. "Santa Maria" forever : Eesti ja Portugali kirjandussuhetest / Toomas Haug

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haug, Toomas, 1956-

    2012-01-01

    Jaanuaris 1961 Portugali diktaatorlikule režiimile protestiks kaaperdatud laevast "Santa Maria", mis sai omamoodi vabaduse ja vastuhaku sümboliks ka okupeeritud Eestis. Artiklis käsitletakse sellest sündmusest mõjutatud teoseid, täpsemalt Aleksander Suumanni maali "Santa Maria" ja Paul-Eerik Rummo samanimelist luuletust

  9. 27 CFR 9.31 - Santa Cruz Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Madonna Quadrangle, California”; (14) “Mindego Hill Quadrangle, California”; (15) “Morgan Hill Quadrangle... Hills Quadrangle—Santa Clara County”; (20) “Soquel Quadrangle, California—Santa Cruz County”; (21... where the 400-foot contour line and the north section line of Section 35, T. 6 S./R. 2 W, intersect...

  10. "Santa Maria" forever : Eesti ja Portugali kirjandussuhetest / Toomas Haug

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haug, Toomas, 1956-

    2015-01-01

    Jaanuaris 1961 Portugali diktaatorlikule režiimile protestiks kaaperdatud laevast "Santa Maria", mis sai omamoodi vabaduse ja vastuhaku sümboliks ka okupeeritud Eestis. Artiklis käsitletakse sellest sündmusest mõjutatud teoseid, täpsemalt Aleksander Suumanni maali "Santa Maria" ja Paul-Eerik Rummo samanimelist luuletust

  11. Free inside: The Music Class at Santa Ana Jail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Joe

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings of the music class at the Santa Ana Jail in Santa Ana, California. It gives us insight into a jail system and a music class focused on helping inmates position themselves to become productive members of society. In this article I examine how the facility encourages inmates' good behaviour and why the music class…

  12. La mujer en la gestión del agua, en el contexto de la junta regional de agua potable de Manglaralto, de la Península de Santa Elena, desde el año 2012.

    OpenAIRE

    Endara Izquierdo, Elsie Carmela

    2014-01-01

    This research was conducted to answer the question: Women Drinking Water Board Manglaralto an active role in political decision making in the control and management of drinking water have ?. For which a description of Manglaralto which consist aspects socio performed economic, population and access to basic services. Este trabajo de investigación se realizó para responder a la pregunta: ¿Tienen las mujeres de la Junta de Agua Potable de Manglaralto, un rol activo en la toma de decisión ...

  13. Estudio del polvo de vidrio obtenido de la molienda de botellas recicladas en la provincia de Santa Elena, como sustituto parcial del cemento en el hormigón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Garcés Vargas

    2016-12-01

      The present study consists in reusing glass bottle wastes by crushing and grounding them into a fineness that allows the partial substitute of cement in the concrete. This is because when glass has been finely grounded to a micron size, it acts as a high reactivity pozzolana. Cement is the main component for producing concrete; it is also the one that causes the highest impact to the environment because the clinker production requires high energy consumption.  There are studies to diminish the energy consumption, such as the substitution of fossil fuel for high calorific power residues, or by diminishing or substituting cement in construction without affecting its quality, and improving its mechanical properties. That is obtained by using materials such as flying ashes, blast furnace slags or silica fume, and the use of recycled materials, among others.  The use of recycled material in concrete supposes a double benefit: on the one hand wastes are diminished and, on the other hand, the mechanical properties of concrete can be improved.  That said, glass is a material that due to its physical and chemical properties, is an ideal candidate for recycling it in high percentage.

  14. Análisis de los sistemas de gestión del conocimiento en la empacadora grupo Granmar: división laboratorio de larvas Semacua S.A de la provincia de Santa Elena – Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Jaramillo

    2016-11-01

    The management of intangible assets that generate value for the organization are those that have to do with the processes related to the transmission of knowledge, for this reason a model of knowledge management is designed, with the use of ICT tools to streamline the process and improve the use of the access mechanisms and finding information, since those operating not currently guarantee a correct transfer of information or adequate learning, growing importance as a new production factor has turned development of technologies , methodologies and strategies to become one of the main priorities of organizations in the knowledge society. It is known that the market is increasingly competitive, which demands greater innovation in products, therefore, knowledge must be developed and assimilated more and more quickly, which is achieved by having an automated process that meets policies security for information processing. The management model is aimed at people who apply technology focused knowledge sharing, because the companies take full advantage of their knowledge, repeat not waste time tasks or perform them to share knowledge in the organization.

  15. INCIDENCIA DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN BIBLIOGRÁFICA EN EL APRENDIZAJE EN ESTUDIANTES DEL NIVEL BÁSICO DE LA CARRERA ADMINISTRACIÓN DE EMPRESAS DE UNIVERSIDAD ESTATAL PENÍNSULA DE SANTA ELENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Caiche Rosales

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de hábitos de lectura en estudiantes de educación superior representa un verdadero reto para el docente, sobre todo por que dicha práctica impulsa la capacidad de analizar y de emitir juicios de valor y consolida las bases cognitivas que recibe en el proceso de aprendizaje, Se ha identificado que, el estudiante de Administración de empresas en el desarrollo de actividades académicas cita referencias bibliográficas que, de manera mayoritaria provienen de consultas de bajo nivel académico, por otro lado, es escaso el número de referencias que incluye, esta situación limita el aprendizaje, y se refleja en los resultados de evaluación del proceso. Este trabajo plantea como objetivo determinar el efecto que tiene en el aprendizaje la implementación de una guía de investigación bibliográfica para el nivel básico en los estudiantes de la Carrera Administración de Empresas de la UPSE; para el efecto se recurre a un diseño de investigación explicativo que a través de la comparación del antes y el después permita verificar el logro de tal objetivo.   ABSTRACT The development of habits of reading in students of higher education represents a real challenge for the teacher, especially because this practice promotes the ability to analyse and make value judgments and strengthens cognitive bases in the learning process, has been identified, the student of business management in the development of academic activities cited references thatmajority way come from queries of low academic level, on the other hand, numbers, including is little, this situation limits learning, and it is reflected in the results of the process evaluation. This work is aimed at determining the effect that has on learning the implementation of a guide of bibliographic research for the basic level students of the business administration career of the UPSE; the effect is relied on to an explanatory research design which through a comparison of the before and then allow to verify the achievement of such a goal.

  16. Elaboración de hormigones que minimicen el impacto al ambiente, empleando neumáticos usados de vehículos livianos y pesados, en la provincia de Santa Elena

    OpenAIRE

    Armando Saltos

    2016-01-01

    Las llantas usadas son consideradas un foco de riesgo ambiental y sanitario a nivel mundial, por ejemplo en Ecuador se desecha al año, según la Corporación para la Promoción Proactiva de Inversiones (INVEC), cerca de 2,4 millones de neumáticos de diversos tipos, lo que equivale a 55.000 toneladas. La menor parte de ellos son reutilizados para el reencauchado, pero la gran mayoría es incinerada o depositada en basureros a cielo abierto, lo que supone una amenaza contra el medio ambiente y ries...

  17. Heavy rainfall equations for Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro José Back

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of intensity-duration-frequency (IDF relationships of rainfall events is extremely important to determine the dimensions of surface drainage structures and soil erosion control. The purpose of this study was to obtain IDF equations of 13 rain gauge stations in the state of Santa Catarina in Brazil: Chapecó, Urussanga, Campos Novos, Florianópolis, Lages, Caçador, Itajaí, Itá, Ponte Serrada, Porto União, Videira, Laguna and São Joaquim. The daily rainfall data charts of each station were digitized and then the annual maximum rainfall series were determined for durations ranging from 5 to 1440 min. Based on these, with the Gumbel-Chow distribution, the maximum rainfall was estimated for durations ranging from 5 min to 24 h, considering return periods of 2, 5, 10, 20, 25, 50, and 100 years,. Data agreement with the Gumbel-Chow model was verified by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, at 5 % significance level. For each rain gauge station, two IDF equations of rainfall events were adjusted, one for durations from 5 to 120 min and the other from 120 to 1440 min. The results show a high variability in maximum intensity of rainfall events among the studied stations. Highest values of coefficients of variation in the annual maximum series of rainfall were observed for durations of over 600 min at the stations of the coastal region of Santa Catarina.

  18. Hydrodynamic Modeling of Santa Marta's Big Marsh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldarriaga, Juan

    1991-01-01

    The ecological degradation of Santa Marta's Big Marsh and their next areas it has motivated the realization of diagnosis studies and design by several state and private entities. One of the recommended efforts for international advisory it was to develop an ecological model that allowed the handling of the water body and the economic test of alternative of solution to those ecological problems. The first part of a model of this type is in turn a model that simulates the movement of the water inside the marsh, that is to say, a hydrodynamic model. The realization of this was taken charge to the civil engineering department, on the part of Colciencias. This article contains a general explanation of the hydrodynamic pattern that this being developed by a professors group. The ecological causes are described and antecedent, the parts that conform the complex of the Santa Marta big Marsh The marsh modeling is made and it is explained in qualitative form the model type Hydrodynamic used

  19. Recursos hídricos en los Andes: Lago Titicaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available RESSOURCES EN EAUX DANS LES ANDES : LAC TITICACA. Une analyse par régression a été menée entre les variations de niveau du Lac Titicaca et les entrées du système (apports des affluents et précipitations. Les coefficients de corrélation, quoique relativement faibles, montrent aux abords du lac un effet de persistance qui diminue lorsque les stations sont éloignées du plan d’eau. L’inertie du lac se manifeste l’année suivante pour les affluents du lac et évidemment pour le lac lui-même. Ces résultats confirment la présence d’un mécanisme de rétro alimentation (effet boomerang. Cela montre que le système du Lac Titicaca est fragile, face à une utilisation excessive de ses eaux. Las regresiones estudiadas de cambios de nivel en el lago Titicaca contra precipitaciones y aportes en su cuenca, aunque relativamente bajas, muestran un efecto de persistencia en las proximidades del lago que decrece conforme las estaciones se alejan de éste. Lo que evidencia que la inercia del lago se manifiesta en el período siguiente (lag uno en los afluentes del lago y obviamente en el propio lago, fenómeno que parece confirmar la presencia de un mecanismo de retroalimentación (efecto boomerang. Este comportamiento muestra la fragilidad del lago frente a un aprovechamiento consuntivo excesivo. WATER RESOURCES IN THE ANDES: LAKE TITICACA. The studied regressions of the level changes in the Lake Titicaca versus the rainfall and the runoff in the basin, even being relatively low, show an effect of persistence in the proximity of the lake which decreases as we go away from it. This makes evident that the lake inertia manifests itself the following period (lag one in the lake tributaries and obviously in the lake itself, phenomenon which seems to confirm the presence of a feedback mechanism (boomerang effect. This behaviour shows the fragility of the lake against the excessive consumptive uses of the waters in its basin.

  20. Large slope failures in the La Paz basin, Bolivian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, N. J.; Hermanns, R. L.; Rabus, B.; Guzmán, M. A.; Minaya, E.; Clague, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The La Paz basin in the eastern Bolivian Andes has been a hotspot for large-scale, deep-seated gravitational slope deformation during the Holocene. In less than 2 Ma, a network of steep-sided valleys up to 800 m deep formed in sediments of the Altiplano Plateau and underlying basement rocks. We characterize the distribution, extent, mechanisms, and modern activity of large-scale failures within this landscape using optical image interpretation, existing geologic maps, synthetic RADAR interferometry (InSAR), and field investigation. Deposits of nearly 20 landslides larger than 100 Mm3 occur within the basin. Most failures have occurred in weakly lithified Late Miocene to Pliocene sedimentary rocks and include earth flows, translational and rotational landslides, and plug flows. Failures in underlying tectonized Paleozoic sedimentary rocks include bedding-parallel rockslides. The largest failure is the 3 km3 Achcocalla earth flow (ca. 11 ka BP), which ran out ~20 km. Other dated events span the period from the early Holocene to nearly the Colonial historic period. InSAR results show that many large slope failures, including the Achocalla earth flow, are currently moving at rates of a few centimeters to a few decimeters per year. Rapid deposition, shallow burial, and rapid incision of the basin fills produced steep slopes in weak geologic materials that, coupled with groundwater discharge from the valley walls, are the primary controls on instability. In contrast, the Altiplano surface has changed little in 2 Ma and the adjacent slopes of the Cordilleran Real, although steep, are relatively stable. Of the over 100 landslides that have occurred in the city of La Paz since the early twentieth century, most are at the margins of large, deep-seated prehistoric failures, and two of the most damaging historic landslides (Hanko-Hanko, 1582; Pampahasi, 2011) were large-scale reactivations of previously failed slopes. Improved understanding of large, deep-seated landslides in

  1. Computer Security: a plea to Santa Claus

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    Running pirated software or illegal licences, using cracking tools to bypass software activation measures, sharing music and films – these are problems that academic environments unfortunately have to deal with. All violate the copyright of the software/music/film owners, and copyright owners are not Santa Claus...    CERN, like other research organisations and universities, regularly receives allegations from external companies complaining about laptops or PCs running illegal software or sharing their films, videos or music with peers – and thus violating copyright.  Usually, we then contact the owners of the corresponding devices in order to understand whether these allegations are true. Very often such allegations boil down to a laptop whose owner replies “I confirm that a torrent client was left up and running on my device by mistake” or “This is a file that is stored on my personal hard disk.” As if those allegatio...

  2. María Elena: el fin de una experiencia urbana: Un estudio de caso en el desierto de Atacama, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN CARLOS RODRÍGUEZ TORRENT

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se plantea la relación entre la ciudad salitrera de María Elena (II Región, diseñada de acuerdo a propuestas utópicas en un territorio privado, y el cambio de las relaciones laborales entre la Compañía SQM y los trabajadores a partir del predominio de un nuevo modelo de acumulación cuyos ejes están dados por la competitividad, la producción de calidad y la globalización. La ciudad fue creada para que hombres y mujeres construyeran sus proyectos de vida en medio del Desierto de Atacama, ofreciéndoles todas las garantías y la infraestructura para que ello fuese así en los marcos de una política de pleno empleo, de modo de contener a la población en un medio inhóspito, cumplir los objetivos productivos y fortalecer una identidad coherente y cohesionada, lo que a partir de nuevas decisiones estratégicas es substituido por un modelo de flexibilidad laboral, lo que anula su definición primigenia y el interés colectivo para comenzar a dar paso a un campamento minero.In this paper we look into the relationship between the nitrate town of Maria Elena (in Region II - designed on Utopian principals as a private project - and the changing labor relations between the SQM Company and the workers as a result of the predominance of a new accumulation model guided by competitiveness, quality production and globalization. The town was created so that men and women could establish their livelihoods in the Atacama Desert, with guarantees and infrastructure based on a full employment policy. This was in order to anchor the population in this inhospitable environment, to meet production objectives and to strengthen a coherent and cohesive identity. New strategic decisions led to this model being replaced by one based on labour flexibilization, deleting its original intention and collective interest to give way to a mining camp.

  3. Salud intercultural: el ciclo vital en los andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Santa María

    Full Text Available Se presenta las teorías e ideas más relevantes sobre el ciclo vital en los Andes, y su relación con el desarrollo humano y la salud. El ciclo vital no es un fenómeno inmutable, el número de etapas y su significado está pautado histórica y culturalmente. Se realiza un análisis comparativo con la teoría de Freud y Erikson. Se concluye que el aporte de la cultura andina se centra en: 1 Cada etapa del desarrollo humano está asociada a procesos productivos y reproductivos de la vida en relación, así como a un adecuado equilibrio entre derechos y deberes en la vida en sociedad; 2 La pareja es la unidad social básica, y no el individuo. Es un aporte para el diseño de intervenciones sanitarias con enfoque intercultural.

  4. Use and legacy of mercury in the Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Colin A; Hintelmann, Holger; Ague, Jay J; Burger, Richard; Biester, Harald; Sachs, Julian P; Engstrom, Daniel R

    2013-05-07

    Both cinnabar (HgS) and metallic mercury (Hg(0)) were important resources throughout Andean prehistory. Cinnabar was used for millennia to make vermillion, a red pigment that was highly valued in pre-Hispanic Peru; metallic Hg(0) has been used since the mid-16th century to conduct mercury amalgamation, an efficient process of extracting precious metals from ores. However, little is known about which cinnabar deposits were exploited by pre-Hispanic cultures, and the environmental consequences of Hg mining and amalgamation remain enigmatic. Here we use Hg isotopes to source archeological cinnabar and to fingerprint Hg pollution preserved in lake sediment cores from Peru and the Galápagos Islands. Both pre-Inca (pre-1400 AD) and Colonial (1532-1821 AD) archeological artifacts contain cinnabar that matches isotopically with cinnabar ores from Huancavelica, Peru, the largest cinnabar-bearing district in Central and South America. In contrast, the Inca (1400-1532 AD) artifacts sampled are characterized by a unique Hg isotopic composition. In addition, preindustrial (i.e., pre-1900 AD) Hg pollution preserved in lake sediments matches closely the isotopic composition of cinnabar from the Peruvian Andes. Industrial-era Hg pollution, in contrast, is distinct isotopically from preindustrial emissions, suggesting that pre- and postindustrial Hg emissions may be distinguished isotopically in lake sediment cores.

  5. Meteorological Conditions of Floods In The Chilean Andes Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, J.

    Catastrophic floods occurred on mountains River during 2000 and 2001. The meteo- rological conditions of flood during the last five years have analyzed. For example, the flood of June 29 of 2000 occurred after one of extremely wettest June of the last 40 years were snowfall was 991cm in the Aconcagua Valley. Infrequently storms activ- ity generated a huge snowfall and rainfall over the Andes mountains on June of 2000 (1525mm in El Maule Valley) and the end of the unusually period, the flood was trig- gered by rising temperatures on the mountains and heavy rain (199mm in 24 hours) fall over the fresh snow on the morning of June 29 and floods wave developed and moved down along of the all river located on Central part of Chile, the foods peak was 2970.5m3/s on the El Maule basin in the morning of June 29. The regional meteoro- logical models with the hydrological forecasting was used for alert of the floods.

  6. Fragmentation of Andes-to-Amazon connectivity by hydropower dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Elizabeth P; Jenkins, Clinton N; Heilpern, Sebastian; Maldonado-Ocampo, Javier A; Carvajal-Vallejos, Fernando M; Encalada, Andrea C; Rivadeneira, Juan Francisco; Hidalgo, Max; Cañas, Carlos M; Ortega, Hernan; Salcedo, Norma; Maldonado, Mabel; Tedesco, Pablo A

    2018-01-01

    Andes-to-Amazon river connectivity controls numerous natural and human systems in the greater Amazon. However, it is being rapidly altered by a wave of new hydropower development, the impacts of which have been previously underestimated. We document 142 dams existing or under construction and 160 proposed dams for rivers draining the Andean headwaters of the Amazon. Existing dams have fragmented the tributary networks of six of eight major Andean Amazon river basins. Proposed dams could result in significant losses in river connectivity in river mainstems of five of eight major systems-the Napo, Marañón, Ucayali, Beni, and Mamoré. With a newly reported 671 freshwater fish species inhabiting the Andean headwaters of the Amazon (>500 m), dams threaten previously unrecognized biodiversity, particularly among endemic and migratory species. Because Andean rivers contribute most of the sediment in the mainstem Amazon, losses in river connectivity translate to drastic alteration of river channel and floodplain geomorphology and associated ecosystem services.

  7. Over three millennia of mercury pollution in the Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Colin A.; Balcom, Prentiss H.; Biester, Harald; Wolfe, Alexander P.

    2009-01-01

    We present unambiguous records of preindustrial atmospheric mercury (Hg) pollution, derived from lake-sediment cores collected near Huancavelica, Peru, the largest Hg deposit in the New World. Intensive Hg mining first began ca. 1400 BC, predating the emergence of complex Andean societies, and signifying that the region served as a locus for early Hg extraction. The earliest mining targeted cinnabar (HgS) for the production of vermillion. Pre-Colonial Hg burdens peak ca. 500 BC and ca. 1450 AD, corresponding to the heights of the Chavín and Inca states, respectively. During the Inca, Colonial, and industrial intervals, Hg pollution became regional, as evidenced by a third lake record ≈225 km distant from Huancavelica. Measurements of sediment-Hg speciation reveal that cinnabar dust was initially the dominant Hg species deposited, and significant increases in deposition were limited to the local environment. After conquest by the Inca (ca. 1450 AD), smelting was adopted at the mine and Hg pollution became more widely circulated, with the deposition of matrix-bound phases of Hg predominating over cinnabar dust. Our results demonstrate the existence of a major Hg mining industry at Huancavelica spanning the past 3,500 years, and place recent Hg enrichment in the Andes in a broader historical context. PMID:19451629

  8. Linchamientos y conflicto político en Los Andes Lynchings and Political conflict in The Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M. Vilas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En 2004, los alcaldes de dos municipalidades de la región aimara de los Andes fueron linchados en la aparente culminación de agudos conflictos políticos internos y entre las respectivas comunidades y el Estado central. En este artículo se discuten ambos casos con el fin de ilustrar las transformaciones experimentadas en años recientes en la organización y la dinámica interna de las comunidades andinas, y de la articulación conflictiva de la política local en los procesos e instituciones de más amplio alcance. Precariedad social e incapacidad o renuencia del Estado para responder con eficacia a demandas básicas de determinados grupos de población configuran enmarcamientos socioeconómicos e institucionales de los linchamientos. En contraste con enfoques que enfatizan en factores culturales tradicionales o en un supuesto nacionalismo indígena, en el artículo se destaca la gravitación de fenómenos y procesos político- institucionales recientes en la transformación cultural y política de las comunidades, en el modo en que éstas procesan sus conflictos internos y con el Estado central.In 2004, two municipalitys mayors form the aimara Andes of Peru and Bolivia were subjected to mass lynchings as a result of the apparent culmination of violent political confrontations. This paper deals with these events as dramatic illustrations of the transformations the Andean communities experienced during recent decades in their internal dynamics, as well as in the articulation of local politics to processes and institutions beyond the communal limits. Structural precariousness combined with the state's inability or reluctance to come to terms with social or political demands from relevant segments of the people in the communities set the socioeconomic and institutional stage for lynchings. In contrast with approaches relating these events to an alleged indigenous cultural identity, the analysis points to the impact of the communities' political

  9. Localidades de ocorrência de Phyllomedusa tetraploidea Pombal & Haddad, 1992 (Anura: Hylidae e novo registro para Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Fisch

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Phyllomedusa é composto por 30 espécies, com representantes distribuídos em diversos países da América do Sul, a leste dos Andes. No Brasil, ocorre em todas as regiões do país. Phyllomedusa tetraploidea é uma espécie do grupo P. burmeisteri e tem como localidade-tipo Holambra II, município de Paranapanema, estado de São Paulo, apresentando tamanho mediano e porte robusto, discos adesivos desenvolvidos, faces laterais da coxa com riscos azuis escuros sobre fundo laranja. Os machos vocalizam na vegetação junto a brejos ou poças, sendo a desova depositada em folhas pendentes sobre a água. O presente trabalho apresenta os registros de P. tetraploidea obtidos em incursões de campo trimestrais realizadas entre Out/2009 e Set/2010, no município de Xaxim (Santa Catarina, Brasil, além de um mapa das localidades de ocorrência da mesma, a partir da revisão dos registros de trabalhos já publicados.

  10. An integrative water balance model framework for a changing glaciated catchment in the Andes of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenkhan, Fabian; Huggel, Christian; García Hernández, Javier; Fluixá-Sanmartín, Javier; Seidel, Jochen; Muñoz Asmat, Randy

    2017-04-01

    In the Santa River catchment [SRC] (Cordillera Blanca, Andes of Peru), human livelihoods strongly depend on year-round streamflow from glaciers and reservoirs, particularly in the dry season and in adjacent arid lowlands. Perennial glacial streamflow represents a buffer to water shortages, annual discharge variability and river contamination levels. However, climate change impacts, consecutive glacier shrinkage as well as new irrigated agriculture and hydropower schemes, population growth and thus water allocation might increase water scarcity in several areas of the SRC. This situation exerts further pressure and conflict potential over water resources and stresses the need to analyze both water supply and demand trends in a multidisciplinary and interlinked manner. In this context, an integrative glacio-hydrological framework was developed based on the Glacier and Snow Melt (GSM) and SOil CONTribution (SOCONT) models using the semi-distributed free software RS MINERVE. This water balance model incorporates hydroclimatic, socioeconomic and hydraulic objects and data at daily scale (with several gaps) for the last 50 years (1965-2015). A particular challenge in this context represents the poor data availability both in quantity and quality. Therefore, the hydroclimatic dataset to be used had to be carefully selected and data gaps were filled applying a statistical copula-based approach. The socioeconomic dataset of water demand was elaborated using several assumptions based on further census information and experiences from other projects in the region. Reservoirs and hydropower models were linked with additional hydraulic data. In order to increase model performance within a complex topography of the 11660 km2 SRC, the area was divided into 22 glaciated (GSM) and 42 non-glaciated (SOCONT) subcatchment models. Additionally, 382 elevation bands at 300 m interval were created and grouped into 22 different calibration zones for the whole SRC. The model was calibrated

  11. 75 FR 53371 - Environmental Impact Statement; Santa Rosa County, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement; Santa Rosa County, FL AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent. SUMMARY... CONTACT: Ms. Cathy Kendall, AICP, Environmental Specialist, Federal Highway Administration, 545 John Knox...

  12. Santa Lucia River basin. Development of water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to orient the development of water resources of the Santa Lucia River basin to maximum benefit in accordance with the priorities established by Government in relation to the National Development Plans

  13. Santa Barbara, California Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Santa Barbara, California Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  14. Primer registro del frutero pechinegro Pipreola lubomirskii (Aves, Cotingidae en la vertiente occidental de los Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letty Salinas

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El frutero pechinegro, Pipreola lubomirskii, es un cotíngido registrado como raro y de distribución local en los Andes del Norte. Antes del presente registro sólo había sido reportado para la vertiente oriental del Perú y Ecuador, así como los Andes del sur de Colombia. El presente registro amplia su distribución a los bosques montañosos de la vertiente occidental de los Andes peruanos, habiéndose encontrado en los bosques nublados del valle del río Zaña, en el departamento de Cajamarca (6º50’-6º52’ latitud S, 79º10’-79º07’ longitud O.

  15. Traditional use of the Andean flicker (Colaptes rupicola as a galactagogue in the Peruvian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Froemming Steve

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper explores the use of the dried meat and feathers of the Andean Flicker (Colaptes rupicola to increase the milk supply of nursing women and domestic animals in the Andes. The treatment is of preColumbian origin, but continues to be used in some areas, including the village in the southern Peruvian highlands where I do ethnographic research. I explore the factors giving rise to and sustaining the practice, relate it to other galactagogues used in the Andes and to the use of birds in ethnomedical and ethnoveterinary treatments in general, and situate it within the general tendency in the Andes and elsewhere to replicate human relations in the treatment of valuable livestock. The bird's use as a galactagogue appears to be motivated by both metaphorical associations and its perceived efficacy, and conceptually blends human and animal healthcare domains.

  16. Estudio geológico, estratigráfico y sedimentológico de la Cueva de Mamíferos del Pleistoceno de Santa Rosa (Perú: interpretación paleo-ambiental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available ÉTUDE GÉOLOGIQUE, STRATIGRAPHIQUE ET SÉDIMENTOLOGIQUE DE LA GROTTE À MAMMIFÈRES PLÉISTOCÈNES DE SANTA ROSA (PÉROU : INTERPRÉTATION PALÉO-ENVIRONNEMENTALE. Les restes d’un spécimen de Megatheriinae (Mammalia: Xenarthra pléistocène (Lujanien viennent d’être mis à jour dans la grotte de Santa Rosa, située dans les Andes Nord-péruviennes. Cette découverte d’un squelette sub-complet de Gravigrade, fait exceptionnel dans les Andes, correspond à une nouvelle espèce du genre Megatherium. L’étude sédimentologique, pétrographique, stratigraphique et palynologique de la grotte montre que la cavité : - appartient à un système karstique (habituel dans cette région des Andes péruviennes creusée dans le calcaire de la formation Celendín (Coniacien - Santonien inférieur - a été soumise à des événements successifs : 1 le creusement de l’abri et le dépôt des sables calcaréo-argileux jaunes suite à la forte érosion du massif calcaire 2 le ravinement et l’érosion amenant des effondrements du toit de l’abri 3 le dépôt des sables calcaréo-argileux marrons où se trouvent les restes de mammifères (Megatheriidae, Camelidae, Cervidae et Muridae et de nombreux restes de flore et la présence locale de pollens. L’analyse pollinique semble indiquer l’existence d’une flore dominée par les fougères d’origine locale et parfois de spores coloniales indifférenciées d’origine vraisemblablement algaire. Ces observations suggèrent que les conditions climatiques étaient plus froides et humides que de nos jours. Restos de un espécimen de Megatheriinae (mammalia: Xenarthra del Pleistoceno superior [Lujanense] han sido descubiertos en la cueva de Santa Rosa, en el norte de los Andes del Perú. Este hallazgo de un esqueleto parcialmente completo de Gravigrado, hecho excepcional en los Andes, corresponde a una nueva especie del género Megatherium. El estudio sedimentológico, petrográfico, estratigráfico y palinol

  17. 27 CFR 9.54 - Santa Ynez Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (photorevised 1974); (5) “Lompoc Hills, Cal.”, 7.5 minute series, edition of 1959; (6) “Los Alamos, Cal.”, 7.5... (photoinspected 1974); (8) “Santa Rosa Hills, Cal.”, 7.5 minute series, edition of 1959; (9) “Santa Ynez, Cal.”, 7... to the northern boundary of Section 9, T. 7 N., R. 33 W. (3) Then east following the northern...

  18. Glacier surface mass balance and freshwater runoff modeling for the entire Andes Cordillera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mernild, Sebastian H.; Liston, Glen E.; Yde, Jacob C.

    2017-04-01

    Glacier surface mass balance (SMB) observations for the Andes Cordillera are limited and, therefore, estimates of the SMB contribution from South America to sea-level rise are highly uncertain. Here, we simulate meteorological, snow, glacier surface, and hydrological runoff conditions and trends for the Andes Cordillera (1979/80-2013/14), covering the tropical latitudes in the north down to the sub-polar latitudes in the far south, including the Northern Patagonia Ice Field (NPI) and Southern Patagonia Ice Field (SPI). SnowModel - a fully integrated energy balance, blowing-snow distribution, multi-layer snowpack, and runoff routing model - was used to simulate glacier SMBs for the Andes Cordillera. The Randolph Glacier Inventory and NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications products, downscaled in SnowModel, allowed us to conduct relatively high-resolution simulations. The simulated glacier SMBs were verified against independent directly-observed and satellite gravimetry and altimetry-derived SMB, indicating a good statistical agreement. For glaciers in the Andes Cordillera, the 35-year mean annual SMB was found to be -1.13 m water equivalent. For both NPI and SPI, the mean SMB was positive (where calving is the likely reason for explaining why geodetic estimates are negative). Further, the spatio-temporal freshwater river runoff patterns from individual basins, including their runoff magnitude and change, were simulated. For the Andes Cordillera rivers draining to the Pacific Ocean, 86% of the simulated runoff originated from rain, 12% from snowmelt, and 2% from ice melt, whereas, for example, for Chile, the water-source distribution was 69, 24, and 7%, respectively. Along the Andes Cordillera, the 35-year mean basin outlet-specific runoff (L s-1 km-2) showed a characteristic regional hourglass shape pattern with highest runoff in both Colombia and Ecuador and in Patagonia, and lowest runoff in the Atacama Desert area.

  19. Lithospheric Structure and Isostasy of Central Andes: Implication for plate Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahatsente, R.; Rutledge, S.

    2017-12-01

    A significant section of the Peru-Chile convergent zone is building up stresses. The interseismic coupling in northern and southern Peru is significantly high indicating, elastic energy accumulation since the 1746 and 1868 earthquakes of magnitude 8.6 and 8.8 , respectively. Similar seismic patterns have also been observed in Central Chile. The plate interface beneath Central Chile is highly coupled, and the narrow zones of low coupling separate seismic gaps. The reasons for the seismic gaps and plate coupling are yet unknown, but the configuration of the slab is thought to be the main factor. Here, we assessed the locking mechanism and isostatic state of the Central Andes based on gravity models of the crust and upper mantle structure. The density models are based on satellite gravity data and are constrained by velocity models and earthquake hypocenters. The gravity models indicate a high-density batholithic structure in the fore-arc, overlying the subducting Nazca plate. This high-density body pushes downward on the slab, causing the slab to lock with the overlying continental plate. The increased compressive stress closer to the trench, due to the increased contact area between the subducting and overriding plates, may have increased the plate coupling in the Central Andes. Thus, trench parallel crustal thickness and density variations along the Central Andes and buoyancy force on the subducting Nazca plate may control plate coupling and asperity generation. The western part of the Central Andes may be undercompensated. There is a residual topography of 800 m in the western part of the Central Andes that cannot be explained by the observed crustal thicknesses. Thus, part of the observed topography in the western part of the Central Andes may be dynamically supported by mantle wedge flow below the overriding plate.

  20. Carbon stabilization mechanisms in soils in the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Boris; Cammeraat, Erik

    2015-04-01

    The volcanic ash soils of the Andes contain very large stocks of soil organic matter (SOM) per unit area. Consequently, they constitute significant potential sources or sinks of the greenhouse gas CO2. Climate and/or land use change potentially have a strong effect on these large SOM stocks. To clarify the role of chemical and physical stabilisation mechanisms in volcanic ash soils in the montane tropics, we investigated carbon stocks and stabilization mechanisms in the top- and subsoil along an altitudinal transect in the Ecuadorian Andes. The transect encompassed a sequence of paleosols under forest and grassland (páramo), including a site where vegetation cover changed in the last century. We applied selective extraction techniques, performed X-ray diffraction analyses of the clay fraction and estimated pore size distributions at various depths in the top- and subsoil along the transect. In addition, from several soils the molecular composition of SOM was further characterized with depth in the current soil as well as the entire first and the top of the second paleosol using GC/MS analyses of extractable lipids and Pyrolysis-GC/MS analyses of bulk organic matter. Our results show that organic carbon stocks in the mineral soil under forest a páramo vegetation were roughly twice as large as global averages for volcanic ash soils, regardless of whether the first 30cm, 100cm or 200cm were considered. We found the carbon stabilization mechanisms involved to be: i) direct stabilization of SOM in organo-metallic (Al-OM) complexes; ii) indirect protection of SOM through low soil pH and toxic levels of Al; and iii) physical protection of SOM due to a very high microporosity of the soil (Tonneijck et al., 2010; Jansen et al. 2011). When examining the organic carbon at a molecular level, interestingly we found extensive degradation of lignin in the topsoil while extractable lipids were preferentially preserved in the subsoil (Nierop and Jansen, 2009). Both vegetation

  1. Long-term carbon accumulation in Andes peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huaman, Yizet; Moreira-turq, Patricia; Willems, Bram; Espinoza, Raul; Turq, Bruno; Apaéstegui, James; Llanos, Romina

    2017-04-01

    High-altitude peatlands of the Andes still remain relatively unexplored since most of the studies on carbon capture in tropical soils have focused on peatlands in low altitude areas, leaving aside the importance of the study of high mountain wetlands, currently called "bofedales" located between 3000 and 5000 masl, covering most of the Andes mountains in South America. These peatlands in turn may also represent important paleoclimatic records. In this study, we investigated three peatland cores (APA-01, APA2-01, and APA2-02) at different altitudes (4210 m, 4420 m and 4432 m, respectively) in high Andean Peatlands of southern Peru. The peatland studied is located at the headwater basin Cachi River, in the town of Ayacucho, Peru. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role played by past climatic changes on the peatlands carbon accumulation. Each core was sectioned centimeter by centimeter and sub samples (n = 31) were collected for radiocarbon dating by AMS (acceleration mass spectrometer) and were used to create a sedimentological model based on the program Clam2.2R. The concentrations of carbon and nitrogen were determined from a C / H / N elemental analyzer and the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) were also analyzed. The bulk density was determined based on the volume occupied by the sediment (g /cm3). Finally, the carbon accumulation rate (gC m-2año-1) was determined. The three cores were characterized by two sedimentary units, the results present in the first sedimentary unit of APA01 an average long-term carbon accumulation rate of 59 gC m-2año-1, APA2-01 with 32 gC m-2año-1 and finally APA2-02 with 24 gC m-2año-1; for the second sedimentary unit we have: APA01 on average 17 gC m-2año-1, APA2-01 with 33 gC m-2año-1 and finally APA2-02 with 49 gC m-2año-1. In conclusion, we can say that the carbon accumulation rate for the first sedimentary unit of the three cores decreases as the altitude increases; on the other hand, we have the

  2. Structure and Evolution of the Central Andes of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, L.; Pfiffner, O. A.

    2009-04-01

    Three major units make up the Andes in Peru: (1) The Western Cordillera consists of the Cretaceous Coastal Batholith intruding Jurassic to Cretaceous volcaniclastics (Casma group) in the west, and a fold-and-thrust belt of Mesozoic sediments in the east. Eocene and Miocene volcanics (Calipuy group and equivalents) overly all of these rock types. (2) The Central Highland contains a folded Paleozoic-Mesozoic sedimentary sequence overlain by thick Quaternary deposits. A major fault puts Neoproterozoic basement rocks of the Eastern Cordillera next to these units. (3) In the Eastern Cordillera, Late Paleozoic clastic successions unconformably overly folded Early Paleozoic sediments and a Neoproterozoic basement in the east. Permian (locally Triassic) granitoids intruded these units and were affected by folding and thrusting. In the core of the Eastern Cordillera, Early Cretaceous overly Early or Late Paleozoic strata. To the west, a thrust belt of Paleozoic to Cenozoic strata forms the transition to the foreland of the Brasilian shield. The most external part of this thrust belt involves Pliocene sediments and is referred to as Subandine zone. The Coastal Batholith is internally undeformed. The adjacent fold-and-thrust belt to the east is characterized by tight, nearly isoclinal upright folds with amplitudes of up to 1000 m. At the surface only Cretaceous rocks are observed. Using balancing techniques, a detachment horizon at the base of the Lowermost Cretaceous (Goyallarisquizga group - Oyon Formation) can be proposed. Further east, folds are more open, asymmetric and east verging, Jurassic sediments appear in the cores of the anticlines. The abrupt change in style from upright tight folding in the west to more open folding in the east is explained by a primary difference in the depositional sequence, most probably associated with synsedimentary faulting. The overlying volcanics of the Calipuy group and equivalents are, in turn, only slightly folded. In the Northern

  3. Morphologic evolution of the Central Andes of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Laura; Pfiffner, O. Adrian

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the morphology of the Andes of Peru and its evolution based on the geometry of river channels, their bedrock profiles, stream gradient indices and the relation between thrust faults and morphology. The rivers of the Pacific Basin incised Mesozoic sediments of the Marañon thrust belt, Cenozoic volcanics and the granitic rocks of the Coastal Batholith. They are mainly bedrock channels with convex upward shapes and show signs of active ongoing incision. The changes in lithology do not correlate with breaks in slope of the channels (or knick points) such that the high gradient indices (K) with values between 2,000-3,000 and higher than 3,000 suggest that incision is controlled by tectonic activity. Our analysis reveals that many of the ranges of the Western Cordillera were uplifted to the actual elevations where peaks reach to 6,000 m above sea level by thrusting along steeply dipping faults. We correlate this uplift with the Quechua Phase of Neogene age documented for the Subandean thrust belt. The rivers of the Amazonas Basin have steep slopes and high gradient indices of 2,000-3,000 and locally more than 3,000 in those segments where the rivers flow over the crystalline basement of the Eastern Cordillera affected by vertical faulting. Gradient indices decrease to 1,000-2,000 within the east-vergent thrust belt of the Subandean Zone. Here a correlation between breaks in river channel slopes and location of thrust faults can be established, suggesting that the young, Quechua Phase thrust faults of the Subandean thrust belt, which involve Neogene sediments, influenced the channel geometry. In the eastern lowlands, these rivers become meandering and flow parallel to anticlines that formed in the hanging wall of Quechua Phase thrust faults, suggesting that the river courses were actively displaced outward into the foreland.

  4. Bayesian spatiotemporal interpolation of rainfall in the Central Chilean Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossa-Moreno, Juan; Keir, Greg; McIntyre, Neil

    2016-04-01

    Water availability in the populous and economically significant Central Chilean region is governed by complex interactions between precipitation, temperature, snow and glacier melt, and streamflow. Streamflow prediction at daily time scales depends strongly on accurate estimations of precipitation in this predominantly dry region, particularly during the winter period. This can be difficult as gauged rainfall records are scarce, especially in the higher elevation regions of the Chilean Andes, and topographic influences on rainfall are not well understood. Remotely sensed precipitation and topographic products can be used to construct spatiotemporal multivariate regression models to estimate rainfall at ungauged locations. However, classical estimation methods such as kriging cannot easily accommodate the complicated statistical features of the data, including many 'no rainfall' observations, as well as non-normality, non-stationarity, and temporal autocorrelation. We use a separable space-time model to predict rainfall using the R-INLA package for computationally efficient Bayesian inference, using the gridded CHIRPS satellite-based rainfall dataset and digital elevation models as covariates. We jointly model both the probability of rainfall occurrence on a given day (using a binomial likelihood) as well as amount (using a gamma likelihood or similar). Correlation in space and time is modelled using a Gaussian Markov Random Field (GMRF) with a Matérn spatial covariance function which can evolve over time according to an autoregressive model if desired. It is possible to evaluate the GMRF at relatively coarse temporal resolution to speed up computations, but still produce daily rainfall predictions. We describe the process of model selection and inference using an information criterion approach, which we use to objectively select from competing models with various combinations of temporal smoothing, likelihoods, and autoregressive model orders.

