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Sample records for sannen dairy goat

  1. Eimeria species in dairy goats in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Antônio César Rocha; Teixeira, Marcel; Monteiro, Jomar Patrício; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2012-02-10

    The focus of this work is to determine the distribution and identify species of Eimeria parasites of dairy goats in the livestock of the National Goat and Sheep Research Center in Sobral, State of Ceará, Northeast Brazil. Results showed the presence of multiple species in 196 of 215 analyzed samples (91.2%). Fifty five out of these were from kids (28%) and 141 from adult goats (72%). Eight different Eimeria species were identified and their prevalence in the herd was: Eimeria alijevi Musaev, 1970 (26.7%), E. arloingi (Marotel, 1905) Martin, 1909 (20.6%), E. hirci Chevalier, 1966 (18%), E. ninakohlyakimovae Yakimoff & Rastegaieff, 1930 (16.2%), E. jolchijevi Musaev, 1970 (8.7%), E. christenseni Levine, Ivens & Fritz, 1962 (6%), E. caprovina Lima, 1980 (2.8%) and E. caprina Lima, 1979 (1%). Moreover, E. ninakohlyakimovae showed higher prevalence in kids (97%), followed by E. arloingi and E. alijevi (88%). On the other hand, E. alijevi (77%) was more common in adult goats followed by E. hirci (74%) and E. ninakohlyakimovae (70%). The species E. caprina had low frequency in both kids (27%) and adult goats (13%). Data indicated that infection was relatively common among kids and adult goats. The implementation of a routine diagnostic strategy can be useful in maintaining Eimeria populations under monitoring and will enable the determination of its potential impact on dairy goat herds in Northeast Brazil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The prospect of biogas among small-holder dairy goat farmers in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prospect of biogas among small-holder dairy goat farmers in the Uluguru ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... In Mgeta ward, Morogoro region, introduction of Norwegian dairy goats in the 1980s has ...

  3. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats

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    Stormoen Marit

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is a major problem for the sheep industry as it may cause reproduction problems. The importance of T. gondii in Norwegian goat herds is uncertain, but outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in dairy goat farms have been recorded. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of T. gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats by using serology. Findings Goat serum originally collected as part of two nationwide surveillance and control programmes between 2002 and 2008 were examined for T. gondii antibodies by using direct agglutination test. In total, 55 of 73 herds (75% had one or more serologically positive animals, while 377 of 2188 (17% of the individual samples tested positive for T. gondii antibodies. Conclusions This is the first prevalence study of T. gondii infection in Norwegian goats. The results show that Norwegian goat herds are commonly exposed to T. gondii. Nevertheless, the majority of goat herds have a low prevalence of antibody positive animals, which make them vulnerable to infections with T. gondii during the gestation period.

  4. Economic aspects of Q fever control in dairy goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Bontje, D.M.; Backer, J.A.; Roermund, van H.J.W.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an economic analysis of Q fever control strategies in dairy goat herds in The Netherlands. Evaluated control strategies involved vaccination strategies (being either preventive or reactive) and reactive non-vaccination strategies (i.e., culling or breeding prohibition). Reacti

  5. Improving Milk Quality for Dairy Goat Farm Development

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    L. Cyrilla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate factors affecting goat’s milk quality, consumer’s satisfaction to goat’s milk, and technical responses associated with goat’s milk quality. Three farms having more than 100 dairy goats were purposively selected for the study. Thirty consumers were determined by using judgement sampling techniques to assess the satisfaction of consumer to goat’s milk quality. Data were analyzed by using fishbone diagram and House of Quality matrix. The study revealed that milk quality produced by dairy goat farms met the standard quality of milk composition namely; specific gravity, total solid, fat, protein, and total solid non-fat. The main factors affecting goat milk quantity and quality were the quality of does, pregnancy status, number of kids per birth, shape and size of the udder, lactation length, and the health status of the goat. The attributes of goat’s milk that were able to achieve customer’s satisfaction targets were nutritional content, packaging size, and goat milk color. Technical responses that were major concern in ensuring goat’s milk quality included goat breed quality and health conditions, skills and performances of farmers and employees, feed quality, farm equipment hygiene and completeness, cleanliness, and hygiene of livestock housing and environment. Technical response on livestock health condition was the first priority to be improved.

  6. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Q fever in goats on commercial dairy goat farms in the Netherlands, 2009-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schimmer, B.; Luttikholt, S.; Hautvast, J.L.A.; Graat, E.A.M.; Vellema, P.; Duynhoven, van Y.T.H.P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goat farms in the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for farm and goat seropositivity before mandatory vaccination started. We approached 334 eligible farms with more than 100 goats for serum sam

  7. Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Granda, R.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, M.; Arce, C.; Rodriguez-Estevez, V.

    2014-06-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC) in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI), and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cows milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats), prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births), milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking) and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking), seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards. (Author)

  8. Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Jiménez-Granado

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Somatic cell count (SCC in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI, and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cow’s milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats, prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births, milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking, seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards.

  9. Validation of the FAMACHA© method for selective anthelmintic treatment in dairy goat herds

    OpenAIRE

    Zárate Rendón, Daniel; Laboratorio de Parasitología, Departamento Académico de Nutrición, Facultad de Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima; Rojas Flores, Julio; Laboratorio de Parasitología, Departamento Académico de Nutrición, Facultad de Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima; Segura Hong, Alan; Laboratorio de Parasitología, Departamento Académico de Nutrición, Facultad de Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima

    2017-01-01

    A study in goats was carried out in the central coast of Peru to validate the FAMACHA© method for selective anthelmintic treatment in dairy goat herds. Blood and fecal samples were taken from 120 adult goats in five dairy goat farms. The micro haematocrit and the McMaster techniques plus faecal culture were used to evaluate the haematocrit, faecal nematode egg count (EPG) and to identify major nematode species, respectively. Spearman correlation coefficients were obtained. Two FAMACHA© criter...

  10. Prevalence of paratuberculosis in the dairy goat and dairy sheep industries in Ontario, Canada

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Cathy A.; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula;

    2016-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to estimate the prevalence of paratuberculosis in the small ruminant dairy industries in Ontario, Canada. Blood and feces were sampled from 580 goats and 397 sheep (lactating and 2 y of age or older) that were randomly selected.......8%) and for dairy sheep was 48.3% (95% PI: 27.6% to 74.3%). These data indicate that a paratuberculosis control program for small ruminants is needed in Ontario....

  11. Brucellosis in dairy cattle and goats in northern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Keith P; Hutchins, Frank T; McNulty, Chase M; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Bethel, Jeffrey W

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7-6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0-8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.2-44.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis.

  12. Brucellosis in Dairy Cattle and Goats in Northern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Keith P.; Hutchins, Frank T.; McNulty, Chase M.; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Bethel, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7–6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0–8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.2–44.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis. PMID:24591429

  13. Short communication: casein haplotype variability in sicilian dairy goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigli, I; Maizon, D O; Riggio, V; Sardina, M T; Portolano, B

    2008-09-01

    In the Mediterranean region, goat milk production is an important economic activity. In the present study, 4 casein genes were genotyped in 5 Sicilian goat breeds to 1) identify casein haplotypes present in the Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana, Messinese, Derivata di Siria, and Maltese goat breeds; and 2) describe the structure of the Sicilian goat breeds based on casein haplotypes and allele frequencies. In a sample of 540 dairy goats, 67 different haplotypes with frequency >or=0.01 and 27 with frequency >or=0.03 were observed. The most common CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN1S2-CSN3 haplotype for Derivata di Siria and Maltese was FCFB (0.17 and 0.22, respectively), whereas for Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana and Messinese was ACAB (0.06, 0.23, and 0.10, respectively). According to the haplotype reconstruction, Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana, and Messinese breeds presented the most favorable haplotype for cheese production, because the casein concentration in milk of these breeds might be greater than that in Derivata di Siria and Maltese breeds. Based on a cluster analysis, the breeds formed 2 main groups: Derivata di Siria, and Maltese in one group, and Argentata dell'Etna and Messinese in the other; the Girgentana breed was between these groups but closer to the latter.

  14. Epidemiology of Q fever in dairy goat herds in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogerwerf, L.

    2014-01-01

    Between 2007 and 2009, the largest human Q fever epidemic ever described occurred in the Netherlands. The source was traced back to dairy goat farms, where abortion storms caused by Coxiella burnetii had been observed. Intervention measures included vaccination of dairy goats, followed by one-time c

  15. Factors of welfare reduction in dairy sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pazzona

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research on factors causing the reduction of well-being in sheep and goats is rather recent, as are studies of strategies to minimize the adverse effects of environmental challenges and improper management practices on flock welfare. Sheep and goats, considered very rustic animals, are reared prevalently under extensive production systems and are widespread mainly in marginal areas. For these reasons, only few studies on the welfare of these species have been carried out in the past. More recently, the scenario has changed, due to a gradual diffusion of intensive and semi-intensive production systems, especially in dairy sheep and goat breeds, to the growing concern of consumers about the life conditions of farmed animals, and to the issuing of a number of rules and laws on the safety of animal products and well-being of farmed livestock. As a consequence, several research groups have turned their attention to the welfare of sheep and goats. Nevertheless, information on this topic is still scarce. This paper reviews major critical points regarding the endangerment of welfare in farmed sheep and goats. Climatic extremes and seasonal fluctuations in herbage amount and quality are discussed as important causes of the reduction of well-being in extensive production systems, which can impair production efficiency of grazing animals and dramatically affect the welfare and health status of sheep and goats. Space allowance and structures of sheep and goat houses are described as the main potential sources of discomfort for housed flocks, together with inadequate control of micro-environment, and inappropriate milking procedures and human-animal interactions. Recent studies on the impact of high ambient temperature, different ventilation regimes, high stocking densities, reduced airspace and poor litter management on behaviour, immune and endocrine response, and on performance of sheep and goats are discussed. The effects of inadequate milking

  16. Concentration of nutritional important minerals in Croatian goat and cow milk and some dairy products made of these

    OpenAIRE

    Slačanac, V.; Hardi, J.; Lučan, Mirela; Koceva Komlenić, Daliborka; Krstanović, V.; Jukić, M.

    2011-01-01

    The concentration of the minerals (Ca, Mg and P) and trace elements (Zn, Fe) were determined in goat and cow’s dairy products. The aim of this work was to determine the concentrations of mentioned minerals and trace elements in fermented dairy products made of goat milk, as well as in East Croatia traditional White Slice goat cheese. Obtained results show that goat milk and dairy products from goat milk had higher concentration of Mg and Fe than these of cow milk. Goat milk and dairy products...

  17. Fate of sodium arsenate in dairy sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatpanahi, M; Anderson, A C

    1985-08-01

    This study followed the uptake, distribution, and elimination of sodium arsenate administered in a single dose and in multiple doses, respectively, to Iranian dairy sheep and goats. In the single dosing study, the blood concentration data fit an open two-compartment model of the form:C b (t)=-(A+B)e (-kat) +Ae (-αt) +Be (-βt) Absorption distribution and elimination rate constants were statistically significantly different for the two animal species. In the multiple dosing study, arsenic accumulated in the blood of both animal species, as expressed by a one compartment model of the form:C t =C ss (1-e (-kt) ) Arsenic was eliminated rapidly at the termination of dosing, with the blood washout half-life being shorter in sheep than in goats. Urinary excretion was the major elimination route from the body of both species.

  18. Prevalence and pathogens of subclinical mastitis in dairy goats in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanqing; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Xuanduo; Gao, Yang; Zhang, Miaotao; Chen, Dekun

    2015-02-01

    Subclinical mastitis, a costly disease for the dairy industry, is usually caused by intramammary bacterial infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of and pathogens involved in subclinical mastitis in dairy goats in China. A total of 683 dairy goats in the main breeding areas of China were selected, and milk samples were collected. Out of these, 313 (45.82 %) goats were detected distinct or strong positive for subclinical mastitis by using California mastitis test. Among these positive goats, 209 milk samples were used to identify the causing agents by a multiplex PCR assay, and results were listed as follows: coagulase-negative staphylococci (59.52 %), Staphylococcus aureus (15.24 %), Escherichia coli (11.43 %), and Streptococcus spp. (10.95 %). In conclusion, subclinical mastitis is a highly prevalent disease in dairy goats in China, and coagulase-negative staphylococci are the predominant pathogens.

  19. Analysis of production objectives and breeding practices of dairy goats in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bett, R C; Kosgey, I S; Kahi, A K; Peters, K J

    2009-03-01

    Production objectives and breeding practices of smallholder households participating in dairy goat breeding projects were analysed in relation to their ability to bring about sustainable genetic improvement in the dairy goat flocks in Kenya. A stratified survey involving 311 goat keepers in 4 project sites was used. This employed both qualitative and quantitative research methods to get a holistic view of dairy goats, and take into account the full array of contributions of dairy goats to the smallholder households. Milk production and sales of breeding stock were high priority functions for the objective to create a financial buffer. The breeding objective traits that farmers perceived as being of primary importance were milk yield, growth rate, body size, fertility and disease tolerance. There were logical trade-offs in the choice of these traits by farmers. Female dairy goats were mainly culled due to old age, poor fertility, small body size and poor health. Farmers did not place a large significance on unsatisfactory milk performance when culling female goats, mainly due to the very small production size and the high demand existing for breeding animals. Factors affecting milk yield and flock size presented satisfied a P<0.1 significance level. The performance levels of dairy goats were mainly influenced by breeding strategies and the resource availability at the farm level. The optimisation of genotype x environment interactions remains the biggest challenge given the objectives set by the farmer.

  20. High prevalence of Eimeria infection in dairy goats in Shaanxi province, northwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guang Hui; Lei, Li-Hui; Shang, Chuan-Chuan; Gao, Man; Zhao, Yan Qing; Chen, Chao-Xi; Chen, De-Kun

    2012-06-01

    A survey of dairy goats for infection with Eimeria species of coccidia was conducted in the Shaanxi province, northwestern China between December and November 2010, including Saanen and Guanzhong breeds. A total of 584 fecal samples (250 and 334 from Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats, respectively) in six farms were collected. Eimeria oocysts were seen in 568 (97.3%) fecal samples, with six species, namely Eimeria jolchijevi, Eimeria arloingi, Eimeria alijevi, Eimeria caprina, Eimeria hirci, and Eimeria christenseni. The most prevalent were E. arloingi in Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats, with an overall prevalence of 83.3% and 84.4%, and the lowest prevalence were E. christenseni (26.9%) and E. hirci (20.7%) for Saanen and Guanzhong Dairy goats, respectively. Two or more Eimeria species were commonly presented in all the age groups; 80.0% and 81.4% of positive Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats carried more than two species, and 1.6% and 6.5% of two breeds had six species. The results of the present survey suggested that Eimeria infection is wide and severe in the Saanen and Guanzhong dairy goats, which suggested that integrated strategies should be implemented to prevent and control coccidial infection in dairy goats in this province.

  1. Anthelmintic residues in goat and sheep dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jedziniak Piotr

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A multiresidue method (LC-MS/MS for determination of wide range of anthelmintics was developed. The method covered benzimidazoles: albendazole (and metabolites, cambendazole, fenbendazol (and metabolites, flubendazole (and metabolites, mebendazole (and metabolites, oxibendazole, thiabendazole (and metabolites, triclabendazole (and metabolites; macrocyclic lactones: abamectin, doramectin, emamectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin, moxidectin; salicylanilides: closantel, ioxynil, nitroxynil, oxyclosamide, niclosamide, rafoxanid and others: clorsulon, derquantel, imidocarb, monepantel (and metabolites, morantel, praziquantel, and pyrantel. The method was used to examine the potential presence of anthelmintics in goat and sheep milk and dairy products from the Polish market. A total of 120 samples of milk, yoghurt, cottage cheese, cream cheese, and curd were analysed. None of the samples were found positive above CCα (1-10 μg/kg except for one cottage cheese in which traces of albendazole sulfone were detected (5.2 ug/kg and confirmed. The results of the study showed negligible anthelmintic residues in the goat and sheep milk and dairy products and confirm their good quality.

  2. Replacement of alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa) with maralfalfahay (Pennisetum sp.) in diets of lactating dairy goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Criscioni, P.; Marti, J.V.; Pérez-Baena, I.

    2016-01-01

    tThe objective of this experiment was to study the effects of substituting alfalfa (Medicagosativa) with maralfalfa (Pennisetum sp.) on energy, nitrogen and carbon balance, methaneemission, and milk performance in dairy goats. Ten Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in latelactation (45.7 ± 2.96 kg...... of body weight [BW]) were selected in a 2-treatment and crossoverdesign experiment where each goat received both treatments in 2 periods. One group offive goats was fed a mixed ration with alfalfa as forage (A diet) and the other diet replacedalfalfa with maralfalfa (M diet) in a forage concentrate ratio...

  3. Yeast Culture and Vitamin E Supplementation Alleviates Heat Stress in Dairy Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lizhi; Wang, Zhisheng; Zou, Huawei; Peng, Quanhui

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of yeast yeast culture (YC) and vitamin E (VE) supplementation on endotoxin absorption and antioxidant status in lactating dairy goats suffering from heat stress (HS). Three first lactation Saanen dairy goats (body weight 30±1.5 kg) were surgically fitted with indwelling catheters in the portal vein, mesenteric vein and carotid artery, and were randomly assigned to a 3×3 Latin square design. Dietary treatments were the basal diet, and the basal diet supplemented with either 100 IU VE or 30 g YC. Goats were kept in temperature and humidity-controlled room at 35°C from 8:00 to 20:00 and at 24°C from 20:00 till the next morning at 8:00. The relative humidity was kept at 55%. HS increased dairy goats' rectum temperature and respiration frequency (pdairy goats' rectum temperature during thermo-neutral period (p0.05). Dietary supplementation of VE and YC reduced heat stressed dairy goats' endotoxin concentration of the carotid artery and portal vein (pdairy goats' absorption of endotoxin in portal vein (pdairy goats' superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration during HS and the whole experiment period (pdairy goats' malonaldehyde (MDA) concentration during HS and the whole experimental period, and the MDA concentration in the VE treatment was lower than the YC treatment (pdairy goats total antioxidant potential (TAP) concentration during HS, thermo-neutral and the whole experimental period (pdairy goats by weakening endotoxin absorption and promoting antioxidant capacity. Compared with YC, VE is much more powerful in easing dairy goats HS.