  5. Erosion by Ice and Water in the Southern Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This scene on the remote, rugged Argentine/Chilean border in the far southern Andes Mountains offers numerous, dramatic examples of both erosional processes and features of ice and water. The sharp, glaciated crest of the Cerro San Lorenzo (center) exceeds 12,000 feet and casts a long shadow southeastward. Glaciers on its western flank flow into the valley. This Electronic Still Camera photo was taken from the International Space Station, in December 2000 (late spring) when most of the previous winter's snow had melted below an altitude of 6,000 feet. Lago Pueyrredon, and the other lakes visible here, have been excavated by geologically recent episodes of glacier erosion, when glaciers extended all the way onto the lowland plains (top right). Since the last melting of the glaciers (15,000 years ago) three distinct fan deltas (semicircular features, marked with arrows) have formed where rivers flow into the lake. Counterclockwise currents in the lake-driven by strong winds from the west-have generated thin sand spits from each fan-delta. The largest spit (attached to the largest fan-delta, see right arrow) has isolated an approximately 10-kilometer long segment of the south end of the lake. The river that constructed the largest fan presently discharges turbid water to this isolated basin, giving it a lighter color than the rest of the lake. Glacial data collected over the past 50 years indicate that small ice bodies are disappearing at accelerated rates. (EOS, vol 81, no. 24, June 13, 2000) Predictions are that large fluctuations in land ice, with significant implications to society, are possible in the coming decades and centuries due to natural and anthropogenic climate change. Before glacial data can be used to address critical problems pertaining to the world's economic and environmental health, more detailed information about such glaciers is needed. Image ISS001-ESC-5113 provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory, Johnson Space Center.

  6. Morphological analysis of Cerro Bravo Volcano, Central Andes of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arango-Palacio, E.; Murcia, H. F.; Robayo, C.; Chica, P.; Piedrahita, D. A.; Aguilar-Casallas, C.

    2017-12-01

    Keywords: Cerro Bravo Volcano, Volcanic landforms, Craters. Cerro Bravo Volcano (CBV) belongs to the San Diego-Cerro Machín Volcano - Tectonic Province in the Central Andes of Colombia. CVB is located 150 km NW from Bogotá, the capital of Colombia, and 25 km E from Manizales city ( 350,00 inhabitants). The volcanic activity of CBV began at 50,000 years ago and has been characterized by produce effusive and explosive (subplinian to plinian) eruptions with dacitic and andesitic in composition products. The effusive activity is evidenced by lava flows and lava domes, while the explosive activity is evidenced by pyroclastic density current deposits and pyroclastic fall deposits; some secondary deposits such as debris avalanches and lahares has been also recognised. Currently, the CBV is considered as a hazard for the Manizales city. In order to characterise the volcanic edifice, a morphological analysis was carried out and a map was created from a digital elevations model (DEM) with 12.5 m resolution as well as aerial photographs. Thus, it was possible to associate the landforms with the evolution of the volcano. Based on this analysis, it was possible to identify the base and top of the CBV edifice as 2400 and 4020 m.a.s.l., respectively, with a diameter in its major axis of 5.8 km. The volcanic edifice has four main craters opening to the north. The craters are apart from each other by heights and distances between 120 m.a.s.l. and 1 km, respectively; this geomorphology is an evidence of different eruptive stages of the volcano construction. Morphological analysis has shown that some craters were created from explosive eruptions, however the different heights between each crater suggest the creation of lava domes and their collapse as a response of the final effusive activity.

  7. Weathering and transport of sediments in the Bolivian Andes : time constraints from uranium-series isotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Dosseto, A.; Bourdon, B.; Gaillardet, J.; Maurice Bourgoin, Laurence; Allegre, C.J.

    2006-01-01

    Rivers from the upper Rio Madeira basin (Bolivia) have been studied with uranium-series isotopes in order to constrain the timescales of weathering and sediment transfer from the Andes through the Amazon tropical plain. Uranium (U), thorium, (Th) and radium (Ra) isotopes (U-238-U-234-Th-230-Ra-226 and Th-232) have been analyzed in the suspended load (> 0.2 mu m) of rivers. Increasing Th-230 excesses relative to U-238 in suspended particles from the Andes to the tropical plain is interpreted a...

  8. Anofelinos de Santa Catarina (Diptera: Culicidae, Brasil Anophelines of Santa Catarina (Diptera: Culicidae, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria da Graça Teixeira Portes

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: No Brasil, a Região Amazônica é endêmica em malária. Em Santa Catarina, a malária foi eliminada na década de 80. A partir daí, ocorreram poucos casos autóctones isolados, e esporádicos. No entanto, em função da existência do vetor em seu território, da existência de extensa área endêmica no Brasil e da grande mobilidade de pessoas em áreas turísticas no estado, existe a probabilidade de reintrodução da doença. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se os seguintes dados: Banco de Dados do Núcleo de Entomologia da Fundação Nacional de Saúde, Santa Catarina (ACCES,1997-2000; Sistema de Informação de Vigilância Epidemiológica, Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde (Malária/SC e Sistema de Informação de Notificação e Agravo(SINAN/SC. Os mesmos foram transportados e analisados, no programa Microsoft Office Excel 2007. RESULTADOS: As coletas foram realizadas em 48 municípios, 159 localidades, sendo identificados 12.310 Culicídeos, 11.546 (93,7% Anopheles e 764 (6,2% como outros. Foram identificados três subgêneros e 13 espécies de anofelinos. CONCLUSÕES: Considerando que nos municípios pesquisados, foi identificada a presença de importantes vetores como Anopheles cruzii e Anopheles albitasis e há circulação de pessoas infectadas provenientes de áreas endêmicas, pode-se considerar que os mesmos são áreas receptivas e vulneráveis à malária. Essas espécies são suspeitas de serem responsáveis pela transmissão de malária na região, principalmente nos municípios de Gaspar, Indaial e Rodeio.INTRODUCTION: The Amazon region of Brazil is endemic for malaria. In the State of Santa Catarina, malaria was eliminated in the 1980s. Since then, a few sporadic isolated autochthonous cases have occurred. However, because malaria vectors are present within Brazilian territory and extensive endemic areas exist in this country, along with the great mobility of people in tourist areas of Santa Catarina, there is the

  9. Meat quality of Santa Inês and F1 Santa Inês x Dorper Lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael dos Santos Costa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Costa R.S., Henriques L.S.V., Tavares E.M., Alves E.N., Henry F.C. & Quirino C.R. [Meat quality of Santa Inês and F1 Santa Inês x Dorper Lambs.] Qualidade da carne de cordeiros Santa Inês e F1 Santa Inês x Dorper. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 36(3:337-343, 2014. Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Agropecuárias, Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Avenida Alberto Lamego, 2000, Parque Califórnia, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ 28013-602, Brasil. E-mail: fabiocosta@uenf.br Fifty intact male ovines breed were randomly assembled, 25 of the Santa Inês breed and 25 F1 Santa Inês x Dorper to evaluation of dental cronology, live weight at slaughter, withers height, hip height, body length and thorax circumference. After exsanguination, were measured temperature and pH at different times (4h; 12h and 24h of Semitendinosus and Triceps brachii muscles and shear force or tenderness (48h of Semitendinosus muscle. In parallel was accomplished the sensorial analysis relationships to instrumental values of this muscle. The chilling room temperature varied between 12.2°C (4h a -0.5°C (24h, and the mean temperature of carcasses was 26.80°C and -0.20°C, respectively. The mean initial pH of Semitendinosus was 6.62 and final 5.64 and of Triceps brachii was 6.50 (4h and 5.68 (24h. Semitendinosus muscle shear force and tenderness was similar in lambs of Santa Ines breed and F1 Dorper x Santa Ines, demonstrating that the genetic group did not affect meat tenderness. The sensory panel confirmed the results obtained in instrumental analysis. The correlation of instrumental analysis (shear force when compared different genetic groups, was found a good inversed correlation (r = -0.87. The mean of body length and thorax circumference levels don’t have significant difference between genetic groups. The mean of morphometric measurements analyzed on Santa Inês was higher than F1 Santa Inês x Dorper, but don’t have

  10. Provenance of Miocene Hinterland Basins in Ecuador: Implications for the Growth of Topographic Barriers in the Northern Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, S. W. M.; Horton, B. K.; Vallejo, C.; Nogales, V.

    2017-12-01

    Establishment of the Eastern Cordillera of Ecuador as an Andean topographic barrier caused significant drainage reorganization, perhaps even as dramatic as the reversal of the Amazon River. Cenozoic growth of this barrier coincided with substantial increases in speciation rates in Andean and Amazonian environments. Situated in the Interandean Depression between the Eastern Cordillera and Western Cordillera of Ecuador, a series of well-preserved Miocene intermontane basins offer a unique opportunity to constrain the along-strike development of the flanking north-trending cordilleras as drainage divides in the Northern Andes. Here were provide detrital zircon U-Pb geochronological results for 17 samples from Ecuadorian hinterland basins (Cuenca, Giron-Santa Isabel, Nabón, Loja, and Vilcabamba), supplemented with measured sections in the Cuenca Basin, to provide insights on orogenic development of the cordilleras of Ecuador during the Miocene. In addition, we characterize the age distributions of basement units to more precisely determine sediment routing patterns through time. Detrital zircon geochronological data yields regional upsection trends throughout Miocene stratigraphic sections marked by: (1) middle Miocene deposits containing a strong syndepositional age peak, with a complementary Eocene-Oligocene peak in varying abundances, and subsidiary low-intensity Paleozoic-Proterozoic age peaks; and (2a) upper Miocene deposits maintaining similar trends to that of the middle Miocene, or (2b) upper Miocene deposits showing a dramatic shutoff of most Cenozoic populations and a switch to Paleozoic-Proterozoic sources, as seen in the Nabón and Loja basins. Syndepositional signatures reflect derivation from the magmatic arc, while varying inputs of Eocene-Oligocene zircons were derived from the Eocene-Oligocene volcanic rocks that comprise the effective basement of much of the Interandean Depression. The late Miocene shift to Paleozoic-Proterozoic sources observed in

  11. Cloud climatology at the Andes/Amazon Transition in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halladay, K.; New, M. G.; Malhi, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The climate of tropical montane regions is complex but may be sensitive to global change. We examine the local and regional cloud climatology of a region of the tropical Andes in Peru using corrected ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) DX cloud product (1983-2008), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) MOD35 visible cloud flags (2000-2008) and ground-based cloud observations. The results were compared for three zones: highlands (grassland), eastern slope (the montane forest) and lowlands (tropical forest). We found that in the dry season (JJA) the study area is part of a localised region of increased cloud frequency relative to the highlands, lowlands and other parts the eastern slope, which is likely to result from the mean low-level wind trajectory and diurnal upslope flow. The highlands exhibited the greatest amplitude mean annual cycle of cloud frequency, with a minimum in June for all times of day. This was linked to the effect of the annual cycle of upper level zonal winds, with persistent westerlies in the austral winter suppressing cloud formation at higher elevations. Higher lowland cloud frequencies than those on the eastern slope in the morning in May and June suggest the persistence of nighttime downslope flows and low-level convergence at lower altitudes. We also examined trends and variability in cloud cover for the three zones, and their relationship to sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Lowland cloud frequencies were significantly correlated with tropical North Atlantic (TNA) SSTs in February, March, August and September, but this was reduced after detrending, whereas the eastern slope and the highlands were not significantly correlated with tropical North Atlantic SSTs. Pacific SST correlations were highest for the eastern slope and highlands from February to April. Indian Ocean SST anomalies were significantly correlated with dry season cloud frequency for the lowlands and

  12. Contemporary recent extension and compression in the central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibaldi, A.; Bonali, F. L.

    2018-02-01

    Although extension in the high Andes vs. compression in the lowlands has already been widely discussed in the literature, for the first time we recognized both extensional and contractional structures that developed contemporaneously during late Pliocene-Quaternary times in a wide area of the central Andean chain (about 90,000 km2), where crustal earthquake data are missing. This area comprises north-eastern Chile, south-western Bolivia and north-western Argentina, and extends from the Puna Plateau to the Altiplano-volcanic belt. Late Pliocene-Quaternary folds, with hinge lines trending NNE-SSW to N-S, are mostly located along the westernmost part of the volcanic belt and the eastern part of the Western Cordillera. Locally, there are coeval reverse faults, parallel to the folds, which reach up to the surface; particularly, the Miscanti Ridge, Tolocha Fault and La Casualidad Ridge may be the morphostructural expression of tens-km-long fault-propagation folds, which locally show topographic scarps hundreds of meters high. North and east of the contractional structures, we found evidence of late Pliocene-Quaternary normal faults striking N-S in the southern part of the study area, and NW-SE in the northern part. Well-developed grabens are present in the higher areas of the volcanic belt and in the transition zone with the Puna Plateau. The surface rupture zones of normal fault swarms range 8-24 km in length, with single fault strands up to 18 km long, which are typical of tectonic structures. The distribution in space and time of the studied contractional and extensional structures indicates that they originated in the same time period; we thus address the challenging question regarding the possible origin of the stress sources, by analysing possible causes such as volcanotectonics, high topography, orogeny collapse, and gravitational spreading of the orogen, in relation also with the role played by inherited structures. We finally analyse the relations between the

  13. Transboundary protected area proposals along the Southern Andes of Chile and Argentina: Status of current efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Keller

    2007-01-01

    An evolving network of protected areas along the southern Andes of Chile and Argentina-the heart of Patagonia-are in various stages of evaluation and potential Transboundary Protected Area designations. This paper examines three such efforts. The first proposal is the North Andean-Patagonia Regional Eco-Corridor, which was the subject of a recent bilateral meeting...

  14. Macroinvertebrate community response to acid mine drainage in rivers of the High Andes (Bolivia).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damme, P.A. van; Hamel, C.; Ayala, A.; Bervoets, L.

    2008-01-01

    Several High Andes Rivers are characterized by inorganic water pollution known as acid mine drainage (AMD). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between metal concentrations in the sediments and the macroinvertebrate communities in two river basins affected by AMD. In general, the

  15. A Uniform Conductivity Image along the Chilean Margin? Observations from the Central and Southern Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasse, H.; Soyer, W.

    2001-12-01

    Over the last years a reasonably detailed image of electrical conductivity distribution has been achieved in the central Andes at latitudes 20--22oS. These studies have been complemented by recent magnetotelluric investigations in the southern Chilean Andes (39oS). Despite the different subduction settings concerning e.g., age of subducted plate, trench filling and history of volcanic arcs, the inferred conductivity distributions show remarkable similarities. Higher conductivities assumed to be connected with hydration-dehydration processes are only resolved as a 2nd order effect at larger depths above the downgoing slab. On the other hand, large margin-subparallel fault zones presumably originating from oblique subduction are consistently imaged as good conductors in the mid crust, e.g., the Atacama Fault and the West Fissure in the central Andes and the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault in the south. The main differences concerning electrical properties between the two subduction settings include the large conductivity anomaly below the Altiplano high plateau in the central Andes and an anisotropic forearc crust in the south, indicated by ystematic deflection of induction arrows. An explanation of the latter phenomenon may possibly be seen in fossil, Cenozoic or even Pre-Andean structures.

  16. New Osornophryne (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae) from the Atlantic Versant of the Andes in Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    Two species of the little known genus Osornophryne are described from the Atlantic (Amazonian) versant of the Andes in Ecuador. O. guacamayo spec. nov. occurs at 2100 m, has well developed cranial ridges, rather peculiar feet with toes IV and V of about equal length and much longer than the others.

  17. How well do Important Bird Areas represent species and minimize conservation conflict in the tropical Andes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O´Dea, Niall; Bastos Araujo, Miguel; Whittaker, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Where high species richness and high human population density coincide, potential exists for conflict between the imperatives of species conservation and human development. We examine the coincidence of at-risk bird species richness and human population in the countries of the tropical Andes. We ...

  18. Vulnerability to climate change and community based adaptation in the Peruvian Andes, a stepwise approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lasage, R.; Muis, S.; Sardella, C.S.E.; van Drunen, M.A.; Verburg, P.H.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    The livelihoods of people in the Andes are expected to be affected by climate change due to their dependence on glacier water. The observed decrease in glacier volume over the last few decades is likely to accelerate during the current century, which will affect water availability in the region.

  19. High altitude C4 grasslands in the northern Andes: relicts from glacial conditions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, A.; Mora, G.; Cleef, A.M.; Hooghiemstra, H.

    2001-01-01

    The altitudinal vegetation distribution in the northern Andes during glacial time differed from the present-day conditions as a result of temperature and precipitation change. New evidence indicate that as a response to a reduced atmospheric partial CO2 pressure (pCO2), the competitive balance

  20. Millennial-scale vegetation changes in the tropical Andes using ecological grouping and ordination methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urrego, D.H.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Rama-Corredor, O.; Martrat, B.; Grimalt, J.O.; Thompson, L.; Bush, M.B.; González-Carranza, Z.; Hanselman, J.; Valencia, B.; Velásquez-Ruiz, C.

    2016-01-01

    We compare eight pollen records reflecting climatic and environmental change from northern and southern sites in the tropical Andes. Our analysis focuses on the last 30 000 years, with particular emphasis on the Pleistocene to Holocene transition. We explore ecological grouping and downcore

  1. Climate Change in the High Andes:implications and adaptation strategies for small-scale farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, C.; Nicklin, C.; Dangles, O.; Vanek, S.; Sherwood, S.G.; Halloy, S.; Garrett, K.A.; Forbes, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Global climate change represents a major threat to sustainable farming in the Andes. Farmers have used local ecological knowledge and intricate production systems to cope, adapt and reorganize to meet climate uncertainty and risk, which have always been a fact of life. Those traditional

  2. Palm harvest impact in the western Amazon, Andes and Pacific lowlands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Palms are the most useful group of plants in tropical American forests and in this project we study the effect of extraction and trade of palms on forests in the western Amazon, Andes, and Pacific lowlands. We determine the size of the resource by making palm community studies in the different...

  3. Drunken Speech and the Construction of Meaning: Bilingual Competence in the Southern Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Penelope M.

    1991-01-01

    Examination of the language use of drunken speakers in a bilingual Southern Peruvian Andes community found that drunken speakers were less constrained in their linguistic choices by individual linguistic competence and of differential status between speaker and addressee, and they exploited the ambiguities in implicit social meanings that normally…

  4. Distichia acicularis sp. nov. – a new cushion forming Juncaceae from the high Andes of Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Lægaard, Simon

    1986-01-01

    Distichia acicularis is described as a new species of Juncaceae. It occurs in the high Andes of Ecuador between 3200 m and 4200 m above sea level. Its closest relative is D. muscoides Nees & Meyen from which it is distinct through its narrow, linear, mucronate leafblades and its 1–3 mm long auric...

  5. Altitudinal changes in diversity of macroinvertebrates from small streams in the Ecuadorian Andes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Dean

    2003-01-01

    Altitudinal patterns in diversity of macroinvertebrate families at different spatial scales (stone, stream and altitude) were studied by collecting stone samples from six streams at each of the three altitudes: lowlands (400m), midlands (2000m) and highlands (3800 m), in the equatorial Andes...

  6. A millennium of metallurgy recorded by lake sediments from Morococha, Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Colin A; Abbott, Mark B; Wolfe, Alexander P; Kittleson, John L

    2007-05-15

    To date, information concerning pre-Colonial metallurgy in South America has largely been limited to the archaeological record of artifacts. Here, we reconstruct a millennium of smelting activity in the Peruvian Andes using the lake-sediment stratigraphy of atmospherically derived metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Ag, Sb, Bi, and Ti) and lead isotopic ratios (206Pb/ 207Pb) associated with smelting from the Morococha mining region in the central Peruvian Andes. The earliest evidence for metallurgy occurs ca. 1000 A.D., coinciding with the fall of the Wari Empire and decentralization of local populations. Smelting during this interval appears to have been aimed at copper and copper alloys, because of large increases in Zn and Cu relative to Pb. A subsequent switch to silver metallurgy under Inca control (ca. 1450 to conquest, 1533 A.D.) is indicated by increases in Pb, Sb, and Bi, a conclusion supported by further increases of these metals during Colonial mining, which targeted silver extraction. Rapid development of the central Andes during the 20th century raised metal burdens by an order of magnitude above previous levels. Our results represent the first evidence for pre-Colonial smelting in the central Peruvian Andes, and corroborate the sensitivity of lake sediments to pre-Colonial metallurgical activity suggested by earlier findings from Bolivia.

  7. Stepwise colonization of the Andes by ruddy ducks and the evolution of novel β-globin variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Fuentes, V; Cortázar-Chinarro, M; Lozano-Jaramillo, M; McCracken, K G

    2013-03-01

    Andean uplift played a key role in Neotropical bird diversification, yet past dispersal and genetic adaptation to high-altitude environments remain little understood. Here we use multilocus population genetics to study population history and historical demographic processes in the ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), a stiff-tailed diving duck comprising three subspecies distributed from Canada to Tierra del Fuego and inhabiting wetlands from sea level to 4500 m in the Andes. We sequenced the mitochondrial DNA, four autosomal introns and three haemoglobin genes (α(A), α(D), β(A)) and used isolation-with-migration (IM) models to study gene flow between North America and South America, and between the tropical and southern Andes. Our analyses indicated that ruddy ducks dispersed first from North America to the tropical Andes, then from the tropical Andes to the southern Andes. While no nonsynonymous substitutions were found in either α globin gene, three amino acid substitutions were observed in the β(A) globin. Based on phylogenetic reconstruction and power analysis, the first β(A) substitution, found in all Andean individuals, was acquired when ruddy ducks dispersed from low altitude in North America to high altitude in the tropical Andes, whereas the two additional substitutions occurred more recently, when ruddy ducks dispersed from high altitude in the tropical Andes to low altitude in the southern Andes. This stepwise colonization pattern accompanied by polarized β(A) globin amino acid replacements suggest that ruddy ducks first acclimatized or adapted to the Andean highlands and then again to the lowlands. In addition, ruddy ducks colonized the Andean highlands via a less common route as compared to other waterbird species that colonized the Andes northwards from the southern cone of South America. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. WITH THE DIFFERENCE OF HALF A CENTURY OR TWO ESOTERIC CONCEPTS OF SOCIAL FINALISM (BASED ON THE WORKS OF ELENA BLAVATSKAYA AND DANIEL ANDREEV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vladimirovna Privalova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author makes a comparative analysis of two concepts of social finalism formulated with the difference of fifty years. Researchers consider.both authors to be esoteric thinkers. Daniel Andreev was fascinated with the doctrine of Elena Blavatskaya. That’s the main reason why the finalistic concepts of the above-mentioned authors are examined as interrelated ones. The definition of «social finalism» is given in the article. According to classical interpretation of the concept, finalism (from Lat. Finalis means final, being the final goal. So, under this concept the author understands the achievement of a certain final level of social development, according to the goals. Each thinker offers his/her own goals and ways of achieving, the analysis of finalistic concepts helps to identify the most common and often allocated by philosophers, and hence universal goals, ways, means and conditions; which are, in our opinion, the ones reflecting the true preferences of mankind in the choice of the future for people themselves and their descendants. In this case, the esoteric concepts are analyzed. This fact in the author’s opinion is quite relevant, since the number of people who position themselves as adherents of esoteric teachings is steadily increasing. In the social finalistic concept of Blavatskaya the purpose – «brotherhood of all mankind», means of achieving – the Duty, Mercy, Self-sacrifice, and obstacles to the achievement of the final stage of society today are considered. The article shows that all necessary changes to achieve the ideal state of society, according to Andreev, should be carried out in all spheres of public life. This study will help to understand the aspirations and hopes for social transformations of people practicing esoteric approach to the perception of life.

  9. Santa Fe Alliance for Science: The First Eight Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Robert A.

    2013-04-01

    The Santa Fe Alliance for Science (SFAFS) was founded in May, 2005. SFAFS exists to provide assistance in K-14 math and science education in the greater Santa Fe area. It does this via extensive programs (1) in math and science tutoring at Santa Fe High School, Santa Fe Community College and to a lesser degree at other schools, (2) science fair advising and judging, (3) its ``Santa Fe Science Cafe for Young Thinkers'' series, (4) a program of professional enrichment for K-12 math and science teachers, and (5) a fledging math intervention program in middle school math. Well over 150 STEM professionals, working mostly as volunteers, have contributed since our beginning. Participation by students, parents and teachers has increased dramatically over the years, leading to much more positive views of math and science, especially among elementary school students and teachers. Support from the community and from local school districts has been very strong. I will present a brief status report on SFAFS activities, discuss some of the lessons learned along the way and describe briefly some ideas for the future. More information can be found at the SFAFS website, www.sfafs.org.

  10. Palabras y silencios: la retórica del poder en los Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available PAROLES ET SILENCES : LA RETHORIQUE DU POUVOIR DANS LES ANDES. La parole condense différents arguments et formes de pouvoir dans les sociétés andines. Le domaine social et le cadre cérémoniel appartiennent à ceux qui articulent bien les mots. La différenciation entre la valeur octroyée à la parole et celle correspondant aux silences implique diverses modalités de prestige de reconnaissance sociale et de pouvoir rituel dans les Andes. Les personnes, les vivants et les savants exercent une maîtrise subtile de la parole face aux étrangers, aux défunts et aux sots, qui demeurent socialement “muets”, silencieux. La palabra condensa diferentes argumentos y formas de poder en las sociedades andinas. El dominio social y el ámbito ceremonial pertenecen a los buenos articuladores de palabras. La diferenciación entre el valor otorgado a la palabra y el que corresponde a los silencios implica diferentes modalidades de prestigio, reconocimiento social y poder ritual en los Andes. Las personas, los vivos y los sabios ejercen un dominio exquisito de la palabra frente a los extraños, los difuntos y los “necios” que permanecen socialmente “mudos”, callados. WORDS AND SILENCES: THE RHETORIC OF POWER IN THE ANDES. Words have different meanings and means to exercise power in Andean societies. Social power and ceremonial environments belong people who are fluent in language. The difference between the value ascribed to the spoken word and that ascribed to silence implies several kinds of prestige, social recognition and ritual power in the Andes. “Ordinary”, alive and wise people exert an exquisite authority with words as compared with strange, dead and “stupid people” who remain socially 'dumb', silent.

  11. Un réseau d'observation des glaciers dans les Andes tropicales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Par leur grande sensibilité au changement climatique, les glaciers tropicaux sont d’excellents indicateurs de l’évolution du climat et, en même temps, des objets hydrologiques susceptibles d’évoluer rapidement dans le futur. On montre que l’actuel recul accéléré des glaciers dans les Andes centrales et les conséquences qu’il peut avoir en matière hydrologique et de risques naturels rendent nécessaire un programme de surveillance de ces glaciers au niveau de toute la chaîne, ce que l’ORSTOM contribue à faire depuis 1991. UNA RED DE OBSERVACIÓN DE LOS GLACIARES EN LOS ANDES TROPICALES. Por su gran sensibilidad al cambio climático, los glaciares tropicales son excelentes indicadores de la evolución del clima, así como objectos hidrológicos susceptibles de una evolución rápida en el futuro. Considerando el actual retroceso acelerado de los glaciares en los Andes centrales y las consecuencias que puede tener a nivel hidrológico así como en el campo de los riesgos naturales, es necesario un programa de monitoreo de los glaciares a nivel de toda la cordillera, que es lo que ORSTOM contribuye a hacer desde 1991. A GLACIER MONITORING NETWORK IN THE TROPICAL ANDES. The high sensibility of Tropical glaciers to climatic forcing make it possible to use them as reliable indicators of climate evolution, as well as hydrological systems which could change rapidly in the future. Considering the present increase in glacier retreat in central Andes and the consequences induced by this evolution on water resources and natural hazards, a monitoring program at a large scale appears to be highly desirable. This has been the objective of ORSTOM since 1991.

  12. Deposição tecidual em cordeiros Santa Inês, ½ Dorper-Santa Inês e ½ White Dorper-Santa Inês avaliados por ultrassonografia Tissue deposition in Santa Inês, ½ Dorper-Santa Inês and ½ White Dorper-Santa Inês lambs assessed by ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciane Barbiéri Dias

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 36 cordeiros machos não castrados, dos quais, 12 de cada grupo genético: Santa Inês, ½ Dorper-Santa Inês e ½ White Dorper-Santa Inês, mantidos em confinamento. Realizaram-se pesagens e avaliações semanais na região do lombo entre a 12ª e 13ª costelas, por ultrassonografia, para obtenção da espessura de gordura subcutânea e profundidade do músculo Longissimus lumborum. Para a verificação de diferenças no desenvolvimento da espessura de gordura subcutânea e profundidade do músculo Longissimus lumborum, em função dos dias em confinamento entre os grupos, foi assumida distribuição normal em análise Bayesiana. A equação obtida para o ganho de peso em função dos dias em confinamento apresentou coeficiente angular (b1 maior para ½ Dorper-Santa Inês (0,26 e menor para o Santa Inês (0,22. O coeficiente angular (b1 da espessura de gordura subcutânea, em função dos dias em confinamento foi maior para os cordeiros ½ Dorper-Santa Inês (0,038 e ½ White Dorper-Santa Inês (0,039 comparados ao Santa Inês (0,037, o que expressa maior precocidade para esta característica nos cordeiros cruzados. A avaliação da profundidade do músculo Longissimus lumborum indicou maior taxa (b1 de deposição muscular para os cordeiros Santa Inês (0,072 comparado aos ½ Dorper-Santa Inês (0,057 e ½ White Dorper-Santa Inês (0,057, no entanto, a deposição inicial de músculos foi maior nos cordeiros cruzados. Os cordeiros cruzados apresentam desenvolvimento mais precoce e podem ser abatidos com mais músculos e mais gordura em menor tempo.Thirty six male lambs, not castrated, twelve of each genetic group: Santa Inês, ½ Dorper-Santa Inês and ½ White Dorper-Santa Inês, were used, and raised in feedlot. Weight measurements and assessments in the region of the loin, between the 12th and 13th ribs, by ultrasound, were conducted weekly, to obtain the subcutaneous fat thickness and the Longissimus lumborum muscle depth

  13. Elena de Miguel Aparicio El aspect en la sintaxis del Español perfectividad e impersonalidad Ediciones de Ia Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 1992, p. 264.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Markič

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available No son muchas las obras destinadas en su totalidad al estudio del aspecto en español por lo que la publicación dellibro de Elena de Miguel Aparicio llama tanto más la atención especialmente en nuestro · ambiente lingüistico eslavo di:mde el aspecto, como es sabido, tiene una importancia especial. La autora se dedica al estudio del aspecto como categoría independiente del tiempo desde una perspectiva oracional utilizando el modelo actual de la gramática generativa denominado Rección y Ligamiento.

  14. Water and sediment quality of the Lake Andes and Choteau Creek basins, South Dakota, 1983-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven Kent; Neitzert, Kathleen M.

    2003-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation has proposed construction of the Lake Andes/Wagner Irrigation Demonstration Project to investigate environmental effects of irrigation of glacial till soils substantially derived from marine shales. During 1983-2000, the U.S. Geological Survey collected hydrologic, water-quality, and sediment data in the Lake Andes and Choteau Creek Basins, and on the Missouri River upstream and downstream from Choteau Creek, to provide baseline information in support of the proposed demonstration project. Lake Andes has a drainage area of about 230 mi2 (square miles). Tributaries to Lake Andes are ephemeral. Water-level fluctuations in Lake Andes can be large, and the lake has been completely dry on several occasions. The outlet aqueduct from Lake Andes feeds into Garden Creek, which enters Lake Francis Case just upstream from Fort Randall Dam on the Missouri River. For Lake Andes tributary stations, calcium, magnesium, and sodium are approximately codominant among the cations, and sulfate is the dominant anion. Dissolved-solids concentrations typically range from about 1,000 mg/L (milligrams per liter) to about 1,700 mg/L. Major-ion concentrations for Lake Andes tend to be higher than the tributaries and generally increase downstream in Lake Andes. Proportions of major ions are similar among the different lake units (with the exception of Owens Bay), with calcium, magnesium, and sodium being approximately codominant among cations, and sulfate being the dominant anion. Owens Bay is characterized by a calcium sulfate water type. Dissolved-solids concentrations for Lake Andes typically range from about 1,400 to 2,000 mg/L. Whole-water nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations are similar among the Lake Andes tributaries, with median whole-water nitrogen concentrations ranging from about 1.6 to 2.4 mg/L, and median whole-water phosphorus concentrations ranging from about 0.5 to 0.7 mg/L. Whole-water nitrogen concentrations in Lake Andes are similar among the

  15. Local smoke-free policy development in Santa Fe, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebrié, Ernesto M; Glantz, Stanton A

    2010-04-01

    To describe the process of approval and implementation of a comprehensive smoke-free law in the province of Santa Fe, Argentina, between 2005 and 2009. Review of the Santa Fe smoke-free legislation, articles published in local newspapers and documentation on two lawsuits filed against the law, and interviews with key individuals in Santa Fe. Efforts to implement smoke-free policies in Santa Fe began during the 1990s without success, and resumed in 2005 when the provincial Legislature approved the first 100% smoke-free subnational law in Argentina. There was no strong opposition during the discussions within the legislature. As in other parts of the world, pro-tobacco industry interests attempted to block the implementation of the law using well known strategies. These efforts included a controversy media campaign set up, the creation of a hospitality industry association and a virtual smokers' rights group, the introduction of a counterproposal seeking modification of the law, the challenge of the law in the Supreme Court, and the proposal of a weak national bill that would 'conflict' with the subnational law. Tobacco control advocates sought media attention as a strategy to protect the law. Santa Fe is the first subnational jurisdiction in Latin America to have enacted a comprehensive smoke-free policy following the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. After 3 years of implementation, pro-tobacco industry forces failed to undermine the law. Other subnational jurisdictions in Argentina, as well as in Mexico and Brazil are following the Santa Fe example.

  16. Aves de la ladera oriental de los Andes Orientales, alto río Cusiana, Boyacá, Colombia Aves de la ladera oriental de los Andes Orientales, alto río Cusiana, Boyacá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivares Antonio

    1971-09-01

    Full Text Available The bird collection (52 species and subspecies treated in this paper was collected in the upper Cusiana River, eastern slope of the Eastern Andes, Departamento de Boyacá, Colombia. In the introduction are given geographical details of the proper area where the material was secured.  This study is very important because of the little knowledge on the ornisof the Eastern Andes in Boyacá. Some light is thrown on the similarities and discrepancies between the avifaunas of Boyacá and Cundinamarca (Eastern Andes and also on the relations with the adjacent regions of Venezuela.  The intergradation of Atlapetes semirufus zimmeri with A. s. semirufus is discussed and the subspecies Hemispingus frontalis flavidorsalis isadded to the colombian avifauna. Previous local avifaunas of the Andes in Boyacá are: Borrero and Olivares (1955 and Olivares (1963.The bird collection (52 species and subspecies treated in this paper was collected in the upper Cusiana River, eastern slope of the Eastern Andes, Departamento de Boyacá, Colombia. In the introduction are given geographical details of the proper area where the material was secured.  This study is very important because of the little knowledge on the ornisof the Eastern Andes in Boyacá. Some light is thrown on the similarities and discrepancies between the avifaunas of Boyacá and Cundinamarca (Eastern Andes and also on the relations with the adjacent regions of Venezuela.  The intergradation of Atlapetes semirufus zimmeri with A. s. semirufus is discussed and the subspecies Hemispingus frontalis flavidorsalis isadded to the colombian avifauna. Previous local avifaunas of the Andes in Boyacá are: Borrero and Olivares (1955 and Olivares (1963.

  17. Adulto mayor en Santa Marta y calidad de vida

    OpenAIRE

    Marín Monroy, Cristina; Castro Molinares, Suly

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: este artículo es el producto de la investigación titulada “Estudio comparativo de la calidad de vida relacionada con la salud de los adultos mayores que residen en dos comunidades de Santa Marta” realizada en la Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia, sede Santa Marta, durante el 2010. Ésta busca generar conocimientos sobre este grupo etario y, con los resultados obtenidos, plantear estrategias de mejoramiento a los programas existentes en atención en salud al adulto mayor. Metodol...

  18. Screening for new accumulator plants in Andes Range mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Jaume; Roca, Núria

    2016-04-01

    accumulated considerable concentrations of Cu and Zn. The species from the genus Bidens (Asteraceae) were able not only to accumulate high shoot As concentrations (> 1000 μg g-1 in B. cynapiifolia from Peru) but also considerable amounts of Pb (B. humilis from Chile). The highest Cu shoot concentrations were found in Mullinum spinosum (870 μg g-1) and in B. cynapiifolia (620 μg g-1). The shoot accumulation of Zn was highest in Baccharis amdatensis (>1900 μg g-1) and in Rumex crispus (1300 μg g-1) from the Ag mine in Ecuador (Bech et al., 2002). In the Peruvian Andes, B. triplinervia can be considered interesting for phytostabilization, due to its capacity to restrict the accumulation of elevated amounts of Pb and Zn in the shoots.

  19. Elizabeth Monasterios. 2015. La vanguardia plebeya del Titikaka. Gamaliel Churata y otras beligerancias estéticas en los Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Mancosu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Reseña de Elizabeth Monasterios, La vanguardia plebeya del Titikaka. Gamaliel Churata y otras beligerancias estéticas en los Andes. Lima/La Paz: IFEA/Plural Editores, 2015, pp. 345.

  20. Holocene tephra-fall deposits of southern and austral Andes volcanic zones (33-54oS): eruption recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naranjo, J.A.; Polanco, E.; Lara, L; Moreno, H; Stern, C.R

    2001-01-01

    Radiometric 14 C dating is a very useful tool to study the chronostratigraphy of pyroclastic deposits. In addition, 14 C ages are essential parameters for the estimation of the recurrence time of the explosive volcanic activity. The origin, distribution and relative age of mappable Holocene tephra-fall deposits of the Southern Andes Volcanic Zone (SVZ) and Austral Andes Volcanic Zone (AVZ) from 33 o S-54 o S, were studied and their recurrence period is analysed (au)

  1. 77 FR 56772 - Safety Zone; Water Main Crossing; Choctawhatchee Bay; Santa Rosa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-14

    ...; Santa Rosa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ] ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... Choctawhatchee Bay, Santa Rosa Beach, FL. This action is necessary for the protection of persons and vessels, on... portion of GICW in Choctawhatchee Bay, Santa Rosa Beach, FL. This temporary safety zone is deemed...

  2. 77 FR 69388 - Safety Zone; Water Main Crossing; Choctawhatchee Bay; Santa Rosa Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ...; Santa Rosa Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard... Choctawhatchee Bay, Santa Rosa Beach, FL. This action is necessary for the protection of persons and vessels, on... Choctawhatchee Bay, Santa Rosa Beach, FL. This temporary safety zone is deemed necessary to protect persons and...

  3. 76 FR 4366 - Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel Liquor Control Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel Liquor Control... Control Law No. LB-06-08 of the Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel (Nation). The Liquor Control Law regulates... Legislature of the Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel adopted its Liquor Control Law, LB 06-08, on October 8, 2008...

  4. 75 FR 35504 - San Rafael Cattle Company; Habitat Conservation Plan; Santa Cruz County, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... Rafael Cattle Company; Habitat Conservation Plan; Santa Cruz County, AZ AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... authority of the Applicant on non-Federal lands within 18,440 acres of the San Rafael Ranch in Santa Cruz... lands within the San Rafael Valley of Santa Cruz County, Arizona. These improved habitat conditions...

  5. Influence of inherited structures on the growth of basement-cored ranges, basin inversion and foreland basin development in the Central Andes, from apatite fission-track and apatite Helium thermochronology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, S.; Sobel, E. R.; Del Papa, C.; Jelinek, A. R.; Muruaga, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Central Andes in NW of Argentina is part of a long-lived subduction zone, active since the Paleozoic. This region experienced several tectonic cycles; each of which created an unique set of structures and may have reactivated preexisting structures. These inherited structures may exert a first-order control over the different foreland deformational styles observed along the strike in the Central Andes. Our study area is located between 26°S and 28°S on the transition between the broken foreland (Santa Barbara system), which expresses a combination of thin-skin and thick-skin styles, and the Sierras Pampeanas, which is deform in a thick-skin style. The Cumbres Calchaquies range and the associated Choromoro Basin are located in the northern part of the study area, and are the southern expression of the Santa Barbara system. Published thermochronology data suggest that the rocks from the basement experienced Late Cretaceous and Late Miocene exhumation; the associated sedimentary rocks within the Choromoro basin experienced Paleogene and Late Miocene deformational phases. In contrast, the Sierra Aconquija range, located immediately south on the transition to the Sierras Pampeanas (thick skin) foreland basin, exhibit larger amounts of Miocene exhumation and lack of Cretaceous exhumation; the associated sedimentary rocks from the Tucuman basin have not been deformed since the Cretaceous. Our goal is to understand the evolution of the structural blocks and the structures responsible for the along strike changes in foreland basin deformational styles and their relation with inherited structures from previous tectonic cycles. We are obtaining new apatite U-Th/He and fission track data to reconstruct the thermal history of the basement, accompanied by U-Pb geochronology and stratigraphy to constrain the evolution of the associated sedimentary basins. Preliminary results combined with published data suggest that inherited structures within the study area have evolved

  6. Current state of glaciers in the tropical Andes: a perspective on glacier evolution and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabatel, Antoine; Francou, Bernard; Soruco, Alvaro; Gomez, Jesus; Caceres, Bolivar; Ceballos, Jorge-Luis; Vuille, Mathias; Sicart, Jean-Emmanuel; Huggel, Christian

    2013-04-01

    This presentation provides a comprehensive overview of the studies of glaciers in the tropical Andes conducted in recent decades leading to the current status of the glaciers in the context of climate change. In terms of changes in surface area and length, we show that the glacier retreat in the tropical Andes over the last three decades is unprecedented since the maximum extension of the LIA (mid 17th - early 18th century). In terms of changes in mass balance, although there have been some sporadic gains on several glaciers, we show that the trend has been quite negative over the past 50 years, with a mean mass balance deficit for glaciers in the tropical Andes that is slightly more negative than the one computed on a global scale. A break point in the trend appeared in the late 1970s with mean annual mass balance per year decreasing from -0.2 m w.e. in the period 1964-1975 to -0.76 m w.e. in the period 1976-2010. In addition, even if glaciers are currently retreating everywhere in the tropical Andes, it should be noted that this is much more pronounced on small glaciers at low altitudes that do not have a permanent accumulation zone, and which could disappear in the coming years/decades. Monthly mass balance measurements performed in Bolivia, Ecuador and Colombia show that variability of the surface temperature of the Pacific Ocean is the main factor governing variability of the mass balance at the decadal time scale. Precipitation did not display a significant trend in the tropical Andes in the 20th century, and consequently cannot explain the glacier recession. On the other hand, temperature increased at a significant rate of 0.10°C/decade in the last 70 years. The higher frequency of El Niño events and changes in its spatial and temporal occurrence since the late 1970s together with a warming troposphere over the tropical Andes may thus explain much of the recent dramatic shrinkage of glaciers in this part of the world.

  7. Phylogeny and biogeography of the New World siskins and goldfinches: rapid, recent diversification in the Central Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Elizabeth J; Witt, Christopher C

    2015-06-01

    Time-calibrated molecular phylogenies can help us to understand the origins of the diverse and unique Andean avifauna. Previous studies have shown that the tempo of diversification differed between the Andes and adjacent lowland regions of South America. Andean taxa were found to have speciated more recently and to have avoided the decelerated diversification that is typical of Neotropical lowland clades. The South American siskins, a Pleistocene finch radiation, may typify this Andean pattern. We investigated the phylogenetic biogeography of all the New World siskins and goldfinches in new detail. To understand the specific role of the Andes in siskin diversification, we asked: (1) Was diversification faster in Andean siskin lineages relative to non-Andean ones? (2) Did siskin lineages move into and out of the Andes at different rates? We found that siskin lineages in the Andes had higher diversification rates and higher outward dispersal rates than siskin lineages outside the Andes. We conclude that páramo expansion and contraction in response to Pleistocene climatic cycles caused accelerated diversification and outward dispersal in Andean siskins. The younger average age of bird species in the Andes compared to lowland South America may be attributable to bursts of recent diversification in siskins and several other vagile, open-habitat clades. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Submarine Landslides at Santa Catalina Island, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, M. R.; Francis, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    Santa Catalina Island is an active tectonic block of volcanic and metamorphic rocks originally exposed during middle Miocene transtension along the evolving Pacific-North America transform plate boundary. Post-Miocene transpression created the existing large pop-up structure along the major strike-slip restraining bend of the Catalina fault that forms the southwest flank of the uplift. Prominent submerged marine terraces apparent in high-resolution bathymetric maps interrupt the steep submarine slopes in the upper ~400 meters subsea depths. Steep subaerial slopes of the island are covered by Quaternary landslides, especially at the sea cliffs and in the blueschist metamorphic rocks. The submarine slopes also show numerous landslides that range in area from a few hectares to more than three sq-km (300 hectares). Three or more landslides of recent origin exist between the nearshore and first submerged terrace along the north-facing shelf of the island's West End. One of these slides occurred during September 2005 when divers observed a remarkable change in the seafloor configuration after previous dives in the area. Near a sunken yacht at about 45-ft depth where the bottom had sloped gently into deeper water, a "sinkhole" had formed that dropped steeply to 100-ft or greater depths. Some bubbling sand was observed in the shallow water areas that may be related to the landslide process. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry acquired in 2008 by CSU Monterey Bay show this "fresh" slide and at least two other slides of varying age along the West End. The slides are each roughly 2 hectares in area and their debris aprons are spread across the first terrace at about 85-m water depth that is likely associated with the Last Glacial Maximum sealevel lowstand. Larger submarine slides exist along the steep Catalina and Catalina Ridge escarpments along the southwest flank of the island platform. A prominent slide block, exceeding 3 sq-km in area, appears to have slipped more than

  9. En el Cincuentenario del Hospital Santa Clara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Rueda Pérez

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available

    El 16 de julio de 1942 nace el Hospital Sanatorio Antituberculoso Santa Clara en Santafé de Bogotá.
    Un siglo atrás, casi a la fecha, en 1843, nace en Alemania Roberto Koch, quien, 60 años antes de la fundación del Hospital, el 24 de marzo de 1882, presenta al mundo el descubrimiento del Micobacterium Tuberculosis, germen causante de la enfermedad que ataca alhombre desde sus más remotos orígenes y que aún nos acompaña, especialmente en los países subdesarrollados, causando severo impacto en la salud de las poblaciones más necesitadas, apesar de los grandes avances alcanzados en el campo de la Medicina a nivel mundial.
    Por haber sido destinado el Hospital altratamiento de los tuberculosos, destino que aún conserva primordialmente aunque, como se verá posteriormente, sus camas reciben enfermos de medicina general dada la evolución de los tratamientos y la modernización de los esquemas terapéuticos, se justifica ampliamente mencionar aquí los principales avances relacionados con el control de la Tuberculosis a través de los tiempos hasta la fundación del Hospital.

    Estos se pueden resumir así:

    • 'HIPOCRATES (460-377 a. C.:describe la consunción y la llama tisis; lanza el concepto de herencia que perdura por siglos.
    • ARISTOTELES(324-284a. C.:habla del contagio a través de la respiración.
    • CELSO (siglo I a. C.: describe el tubérculo y señala tres formas de consunción: atrofia, caquexia y tisis.
    • GALENO(181-261 d. C.: la agrupa con otras enfermedades transmisibles: la peste, la sarna, etc.
    • EDADMEDIA(sigloVII alXIIId. C.:se destaca únicamente como aporte nuevo Maimonides, filósofo judío radicado en Granada (11351204,quien describe la tisis de los animales.

    Posteriormente Girolamo Fracastoro (1478-1553, nacido en Verona,la asimila a la viruela y lanza la teoría microbiana.

    • PARACELSO(1493-1541pregona que: los

    • Santa Fé ante el ataque de Raleigh a la Guayana

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Manuel Lucena Salmoral

      1962-11-01

      Full Text Available A la una de la tarde del 12 de enero de 1618 comenzaron a desembarcar los efectivos militares que el corsario inglés Walter Raleigh lanzaba contra la pequeña ciudad de Santo Tomé (Guayana, dependiente por aquel entonces, como toda la provincia de El Dorado, de la Real Audiencia de Santa Fé.

    • Energy Balance of the Santa Catarina State - Series 1980 -1996

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      1997-01-01

      This energy balance of the Santa Catarina State presents the following main topics that can be outstanding: economic aspects; supply and demand of energy by source 1980-1996; energy consumption by sector 1980/1996; energy interchange; and balance of the transformation centers 1980/1996

    • Coyote Creek (Santa Clara County) Pilot Revegetation Project

      Science.gov (United States)

      John T. Stanley; L. R. Silva; H. C. Appleton; M. S. Marangio; W. J. Lapaz; B. H. Goldner

      1989-01-01

      The Santa Clara Valley Water District, located in Northern California, is currently evaluating a pilot riparian revegetation project on a 1.6 ha (4 ac) site adjacent to Coyote Creek in the south San Francisco Bay Area. Specific techniques used during the design, site preparation and installation of 3640 plants (including seed planting locations) are described. This...

    • A Santa Sé e a Conferência de Helsinque

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Virgílio Caixeta Arraes

      2011-02-01

      Full Text Available A presente exposição busca, brevemente, estudar a atuação da Santa Sé durante a Conferência de Helsinque e analisar a diplomacia pontifica durante esse período da Guerra Fria.

    • Updates on the genus Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) in Santa Catarina, Brazil

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Hassemer, Gustavo; Marques da Silva, Otávio Luis; Funez, Luís Adriano

      2017-01-01

      This contribution presents updates to the knowledge of the species of Euphorbia that occur in Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. More specifically, we here typify the names E. cyathophora, E. hirtella, E. paranensis and E. stenophylla, and present the first records of E. cyathophora, E...

    • Islas de Old Providence y Santa Catalina. Presente y futuro

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      June Marie Mow

      2005-11-01

      Full Text Available Las Islas de Providencia y Santa Catalina ofrecen una combinación única de diversidad biológica y autenticidad cultural, convirtiéndose en las Islas menos degradadas ambiental y culturalmente en el Caribe; son áreas naturales, con bajos niveles de turismo, relativamente intactas en las cuales la comunidad isleña nativa local juega un papel significativo. La falta de una marca como destino turístico único nacional e internacionalmente, la baja conectividad, la carencia de una estrategia promocional, así como la baja importancia del sector para el gobierno local, brindan la oportunidad para que el ecoturismo trabaje para la gente de Old Providence y Santa Catalina bajo sus propias reglas de juego y que la voluntad política no sea desviada por ganancias de corto plazo o esquemas superficialmente muy atractivos, pero que no generan beneficios para la población local. La visión de la gente de Old Providence y Santa Catalina es que, sea el ecoturismo la forma de ofrecer nuevas opciones socioeconómicas a las poblaciones locales para que puedan obtener los beneficios de sus senderos, playas, arrecifes y áreas naturales, la tradición, y cultura local. Para ello, es posible aprovechar de manera sostenible la introducción de un nuevo paradigma para el desarrollo sostenible de Old Providence y Santa Catalina: La Reserva de Biosfera Seaflower.

    • Cultural resources of the Santa Rita Experimental Range

      Science.gov (United States)

      John H. Madsen

      2003-01-01

      The Santa Rita Experimental Range is a vast open space with few signs of houses or human habitation, but at one time it was quite the opposite scene. Archaeological surface inspections reveal heavy use of the Range dating back hundreds of years. This paper will review the history of cultural resource management on the Range and provide a timeline of local cultural...

    • Forest resources of the Santa Fe National Forest

      Science.gov (United States)

      Dana Lambert

      2004-01-01

      The Interior West Forest Inventory and Analysis (IWFIA) program of the USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, as part of its national Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) duties, conducted forest resource inventories of the Southwestern Region (Region 3) National Forests. This report presents highlights of the Santa Fe National Forest 1998...

    • The Impact of Santa Ana Winds on Wildland Fire Regimes

      Science.gov (United States)

      Billmire, M.; Loboda, T. V.; French, N. H.; Tyner, M.

      2011-12-01

      Santa Ana winds have been implicated as major drivers of extensive wildfires that occur annually in southern California. While numerous anecdotal reports dictate an obvious relationship, there is little quantitative analysis in current literature on how this loosely-defined weather phenomenon impacts fire progression regimes. A new satellite-derived fire progression dataset developed using MODIS and Landsat was linked to a network of 82 Remote Automated Weather Stations (RAWS) to evaluate three differing a priori classifications of Santa Ana events defined using three weather parameters: wind speed, wind direction, and relative humidity. The fire progression dataset comprised 528 burn area polygons representing 151 distinct fire events from 2001-2009 in southern California. Each burn area polygon was assigned weather data from one of the RAWS units by shortest straight-line distance. These data and methods show quantitatively that burn area is dramatically larger under Santa Ana conditions than under non-Santa Ana conditions (see table). Outliers of both types (large burn areas under non-SA conditions; small burn areas under SA conditions) were identified and closely examined to identify potentially confounding variables. Time-lag effects (particularly with respect to cumulative precipitation preceding day of burn) and effects with regard to local vs. regional measurements were examined as well. We tested 17 variables (3 relative humidity variables, 5 wind speed variables, 3 temperature variables, 3 moisture variables, previous day burn area, census-derived population density, and the number of hours meeting one Santa Ana classification) individually and in combination for correlation with both burn area and burn area change from the previous day to test their predictive power. Mean daily relative humidity was found to have the strongest correlation (Pearson's r = -0.451) with burn area. All variables except moisture variables were more strongly correlated with the

    • California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Santa Barbara, California

      Science.gov (United States)

      Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Conrad, James E.; Cochran, Susan A.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

      2013-01-01

      In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of Santa Barbara map area lies within the central Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. This geologically complex region forms a major biogeographic transition zone, separating the cold-temperate Oregonian province north of Point Conception from the warm-temperate California province to the south. The map area is in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges province, and geodetic studies indicate that the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. Uplift rates (as much as 2.2 mm/yr) that are based on studies of onland marine terraces provide further evidence of significant shortening. The city of Santa Barbara, the main coastal population center in the map area, is part of a contiguous urban area that extends from Carpinteria to Goleta. This urban area was developed on the coalescing alluvial surfaces, uplifted marine terraces, and low hills that lie south of the east-west-trending Santa Ynez Mountains. Several beaches line the actively

    • Climate in the Western Cordillera of the Central Andes over the last 4300 years

      Science.gov (United States)

      Engel, Zbyněk; Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Chuman, Tomáš; Šefrna, Luděk; Mihaljevič, Martin

      2014-09-01

      The Distichia peat core obtained in the Carhuasanta valley near Nevado Mismi, Cordillera Chila, provides information on climatic and environmental conditions over the last ˜4300 years. The relative changes in the stable carbon isotope composition of plant remains preserved in the core reflect major temperature fluctuations in the Western Cordillera of the southern Peruvian Andes. These temperature variations can be additionally linked with the changes in precipitation patterns by analysing C% and C/N ratio in the core. Relatively warm and moist conditions prevailed from 4280 to 3040 cal. yrs BP (BC 2330-1090) with a short colder dry episode around 3850 cal. yrs BP (BC 1900). The most prominent climate changes recorded in the peat occurred between 3040 and 2750 cal. yrs BP (BC 1090-800) when the initial warming turned to a rapid cooling to temperatures at least 2 °C lower than the mean for the Late Holocene. Initially drier conditions within this event turned to a short wet phase after 2780 cal. yrs BP (BC 830) when the temperature increased again. This event coincides with significant changes in peat and ice core records in the Central Andes matching the timing of the global climate event around 2.8 cal. ka BP. Climatic conditions in the study area became relatively dry and stable after the event for about 800 years. Highly variable temperatures and humidity prevailed during the last 2000 years when an extended warm and relatively humid period occurred between 640 and 155 cal. yrs BP (AD 1310-1795) followed by predominantly colder and drier conditions. The established δ13C peat record represents the first continuous proxy for the temperature in the southern Peruvian Andes dated by the AMS 14C. Distichia peat is wide spread in the Andes and the proposed approach can be applied elsewhere in high altitudes, where no other traditional climate proxies are available.

  1. Agriculture biologique dans les Andes péruviennes | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le défi. Au Pérou, la pauvreté est presque trois fois plus prononcée en milieu rural qu'en milieu urbain, et la situation est encore pire dans les Andes. On dit souvent que l'agriculture biologique permet, de façon durable, d'augmenter le rendement des exploitations agricoles, de réduire la pauvreté, d'atténuer les effets des ...

  2. Non-pollen palynomorphs from surface sediments along an altitudinal transect of the Venezuelan Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya, E.; Rull, V.; van Geel, B.

    2010-01-01

    Palynological studies including records of non-pollen palynomorphs (NPP) are uncommon in the Neotropics, in spite of their demonstrated usefulness in other regions. Modern analog studies to improve palaeoecological interpretations of NPP are even more scarce. Here, we report the NPP assemblages recorded in modern surface samples from an altitudinal transect of the Venezuelan Andes, ranging from about 2300 and 4600 m. We compared the assemblages with the results of previous pollen analyses of ...

  3. Quantifying Wide-Area Continental Deformation: Palinspastic Reconstruction of the Northern Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, C.; Rodriguez-Corcho, A. F.; Hoyos, N.; Cardona, A.; Bayona, G.

    2017-12-01

    The northern Andes could either be called a very wide plate margin, or an area of intraplate distributed deformation. At its apex, the northern Andes reach 5500 m elevation, nearly 600 km inboard from the margin (this is as far inland as the Sierras Pampeanas in Argentina). This part of the Andean belt is characterized by northeast-trending, wide deformation belts that turn eastwardly to define the sharp southern Caribbean plate boundary to the east. Regardless of kinematic model preferences, or reconstruction methodologies, any attempt to map deformation in the northern Andes and the southern Caribbean plate should honor known strain datasets and chronology of deformation in a way that allows quantification of wide- area deformation. We compiled all available strain datasets. These include shortening estimates, paleomagnetic declination data, and discrete kinematic markers. Shortening in the northern Andes has traditionally been estimated by constructing cross-sections perpendicular to the main structural trends, therefore missing any along-strike deformation. Recent GPS data confirms that modern convergence vectors are oblique to main structural trends, not orthogonal. Despite differences in interpretation and structural style, cross-sections across the Eastern cordillera of Colombia show roughly consistent shortening values. A paleomagnetic dataset shows that large vertical-axis clockwise rotations are dominant in the northwestern corner of South America and southern Caribbean margin, but absent in the Eastern cordillera. Vertical-axis rotations are again large in the Central American arc. Paleogeographic piercing points such as stranded high-grade clasts, displaced metamorphic belts, and provenance analyses, constrain strike-slip faulting, where often several hundreds of kilometers of displacement can be inferred. Combining all of these datasets into a single kinematic reconstruction (using freeware GPlates), that also respects known timing of deformation

  4. Non-metric variation of the Muisca dentition in the northern Andes of Colombia, South America

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Flórez, Carlos David

    2015-01-01

    This article presents dental non-metric data observed in Muisca samples from the central-eastern Andes of Colombia. Permanent teeth of 146 individuals between 5 and 40 years of age belonging to five pre-Hispanic human cemeteries were observe. Fifteen dental traits were score following the ASUDAS method. A comparison between the values of the five samples shows that biological homogeneity did exist within these populations. At least 800 years of genetic continuity and biological interbreeding ...

  5. Human impacts on headwater fluvial systems in the northern and central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Carol P.

    2006-09-01

    South America delivers more freshwater runoff to the ocean per km 2 land area than any other continent, and much of that water enters the fluvial system from headwaters in the Andes Mountains. This paper reviews ways in which human occupation of high mountain landscapes in the Andes have affected the delivery of water and sediment to headwater river channels at local to regional scales for millennia, and provides special focus on the vulnerability of páramo soils to human impact. People have intentionally altered the fluvial system by damming rivers at a few strategic locations, and more widely by withdrawing surface water, primarily for irrigation. Unintended changes brought about by human activities are even more widespread and include forest clearance, agriculture, grazing, road construction, and urbanization, which increase rates of rainfall runoff and accelerate processes of water erosion. Some excavations deliver more sediment to river channels by destabilizing slopes and triggering processes of mass-movement. The northern and central Andes are more affected by human activity than most high mountain regions. The wetter northern Andes are also unusual for the very high water retention characteristics of páramo (high elevation grass and shrub) soils, which cover most of the land above 3000 m. Páramo soils are important regulators of headwater hydrology, but human activities that promote vegetation loss and drying cause them to lose water storage capacity. New data from a case study in southern Ecuador show very low bulk densities (median 0.26 g cm - 3 ), high organic matter contents (median 43%), and high water-holding capacities (12% to 86% volumetrically). These data document wetter soils under grass than under tree cover. Effects of human activity on the fluvial system are evident at local scales, but difficult to discern at broader scales in the regional context of geomorphic adjustment to tectonic and volcanic processes.

  6. Slope and climate variability control of erosion in the Andes of central Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Carretier, Sébastien; Regard, V.; Vassallo, R.; Aguilar, G.; Martinod, J.; Riquelme, R.; Pepin, E.; Charrier, R.; Hérail, Gérard; Farias, M.; Guyot, Jean-Loup; Vargas, G.; Lagane, Christelle

    2013-01-01

    Climate and topography control millennial-scale mountain erosion, but their relative impacts remain matters of debate. Conflicting results may be explained by the influence of the erosion threshold and daily variability of runoff on long-term erosion. However, there is a lack of data documenting these erosion factors. Here we report suspended-load measurements, derived decennial erosion rates, and Be-10-derived millennial erosion rates along an exceptional climatic gradient in the Andes of ce...

  7. Hormigas (Hymenoptera: Formicidae de la provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae of Santa Fe province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vittar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo pretende aportar una lista faunística actualizada de las subfamilias, tribus, géneros y especies de hormigas de la provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina. Si bien estos listados tienen poca duración temporal, contribuyen en gran medida a incrementar el conocimiento de un taxón determinado, despertando interés y brindando una herramienta fundamental para el desarrollo de estudios posteriores. Como resultado, nueve registros son nuevos para la Argentina y dos géneros y 18 citas de especies nuevas para la provincia de Santa Fe.The present paper provides an updated faunistic list of the subfamilies, tribes, genera and species of ants of Santa Fe province, Argentina. To a great extent, these listings contribute to increase the knowledge of a specific taxa, awaking interest, and offering a fundamental tool for the development of subsequent studies. As a result, nine species are cited as new for Argentina, and two genera and 18 species are cited for Santa Fe province for the first time.

  8. Grenvillian remnants in the Northern Andes: Rodinian and Phanerozoic paleogeographic perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, A.; Chew, D.; Valencia, V. A.; Bayona, G.; Mišković, A.; Ibañez-Mejía, M.

    2010-01-01

    Grenvillian crust is encountered in several basement inliers in the northern Andes of Colombia, Ecuador and Peru and is also represented as a major detrital or inherited component within Neoproterozoic to Paleozoic sedimentary and magmatic rocks. This review of the tectonic and geochronological record of the Grenvillian belt in the northern Andes suggests that these crustal segments probably formed on an active continental margin in which associated arc and back-arc magmatism evolved from ca. 1.25 to 1.16 Ga, possibly extending to as young as 1.08 Ga. The lithostratigraphic and tectonic history of the Grenvillian belt in the northern Andes differs from that of the Sunsas belt on the southwest Amazonian Craton and from the Grenvillian belt of Eastern Laurentia. It is considered that this belt, along with similar terranes of Grenvillian age in Middle America and Mexico define a separate composite orogen which formed on the northwestern margin of the Amazonian Craton. Microcontinent accretion and interaction with the Sveconorwegian province on Baltica is a feasible tectonic scenario, in line with recent paleogeographic reconstructions of the Rodinian supercontinent. Although Phanerozoic tectonics may have redistributed some of these terranes, they are still viewed as para-autocthonous domains that remained in proximity to the margin of Amazonia. Paleogeographic data derived from Phanerozoic rocks suggest that some of the Colombian Grenvillian fragments were connected to northernmost Peru and Ecuador until the Mesozoic, whereas the Mexican terranes where attached to the Colombian margin until Pangea fragmentation in Late Triassic times.

  9. Airborne Imaging Spectroscopy of Forest Canopy Chemistry in the Andes-Amazon Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R.; Anderson, C.; Knapp, D. E.; Asner, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    The Andes-Amazon corridor is one of the most biologically diverse regions on Earth. Elevation gradients provide opportunities to explore the underlying sources and environmental controls on functional diversity of the forest canopy, however plot-based studies have proven highly variable. We used airborne imaging spectroscopy from the Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) Airborne Taxonomic Mapping System (AToMS) to quantify changes canopy functional traits in a series of eleven 25-ha landscapes distributed along a 3300 m elevation gradient from lowland Amazonia to treeline in the Peruvian Andes. Each landscape encompassed a 1 ha field plot in which all trees reaching the canopy were climbed and leaves were sampled for 20 chemical traits. We used partial least squares regression to relate plot-level chemical values with airborne spectroscopy from the 1 ha area. Sixteen chemical traits produced predictable relationships with the spectra and were used to generate maps of the 25 ha landscape. Ten chemical traits were significantly related to elevation at the 25 ha scale. These ten traits displayed 35% greater accuracy (R2) and precision (rmse) when evaluated at the 25 ha scale compared to values derived from tree climbing alone. The results indicate that high-fidelity imaging spectroscopy can be used as surrogate for laborious tree climbing and chemical assays to understand chemical diversity in Amazonian forests. Understanding how these chemicals vary among forest communities throughout the Andes-Amazon corridor will facilitate mapping of functional diversity and the response of canopies to climate change.

  10. Calculated WIMP signals at the ANDES laboratory: comparison with northern and southern located dark matter detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitarese, O.; Fushimi, K. J.; Mosquera, M. E.

    2016-12-01

    Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are possible components of the Universe’s dark matter (DM). The detection of WIMPs is signaled by the recoil of the atomic nuclei which form a detector. CoGeNT at the Soudan Underground Laboratory (SUL) and DAMA at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) have reported data on annual modulation of signals attributed to WIMPs. Both experiments are located in laboratories in the Northern Hemisphere. DM detectors are planned to operate (or already operate) in laboratories in the Southern Hemisphere, including SABRE at Stawell Underground Physics Laboratory (SUPL) in Australia, and DM-ICE in Antarctica. In this work we have analyzed the dependence of diurnal and annual modulation of signals, pertaining to the detection of WIMP, on the coordinates of the laboratory, for experiments which may be performed in the planned new Agua Negra Deep Experimental Site (ANDES) underground facility, to be built in San Juan, Argentina. We made predictions for NaI and Ge-type detectors placed in ANDES, to compare with DAMA, CoGeNT, SABRE and DM-ICE arrays, and found that the diurnal modulation of the signals, at the ANDES site, is amplified at its maximum value, both for NaI (Ge)-type detectors, while the annual modulation remains unaffected by the change in coordinates from north to south.

  11. Biological affinities and regional microevolution among pre-Hispanic communities of Colombia's Northern Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Flórez, C D; Colantonio, S E

    2015-01-01

    Dental non-metric data were used to examine the biological continuity of pre-Hispanic peoples of Colombia's Northern Andes, including highland, lowland and coastal peoples. This report contributes to studies regarding the peopling of South America by establishing a benchmark comparison that includes pre-Hispanic populations of the Northern Andes. The sample consisted of a total of 583 individuals from 56 cemeteries ranging in time from the Early Holocene (10,000 BP) to the Final Late Holocene (500 BP). Permanent dentitions from individuals between 5 and 40 years of age were scored for 87 dental traits based on the ASUDAS. A divergence matrix was programmed using the Smith's Mean Measure of Divergence equation (MMD). Bartlett's adjustment and Ascombe transformation were considered into MMD calculations. Principal Coordenate analysis was applied based on MMD matrix scores. A clear group was found that associated Initial Late Holocene samples with Final Late Holocene samples. Early Holocene samples are very different to that, and Middle Holocene samples show as morphologically intermediate series. A comparison of the frequencies by time and period showed that a limited biological continuity existed. Interbreeding among initial populations of the same regions is expressed in similar frequencies of dental traits within Early Holocene and Middle Holocene samples. Early Holocene samples did not match with Sinodont pattern according to discriminant function analysis. These findings help us to better understand the settlement process of human groups in the Northern Andes and its relationship with migratory movements in South America.

  12. Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum seroprevalences in domestic South American camelids of the Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Velásquez, Amanda; Aguado-Martínez, Adriana; Ortega-Mora, Luis M; Casas-Astos, Eva; Serrano-Martínez, Enrique; Casas-Velásquez, Gina; Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, Jose A; Alvarez-García, Gema

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the presence of Toxoplasma gondii- and Neospora caninum-specific antibodies in domestic South American camelids (SAC) (llamas and alpacas) from the Peruvian Andes through a cross-sectional study. A wide panel of serum samples collected from 1,845 llamas and 2,874 alpacas from the two main SAC production areas of Peru was selected. Immunofluorescence antibody technique was employed to detect and titrate specific anti-T. gondii and anti-N. caninum immunoglobulins G in serum samples. The association between T. gondii and N. caninum seroprevalence and the geographical origin (Central and South Peruvian Andes) was evaluated. Anti-T. gondii antibodies were found in 460 (24.9 %) llamas and 706 (24.6 %) alpacas, whereas anti-N. caninum antibodies were detected in 153 (8.3 %) llamas and 425 (14.8 %) alpacas. Toxoplasma gondii infection was strongly associated with the South Peruvian Andes where moderate climate conditions, larger human population, compared to the Central region, and the presence of wildlife definitive hosts could favor horizontal transmission to SAC. In contrast, N. caninum infection was not associated with the geographical region. These results indicate that T. gondii and N. caninum infections are highly and moderately widespread, respectively, in both species of domestic SAC studied in the sampled areas and appropriate control measures should be undertaken to reduce the prevalence of both parasitic infections.

  13. Legend tummast abilisest / Elena Lass

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lass, Elena

    2003-01-01

    PÖFFi Suvekino raames näidati Tallinna Linnaarhiivi siseõues saksa tummfilmi programmi "Öised varjud". Paul Wegeneri ja Carl Boese 1920. a. valminud filmile "Golem, kuidas ta maailma tuli" tegid saatemuusikat Marianne Kõrver, Rainer Jancis ja Raoul Kurvitz

  14. Facing unprecedented drying of the Central Andes? Precipitation variability over the period AD 1000–2100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neukom, Raphael; Salzmann, Nadine; Huggel, Christian; Rohrer, Mario; Calanca, Pierluigi; Acuña, Delia; Christie, Duncan A; Morales, Mariano S

    2015-01-01

    Projected future trends in water availability are associated with large uncertainties in many regions of the globe. In mountain areas with complex topography, climate models have often limited capabilities to adequately simulate the precipitation variability on small spatial scales. Also, their validation is hampered by typically very low station density. In the Central Andes of South America, a semi-arid high-mountain region with strong seasonality, zonal wind in the upper troposphere is a good proxy for interannual precipitation variability. Here, we combine instrumental measurements, reanalysis and paleoclimate data, and a 57-member ensemble of CMIP5 model simulations to assess changes in Central Andes precipitation over the period AD 1000–2100. This new database allows us to put future projections of precipitation into a previously missing multi-centennial and pre-industrial context. Our results confirm the relationship between regional summer precipitation and 200 hPa zonal wind in the Central Andes, with stronger Westerly winds leading to decreased precipitation. The period of instrumental coverage (1965–2010) is slightly dryer compared to pre-industrial times as represented by control simulations, simulations from the past Millennium, ice core data from Quelccaya ice cap and a tree-ring based precipitation reconstruction. The model ensemble identifies a clear reduction in precipitation already in the early 21st century: the 10 year running mean model uncertainty range (ensemble 16–84% spread) is continuously above the pre-industrial mean after AD 2023 (AD 2028) until the end of the 21st century in the RCP2.6 (RCP8.5) emission scenario. Average precipitation over AD 2071–2100 is outside the range of natural pre-industrial variability in 47 of the 57 model simulations for both emission scenarios. The ensemble median fraction of dry years (defined by the 5th percentile in pre-industrial conditions) is projected to increase by a factor of 4 until 2071

  15. Sr and Nd isotopic and trace element compositions of Quaternary volcanic centers of the Southern Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futa, K.; Stern, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    Isotopic compositions of samples from six Quaternary volcanoes located in the northern and southern extremities of the Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ, 33-46??S) of the Andes and from four centers in the Austral Volcanic Zone (AVZ, 49-54??S) range for 87Sr 86Sr from 0.70280 to 0.70591 and for 143Nd 144Nd from 0.51314 to 0.51255. The ranges are significantly greater than previously reported from the southern Andes but are different from the isotopic compositions of volcanoes in the central and northern Andes. Basalts and basaltic andesites from three centers just north of the Chile Rise-Trench triple junction have 87Sr 86Sr, 143Nd 144Nd, La Yb, Ba La, and Hf Lu that lie within the relatively restricted ranges of the basic magmas erupted from the volcanic centers as far north as 35??S in the SVZ of the Andes. The trace element and Sr and Nd isotopic characteristics of these magmas may be explained by source region contamination of subarc asthenosphere, with contaminants derived from subducted pelagic sediments and seawater-altered basalts by dehydration of subducted oceanic lithosphere. In the northern extremity of the SVZ between 33?? and 34??S, basaltic andesites and andesites have higher 87Sr 86Sr, Rb Cs, and Hf Lu, and lower 143Nd 144Nd than basalts and basaltic andesites erupted farther south in the SVZ, which suggests involvement of components derived from the continental crust. In the AVZ, the most primitive sample, high-Mg andesite from the southernmost volcanic center in the Andes (54??S) has Sr and Nd isotopic compositions and K Rb and Ba La similar to MORB. The high La Yb of this sample suggests formation by small degrees of partial melting of subducted MORB with garnet as a residue. Samples from centers farther north in the AVZ show a regionally regular northward increase in SiO2, K2O, Rb, Ba, Ba La, and 87Sr 86Sr and decrease in MgO, Sr, K Rb, Rb Cs, and 143Nd 144Nd, suggesting increasingly greater degrees of fractional crystallization and associated intra

  16. Ferrugem em framboesa no estado de Santa Catarina Red raspberry rust in Santa Catarina state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Trezzi Casa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Folhas e frutos de framboesa (Rubus idaeus L. da cultivar Batum coletados de plantas do pomar do Centro de Ciências Agroveterinárias, CAV, município de Lages-SC, apresentando pústulas de ferrugem, foram encaminhados para análise no Laboratório de Fitopatologia do CAV. A diagnose indireta indicou a presença de pústulas com uma massa de esporos de cor amarela na face abaxial das folhas e superfície dos frutos. No exame ao microscópio, observou-se urédia e urediniósporos pequenos, obovados ou elipsoides, medindo 12,5-17,5 x 15,0-30,0 µm sobre a epiderme da folha e frutos, sem a presença de télias. Suspensão de urediniósporos (50.000 esporos mL-1 em água esterilizada foi pulverizada em folhas destacadas da mesma cultivar, mantidas por 24 h no escuro e 12 h de fotoperíodo em câmara úmida a 20ºC. Folhas-controle foram pulverizadas com água esterilizada. Após 10 dias detectaram-se urédias contendo urediniósporos na face abaxial das folhas, cujas características morfológicas e mensuração dos urediniósporos, sintomas e patogenicidade permitiram a identificação do agente causal como sendo Pucciniastrum americanum (Farl. Arthur pela primeira vez no Estado de Santa Catarina.Leaves and fruits of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. of the cultivar Batum collected from the Agriculture and Life Science College - CAV orchard in Lages, SC, presenting rust pustules were analyzed in the CAV Plant Pathology Laboratory. Indirect diagnosis indicated in the abaxial side of the infected leaves and fruits surface pustules filled with masses of yellow spores. Under microscope exam, uredia and small, obovate or elliptical and averaged 12,5-17,5 x 15,0-30,0 µm urediniospores become evident in leaves and fruit surface. Telia were not observed. Urediniopores (50.000 esporos mL-1 were suspended in sterile water and sprayed onto same cultivar leaves that were maintained in a darkened mist chamber at 20ºC for 24 h and transferred to a 20ºC and 12 h

  17. Reply to the comments from Winkler et al. about the paper C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 1994: a major Neogene tectonic event in the Southern Ecuadorian Andes. Synsedimentary deformation from Nabon Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudino, R.; Lavenu, A.; Delfaud, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper refers to the critical comments from W. Winkler, M. Steinmann and D. Hungerbuhler about the paper of Baudino et al. (C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, t. 319, II, 1994, p. 127-133) and the possible misunderstanding of the absolute K/Ar ages reported in the original paper of Winkler et al. (2nd ISAG, Oxford, p. 321-324, 1993). According to Winkler et al., the Baudino et al. (1994) paper gives the erroneous impression that it is a substantial improvement of the earlier Winkler et al. (1993) work. The two papers show strong divergence of opinions about the stratigraphy, sedimentology and synsedimentary deformation of the Nabon and Giron-Santa Isabel basins (South Ecuador Andes). These critical comments are followed by the answer of Baudino et al. and their interpretation of the Nabon and Giron basins evolution according to their own stratigraphical observations and to new K/Ar radiometric data. (J.S.). 6 refs., 1 tab

  18. Combate à malária em Santa Catarina

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Eveli Souza D'Avila de

    2015-01-01

    Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em História, Florianópolis, 2015. No final do século XIX e início do XX, a malária atingiu vários municípios do estado de Santa Catarina, em especial a região litorânea e o Vale do Itajaí. Nesse contexto, em 1943, o Serviço Nacional de Malária iniciou uma série de estudos nos quais foram comprovados que a proliferação do mosquito transmissor da malária, no estado cat...

  19. 33 CFR 334.730 - Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and Gulf of Mexico adjacent to Santa Rosa Island, Air Force Proving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waters of Santa Rosa Sound and..., Fla. 334.730 Section 334.730 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.730 Waters of Santa Rosa...

  20. Migración negra en Santa Marta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josè Luis Vega de Lavalle

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es dar cuenta de los procesos e inserción urbana de la Gente Negra  se ha instalado en Santa Marta, los cuales han llegado a partir de la década de los años ochenta a  en el sector turístico de esta ciudad.

  1. Rapid Diversification and Time Explain Amphibian Richness at Different Scales in the Tropical Andes, Earth's Most Biodiverse Hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Carl R; Lambert, Shea M; Wiens, John J

    2017-12-01

    The Tropical Andes make up Earth's most species-rich biodiversity hotspot for both animals and plants. Nevertheless, the ecological and evolutionary processes underlying this extraordinary richness remain uncertain. Here, we examine the processes that generate high richness in the Tropical Andes relative to other regions in South America and across different elevations within the Andes, using frogs as a model system. We combine distributional data, a newly generated time-calibrated phylogeny for 2,318 frog species, and phylogenetic comparative methods to test the relative importance of diversification rates and colonization times for explaining Andean diversity at different scales. At larger scales (among regions and families), we find that faster diversification rates in Andean clades most likely explain high Andean richness. In contrast, at smaller temporal and spatial scales (within family-level clades within the Andes), diversification rates rarely explain richness patterns. Instead, we show that colonization times are important for shaping elevational richness patterns within the Andes, with more species found in habitats colonized earlier. We suggest that these scale-dependent patterns might apply to many other richness gradients. Recognition of this scale dependence may help to reconcile conflicting results among studies of richness patterns across habitats, regions, and organisms.

  2. A quantitative analysis of surgical capacity in Santa Cruz, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, Abraham; Barbero, Roxana; Leow, Jeffrey J; Groen, Reinou S; Skow, Evan J; Apelgren, Keith N; Kushner, Adam L; Nwomeh, Benedict C

    2013-11-01

    This investigation aimed to document surgical capacity at public medical centers in a middle-income Latin American country using the Surgeons OverSeas (SOS) Personnel, Infrastructure, Procedures, Equipment, and Supplies (PIPES) survey tool. We applied the PIPES tool at six urban and 25 rural facilities in Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Outcome measures included the availability of items in five domains (Personnel, Infrastructure, Procedures, Equipment, and Supplies) and the PIPES index. PIPES indices were calculated by summing scores from each domain, dividing by the total number of survey items, and multiplying by 10. Thirty-one of the 32 public facilities that provide surgical care in Santa Cruz were assessed. Santa Cruz had at least 7.8 surgeons and 2.8 anesthesiologists per 100,000 population. However, these providers were unequally distributed, such that nine rural sites had no anesthesiologist. Few rural facilities had blood banking (4/25), anesthesia machines (11/25), postoperative care (11/25), or intensive care units (1/25). PIPES indices ranged from 5.7-13.2, and were significantly higher in urban (median 12.6) than rural (median 7.8) areas (P Bolivia's development status. Unfortunately, surgeons are limited in rural areas by deficits in anesthesia and perioperative services. These results are currently being used to target local quality improvement initiatives. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Elena Lasida, 2011, Le goût de l'autre. La crise, une chance pour réinventer le lien, Paris : Albin Michel, 326 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Martinache

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Voici le type d'essai dont la lecture a de quoi laisser quelque peu perplexe. Non seulement parce que l'auteure y alterne fréquemment les registres d'expression (émotionnel ou scientifique, vague ou précis, mais aussi car elle semble de ce fait y courir plusieurs lièvres à la fois. Maître de conférences à l'Institut Catholique de Paris où elle dirige un Master intitulé « Economie solidaire et logique de marché » et est co-responsable de la chaire « Ethique et finance », Elena Lasida propose ...