  4. Management practices to control gastrointestinal parasites in dairy and beef goats in Minas Gerais; Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Alessandro de Sá; Gouveia, Aurora Maria Guimarães; do Carmo, Filipe Borges; Gouveia, Gabriela Canabrava; Silva, Marcos Xavier; Vieira, Luiz da Silva; Molento, Marcelo Beltrão

    2011-03-10

    Parasitic infection is recognized worldwide as a limiting factor in the production of goats, and various control methods are used to reduce economic losses, often without considering the epidemiology of the parasites. This has led to the development of highly tolerant parasite populations and the presence of chemical residues in the beef and milk. The objective of this study was to determine the level of knowledge of goat farmers about parasitic diseases and to correlate this with the epidemiology of endoparasites and parasite control practices in goat farms in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The analysis was based on a questionnaire applied by trained veterinarians. The sample was homogeneous throughout the state, covering 18.4% (157/853) of municipalities. Eighty-four dairy goat farms in 81 municipalities and 200 properties with beef goats in 76 municipalities were evaluated. The herd size per goat farm ranged from 4 to 57 (average 24) for beef herds and from 2 to 308 (average 63) for dairy farms. The majority of the beef herd production was extensive and semi-extensive (98.5%), while the dairy herds were maintained under intensive farming (98.8%). The mixed production of goats and sheep was reported by 36.5% of beef goat farmers and by 20.2% of dairy goat farmers. Among the beef goats farms on which the technological level was determined, 2.0% were categorized as having high technological level, 34.5% as medium, and 63.5% as low. Of the 84 dairy farms, 30% operated at a high, 47% at a medium, and 23% at a low technological level. The adoption of practices to reduce parasitism, such as the quarantine of animals, treatment of newly arrived animals, regular cleaning of the floor, and technical assistance, was significantly higher on dairy farms than on beef farms. Although 85.7% of dairy farmers and 83% of beef farmers medicate their animals, the treatments were performed without technical criteria, and deworming intervals ranged from 30 to 120 days or more. The

  5. Carbon footprint of dairy goat milk production in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kimberly; Symes, Wymond; Garnham, Malcolm

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the cradle-to-farm gate carbon footprint of indoor and outdoor dairy goat farming systems in New Zealand, identifying hotspots and discussing variability and methodology. Our study was based on the International Organization for Standardization standards for life cycle assessment, although only results for greenhouse gas emissions are presented. Two functional units were included: tonnes of CO2-equivalents (CO2e) per hectare (ha) and kilograms of CO2e per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM). The study covered 5 farms, 2 farming systems, and 3yr. Two methods for the calculation of enteric methane emissions were assessed. The Lassey method, as used in the New Zealand greenhouse gas inventory, provided a more robust estimate of emissions from enteric fermentation and was used in the final calculations. The alternative dry matter intake method was shown to overestimate emissions due to use of anecdotal assumptions around actual consumption of feed. Economic allocation was applied to milk and co-products. Scenario analysis was performed on the allocation method, nitrogen content of manure, manure management, and supplementary feed choice. The average carbon footprint for the indoor farms (n=3) was 11.05 t of CO2e/ha and 0.81kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. For the outdoor farms (n=2), the average was 5.38 t of CO2e/ha and 1.03kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The average for all 5 farms was 8.78 t of CO2e/ha and 0.90kg of CO2e/kg of FPCM. The results showed relatively high variability due to differences in management practices between farms. The 5 farms covered 10% of the total dairy goat farms but may not be representative of an average farm. Methane from enteric fermentation was a major emission source. The use of supplementary feed was highly variable but an important contributor to the carbon footprint. Nitrous oxide can contribute up to 18% of emissions. Indoor goat farming systems produced milk with a significantly higher carbon

  6. Mammary remodelling and metabolic activity in dairy goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safayi, Sina

    lactation, are the same factors involved also in determination of lactation persistency and performance differences between PP and MP animals, 3) milk protein synthesis in the lactating mammary gland will be less sensitive towards variations in nutrient supply in late compared to early lactation, 4) minor...... deficiencies in dietary provision of protein can be compensated by provision of energy (ATP) yielding substrates to sustain milk (protein) synthesis. The hypotheses were addressed in four papers based on three experiments with dairy goats. In Experiments 1 and 2, mammary remodelling was compared in PP and MP...... to a continuous lactation (CL). In Experiment 3, the importance of nutrient supply in regulation of milk (protein) synthesis was assessed. This was done by providing extra nutrients through intravascular isoosmotic infusion of nutrients (essential amino acids, acetate or glucose) and determining the impact...

  7. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis in dairy goats in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndegwa, E N; Mulei, C M; Munyua, S J

    2000-03-01

    California mastitis test (CMT), direct leukocytes counts and bacteriological examination were performed on 630 milk samples from apparently healthy mammary glands of dairy goats comprising a mixed population of German Alpine, Toggenberg, Saanen and Galla crosses to find the prevalence of subclinical mastitis. The prevalence of subclinical mastitis was 9.8% according to CMT, 9.7% according to direct leukocyte counts and 28.7% by bacterial isolation during a 3-month period. The proportion of the bacteriologically positive milk samples was significantly (P CMT and direct leukocyte counts. There was a significant (P CMT and direct leukocyte counts. There was no significant direct relationship between bacterial isolation and CMT Bacterial organisms were isolated in 22.5% of the 568 CMT-negative milk samples. The results suggest that bacterial organisms isolated from the CMT-negative milksamples were either latent infections or did not stimulate any significant increase in somatic cell counts that could be detected by either the CMT or direct leukocyte counts. The observations of this study indicate that the mere presence of bacteria in goat's milk does not mean that the udder is infected and so does not warrant antibiotic therapy.

  8. Economic aspects of Q fever control in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asseldonk, M A P M; Bontje, D M; Backer, J A; Roermund, H J W van; Bergevoet, R H M

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents an economic analysis of Q fever control strategies in dairy goat herds in The Netherlands. Evaluated control strategies involved vaccination strategies (being either preventive or reactive) and reactive non-vaccination strategies (i.e., culling or breeding prohibition). Reactive strategies were initiated after PCR positive bulk tank milk or after an abortion storm (abortion percentage in the herd of 5% or more). Preventive vaccination eradicates Q fever in a herd on average within 2 and 7 years (depending on breeding style and vaccination strategy). Economic outcomes reveal that preventive vaccination is always the preferred Q fever control strategy on infected farms and this even holds for a partial analysis if only on-farm costs and benefits are accounted for and human health costs are ignored. Averted human health costs depend to a large extend on the number of infected human cases per infected farm or animal. Much is yet unknown with respect to goat-human transmission rates. When the pathogen is absent in both livestock and farm environment then the "freedom of Q fever disease" is achieved. This would enable a return to non-vaccinated herds but more insight is required with respect to the mechanisms and probability of re-infection.

  9. Gastrointestinal helminth infections of dairy goats in Slovakia

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    Babják M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the most common gastrointestinal (GI parasites in flocks of dairy goats on 30 farms in Slovakia. A total of 944 adult goats were examined during the pasturing seasons for 2014 – 2016. Eggs from one or more species of gastrointestinal parasites were identified in 906 of the samples (95.90 %. Strongyle eggs were present in most of the samples (92.00 %, followed by Strongyloides papillosus (14.05 %, Trichuris spp. (7.84 %, Nematodirus spp. (3.98 %, and Moniezia spp. (2.65 %. The counts of strongyle eggs per gram of faeces ranged from 0 to 11 000. Subsamples from each farm were used to prepare faecal coprocultures to identify the genera of the nematodes. Third-stage larvae of Trichostrongylus spp. (100 % and Teladorsagia/Ostertagia spp. (96.60 % were present on most of the farms, followed by Oesophagostomum spp./Chabertia ovina (86.60 % and Haemonchus contortus (76.60 %. Teladorsagia/Ostertagia spp. were the dominant genera on 60 % of the farms.

  10. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dairy goats in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China

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    Xu Jun-Yan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic pathogen causing significant human and animal health problems. Infection in dairy goats not only results in significant reproductive losses, but also represents an important source of human infection due to consumption of infected meat and milk. In the present study we report for the first time seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in Guanzhong and Saanen dairy goats in Shaanxi province, Northwestern China. Results Sera from 751 dairy goats from 9 farms in 6 counties were examined for T. gondii antibodies with an indirect haemagglutination (IHA test. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 106 (14.1% serum samples, with antibody titres ranging from 1:64 to 1:1024. Seropositive goats were found in all 9 farms and seroprevalences in Guanzhong (16.3%, 75/461 and Saanen (10.7%, 31/290 dairy goats were not statistically significantly different. All the factors (sex, age and location reported in the present study affected prevalence of infection, and seroprevalence increased with age, suggesting postnatal acquisition of T. gondii infection. Conclusions The results of the present survey indicate that infection by T. gondii is widely prevalent in dairy goats in Shaanxi province, Northwestern China, and this has implications for prevention and control of toxoplasmosis in this province.

  11. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in dairy goats in Shaanxi Province, Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii is an important zoonotic pathogen causing significant human and animal health problems. Infection in dairy goats not only results in significant reproductive losses, but also represents an important source of human infection due to consumption of infected meat and milk. In the present study we report for the first time seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in Guanzhong and Saanen dairy goats in Shaanxi province, Northwestern China. Results Sera from 751 dairy goats from 9 farms in 6 counties were examined for T. gondii antibodies with an indirect haemagglutination (IHA) test. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 106 (14.1%) serum samples, with antibody titres ranging from 1:64 to 1:1024. Seropositive goats were found in all 9 farms and seroprevalences in Guanzhong (16.3%, 75/461) and Saanen (10.7%, 31/290) dairy goats were not statistically significantly different. All the factors (sex, age and location) reported in the present study affected prevalence of infection, and seroprevalence increased with age, suggesting postnatal acquisition of T. gondii infection. Conclusions The results of the present survey indicate that infection by T. gondii is widely prevalent in dairy goats in Shaanxi province, Northwestern China, and this has implications for prevention and control of toxoplasmosis in this province. PMID:21457538

  12. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Q fever in goats on commercial dairy goat farms in the Netherlands, 2009-2010

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    Schimmer Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goat farms in the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for farm and goat seropositivity before mandatory vaccination started. We approached 334 eligible farms with more than 100 goats for serum sampling and a farm questionnaire. Per farm, median 21 goats were sampled. A farm was considered positive when at least one goat tested ELISA positive. Results In total, 2,828 goat serum samples from 123 farms were available. Farm prevalence was 43.1% (95%CI: 34.3%-51.8%. Overall goat seroprevalence was 21.4% (95%CI: 19.9%-22.9% and among the 53 positive farms 46.6% (95%CI: 43.8%-49.3%. Multivariable logistic regression analysis included 96 farms and showed that farm location within 8 kilometres proximity from a bulk milk PCR positive farm, location in a municipality with high cattle density (≥ 100 cattle per square kilometre, controlling nuisance animals through covering airspaces, presence of cats or dogs in the goat stable, straw imported from abroad or unknown origin and a herd size above 800 goats were independent risk factors associated with Q fever on farm level. At animal level almost identical risk factors were found, with use of windbreak curtain and artificial insemination as additional risk factors. Conclusion In 2009-2010, the seroprevalence in dairy goats in the Netherlands increased on animal and farm level compared to a previous study in 2008. Risk factors suggest spread from relatively closely located bulk milk-infected small ruminant farms, next to introduction and spread from companion animals, imported straw and use of artificial insemination. In-depth studies investigating the role of artificial insemination and bedding material are needed, while simultaneously general biosecurity measures should be updated, such as avoiding companion animals and vermin entering the stables, next to advice on farm stable constructions on

  13. Mineral Metabolism in Singleton and Twin-pregnant Dairy Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härter, C J; Castagnino, D S; Rivera, A R; Lima, L D; Silva, H G O; Mendonça, A N; Bonfim, G F; Liesegang, A; St-Pierre, N; Teixeira, I A M A

    2015-01-01

    During pregnancy, the maternal body undergoes significant physiological changes. The present study assessed the changes on calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na) and potassium (K) metabolism in singleton and twin-pregnant dairy goats. The 42 goats used (49.5 kg±7.6 body weight [BW]) were assigned at random to treatments that were factorially arranged to account for 2 breeds (Oberhasli and Saanen), 2 pregnancy types (singleton and twin) and 3 gestation periods (80, 110, and 140 days). Digestibility trials were performed at 80, 110, and 140 days of gestation. Mineral retention during pregnancy was determined in the maternal body, femur, uterus, mammary gland, fetus and fetal fluid. Blood samples were taken during pregnancy before and after a meal, and Ca, P, Mg, Na, K ions and alkaline phosphatase activity determined in serum. Bone mineral density was determined in the right femur. Statistical analyses were performed using the SAS MIXED procedure. Dry matter intake decreased linearly up to 140 days of gestation. Maternal BW gain, and Ca, P, and Mg retention (g/kg) decreased linearly with the advance of gestation days. Macromineral retention in maternal body (g/kg) was greater in Oberhasli than Saanen goats, and their fetuses had higher Ca, P, and Mg deposition (mg/g). Mineral retention (mg/g) increased in fetuses according to pregnancy development, with no differences between singleton and twin pregnancy. In the mammary gland, the retention of all minerals (g) increased with the days of pregnancy. In conclusion, related to Ca, P, and Mg metabolism can be divided into two stages. Up to 80 days of gestation, was characterized by the preparation of the maternal body reserves for future mineral demands. From 80 days of gestation onward, was characterized by the transfer of maternal body reserves for fetal development and colostrum production. Na and K supply was provided by adjustments in endogenous excretion and an increase in intestinal absorption

  14. Mineral Metabolism in Singleton and Twin-pregnant Dairy Goats

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    C. J. Härter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy, the maternal body undergoes significant physiological changes. The present study assessed the changes on calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P, magnesium (Mg, sodium (Na and potassium (K metabolism in singleton and twin-pregnant dairy goats. The 42 goats used (49.5 kg±7.6 body weight [BW] were assigned at random to treatments that were factorially arranged to account for 2 breeds (Oberhasli and Saanen, 2 pregnancy types (singleton and twin and 3 gestation periods (80, 110, and 140 days. Digestibility trials were performed at 80, 110, and 140 days of gestation. Mineral retention during pregnancy was determined in the maternal body, femur, uterus, mammary gland, fetus and fetal fluid. Blood samples were taken during pregnancy before and after a meal, and Ca, P, Mg, Na, K ions and alkaline phosphatase activity determined in serum. Bone mineral density was determined in the right femur. Statistical analyses were performed using the SAS MIXED procedure. Dry matter intake decreased linearly up to 140 days of gestation. Maternal BW gain, and Ca, P, and Mg retention (g/kg decreased linearly with the advance of gestation days. Macromineral retention in maternal body (g/kg was greater in Oberhasli than Saanen goats, and their fetuses had higher Ca, P, and Mg deposition (mg/g. Mineral retention (mg/g increased in fetuses according to pregnancy development, with no differences between singleton and twin pregnancy. In the mammary gland, the retention of all minerals (g increased with the days of pregnancy. In conclusion, related to Ca, P, and Mg metabolism can be divided into two stages. Up to 80 days of gestation, was characterized by the preparation of the maternal body reserves for future mineral demands. From 80 days of gestation onward, was characterized by the transfer of maternal body reserves for fetal development and colostrum production. Na and K supply was provided by adjustments in endogenous excretion and an increase in intestinal

  15. Coxiella burnetii in bulk tank milk samples from dairy goat and dairy sheep farms in The Netherlands in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brom, R; van Engelen, E; Luttikholt, S; Moll, L; van Maanen, K; Vellema, P

    2012-03-24

    In 2007, a human Q fever epidemic started, mainly in the south eastern part of The Netherlands with a suspected indirect relation to dairy goats, and, to a lesser degree, to dairy sheep. This article describes the Q fever prevalences in Dutch dairy goat and dairy sheep bulk tank milk (BTM) samples, using a real-time (RT) PCR and ELISA. Results of BTM PCR and ELISA were compared with the serological status of individual animals, and correlations with a history of Q fever abortion were determined. When compared with ELISA results, the optimal cut-off value for the RT-PCR was 100 bacteria/ml. In 2008, there were 392 farms with more than 200 dairy goats, of which 292 submitted a BTM sample. Of these samples, 96 (32.9 per cent) were PCR positive and 87 (29.8 per cent) were ELISA positive. All farms with a history of Q fever abortion (n=17) were ELISA positive, 16 out of 17 were also PCR positive. BTM PCR or ELISA positive farms had significantly higher within-herd seroprevalences than BTM negative farms. In the south eastern provinces, the area where the human Q fever outbreak started in 2007, a significantly larger proportion of the BTM samples was PCR and ELISA positive compared to the rest of The Netherlands. None of the BTM samples from dairy sheep farms (n=16) were PCR positive but three of these farms were ELISA positive. The higher percentage of BTM positive farms in the area where the human Q fever outbreak started, supports the suspected relation between human cases and infected dairy goat farms.

  16. The preference for water nipples vs. water bowls in dairy goats

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen Inger L; Ehrlenbruch Rebecca; Bøe Knut E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous studies have reported that the design of the water dispensers can influence the water intake in farm animals. Horses and dairy cows seem to prefer to drink from an open surface whereas sheep and pigs apparently prefer water nipples, probably because of the worse water quality in water bowls. The aim of the present study was to examine the preference of dairy goats for water nipples or water bowls. Methods In each of the two experiments (exp. 1, dry goats, exp. 2 l...

  17. The preference for water nipples vs. water bowls in dairy goats

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen Inger L; Ehrlenbruch Rebecca; Bøe Knut E

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous studies have reported that the design of the water dispensers can influence the water intake in farm animals. Horses and dairy cows seem to prefer to drink from an open surface whereas sheep and pigs apparently prefer water nipples, probably because of the worse water quality in water bowls. The aim of the present study was to examine the preference of dairy goats for water nipples or water bowls. Methods In each of the two experiments (exp. 1, dry goats, exp. 2 l...

  18. Closantel plasma and milk disposition in dairy goats: assessment of drug residues in cheese and ricotta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iezzi, S; Lifschitz, A; Sallovitz, J; Nejamkin, P; Lloberas, M; Manazza, J; Lanusse, C; Imperiale, F

    2014-12-01

    Closantel (CLS) is currently used in programs for the strategic control of gastrointestinal nematodes. CLS is extralabel used in different dairy goat production systems. From available data in dairy cows, it can be concluded that residues of CLS persist in milk. The current work evaluated the concentration profiles of CLS in plasma and milk from lactating orally treated dairy goats to assess the residues pattern in dairy products such as cheese and ricotta. Six (6) female Saanen dairy goats were treated orally with CLS administered at 10 mg/kg. Blood and milk samples were collected between 0 and 36 days post-treatment. The whole milk production was collected at 1, 4, 7, and 10 days post-treatment to produce soft cheese and ricotta. CLS concentrations in plasma, milk, cheese, whey, and ricotta were determined by HPLC. The concentrations of CLS measured in plasma were higher than those measured in milk at all sampling times. However, the calculated withdrawal time for CLS in milk was between 39 and 43 days postadministration to dairy goats. CLS residual concentrations in cheese (between 0.93 and 1.8 μg/g) were higher than those measured in the milk used for its production. CLS concentrations in ricotta were sixfold higher than those in the milk and 20-fold higher than those in the whey used for its production. The persistent and high residual concentrations of CLS in the milk and in the cheese and ricotta should be seriously considered before issuing any recommendation on the extralabel use of CLS in dairy goat farms. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The preference for water nipples vs. water bowls in dairy goats

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    Andersen Inger L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have reported that the design of the water dispensers can influence the water intake in farm animals. Horses and dairy cows seem to prefer to drink from an open surface whereas sheep and pigs apparently prefer water nipples, probably because of the worse water quality in water bowls. The aim of the present study was to examine the preference of dairy goats for water nipples or water bowls. Methods In each of the two experiments (exp. 1, dry goats, exp. 2 lactating goats, 42 dairy goats were allotted into 6 groups of 7 goats. In period 1, the goats had access to a water nipple. In period 2, they had access to a water bowl and in period 3 (preference test they had access to both a water nipple and a water bowl. Water usage and wastage was recorded and water intake (water usage - water wastage was calculated for each group for the two last days of each period. In experiment 2, water samples from each dispenser were analyzed for heterotrophy germs at 22°C, Escherichia coli and turbidity. Results Water usage was higher from water nipples than from water bowls both in experiment 1 (dry goats and experiment 2 (lactating goats. There was however, no difference in water intake from water nipples and water bowls. In the preference test (period 3, the water intake tended to be higher from the water nipple than from the water bowl both for the dry goats (exp. 1 and lactating goats (exp. 2. Especially for the dry goats, the differences between groups were large. Turbidity and heterotrophy germs were much higher in the samples from the water bowls than from the water nipples. Water wastage from the water bowls was negligible compared to the water nipples. From the water nipples the water wastage was 30% and 23% of water usage for the dry and lactating goats respectively. Conclusions We conclude that type of water dispenser (nipple or bowl was probably of minor importance for water intake in goats, but water bowls had a