  4. La construcción de la imagen heroica a través del discurso periodístico. El caso de la activista peruana María Elena Moyano.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela McEvoy.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work tries to demonstrate that the social construction of the national hero/heroine as a symbol of courage and resistance generally arises within a period of social, political, and economic crisis. The national hero is a construction that is created in a moment characterized by the loss of public trust and the failure of government leaders to act. The creation of the heroic image functions as a sociopolitical tool. The article suggests that there is a close relationship between the history and the construction of heroic fgures. Using the death of Peruvian activist María Elena Moyano as a concrete example, it demonstrates that journalistic discourse has the ability to create an heroic image around a person who has been given the traditional role that the hero has played in society since Antiquity.

  5. Strengths and weaknesses of the nursing certificate program at the Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina (Federal Institute of Santa Catarina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliari, Luciane Patrícia; Padilha, Maria Itayra; Backes, Vânia Marli Schubert

    2017-07-20

    To analyze the strengths and weaknesses found in the implementation process of the Nursing Certificate Program at the Instituto Federal de Santa Catarina (Federal Institute of Santa Catarina), in the 2000s. Socio-historical research with a qualitative approach. Oral history as a method source for data collection between June/September 2015, with thematic analysis. Seven professionals participated in the study, resulting in three categories: Recognition of the Nursing Certificate Program in the community and work market; Weaknesses faced by the course; Strengths during the implementation of the course. The course was accepted by the labor market, resulting in an increased demand. As weaknesses: insufficient materials and structure, few teachers, course is offered every two years and no understanding of the stages by the institution. As strengths: commitment of teachers, management support and incentives to perform research. Despite the weaknesses, the strengths contributed to the implementation of the Nursing Certificate Program overcoming challenges, ensuring improvement in vocational training.

  6. Brief Communication: Synoptic-scale differences between Sundowner and Santa Ana wind regimes in the Santa Ynez Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchett, Benjamin J.; Smith, Craig M.; Nauslar, Nicholas J.; Kaplan, Michael L.

    2018-02-01

    Downslope Sundowner winds in southern California's Santa Ynez Mountains favor wildfire growth. To explore differences between Sundowners and Santa Ana winds (SAWs), we use surface observations from 1979 to 2014 to develop a climatology of extreme Sundowner days. The climatology was compared to an existing SAW index from 1979 to 2012. Sundowner (SAW) occurrence peaks in late spring (winter). SAWs demonstrate amplified 500 hPa geopotential heights over western North America and anomalous positive inland mean sea-level pressures. Sundowner-only conditions display zonal 500 hPa flow and negative inland sea-level pressure anomalies. A low-level northerly coastal jet is present during Sundowners but not SAWs.

  7. Geology and ground-water in western Santa Cruz County, California, with particular emphasis on the Santa Margarita Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, J.P.; Jackson, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    The water-bearing potential of the geologic formations in the western part of Santa Cruz County, Calif., is evaluated. Most of the sedimentary formations in this area are fine-grained rocks of Tertiary age that have been folded and faulted. These rocks, in general, yield supplies of water sufficient only for individual domestic supplies. The Lompico and Santa Margarita Sandstones, however, are coarser grained and have the potential to yield moderate quantities of water (50-100 gallons per minute). Areas where the Lompico Sandstone might warrant explorations are (1) near and on the west side of the Ben Lomond fault, (2) near and south of the outcrop of the Lompico Sandstone between Ben Lomond and Felton, and (3) in the area near Bald Mountain School. The Santa Margarita Sandstone should be explored by test drilling in the area between Davenport and Bonnie Doon. The quality of ground water is generally good, although saline water occurs in the San Lorenzo Formation near Redwood Grove and Riverside Grove. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. Subvolcanic contact metasomatism at El Laco Volcanic Complex, Central Andes Metasomatismo de contacto subvolcánico en el Complejo Volcánico El Laco, Andes centrales

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    José A Naranjo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of drill cores from the Pasos Blancos area at El Laco in the central Andes, northern Chile, give evidence of an intense and extensive subvolcanic contact-metasomatic process. This process resulted from shallow-level emplacement of very volatile-rich iron-oxide magma, with discharge of volatiles that resulted in extensive fracturing of overlying volcanic rocks. The brecciated rocks were altered (mainly extensive scapolitization and formation of pyroxene by hot magmatic fluids emitted from the cooling intrusion , and accompanied by magnetite deposition. With time and decreasing temperature, the metasomatic fluids evolved to fluids of hydrothermal character, and a final recent geothermal event took place that deposited superficial gypsum over a large part of the El Laco Volcanic Complex.Estudios realizados en testigos de sondajes en el area de Pasos Blancos en El Laco, en los Andes Centrales del norte de Chile, dan evidencias de un intenso y extenso proceso subvolcánico de metasomatismo de contacto. Este proceso es el resultado de un emplazamiento a poca profundidad de un magma de óxido de fierro muy rico en volátiles y cuya descarga de gases produjo un intenso fracturamiento de las rocas sobrepuestas. Las rocas brechizadas fueron alteradas (principalmente una extensa escapolitización y formación de piroxeno, junto con la depositación de magnetita, por los fluidos magmáticos calientes emitidos por la intrusión durante su enfriamiento. Los fluidos metasomáticos evolucionaron en el tiempo y con la disminución de temperatura, a fluidos de carácter hidrotermal y finalmente tuvo lugar un evento geotérmico reciente, el cual depositó yeso superficial en gran parte del Complejo Volcánico El Laco.

  9. Sistemática filogenética de las lagartijas del género Stenocercus (Squamata: Iguania de los Andes del norte Phylogenetic systematics of lizards of the genus Stenocercus (Squamata: Iguania from the northern Andes

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    Omar Torres-Carvajal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El género Stenocercus está compuesto por 61 especies que se distribuyen principalmente en los Andes y tierras bajas aledañas (0-4 000 m, desde el norte de Colombia y Venezuela hasta el centro de Argentina. En este trabajo se realizaron análisis de parsimonia e inferencia bayesiana para estudiar las relaciones filogenéticas entre las 20 especies de Stenocercus que habitan en los Andes del norte (Ecuador, Colombia y Venezuela, utilizando datos morfológicos y moleculares por separado y en combinación. Los análisis dieron como resultado topologías similares indicando que las especies de Stenocercus de los Andes del norte están divididas en 2 clados. Uno contiene 6 especies distribuidas entre el sur de Ecuador y sur de Colombia, mientras que el otro tiene 13 especies distribuidas desde el sur de Ecuador hasta el norte de Colombia y Venezuela. Los resultados también sugieren que la reciente formación de los Andes del norte ha tenido gran influencia sobre la evolución de Stenocercus.The genus Stenocercus is composed of 61 species that occur mainly in the Andes and adjacent lowland areas (0-4 000 m from northern Colombia and Venezuela to central Argentina. In this study, I performed parsimony and Bayesian analyses to infer the phylogenetic relationships among the 20 species of Stenocercus that occur in the northern Andes (Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela; I analyzed morphological, molecular, and combined datasets. These analyses resulted in similar topologies, which indicate that species of Stenocercus from the northern Andes are nested within 2 major clades. One of these clades contains 6 species occurring between southern Ecuador and southern Colombia, whereas the other clade includes 13 species that occur from southern Ecuador to northern Colombia and Venezuela. The results also suggest that the recent uplift of the northern Andes has had a major impact on the evolution of Stenocercus.

  10. A new species of Alopoglossus lizard (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae from the tropical Andes, with a molecular phylogeny of the genus

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    Omar Torres-Carvajal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe a new species of Alopoglossus from the Pacific slopes of the Andes in northern Ecuador based on morphological and molecular evidence. The new species differs most significantly from all other congeners ina double longitudinal row of widened gular scales, lanceolate dorsal scales in transverse rows, 29–32 dorsal scales in a transverse row at midbody, and 4 longitudinal rows of ventrals at midbody. It is most similar in morphology to A. festae, the only species of Alopoglossus currently recognized in western Ecuador. We analyze the phylogenetic relationships among species of Alopoglossus based on the mitochondrial gene ND4. Cis-Andean [east of the Andes] and Trans-Andean [west of the Andes] species are nested in two separate clades, suggesting that the uplift of these mountains had an important effect in the diversification of Alopoglossus. In addition, we present an updated key to the species of Alopoglossus.

  11. Exhumation of the Western Cordillera of the Peruvian Andes (5-12°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, M.; Hall, S. R.; Farber, D.; Hourigan, J. K.

    2012-12-01

    The topography of mountain belts is the first-order morphological expression of the dynamical forces that drive plate tectonics. Despite recent advances in techniques that quantify tectonic and geomorphologic processes, characterizing the near and far-field forces that form mountainous topography at a continental scale remains challenging. The South American Andes are an example of a long-lived orogen that is morphologically and tectonically segmented. For example, the Northern Peruvian Andes are a region characterized by flat-slab subduction, no active volcanism and a relatively narrow section of high topography, in contrast to the central Andes, which contain the broad Altiplano-Puna plateau, active volcanism and normal-angle subduction. Current models of Andean orogenesis based on paleoelevation estimates, thermochronology data, and structural analysis suggest that most of the high topography evolved sometime in the last 20Ma, possibly characterized by a period of punctuated uplift from 10-6Ma. However, as many of these data are from the central Andes, they may not be directly applicable to the entire Andean chain. Therefore, it is critical to investigate areas outside of the central Andean region using similar techniques to test the applicability of these models elsewhere in the Andes. For this study, we use (U-Th)/He low-temperature thermochronology to characterize the shallow crustal cooling history from three sites in the Western Cordillera of the Peruvian Andes, across seven degrees of latitude (5°S to 12°S). Near-vertical sample transects were taken in three river valleys that expose the Jurassic through Eocene granitoids of the 1,600km long Coastal Batholith of Peru. By using both apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometers we are able to quantify crustal exhumation rates as well as detect temporal and spatial accelerations and decelerations of exhumation. This new dataset, combined with existing crystallization ages of the plutonic sequence of the

  12. Structure and Velocities of the Northeastern Santa Cruz Mountains and the Western Santa Clara Valley, California, from the SCSI-LR Seismic Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchings, R.D.; Goldman, M.R.; Gandhok, G.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The Santa Clara Valley is located in the southern San Francisco Bay area of California and generally includes the area south of the San Francisco Bay between the Santa Cruz Mountains on the southwest and the Diablo Ranges on the northeast. The area has a population of approximately 1.7 million including the city of San Jose, numerous smaller cities, and much of the high-technology manufacturing and research area commonly referred to as the Silicon Valley. Major active strands of the San Andreas Fault system bound the Santa Clara Valley, including the San Andreas fault to the southwest and the Hayward and Calaveras faults to the northeast; related faults likely underlie the alluvium of the valley. This report focuses on subsurface structures of the western Santa Clara Valley and the northeastern Santa Cruz Mountains and their potential effects on earthquake hazards and ground-water resource management in the area. Earthquake hazards and ground-water resources in the Santa Clara Valley are important considerations to California and the Nation because of the valley's preeminence as a major technical and industrial center, proximity to major earthquakes faults, and large population. To assess the earthquake hazards of the Santa Clara Valley better, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has undertaken a program to evaluate potential earthquake sources and potential effects of strong ground shaking within the valley. As part of that program, and to better assess water resources of the valley, the USGS and the Santa Clara Valley Water District (SCVWD) began conducting collaborative studies to characterize the faults, stratigraphy, and structures beneath the alluvial cover of the Santa Clara Valley in the year 2000. Such geologic features are important to both agencies because they directly influence the availability and management of groundwater resources in the valley, and they affect the severity and distribution of strong shaking from local or regional

  13. Analysis of La Dehesa paleo-landslide. Central Pre-Andes of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia Baldis, Carla; Rothis, Luis Martín; Perucca, Laura; Esper Angillieri, María; Vargas, Horacio; Ponce, David; Allis, Carlos

    2018-04-01

    The main objective of this paper is to consider the influence of Quaternary faults as likely triggering factor for rockslides occurrence in the Central Pre-Andes, a region with intense shallow seismic activity. A rockslide deposit was selected as study case, placed in the western flank of La Dehesa and Talacasto (DT) range (31°3‧37″ S and 68°46‧ 8″ W). Applied methodology includes the characterization of main discontinuities, reconstruction of the topography using a high-resolution digital elevation model, safety factor calculation along the sliding surface and, Newmark displacements estimation for three different hypothetical seismic scenarios, recreated from existing neotectonic local information. Equilibrium-limit method's results confirm that study case, La Dehesa rockslide (LDR), had a stable and safe slope's configuration under static conditions. However, a seismic horizontal coefficient between 0.2 and 0.3 decreases safety factor below the safety threshold. Newmark's displacements for different seismic reconstructed scenarios varies between 4.1 and 15.9 cm, values that agreed with a coherent failure process, likely triggered by Pleistocene to Holocene seismogenic sources in Central Pre-Andes. LDR trigger could be assigned mainly to an earthquake related to La Dehesa Quaternary fault (LDF) activity; however, similar movements produced by neighboring faults should not be discarded. LDR triggering related to climatic conditions is despised. Finally, the methodology presented in this work is easy to reproduce and may be applied to other rockslides located in the mountainous areas of the Central Pre-Andes of Argentina.

  14. Geografía, café y prosperidad en los andes occidentales de Colombia

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    Juan Barón

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Compuesta por los departamentos de Antioquia, Caldas, Quindío, Risaralda y Valle del Cauca, los Andes Occidentales ha sido por mucho años una de las regiones más prósperas de Colombia. Esta prosperidad se ha traducido en condiciones de vida e infraestructura superiores a las del resto del país. El éxito y bienestar que presentan hoy en día los Andes Occidentales están estrechamente ligados a la concentración de la producción de café, que se dio allí durante gran parte del siglo XX. El arraigo del café en la región no sólo se dio debido a que la geografía ofrecía las condiciones ideales para el cultivo, sino también a las instituciones cafeteras creadas para organizar la industria del café. A pesar de esta prosperidad, el constante descenso del precio internacional del café después del rompimiento del pacto de cuotas de producción en 1989, sumado al estancamiento de la industria manufacturera en algunos departamentos de la región, han afectado las economías departamentales menos diversificadas. Es así como la región de los Andes Occidentales Colombianos presenta las tasas de desempleo más altas del país, tasas que se han visto afectadas aún más con la crisis financiera internacional a través del menor flujo de remesas que los trabajadores oriundos de la región, y residentes en el exterior envían a sus familias.

  15. Land Use Change and Hydrologic Processes in High-Elevation Tropical Watersheds of the Northern Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, W. A.; Riveros-Iregui, D. A.; Covino, T. P.; Peña, C.

    2013-12-01

    The humid tropics cover one-fifth of the Earth's land surface and generate the greatest amount of runoff of any biome globally, but remain poorly understood and understudied. Humid tropical regions of the northern and central Andes have experienced greater anthropogenic land-use/land-cover (LULC) change than nearly any other high mountain system in the world. Vast expanses of this region are currently undergoing rapid transformation to farmland for production of potatoes and pasture for cattle grazing. Although the humid tropics have some of the highest runoff ratios, precipitation, and largest river flows in the world, there is a lack of scientific literature that addresses hydrologic processes in these regions and very few field observations are available to inform management strategies to ensure the sustainability of water resources of present and future generations. We seek to improve understanding of hydrologic processes and feedbacks in the humid tropics using existing and new information from two high-elevation watersheds that span a LULC gradient in the Andes Mountains of Colombia. One site is located in the preserved Chingaza Natural National Park in Central Colombia (undisturbed). The second site is located ~60 km to the northwest and has experienced considerable LULC change over the last 40 years. Combined, these watersheds deliver over 80% of the water resources to Bogotá and neighboring communities. These watersheds have similar climatological characteristics (including annual precipitation), but have strong differences in LULC which result in substantial differences in hydrologic response and streamflow dynamics. We present an overview of many of the pressing issues and effects that land degradation and climate change are posing to the long-term sustainability of water resources in the northern Andes. Our overarching goal is to provide process-based knowledge that will be useful to prevent, mitigate, or respond to future water crises along the Andean

  16. A systematic review of the nutritional adequacy of the diet in the Central Andes

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    Peter R. Berti

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To examine dietary adequacy in the Andean area, including macro- and micronutrient intakes, with a particular focus on rural communities; to highlight nutrition priorities in the Andes; and to identify opportunities for improvement. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted, identifying published and grey literature in English and Spanish related to diet in the central Andean countries of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Articles reporting data from dietary surveys or nutrition interventions were included. Thirty-four papers or reports published in 1969-2011 were included in the final review. The mean and variation in intakes by sex and age group of all presented nutrients were collated and the mean of means were calculated. RESULTS: Thiamin, niacin, and vitamin C intakes were usually adequate. Intakes of most other micronutrients, including iron, zinc, vitamin A, riboflavin, vitamin B12, folate, and zinc were low, likely resulting in high levels of inadequacy. Energy intakes were lower than requirements, but it is unlikely to be a common problem, rather, this result was probably due to the known tendency of most dietary survey tools to underreport intake. However, energy from fat intakes was very low, usually less than 20% of the total, and in some settings, less than 10%. CONCLUSIONS: The inadequate intake of some micronutrients is common in many developing countries, but the extremely low intake of dietary fat found in the central Andes is not. Increased consumption of animal-source foods would increase fat intakes, while addressing micronutrient deficiencies; however, the impact on the fragile ecosystem of the Andes needs considering. Indigenous crops, such as lupine bean, quinoa, and amaranth are also rich in fat or micronutrients.

  17. A systematic review of the nutritional adequacy of the diet in the Central Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Peter R; Fallu, Cynthia; Cruz Agudo, Yesmina

    2014-11-01

    To examine dietary adequacy in the Andean area, including macro- and micronutrient intakes, with a particular focus on rural communities; to highlight nutrition priorities in the Andes; and to identify opportunities for improvement. A comprehensive literature search was conducted, identifying published and grey literature in English and Spanish related to diet in the central Andean countries of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Articles reporting data from dietary surveys or nutrition interventions were included. Thirty-four papers or reports published in 1969-2011 were included in the final review. The mean and variation in intakes by sex and age group of all presented nutrients were collated and the mean of means were calculated. Thiamin, niacin, and vitamin C intakes were usually adequate. Intakes of most other micronutrients, including iron, zinc, vitamin A, riboflavin, vitamin B12, folate, and zinc were low, likely resulting in high levels of inadequacy. Energy intakes were lower than requirements, but it is unlikely to be a common problem, rather, this result was probably due to the known tendency of most dietary survey tools to underreport intake. However, energy from fat intakes was very low, usually less than 20% of the total, and in some settings, less than 10%. The inadequate intake of some micronutrients is common in many developing countries, but the extremely low intake of dietary fat found in the central Andes is not. Increased consumption of animal-source foods would increase fat intakes, while addressing micronutrient deficiencies; however, the impact on the fragile ecosystem of the Andes needs considering. Indigenous crops, such as lupine bean, quinoa, and amaranth are also rich in fat or micronutrients.

  18. Population dynamics of the rat Microryzomys minutus (Rodentia: Muridae in the Venezuelan Andes

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    Daniel R Cabello

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The population dynamics of the small forest rice rat Microryzomys minutus, a murid rodent that occurs in the high altitudes of the northern and central Andes, was studied in disturbed and primary environments in a cloud forest of the Venezuelan Andes (Juan Pablo Peñaloza National Park, 8º11’N, 71º49’W. We collected 121 animals (66♀♀ and 55♂♂ between 1995 and 1998, using pitfall traps with formalin. Adult males were heavier than adult females. Relative abundance was much greater in the disturbed environments (over 10 individuals in some periods than in the primary cloud forest: 4-8 individuals. In the disturbed environments, the rats were extremely abundant in the first sampling period, and less frequent afterwards. In the cropland, abundance showed some fluctuations during the study and displayed two small abundance peaks in March-June 1997 and 1998. In the mined area, the rats had irregular fluctuations until March-June 1997 and were not recorded in July-October 1997. The occurrence of this rat in both disturbed and natural habitats confirms the wide ecological tolerance of this species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54(2: 651-. Epub 2006 Jun 01.Se analizó la dinámica poblacional de las pequeñas ratas silvestres del arroz Microryzomys minutus en ambientes alterados y primarios, en un bosque nublado de los Andes venezolanos. El estudio fue basado en 121 animales (66♀♀ y 55♂♂ recolectados entre 1995 y 1998, usando trampas que contenían formalina. Esta especie está presente en ambos hábitats lo que confirma su amplia tolerancia ecológica. La abundancia poblacional fue mayor en ambientes alterados que en los no alterados. M. minutus presenta dimorfismo sexual en el peso: los machos son más pesados que las hembras.

  19. Constraints on deformation of the Southern Andes since the Cretaceous from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffione, Marco; Hernandez-Moreno, Catalina; Ghiglione, Matias C.; Speranza, Fabio; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Lodolo, Emanuele

    2015-12-01

    The southernmost segment of the Andean Cordillera underwent a complex deformation history characterized by alternation of contractional, extensional, and strike-slip tectonics. Key elements of southern Andean deformation that remain poorly constrained, include the origin of the orogenic bend known as the Patagonian Orocline (here renamed as Patagonian Arc), and the exhumation mechanism of an upper amphibolite facies metamorphic complex currently exposed in Cordillera Darwin. Here, we present results of anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) from 22 sites in Upper Cretaceous to upper Eocene sedimentary rocks within the internal structural domain of the Magallanes fold-and-thrust belt in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina). AMS parameters from most sites reveal a weak tectonic overprint of the original magnetic fabric, which was likely acquired upon layer-parallel shortening soon after sedimentation. Magnetic lineation from 17 sites is interpreted to have formed during compressive tectonic phases associated to a continuous N-S contraction. Our data, combined with the existing AMS database from adjacent areas, show that the Early Cretaceous-late Oligocene tectonic phases in the Southern Andes yielded continuous contraction, variable from E-W in the Patagonian Andes to N-S in the Fuegian Andes, which defined a radial strain field. A direct implication is that the exhumation of the Cordillera Darwin metamorphic complex occurred under compressive, rather than extensional or strike-slip tectonics, as alternatively proposed. If we agree with recent works considering the curved Magallanes fold-and-thrust belt as a primary arc (i.e., no relative vertical-axis rotation of the limbs occurs during its formation), then other mechanisms different from oroclinal bending should be invoked to explain the documented radial strain field. We tentatively propose a kinematic model in which reactivation of variably oriented Jurassic faults at the South American continental margin controlled

  20. Oscillations and trends of river discharge in the southern Central Andes and linkages with climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castino, Fabiana; Bookhagen, Bodo; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2017-12-01

    This study analyzes the discharge variability of small to medium drainage basins (102-104 km2) in the southern Central Andes of NW Argentina. The Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) was applied to evaluate non-stationary oscillatory modes of variability and trends, based on four time series of monthly-normalized discharge anomaly between 1940 and 2015. Statistically significant trends reveal increasing discharge during the past decades and document an intensification of the hydrological cycle during this period. An Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) analysis revealed that discharge variability in this region can be best described by five quasi-periodic statistically significant oscillatory modes, with mean periods varying from 1 to ∼20 y. Moreover, we show that discharge variability is most likely linked to the phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) at multi-decadal timescales (∼20 y) and, to a lesser degree, to the Tropical South Atlantic SST anomaly (TSA) variability at shorter timescales (∼2-5 y). Previous studies highlighted a rapid increase in discharge in the southern Central Andes during the 1970s, inferred to have been associated with the global 1976-77 climate shift. Our results suggest that the rapid discharge increase in the NW Argentine Andes coincides with the periodic enhancement of discharge, which is mainly linked to a negative to positive transition of the PDO phase and TSA variability associated with a long-term increasing trend. We therefore suggest that variations in discharge in this region are largely driven by both natural variability and the effects of global climate change. We furthermore posit that the links between atmospheric and hydrologic processes result from a combination of forcings that operate on different spatiotemporal scales.

  1. Mio-Pliocene aridity in the south-central Andes associated with Southern Hemisphere cold periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, William H; Fisher, G Burch; Burbank, Douglas W; Ciccioli, Patricia L; Alonso, Ricardo N; Gorin, Andrew L; Silverhart, Perri H; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R C; Christoffersen, Michael S

    2017-06-20

    Although Earth's climate history is best known through marine records, the corresponding continental climatic conditions drive the evolution of terrestrial life. Continental conditions during the latest Miocene are of particular interest because global faunal turnover is roughly synchronous with a period of global glaciation from ∼6.2-5.5 Ma and with the Messinian Salinity Crisis from ∼6.0-5.3 Ma. Despite the climatic and ecological significance of this period, the continental climatic conditions associated with it remain unclear. We address this question using erosion rates of ancient watersheds to constrain Mio-Pliocene climatic conditions in the south-central Andes near 30° S. Our results show two slowdowns in erosion rate, one from ∼6.1-5.2 Ma and another from 3.6 to 3.3 Ma, which we attribute to periods of continental aridity. This view is supported by synchrony with other regional proxies for aridity and with the timing of glacial ‟cold" periods as recorded by marine proxies, such as the M2 isotope excursion. We thus conclude that aridity in the south-central Andes is associated with cold periods at high southern latitudes, perhaps due to a northward migration of the Southern Hemisphere westerlies, which disrupted the South American Low Level Jet that delivers moisture to southeastern South America. Colder glacial periods, and possibly associated reductions in atmospheric CO 2 , thus seem to be an important driver of Mio-Pliocene ecological transitions in the central Andes. Finally, this study demonstrates that paleo-erosion rates can be a powerful proxy for ancient continental climates that lie beyond the reach of most lacustrine and glacial archives.

  2. Geomorphic controls on availability of weathering-derived nutrients across an erosional gradient in the Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, A.; Torres, M. A.; Kleinsasser, E.; Clark, K.; Asner, G. P.; Malhi, Y.; Quesada, C.

    2013-12-01

    Rock-derived nutrients are thought to play important roles in determining ecosystem productivity and function, particularly in tropical forests. Variation in the availability of key nutrients such as P and Ca has been attributed to changes in the supply from chemical weathering of bedrock minerals, with a general conceptual model that younger soils with higher weathering rates are capable of supplying more nutrients compared to older soils with lower weathering rates (e.g. Vitousek et al., 2003). In this study we present data from an elevational gradient in the eastern Andes of Peru, illustrating how the relationship between weathering and nutrient availability is manifest in an active erosional system. Our data suggest that weathering, driven by erosional supply of primary minerals, is important in supplying nutrients. However, there is complexity in this relationship that may be associated with the geomorphic controls on weathering geochemistry and hydrochemistry, including weathering that takes place at greater depths when erosion rates are higher (e.g. West, 2012). We compare measured weathering rates with nutrient status of soils and vegetation across a transect from high elevations in the Andes to low elevations in the foreland floodplain. Weathering rates determined from the dissolved chemistry of river samples are highest at high elevation sites in the Andes. Mineral weathering rates are significant in the floodplain, which we attribute to chemical reworking of material eroded from the Andes, but rates of mineral weathering are not as high in the floodplain as in the montane sites. Although Ca supply is highest in the mountains, the foliar Ca and Ca available in soils is lower than in the floodplain. We will explore hydrochemical reasons for this difference, which may be due to where Ca release takes place relative to the vegetation root zone. We will also explore the supply of P from weathering in relation to observed nutrient availability, based on

  3. Prediction of extreme floods in the Central Andes by means of Complex Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boers, Niklas; Bookhagen, Bodo; Barbosa, Henrique; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen; Marengo, Jose

    2014-05-01

    Based on a non-linear synchronisation measure and complex network theory, we present a novel framework for the prediction of extreme events of spatially embedded, interrelated time series. This method is general in the sense that it can be applied to any type of spatially sampled time series with significant interrelations, ranging from climate observables to biological or stock market data. In this presentation, we apply our method to extreme rainfall in South America and show how this leads to the prediction of more than 60% (90% during El Niño conditions) of extreme rainfall events in the eastern Central Andes of Bolivia and northern Argentina, with only 1% false alarms. From paleoclimatic to decadal time scales, the Central Andes continue to be subject to pronounced changes in climatic conditions. In particular, our and past work shows that frequency as well as magnitudes of extreme rainfall events have increased significantly during past decades, calling for a better understanding of the involved climatic mechanisms. Due to their large spatial extend and occurrence at high elevations, these extreme events often lead to severe floods and landslides with disastrous socioeconomic impacts. They regularly affect tens of thousands of people and produce estimated costs of the order of several hundred million USD. Alongside with the societal value of predicting natural hazards, our study provides insights into the responsible climatic features and suggests interactions between Rossby waves in polar regions and large scale (sub-)tropical moisture transport as a driver of subseasonal variability of the South American monsoon system. Predictable extreme events result from the propagation of extreme rainfall from the region of Buenos Aires towards the Central Andes given characteristic atmospheric conditions. Our results indicate that the role of frontal systems originating from Rossby waves in polar latitudes is much more dominant for controlling extreme rainfall in

  4. Culture and landslide risk in the Central Andes of Bolivia and Peru

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    Nicholas Roberts

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Culture and its heritage play a major role in determining landslide risk in the Central Andes. Examples of some of these many possible influences are provided from natural and social science literature and from the author’s recent work in Bolivia. Landslide risk appears to have generally increased throughout the last millennium, due largely to anthropogenic modification of hazard, exposure, vulnerability and coping capacity. These changes result from both local and distant pressures and from contemporaneous and pervious cultural factors. Consequently, holistic examination of landslide risk necessitates consideration of culture and its heritage.

  5. La Guerra Civil de 1876-1877 en los Andes nororientales colombianos

    OpenAIRE

    Sastoque, Edna Carolina; García, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Este trabajo busca comprender regionalmente las causas de la guerra civil de 1876-1877, en los Andes nororientales colombianos. Se reconstruye y se analiza la malla de asentamientos urbanos de los Santanderes entre 1853 y 1857, se establece la jerarquía de los centros urbanos, las condiciones que contribuyeron al surgimiento de conflictos y los relevos jerárquicos que estos propiciaron. Por otro lado, se identifica a los actores que intervinieron en la guerra y la localización de los aconteci...

  6. SRTM Perspective of Colored Height and Shaded Relief Laguna Mellquina, Andes Mountains, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This depiction of an area south of San Martin de Los Andes, Argentina, is the first Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)view of the Andes Mountains, the tallest mountain chain in the western hemisphere. This particular site does not include the higher Andes peaks, but it does include steep-sided valleys and other distinctive landforms carved by Pleistocene glaciers. Elevations here range from about 700 to 2,440 meters (2,300 to 8,000 feet). This region is very active tectonically and volcanically, and the landforms provide a record of the changes that have occurred over many thousands of years. Large lakes fill the broad mountain valleys, and the spectacular scenery here makes this area a popular resort destination for Argentinians.Three visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading, color coding of topographic height and a perspective view. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark, as would be the case at noon at this latitude in the southern hemisphere. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations. The perspective is toward the west, 20 degrees off horizontal with 2X vertical exaggeration. The back (west) edge of the data set forms a false skyline within the Andes Range.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved

  7. Meteorological drivers of ablation processes on a cold glacier in the semiarid Andes of Chile

    OpenAIRE

    S. MacDonell; C. Kinnard; T. Mölg; L. Nicholson; J. Abermann

    2013-01-01

    Meteorological and surface change measurements collected during a 2.5 yr period are used to calculate surface mass and energy balances at 5324 m a.s.l. on Guanaco Glacier, a cold-based glacier in the semi-arid Andes of Chile. Meteorological conditions are marked by extremely low vapour pressures (annual mean of 1.1 hPa), strong winds (annual mean of 10 m s−1), high shortwave radiation receipt (mean annual 295 W m−2) and low precipitation rates (mean annual 45 mm w.e.). Net shortwave radi...

  8. [Fertility and reproductive behavior in Peru: Andes mountains and the Amazon basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, A L

    1992-01-01

    "The article attempts to discuss the historical and contemporary situations of [fertility among] populations residing in the two least studied areas of Peru: the Andes mountains and the Amazon basin. The study starts with a review of the 'demographic catastrophe' that the Spanish presence meant to the people of these areas.... The harmful effects of the 'rubber boom' and, more recently, of the 'oil boom', periods are also reviewed." Fertility trends in the two areas are analyzed, with a focus on marriage, breast-feeding, and contraceptive use. (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  9. Jürgen Stock: From One End of the Andes to the Other

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, A. K.; Stock, M. J.

    2015-05-01

    Jürgen Stock (1923-2004) will always be remembered for his work on astronomical site testing. He led the efforts to find the best place for CTIO, and his work had a large influence in the setting of other observatories in Chile. He was the first director of CTIO (1963-1966). After his time in Chile, he moved to the other end of the Andes and was in charge of the site selection and the construction of the only professional observatory in Venezuela, the Llano del Hato National Observatory.

  10. The Dom Feliciano belt in Santa Catarina State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basei, M.A.S.

    1985-01-01

    A geological synthesis and a proposal for the geotectonic evolution of the precambrian to eopaleozoic terrains of the southern part of Santa Catarina state is presented. The methods utilized were conventional (field works, petrological studies and bibliographic analysis), including structural analysis, lithogeochemical and geochronological investigations. Over a hundred new radiometric determinations, using several methods some of which not yet available in Brazil, as U-Pb in zircon and Pb-Pb and Sm-Nd in whole rocks, are presented. The results allowed us to determine the emplacement epoch of granitoids and consequently the associated deformational phases. (author)

  11. Entre champetuos, pupys y harcoretos: Identidades juveniles en santa marta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Giraldo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe las principales articulaciones de las identidades juveniles en la ciudad de Santa Marta, en el Caribe colombiano. Para ello, contrasta las más relevantes figuras en el espectro de las experiencias y subjetividades juveniles en sus estrechas relaciones con diferentes géneros musicales. Se evidencia, entonces, que en las identidades juveniles se pueden diferenciar unas figuras hegemónicas (champetuo, pupy, yuquero de unas alternativas (harcoreto,electrónico.

  12. Os dispositivos que garantem o ensino religioso em Santa Catarina

    OpenAIRE

    Araldi, Volmir

    2005-01-01

    Problematizo, a partir da lógica foucaultiana, a disciplina e a forma disciplinar do ensino religioso nas escolas estaduais de Santa Catarina; a difusão de diversos dispositivos utilizados a cada momento da história do ensino religioso para reorganizar e reestruturar os mecanismos funcionais da sociedade enquanto lógica moral cristã; a obediência e a subserviência como fatores primordiais para que a lógica disciplinar funcione. O legado religioso assenta-se em patamares discursivos e legislat...

  13. Tipos de Tiempo en el periodo de Semana Santa Vallisoletana.

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Martín, Javier

    2017-01-01

    El propósito del proyecto es el análisis y la caracterización de ciertos tipos de tiempo a partir de los datos observados de la Base de Datos Climatológica del Observatorio de Valladolid. Los datos analizados corresponden a los ocho días de Semana Santa de un periodo de 37 años que comprenden entre los años 1981 y 2017. Grado en Geografía y Ordenación del Territorio

  14. Que espiritismo é esse? Santa Maria e seus propagandistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Santos Mattos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho insere-se na pesquisa acerca do processo de organização do Espiritismo na cidade de Santa Maria - RS no contexto de 1930 a 1940. Nesse artigo, exploramos as estratégias de esclarecimento empreendido pelos agentes espíritas junto à população local. Frente a tais objetivos, abordamos inicialmente as questões específicas de disputas religiosas locais, e por fim, buscamos pensar como o Espiritismo se insere no contexto social da cidade do centro do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul.

  15. Geophysics report of Santa Rosa place Canelones province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicalese, H.

    1984-01-01

    The Hydrogeology Section required to Geophysics Department of the DINAMIGE to carry out this report for Education and Culture Ministery, to study the feasibility of the exploration and exploitation of underground waters located in three properties zones in Santa Rosa's town, Canelones province. By means of the geoeletric methods it was possible to estimate the alluviums thickness ,sedimentary deposits or alteration mantels. The purpose of the present work has been to establish geologic and structural features through vertical electric well by means of which is been able to study the vertical variations of the resistivity .

  16. SEARCH FOR NEW METHOD FOR FREEZING SEMEN SANTA INES SHEEP

    OpenAIRE

    FÃtima Revia Granja Lima

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments were carried out aiming to evaluate the influence of different factors on parameter of post-thawing semen motility and pregnancy index of rams. The first one showed the influence of extender type (skim milk, HEPES and TRIS), freezing temperature (-79oC, -90oC and -120oC) and final concentration of sperm (600 x 106, 800 x 106 and 1000 x 106 sperm per mL) on semen motility parameters of Santa Ines rams. The second one experiment evaluated the influence of egg yolk typ...

  17. Tapices flamencos en Toledo : Catedral y Museo de Santa Cruz

    OpenAIRE

    Cortes Hernández, Susana

    2011-01-01

    El objeto de este trabajo es el estudio de un conjunto de tapicerías que se encuentran en la ciudad de Toledo. De ellos pertenecen setenta y uno a la catedral privada, distribuidas en catorce series, y otras quince propiedad del museo de santa cruz de Toledo, donde también están depositados y se exhiben algunos de los tapices catedralicios. Abarcan las épocas más florecientes de la tapicería flamenca de los siglos XV al XVII, sobre modelos de destacados pintores de cartones para tapices, como...

  18. Thermal physiology, disease, and amphibian declines on the eastern slopes of the Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenazzi, Alessandro; Lehr, Edgar; Vredenburg, Vance T

    2014-04-01

    Rising temperatures, a widespread consequence of climate change, have been implicated in enigmatic amphibian declines from habitats with little apparent human impact. The pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), now widespread in Neotropical mountains, may act in synergy with climate change causing collapse in thermally stressed hosts. We measured the thermal tolerance of frogs along a wide elevational gradient in the Tropical Andes, where frog populations have collapsed. We used the difference between critical thermal maximum and the temperature a frog experiences in nature as a measure of tolerance to high temperatures. Temperature tolerance increased as elevation increased, suggesting that frogs at higher elevations may be less sensitive to rising temperatures. We tested the alternative pathogen optimal growth hypothesis that prevalence of the pathogen should decrease as temperatures fall outside the optimal range of pathogen growth. Our infection-prevalence data supported the pathogen optimal growth hypothesis because we found that prevalence of Bd increased when host temperatures matched its optimal growth range. These findings suggest that rising temperatures may not be the driver of amphibian declines in the eastern slopes of the Andes. Zoonotic outbreaks of Bd are the most parsimonious hypothesis to explain the collapse of montane amphibian faunas; but our results also reveal that lowland tropical amphibians, despite being shielded from Bd by higher temperatures, are vulnerable to climate-warming stress. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Crustal balance and crustal flux from shortening estimates in the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, David; Kley, Jonas; Oncken, Onno; Sobolev, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    The Central Andes of South America form the second largest high elevation plateau on earth. Extreme elevations have formed on a noncollisional margin with abundant associated arc magmatism. It has long been thought that the crustal thickness necessary to support Andean topography was not accounted for by known crustal shortening alone. We show that this may in part be due to a two-dimensional treatment of the problem. A three-dimensional analysis of crustal shortening and crustal thickness shows that displacement of material towards the axis of the bend in the Central Andes has added a significant volume of crust not accounted for in previous comparisons. We find that present-day crustal thickness between 12°S and 25°S is accounted for (∼-10% to ∼+3%)with the same shortening estimates, and the same assumed initial crustal thickness as had previously led to the conclusion of a ∼25-35% deficit in shortening relative to volume of crustal material. We suggest that the present-day measured crustal thickness distribution may not match that predicted due to shortening, and substantial redistribution of crust may have occurred by both erosion and deposition at the surface and lower crustal flow in regions of the thermally weakened middle and lower crust.

  20. Glacier change and glacial lake outburst flood risk in the Bolivian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Cook

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers of the Bolivian Andes represent an important water resource for Andean cities and mountain communities, yet relatively little work has assessed changes in their extent over recent decades. In many mountain regions, glacier recession has been accompanied by the development of proglacial lakes, which can pose a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF hazard. However, no studies have assessed the development of such lakes in Bolivia despite recent GLOF incidents here. Our mapping from satellite imagery reveals an overall areal shrinkage of 228.1 ± 22.8 km2 (43.1 % across the Bolivian Cordillera Oriental between 1986 and 2014. Shrinkage was greatest in the Tres Cruces region (47.3 %, followed by the Cordillera Apolobamba (43.1 % and Cordillera Real (41.9 %. A growing number of proglacial lakes have developed as glaciers have receded, in accordance with trends in most other deglaciating mountain ranges, although the number of ice-contact lakes has decreased. The reasons for this are unclear, but the pattern of lake change has varied significantly throughout the study period, suggesting that monitoring of future lake development is required as ice continues to recede. Ultimately, we use our 2014 database of proglacial lakes to assess GLOF risk across the Bolivian Andes. We identify 25 lakes that pose a potential GLOF threat to downstream communities and infrastructure. We suggest that further studies of potential GLOF impacts are urgently required.