  20. Yeast Culture and Vitamin E Supplementation Alleviates Heat Stress in Dairy Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lizhi; Wang, Zhisheng; Zou, Huawei; Peng, Quanhui

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of yeast yeast culture (YC) and vitamin E (VE) supplementation on endotoxin absorption and antioxidant status in lactating dairy goats suffering from heat stress (HS). Three first lactation Saanen dairy goats (body weight 30±1.5 kg) were surgically fitted with indwelling catheters in the portal vein, mesenteric vein and carotid artery, and were randomly assigned to a 3×3 Latin square design. Dietary treatments were the basal diet, and the basal diet supplemented with either 100 IU VE or 30 g YC. Goats were kept in temperature and humidity-controlled room at 35°C from 8:00 to 20:00 and at 24°C from 20:00 till the next morning at 8:00. The relative humidity was kept at 55%. HS increased dairy goats’ rectum temperature and respiration frequency (p0.05). Dietary supplementation of VE and YC reduced heat stressed dairy goats’ endotoxin concentration of the carotid artery and portal vein (p<0.01). However, the endotoxin concentration of the YC treatment was higher than that of the VE treatment (p<0.01). Both VE and YC supplementation decreased heat stressed dairy goats’ absorption of endotoxin in portal vein (p<0.01). The endotoxin absorption of YC treatment was higher than the VE treatment (p<0.01). The addition of VE and YC decreased dairy goats’ superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration during HS and the whole experiment period (p<0.01). The addition of VE lowered SOD concentration during thermo-neutral period (p<0.01). Likewise, the addition of VE and YC lowered dairy goats’ malonaldehyde (MDA) concentration during HS and the whole experimental period, and the MDA concentration in the VE treatment was lower than the YC treatment (p<0.05). The addition of VE decreased MDA concentration during thermo-neutral period. On the contrast, the addition of VE increased dairy goats total antioxidant potential (TAP) concentration during HS, thermo-neutral and the whole experimental period (p<0.01). The

  1. Yeast Culture and Vitamin E Supplementation Alleviates Heat Stress in Dairy Goats

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    Lizhi Wang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of yeast yeast culture (YC and vitamin E (VE supplementation on endotoxin absorption and antioxidant status in lactating dairy goats suffering from heat stress (HS. Three first lactation Saanen dairy goats (body weight 30±1.5 kg were surgically fitted with indwelling catheters in the portal vein, mesenteric vein and carotid artery, and were randomly assigned to a 3×3 Latin square design. Dietary treatments were the basal diet, and the basal diet supplemented with either 100 IU VE or 30 g YC. Goats were kept in temperature and humidity-controlled room at 35°C from 8:00 to 20:00 and at 24°C from 20:00 till the next morning at 8:00. The relative humidity was kept at 55%. HS increased dairy goats’ rectum temperature and respiration frequency (p0.05. Dietary supplementation of VE and YC reduced heat stressed dairy goats’ endotoxin concentration of the carotid artery and portal vein (p<0.01. However, the endotoxin concentration of the YC treatment was higher than that of the VE treatment (p<0.01. Both VE and YC supplementation decreased heat stressed dairy goats’ absorption of endotoxin in portal vein (p<0.01. The endotoxin absorption of YC treatment was higher than the VE treatment (p<0.01. The addition of VE and YC decreased dairy goats’ superoxide dismutase (SOD concentration during HS and the whole experiment period (p<0.01. The addition of VE lowered SOD concentration during thermo-neutral period (p<0.01. Likewise, the addition of VE and YC lowered dairy goats’ malonaldehyde (MDA concentration during HS and the whole experimental period, and the MDA concentration in the VE treatment was lower than the YC treatment (p<0.05. The addition of VE decreased MDA concentration during thermo-neutral period. On the contrast, the addition of VE increased dairy goats total antioxidant potential (TAP concentration during HS, thermo-neutral and the whole experimental period (p<0

  2. Production of transgenic dairy goat expressing human α-lactalbumin by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiujing; Cao, Shaoxian; Wang, Huili; Meng, Chunhua; Li, Jingxin; Jiang, Jin; Qian, Yong; Su, Lei; He, Qiang; Zhang, Qingxiao

    2015-02-01

    Production of human α-lactalbumin (hα-LA) transgenic cloned dairy goats has great potential in improving the nutritional value and perhaps increasing the yield of dairy goat milk. Here, a mammary-specific expression vector 5A, harboring goat β-lactoglobulin (βLG) promoter, the hα-LA gene, neo(r) and EGFP dual markers, was constructed. Then, it was effectively transfected into goat mammary epithelial cells (GMECs) and the expression of hα-LA was investigated. Both the hα-LA transcript and protein were detected in the transfected GMECs after the induction of hormonal signals. In addition, the 5A vector was introduced into dairy goat fetal fibroblasts (transfection efficiency ≈60-70%) to prepare competent transgenic donor cells. A total of 121 transgenic fibroblast clones were isolated by 96-well cell culture plates and screened with nested-PCR amplification and EGFP fluorescence. After being frozen for 8 months, the transgenic cells still showed high viabilities, verifying their ability as donor cells. Dairy goat cloned embryos were produced from these hα-LA transgenic donor cells by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), and the rates of fusion, cleavage, and the development to blastocyst stages were 81.8, 84.4, and 20.0%, respectively. A total of 726 reconstructed embryos derived from the transgenic cells were transferred to 74 recipients and pregnancy was confirmed at 90 days in 12 goats. Of six female kids born, two carried hα-LA and the hα-LA protein was detected in their milk. This study provides an effective system to prepare SCNT donor cells and transgenic animals for human recombinant proteins.

  3. MILK QUALITY OF DAIRY GOAT BY GIVING FEED SUPPLEMENT AS ANTIOXIDANT SOURCE

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    Mardalena

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Free radical levels can be higher than the level of endogenous antioxidants in the body so that uncomfortable conditions in the body of dairy goats could happen. To anticipate this uncomfortable conditions will be given feed supplement (FS as source of antioxidants (AOX. FS contain mixture pineapple rind meal and antioxidant minerals (AOXM each 25 ppm Zn and 10 ppm Cu. This experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of feed supplements as antioxidant source on milk quality of dairy goats. Sixteen Etawah dairy goats in the second lactation were used in the experiment that conducted using randomized block design with 4 treatments and 4 replicates. The treatments were R0 (grass + concentrate, R1 (R0 + FS containing 0.04 % AOX, R2 (R0 + FS containing 0.06% AOX, R3 (R0 + FS containing 0.08 % AOX. The data collected were analyzed using Anova. The result of phytochemicals analysis indicated that feed supplement contained flavonoid, polyphenols, sesqiuterpen, mopnoterpen, steroids, quinones and saponins. The results of study showed that there were difference (p0.05 on milk yield, milk fat, milk protein and milk antioxidant. The conclusion of this study was the feed supplements containing 0.08 AOX produced the best response to milk quality of dairy goats.

  4. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in dairy goats from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovu, Anamaria; Györke, Adriana; Mircean, Viorica; Gavrea, Raluca; Cozma, Vasile

    2012-05-25

    Little information is available about the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infections in goats in Romania and even in Europe. During 2007-2010, 735 serum samples were collected from dairy goats located in 4 historical regions (Crişana, Maramureş, Transylvania and Muntenia) of Romania. Sera were analyzed for T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies (IgG type) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using two commercial kits (Chekit Toxotest Antibody ELISA and Chekit Neospora caninum Antibody ELISA; Idexx-Bommeli, Switzerland). Three hundred and eighty-eight out of 735 (52.8%) goats presented T. gondii antibodies and 12 out of 512 (2.3%) goats had N. caninum antibodies. The high seroprevalence of T. gondii suggests that infection with this parasite is common in dairy goats in Romania, and less common the infection with N. caninum. This is the first time that infection with N. caninum in goats has been reported in Romania and the first extended study on seroepidemiology of T. gondii.

  5. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) seropositivity in dairy goat farmers' households in The Netherlands, 2009-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schimmer, B.; Lenferink, A.; Schneeberger, P.; Aangenend, H.; Vellema, P.; Hautvast, J.L.; Duynhoven, Y. Van

    2012-01-01

    Community Q fever epidemics occurred in The Netherlands in 2007-2009, with dairy goat and dairy sheep farms as the implicated source. The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors for seropositivity in dairy goat farmers and their household members living or working on th

  6. Direct and indirect measurement of somatic cell count as indicator of intramammary infection in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Ylva; Olofsson, Ida

    2011-03-04

    Mastitis is the most important and costly disease in dairy goat production. Subclinical mastitis is common in goats and is mainly caused by contagious bacteria. Several methods to diagnose subclinical mastitis are available. In this study indirect measurement of somatic cell count (SCC) by California Mastitis Test (CMT) and direct measurement of SCC using a portable deLaval cell counter (DCC) are evaluated. Swedish goat farmers would primarily benefit from diagnostic methods that can be used at the farm. The purpose of the study was to evaluate SCC measured by CMT and DCC as possible markers for intramammary infection (IMI) in goats without clinical symptoms of mastitis. Moreover to see how well indirect measurement of SCC (CMT) corresponded to direct measurement of SCC (DCC). Udder half milk samples were collected once from dairy goats (n = 111), in five different farms in Northern and Central Sweden. Only clinically healthy animals were included in the study. All goats were in mid to late lactation at sampling. Milk samples were analyzed for SCC by CMT and DCC at the farm, and for bacterial growth at the laboratory. Intramammary infection, defined as growth of udder pathogens, was found in 39 (18%) of the milk samples. No growth was found in 180 (81%) samples while 3 (1%) samples were contaminated. The most frequently isolated bacterial species was coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) (72% of all isolates), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (23% of all isolates). Somatic cell count measured by DCC was strongly (p = 0.000) associated with bacterial growth. There was also a very strong association between CMT and bacterial growth. CMT 1 was associated with freedom of IMI while CMT ≥2 was associated with IMI. Indirect measurement of SCC by CMT was well correlated with SCC measured by DCC. According to the results, SCC measured with CMT or DCC can predict udder infection in goats, and CMT can be used as a predictor of the SCC.

  7. Direct and indirect measurement of somatic cell count as indicator of intramammary infection in dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olofsson Ida

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis is the most important and costly disease in dairy goat production. Subclinical mastitis is common in goats and is mainly caused by contagious bacteria. Several methods to diagnose subclinical mastitis are available. In this study indirect measurement of somatic cell count (SCC by California Mastitis Test (CMT and direct measurement of SCC using a portable deLaval cell counter (DCC are evaluated. Swedish goat farmers would primarily benefit from diagnostic methods that can be used at the farm. The purpose of the study was to evaluate SCC measured by CMT and DCC as possible markers for intramammary infection (IMI in goats without clinical symptoms of mastitis. Moreover to see how well indirect measurement of SCC (CMT corresponded to direct measurement of SCC (DCC. Method Udder half milk samples were collected once from dairy goats (n = 111, in five different farms in Northern and Central Sweden. Only clinically healthy animals were included in the study. All goats were in mid to late lactation at sampling. Milk samples were analyzed for SCC by CMT and DCC at the farm, and for bacterial growth at the laboratory. Results Intramammary infection, defined as growth of udder pathogens, was found in 39 (18% of the milk samples. No growth was found in 180 (81% samples while 3 (1% samples were contaminated. The most frequently isolated bacterial species was coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS (72% of all isolates, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (23% of all isolates. Somatic cell count measured by DCC was strongly (p = 0.000 associated with bacterial growth. There was also a very strong association between CMT and bacterial growth. CMT 1 was associated with freedom of IMI while CMT ≥2 was associated with IMI. Indirect measurement of SCC by CMT was well correlated with SCC measured by DCC. Conclusions According to the results, SCC measured with CMT or DCC can predict udder infection in goats, and CMT can be used as a

  8. Production and chemical composition of two dehydrated fermented dairy products based on cow or goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Fernández, Jorge; Díaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, Maria J M; Hijano, Silvia; Nestares, Teresa; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the differences between the main macro and micronutrients including proteins, fat, minerals and vitamins in cow and goat dehydrated fermented milks. Fermented goat milk had higher protein and lower ash content. All amino acids (except for Ala), were higher in fermented goat milk than in fermented cow milk. Except for the values of C11:0, C13:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:5, C22:5 and the total quantity of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids, all the other fatty acid studied were significantly different in both fermented milks. Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Cu and Se were higher in fermented goat milk. Fermented goat milk had lower amounts of folic acid, vitamin E and C, and higher values of vitamin A, D3, B6 and B12. The current study demonstrates the better nutritional characteristics of fermented goat milk, suggesting a potential role of this dairy product as a high nutritional value food.

  9. Mammary remodeling in primiparous and multiparous dairy goats during lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safayi, Sina; Theil, Peter Kappel; Elbrønd, Vibeke Sødring

    2010-01-01

    Milk production is generally lower but lactation persistency higher in primiparous (PP) than in multiparous (MP) goats. This may be related to differences in development and maintenance of mammary gland function, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. The present study aimed to el...

  10. Morphological traits and type of dairy goats registered in Brazil from 1976 to 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Andrade Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Data from 2439 goats of the Saanen, Alpine, Anglo Nubian and Toggenburg breeds recorded from 1976 to 2009 by the Association of Goats and Sheep Breeders of Minas Gerais were used in principal component analysis. After consistency of data, six morphological variables (thorax perimeter, body length, withers height, height, width and length of the rump and 12 variables related to breed standard score and fitness (breed characteristic, head, palette and topline, feet and legs, dairy type, body capacity, udder, rear and front ligament, udder texture, teat and final score were analyzed. Based on the magnitude of the eigenvalue (lower than 0.7, eleven variables considered redundant were discarded, resulting in reduced costs of technician labor to evaluate the animals. Maintenance of records on height, length, rump width, breed characteristic, dairy type, front ligament and udder texture is recommended.

  11. Use of Electrical Coductivity Sensors to monitor Health Status and Quality of Milk in Dairy Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Zaninelli

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Intramammary infection (IMI can adversely affect, in dairy goats, milk quality and milk yield leading to high economical losses. Although somatic cell count (SCC and microbiological tests could be valid approaches to detect IMI, other methods of IMI early detection may be useful to detect infected animals and to improve milk quality.The aim of this study was to test a new multivariate model developed with the fuzzy logic technology and based on the milk EC - acquired on-line for each gland by dedicated sensors - and on new qualitative and quantitative indexes derived from the spectrum of the recorded signals.Results obtained showed that the fuzzy logic model tested could achive better results than those already reached in dairy goat research. Nevertheless, further experiment and more field data could be useful to reach the best possible accuracy that this multivariate approach could show.

  12. Evaluating the fitness of human lysozyme transgenic dairy goats: growth and reproductive traits

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    While there are many reports in the literature describing the attributes of specific applications of transgenic animals for agriculture, there are relatively few studies focusing on the fitness of the transgenic animals themselves. This work was designed to gather information on genetically modified food animals to determine if the presence of a transgene can impact general animal production traits. More specifically, we used a line of transgenic dairy goats expressing human lysozyme in their...

  13. Production and Energy Partition of Lactating Dairy Goats Fed Rations Containing Date Fruit Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yuniarti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dates fruit waste (DFW is a by-product of dates juice industry that contains high energy. So, it is suitable for an energy source in dairy goat ration. This study was conducted to observe the effect of DFW utilization in the ration on energy partition and productivity of lactating dairy goats. The experimental design was randomized block design using 9 primiparous lactating dairy goats. There were three types of ration as treatments used in this study, i.e. R0= 35% forage + 65% concentrate, R1= 35% forage + 55% concentrate + 10% DFW, and R2= 35% forage + 45% concentrate + 20% DFW. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and polynomial orthogonal test. The evaluated variables were dry matter intake (DMI, energy partition including energy intake, digestible and metabolizable energy, fecal and urine energy, energy in methane gas, and energy in milk, milk production and quality. The results showed that the linear decreased of DMI, energy intake, digestible energy, metabolizable energy, and urine energy with the increased of DFW level in the rations. The use of 10% DFW (R1 showed the lowest energy loss through feces and methane gas of all treatments about 1089.57 kcal/head/d and 2.36 kcal/head/d, respectively. The use of DFW did not affect energy retention in milk. The utilization of DFW in ration did not significantly prevent the decline of milk production and milk quality. It can be concluded that DFW can be used as an alternative feed for the lactating dairy goat up to 10% in the ration.

  14. Potential Genes for Regulation of Milk Protein Synthesis in Dairy Goat Mammary Gland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Dan; Zhang Na; Nan Xue-mei; Li Qing-zhang; Gao Xue-jun

    2016-01-01

    The lactating mammary gland is a prodigious protein-producing factory, but the milk protein synthesis mechanisms are not well understood. The major objective of this paper was to elucidate which genes and pathways were involved in the regulation of milk protein synthesis in the dairy goat mammary gland. Total 36 primiparous Guanzhong dairy goats were allotted in 12 groups according to their mammary development stages: days 90 and 150 of virgin, days 30, 90, and 150 of pregnancy, days 1, 10, 35, and 60 of lactation and days 3, 7, and 21 of involution (three animals per group). Mammary tissue RNA was isolated for quantitative real-time RT-PCR of four casein genes alpha-s1 casein (CSN1S1), alpha-s2 casein (CSN1S2), beta-casein (CSN2) and casein kappa (CSN3), four whey protein genes lactoglobulin (LGB), lactalbumin (LALBA), lactofarrin (LTF), and Whey acidic protein (WAP) and the genes which were potentially to regulate dairy goat milk protein synthesis at the level of transcription or translation [prolactin receptor (PRLR), AKT1, signal transducers and activators of transcription 5 (STAT5), E74-Like Factor 5 (ELF5), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (EIF4E-BP1), S6kinase (S6K) and caveolin 1]. The results showed that all genes were up-regulated in lactation period. The expressions of PRLR, AKT1, STAT5, ELF5, and S6K were similar to mRNA expressions of milk proteins. Our results indicated that milk protein synthesis in dairy goat mammary gland was possibly regulated by these genes.

  15. Potential use of Bacillus thuringiensis bacteriocins to control antibiotic-resistant bacteria associated with mastitis in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Chávez, A J; Martínez-Ortega, E A; Valencia-Posadas, M; León-Galván, M F; de la Fuente-Salcido, N M; Bideshi, D K; Barboza-Corona, J E

    2016-01-01

    Mastitis caused by microbial infections in dairy goats reduces milk yield, modifies milk composition, and potentially contributes to morbidity in herds and consumers of dairy products. Microorganisms associated with mastitis in dairy goats are commonly controlled with antibiotics, but it is known that continued use of these chemical agents promotes antibiotic resistance among bacterial populations. Recently, it has been shown that bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis inhibit growth of food-borne pathogens and also bacteria associated with bovine mastitis. However, there is no report on their ability to inhibit microorganisms linked to mastitis in dairy goats. In this study, using 16S rDNA and ITS regions of rDNA, we identified nine bacterial isolates and an encapsulated yeast associated with mastitis in dairy goats. Enterococcus durans, Brevibacillus sp., and Staphylococcus epidermidis 2 were resistant to, respectively, 75, ~67, ~42, and ~42 % of the antibiotics screened. In addition, 60 % of the bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin, and dicloxacillin. Importantly, 60 % of the isolates were inhibited by the bacteriocins, but S. epidermidis 1, Enterobacter sp., Escherichia vulneris, and Cryptococcus neoformans were not susceptible to these antimicrobial peptides. Using Brevibacillus sp. and Staphylococcus chromogenes as indicator bacteria, we show that peptides of ~10 kDa that correspond to the molecular mass of bacteriocins used in this study are responsible for the inhibitory activity. Our results demonstrate that multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria associated with subclinical mastitis in dairy goats from Guanajuato, Mexico, are susceptible to bacteriocins produced by B. thuringiensis.