  1. Diversification in the Andes: age and origins of South American Heliotropium lineages (Heliotropiaceae, Boraginales).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebert, Federico; Hilger, Hartmut H; Weigend, Maximilian

    2011-10-01

    The uplift of the Andes was a major factor for plant diversification in South America and had significant effects on the climatic patterns at the continental scale. It was crucial for the formation of the arid environments in south-eastern and western South America. However, both the timing of the major stages of the Andean uplift and the onset of aridity in western South America remain controversial. In this paper we examine the hypothesis that the Andean South American groups of Heliotropium originated and diversified in response to Andean orogeny during the late Miocene and a the subsequent development of aridity. To this end, we estimate divergence times and likely biogeographical origins of the major clades in the phylogeny of Heliotropium, using both Bayesian and likelihood methods. Divergence times of all Andean clades in Heliotropium are estimated to be of late Miocene or Pliocene ages. At least three independent Andean diversification events can be recognized within Heliotropium. Timing of the diversification in the Andean lineages Heliotropium sects.Heliothamnus, Cochranea, Heliotrophytum, Hypsogenia, Plagiomeris, Platygyne clearly correspond to a rapid, late Miocene uplift of the Andes and a Pliocene development of arid environments in South America. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Elevational Shifts in the Topographic Position of Polylepis Forest Stands in the Andes of Southern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M. Toivonen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The patchy distribution of high-Andean treeline forests has provoked discussion about the relative importance of anthropogenic and climatic causes of this pattern, both of which vary with topography. We aimed to understand the topographic controls on the distribution of Polylepis subsericans treeline forests in the Andes of southern Peru, and the changes in these controls along an elevational gradient. We mapped Polylepis forests in the Cordillera Urubamba, Cusco, using high-resolution aerial images and related forest cover to topographic variables extracted from a digital terrain model (30-m resolution. The variables were selected based on their expected biological relevance for tree growth at high elevations. We constructed logistic regression models of forest cover, separately for each of five 100-m elevational belts. To deal with spatial autocorrelation, models were based on randomized 10% subsampling of the data with 1000 repetitions. The results suggest a consistent shift in topographic preference with elevation, with forests at lower elevations showing a preference for topographically protected sites near rivers and forests at higher elevations being increasingly restricted to north-facing and well-drained sites. Our study offers the first indication of the ability of Andean treeline forests to benefit from the topographic heterogeneity of the high-Andes. Providing that dispersal and establishment are possible, local relocation between microsites could help these forests to persist regionally in spite of changing climatic conditions.

  3. Le temps et l'espace chez les paysans des Andes péruviennes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1974-01-01

    Full Text Available A la lumière de quatre récits populaires, l'auteur essaye de définir l'espace et le temps andins. Ces deux notions fondamentales se présentent avec des caractéristiques propres et sont les signes d'une manière spécifique d'envisager le monde et les choses. Dans la mesure où ces deux notions se distinguent d'autres expressions symboliques, elles offrent la possibilité d'analyser la réalité des Andes comme spécifique et potentiellement capable de résister à la dépendance et à la domination culturelles. El estudio de cuatro textos quechuas permite al autor definir el espacio y el tiempo andinos. Estas dos nociones presentan características propias y son los signos de una visión específica del mundo y de las cosas. De esta manera es posible distinguir la cultura andina de otras expresiones culturales peruanas y encarar la realidad de los Andes como potencialmente capaz de resistir a la dependencia y a la dominación culturales.

  4. Two new species of Leptanilloides Mann, 1823 (Formicidae: Dorylinae from the Andes of southern Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibaut Delsinne

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Leptanilloides are described: L. copalinga Delsinne & Donoso sp. nov., and L. prometea Delsinne & Donoso sp. nov., based on workers collected in the leaf litter and soil of the Andes of southern Ecuador. Both species belong to the L. biconstricta species-group (formally diagnosed here. The metatibial gland, considered a synapomorphy for Dorylinae, is observed in L. prometea sp. nov. but seems absent in L. copalinga sp. nov. We provide a COI DNA barcode for both species and a revised key for the worker caste of all known species in the genus. We also describe a single male identified as a potential new Leptanilloides species on the basis of morphology. Furthermore, its mitochondrial COI gene sequence does not match any previously barcoded species. However, we refrain from giving it a specific name because of our lack of knowledge about the worker caste. So far, half of the 14 Leptanilloides species have been discovered above 1500 m in the mountain forests or páramos of the Ecuadorian Andes, confirming, if needed, the biological significance of these threatened habitats.

  5. Exploring climate changes in mountainous ecosystems in the Andes of South Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachte, Katja; Rollenbeck, Rütger; Campozano, Lenin; Celleri, Rollando; Bendix, Jörg

    2017-04-01

    The Andes Mountains of Ecuador are one of the most biologically diverse regions of the world with high ecosystem diversity. Particularly the complex structure of the terrain causes a variety of ecosystems across small scales that are strongly related to zonal and altitudinal gradients in climate parameters. At the eastern slopes mountain rain forest dominate because extensive rain amounts occur due to impinging easterlies. They advance warm-moist air from the Amazon basin to the Andes and subsequently lead to an orographic enhancement of cloud and precipitation. In contrast, the western slopes are under the influence of a strong seasonality driven by the South American monsoon system leading to distinct rainy and dry periods which is reflected in the deciduous forest / dry forest. Additionally, as a result of the altitudinal gradient paramo ecosystem occurs above the timberline. In the light of recent and future climate changes as an indicator for loss of biodiversity these ecosystems are strongly endangered. Therefore the high resolution climate indicator system (hrCIS) for South Ecuador is developed to derive climate change indicators relevant for ecosystem research. The hrCIS is generated applying the regional climate model Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) in a dynamical downscaling approach. It covers a time period 1995 to 2015 with a spatial and temporal resolution of 4 km and 1 hour, respectively, on the inner domain. On the basis of important climate change indicators, e.g. precipitation and temperature, their recent developments associated with the respective ecosystem are presented and discussed.

  6. Permafrost distribution map of San Juan Dry Andes (Argentina) based on rock glacier sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper Angillieri, María Yanina

    2017-01-01

    Rock glaciers are frozen water reservoirs in mountainous areas. Water resources are important for the local populations and economies. The presence of rock glaciers is commonly used as a direct indicator of mountain permafrost conditions. Over 500 active rock glaciers have been identified, showing that elevations between 3500 and 4500 m asl., a south-facing or east-facing aspect, areas with relatively low solar radiation and low mean annual air temperature (-4 to 0 °C) favour the existence of rock glaciers in this region. The permafrost probability model, for Dry Andes of San Juan Province between latitudes 28º30‧S and 32°30‧S, have been analyzed by logistic regression models based on the active rock glaciers occurrence in relation to some topoclimatic variables such as altitude, aspect, mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation and solar radiation, using optical remote sensing techniques in a GIS environment. The predictive performances of the model have been estimated by known rock glaciers locations and by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). This regional permafrost map can be applied by the Argentinean Government for their recent initiatives which include creating inventories, monitoring and studying ice masses along the Argentinean Andes. Further, this generated map provides valuable input data for permafrost scenarios and contributes to a better understanding of our geosystem.

  7. Temperature and Rainfall Variability in the Northern Andes Over the Past Two Millennia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, T. M.; Bixler, C. W.; Mora, A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies of tropical glaciers have shown that most are retreating rapidly, with some of the most dramatic changes occurring since the mid-1970s, most likely as a result of increasing global temperatures. However, a longer-term perspective is needed to place these changes in the context of natural climate variability. To better understand the climatological factors driving long-term variations in the mass balance of tropical glaciers, we reconstructed changes in precipitation and temperature in the northern tropical Andes using variations in the hydrogen isotope composition of sedimentary leaf waxes and branched GDGT distributions in a high-resolution varved sediment record from Lago Chingaza, Colombia. Br-GDGT derived temperatures are significantly correlated with instrumental temperature data and indicate that recent warming in the northern tropical Andes is unprecedented over the past two millennia. Furthermore, the magnitude of warming since the Little Ice Age is substantially larger than suggested by high latitude temperature reconstructions. Hydrogen isotope data indicated that colder conditions during the Little Ice Age were accompanied by a decrease in rainfall, likely associated with a southward shift in the position of the ITCZ. Over the past few centuries, warmer temperatures were accompanied by an increase in rainfall and a northward expansion of the tropical rainbelt. Together, these data suggest that the dominant control on the retreat of Andean glaciers has been the unprecedented rate and magnitude of recent warming.

  8. East of the Andes: The genetic profile of the Peruvian Amazon populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Corcia, T; Sanchez Mellado, C; Davila Francia, T J; Ferri, G; Sarno, S; Luiselli, D; Rickards, O

    2017-06-01

    Assuming that the differences between the Andes and the Amazon rainforest at environmental and historical levels have influenced the distribution patterns of genes, languages, and cultures, the maternal and paternal genetic reconstruction of the Peruvian Amazon populations was used to test the relationships within and between these two extreme environments. We analyzed four Peruvian Amazon communities (Ashaninka, Huambisa, Cashibo, and Shipibo) for both Y chromosome (17 STRs and 8 SNPs) and mtDNA data (control region sequences, two diagnostic sites of the coding region, and one INDEL), and we studied their variability against the rest of South America. We detected a high degree of genetic diversity in the Peruvian Amazon people, both for mtDNA than for Y chromosome, excepting for Cashibo people, who seem to have had no exchanges with their neighbors, in contrast with the others communities. The genetic structure follows the divide between the Andes and the Amazon, but we found a certain degree of gene flow between these two environments, as particularly emerged with the Y chromosome descent cluster's (DCs) analysis. The Peruvian Amazon is home to an array of populations with differential rates of genetic exchanges with their neighbors and with the Andean people, depending on their peculiar demographic histories. We highlighted some successful Y chromosome lineages expansions originated in Peru during the pre-Columbian history which involved both Andeans and Amazon Arawak people, showing that at least a part of the Amazon rainforest did not remain isolated from those exchanges. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Hydrological Modeling of Highly Glacierized Basins (Andes, Alps, and Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Omani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT was used to simulate five glacierized river basins that are global in coverage and vary in climate. The river basins included the Narayani (Nepal, Vakhsh (Central Asia, Rhone (Switzerland, Mendoza (Central Andes, Argentina, and Central Dry Andes (Chile, with a total area of 85,000 km2. A modified SWAT snow algorithm was applied in order to consider spatial variation of associated snowmelt/accumulation by elevation band across each subbasin. In previous studies, melt rates varied as a function of elevation because of an air temperature gradient while the snow parameters were constant throughout the entire basin. A major improvement of the new snow algorithm is the separation of the glaciers from seasonal snow based on their characteristics. Two SWAT snow algorithms were evaluated in simulation of monthly runoff from the glaciered watersheds: (1 the snow parameters are lumped (constant throughout the entire basin and (2 the snow parameters are spatially variable based on elevation bands of a subbasin (modified snow algorithm. Applying the distributed SWAT snow algorithm improved the model performance in simulation of monthly runoff with snow-glacial regime, so that mean RSR decreased to 0.49 from 0.55 and NSE increased to 0.75 from 0.69. Improvement of model performance was negligible in simulations of monthly runoff from the basins with a monsoon runoff regime.

  10. Fault-controlled development of shallow hydrothermal systems: Structural and mineralogical insights from the Southern Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roquer, T.; Arancibia, G.; Rowland, J. V.; Iturrieta, P. C.; Morata, D.; Cembrano, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Paleofluid-transporting systems can be recognized as meshes of fracture-filled veins in eroded zones of extinct hydrothermal systems. Here we conducted meso-microstructural analysis and mechanical modeling from two exhumed exposures of the faults governing regional tectonics of the Southern Andes: the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault System (LOFS) and the Andean Transverse Faults (ATF). A total of 107 fractures in both exposures were analyzed. The ATF specific segment shows two tectonic solutions that can be modeled as Andersonian and non-Andersonian tectonic regimes: (1) shear (mode II/III) failure occurs at differential stresses > 28 MPa and fluid pressures 85-98% lithostatic in the non-Andersonian regime. Additionally, the LOFS exposure cyclically fails in extension (mode I) or extension + shear (modes I + II/III) in the Andersonian regime, at differential stresses 40-80% lithostatic. In areas of spatial interaction between ATF and LOFS, these conditions might favor: (1) the storage of overpressured fluids in hydrothermal systems associated with the ATF faults, and (2) continuous fluid flow through vertical conduits in the LOFS faults. These observations suggest that such intersections are highly probable locations for concentrated hydrothermal activity, which must be taken into consideration for further geothermal exploration. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. PhD CONICYT grants, Centro de Excelencia en Geotermia de los Andes (CEGA-FONDAP/CONICYT Project #15090013), FONDECYT Project #1130030 and Project CONICYT REDES #140036.

  11. Regionalisation of Hydrological Indices to Assess Land-Use Change Impacts in the Tropical Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buytaert, W.; Ochoa Tocachi, B. F.

    2014-12-01

    Andean ecosystems are major water sources for cities and communities located in the Tropical Andes; however, there is a considerable lack of knowledge about their hydrology. Two problems are especially important: (i) the lack of monitoring to assess the impacts of historical land-use and cover change and degradation (LUCCD) at catchment scale, and (ii) the high variability in climatic and hydrological conditions that complicate the evaluation of land management practices. This study analyses how a reliable LUCCD impacts assessment can be performed in an environment of high variability combined with data-scarcity and low-quality records. We use data from participatory hydrological monitoring activities in 20 catchments distributed along the tropical Andes. A set of 46 hydrological indices is calculated and regionalized by relating them to 42 physical catchment properties. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is performed to maximise available data while minimising redundancy in the sets of variables. Hydrological model parameters are constrained by estimated indices, and different behavioural predictions are assembled to provide a generalised response on which we assess LUCCD impacts. Results from this methodology show that the attributed effects of LUCCD in pair-wise catchment comparisons may be overstated or hidden by different sources of uncertainty, including measurement inaccuracies and model structural errors. We propose extrapolation and evaluation in ungauged catchments as a way to regionalize LUCCD predictions and to provide statistically significant conclusions in the Andean region. These estimations may deliver reliable knowledge to evaluate the hydrological impact of different watershed management practices.

  12. Cenozoic basin thermal history reconstruction and petroleum systems in the eastern Colombian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Mauricio; Mora, Andres; Ketcham, Richard A.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Almendral, Ariel

    2017-04-01

    Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic retro-arc foreland basins along the eastern margin of the Andes in South America host the world's best detrital record for the study of subduction orogenesis. There, the world's most prolific petroleum system occur in the northernmost of these foreland basin systems, in Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela, yet over 90% of the discovered hydrocarbons there occur in one single province in norteastern Venezuela. A successful industry-academy collaboration applied a multidisciplinary approach to the study of the north Andes with the aim of investigating both, the driving mechanisms of orogenesis, and its impact on hydrocarbon accumulation in eastern Colombia. The Eastern Cordillera is an inversion orogen located at the leading edge of the northern Andes. Syn-rift subsidence favored the accumulation of km-thick organic matter rich shales in a back-arc basin in the early Cretaceous. Subsequent late Cretaceous thermal subsidence prompted the accumulation of shallow marine sandstones and shales, the latter including the Turonian-Cenomanian main hydrocarbon source-rock. Early Andean uplift since the Paleocene led to development of a flexural basin, filled with mainly non-marine strata. We have studied the Meso-Cenozoic thermal evolution of these basins through modeling of a large thermochronometric database including hundreds of apatite and zircon fission-track and (U-Th)/He data, as well as paleothermometric information based on vitrinite reflectance and present-day temperatures measured in boreholes. The detrital record of Andean construction was also investigated through detrital zircon U-Pb geochronometry in outcrop and borehole samples. A comprehensive burial/exhumation history has been accomplished through three main modeling strategies. First, one-dimensional subsidence was used to invert the pre-extensional lithospheric thicknesses, the magnitude of stretching, and the resulting heat flow associated to extension. The amount of eroded section and

  13. Broken foreland basins in the India-Eurasia collision zone and in the central Andes: tectonic, geomorphic and sedimentologic similarities (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, M. R.; Bookhagen, B.; Hilley, G. E.; Kirby, E.; Sobel, E. R.

    2010-12-01

    Deformation in broken forelands may be accommodated far into the foreland by reactivation of crustal anisotropies, producing steep, but short-wavelength topography. The discontinuous nature of this deformation and potentially rapid rock uplift rates relative to those within fold-and-thrust belts favors sediment ponding behind active mountain ranges built atop reactivated geologic structures. In the realm of the greater Indo-Eurasian collision zone the Tien Shan of Kyrgyzstan and China or the Qilian Shan comprise such settings, where ongoing shortening excises and uplifts basement blocks and eventually compartmentalizes a formerly contiguous foreland. In the Qilian Shan and ranges of NE Tibet, an early Tertiary foreland was disrupted by diachronous range growth and formation of isolated basins. Reconnection to external base level did not occur until Quaternary time. The Argentine Santa Barbara and Pampean ranges are examples of such environments in a non-collisional orogen. Here, several generations of transient basin fills were deposited and re-excavated in intermontane basins that are near the headwaters of rivers currently draining the broken foreland basin system. Despite differing settings, there similarities between basins in both environments, including: (1) multiple episodes of filling and excavation; (2) steep precipitation gradients; and, (4) highly disparate and diachronous deformation and uplift. Comparison of basin histories from the Andes and Central Asia suggests that these characteristics are the consequence of similar factors. First, deformation is typically localized along inherited crustal zones of weakness and the evolving topographic load above the reactivated faults. The high-angle structures produce large amounts of uplift for a given increment of shortening, facilitating rapid removal of cover sediments and exposing resistant lithologies. Second, transient basin fills typically occur where moisture-laden winds are prevented from reaching the

  14. Land use as a driver of soil fertility and biodiversity across an agricultural landscape in the Central Peruvian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valença, De Anne W.; Vanek, Steven J.; Meza, Katherin; Ccanto, Raul; Olivera, Edgar; Scurrah, Maria; Lantinga, Egbert A.; Fonte, Steven J.

    2017-01-01

    Land use change and intensification in agricultural landscapes of the Andean highlands have resulted in widespread soil degradation and a loss in soil-based ecosystem services and biodiversity. This trend threatens the sustainability of farming communities in the Andes, with important

  15. Diversity of bacteria producing pigmented colonies in areosol, snow and soil samples from remote glacial areas (Antarctica, Alps and Andes)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    González-Toril, E.; Amils, R.; Delmas, R.J.; Petit, J.R.; Komárek, Jiří; Elster, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2008), s. 1-24 ISSN 1810-6277 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 934; GA MŠk ME 945; GA ČR GA206/05/0253 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : bacteria * Andes * Antarctic * Alps Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  16. Kas Arnold Rüütel valetas süümevannet andes? / Anneli Ammas, Garel Püüa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ammas, Anneli, 1962-

    2006-01-01

    Autorite hinnangul tekib 31. augustil Eesti Ekspressis ilmunud artikli põhjal, milles käsitleti Johannes Hindi represseerimist, küsimus, kas Arnold Rüütel on valetanud Eesti Vabariigile korduvalt süümevannet andes. TÜ professori Kalle Meruski seisukoht. Lisa: Rüütel käskis kontrolli tugevdada

  17. Integral study of the quantity and quality of the underground water in the Santa Lucia basin in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This work study different aspects about the underground water in the Santa Lucia sedimentary basin in Uruguay. It is situated between the San Jose and Santa Lucia river as well as the adyacent Rio de La Plata coast.

  18. Prison Education: The College of Santa Fe and the New Mexico Penitentiary Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonigan, Richard F.

    For several years the College of Santa Fe has operated the Penitentiary Community College of Santa Fe for residents and parolees of the New Mexico Penitentiary. In an effort to evaluate and improve this program, the college hosted a Prison Education Conference for concerned professional and lay persons. This report presents the proceedings of the…

  19. Spectral reflectance and soil morphology characteristics of Santa Rita Experimental Range soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Karim Batchily; Donald F. Post; R. B. Bryant; Donald J. Breckenfeld

    2003-01-01

    The Santa Rita Experimental Range (SRER) soils are mostly transported alluvial sediments that occur on the piedmont slope flanking the Santa Rita Mountains in Arizona. The major geomorphic land forms are alluvial fans or fan terraces, but there are also areas of residual soils formed on granite and limestone bedrock, basin floor, stream terraces, and flood plains. The...

  20. 33 CFR 167.451 - In the Santa Barbara Channel: Between Point Vicente and Point Conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In the Santa Barbara Channel: Between Point Vicente and Point Conception. 167.451 Section 167.451 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST....451 In the Santa Barbara Channel: Between Point Vicente and Point Conception. (a) A separation zone is...

  1. Water supply and demand management strategies in the Galapagos: A case study of Santa CRuz Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyes Perez, M.

    2017-01-01

    Water resources on many islands in the world have been severely strained by increases in visitors. Santa Cruz Island, a tourism hub in the Galapagos, is facing significant challenges of too many people and not enough available water. There are no permanent freshwater resources on Santa Cruz, and the

  2. 76 FR 31242 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... the California State Implementation Plan, Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District AGENCY... limited disapproval of revisions to the Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD... BTU/hr and internal combustion engines with a rated brake horse power of 50 or greater. Under...

  3. 75 FR 52969 - Final Environmental Impact Statement; Prisoners Harbor Wetland Restoration, Santa Cruz Island...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement; Prisoners Harbor Wetland Restoration, Santa Cruz Island, Channel Islands National Park, Santa Barbara County, CA... implement restoration of palustrine wetlands and deepwater habitat at Prisoners Harbor, as well as remove a...

  4. Climate Change Projections for the Tropical Andes Using Multiple Emission Scenarios: Implications for Future Glaciation and Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuille, M.; Urrutia, R.

    2008-12-01

    Observations on glacier extent in the tropical Andes give a detailed and unequivocal account of rapid shrinkage of tropical Andean glaciers since the Little Ice Age. Future climate change will likely continue to affect high-elevation tropical mountain regions more strongly than their surrounding lowlands. Increasing temperature and changes in precipitation patterns will affect the size and distribution of glaciers and wetlands, ecosystem integrity, and water availability for human consumption, irrigation, mining and power production. With this looming threat for future water supplies in the tropical Andes, discussions about adequate adaptation and mitigation strategies abound. Yet detailed projections of future climate change in the tropical Andes, which should form the basis for any such measure, are not yet available. Here we will present first results for the end of the 21st century (2071- 2100) using a regional climate model based on two different emission scenarios (A2 and B2). Our results indicate significant warming in the tropical Andes, ranging from 2° C to 7° C, depending on location and scenario considered. The warming is enhanced at higher elevations and further amplified in the mid-and upper troposphere. Temperature changes are spatially similar in both scenarios, but the amplitude is significantly higher (up to 3° C) in A2. The A2 scenario also shows a significant increase in interannual temperature variability, while it remains almost unchanged in B2 when compared to a 20th century control run. Inspection of the annual mean temperature probability density function for both slopes of the Andes further reveals that there is no overlap between mean annual temperature of either of the two future scenarios with a control run. In both cases the coldest temperatures projected for the years 2071-2100 are much higher than the warmest years in the modern control run (1961-90). Changes in precipitation are spatially much less coherent, with both regions of

  5. A Green Prison: The Santa Rita Jail Campus Microgrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnay, Chris; DeForest, Nicholas; Lai, Judy

    2012-01-22

    A large microgrid project is nearing completion at Alameda County’s twenty-two-year-old 45 ha 4,000-inmate Santa Rita Jail, about 70 km east of San Francisco. Often described as a green prison, it has a considerable installed base of distributed energy resources (DER) including an eight-year old 1.2 MW PV array, a five-year old 1 MW fuel cell with heat recovery, and considerable efficiency investments. A current US$14 M expansion adds a 2 MW-4 MWh Li-ion battery, a static disconnect switch, and various controls upgrades. During grid blackouts, or when conditions favor it, the Jail can now disconnect from the grid and operate as an island, using the on-site resources described together with its back-up diesel generators. In other words, the Santa Rita Jail is a true microgrid, or μgrid, because it fills both requirements, i.e. it is a locally controlled system, and it can operate both grid connected and islanded. The battery’s electronics includes Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology (CERTS) Microgrid technology. This enables the battery to maintain energy balance using droops without need for a fast control system.

  6. Diagnosis of the retail flower market of Santa Maria, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Farias Menegaes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to diagnose the flowers retail market and ornamental plants in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, by means of a research in loco, from January to June of 2013, based on questionnaires and interviews applied to the managers of the establishment, as well as of an application of a visual and phytosanitary scale to other establishments that sell flowers and ornamental plants, such as agricultural shops, fairs of horticultural products, supermarkets and providers of funeral services - cemeteries and funeral homes. The diagnosis aims to know the steps of the dynamics observed from the market of flowers until the final consumer, and to segment the types of floricultures, distinguishing them according to the commercial focus — floricultures of arrangements and bouquets, and producing flowers and landscape floricultures. Based on the diagnosis it can be concluded that the Santa Maria retail flowers and ornamental plants follows the national trend of floral arrangements and bouquets shops, with the increase of the companies focused on landscaping and gardening. Among the most marketed plants are the rose as the best-selling cut flower, the begonia as potted flower, the fern for foliage arrangements, the cactus as potted plant, the raffia as garden plant and the pansy as the best-selling plant in boxes.

  7. COMERCIAL DA CIDADE DE SANTA MARIA-RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Odim Degrandi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, tratamos de entender el uso corporativo del territorio de Santa Maria-RS, basado en el análisis de la integración de su función comercial en el escenario del proceso contemporáneo de globalización de la economía. Como recursos instrumentales de análisis utilizamos los conceptos de territorio usado, verticalidades y horizontalidades propuestos por Milton Santos, a través de los cuales evidenciamos: por un lado, el comando de la oferta de empleo y de las finanzas comerciales locales por redes empresariales exógenas; y por otro lado, como contraposición, la articulación de las empresas comerciales locales en la defensa de sus posiciones en el mercado, a través de la creación de redes de cooperación. Llegamos a la conclusión de que las redes comerciales exógenas, al asumir el comando de la función comercial de la ciudad de Santa María, intensificaron su dependencia histórica de las fuentes externas de empleo y renta.

  8. Erosivity of rainfall in Lages, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Schick

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The erosive capacity of rainfall can be expressed by an index and knowing it allows recommendation of soil management and conservation practices to reduce water erosion. The objective of this study was to calculate various indices of rainfall erosivity in Lages, Santa Catarina, Brazil, identify the best one, and discover its temporal distribution. The study was conducted at the Center of Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences, Lages, Santa Catarina, using daily rainfall charts from 1989 to 2012. Using the computer program Chuveros , 107 erosivity indices were obtained, which were based on maximum intensity in 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 135, 150, 165, 180, 210, and 240 min of duration and on the combination of these intensities with the kinetic energy obtained by the equations of Brown & Foster, Wagner & Massambani, and Wischmeier & Smith. The indices of the time period from 1993 to 2012 were correlated with the respective soil losses from the standard plot of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE in order to select the erosivity index for the region. Erosive rainfall accounted for 83 % of the mean annual total volume of 1,533 mm. The erosivity index (R factor of rainfall recommended for Lages is the EI30, whose mean annual value is 5,033 MJ mm ha-1 h-1, and of this value, 66 % occurs from September to February. Mean annual erosivity has a return period estimated at two years with a 50 % probability of occurrence.

  9. Três biografias quinhentistas da Rainha Santa Isabel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Costa Toipa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dando continuidade aos esforços de canonização de D. Isabel de Aragão, D. João III obteve do Papa, em 1556, a autorização para alargar o culto da já beata D. Isabel a todo o reino. Solicitou, então, aos responsáveis dos mosteiros portugueses, nomeadamente à abadessa do mosteiro de Santa Clara, a composição de uma biografia da rainha, a partir de documentos existentes nesse mosteiro. Surgiram, então, três biografias, todas inspiradas nos referidos documentos: De Vita et Moribus Beatae Elisabethae Lusitaniae Reginae do padre jesuíta Pedro João Perpinhão; Vida e milagres da gloriosa Raynha sancta Ysabel, molher do catholico Rey dom Dinis sexto de Portugal, editada pelos mordomos da Confraria da Rainha Santa Isabel, e “ Vida da Bemaventurada sancta Isabel Raynha de Portugal”, de Frei Marcos de Lisboa, inclusa na Segunda Parte das suas Chronicas da Ordemdos Frades Menores.

  10. Coastal Processes Study of Santa Barbara and Ventura Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Revell, David L.; Hoover, Dan; Warrick, Jon; Brocatus, John; Draut, Amy E.; Dartnell, Pete; Elias, Edwin; Mustain, Neomi; Hart, Pat E.; Ryan, Holly F.

    2009-01-01

    The Santa Barbara littoral cell (SBLC) is a complex coastal system with significant management challenges. The coastline ranges broadly in exposure to wave energy, fluvial inputs, hard structures, and urbanization. Geologic influence (structural control) on coastline orientation exerts an important control on local beach behavior, with anthropogenic alterations and the episodic nature of sediment supply and transport also playing important roles. Short- and long-term temporal analyses of shoreline change, beach width, and volume change show no obvious trends in regional beach behavior. Extensive armoring along the SBLC has accreted the back beach, narrowing beach widths and in some cases increasing sediment transport. Unarmored beaches have exhibited mild erosion while maintaining similar widths. Harbor constructions have had notable impacts on downdrift beaches, but once the coastal system has equilibrated the signal becomes strongly dampened and littoral-drift gradients driven by natural shoreline orientation again become dominant. Sediment inputs from the Santa Clara River dominate sediment processes on beaches to the south. The SBLC is dominated by episodic flood and storm-wave events. Exceptionally large accretion signals along this stretch of coastline are closely tied to major flood events when large amounts of sediment are deposited in deltas. These deltas decay over time, supplying downdrift beaches with sediment. Storm-wave impacts and gradients in alongshore transport can lead to beach rotations and migrating erosion hotspots when geological controls are weak. Annual and seasonal rates of cross-shore and alongshore transport are at least 2-3 times higher for the more west- and southwest-facing beaches south of the Ventura River as compared to the more sheltered beaches to the west/north. Gross littoral transports are good approximations of net littoral transports for beaches west/north of Ventura as transport is almost purely unidirectional. However

  11. Hydrogeologic framework of the Santa Clara Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Randall T.

    2015-01-01

    The hydrologic framework of the Santa Clara Valley in northern California was redefined on the basis of new data and a new hydrologic model. The regional groundwater flow systems can be subdivided into upper-aquifer and lower-aquifer systems that form a convergent flow system within a basin bounded by mountains and hills on three sides and discharge to pumping wells and the southern San Francisco Bay. Faults also control the flow of groundwater within the Santa Clara Valley and subdivide the aquifer system into three subregions.After decades of development and groundwater depletion that resulted in substantial land subsidence, Santa Clara Valley Water District (SCVWD) and the local water purveyors have refilled the basin through conservation and importation of water for direct use and artificial recharge. The natural flow system has been altered by extensive development with flow paths toward major well fields. Climate has not only affected the cycles of sedimentation during the glacial periods over the past million years, but interannual to interdecadal climate cycles also have affected the supply and demand components of the natural and anthropogenic inflows and outflows of water in the valley. Streamflow has been affected by development of the aquifer system and regulated flow from reservoirs, as well as conjunctive use of groundwater and surface water. Interaquifer flow through water-supply wells screened across multiple aquifers is an important component to the flow of groundwater and recapture of artificial recharge in the Santa Clara Valley. Wellbore flow and depth-dependent chemical and isotopic data indicate that flow into wells from multiple aquifers, as well as capture of artificial recharge by pumping of water-supply wells, predominantly is occurring in the upper 500 ft (152 m) of the aquifer system. Artificial recharge represents about one-half of the inflow of water into the valley for the period 1970–1999. Most subsidence is occurring below 250 ft

  12. New records of Aparasphenodon bokermanni (Pombal, 1993) from Santa Catarina, southern Brazil, and extension of genus range (Anura: Hylidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Zanette-Silva, Larissa; Farias, Douglas; Ghizoni-Jr, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Aparasphenodon bokermanni is a poorly known casque-headed tree frog found in São Paulo and Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Here we provide two new records, one from Joinville, northeastern Santa Catarina, and the first record from Santa Catarina Island, Brazil, which extends to the south the range of the genus by approximately 150 km.

  13. Representações sociais da água em Santa Catarina Representaciones sociales del agua en Santa Catarina Social representation of water in Santa Catarina State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislei Mocelin Polli

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Preocupações ambientais, entre elas problemas relacionados à água, estão cada vez mais presentes na sociedade contemporânea. Nesta pesquisa buscou-se conhecer as representações sociais da água em comunidades rurais de Santa Catarina. Este é um dos subprojetos do programa Tecnologias Sociais para Gestão da Água, patrocinado pela Petrobrás Ambiental. Para este estudo houve aplicação de instrumento de evocações livres, tendo como termo indutor "Água". As respostas foram tratadas pelos programas Evoc e Similitude 2000 e analisadas a partir da teoria do núcleo central. Os resultados indicam que a água é compreendida como essencial à vida, ligada à saúde e de necessária preservação. A sustentabilidade também é suscitada, pois a água é considerada essencial à sobrevivência. Seu uso em atividades cotidianas também foi considerado. Elementos como poluição, economia e escassez indicam preocupação com o que vem acontecendo em relação ao recurso e com a necessidade de preservá-lo.Preocupaciones ambientales, entre ellos problemas relacionados al agua, están cada vez más presentes en la sociedad. En esta investigación se buscó conocer las representaciones sociales del agua en comunidades rurales de Santa Catarina. Este es uno de los proyectos subordinados al Programa: Tecnologías Sociales para la Gestión del Agua, patrocinado por la Petrobras Ambiental. Para este estudio fue aplicado un instrumento de evocación libre, teniendo como término inductor "Agua". Las respuestas fueron procesadas por los programas Evoc y Similitude 2000, y analisadas a partir de la teoría del núcleo central. Los resultados indican que el agua es entendida como escencial para la vida, ligada a la salud, y necesita ser preservada. La sustentabilidad también es considerada, pues el agua es considerada esencial para la sobrevivencia. El uso del recurso en actividades cotidianas también fue considerado. Elementos como polución, econom

  14. Estimation de l'aléa sismique dans les Andes nord équatoriennes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Les Andes Nord équatoriennes ont connu de nombreux séismes historiques destructeurs. Pour caractériser l’aléa sismique de la région andine, nous avons fait une révision critique de la sismicité historique et de l’ensemble des failles actives de l’Équateur. Les deux sources majeures de l’aléa sismique sont respectivement la subduction superficielle pour la région côtière et le système transpressif des hautes Andes pour la région andine. Ce système est composé de failles décrochantes dextres d’orientation N30-35°E (failles du Rio Chingual-La Sofia et Pallatanga qui limitent respectivement au Nord et au Sud des failles inverses N-S du relais compressif de la vallée interandine (failles de Quito et de Latacunga. L’étude des mécanismes au foyer superficiels des Andes équatoriennes nous a permis de calculer une vitesse de raccourcissement crustal de 4.6 mm/a selon une direction N92°E et d’estimer des temps de récurrence et des périodes de retour. Un séisme de Mw = 5 pourrait se produire tous les 0.5 an, de Mw = 6 tous les 4.5 ans, de Mw = 7 tous les 45.4 ans. De même, sur une période de temps de 33 ans, 66 séismes de Mw=5 peuvent être attendus, 7 séismes de Mw=6 et 1 séisme de Mw=7. Enfin, nous avons estimé pour l’ensemble des sources sismogènes de la région andine des magnitudes maximales probables et des temps de récurrence. Un séisme de magnitude 7 à 7.5 peut se produire sur la faille du Rio Chingual tous les 400±440 ans et de magnitude 6.7 à 7.2 tous les 380±320 ans sur la faille de Pallatanga. Dans la vallée interandine, la faille de Quito est susceptible d’engendrer un séisme de magnitude 6.6 à 7.6 tous les 930±300 ans. LA AMENAZA SÍSMICA EN LOS ANDES ECUATORIANOS. Los Andes del Norte del Ecuador son una región sismogénica mayor, donde se puede contabilizar muchos terremotos históricos destructores. A fin de determinar la amenaza sísmica sobre la región andina, se hizo la asociaci

  15. [The intervention of Dr Francisco Díaz in the inquisitorial process against Elena/o de Cespedes, a transsexual surgeon found guilty by the Inquistion in Toledo in 1587].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maganto Pavón, Emilio

    2007-10-01

    To make known, comprehensively, an almost unknown episode in the life of Dr. Francisco Diaz (1527-1590), surgeon of the king Philip II, and author of the first urology treaty in the history of medicine. To our knowledge, to date there were few references about the participation that, as an expert, Francisco Diaz had to have in the inquisitorial process against Elena de Cespedes, a presumed hermaphrodite accused by the Inquisition because being a woman married another one pretending to be a man. The trial was carried out in Toledo in 1587 and had great impact in that time, because the accused, dressing with male clothes and usurping the prerogatives of a man, had gotten by fraud titles and favours which were forbidden for women, the title of surgeon among them. Except for the reference by Folch Jou and Burshatin, both short and incomplete, no other author or biographer of the famous surgeon had cited this episode of his life, which to our judgment could mean a great damage to his reputation. We reviewed the works by the two aforementioned authors, all the works and biographies about Dr. Francisco Diaz that we could found, and microfilmed and transcript the whole bundle 234, expedient 24, from the section Inquisition at the National Historical Archive in Madrid, corresponding to Elena de Cespedes (alias Eleno) (> 500 pages) to obtain the greatest amount of data about the accused and the performance of Dr. Francisco Diaz. Francisco Diaz was requested, as an expert, by the Vicar of Madrid to perform the examination of the genitourinary organs to give or not marriage license to that woman saying she was a man. In his report in the year 1586, surprisingly the urologist declared that the petitioner was a man. As it would be demonstrated during the trial, the accused, who alleged being hermaphrodite in her defense, had been able to deceive the expert with her tricks altering her genital morphology. Thanks to her surgical knowledge she had mutilated herself surgically

  16. SRTM Colored Height and Shaded Relief: Laguna Mellquina, Andes Mountains, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This depiction of an area south of San Martin de Los Andes, Argentina, is the first Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) view of the Andes Mountains, the tallest mountain chain in the western hemisphere. This particular site does not include the higher Andes peaks, but it does include steep-sided valleys and other distinctive landforms carved by Pleistocene glaciers. Elevations here range from about 700 to 2,440 meters(2,300 to 8,000 feet). This region is very active tectonically and volcanically, and the landforms provide a record of the changes that have occurred over many thousands of years. Large lakes fill the broad mountain valleys, and the spectacular scenery here makes this area a popular resort destination for Argentinians.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark, as would be the case at noon at this latitude in the southern hemisphere. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations.Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR)that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U

  17. Modelling increased landslide susceptibility near highways in the Andes of southern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenning, Alexander; Muenchow, Jannes

    2016-04-01

    Modelling increased landslide susceptibility near highways in the Andes of southern Ecuador A. Brenning (1), J. Muenchow (1) (1) Department of Geography, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Loebdergraben 32, 07743 Jena, Germany Mountain roads are affected by and also affect themselves landslide suceptibility. Especially in developing countries, inadequate drainage systems and mechanical destabilization of hillslopes by undercutting and overloading are known processes through which road construction and maintenance can enhance landslide activity within the immediate surroundings of road infrastructure. In the Andes of southern Ecuador, strong precipitation gradients as well as lithological differences provide an excellent study site in which the relationship between highways and landslide susceptibility and its regional differentiation can be studied. This study uses Generalized Additive Models (GAM) to investigate patterns of landslide susceptibility along two paved interurban highways in the tropical Andes of southern Ecuador. The relationship of landslides to distance from road is modeled while accounting for topographic, climatic and lithological predictors as possible confounders and modifiers, focusing on the odds ratio of landslide occurrence at 25 m versus 200 m distance from the highway. Spatial attention is given to uncertainties in estimated odds ratios of landslide occurrence using spatial block bootstrap techniques. The GAM is able to represent nonlinear additive terms as well as bivariate smooth interaction terms, providing a good tradeoff between model complexity and interpretability. The estimated odds of landslide occurrence were 18-21 times higher near the highway than at 200 m distance, based on different analyses, with lower 95% confidence limits always >13. (Semi-) parametric estimates confirmed this general range of values but suggests slightly higher odds ratios (95% confidence interval: 15.5-25.3). Highway-related effects were observed to

  18. What controls millennial-scale denudation rates across the Central Andes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Gerold; Korup, Oliver; Schlunegger, Fritz; Kober, Florian

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable planning of erosion control measures in the Central Andes requires robust knowledge about natural denudation rates. We explore a large dataset combining new and published 10Be (and 26Al) catchment-wide denudation rates from a swath at 17 to 19° S spanning the Western Cordillera that rises from sea level to 5500 m elevation; the Altiplano at ~4000 m; the Eastern Cordillera with elevations up to 6500 m; the Interandean Zone; the Subandean Zone; and the Chaco Plain at 300 m. The selected catchments span a large spread regarding morphometric and climate properties where mean slope angles range from 1 to 31°, and mean precipitation from 100 to 3900 mm/a. The denudation rates (0.0036 to 1.93 mm/a) are averaged over millennia, and reveal two to three magnitudes difference across the Central Andes. The regional distribution of denudation rates clearly demonstrates a more complex interaction of geomorphological, geological and meteorological parameters with the dominant geomorphological processes. In order to elucidate the key controls on denudation, we use multivariate statistics such as principal component analysis in order to remove potentially redundant predictors of denudation in the studied catchments. These predictors include catchment elevation, topographic relief, hillslope inclination, mean precipitation, tree cover, specific stream power, channel steepness indices, sinuosity, drainage density and hypsometric index that we derived from the SRTM 90 m Digital Elevation Database, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) data, and the Terra MODIS Vegetation Continuous Fields dataset. Additionally, the rock strength index (PLI) was estimated based on geological units. Preliminary results allow distinguishing five different longitudinal domains of denudation on the basis of climatic regime, hillslope steepness, and the degree of accumulated crustal deformation. We find that the pattern of 10Be catchment-wide denudation rates in the Central Andes

  19. Glacier monitoring and glacier-climate interactions in the tropical Andes: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veettil, Bijeesh Kozhikkodan; Wang, Shanshan; Florêncio de Souza, Sergio; Bremer, Ulisses Franz; Simões, Jefferson Cardia

    2017-08-01

    In this review, we summarized the evolution of glacier monitoring in the tropical Andes during the last few decades, particularly after the development of remote sensing and photogrammetry. Advantages and limitations of glacier mapping, applied so far, in Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia are discussed in detail. Glacier parameters such as the equilibrium line altitude, snowline and mass balance were given special attention in understanding the complex cryosphere-climate interactions, particularly using remote sensing techniques. Glaciers in the inner and the outer tropics were considered separately based on the precipitation and temperature conditions within a new framework. The applicability of various methods to use glacier records to understand and reconstruct the tropical Andean climate between the Last Glacial Maximum (11,700 years ago) and the present is also explored in this paper. Results from various studies published recently were analyzed and we tried to understand the differences in the magnitudes of glacier responses towards the climatic perturbations in the inner tropics and the outer tropics. Inner tropical glaciers, particularly those in Venezuela and Colombia near the January Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), are more vulnerable to increase in temperature. Surface energy balance experiments show that outer tropical glaciers respond to precipitation variability very rapidly in comparison with the temperature variability, particularly when moving towards the subtropics. We also analyzed the gradients in glacier response to climate change from the Pacific coast towards the Amazon Basin as well as with the elevation. Based on the current trends synthesised from recent studies, it is hypothesized that the glaciers in the inner tropics and the southern wet outer tropics will disappear first as a response to global warming whereas glaciers in the northern wet outer tropics and dry outer tropics show resistance to warming trends due to

  20. Mineralogy of the Santa Fe Tin deposit, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Franco, Abigail; Alfonso, Pura; Canet, Carles; Garcia-Valles, Maite; Elvys Trujillo, Juan

    2014-05-01

    Santa Fe is a Sn-Zn-Pb-Ag ore deposit located in the Oruro district, Central Andean Tin Belt, Bolivia. Mineralization occurs in veins and disseminations. It is hosted in Silurian shales and greywackes. The sedimentary sequence is folded and unconformably covered by a volcanic complex of the Morococala Formation, mainly constituted by tuffs of Miocene age. A wide Nº40 shear zone and two systems of fracture are developed. A Nº40 fracture system, dipping 60ºW, which hosts Sn and Zn minerals, and other in the same direction but dipping 75ºE, which is related to Zn-Pb-Ag veins. The mineralization is associated to intrusive felsic magmatism. Although there are not intrusive rocks in Santa Fe, a dyke and the felsic San Pablo stock occur at a distance of about 10 km. In the present work we describe the geology and mineralogy of the Santa Fe deposit. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe analyses were used to characterize the minerals. Veins are filled with quartz and an ore mineral assemblage of cassiterite, sulfides and sulfosalts. Cassiterite constitutes the earliest formed mineralization. Preliminar microprobe analyses indicate that it is nearly pure, with negligible contents in Nb and Ta. Rutile occurs as a late phase associated with a late generation of cassiterite. It forms thin neddle-like crystals. In addition, Sn is also present in sulfides as stannite, stannoidite and kësterite. Other sulfides are pyrrhotite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, galena, sphalerite, marchasite and argentite. Bismuthinite and berndite are found nin trace amounts. Sulfosalts include tetrahedrite, myarhyrite, boulangerite, jamesonite, franckeite, zinckenite, cilindrite and andorite. Associated with the mineralization, several phosphate minerals are found filling cavities and small fractures. The most abundant are monacite (Ce,La,Nd,Th)PO4 and plumbogummite (PbAl3(PO4)2(OH)5•(H2O)). Crandallite CaAl3(PO4)2(OH)5•(H2O) and vivianite (Fe3+(PO4)2•8(H2O)) also

  1. Valoración, partición y distribución de la tierra de los resguardos indígenas en una localidad andina venezolana. Santa Bárbara de Chachopo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samudio A., Edda O.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the process of the establishment of Indian reserves (resguardos in the Venezuelan Andes in the late sixteenth century, and the experiences of their dissolution three centuries later. The main objective of the study is to analyze the appraisal, partition and distribution of the Indian reserves of Merida, assessing the role of the factors that were key elements in that process. The study includes aspects of the extinction of lands that were given with common and non-transferable title to the Indians settlements of Merida. The case of the pueblo of Santa Barbara de Chachopo is here offered as an example.