  16. Bacterial subclinical mastitis and its effect on milk yield in low-input dairy goat herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelasakis, A I; Angelidis, A S; Giannakou, R; Filioussis, G; Kalamaki, M S; Arsenos, G

    2016-05-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to record the major pathogens associated with subclinical mastitis (SCM), (2) to calculate their incidence during the milking period, and (3) to estimate the effect of SCM on daily milk yield (DMY) for goats reared under low-input management schemes. Dairy goats (n=590) of Skopelos and indigenous Greek breeds from 4 herds were randomly selected for the study. The study included monthly monitoring, milk yield recording, and bacteriological analyses of milk of individual goats during the course of 2 successive milking periods. Incidence and cumulative incidence were calculated for SCM cases. Moreover, 2 mixed linear regression models were built to assess the effects of (1) SCM and (2) different pathogens isolated from SCM cases, on DMY. The estimated incidence and cumulative incidence of SCM for the first and the second year of the study were 69.5 and 96.4 new cases of SCM/1,000 goat-months, and 24.1 and 31.7%, respectively. A total of 755 milk samples were subjected to microbiological examination, resulting in 661 positive cultures. Coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive staphylococci were isolated from 50.2 and 34.5% of the positive cultures, respectively. The incidence of infections (new infections per 1,000 goat-months) for the first and the second year of the study were 34 and 53 for coagulase-negative staphylococci, 23 and 28 for coagulase-positive staphylococci, 3 and 5 for Streptococcus/Enterococcus spp., and 5.5 and 9.1 for gram-negative bacteria. Goats with SCM had lower DMY when compared with goats without SCM (ca. 47g/d, corresponding to a 5.7% decrease in DMY). In particular, goats with SCM due to coagulase-positive staphylococci infection produced approximately 80g/d less milk (a reduction of ca. 9.7%) compared with uninfected ones, whereas SCM due to gram-negative bacteria resulted in approximately 15% reduction in DMY. Investigating the epidemiology of SCM and its effects on production traits is critical for

  17. B-mode and Doppler sonography of the mammary glands in dairy goats for mastitis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, V J C; Simplício, K; Sanchez, D; Coutinho, L; Teixeira, P; Barros, F; Almeida, V; Rodrigues, L; Bartlewski, P; Oliveira, M; Feliciano, M; Vicente, W

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the sonographic characteristics of the udder and teats and to determine the Doppler indexes of mammary artery in healthy and undergoing subclinical and clinical mastitis goats. Thirty animals among Saanen and Alpine Brown goats were arranged in three groups, healthy goats (HG), goats with subclinical mastitis (SMG) and goats with clinical mastitis (CMG). Using the B-mode, the sonographic characteristics (echotexture and echogenicity) and biometry (diameter and area of the udder cistern, diameter and area of the teat cistern and thickness of the teat wall) were evaluated. Using Doppler ultrasonography, the vascular indexes of the mammary artery were obtained. It was observed hyperechogenicity with solid component in the gland cistern when comparing animals with clinical mastitis and healthy mammary tissue. Regarding the echotexture of the breast tissue, there was heterogeneity in the mammary parenchyma on the three groups, for the milk, it was observed homogeneity for animals on HG and SMG and heterogeneity for animals on CMG. Grey-scale quantitative assessment revealed increase in echogenicity (mean value) for all the structures when comparing the three groups. Biometry did not reveal statistical difference between groups, for none of the evaluated structures. Doppler examination of the mammary artery showed the decrease of end diastolic velocity and raise of pulsatility index between groups. The association of B-mode and Doppler ultrasonography is useful for the evaluation of the udder of dairy goats with mastitis. It is a sensitive and specific method for the study of this disease. Doppler mode was unable to establish reliable criteria for diagnosis of subclinical mastitis. Moreover, the quantification of echogenicity is a useful technique for the evaluation of the milk in animals with mastitis; therefore, it is suggested that it can be used as complementary technique for the diagnosis of mastitis in goats. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag

  18. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Dairy Goats: Genotypic and Phenotypic Comparison of Intramammary and Environmental Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaccabarozzi, Licia; Leoni, Livia; Ballarini, Annalisa; Barberio, Antonio; Locatelli, Clara; Casula, Antonio; Bronzo, Valerio; Pisoni, Giuliano; Jousson, Olivier; Morandi, Stefano; Rapetti, Luca; García-Fernández, Aurora; Moroni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Following the identification of a case of severe clinical mastitis in a Saanen dairy goat (goat A), an average of 26 lactating goats in the herd was monitored over a period of 11 months. Milk microbiological analysis revealed the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 7 of the goats. Among these 7 does, only goat A showed clinical signs of mastitis. The 7 P. aeruginosa isolates from the goat milk and 26 P. aeruginosa isolates from environmental samples were clustered by RAPD-PCR and PFGE analyses in 3 genotypes (G1, G2, G3) and 4 clusters (A, B, C, D), respectively. PFGE clusters A and B correlated with the G1 genotype and included the 7 milk isolates. Although it was not possible to identify the infection source, these results strongly suggest a spreading of the infection from goat A. Clusters C and D overlapped with genotypes G2 and G3, respectively, and included only environmental isolates. The outcome of the antimicrobial susceptibility test performed on the isolates revealed 2 main patterns of multiple resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics and macrolides. Virulence related phenotypes were analyzed, such as swarming and swimming motility, production of biofilm and production of secreted virulence factors. The isolates had distinct phenotypic profiles, corresponding to genotypes G1, G2 and G3. Overall, correlation analysis showed a strong correlation between sampling source, RAPD genotype, PFGE clusters, and phenotypic clusters. The comparison of the levels of virulence related phenotypes did not indicate a higher pathogenic potential in the milk isolates as compared to the environmental isolates. PMID:26606430

  19. Intramammary antibiotic withdrawal periods for dairy goats compared to those for dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Petzer

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the withdrawal periods (WP of two intramammary antibiotics Cloxamast LC (Intervet SA and Spectrazol Milking Cow (Schering-Plough Animal Health in dairy goats and compared them to those recommended for use in cattle. The WP for Cloxamast LC, measured by the Thermo Resistant Inhibitory Substances (TRIS test, was 60 h in composite samples, 56 h in udder half samples, and the dye was visible for up to 56 h. The WP was significantly shorter than the 72 h recommended WP for use in cattle. It was however significantly longer when the 24 h safety margin (48 h was subtracted from the recommended WP for cattle. For Spectrazol Milking Cow the antibiotics could be detected by the TRIS test for 61 h in composite samples and 59 h in udder half samples. This did not differ significantly from the recommended 60 h WP for cattle. However, it was significantly longer than that recommended for use in cattle without the 24 h safety margin. There was no significant difference in WP between infected and non-infected udder halves, while there was a weak positive correlation between WP and stage of lactation (R2 = 0.253. There was a moderate positive correlation (R2 = 0.583 between the TRIS test and the presence of dye in milk in udder half samples and between WP in both udder half and composite milk samples (R2 = 0.456. Weak to moderate positive correlations were present between milk yield and the WP in both udder half (R2 = 0.414 and composite (R2 = 0.262 milk samples. Significant differences (P < 0.001 were also observed between the milk yield of udder halves with and without palpable udder damage and between samples that tested TRIS positive and negative on both composite (P = 0.008 and udder half samples (P < 0.001. There was no significant difference between the milk yield of samples with or without dye. There was a significant difference in milk yield between infected and non-infected udder halves (P = 0.054 and a weak negative correlation

  20. Diagnosis of Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus infection in dairy goats by ELISA, PCR and Viral Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panneum, S; Rukkwamsuk, T

    2017-03-01

    For preventive and control strategies of Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus (CAEV) infection in dairy goats, performance of the available diagnostic tests was described as one of the most important and necessary aspects. The study aimed at evaluating the diagnostic test performance, including PCR, ELISA and viral culture, for CAEV infection in dairy goats in Thailand. Blood samples of 29 dairy goats from five low- to medium-prevalence herds and one very low-prevalence herd were collected for PCR and ELISA methods. The performance of these two diagnostic methods was evaluated by comparing with cytopathic effects (CPE) in the co-cultivation of CAEV and primary synovial cells. Results indicated that sensitivity, specificity were, respectively, 69.6%, 100%, for PCR; and 95.7%, 83.3% for ELISA. The PCR assay tended to have lower sensitivity and higher specificity than ELISA. When multiple tests were applied, parallel testing provided sensitivity and specificity of 98.7% and 83.3%, while series testing showed sensitivity and specificity of 66.6% and 100% respectively. These results indicated that combination of ELISA and PCR provided some advantages and possibly offered optimal methods to detect CAEV-infected goats. Kappa value of the agreement between PCR and ELISA test was 0.34, indicating fair agreement. Regarding the possibility of antigenic variation between CAEV strains used in both PCR and ELISA assays, the actual circulating CAEV strain should be reviewed in order to develop and enhance the diagnostic tests using the CAE viral antigens derived from specific local strains of Thailand.

  1. Etiology and risk factors for mammary infection of dairy goat from São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviani Gomes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify etiologic agents and risk factors for mastitis in dairy goats. For this, two aliquots were collected from 257 milk samples, between April and September, 2012, from 136 Saanen goats from six intensive management farms, with manual and mechanical milking system located in the state of São Paulo. The first aliquot of milk samples was obtained in vials containing preservative bronopol for electronic somatic cell count (SCC, and the second in sterile bottles for bacteriological examination. For risk factors evaluation, epidemiologic questionnaires were performed by the research team by visual observation and survey with handler and owners. Analyzes univariate and multivariate were performed using multiple logistic regression. Was observed prevalence of 28.79% of mammary infection, and predominance of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS. The SCC median was 4,7x105 cells per mL (cells mL-1 of milk. In univariate analysis, was observed risk for mammary infection in places where, the goat was not the main activity of the property (p=0.03; when the diagnosis of clinical mastitis by proof of dark background was not performed (p=0.07; when chlorine was not used in the cleaning of the teats (p=0.29; improper cleaning of the milking parlor (p= 0.06; inadequate hygiene in the milking process (p=0.03 and inadequate hygiene of the milkers (p=03. The main group of pathogen isolated in this study was CNS. The biggest risk associated with mammary infection was the hygiene of ceilings, room, milker and also the process of milking resulting from these microorganisms. Thus, despite indications of hygienic measures in the programs of milk quality and mastitis control, the applicability and awareness of employees involved in the production chain of milk goats are not sensitized. Therefore, the personnel training is the principal measure recommended for the control of mastitis in dairy goats.