    El artículo examina el proceso mediante el cual los Resguardos indígenas que fueron establecidos en la región andina venezolana en el tardío siglo XVI experimentaron su disolución tres centurias más tarde. El objetivo central de este trabajo es analizar la valoración, partición y distribución de esos Resguardos Indígenas de Mérida, tratando de apreciar la intervención de los factores que participan en ese hecho; para el estudio de los aspectos contemplados en el proceso de extinción de las tierras que fueron otorgadas, con carácter común e intransferible, a los pueblos de indios de Mérida; en esta ocasión, se tomó como ejemplo el caso de Santa Bárbara de Chachopo.

  2. Black carbon and other light-absorbing impurities in the Andes of Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, P. M.; Cordero, R.; Warren, S. G.; Pankow, A.; Jorquera, J.; Schrempf, M.; Doherty, S. J.; Cabellero, M.; Carrasco, J. F.; Neshyba, S.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) and other light-absorbing impurities in snow absorb solar radiation and thus have the potential to accelerate glacial retreat and snowmelt. In Chile, glaciers and seasonal snow are important sources of water for irrigation and domestic uses. In July 2015 (Austral winter) we sampled snow in the western Andes in a north-south transect of Chile from 18 S to 34 S. Most of the sampled snow had fallen during a single synoptic event, during 11-13 July. The snow was melted and passed through 0.4 micrometer nuclepore filters. Preliminary estimates indicate that (1) the ratio of BC to dust in snow increases going south from Northern to Central Chile, and (2) in snow sampled during the two weeks following the snowstorm, the impurities were concentrated in the upper 5 cm of snow, indicating that the surface layer became polluted over time by dry deposition.

  3. New species of the endemic Neotropical caddisfly genus Contulma from the Andes of Ecuador (Trichoptera: Anomalopsychidae

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    Ralph W. Holzenthal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The genus Contulma Flint (Trichoptera: Anomalopsychidae is composed mostly of regionally endemic species occurring above 2,000 m, with a few more widespread species and some that are found at lower elevations. Adults of three new species of Contulma are described and illustrated from the Andes of Ecuador, Contulma lina, new species, Contulma quito, new species, and Contulma sangay, new species. These species are similar to previously described species from the region, including C. paluguillensis, C. nevada, and C. lancelolata. New provincial records are provided for C. bacula, C. cataracta, and C. echinata. Contulma duffi Oláh, 2016 is considered a junior, subjective synonym of C. penai, Holzenthal & Flint, 1995. Also, we provide an identification key to males of the 30 Contulma species now known.

  4. Chemical and isotopic investigations of runoff in a mountainous watershed, Venezuelan Andes (Rio Bocono)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornieles, M.; Moreau, A.; Valles, V.; Travi, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The Rio Bocono watershed, located in the Western part of Venezuela on the South western side of Andes is considered by the 'Ministerio de1 Ambiente y de los Recursos Naturales Renovables' (MARN) as a priority zone for environmental management. The studies of relation between flow, dissolved elements and solid transport are essential to estimate soil degradation and sediment deposition which provokes loss of depth in the dam reservoir at the Southern margin of the basin. Because of the large surface which reach 1540 km 2 , the lack of equipment and the flash flood character of the river do not enable the flow mechanisms and transit times to be determined using usual hydrologic methods; therefore this problem has been approached by the way of chemical and isotopic investigation

  5. Multiethnicity, pluralism, and migration in the south central Andes: An alternate path to state expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Paul S

    2015-07-28

    The south central Andes is known as a region of enduring multiethnic diversity, yet it is also the cradle of one the South America's first successful expansive-state societies. Social structures that encouraged the maintenance of separate identities among coexistent ethnic groups may explain this apparent contradiction. Although the early expansion of the Tiwanaku state (A.D. 600-1000) is often interpreted according to a centralized model derived from Old World precedents, recent archaeological research suggests a reappraisal of the socio-political organization of Tiwanaku civilization, both for the diversity of social entities within its core region and for the multiple agencies behind its wider program of agropastoral colonization. Tiwanaku's sociopolitical pluralism in both its homeland and colonies tempers some of archaeology's global assumptions about the predominant role of centralized institutions in archaic states.

  6. Altitudinal changes in diversity of macroinvertebrates from small streams in the Ecuadorian Andes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Dean

    2003-01-01

    was dominated by insects, mainly Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera and Diptera at all three altitudes. Odonata and Hemiptera were relatively rich in lowland streams, scarcely present in the midland streams and absent in the highland streams (as was the case for the less diverse orders Lepidoptera and Megaloptera......Altitudinal patterns in diversity of macroinvertebrate families at different spatial scales (stone, stream and altitude) were studied by collecting stone samples from six streams at each of the three altitudes: lowlands (400m), midlands (2000m) and highlands (3800 m), in the equatorial Andes...... of Ecuador. Stream sites were characterised by a number of physico-chemical parameters and the fauna by several indices of richness, diversity and evenness. A MDS ordination on the composition of the fauna clearly separated the streams in three groups according to altitude. The invertebrate fauna...

  7. La Guerra Civil de 1876-1877 en los Andes nororientales colombianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Carolina Sastoque R.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo busca comprender regionalmente las causas de la guerra civil de 1876-1877, en los Andes nororientales colombianos. Se reconstruye y se analiza la malla de asentamientos urbanos de los Santanderes entre 1853 y 1857, se establece la jerarquía de los centros urbanos, las condiciones que contribuyeron al surgimiento de conflictos y los relevos jerárquicos que estos propiciaron. Por otro lado, se identifica a los actores que intervinieron en la guerra y la localización de los acontecimientos bélicos. Con base en este análisis se muestra que el grupo que inició la guerra fue el mismo que perdió jerarquía en la malla urbana y que ésta fue una de las causas de la guerra.

  8. The role of biomass in a pilot town of Venezuelan Andes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padilla, A.; Sanchez, R.; Briceno, L.; Urbina, E. [Universidad de los Andes, Lab. de Bioenergia, Merida (Venezuela)

    1999-01-01

    This work analyses some factors of the energy crisis in a town of Venezuelan Andes (Llano del Hato, 3500 m.a.s.l.). The socioeconomics and climatic conditions in this region make the use of firewood as fuel mandatory. There are extensive desertified areas due to the extraction of plant species for firewood. It has been determined that there are diverse species in the area whose energy potential is superior to that reported in the literature, however, they are incorrectly used and are in danger of extinction. The absence of firewood drives peasants to use manure as a source of fuel. Parallel to the laboratory testing of different raw materials, a program of environmental education and optimisation of biomass to obtain energy is under way. It is hoped that pilot plans like this will expand to all of the Andean region. (Author)

  9. SINOPSIS DE CROTON (EUPHORBIACEAE EN LOS ANDES DE MÉRIDA, VENEZUELA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUEL LUJÁN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una sinopsis taxonómica del género Croton en los Andes de Mérida, Venezuela. Se analizaron caracteres vegetativos en 245 especímenes y se hizo un análisis de agrupamiento que resultó en la identificación de 21 grupos discretos a los cuales les fueron asignadas las identidades taxonómicas específicas más apropiadas. De estas 21 especies, C. pedicellatus representa un nuevo registro para Venezuela, C. fragilis, C. speciosus y C. redolens son nuevos registros para la región andina. Se proponen dos nuevos sinónimos (C. chamanus bajo C. conduplicatus y C. timotensis bajo C. pungens y se designan tres lectotipos (C. pungens, C. ovalifolius y C. speciosus. Se discuten las relaciones entre las especies y se incluye una clave para su identificación.

  10. Macroinvertebrate community response to acid mine drainage in rivers of the High Andes (Bolivia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Damme, Paul Andre; Hamel, Caroli; Ayala, Alfredo; Bervoets, Lieven

    2008-01-01

    Several High Andes Rivers are characterized by inorganic water pollution known as acid mine drainage (AMD). The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between metal concentrations in the sediments and the macroinvertebrate communities in two river basins affected by AMD. In general, the taxon diversity of the macroinvertebrate community at the family level was low. The concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni at mining sites were higher than at unpolluted sites. The pH of the water was alkaline (7.0-8.5) in unpolluted sites, whereas it dropped to very low values (<3) at mining sites. Redundancy Analysis (RDA) showed that pH was the best predictor of macroinvertebrate community richness. The number of macroinvertebrate families decreased gradually with increasing acidity, both in pools and riffles, though it is suggested that riffle communities were more affected because they are in closer contact with the acid water. - Community response to AMD

  11. Rain-fed agriculture thrived despite climate degradation in the pre-Hispanic arid Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Pablo; Winkel, Thierry; Ledru, Marie-Pierre; Bernard, Cyril; Egan, Nancy; Swingedouw, Didier; Joffre, Richard

    2017-12-01

    Archaeological research suggests significant human occupation in the arid Andean highlands during the 13th to 15th centuries, whereas paleoclimatic studies reveal prolonged drier and colder conditions during that period. Which subsistence strategy supported local societies in this harsh environment? Our field and aerial surveys of archaeological dwelling sites, granaries, and croplands provide the first evidence of extended pre-Hispanic agriculture supporting dense human populations in the arid Andes of Bolivia. This unique agricultural system associated with quinoa cultivation was unirrigated, consisting of simple yet extensive landscape modifications. It relied on highly specific environmental knowledge and a set of water-saving practices, including microterracing and biennial fallowing. This intense agricultural activity developed during a period of unfavorable climatic change on a regional and global scale, illustrative of efficient adaptive strategies to cope with this climatic change.

  12. Diversity of the genus Polylepis (Rosaceae, Sanguisorbeae in the Peruvian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Mendoza

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study provides information on the diversity of Peruvian species of Polylepis. Nineteen (19 species are reported here (more than 70% of the 27 species registered for the whole Andean region. As a result, Peru could be considered as the country with the largest diversity of Polylepis species, in comparison with Bolivia (13, Ecuador (7, Argentina (4, Colombia (3, Chile (2, and Venezuela (1. The species occur in 19 departments of Peru, with the majority of them in Cusco (10 and Ayacucho (8. Species diversity is mostly concentrated in the Peruvian southern Andes (15 species, with the region becoming the potential center of diversification of the genus Polylepis. Regarding their altitudinal distribution, the greatest diversity (18 is found between 3000 and 4000 m.

  13. Hydrogeochemistry Characterization of Hot Springs Located in The Andes of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinicio Carrera-Villacrés, David; Hidalgo-Hidalgo, Alexander; Guevara-García, Paulina; Vivero-Balarezo, María; Delgado-Rodríguez, Vicente

    2016-10-01

    The formation of several sources of hot springs in the Andes from Ecuador is the result of an intense volcanic activity due to the subduction of the Nazca oceanic plate under the South American continental plate. The aim of this study was to describe the hydrogeochemistry water geothermal origin, its chemical classification and relationship with the complex geology of Ecuador, using different hydro chemical diagrams (Stiff, Piper and Schoeller-Berkaloff). Geothermal waters can be divided into two groups. The first group, associated with an extinct volcanic activity produced in the Cenozoic, represents the Na+-Cl- type. The second group is associated with a young Quaternary volcanic activity and its types of water are Mg2+-HCO3-, Na+-HCO3-, Na+-SO42-, Mg2+-SO42-.

  14. Les Andes Centrales Tropicales vues par deux géographes: Isaiah Bowman et Carl Troll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Deux visions des Andes vues par deux géographes, Isaiah BOWMAN et Carl TROLL, au caractère et au milieu intellectuel différents. L'auteur étudie dans l'un et l'autre cas la méthode d'analyse de l'espace géographique et les conclusions tirées par chacun d'eux. I. BOWMAN, Américain, convaincu qu'une économie mercantiliste fondée sur l'exportation permettra aux Etats andins d'accéder à un modèle de développement, décrit les vastes contrées amazoniennes comme un futur El Dorado entre les mains de colons. L'aménagement des basses plaines selon des schémas nord-américains est le pilier de l'économie alors que les Andes abritant les communautés indigènes constituent un frein au développement. De ce fait il laisse de côté l'étude des paysanneries andines. Toute différente est la démarche de Carl TROLL dont la formation à la fois en sciences humaines et naturelles, lui permet de cerner l'espace géographique comme cadre de vie des sociétés. L'utilisation des étages écologiques, le développement de l'Empire Inca fondé sur l'étage des 'punas', la démarche historique des analyses minutieuses de Carl TROLL donne un éclairage nouveau aux relations des sociétés andines et des milieux naturels avec lesquels elles composent. Dos puntos de vista de los Andes por dos geógrafos, Isaiah BOWMAN y Carl TROLL con carácter y medio intelectual distintos. El autor estudia en ambos casos el método de análisis del espacio geográfico y las conclusiones sacadas por cada uno de ellos. I. BOWMAN, americano, convencido que una economía mercantil fundada sobre la exportación permitirá a los estados andinos acceder a un modelo de desarrollo, describe las extensas llanuras amazónicas como un El Dorado futuro entre las manos de los colonos. El desarrollo de las llanuras bajas según esquemas norteamericanos constituye el pilar de la economía mientras los Andes abrigando las comunidades indígenas se comportan como un freno al

  15. Tecnología apropiada: Sus inicios en la Universidad de los Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revista de Ingeniería

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available El origen de la tecnología apropiada en la Universidad de los Andes debe entenderse no sólo a partir de las inquietudes de algunos profesores de la Facultad de Ingeniería, sino que debe leerse en sintonía con una serie de eventos de índole nacional e internacional que permitieron su desarrollo. En los años 70, Estados Unidos sufrió una crisis energética, ante la cual se debió buscar alternativas que pudieran suplir la necesidad de energía y la dificultad de remplazar el petróleo. Se generó, entonces, un movimiento cuyo objetivo era desarrollar energías renovables basadas en recursos naturales.

  16. A new species of iguanid lizard, genus Stenocercus (Squamata, Iguania), from the Central Andes in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, Pablo J; Echevarría, Lourdes Y; García-Burneo, Karla; Koch, Claudia

    2016-12-04

    We describe a new species of Stenocercus from the montane forest of the right margin of the Marañón river in the northern portion of the Central Andes in northern Peru (Amazonas and La Libertad departments), at elevations ranging from 2300 to 3035 m. Stenocercus omari sp. nov. differs from other Stenocercus species, with the exception of S. amydrorhytus, S. chrysopygus, S. cupreus, S. johaberfellneri, S. latebrosus, S. melanopygus, S. modestus, S. ornatissimus, S. orientalis, and S. stigmosus, by having granular scales on the posterior surfaces of thighs, a conspicuous antehumeral fold and by lacking a vertebral crest. However, Stenocercus omari sp. nov. is easily distinguished from the aforementioned species, except S. orientalis, by the presence of prominently keeled dorsal head scales. The new species differs from S. orientalis by lacking a prominent oblique neck fold and by having a distinct deep postfemoral mite pocket.

  17. Privatizing Water in the Chilean Andes: The Case of Las Vegas de Chiu-Chiu

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    Manuel Prieto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean water model has been described as a textbook example of a free-market water system. This article contributes to the critiques of this model by showing the effect of its implementation in the Atacameño community of Chiu-Chiu, located in the Atacama Desert in the south-central Andes. In this community, the privatization of water rights ignored local water management practices that had produced a high-altitude wetland (known as a vega. This led to the inhabitants’ dispossession of crucial water rights and to wetland degradation. This process belies statements that the Chilean model relies on an unregulated market and instead highlights the state’s role in marginalizing local irrigation practices by reducing the water consumption of the indigenous population while keeping the copper mining industry (the main source of Chilean income and related growing urban populations supplied with water.

  18. Tectonic, volcanic, and climatic geomorphology study of the Sierras Pampeanas Andes, northwestern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, A. L.; Strecker, M. R.; Fielding, E. J.

    1984-01-01

    A proposed analysis of Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) data extends current research in the Sierras Pampeanas and the Puna of northwestern Argentina to the determination - by the digital analysis of mountain-front sinuousity - of the relative age and amount of fault movement along mountain fronts of the late-Cenozoic Sierras Pampeanas basement blocks; the determination of the age and history of the boundary across the Andes at about 27 S latitude between continuing volcanism to the north and inactive volcanism to the south; and the determination of the age and extent of Pleistocene glaciation in the High Sierras, as well as the comparative importance of climatic change and tectonic movements in shaping the landscape. The integration of these studies into other ongoing geology projects contributes to the understanding of landform development in this active tectonic environment and helps distinguish between climatic and tectonic effects on landforms.

  19. Pablo Palacio: Corporal Violence on Impossible Identities in the Zone of the Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falconí Travez, Diego Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pablo Palacio was an Ecuadorian writer who, in the 1920’s, built within his narrative a catalog of rare bodies with ambiguous and disturbing sexualities, characterizations that are quite different from ones portrayed in the Andean tradition to which Palacio belongs. Nonetheless one of the most issues striking facts of these characters is that their bodies are disciplined by certain discourses of power in a violent way. This paper explores trough literary theory such abuse and violence on women and homosexual identities in two of his stories. The aim of the paper is to investigate issues such as violence, economy of representation, its relationship with the literary text and vulnerability, as a sine qua non norm of abuse, in certain bodies in the area of the Andes.

  20. Controls on continental strain partitioning above an oblique subduction zone, Northern Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütt, Jorina M.; Whipp, David M., Jr.

    2016-04-01

    Strain partitioning is a common process at obliquely convergent plate margins dividing oblique convergence into margin-normal slip on the plate-bounding fault and horizontal shearing on a strike-slip system parallel to the subduction margin. In subduction zones, strain partitioning in the upper continental plate is mainly controlled by the shear forces acting on the plate interface and the strength of the continental crust. The plate interface forces are influenced by the subducting plate dip angle and the obliquity angle between the normal to the plate margin and the convergence velocity vector, and the crustal strength of the continent is strongly affected by the presence or absence of a volcanic arc, with the presence of the volcanic arcs being common at steep subduction zones. Along the ˜7000 km western margin of South America the convergence obliquity, subduction dip angles and presence of a volcanic arc all vary, but strain partitioning is only observed along parts of it. This raises the questions, to what extent do subduction zone characteristics control strain partitioning in the overriding continental plate, and which factors have the largest influence? We address these questions using lithospheric-scale 3D numerical geodynamic experiments to investigate the influence of subduction dip angle, convergence obliquity, and weaknesses in the crust owing to the volcanic arc on strain partitioning behavior. We base the model design on the Northern Volcanic Zone of the Andes (5° N - 2° S), characterized by steep subduction (˜ 35°), a convergence obliquity between 31° -45° and extensive arc volcanism, and where strain partitioning is observed. The numerical modelling software (DOUAR) solves the Stokes flow and heat transfer equations for a viscous-plastic creeping flow to calculate velocity fields, thermal evolution, rock uplift and strain rates in a 1600 km x 1600 km box with depth 160 km. Subduction geometry and material properties are based on a

  1. Novel Strain of Andes Virus Associated with Fatal Human Infection, Central Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Cristhopher D.; Vallejo, Efrain; Agudo, Roberto; Vargas, Jorge; Blazes, David L.; Guevara, Carolina; Laguna-Torres, V. Alberto; Halsey, Eric S.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.

    2012-01-01

    To better describe the genetic diversity of hantaviruses associated with human illness in South America, we screened blood samples from febrile patients in Chapare Province in central Bolivia during 2008–2009 for recent hantavirus infection. Hantavirus RNA was detected in 3 patients, including 1 who died. Partial RNA sequences of small and medium segments from the 3 patients were most closely related to Andes virus lineages but distinct (1 hantaviruses; the highest prevalence was among agricultural workers. Because of the high level of human exposure to hantavirus strains and the severity of resulting disease, additional studies are warranted to determine the reservoirs, ecologic range, and public health effect of this novel strain of hantavirus. PMID:22515983

  2. Variation in freshwater fish assemblages along a regional elevation gradient in the northern Andes, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal-Quintero, Juan D; Escobar, Federico; Alvarado, Fredy; Villa-Navarro, Francisco A; Jaramillo-Villa, Úrsula; Maldonado-Ocampo, Javier A

    2015-07-01

    Studies on elevation diversity gradients have covered a large number of taxa and regions throughout the world; however, studies of freshwater fish are scarce and restricted to examining their changes along a specific gradient. These studies have reported a monotonic decrease in species richness with increasing elevation, but ignore the high taxonomic differentiation of each headwater assemblage that may generate high β-diversity among them. Here, we analyzed how fish assemblages vary with elevation among regional elevation bands, and how these changes are related to four environmental clines and to changes in the distribution, habitat use, and the morphology of fish species. Using a standardized field sampling technique, we assessed three different diversity and two structural assemblage measures across six regional elevation bands located in the northern Andes (Colombia). Each species was assigned to a functional group based on its body shape, habitat use, morphological, and/or behavioral adaptations. Additionally, at each sampling site, we measured four environmental variables. Our analyses showed: (1) After a monotonic decrease in species richness, we detected an increase in richness in the upper part of the gradient; (2) diversity patterns vary depending on the diversity measure used; (3) diversity patterns can be attributed to changes in species distribution and in the richness and proportions of functional groups along the regional elevation gradient; and (4) diversity patterns and changes in functional groups are highly correlated with variations in environmental variables, which also vary with elevation. These results suggest a novel pattern of variation in species richness with elevation: Species richness increases at the headwaters of the northern Andes owing to the cumulative number of endemic species there. This highlights the need for large-scale studies and has important implications for the aquatic conservation of the region.

  3. Calcite Twin Analysis in the Central Andes of Northern Argentina and Southern Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardesty, E.; Hindle, D.

    2005-12-01

    The use of calcite twinning to infer compression directions and strain axes patterns has been applied widely in both fold and thrust belts, and continental interiors. Calcite twinning is noted to be one of the most precise methods for determining the internal strain of deformed rocks. Until now, such data from the deformed plate boundary of the Central Andes were lacking. This study has examined twinning orientations along the deformed Andean foreland (southern Bolivia and northern Argentina) from -25 to -20 latitude. In the Central Andes, we find an abundance of calcite twins in intervals of the Cretaceous age Yacorite limestone. Twin samples were collected, measured for orientation and type (I and II can be best used for strain analysis), and processed using the Groshong method, to give resultant strain tensors. The orientations of the twin short axes trend mostly NE-SW, which is close to the plate convergence direction. However, in a limited number of samples from the north, adjacent to the southern culmination of the active Subandean fold thrust belt, they trend NW-SE. This difference may be related to the more active, or more recent, shortening of the southern portion of the Eastern Cordillera, south of the culmination of the Subandean belt. This implies that twin short axes vary consistently with respect to geographic location and local tectonic regime. NW-SE trends in the northern region match well with fault kinematic studies in rocks pre-dating the San Juan del Oro unconformity (9-10 Ma). NE-SW trends in the south could correspond to much younger (~1-3 Ma) fault kinematic trends. In the Eastern Cordillera, where there is present day tectonic activity, the plunges of the twin short axes are found to be almost horizontal. This suggests that the twins were formed after folding occurred.

  4. Duck plague in free-flying waterfowl observed during the Lake Andes epizootic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, S.J.; Pearson, G.L.; Leibovitz, Louis

    1975-01-01

    The first major epizootic of duck plague in free-flying waterfowl occurred at Lake Andes, South Dakota, in January and February, 1973. Duck plague was diagnosed in black ducks, mallards, pintail-mallard hybrids, redheads, common mergansers, common golden eyes, canvasbacks, American widgeon, wood ducks, and Canada geese, indicating the general susceptibility of ducks to duck plague. Clinical signs observed in mallards were droopiness, polydipsia, lethargy, reduced wariness, weakness, reluctance to fly, swimming in circles, bloody diarrhea, bloody fluid draining from the nares and bill, and terminal convulsions.Because the mallard was the most numerous and heavily infected species during the Lake Andes epizootic, gross and microscopic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, thymus, bursa of Fabricius, heart, lung, bone marrow, pancreas, and ovaries were described. Lesions of the esophagus and cloaca were in the stratified submucosal glands. In the small and large intestine, lesions were located in lymphocytic aggregates, lamina propria, and crypt epithelium. Hemorrhages and necrosis of hepatocytes and bile duct epithelium were noted in the liver. Diffuse necrosis of lymphocytic and reticuloendothelial tissue were evident in the spleen, bursa of Fabricius, and thymus. Hemorrhages in other tissues such as the lung and heart were often associated with lymphoid nodules, while those in organs such as the pancreas were associated with acinar necrosis. Intranuclear inclusion bodies were seen in stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus and cloaca, crypt epithelium of the intestine, hepatocytes, bile duct epithelium, cells of Hassel's corpuscles, splenic periarteriolar reticular cells, and epithelial cells in the bursa of Fabricius.

  5. Ancient DNA reveals temporal population structure within the South-Central Andes area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, M Gabriela; Mendisco, Fanny; Avena, Sergio A; Crespo, Cristian M; Arencibia, Valeria; Dejean, Cristina B; Seldes, Verónica

    2018-04-01

    The main aim of this work was to contribute to the knowledge of pre-Hispanic genetic variation and population structure among the South-central Andes Area by studying individuals from Quebrada de Humahuaca, North-western (NW) Argentina. We analyzed 15 autosomal STRs in 19 individuals from several archaeological sites in Quebrada de Humahuaca, belonging to the Regional Developments Period (900-1430 AD). Compiling autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y-chromosome data, we evaluated population structure and differentiation among eight South-central Andean groups from the current territories of NW Argentina and Peru. Autosomal data revealed a structuring of the analyzed populations into two clusters which seemed to represent different temporalities in the Andean pre-Hispanic history: pre-Inca and Inca. All pre-Inca samples fell into the same cluster despite being from the two different territories of NW Argentina and Peru. Also, they were systematically differentiated from the Peruvian Inca group. These results were mostly confirmed by mitochondrial and Y-chromosome analyses. We mainly found a clearly different haplotype composition between clusters. Population structure in South America has been mostly studied on current native groups, mainly showing a west-to-east differentiation between the Andean and lowland regions. Here we demonstrated that genetic population differentiation preceded the European contact and might have been more complex than thought, being found within the South-central Andes Area. Moreover, divergence among temporally different populations might be reflecting socio-political changes occurred in the evermore complex pre-Hispanic Andean societies. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Volcanic impediments in the progressive development of pre-Columbian civilizations in the Ecuadorian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Minard L.; Mothes, Patricia A.

    2008-10-01

    Archaeological investigations in Ecuador have proposed that there appear to be hiatus or anomalous jumps in the progressive development of pre-Columbian indigenous cultures, based upon the fact that their ceramics and tools demonstrate abrupt advances in their sophistication at several horizons in the soil profile. Because some of these horizons are clearly associated with volcanic ash layers, archaeologists have sought a causal relation with volcanism, that is, the eruptive events or their products severely interfered with the early inhabitants, resulting in their abandonment of certain areas. Geological studies of the young volcanoes in the Ecuadorian Andes carried out during the past two decades now allow us to make a more thorough evaluation of the role of volcanism during the Holocene. This contribution briefly describes the principal Holocene volcanic events and the distribution of the corresponding eruptive products found along the InterAndean Valley, from southern Colombia to central Ecuador. Only those events that were sufficiently large that they could have had a detrimental effect on the valley's early residents are discussed. Dacitic and rhyolitic ash flows, as well as numerous debris flows (lahars) have occurred frequently and their deposits cover many valleys and floodplains, where early inhabitants probably settled. The enormous Chillos Valley lahar, associated with the 4500 yBP eruption of Cotopaxi volcano, buried soils containing ceramics of the early Formative Period. However, the greatest impact upon mankind was probably not these short-lived violent events, but rather the burying of settlements and agricultural fields by ash fallout, the effect of which may have lasted hundreds of years. Ash fall layers are observed in pre-Columbian cultural horizons in the soil profile, occurring in the InterAndean Valley, the lower flanks of the Andes, and along Ecuador's Pacific coast, the oldest corresponding to the 5800 yBP eruption of Cotopaxi. This brief

  7. Sensitivity of glaciation in the arid subtropical Andes to changes in temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargo, L. J.; Galewsky, J.; Rupper, S.; Ward, D. J.

    2018-04-01

    The subtropical Andes (18.5-27 °S) have been glaciated in the past, but are presently glacier-free. We use idealized model experiments to quantify glacier sensitivity to changes in climate in order to investigate the climatic drivers of past glaciations. We quantify the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) sensitivity (the change in ELA per change in climate) to temperature, precipitation, and shortwave radiation for three distinct climatic regions in the subtropical Andes. We find that in the western cordillera, where conditions are hyper-arid with the highest solar radiation on Earth, ELA sensitivity is as high as 34 m per % increase in precipitation, and 70 m per % decrease in shortwave radiation. This is compared with the eastern cordillera, where precipitation is the highest of the three regions, and ELA sensitivity is only 10 m per % increase in precipitation, and 25 m per % decrease in shortwave radiation. The high ELA sensitivity to shortwave radiation highlights the influence of radiation on mass balance of high elevation and low-latitude glaciers. We also consider these quantified ELA sensitivities in context of previously dated glacial deposits from the regions. Our results suggest that glaciation of the humid eastern cordillera was driven primarily by lower temperatures, while glaciations of the arid Altiplano and western cordillera were also influenced by increases in precipitation and decreases in shortwave radiation. Using paleoclimate records from the timing of glaciation, we find that glaciation of the hyper-arid western cordillera can be explained by precipitation increases of 90-160% (1.9-2.6× higher than modern), in conjunction with associated decreases in shortwave radiation of 7-12% and in temperature of 3.5 °C.

  8. Reasons for an outstanding plant diversity in the tropical Andes of Southern Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Richter

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term field studies in the scope of a multidisciplinary project in southern Ecuador revealed extraordinary high species numbers of many organismic groups. This article discusses reasons for the outstanding vascular plant diversity using a hierarchical scale-oriented top-down approach (Grüninger 2005, from the global scale to the local microscale. The global scale explains general (paleo- ecological factors valid for most parts of the humid tropics, addressing various hypotheses and theories, such as the “greater effective evolutionary time”, constant input of “accidentals”, the “seasonal variability hypothesis”, the “intermediate disturbance hypothesis”, and the impact of soil fertility. The macroscale focuses on the Andes in northwestern South America. The tropical Andes are characterised by many taxa of restricted range which is particularly true for the Amotape-Huancabamba region, i.e. the so called Andean Depression, which is effective as discrete phytogeographic transition as well as barrier zone. Interdigitation of northern and southern flora elements, habitat fragmentation, geological and landscape history, and a high speciation rate due to rapid genetic radiation of some taxa contribute to a high degree of diversification. The mesoscale deals with the special environmental features of the eastern mountain range, the Cordillera Real and surrounding areas in southern Ecuador. Various climatic characteristics, the orographic heterogeneity, the geologic and edaphic conditions as well as human impact are the most prominent factors augmenting plant species diversity. On microscale, prevailing regimes of disturbance and environmental stresses, the orographic basement, as well as the general role on the various mountain chains are considered. Here, micro-habitats e.g. niches for epiphytes, effects of micro-relief patterns, and successions after small-sized disturbance events are screened. Direct effects of human impact are

  9. Synchronous fire activity in the tropical high Andes: an indication of regional climate forcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román-Cuesta, R M; Carmona-Moreno, C; Lizcano, G; New, M; Silman, M; Knoke, T; Malhi, Y; Oliveras, I; Asbjornsen, H; Vuille, M

    2014-06-01

    Global climate models suggest enhanced warming of the tropical mid and upper troposphere, with larger temperature rise rates at higher elevations. Changes in fire activity are amongst the most significant ecological consequences of rising temperatures and changing hydrological properties in mountainous ecosystems, and there is a global evidence of increased fire activity with elevation. Whilst fire research has become popular in the tropical lowlands, much less is known of the tropical high Andean region (>2000 masl, from Colombia to Bolivia). This study examines fire trends in the high Andes for three ecosystems, the Puna, the Paramo and the Yungas, for the period 1982-2006. We pose three questions: (i) is there an increased fire response with elevation? (ii) does the El Niño- Southern Oscillation control fire activity in this region? (iii) are the observed fire trends human driven (e.g., human practices and their effects on fuel build-up) or climate driven? We did not find evidence of increased fire activity with elevation but, instead, a quasicyclic and synchronous fire response in Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia, suggesting the influence of high-frequency climate forcing on fire responses on a subcontinental scale, in the high Andes. ENSO variability did not show a significant relation to fire activity for these three countries, partly because ENSO variability did not significantly relate to precipitation extremes, although it strongly did to temperature extremes. Whilst ENSO did not individually lead the observed regional fire trends, our results suggest a climate influence on fire activity, mainly through a sawtooth pattern of precipitation (increased rainfall before fire-peak seasons (t-1) followed by drought spells and unusual low temperatures (t0), which is particularly common where fire is carried by low fuel loads (e.g., grasslands and fine fuel). This climatic sawtooth appeared as the main driver of fire trends, above local human influences and fuel build

  10. Eccentricity-driven fluvial fill terrace formation in the southern-central Andes, NW Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofelde, Stefanie; Savi, Sara; Wickert, Andrew D.; Wittmann, Hella; Alonso, Ricardo; Strecker, Manfred R.; Schildgen, Taylor F.

    2016-04-01

    Across the world, fill-terrace formation in glaciated catchments has been linked to variable sediment production and river discharge over glacial-interglacial cycles. Little is known, however, how variability in global climate may have affected rainfall patterns and associated surface-processes on multi-millennial timescales in regions far from major glaciers and ice sheets, and how those changes might be reflected in the landscape. Here, we investigate the timing of fluvial fill terrace planation and abandonment in the Quebrada del Toro, an intermontane basin located in the Eastern Cordillera of the southern-central Andes of NW Argentina. Fluvial fills in the valley reach more than 150 m above the current river level. Sculpted into the fills, we observe at least 5 terrace levels with pronounced differences in their extent and preservation. We sampled four TCN (in situ 10Be) depth profiles to date the abandonment of the most extensive terrace surfaces in locations, where subsequent overprint by erosion and deposition was not pronounced. We interpret unexpectedly low 10Be concentrations at shallow depths and surface samples to be related to aeolian input, causing surface inflation. Correcting the depth profiles for inflation results in a reduction of the terrace surface ages by up to 70 ka. The inflation-corrected ages fall within the late Pleistocene (~140 - 370 ka) and suggest a potential link to orbital eccentricity (~100 ka) cycles. The studied fills in the Toro Basin document successive episodes of incision, punctuated by periods of lateral planation and possible partial re-filling. We propose climate cycles as a potentially-dominant factor in forming these terraces. To our knowledge, none of the previously studied fluvial terraces in the Andes date back more than 2 glacial cycles, thus making the Quebrada del Toro an important archive of paleoenvironmental conditions over longer timescales.

  11. Prevalence of sarcopenia and associated factors in the healthy older adults of the Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramontano, Alessandra; Veronese, Nicola; Sergi, Giuseppe; Manzato, Enzo; Rodriguez-Hurtado, Diana; Maggi, Stefania; Trevisan, Caterina; De Zaiacomo, Francesca; Giantin, Valter

    To assess the prevalence of sarcopenia and associated factors in a population of older people living in a rural area of the Peruvian Andes. The study concerned 222 people aged ≥65 years. Sarcopenia was diagnosed on the basis of skeletal muscle mass, measured using bioimpedance analysis, and gait speed, measured with the 4-m walking test, as recommended by the International Working Group on sarcopenia. Self-reported physical activity, the Short Physical Performance Battery, and the Six-Minute Walking Test also contributed information on participants' physical performance status. Disabilities were investigated by assessing participants' self-reported difficulties in performing one or more basic or instrumental activities of daily living. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 17.6%. Compared with participants without sarcopenia, individuals who were found sarcopenic were significantly older, female and were less frequently farmers, had fewer children, had a worse nutritional status, a significantly lower physical performance, and higher levels of disability in the instrumental activities of daily living. After adjusting for potential confounders, age, female sex, a low body mass index, a self-reported low physical activity level, a worse Six-Minute Walking Test scores, and a low number of children were significantly associated with sarcopenia. The prevalence of sarcopenia seems to be quite high among community-dwelling older subjects in the Peruvian Andes. Age, female sex, a low body mass index, little physical activity, a poor Six-Minute Walking Test scores, and a low number of children could be associated with this condition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N

    2012-01-01

    Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1) There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2) There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3) Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics.

  13. Pathogenesis and host response in Syrian hamsters following intranasal infection with Andes virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Safronetz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS, also referred to as hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS, is a rare but frequently fatal disease caused by New World hantaviruses. In humans HPS is associated with severe pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock; however, the pathogenesis of this disease remains unclear largely due to a lack of suitable animal models for the study of disease progression. In this study we monitored clinical, virological, pathophysiological parameters and host immunological responses to decipher pathological factors and events in the lethal Syrian hamster model of HPS following intranasal inoculation of Andes virus. Transcriptional profiling of the host gene responses demonstrated a suppression of innate immune responses in most organs analyzed during the early stage of infection, except for in the lung which had low level activation of several pro-inflammatory genes. During this phase Andes virus established a systemic infection in hamsters, with viral antigen readily detectable in the endothelium of the majority of tissues analyzed by 7-8 days post-inoculation. Despite wide-spread infection, histological analysis confirmed pathological abnormalities were almost exclusively found in the lungs. Immediately preceding clinical signs of disease, intense activation of pro-inflammatory and Th1/Th2 responses were observed in the lungs as well as the heart, but not in peripheral organs, suggesting that localized immune-modulations by infection is paramount to pathogenesis. Throughout the course of infection a strong suppression of regulatory T-cell responses was noted and is hypothesized to be the basis of the aberrant immune activations. The unique and comprehensive monitoring of host immune responses to hantavirus infection increases our understanding of the immuno-pathogenesis of HPS and will facilitate the development of treatment strategies targeting deleterious host immunological responses.

  14. Nutritional status, physical performance and disability in the elderly of the Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramontano, Alessandra; Veronese, Nicola; Giantin, Valter; Manzato, Enzo; Rodriguez-Hurtado, Diana; Trevisan, Caterina; De Zaiacomo, Francesca; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2016-12-01

    Although nutritional status plays an important part in the physical performance and disability of older people, this relationship has been little studied in developing countries. A study on the effects of nutritional status on the physical performance and functional status of elderly people living in rural areas of the Peruvian Andes. The study concerned 222 people aged ≥65 years living in a rural area of the Peruvian Andes. The Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) was used to classify participants as malnourished (MNA = 24). The short physical performance battery (SPPB) and six-minute walking test (6MWT) were used to measure participants' physical performance. Disabilities were investigated by assessing participants' self-reported difficulty in performing one or more basic activities of daily living (ADL), and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). The prevalence of malnutrition was 9.4 %, and more than half of our samples were at risk of malnutrition. After adjusting for potential confounders, malnourished individuals performed significantly worse than the other MNA groups in the SPPB (p for trend=0.001), 6MWT and IADL (p for trend disability in IADL (OR 5.36, 95 % CI 1.02-56.94; p = 0.05), and poor performance in the 6MWT (OR 2.73, 95 % CI 1.06-12.08; p = 0.03) and SPPB (OR 4.94, 95 % CI 1.01-24.07; p = 0.04). Poor nutritional status was found significantly associated with poor physical performance and poor functional status in elderly Peruvian individuals.

  15. Modeling Soil Organic Carbon Variation Along Climatic and Topographic Trajectories in the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilan, C.; Grunwald, S.; Quiroz, R.; Zhu, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Andes represent the largest and highest mountain range in the tropics. Geological and climatic differentiation favored landscape and soil diversity, resulting in ecosystems adapted to very different climatic patterns. Although several studies support the fact that the Andes are a vast sink of soil organic carbon (SOC) only few have quantified this variable in situ. Estimating the spatial distribution of SOC stocks in data-poor and/or poorly accessible areas, like the Andean region, is challenging due to the lack of recent soil data at high spatial resolution and the wide range of coexistent ecosystems. Thus, the sampling strategy is vital in order to ensure the whole range of environmental covariates (EC) controlling SOC dynamics is represented. This approach allows grasping the variability of the area, which leads to more efficient statistical estimates and improves the modeling process. The objectives of this study were to i) characterize and model the spatial distribution of SOC stocks in the Central Andean region using soil-landscape modeling techniques, and to ii) validate and evaluate the model for predicting SOC content in the area. For that purpose, three representative study areas were identified and a suite of variables including elevation, mean annual temperature, annual precipitation and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), among others, was selected as EC. A stratified random sampling (namely conditioned Latin Hypercube) was implemented and a total of 400 sampling locations were identified. At all sites, four composite topsoil samples (0-30 cm) were collected within a 2 m radius. SOC content was measured using dry combustion and SOC stocks were estimated using bulk density measurements. Regression Kriging was used to map the spatial variation of SOC stocks. The accuracy, fit and bias of SOC models was assessed using a rigorous validation assessment. This study produced the first comprehensive, geospatial SOC stock assessment in this

  16. [Epidemiological characterization of bites on people, as emergency care record: Province of Los Andes, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagra, Vania; Cáceres, Dante; Alvarado, Sergio; Salinas, Elizabeth; Caldera, M Loreto; Lucero, Erick; Viviani, Paola; Torres, Marisa

    2017-06-01

    Bites constitute a public health problem worldwide. To characterize epidemiologically bites by animals happened in the province of Los Andes (2005-2007). Descriptive, retrospective epidemiological study. Studied variables: Bitten person (BP), accident by bite, biting animal and bite. It was not feasible to obtain more updated information by law of patient protection. 2,360 BP were assisted in the emergency unit of San Juan de Dios Hospital and Rio Blanco clinic. An annual average rate of 729 BP/100,000 inhabitants and 1.99 daily average was recorded. The male gender was most affected (53.5%) and the age group from 6 to 10 years old. (Rate: .521/100,000). Most frequent topographic location was the lower limb, except in children under 5 year olds in whom predominated head and neck. The biting animal according to frequency was: the dog (67.1%) spider (7.1%) and cat (3.9%). The animal property was 35.6% known and 30.7% own. The most frequent problems were: nonspecific allergy; toxic effect by spider bites and among the infections, the disease made by cat’s scratch stands out. Regarding the record system, the biting animal complaint was applied to 47.6% of the BP and the 92.8% of the recorded information was incomplete. Bites reported higher rates in the province of Los Andes than the average of the country (729 versus 188/100,000), standing out the higher magnitude in 6 to 10 year-old-children. It is noticed that the record is low and incomplete. In this province, no bite control programs or updated studies have been carried out.

  17. Exploring pain in the Andes--learning from the Quichua (Inca) people experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incayawar, Mario; Saucier, Jean-François

    2015-05-01

    There is a mounting recognition that culture profoundly shapes human pain experience. The 28 million indigenous people of the Andes in South America, mainly the Quichua (Inca) people, share a distinctive culture. However, little is known about their pain experience and suffering. The aim of the present study was to explore how Quichua adults perceive, describe, and cope with the pain. An exploratory qualitative/descriptive study was conducted with a convenience sample of 40 Quichua adults, including 15 women and 25 men, in the Northern Highlands of Ecuador. Data were collected through structured interviews of approximately 3 h, using a Quichua questionnaire called "The Nature of Pain" [Nanay Jahua Tapuicuna]. The interviews covered the notions of causation of pain, vulnerability to pain, responses to pain, aggravating factors, frequent locations of pain, types of pain, duration, characteristics of pain, control of pain, pathways to care, and preventive measures of pain. Basic descriptive analyses were performed. The Quichuas' pain experience is complex and their strategies to cope with it are sophisticated. According to the Quichuas, emotions, life events, co-morbid conditions, and spirits, among others factors play an important role in the origin, diagnosis, and treatment of pain. They strongly embrace biomedicine and physicians as well as Quichua traditional medicine and traditional healers. Family members and neighbors are also valuable sources of health care and pain control. The pathway to pain care that the Quichua people prefer is inclusive and pluralistic. The knowledge of the Quichua ethnographic "emic" details of their belief system and coping strategies to control pain are clinically useful not only for the health professional working in the Andes, some Quichua cultural characteristics related to pain could be useful to the culturally competent health practitioner who is making efforts to provide high-quality medical care in rural and multicultural

  18. Proliferation of hydroelectric dams in the Andean Amazon and implications for Andes-Amazon connectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Finer

    Full Text Available Due to rising energy demands and abundant untapped potential, hydropower projects are rapidly increasing in the Neotropics. This is especially true in the wet and rugged Andean Amazon, where regional governments are prioritizing new hydroelectric dams as the centerpiece of long-term energy plans. However, the current planning for hydropower lacks adequate regional and basin-scale assessment of potential ecological impacts. This lack of strategic planning is particularly problematic given the intimate link between the Andes and Amazonian flood plain, together one of the most species rich zones on Earth. We examined the potential ecological impacts, in terms of river connectivity and forest loss, of the planned proliferation of hydroelectric dams across all Andean tributaries of the Amazon River. Considering data on the full portfolios of existing and planned dams, along with data on roads and transmission line systems, we developed a new conceptual framework to estimate the relative impacts of all planned dams. There are plans for 151 new dams greater than 2 MW over the next 20 years, more than a 300% increase. These dams would include five of the six major Andean tributaries of the Amazon. Our ecological impact analysis classified 47% of the potential new dams as high impact and just 19% as low impact. Sixty percent of the dams would cause the first major break in connectivity between protected Andean headwaters and the lowland Amazon. More than 80% would drive deforestation due to new roads, transmission lines, or inundation. We conclude with a discussion of three major policy implications of these findings. 1 There is a critical need for further strategic regional and basin scale evaluation of dams. 2 There is an urgent need for a strategic plan to maintain Andes-Amazon connectivity. 3 Reconsideration of hydropower as a low-impact energy source in the Neotropics.

  19. Characterization of clay of Santa Maria Madalena-RJ (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, R.A.; Borges, B.F.; Rosario, S. do; Alexandre, J.; Beiral, W.V.; Anderson, R.B.; Pessanha, E.F.

    2011-01-01

    The city of Santa Maria Madalena, located in the mountainous region of Rio de Janeiro State, has a region of rocky and extensive area of native forest. Its economy is primarily intended for farming, agriculture and tourism. Characterization studies were conducted in this region, aiming to determine the optimal production process for its application in the ceramics industry. The tests were conducted in the laboratories of the Universidade Estadual Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro - UENF and were determined and the physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristic. Were performed Granulometric Analysis, Atterberg Limit, Chemical Analysis, X Ray Diffraction. The specimens used in evidence were extruded and then fired at the following temperatures: 750 ° C and 850 ° C, and subsequently conducted measurements of absorption, linear shrinkage and resistance to flexion-compression. (author)

  20. The petrographic district of Santa Teresa 1st. communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giglio, M.; Oyhantcabal, P.

    1984-01-01

    Abstract.it was possible to found the existence of a potas sic rocks petrographic province as a first stage of the geological, petrographic and geochemical study of the Sta. Teresa granitic complex of cambric age.The Or/Ab/An ratio of most of this rocks lies on the orthoclase field of the 'Diagram of Higazy', while the K2/Na20tCaO ratio is bigger than 1 .This da tta are preliminary and the investigation needs to be continued.This inform is about the geological conditions study carried out in Paso Severino zone of the Santa Lucia small river to make a dam to provide water to Montevideo. The techniques used were photo interpretation and general geological studies.

  1. SANTA MARÍA LA RIBERA AND INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laureana Martínez Figueroa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, Mexico City experienced changes, such as expansion of the urban area - with the construction of colonies like Santa María de la Ribera,and industrial development, besides need spaces, changed the social dynamics and urban landscape. This article analyzes these processes at the local level, to study the industrial building in the colony, between 1900 and 1930. Through the study of three representative cases, it is presented the characteristics of the factories that were established in this area in the period studied and the difficulties had to be included into a residential context.

  2. Laser fluorosensor overflights of the Santa Barbara oil seeps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C. E.; Nelson, R. D.; Fingas, M.

    1997-01-01

    Environment Canada's Laser Environmental Airborne Fluorosensor (LEAF) system was tested in a series of overflights over naturally occurring oil seeps off Santa Barbara, California. The objective was to test the system's ability to detect oil in actual marine environments and to distinguish petroleum oil from biogenic oils released by kelp beds in and around these naturally occurring oil seep areas. High resolution colour reconnaissance camera images and down-looking video images were collected concurrently with the fluorescence data for documentation purposes. Results of the experiment were analyzed in detail. They confirmed the system's ability to produce geo-referenced oil contamination location maps in real-time. The fluorescence data obtained during overflights was most similar to typical crude oil, i. e. the system successfully distinguished between biogenic oil and typical petroleum oil. 9 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  3. Estilo de vida. Adultos mayores de Santa Marta

    OpenAIRE

    Marín Monroy, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: se describe el estilo de vida saludable de 394 adultos mayores no pensionados y pensionados de la ciudad de Santa Marta. Metodología: estudio descriptivo, transversal. Resultados: el 74% de los adultos mayores tienen una alimentación no balanceada, ya que el consumo diario de proteínas, frutas y verduras es bajo, y predomina el consumo de arroz y carbohidratos como pan, galletas, arepa y plátano. En cuanto a hábitos de sueño, sólo el 29% duerme 8 horas o más. Los resultados con ...

  4. On the Nature of Severe Orographic Thunderstorms near the Andes in Subtropical South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Kristen Lani Emi

    Identifying common features and differences between the mechanisms producing extreme convection near major mountain ranges of the world is an essential step toward a general understanding of orographic precipitation on a global scale. The overarching objective of this dissertation is to understand and examine orographic convective processes in general, while specifically focusing on systems in the lee of the Andes Mountains. Diagnosing the key ingredients necessary for generating high impact weather near extreme topography is crucial to our understanding of orographic precipitating systems. An investigation of the most intense storms in 11 years of TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) data has shown a tendency for squall lines to initiate and develop east of the Andes with a mesoscale organization similar to storms in the U.S. Great Plains (Rasmussen and Houze 2011). In subtropical South America, however, the topographical influence on the convective initiation and maintenance of the mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) is unique. The Andes and other mountainous terrain of Argentina focus deep convective initiation in the foothills of western Argentina (Romatschke and Houze 2010; Rasmussen and Houze 2011). Subsequent to initiation, the convection often evolves into propagating MCSs similar to those seen over the U.S. Great Plains sometimes producing damaging tornadoes, hail and floods across a wide agricultural region (Rasmussen and Houze 2011; Rasmussen et al. 2014b). The TRMM satellite was designed to determine the spatial and temporal variation of tropical and subtropical rainfall amounts and storm structures around the globe with the goal of understanding the factors controlling the precipitation. However, the TRMM PR algorithm significantly underestimates surface rainfall in deep convection over land (Nesbitt et al. 2004; Iguchi et al. 2009; Kozu et al. 2009). When the algorithm rates are compared to a range of conventional Z-R relations, the rain bias tends to be

  5. Ethnoecology of the tropical Andes avian indicators of landscape change in highland Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmiento, F. O.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Four Andean birds offer clues to rethink the ethnoecology of neotropical cloud forests, challenging the notion of conservation based only in water resources and biodiversity. Using both archaeological and actuoecological evidence, the role of humans in shaping high Andean landscapes' location and maintenance is argued as an important factor for conservation priorities of tropical montane cloud forests, particularly in the equatorial mountains. Avian examples demonstrate intricate linkages of culture and nature in the tropical Andes. Traditional knowledge associated to ornithological clues, helps understanding the dynamics of cultural landscapes, with birds as proxy of synergisms affecting the complexities of both, nature and culture. A paradox of conservation is highlighted with avian indicators. The four selected species were cases where landscape change and biodiversity help in determining ethnoecological insights. Unlike the preservation of absolute nature reserves, landscape stewardship, conservation easements and cultural la^tdscapes are listed as options for inclusion in the repertoire of conservation scenarios for cloud forests survival, which includes sacred places and spiritual domains as intangibles worth protecting in the Tropical Andes.

    [fr] Quatre oiseaux andins nous donnent des raisons pour repenser Vethnoécologie des forêts néotropicales humides, ce qui met en question l'idée de la conservation basée sur les ressources d'eau et la biodiversité seules. En se servant des évidences archéologiques et écologiques actuelles, on soutient que les êtres humains ont un rôle dans la formation des hauts paysages andins. On soutient aussi que l'entretien est un facteur important dans la conservation des forêts tropicales humides en montagne, surtout dans les montagnes équatoriales. Les exemples aviaires démontrent les liens compliqués entre la culture et la nature dans les Andes tropicales. Les connaissances

  6. HISTÓRICO DA PROPOSTA CURRICULAR DE SANTA CATARINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonete Benedet Fernandes Coan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Este texto faz parte da dissertação de mestrado em andamento que tem como objetivo principal analisar os textos sobre alfabetização com letramento contidos na Proposta Curricular de Santa Catarina, no sentido de identificar conceitos e encaminhamentos efetuados pelo Estado catarinense aos professores da rede estadual de ensino por meio dessa política pública. A pesquisa orienta-se na concepção histórico-crítica e adota como método a análise documental e a pesquisa bibliográfica com revisão de literatura sobre as categorias pesquisadas. As respostas ao problema de pesquisa identificaram, precariedade na formação de professores; complexidade dos textos que compõem a Proposta e influência do sistema neoliberal sobre as políticas públicas educacionais brasileiras como fatores que concorrem para a permanência de índices de analfabetismo, repetência e evasão escolar no Estado de Santa Catarina. A elaboração do componente curricular catarinense teve início no final dos anos 1980 e a última atualização foi editada em 2005. Neste artigo, escreve-se o processo de construção dessa Proposta a partir do Plano de Ação 88/91 até os Cadernos Temáticos publicados em 2005.

  7. Analysis of growth curve in Santa Ines females sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Junqueira Oliveira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In a sheep production system, the growth-related characteristics have direct relationship to both, quantity and quality of meat. The objective of this study was to evaluate the application of non-linear models to report the growth curve of Santa Inês sheep. Weights of 140 females, born from2010 to 2012, from a single herd at Cravinhos- SP were used. The weights were measured from birth to about one year of age and the ages were grouped together in biweekly classes. The average weight observed at birth was of 3.77±0.92 kg. The non-linear models utilized in the data adjustment were the Brody, Gompertz, Logistic and Von Bertalanffy models, adjusted by the Gauss-Newton method by means of NLIN procedure, available in SAS software. The parameters which compose the functions, Wt (kg is the weight in time t (days; A (kg is the asymptotic weight when age tends to infinity; b is an integration constant, related to the initial weights of the animals and not well defined biological interpretation, and k is the maturity rate. The average estimates for A and k, are the most important from an zootechnical parameters point of view, mainly because heavier females tend to create faster growing sheep. All the models evaluated reached convergence. The quality of the models adjustment was done by error mean square (EMS means. From the EMS results , the Gompertz model showed the best adjustment, which indicates increased association between the observed and estimated weights, in spite of the EMS values being quite close in all models, pointing out that all were adequate to report the growth curve from birth to one year of age in females of Santa Inês breed.

  8. Current state of glaciers in the tropical Andes: a multi-century perspective on glacier evolution and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabatel, A.; Francou, B.; Soruco, A.; Gomez, J.; Cáceres, B.; Ceballos, J. L.; Basantes, R.; Vuille, M.; Sicart, J.-E.; Huggel, C.; Scheel, M.; Lejeune, Y.; Arnaud, Y.; Collet, M.; Condom, T.; Consoli, G.; Favier, V.; Jomelli, V.; Galarraga, R.; Ginot, P.; Maisincho, L.; Mendoza, J.; Ménégoz, M.; Ramirez, E.; Ribstein, P.; Suarez, W.; Villacis, M.; Wagnon, P.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide the community with a comprehensive overview of the studies of glaciers in the tropical Andes conducted in recent decades leading to the current status of the glaciers in the context of climate change. In terms of changes in surface area and length, we show that the glacier retreat in the tropical Andes over the last three decades is unprecedented since the maximum extension of the Little Ice Age (LIA, mid-17th-early 18th century). In terms of changes in mass balance, although there have been some sporadic gains on several glaciers, we show that the trend has been quite negative over the past 50 yr, with a mean mass balance deficit for glaciers in the tropical Andes that is slightly more negative than the one computed on a global scale. A break point in the trend appeared in the late 1970s with mean annual mass balance per year decreasing from -0.2 m w.e. in the period 1964-1975 to -0.76 m w.e. in the period 1976-2010. In addition, even if glaciers are currently retreating everywhere in the tropical Andes, it should be noted that this is much more pronounced on small glaciers at low altitudes that do not have a permanent accumulation zone, and which could disappear in the coming years/decades. Monthly mass balance measurements performed in Bolivia, Ecuador and Colombia show that variability of the surface temperature of the Pacific Ocean is the main factor governing variability of the mass balance at the decadal timescale. Precipitation did not display a significant trend in the tropical Andes in the 20th century, and consequently cannot explain the glacier recession. On the other hand, temperature increased at a significant rate of 0.10 °C decade-1 in the last 70 yr. The higher frequency of El Niño events and changes in its spatial and temporal occurrence since the late 1970s together with a warming troposphere over the tropical Andes may thus explain much of the recent dramatic shrinkage of glaciers in this part of the world.

  9. Geologic map of the Santa Ana Pueblo quadrangle, Sandoval County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personius, Stephen F.

    2002-01-01

    The Santa Ana Pueblo quadrangle is located in the northern part of the Albuquerque basin, which is the largest basin or graben within the Rio Grande rift. The quadrangle is underlain by poorly consolidated sedimentary rocks of the Santa Fe Group and is dominated by Santa Ana Mesa, a volcanic tableland underlain by basalt flows of the San Felipe volcanic field. The San Felipe volcanic field is the largest area of basaltic lavas exposed in the Albuquerque basin. The structural fabric of the quadrangle is dominated by dozens of generally north striking, east- and west-dipping normal faults associated with the Neogene Rio Grande rift.

  10. Caracterización morfométrica de la microcuenca de la quebrada los Andes, El Carmen de Viboral, Antioquia-Colombia Morphometrical characterization in los Andes watershed, El Carmen de Viboral, Antioquia-Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yimmy Montoya Moreno

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron algunas características morfométricas básicas en la microcuenca de la quebrada Los Andes en el departamento de Antioquia (Colombia. La microcuenca tiene un área pequeña (Some morphometric characteristic were evaluated in the watershed of creek Los Andes department of Antioquia (Colombia. The headwater has a small area (<20km² with main direction in the axis S-N, with an elevation range between 2.700 and 2.200 m. asl. It presents a network of drainage well structured, for which presents a time of concentration of the water over 5 hours. The watershed is of class Kc2 with a high slope and a system of drainage subdendritic. This research permitted to identify the uses of the soil, being the adequate use the one that presented greater percentage (55% and the use is recommended conservationist in general for all headwater.

  11. Characterization of clay of Santa Maria Madalena-RJ (Brazil); Caracterizacao do solo do municipio de Santa Maria Madalena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, R.A.; Borges, B.F.; Rosario, S. do; Alexandre, J.; Beiral, W.V.; Anderson, R.B.; Pessanha, E.F., E-mail: jonas@uenf.br, E-mail: wevuenf@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (LECIV/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Engenharia Civil

    2011-07-01

    The city of Santa Maria Madalena, located in the mountainous region of Rio de Janeiro State, has a region of rocky and extensive area of native forest. Its economy is primarily intended for farming, agriculture and tourism. Characterization studies were conducted in this region, aiming to determine the optimal production process for its application in the ceramics industry. The tests were conducted in the laboratories of the Universidade Estadual Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro - UENF and were determined and the physical, chemical and mineralogical characteristic. Were performed Granulometric Analysis, Atterberg Limit, Chemical Analysis, X Ray Diffraction. The specimens used in evidence were extruded and then fired at the following temperatures: 750 ° C and 850 ° C, and subsequently conducted measurements of absorption, linear shrinkage and resistance to flexion-compression. (author)

  12. Variabilidade em matrizes de acessos de espinheira-santa Variability in matrices of espinheira-santa accessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Paim Mariot

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Maytenus ilicifolia e M. aquifolium são espécies nativas do Brasil, popularmente conhecidas como espinheira-santa, sendo indicadas para gastrite e para úlcera estomacal. A Embrapa Clima Temperado e a Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel mantêm um banco de germoplasma destas espécies. Com o objetivo de identificar a variabilidade fenotípica para alguns caracteres morfológicos em matrizes de espinheira-santa, estimar a dissimilaridade e agrupar os acessos através de análises multivariadas, 105 acessos foram caracterizados morfologicamente. Foram avaliados os caracteres comprimento e largura de fruto, número de sementes por fruto, comprimento e largura de folha, relação comprimento/largura de folha e número de espinhos por folha. Foi estimada a distância euclidiana e os acessos foram agrupados pelo método de otimização de Tocher. Foi observada uma ampla variabilidade para todos os caracteres analisados. O número de espinhos por folha foi o caráter que mais contribuiu para a divergência. Os caracteres morfológicos permitiram separar os acessos em sete grupos. A maior dissimilaridade foi entre os acessos 57 (M. ilicifolia e 91 (M. aquifolium. Não foi evidenciada uma separação de acordo com a localização geográfica dos acessos. Na análise de agrupamento foram identificados dois grupos que apresentavam tanto acessos de M. ilicifolia quanto de M. aquifolium, o que indica proximidade filogenética entre estas espécies.Maytenus ilicifolia and M. aquifolium are native Brazilian species popularly known as espinheira-santa, being indicated for gastritis and stomach ulcer. Embrapa Clima Temperado and Universidade Federal de Pelotas (UFPel keep a gene bank of these species. With the objective of identifing phenotypic variability for some morphological characters in matrices of espinheira-santa, estimating dissimilarity and clustering accessions through multivariate analysis, 105 accessions had been morphologically characterized

  13. Nuclear Data for Safe Operation and Waste Transmutation: ANDES (Accurate Nuclear Data for nuclear Energy Sustainability); Datos nucleares para la operacion segura y la transmutacion de residuos: Andes (Datos Nucleares Precisos para la Sostenibilidad de la Energia Nuclear)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, E. M.

    2014-07-01

    Nuclear research within the 7th Framework Program (FP7 and FP7+2) of EURATOM has devoted a significant fraction of its efforts to the development of advanced nuclear fuel cycles and reactor concepts, mainly fast reactors, aiming to improve the long term sustainability by reduction of the final wastes, optimal use of natural resources and improvement of safety in the present and future nuclear installations. The new design need more accurate basic nuclear data for isotopes, like minor actinides, potentially playing an important role in the operation, fuel concept, safety or final wastes of those reactors and fuel cycles. Four projects, ANDES, ERINDA, EUFRAT and CHANDA, supported by EURATOM within the FP7 and FP7+2, have put together most of the European Nuclear Data community to respond efficiently and in a coordinated way to those needs. This paper summarizes the objectives, and main achievements of ANDES, the project responsible for most of the measurements and technical achievements that was coordinated by CIEMAT. Indeed, CIEMAT has coordinated the nuclear data R and D projects within EURATOM during the last 7 years (NUDATRA domain of EUROTRANS, and ANDES) and will continue this coordination in the CHANDA project till 2017. (Author)

  14. Distribución de Stenocercus guentheri (Sauria: Iguanidae en el sur de los Andes de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Herrera Fernando

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of a population of Stenocercus guentherifrom Colombia is described in detail and compared to information from ecuadorean specimens. The range of the species is extended northward to include the colombian departments (provinces of Nariño and Cauca along the Andes. Some field observations about bahavior, habitat, and reproduction are included.El presente trabajo describe las características de Stenocercus guentheri, en las poblaciones del sur de Colombia y hace una comparación con la información del Ecuador. Se amplía su rango de distribución geográfica hacia el norte de Suramérica, incluyendo los departamentos de Nariño y Cauca en los Andes de Colombia. Se incluyen datos de campo sobre hábitat, hábitos y reproducción.

  15. Mammalian carnivore occupancy is inversely related to presence of domestic dogs in the high Andes of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Although the Andes have long been occupied by people, habitat loss, fragmentation through deforestation, and other human activities such as introduction of invasive species have increased drastically during the past century. The Ecuadorian Andes are considered a biodiversity hotspot. However, the fauna and threats to the region are poorly studied, and understanding of factors that shape the distribution of species in habitats disturbed by human activities is needed to identify and mitigate region-wide threats to wildlife. We evaluated factors associated with patterns of occurrence of Andean carnivores in landscapes of the northern Ecuadorian Andes, particularly habitat loss, fragmentation, and occupancy of domestic dogs, and determined whether thresholds occurred for these factors beyond which carnivore occurrence declined markedly. Five study areas (each 20 x 20 km) were surveyed with a total effort of 2,800 camera trap nights. Occupancies of four of the eight carnivores known from the region were best predicted by occupancy of domestic dogs rather than measures of habitat loss and fragmentation [Andean fox (Pseudalopex culpaeus), puma (Puma concolor), striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus), and Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus)]. The two largest carnivores, puma and Andean bear, demonstrated significant threshold responses to the presence of domestic dogs at two sites. Four smaller carnivores were recorded too infrequently to model occupancy, and at least two of these species appear to be in decline. The magnitude of domestic dog impacts on native species in tropical areas like the Ecuadorian Andes currently are not recognized. Results of our study indicate that small and large carnivores are in urgent need of conservation and clearly point to dogs as a significant threat to a broad range of native species. PMID:29489855

  16. Mammalian carnivore occupancy is inversely related to presence of domestic dogs in the high Andes of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Ríos, Galo; Branch, Lyn C

    2018-01-01

    Although the Andes have long been occupied by people, habitat loss, fragmentation through deforestation, and other human activities such as introduction of invasive species have increased drastically during the past century. The Ecuadorian Andes are considered a biodiversity hotspot. However, the fauna and threats to the region are poorly studied, and understanding of factors that shape the distribution of species in habitats disturbed by human activities is needed to identify and mitigate region-wide threats to wildlife. We evaluated factors associated with patterns of occurrence of Andean carnivores in landscapes of the northern Ecuadorian Andes, particularly habitat loss, fragmentation, and occupancy of domestic dogs, and determined whether thresholds occurred for these factors beyond which carnivore occurrence declined markedly. Five study areas (each 20 x 20 km) were surveyed with a total effort of 2,800 camera trap nights. Occupancies of four of the eight carnivores known from the region were best predicted by occupancy of domestic dogs rather than measures of habitat loss and fragmentation [Andean fox (Pseudalopex culpaeus), puma (Puma concolor), striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus), and Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus)]. The two largest carnivores, puma and Andean bear, demonstrated significant threshold responses to the presence of domestic dogs at two sites. Four smaller carnivores were recorded too infrequently to model occupancy, and at least two of these species appear to be in decline. The magnitude of domestic dog impacts on native species in tropical areas like the Ecuadorian Andes currently are not recognized. Results of our study indicate that small and large carnivores are in urgent need of conservation and clearly point to dogs as a significant threat to a broad range of native species.

  17. Mammalian carnivore occupancy is inversely related to presence of domestic dogs in the high Andes of Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galo Zapata-Ríos

    Full Text Available Although the Andes have long been occupied by people, habitat loss, fragmentation through deforestation, and other human activities such as introduction of invasive species have increased drastically during the past century. The Ecuadorian Andes are considered a biodiversity hotspot. However, the fauna and threats to the region are poorly studied, and understanding of factors that shape the distribution of species in habitats disturbed by human activities is needed to identify and mitigate region-wide threats to wildlife. We evaluated factors associated with patterns of occurrence of Andean carnivores in landscapes of the northern Ecuadorian Andes, particularly habitat loss, fragmentation, and occupancy of domestic dogs, and determined whether thresholds occurred for these factors beyond which carnivore occurrence declined markedly. Five study areas (each 20 x 20 km were surveyed with a total effort of 2,800 camera trap nights. Occupancies of four of the eight carnivores known from the region were best predicted by occupancy of domestic dogs rather than measures of habitat loss and fragmentation [Andean fox (Pseudalopex culpaeus, puma (Puma concolor, striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus, and Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus]. The two largest carnivores, puma and Andean bear, demonstrated significant threshold responses to the presence of domestic dogs at two sites. Four smaller carnivores were recorded too infrequently to model occupancy, and at least two of these species appear to be in decline. The magnitude of domestic dog impacts on native species in tropical areas like the Ecuadorian Andes currently are not recognized. Results of our study indicate that small and large carnivores are in urgent need of conservation and clearly point to dogs as a significant threat to a broad range of native species.

  18. CARACTERIZACIÓN FÍSIOGRÁFICA DE LA PUNA DE SAJAMA, CORDILLERA OCCIDENTAL DE LOS ANDES (BOLIVIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Javier Santa Cecilia Mateos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo aproxima a la realidad física de la cordillera Occidental de los Andes. Un espacio geográfico donde los caracteres geológicos relacionados con el vulcanismo adquieren una relevancia especial en la configuración del paisaje andino. Los nevados y llanuras intermedias o altiplanos, son los dos elementos que constituyen la imagen de la puna andina, un territorio situado por encima de los 4.000 metros, ámbito intermedio entre los valles húmedos o yungas y las más altas cumbres de los Andes. A la singularidad volcánica habría que añadir la relacionada con el modelado glaciar, los aspectos hidrográficos y la biogeografia en esta área. El artículo toma como ejemplo de estudio la puna de Sajama en eldepartamento de Oruro, en la frontera boliviano-chilena.Abstract. This article approaches the physical reality of the Western Cordillera of the Andes. A geographical space where characters related geological volcanism are of particular importance in shaping the landscape Andean. The intermediate plains or mountains and plateaus, are the two elements that make up the image of the Andean puna, an area located above 4,000 meters, the middle ground between Yungas wet valley and the highest peaks of the Andes. A volcanic uniqueness should add that related to glacier modeling, hydrographic aspects and biogeography in this area. The article uses the example of the highlands of Sajama study in thedepartment of Oruro in Bolivian-Chilean border.

  19. Stepwise colonization of the Andes by Ruddy Ducks and the evolution of novel β-globin variants

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-Fuentes, Violeta; Cortázar-Chinarro, M.; Lozano-Jaramillo, M.; McCracken, K.G.

    2013-01-01

    Andean uplift played a key role in Neotropical bird diversification, yet past dispersal and genetic adaptation to high-altitude environments remain little understood. Here we use multilocus population genetics to study population history and historical demographic processes in the ruddy duck (Oxyura jamaicensis), a stiff-tailed diving duck comprising three subspecies distributed from Canada to Tierra del Fuego and inhabiting wetlands from sea level to 4500 m in the Andes. We sequenced the mit...

  20. High-resolution paleoclimate records of Holocene hydroclimatic variability in the Eastern Colombian Andes from Lago de Tota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M. N.; Bird, B. W.; Escobar, J.; Polissar, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Northern Hemisphere (NH) South American Monsoon (SAM) is a significant source of precipitation for the North Andes (north of 0˚) and has major control over regional hydroclimate variability. Holocene-length histories of NH SAM variability are few compared to the Southern Hemisphere (SH), limiting understanding of how these systems are connected on orbital and shorter timescales. Here, we present multi-proxy lake-sediment-based paleoclimate and paleohydrologic reconstructions from Lago de Tota, Colombia, using sedimentological, geochemical and leaf-wax hydrogen isotopic indicators from radiometically dated cores. The results indicate periods of wet and dry climate phases during the past 9000 BP with an average Holocene sedimentation rate 33cm/kyr. An increase in total organic matter (TOM) content and finer grain-size distributions was observed from 8000 to 3200 BP, suggesting a period of high lake level. This was followed by lower TOM and coarser grain sizes, suggesting lower lake levels from 3200 BP to the present. Although Tota's lake level pattern is antiphased with other lake level reconstructions from the NH and SH Andes, it is consistent with hypothesized changes in atmospheric convection over the Andes during the Holocene and the way in which they would be modified by the so-called dry island effect in the Colombian Andes. This suggests that a common forcing mechanism can be invoked to explain differing millennial-scale Andean hydroclimate changes, namely atmospheric convection. Orbital and Pacific atmosphere-forcing are therefore likely to have played a significant role in driving pan-Andean hydroclimate variability based on their inter-hemispheric influence on Andean convection.

  1. Selection of astrophysical/astronomical/solar sites at the Argentina East Andes range taking into account atmospheric components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Piacentini, R.D.; García, B.; Micheletti, M.I.; Salum, G.; Freire, M.; Maya, J.; Mancilla, A.; Crinó, E.; Mandát, Dušan; Pech, M.; Bulik, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 12 (2016), s. 2559-2574 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA MŠk LE13012; GA MŠk LG14019; GA MŠk LM2015046 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : astrophysical * astronomical * solar: sites * Argentina-Andes: atmospheric components Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.401, year: 2016

  2. The analytic nodal diffusion solver ANDES in multigroups for 3D rectangular geometry: Development and performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, Juan-Andres; Garcia-Herranz, Nuria; Ahnert, Carol; Aragones, Jose-Maria

    2008-01-01

    In this work we address the development and implementation of the analytic coarse-mesh finite-difference (ACMFD) method in a nodal neutron diffusion solver called ANDES. The first version of the solver is implemented in any number of neutron energy groups, and in 3D Cartesian geometries; thus it mainly addresses PWR and BWR core simulations. The details about the generalization to multigroups and 3D, as well as the implementation of the method are given. The transverse integration procedure is the scheme chosen to extend the ACMFD formulation to multidimensional problems. The role of the transverse leakage treatment in the accuracy of the nodal solutions is analyzed in detail: the involved assumptions, the limitations of the method in terms of nodal width, the alternative approaches to implement the transverse leakage terms in nodal methods - implicit or explicit -, and the error assessment due to transverse integration. A new approach for solving the control rod 'cusping' problem, based on the direct application of the ACMFD method, is also developed and implemented in ANDES. The solver architecture turns ANDES into an user-friendly, modular and easily linkable tool, as required to be integrated into common software platforms for multi-scale and multi-physics simulations. ANDES can be used either as a stand-alone nodal code or as a solver to accelerate the convergence of whole core pin-by-pin code systems. The verification and performance of the solver are demonstrated using both proof-of-principle test cases and well-referenced international benchmarks

  3. Effects of loading–unloading and wetting–drying cycles on geomechanical behaviors of mudrocks in the Colombian Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Suarez, Mario Camilo; Alarcon-Guzman, Adolfo; Berdugo-De Moya, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    The mudrocks in the Colombian Andes, particularly those exhibiting low cementation (bonding), are susceptible to degradation when the environmental conditions change, which are challenging issues for engineering works. In this paper, the changes in physico-mechanical properties of mudrocks were monitored in laboratory, and some influential factors on the mechanical competence of geomaterials were studied. The geotechnical characteristics and experimental designs were developed from physical, ...

  4. A large and unusually colored new snake species of the genus Tantilla (Squamata; Colubridae) from the Peruvian Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Claudia; Venegas, Pablo J.

    2016-01-01

    A new colubrid species of the genus Tantilla from the dry forest of the northern Peruvian Andes is described on the basis of two specimens, which exhibit a conspicuous sexual dimorphism. Tantilla tjiasmantoi sp. nov. represents the third species of the genus in Peru. The new species is easily distinguished from its congeners by the combination of scalation characteristics and the unusual transversely-banded color pattern on the dorsum. A detailed description of the skull morphology of the new...

  5. Quantitative Temperature Reconstructions from Holocene and Late Glacial Lake Sediments in the Tropical Andes using Chironomidae (non-biting midges)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews-Bird, F.; Gosling, W. D.; Brooks, S. J.; Montoya, E.; Coe, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Chironomidae (non-biting midges) is a family of two-winged aquatic insects of the order Diptera. They are globally distributed and one of the most diverse families within aquatic ecosystems. The insects are stenotopic, and the rapid turnover of species and their ability to colonise quickly favourable habitats means chironomids are extremely sensitive to environmental change, notably temperature. Through the development of quantitative temperature inference models chironomids have become important palaeoecological tools. Proxies capable of generating independent estimates of past climate are crucial to disentangling climate signals and ecosystem response in the palaeoecological record. This project has developed the first modern environmental calibration data set in order to use chironomids from the Tropical Andes as quantitative climate proxies. Using surface sediments from c. 60 lakes from Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador we have developed an inference model capable of reconstructing temperatures, with a prediction error of 1-2°C, from fossil assemblages. Here we present the first Lateglacial and Holocene chironomid-inferred temperature reconstructions from two sites in the tropical Andes. The first record, from a high elevation (4153 m asl) lake in the Bolivian Andes, shows persistently cool temperatures for the past 15 kyr, punctuated by warm episodes in the early Holocene (9-10 kyr BP). The chironomid-inferred Holocene temperature trends from a lake sediment record on the eastern Andean flank of Ecuador (1248 m asl) spanning the last 5 millennia are synchronous with temperature changes in the NGRIP ice core record. The temperature estimates suggest along the eastern flank of the Andes, at lower latitudes (~1°S), climate closely resemble the well-established fluctuations of the Northern Hemisphere for this time period. Late-glacial climate fluctuations across South America are still disputed with some palaeoecological records suggesting evidence for Younger Dryas

  6. Spatial influence and oceanic thermal response to Santa Ana events along the Baja California peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, R. [Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)]. E-mail: rubenc@uabc.mx; Mascarenhas, A.; Martinez-Diaz-de-leon, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanologicas, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Durazo, R. [Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Ensenada, Baja California, (Mexico); Gil Silva, E. [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanologicas, Universidad Autonoma de Baja California, Ensenada, Baja California, (Mexico)

    2006-07-15

    Meteorological data were recorded at eight stations located along the coast of the Pacific Ocean and three along the coast of the Gulf of California, aimed to assess the spatial influence of Santa Ana weather conditions in the Baja California peninsula. February 2002 featured two Santa Ana events: one from the 9 to the 12 and another from the 21 to the 22. The first Santa Ana event had the strongest winds, however relative humidity and temperature behaved similarly on both events at some stations. Data from the Pacific Ocean showed typical Santa Ana condition patterns: wind speed and temperature increase opposed to decreased relative humidity values. Data from the Gulf of California did not show the typical temperature rise of a Santa Ana condition, but there was a decrease on the amplitude of the diurnal variability of air temperature and relative humidity as well as a marked increase on wind strength. Wind direction during the Santa Ana events on the Pacific side was NE and NW on the Gulf of California. NE winds are associated to the shift on the position of the North Pacific High Pressure Center, which moves towards the continent. Data suggest that relative humidity may be the best parameter to monitor both occurrence and length of Santa Ana conditions on the Pacific side. Normal weather conditions show a negative air-sea temperature difference, but during both Santa Ana events this difference was positive and higher than 10 degrees Celsius. Latent and sensible heat fluxes drastically increased during both events, reaching values more than three times higher than those for normal conditions, which is due to the presence of strong winds combined with a drier and hotter air mass over the ocean. [Spanish] Con el proposito de estudiar la influencia espacial de condiciones Santa Ana a lo largo de la peninsula de Baja California, se registraron datos meteorologicos en ocho estaciones localizadas en el lado del Pacifico y tres estaciones en el Golfo de California. En

  7. C-CAP Santa Cruz 2001 era High Resolution Land Cover Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset represents land cover for the San Lorenzo River basin in Santa Cruz County, California derived from high resolution imagery. The land cover features in...

  8. 76 FR 39443 - National Environmental Policy Act; Santa Susana Field Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-058)] National Environmental Policy Act; Santa Susana Field Laboratory AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION... Laboratory (SSFL), Ventura County, California. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act...

  9. Oleistocene mammals in the late-early Holocene in Santa Lucia river basin (Uruguay southern)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubilla, M.; Perea, D.; Corona, A.; Rinderknecht, A.; Sanchez, A.

    2012-01-01

    This work is about the fossileferous outcrops belongs to the late Pleistocene - early Holocene in Santa Lucia River. It enable to analyse the last records of megafauna vertebrate extinctions (olistecene mammals) with the climate conditions / environment

  10. CRED REA Algal Assessment, Santa Rosa Bank 2003 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 2 sites at Santa Rosa Bank (off...

  11. Contract Audit Followup: Defense Contract Management Agency Santa Ana Office's Actions on Incurred Cost Audits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    This report addresses the DCMA Santa Ana District Office. DoD Directive 7640.2, "Policy for Follow-up on Contract Audit Reports," February 12, 1988, as amended August 16, 1995, implements OMB Circular A-50...

  12. Commercial statistical bulletin of the Brazilian electric utility Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-04-01

    Statistical data concerning the Brazilian Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A. utility relative to April 1996 are presented. They include, among other things, electricity consumption, number and class of consumers and electricity rates

  13. Molecular analysis of the parallel domestication of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Mesoamerica and the Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitocchi, Elena; Bellucci, Elisa; Giardini, Alessandro; Rau, Domenico; Rodriguez, Monica; Biagetti, Eleonora; Santilocchi, Rodolfo; Spagnoletti Zeuli, Pierluigi; Gioia, Tania; Logozzo, Giuseppina; Attene, Giovanna; Nanni, Laura; Papa, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the nucleotide diversity of common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris, which is characterized by two independent domestications in two geographically distinct areas: Mesoamerica and the Andes. This provides an important model, as domestication can be studied as a replicate experiment. We used nucleotide data from five gene fragments characterized by large introns to analyse 214 accessions (102 wild and 112 domesticated). The wild accessions represent a cross-section of the entire geographical distribution of P. vulgaris. A reduction in genetic diversity in both of these gene pools was found, which was three-fold greater in Mesoamerica compared with the Andes. This appears to be a result of a bottleneck that occurred before domestication in the Andes, which strongly impoverished this wild germplasm, leading to the minor effect of the subsequent domestication bottleneck (i.e. sequential bottleneck). These findings show the importance of considering the evolutionary history of crop species as a major factor that influences their current level and structure of genetic diversity. Furthermore, these data highlight a single domestication event within each gene pool. Although the findings should be interpreted with caution, this evidence indicates the Oaxaca valley in Mesoamerica, and southern Bolivia and northern Argentina in South America, as the origins of common bean domestication. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Description and phylogeny of three new species of Synophis (Colubridae, Dipsadinae) from the tropical Andes in Ecuador and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Carvajal, Omar; Echevarría, Lourdes Y.; Venegas, Pablo J.; Germán Chávez; Camper, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The discovery of three new species of Synophis snakes from the eastern slopes of the tropical Andes in Ecuador and Peru is reported. All previous records of Synophis bicolor from eastern Ecuador correspond to Synophis bogerti sp. n., which occurs between 1000–1750 m along a large part of the Amazonian slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes. In contrast, Synophis zamora sp. n. is restricted to southeastern Ecuador, including Cordillera del Cóndor, between 1543–1843 m. Synophis insulomontanus sp. n. is from the eastern slopes of the Andes in central and northern Peru, between 1122–1798 m, and represents the first record of Synophis from this country. All three new species share in common a large lateral spine at the base of the hemipenial body. A molecular phylogenetic tree based on three mitochondrial genes is presented, including samples of Diaphorolepis wagneri. Our tree strongly supports Synophis and Diaphorolepis as sister taxa, as well as monophyly of the three new species described here and Synophis calamitus. Inclusion of Synophis and Diaphorolepis within Dipsadinae as sister to a clade containing Imantodes, Dipsas, Ninia, Hypsiglena and Pseudoleptodeira is also supported. PMID:26798310

  15. Genome of Plant Maca (Lepidium meyenii) Illuminates Genomic Basis for High-Altitude Adaptation in the Central Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Tian, Yang; Yan, Liang; Zhang, Guanghui; Wang, Xiao; Zeng, Yan; Zhang, Jiajin; Ma, Xiao; Tan, Yuntao; Long, Ni; Wang, Yangzi; Ma, Yujin; He, Yuqi; Xue, Yu; Hao, Shumei; Yang, Shengchao; Wang, Wen; Zhang, Liangsheng; Dong, Yang; Chen, Wei; Sheng, Jun

    2016-07-06

    Maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp, 2n = 8x = 64), belonging to the Brassicaceae family, is an economic plant cultivated in the central Andes sierra in Peru (4000-4500 m). Considering that the rapid uplift of the central Andes occurred 5-10 million years ago (Ma), an evolutionary question arises regarding how plants such as maca acquire high-altitude adaptation within a short geological period. Here, we report the high-quality genome assembly of maca, in which two closely spaced maca-specific whole-genome duplications (WGDs; ∼6.7 Ma) were identified. Comparative genomic analysis between maca and closely related Brassicaceae species revealed expansions of maca genes and gene families involved in abiotic stress response, hormone signaling pathway, and secondary metabolite biosynthesis via WGDs. The retention and subsequent functional divergence of many duplicated genes may account for the morphological and physiological changes (i.e., small leaf shape and self-fertility) in maca in a high-altitude environment. In addition, some duplicated maca genes were identified with functions in morphological adaptation (i.e., LEAF CURLING RESPONSIVENESS) and abiotic stress response (i.e., GLYCINE-RICH RNA-BINDING PROTEINS and DNA-DAMAGE-REPAIR/TOLERATION 2) under positive selection. Collectively, the maca genome provides useful information to understand the important roles of WGDs in the high-altitude adaptation of plants in the Andes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. ISOSTATICALLY DISTURBED TERRAIN OF NORTHWESTERN ANDES MOUNTAINS FROM SPECTRALLY CORRELATED FREE-AIR AND GRAVITY TERRAIN DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández P Orlando

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently revised models on global tectonics describe the convergence of the North Andes, Nazca, Caribbean and South American Plates and their seismicity, volcanism, active faulting and extreme
    topography. The current plate boundaries of the area are mainly interpreted from volcanic and seismic datasets with variable confidence levels. New insights on the isostatic state and plate boundaries of
    the northwestern Andes Mountains can be obtained from the spectral analysis of recently available gravity and topography data.
    Isostatically disturbed terrain produces free-air anomalies that are highly correlated with the gravity effects of the terrain. The terrain gravity effects (TGE and free air gravity anomalies (FAGA of the
    Andes mountains spectral correlation data confirms that these mountains are isostatically disturbed. Strong negative terrain-correlated FAGA along western South America and the Greater and Lesser Antilles are consistent with anomalously deepened mantle displaced by subducting oceanic plates.

    Inversion of the compensated terrain gravity effects (CTGE reveals plate subduction systems with alternating shallower and steeper subduction angles. The gravity modeling highlights crustal
    deformation from plate collision and subduction and other constraints on the tectonism of the plate boundary zones for the region.

  17. Studi Sistem Akustik Pada Gereja Katolik Santa Maria Tak Bercela Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Hedy C. Indrani, Lisayana

    2013-01-01

    The church is a building that has an image of God's glory so that through space design elements, sacred atmosphere can formone through acoustics. The church has an unique acoustic because the church has two activities, namely speech and music. Santa Maria Tak Bercela Catholic Church Surabaya adjacent to Santa Clara School Surabaya, which at certain hours of the atmosphere will be very crowded church. With the help of Sound Level Meter, the background noise is known and the power of the sound ...

  18. Conservation efforts and possibilities for increased collaboration in the Santa Cruz River watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claire A. Zugmeyer; Emily M. Brott

    2013-01-01

    Attendees of the annual Santa Cruz River Researchers’ Day meetings have identified a need to expand collaboration, partnership, and sharing of lessons learned across the watershed. To help guide this interest, Sonoran Institute organized a symposium on 2 May 2012 entitled “Santa Cruz River Conservation.” The symposium had simultaneous Spanish/English translation and...

  19. Metagenomes from two microbial consortia associated with Santa Barbara seep oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Erik R; Malfatti, Stephanie A; Pagani, Ioanna; Huntemann, Marcel; Chen, Amy; Foster, Brian; Copeland, Alexander; del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Pati, Amrita; Jansson, Janet R; Gilbert, Jack A; Tringe, Susannah Green; Lorenson, Thomas D; Hess, Matthias

    2014-12-01

    The metagenomes from two microbial consortia associated with natural oils seeping into the Pacific Ocean offshore the coast of Santa Barbara (California, USA) were determined to complement already existing metagenomes generated from microbial communities associated with hydrocarbons that pollute the marine ecosystem. This genomics resource article is the first of two publications reporting a total of four new metagenomes from oils that seep into the Santa Barbara Channel. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. O léxico inovador das Cantigas de Santa Maria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Humberto Leonardi Ceschin

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at demonstrating the innovative aspect of the Cantigas de Santa Maria's vocabulary. Besides a bigger number of vocabulary items than other medieval Portuguese song-books, the CSM presents many cult and "semi-cult" words, which increase the semantic areas covered by the lexicon of Galician-Portuguese of the 13th Century. Therefore, the Cantigas de Santa Maria make a vast linguistic and cultural contribution to the medieval Portuguese.

  1. HRGC-MS analysis of terpenoids from Maytenus ilicifolia and Maytenus aquifolium ("espinheira santa"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordeiro Paulo J. M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the identification of some of the minor chemical constituents of "espinheira santa" (Maytenus ilicifolia and Maytenus aquifolium, Celastraceae, a medicinal plant widely utilized in Brazil. By using high resolution gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HRGC-MS, it was possible to identify mainly triterpenoids and steroids in "espinheira santa", most of them reported for the first time in both Maytenus species.

  2. Coastal rocky reef fishes of Santa Catarina's northern islands, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnatas Adelir Alves

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The coast of the state of Santa Catarina only has non-biogenic reefs, i.e. rocky and artificial reefs, and is considered the geographic south limit for many reef fish species. At present the diversity of organisms associated with reef environments is threatened. This study aimed to record the number of families and species of reef fish fauna of the north coast of the state of Santa Catarina. The data were collected through underwater visual census performed on Graças archipelago (26°12'S /48º29'W, Tamboretes archipelago (26°22'S/48°31'W and Barra do Sul islands (26°27'S/48º35'W. A total of 166 species was observed (6 elasmobranchii and 160 actinopterygii belonging to 66 families. The families with more species richness were Carangidae (16, Epinephelidae (9, Blenidae (8, Serranidae (7, Haemulidae (6, Sparidae (6 Tetraodontidae (6, Labridae-Scarini (5, Labrisomidae (5 Pomacentridae (5, Lutjanidae (5 and Muraenidae (5. This study add to the current published list, new 115 species, including new occurrences (e.g. Chromis limbata, and some endemic (e.g. Sparisoma amplum, exotic (e.g. Omobranchus punctatus, endangered (e.g. Hippocampus erectus and overexploited (e.g. Lutjanus analis species. Twenty one species are present in the IUCN’s list, twelve in the IBAMA’s list and four in the local list. All elasmobranchii recorded here are considered threatened species, like the brazilian guitarfish (Rhinobatos horkelii, which appears in three red lists, and it is considered critically endangered. All species of Epinephelidae are mentioned in the list of risk categories of the IUCN and five are cited as overexploited or threatened with overexploitation by IBAMA. Among Epinephelidae, the goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara, is present in all red lists and has specific protection rules in Brazil. The gathered information will allow to take appropriate conservation measures, such as the establishment of marine protected areas, monitoring of fishing

  3. Observações sobre anofelinos em Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário B. Aragão

    1973-10-01

    Full Text Available Um ciclo anual de capturas de mosquitos realizado em três localidades da Região do Litoral e Encosta de Santa Catarina, com um homemisca colocado na mata, outro na casa mais próxima e um terceiro situado entre esses dois pontos, forneceu as seguintes informações: 1 O Anopheles bellator que é um mosquito raro nas matas densas das encostas, torna-se abundante quando essas florestas são danificadas pela retirada de árvores; 2 Tanto essa espécie quanto o A. cruzii e o A. homunculus, compareceram em maior número nas capturas feitas no terreno descampado; 3 A não ser no fato do A. homunculus procurar alimento nas horas um pouco mais avançadas da noite, não se notou diferença significativa entre o comportamento dessas três espécies de anofelinos; 4 A comparação dos dados obtidos, com os de outros autores, mostrou que uma pessoa colocada fora da casa intercepta um número significativo de mosquitos; 5 Ficou bem claro que os anofelinos da região raramente pousam em paredes dedetizadas; 6 Além disso, o DDT diminui muito a proporção de exemplares que vai se alimentar dentro das casas; para o A. cruzii essa diminuição foi da ordem de 90%.An annual cycle of collections of mosquitoes carried out in three locations of the Coastal Region and Slopes of Santa Catarina, with one collector (trap man in the woods, another in the nearest house and a third placed between these two points, provided the following Information: 1 Anophieles bellator which is a rare mosquito in the thick woods on the slopes, becomes abundant when these forests are damaged by the removal of trees; 2 As many of this species as of A. cruzii and A. homunculus appeared in greater numbers in the collections made in the open country; 3 Except for the fact that A. homunculus looks for food in the later hours of the night no significant difference was noted in the behaviour of these three species of Anophelines; 4 A comparison of the data obtained with that of other authors

  4. Trypanosoma rangeli (Tejera, 1920 isolated from a sylvatic rodent (Echimys dasythrix in Santa Catarina island, Santa Catarina state: first report of this trypanosome in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Steindel

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available A trypanosome strain isolated from a sylvatic rodent (Echimys dasythrix from Santa Catarina Island (Santa Catarina State, Brazil was characterized by the following methods: experimental transmission and development in invertebrate hosts, morphometry, cross protection, complement sensitivity, lectin agglutination and isoenzyme profiles. Comparasions were made with standard Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli strains. All methods except isoenzyne analysis led to the identification of the isolate as T. rangeli. The isoenzyme differences found could be explained on the basis of polymorphism. Therefore this is the first report of T. rangeli in southern Brazil, increasing the geographical distribution of this parasite.

  5. Methane fluxes from a wet puna ecosystem in the Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sam; Diem, Torsten; Priscila Huaraca Quispe, Lidia; Quispe Ccahuana, Adan Julian; Meir, Patrick; Arn Teh, Yit

    2014-05-01

    Discrepancies exist between top-down and bottom-up estimates of the tropical South American atmospheric methane budget. This suggests that current source-sink inventories fail to adequately characterise the landscapes of the region. This may be particularly true of Andean environments where very few field observations have been made. The high tropical Andes, between tree and permanent snow-lines, is home to diverse grass, shrub and giant rosette dominated ecosystems known variously from Venezuela to northern Chile and Argentina as paramo, jalca and puna. In humid regions these are characterised by wet, organic-rich mineral soils, peat-forming wetlands and shallow lakes. Such conditions are likely to promote methane production and potentially represent a regionally significant source to the atmosphere that should be considered. We report on methane fluxes from a bunch-grass dominated puna habitat at 3500 m above sea level in south-eastern Peru. Mean annual temperature and precipitation are 11 °C and 2500 mm, respectively. Temperature is aseasonal but experiences considerable diurnal variations with overnight frosting common-place. In contrast, rainfall is intensely episodic and has a pronounced wet season between September and March. Sampling encompassed a range of topographic features, such as grassland on freely draining, gently inclined or steep slopes and depressions containing bogs, over a 3 ha ridge to basin transition. Monthly sampling was carried out between January 2011 and June 2013 to investigate seasonal variability in methane fluxes. Intensive sampling campaigns were conducted to investigate spatial and short-term variations on a daily basis in two nine-day campaigns during wet and dry season. The site was a net source of methane to the atmosphere during the period of study. Methane fluxes were dominated by emissions from bogs, whereas, freely draining grassland exhibited weak source or marginal sink activity. Temporal variations were most notable at

  6. Intra- and interspecific tree growth across a long altitudinal gradient in the Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Joshua M; Silman, Miles R; Clark, James S; Girardin, Cecile A J; Galiano, Darcy; Tito, Richard

    2012-09-01

    Tree growth response across environmental gradients is fundamental to understanding species distributional ecology and forest ecosystem ecology and to predict future ecosystem services. Cross-sectional patterns of ecosystem properties with respect to climatic gradients are often used to predict ecosystem responses to global change. Across sites in the tropics, primary productivity increases with temperature, suggesting that forest ecosystems will become more productive as temperature rises. However, this trend is confounded with a shift in species composition and so may not reflect the response of in situ forests to warming. In this study, we simultaneously studied tree diameter growth across the altitudinal ranges of species within a single genus across a geographically compact temperature gradient, to separate the direct effect of temperature on tree growth from that of species compositional turnover. Using a Bayesian state space modeling framework we combined data from repeated diameter censuses and dendrometer measurements from across a 1700-m altitudinal gradient collected over six years on over 2400 trees in Weinmannia, a dominant and widespread genus of cloud forest trees in the Andes. Within species, growth showed no consistent trend with altitude, but higher-elevation species had lower growth rates than lower-elevation species, suggesting that species turnover is largely responsible for the positive correlation between productivity and temperature in tropical forests. Our results may indicate a significant difference in how low- and high-latitude forests will respond to climate change, since temperate and boreal tree species are consistently observed to have a positive relationship between growth and temperature. If our results hold for other tropical species, a positive response in ecosystem productivity to increasing temperatures in the Andes will depend on the altitudinal migration of tree species. The rapid pace of climate change, and slow observed

  7. River-discharge variability and trends in southeastern Central Andes since 1940

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castino, Fabiana; Bookhagen, Bodo; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2017-04-01

    The southern Central Andes in NW Argentina comprise small to medium drainage basins (102-104 km2) particularly sensitive to climate variability. In this area and in contrast to larger drainage basins such as the Amazon or La Plata rivers, floodplains or groundwater reservoirs either do not exist or are small. This reduces their dampening effect on discharge variability. Previous studies highlighted a rapid discharge increase up to 40% in seven years in the southern Central Andes during the 1970s, inferred to have been associated with the global 1976-77 climate shift. To better understand the processes that drive variations in river discharge in this region, we analyze discharge variability on different timescales, relying on four time series of monthly discharge between 1940 and 2015. Since river discharge in this complex mountain environment results in a pronounced non-stationary and non-linear character, we apply the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) to evaluate non-stationary oscillatory modes of variability and trends. An Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) analysis revealed that discharge variability in this region can be decomposed in four quasi-periodic, statistically significant oscillatory modes, associated with timescales varying from 1 to ˜20y. In addition, statistically significant long-term trends show increasing discharge during the period between 1940 and 2015, documenting an intensification of the hydrological cycle during this period. Furthermore, time-dependent intrinsic correlation (TDIC) analysis shows that discharge variability is most likely linked to the phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) at multi-decadal timescales (˜20y) and, to a lesser degree, to the Tropical South Atlantic SST anomaly (TSA) variability at shorter timescales (˜2-5y). Finally, our results suggest that the rapid discharge increased occurred during the 1970s coincides with the periodic enhancement of discharge mainly linked to the rise of the PDO

  8. Carbon accumulation in high-altitude peatlands of the Central Andes of Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Romina; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Huaman, Yizet; Espinoza, Raul; Apaestegui, James; Turcq, Bruno; Willems, Bram

    2017-04-01

    Despite covering only 6 - 8% of the world's land surface, peatlands contain around one third of the global organic soil carbon (C) and are an important component of the global C cycle. Most studies of peatland C dynamics have been carried out on boreal and subarctic peatlands, but less is known about peatlands at lower latitudes, yet there are significant peatland C stocks in these regions that may be more vulnerable to future climate change because they are closer to the climatic limit of peatland distribution. In South America, peatlands in high altitudes called "bofedales" represent one of the most important water resources and also provide key environmental services that support both Andean mountain biodiversity and the wellbeing of human populations. Nowdays, the need for conservation and wise use of these ecosystems is increasingly being recognized. So, a useable assessment of peatlands in the global C cycle requires accurate estimates of carbon pools and fluxes. In order to understand the impact of different altitudes on the growth, production and carbon accumulation, several short (about 30 cm) peatlands cores were collected in the headwater of the Cachi river basin, in the Central Andes of Peru. Two Distichia muscoides cushion plant-dominated "bofedales" which elevations exceed 4000 m were studied. The sedimentation rates, based on radiocarbon dating of peat samples from the two sites studied, were very variable. Cores from the bofedal located at 4200 m present an age of approximately 55 years, while the site at the highest altitude site has an age of approximately about 450 years. Our results point out very different rates of sedimentation in the two peatlands that may be related to the climatic changes observed during the recent past, with a direct consequence on the carbon accumulation rates. In the determination of the annual growth, we observed that this one presented smaller values in the first centimeters of the peatland with lower elevation, while

  9. The role of climate in the accumulation of lithium-rich brine in the Central Andes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godfrey, L.V.; Chan, L.-H.; Alonso, R.N.; Lowenstein, T.K.; McDonough, W.F.; Houston, J.; Li, J.; Bobst, A.; Jordan, T.E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • δ 7 Li of waters and rocks in the Central Andes were measured. • Halite/brine partition coefficients of lithium and δ 7 Li of halite were determined. • Li-rich brines have a high component of fluids of geothermal origin. • Removal of lithium by clays is minor relative to other regions of the world. • The weathering flux of lithium and sodium decouple according to climate state. - Abstract: Lithium-rich brine within the sub-surface of the Salar del Hombre Muerto (SHM) salt pan in the Andes of northwestern Argentina has a chemical and isotopic composition which is consistent with Li derived from several sources: the modern halite saturated lagoon, Li-rich salts and brines formed recently, and dissolution of halite which precipitated from ancient saline lakes. SHM lies in the closed basin that includes part of the massive Cerro Galán caldera which is drained by the Río los Patos, which is responsible for 90% of surface runoff into the salar. The low Li isotope composition, +3.4‰, of this river is consistent with significant contributions of geothermal spring water. As water drains through the volcaniclastic deposits which cover a large proportion of the basin, Li removal, as indicated by decreasing Li/Na, occurs but without significant isotope fractionation. This indicates a mechanism of surface sorption onto smectite or ferrihydrite rather than Li incorporation into octahedral structural sites of clays. These observations suggest that conditions in this high altitude desert have limited the dilution of hydrothermal spring water as well as the formation of clay minerals, which jointly have allowed the Li resource to accumulate rapidly. Changes in climate on a multi-millennial time scale, specifically in the hydrologic budget, have resulted in solute accumulation rates that have been variable through time, and decoupled Li and Na fluxes. Inflow to the salar under modern conditions has high Li/Na (7.9 × 10 −3 by wt) with δ 7 Li

  10. Las ignimbritas del complejo volcánico Coranzuli (Puna Argentina-Andes Centrales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martí, J.

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available The Coranzulí is a large Upper Miocene volcanic complex located on a NE-SW and NW-SE regional faults intersection, at 66º 15' W 23º S, in the Northwest of Argentina in Jujuy province. It corresponds to one of four large volcanic complexes which represent the end of Transversal Volcanic Chaines in La Puna Argentina in the Central Andes. The volcanic activity was characterized by at least four separate ignimbrite eruptions which produced four different ignimbrite sheets. These are well welded, very crystal-rich, lithie poor ignimbrites and have a moderate to high pumice content. The total volume of the Coranzuli ignimbrites exeededs 650 Km3. Preliminary data indicate that the eruption oeeurred from a homogeneous magmatic chamber without zoning. The emplacement characteristics of the ignimbrites and the lack of basal or interbedded plinian fall deposits suggest that the eruptions developed quickly to massive proportions.El Coranzuli es uno de los grandes complejos volcánicos que representan el remate final de las Cadenas Volcánicas Transversales de la Puna Argentina, en los Andes Centrales. Se trata de un complejo volcánico del Mioceno superior situado a los 66º 15' W 23º S en el NW de Argentina en la provincia de Jujuy, en la intersección entre dos fallas regionales de dirección NE-SW y NW-SE, respectivamente. La actividad eruptiva se caracterizó por la existencia de, al menos, cuatro erupciones ignimbríticas que produjeron cuatro diferentes mantos ignimbríticos. Se trata de ignimbritas bien soldadas, muy ricas en cristales, pobre en fragmentos líticos y que presentan un contenido en fragmentos pumíticos de moderado a alto. El volumen total que representan estas ignimbritas supera los 650 km3. Los datos preliminares indican que el magma juvenil deriva de una cámara magmática homogénea no zonada. Las características de emplazamiento de estas ignimbritas, así como la falta de depósitos plinianos de caída en la base o

  11. Classification of debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers in the Andes of central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Jason R.; Bellisario, Antonio C.; Ferrando, Francisco A.

    2015-07-01

    In the Dry Andes of Chile (17 to 35° S), debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers are differentiated from true glaciers based on the percentage of surface debris cover, thickness of surface debris, and ice content. Internal ice is preserved by an insulating cover of thick debris, which acts as a storage reservoir to release water during the summer and early fall. These landforms are more numerous than glaciers in the central Andes; however, the existing legislation only recognizes uncovered or semicovered glaciers as a water resource. Glaciers, debris-covered glaciers, and rock glaciers are being altered or removed by mining operations to extract valuable minerals from the mountains. In addition, agricultural expansion and population growth in this region have placed additional demands on water resources. In a warmer climate, as glaciers recede and seasonal water availability becomes condensed over the course of a snowmelt season, rock glaciers and debris-covered glaciers contribute a larger component of base flow to rivers and streams. As a result, identifying and locating these features to implement sustainable regional planning for water resources is important. The objective of this study is to develop a classification system to identify debris-covered glaciers and rock glaciers based on the interpretation of satellite imagery and aerial photographs. The classification system is linked to field observations and measurements of ice content. Debris-covered glaciers have three subclasses: surface coverage of semi (class 1) and fully covered (class 2) glaciers differentiates the first two forms, whereas debris thickness is critical for class 3 when glaciers become buried with more than 3 m of surface debris. Based on field observations, the amount of ice decreases from more than 85%, to 65-85%, to 45-65% for semi, fully, and buried debris-covered glaciers, respectively. Rock glaciers are characterized by three stages. Class 4 rock glaciers have pronounced

  12. Differential lymphocyte and antibody responses in deer mice infected with Sin Nombre hantavirus or Andes hantavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schountz, Tony; Quackenbush, Sandra; Rovnak, Joel; Haddock, Elaine; Black, William C; Feldmann, Heinz; Prescott, Joseph

    2014-08-01

    Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) is a rodent-borne disease with a high case-fatality rate that is caused by several New World hantaviruses. Each pathogenic hantavirus is naturally hosted by a principal rodent species without conspicuous disease and infection is persistent, perhaps for life. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) are the natural reservoirs of Sin Nombre virus (SNV), the etiologic agent of most HCPS cases in North America. Deer mice remain infected despite a helper T cell response that leads to high-titer neutralizing antibodies. Deer mice are also susceptible to Andes hantavirus (ANDV), which causes most HCPS cases in South America; however, deer mice clear ANDV. We infected deer mice with SNV or ANDV to identify differences in host responses that might account for this differential outcome. SNV RNA levels were higher in the lungs but not different in the heart, spleen, or kidneys. Most ANDV-infected deer mice had seroconverted 14 days after inoculation, but none of the SNV-infected deer mice had. Examination of lymph node cell antigen recall responses identified elevated immune gene expression in deer mice infected with ANDV and suggested maturation toward a Th2 or T follicular helper phenotype in some ANDV-infected deer mice, including activation of the interleukin 4 (IL-4) pathway in T cells and B cells. These data suggest that the rate of maturation of the immune response is substantially higher and of greater magnitude during ANDV infection, and these differences may account for clearance of ANDV and persistence of SNV. Hantaviruses persistently infect their reservoir rodent hosts without pathology. It is unknown how these viruses evade sterilizing immune responses in the reservoirs. We have determined that infection of the deer mouse with its homologous hantavirus, Sin Nombre virus, results in low levels of immune gene expression in antigen-stimulated lymph node cells and a poor antibody response. However, infection of deer mice with a

  13. Aridity changes in the temperate-Mediterranean transition of the Andes since ad 1346 reconstructed from tree-rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christie, Duncan A.; Quesne, Carlos le [Universidad Austral de Chile, Laboratorio de Dendrocronologia, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Valdivia (Chile); Boninsegna, Jose A.; Morales, Mariano S.; Villalba, Ricardo [Instituto Argentino de Nivologia, Glaciologia y Ciencias Ambientales, IANIGLA, Departamento de Dendrocronologia e Historia Ambiental, Mendoza (Argentina); Cleaveland, Malcolm K.; Stahle, David W. [University of Arkansas Fayetteville, Tree-Ring Laboratory, Department of Geosciences, Fayetteville, AR (United States); Lara, Antonio [Universidad Austral de Chile, Laboratorio de Dendrocronologia, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Austral de Chile, Forest Ecosystem Services under Climatic Fluctuations (Forecos), Valdivia (Chile); Mudelsee, Manfred [Climate Risk Analysis, Hanover (Germany); Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    The Andes Cordillera acts as regional ''Water Towers'' for several countries and encompasses a wide range of ecosystems and climates. Several hydroclimatic changes have been described for portions of the Andes during recent years, including glacier retreat, negative precipitation trends, an elevation rise in the 0 isotherm, and changes in regional streamflow regimes. The Temperate-Mediterranean transition (TMT) zone of the Andes (35.5 -39.5 S) is particularly at risk to climate change because it is a biodiversity hotspot with heavy human population pressure on water resources. In this paper we utilize a new tree-ring network of Austrocedrus chilensis to reconstruct past variations in regional moisture in the TMT of the Andes by means of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). The reconstruction covers the past 657 years and captures interannual to decadal scales of variability in late spring-early summer PDSI. These changes are related to the north-south oscillations in moisture conditions between the Mediterranean and Temperate climates of the Andes as a consequence of the latitudinal position of the storm tracks forced by large-scale circulation modes. Kernel estimation of occurrence rates reveals an unprecedented increment of severe and extreme drought events during the last century in the context of the previous six centuries. Moisture conditions in our study region are linked to tropical and high-latitude ocean-atmospheric forcing, with PDSI positively related to Nino-3.4 SST during spring and strongly negatively correlated with the Antarctic Oscillation (AAO) during summer. Geopotential anomaly maps at 500-hPa show that extreme dry years are tightly associated with negative height anomalies in the Ross-Amundsen Seas, in concordance with the strong negative relationship between PDSI and AAO. The twentieth century increase in extreme drought events in the TMT may not be related to ENSO but to the positive AAO trend during late-spring and

  14. Preliminary Results From the CAUGHT Experiment: Investigation of the North Central Andes Subsurface Using Receiver Functions and Ambient Noise Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. C.; Ward, K. M.; Porter, R. C.; Beck, S. L.; Zandt, G.; Wagner, L. S.; Minaya, E.; Tavera, H.

    2011-12-01

    Jamie Ryan, Kevin M. Ward, Ryan Porter, Susan Beck, George Zandt, Lara Wagner, Estela Minaya, and Hernando Tavera The University of Arizona The University of North Carolina San Calixto Observatorio, La Paz, Bolivia IGP, Lima, Peru In order to investigate the interplay between crustal shortening, lithospheric removal, and surface uplift we have deployed 50 broadband seismometers in northwestern Bolivia and southern Peru as part of the interdisciplinary Central Andean Uplift and Geodynamics of High Topography (CAUGHT) project. The morphotectonic units of the central Andes from west to east, consist of the Western Cordillera, the active volcanic arc, the Altiplano, an internally drained basin (~4 km elevation), the Eastern Cordillera, the high peaks (~6 km elevation) of an older fold and thrust belt, the Subandean zone, the lower elevation active fold and thrust belt, and the foreland Beni basin. Between northwestern Bolivia and southern Peru, the Altiplano pinches out north of Lake Titicaca as the Andes narrow northward. The CAUGHT seismic instruments were deployed between 13° to 18° S latitudes to investigate the crust and mantle lithosphere of the central Andes in this transitional zone. In northwest Bolivia, perpendicular to the strike of the Andes, there is a total of 275 km of documented upper crustal shortening (15° to 17°S) (McQuarrie et al, 2008). Associated with the shortening is crustal thickening and possibly lithospheric removal as the thickening lithospheric root becomes unstable. An important first order study is to compare upper crustal shortening estimates with present day crustal thickness. To estimate crustal thickness, we have calculated receiver functions using an iterative deconvolution method and used common conversion point stacking along the same profile as the geologically based shortening estimates. In our preliminary results, we observed a strong P to S conversion corresponding to the Moho at approximately 60-65 km depth underneath the

  15. Electron microscopy study of the iron meteorite Santa Catharina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Williams, D. B.; Goldstein, J. I.; Clarke, R. S., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A characterization of the microstructural features of Santa Catharina (SC) from the millimeter to submicron scale is presented. The same specimen was examined using an optical microscope, a scanning electron microscope, an electron probe microanalyzer, and an analytical electron microscope. Findings include the fact that SC metal nodules may have different bulk Ni values, leading to different microstructures upon cooling; that SC USNM 6293 is the less corroded sample, as tetrataenite exists as less than 10 nm ordered domains throughout the entire fcc matrix (it is noted that this structure is the same as that of the Twin City meteorite and identical to clear taenite II in the retained taenite regions of the octahedrites); that SC USNM 3043 has a more complicated microstructure due to corrosion; and that the low Ni phase of the cloudy zone was selectively corroded in some areas and formed the dark regions, indicating that the SC meteorite corrosion process was electrochemical in nature and may involve Cl-containing akaganeite.

  16. Observações sobre anofelinos em Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário B. Aragão

    1973-10-01

    Full Text Available Um ciclo anual de capturas de mosquitos realizado em três localidades da Região do Litoral e Encosta de Santa Catarina, com um homemisca colocado na mata, outro na casa mais próxima e um terceiro situado entre esses dois pontos, forneceu as seguintes informações: 1 O Anopheles bellator que é um mosquito raro nas matas densas das encostas, torna-se abundante quando essas florestas são danificadas pela retirada de árvores; 2 Tanto essa espécie quanto o A. cruzii e o A. homunculus, compareceram em maior número nas capturas feitas no terreno descampado; 3 A não ser no fato do A. homunculus procurar alimento nas horas um pouco mais avançadas da noite, não se notou diferença significativa entre o comportamento dessas três espécies de anofelinos; 4 A comparação dos dados obtidos, com os de outros autores, mostrou que uma pessoa colocada fora da casa intercepta um número significativo de mosquitos; 5 Ficou bem claro que os anofelinos da região raramente pousam em paredes dedetizadas; 6 Além disso, o DDT diminui muito a proporção de exemplares que vai se alimentar dentro das casas; para o A. cruzii essa diminuição foi da ordem de 90%.

  17. Santa Claus visited CERN on Saturday, 3 December!

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Ever since its creation, the Staff Association has organised an annual Children’s Christmas Party. This party brings together 5- to 7-year-old children of employed members of the personnel. On Saturday, 3 December, the Staff Association welcomed no less than 230 children who attended with joy and enthusiasm a magical clown show presented at 13.30 and 15.30. After the show, they were offered a snack in Restaurant 1. We would like to thank Novae for their generous contribution, as well as their personnel for their valuable help. Then, Santa Claus himself came to hand out presents to the children. The Staff Association would also like to warmly thank him for despite his busy schedule for the season, he took the time to bring happiness and joy to little ones and older ones alike! Finally, we would like to thank all the parents who volunteered to help look after the children. Their presence and contribution are indispensable for the success of the party. This year, the Staff Association’s organ...

  18. Trauma de extremidades en la ciudad de Santa Marta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Joaquín del Gordo D´Amato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de tipo descriptivo transversal que tiene como objetivo conocer la frecuencia de trauma en miembros en el principal centro hospitalario del orden estatal de la ciudad de Santa Marta (Magdalena DTCH en el periodo entre enero de 2003 y junio de 2004. Las variables incluyen región anatómica afectada, edad, sexo, lugar de procedencia, causa externa que origina el trauma y estancia hospitalaria. El manejo fue realizado por médicos especialistas del servicio de ortopedia y traumatología de este centro hospitalario de tercer nivel de atención. La totalidad de consultas en el periodo establecido por traumatismo de miembros fue de 2.052. De estas 1.420 (69.2%, correspondieron a traumas en el miembro superior y 632 (30.8% correspondieron al miembro inferior. La totalidad de la consulta por trauma fue de 3.838 pacientes. Los resultados obtenidos permiten concluir que los datos encontrados corroboran los hallazgos de estudios internacionales y nacionales.

  19. Capela Santa Maria dos Anjos: uma obra alternativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edite Galote Carranza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Celebrando cem anos de nascimento da arquiteta Lina Bo Bardi, seu trabalho continua incitando a curiosidade de pesquisadores, artistas e arquitetos de todo o mundo, devido tanto à qualidade, à subjetividade artística, às ideias, aos ideais e à filosofia de fundo como à amplitude da obra nas áreas de cenografia, design, crítica, museologia e arquitetura. Entre suas obras arquitetônicas, a Capela Santa Maria dos Anjos, de 1978, em Vargem Grande Paulista, SP, merece maior atenção. Embora possa ser considerada singela, a Capela é uma obra densa e representativa da Arquitetura Alternativa ao status quo arquitetônico paulista. Este artigo analisa a Capela e sua relação com os conceitos de nacional-popular e Te-Ato, a fé franciscana e as culturas erudita e popular, a fim de contribuir para o melhor entendimento da obra que dialoga com a cena cultural e política da época.

  20. [Chemical composition of gallstones in Santa Cruz--Bolivia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, T; Peredo, R; Chávez, C; Ostria, O; Otari, Y; Kajiwara, T

    1992-01-01

    The knowledge of the gallstones chemical composition is very important from view point of lithogenesis and possible medical therapy of dissolution. The composition (chemical) of gallstones in 30 consecutive cholecystectomized patients were studied in the 2nd. Department of Surgery of Hospital San Juan de Dios, Santa Cruz, Bolivia (altitude 1900 m). All gallbladder stones were washed, counted, measured and dried before sending them to Japan to be processed. The composition of gallstones was analyzed by infrared absorption spectroscopy. Cholesterolemia, age, sex and number of stones were analyzed in cases of pure cholesterol stones. The incidence of pure cholesterol stones was 56.6%, statistically similar to be reported by other authors, but very low if compared with the valley area of Bolivia (Cochabamba altitude 2300 m) where hypothyroidism is frequent. Hypercholesterolemia had little relation with the pure cholesterol gallstones. There was no difference in the chemical composition and the size of the stones, but while their number was small, cholesterol stones were more frequent. The low incidence of pure cholesterol stones may show a bad nutritional condition of our population (poor fat and protein content) and this result is important in order in using the new advance: lithodissolvent drugs.