  2. Evaluating mountain goat dairy systems for conversion to the organic model, using a multicriteria method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena, Y; Nahed, J; Ruiz, F A; Sánchez-Muñoz, J B; Ruiz-Rojas, J L; Castel, J M

    2012-04-01

    Organic farming conserves natural resources, promotes biodiversity, guarantees animal welfare and obtains healthy products from raw materials through natural processes. In order to evaluate possibilities of increasing organic animal production, this study proposes a farm-scale multicriteria method for assessing the conversion of dairy goat systems to the organic model. In addition, a case study in the Northern Sierra of Seville, southern Spain, is analysed. A consensus of expert opinions and a field survey are used to validate a list of potential indicators and issues for assessing the conversion, which consider not only the European Community regulations for organic livestock farming, but also agroecological principles. As a result, the method includes 56 variables integrated in nine indicators: Nutritional management, Sustainable pasture management, Soil fertility and contamination, Weed and pest control, Disease prevention, Breeds and reproduction, Animal welfare, Food safety and Marketing and management. The nine indicators are finally integrated in a global index named OLPI (Organic Livestock Proximity Index). Application of the method to a case study with 24 goat farms reveals an OLPI value of 46.5% for dairy goat farms located in mountain areas of southern Spain. The aspects that differ most from the agroecological model include soil management, animal nutrition and product marketing. Results of the case study indicate that the proposed method is easy to implement and is useful for quantifying the approximation of conventional farms to an organic model.

  3. Association of IGF-I gene polymorphisms with milk yield and body size in Chinese dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanjuan Deng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of IGF-I gene polymorphisms with certain traits in 708 individuals of two Chinese dairy-goat breeds (Guanzhong and Xinong Saanen was investigated. Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing methods were employed in screening for genetic variation. Two novel mutations were detected in the 5'-flanking region and in intron 4 of IGF-I gene, viz., g.1617 G > A and g.5752 G > C (accession D26119.2, respectively. The associations of the g.1617 G > A mutation with milk yield and the body size were not significant (p > 0.05. However, in the case of g.5752 G > C, Xinong Saanen dairy goats with the CG genotype presented longer bodies (p C mutation could facilitate association analysis and serve as a genetic marker for Chinese dairy-goat breeding and genetics.

  4. Divergence at the casein haplotypes in dairy and meat goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpper, Julia; Chessa, Stefania; Rignanese, Daniela; Caroli, Anna; Erhardt, Georg

    2010-02-01

    Casein genes have been proved to have an influence on milk properties, and are in addition appropriate for phylogeny studies. A large number of casein polymorphisms exist in goats, making their analysis quite complex. The four casein loci were analyzed by molecular techniques for genetic polymorphism detection in the two dairy goat breeds Bunte Deutsche Edelziege (BDE; n=96), Weisse Deutsche Edelziege (WDE; n=91), and the meat goat breed Buren (n=75). Of the 35 analyzed alleles, 18 were found in BDE, and 17 in Buren goats and WDE. In addition, a new allele was identified at the CSN1S1 locus in the BDE, showing a frequency of 0.05. This variant, named CSN1S1*A', is characterized by a t-->c transversion in intron 9. Linkage disequilibrium was found at the casein haplotype in all three breeds. A total of 30 haplotypes showed frequencies higher than 0.01. In the Buren breed only one haplotype showed a frequency higher than 0.1. The ancestral haplotype B-A-A-B (in the order: CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN1S2-CSN3) occurred in all three breeds, showing a very high frequency (>0.8) in the Buren.

  5. Microbiological analysis and sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. in subclinical mastitis of dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R.S. Salaberry

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical mastitis in goats causes economic losses and risks to public health. Given the need for research that shows the most isolated staphylococci species and sensibility tests comparing the resistance between coagulase-negative (CNS and positive Staphylococcus (CPS goats with subclinical mastitis, the aim of this study was to identify the microorganisms isolated from milk samples of goats with subclinical mastitis, as well as define the staphylococci species and determine the sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. to antimicrobials. To collect samples, tests were performed for mug of black background and California mastitis test (CMT, collecting milk from CMT positive animals. A total of 226 samples from seven herds of dairy goats was collected and forwarded to the laboratory, where they were seeded for the isolation of the microorganism and implementing the antibiotic sensibility test. Of these, 122 samples had bacterial growth and the most isolated staphylococci species were: S. epidermidis (24.55%, S. lugdunensis (15.40% and S. intermedius (13.64%. Samples showed increased resistance to antimicrobials: penicillin (81.8%, oxacillin (60.0% and ampicillin (55.5%. Greater sensitivity to: enrofloxacin (99.1%, erythromycin (98.2%, gentamicin (98.2% and vancomycin (98.2% were observed. The S. epidermidis showed higher antimicrobial resistance to amoxicillin and penicillin than S. lugdunensis and S. intermedius. Similar resistance in vitro between CNS and CPS was observed to most antimicrobials. It is important to control the overuse of antibiotics to prevent the emergence of resistant strains.

  6. Continuous lactation effects on mammary remodeling during late gestation and lactation in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safayi, S; Theil, P K; Hou, L; Engbaek, M; Nørgaard, J V; Sejrsen, K; Nielsen, M O

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to 1) elucidate whether continuous milking during late gestation in dairy goats negatively affects mammary remodeling and hence milk production in the subsequent lactation, and 2) identify the regulatory factors responsible for changes in cell turnover and angiogenesis in the continuously lactating mammary gland. Nine multiparous dairy goats were used. One udder half was dried off approximately 9 wk prepartum (normal lactation; NL), and the other udder half of the same goat was milked continuously (continuous lactation; CL) until parturition or until the half-udder milk yields had dropped to below 50 g/d. Mammary biopsies were obtained from each udder half just before the NL gland was dried off (before dry period), within the first 2 wk after drying-off (early dry period, samples available only for NL glands), in the mid dry period, within the last 2 wk before parturition (late dry period), and at d 1 (the day of parturition), 3, 10, 60, and 180 of lactation. Mammary morphology was characterized in biopsies by quantitative histology, and cell turnover was determined by immunohistochemistry (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and Ki-67). Transcription of genes encoding factors involved in mammary epithelial cell (MEC) turnover and vascular function was quantified by quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Results demonstrated that omitting the dry period was possible in goats but was not as easy as claimed before. Renewal of MEC was suppressed in CL glands, which resulted in a smaller MEC population in the subsequent lactation. At the time of parturition (and throughout lactation), the mammary glands subjected to CL had smaller alveoli, more fully differentiated MEC, and a substantially larger capillary fraction compared with NL glands. The continuously lactating gland thus resembled a normally lactating gland in an advanced stage of lactation. None of the studied genomic factors could account for these treatment

  7. Effects of Different Dietary Cation-Anion Difference on Fiber Degradation in Rumen of Laoshan Dairy Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lihua; FENG Qiang

    2009-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to determine effects of different dietary cation-anion difference(DCAD) in diets on ruminal fluid pH and fiber degradation in rumen of Laoshan dairy goats. A 4×4 latin square design was adopted. DCAD in different sampling time-points. There was no effect of DCAD on carboxymethyl cellulase in ruminal fluid at 4 h and 8 h postfeeding (P>0.05).was advantage to non-pregnancy, non-lactication Laoshan dairy goat.

  8. Quantitative determination of casein genetic variants in goat milk: Application in Girgentana dairy goat breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalbano, Maria; Segreto, Roberta; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Mastrangelo, Salvatore; Sardina, Maria Teresa

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to develop a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method to quantify casein genetic variants (αs2-, β-, and κ-casein) in milk of homozygous individuals of Girgentana goat breed. For calibration experiments, pure genetic variants were extracted from individual milk samples of animals with known genotypes. The described HPLC approach was precise, accurate and highly suitable for quantification of goat casein genetic variants of homozygous individuals. The amount of each casein per allele was: αs2-casein A = 2.9 ± 0.8 g/L and F = 1.8 ± 0.4 g/L; β-casein C = 3.0 ± 0.8 g/L and C1 = 2.0 ± 0.7 g/L and κ-casein A = 1.6 ± 0.3 g/L and B = 1.1 ± 0.2 g/L. A good correlation was found between the quantities of αs2-casein genetic variants A and F, and β-casein C and C1 with other previously described method. The main important result was obtained for κ-casein because, till now, no data were available on quantification of single genetic variants for this protein.

  9. Diagnosis and treatment of subclinical mastitis in early lactation in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, S; Supré, K; De Vliegher, S; Haesebrouck, F; Hussein, H; Clausen, L; Prosser, C

    2010-10-01

    The objectives of the study were to define the sensitivity and specificity of the California Mastitis Test (CMT) in determining the presence of intramammary infection in postpartum dairy goats and to determine whether antibiotic therapy increased bacteriological cure rate and lowered somatic cell count (SCC) compared with untreated controls. A CMT was performed and milk samples were collected for bacteriology from 211 glands of 106 does between 0 and 10 d after kidding. From a population of 3,239 glands from goats in 4 commercial herds, goats with one or both glands with a CMT score of >1 and from which bacteria were isolated were either assigned to be treated with 3 intramammary infusions at 12-h intervals of 75 mg of sodium ampicillin and 250 mg of sodium cloxacillin (n=57 glands) or left as untreated controls (n=49 glands). Milk samples were collected again 14 ± 3 and 21 ± 3 d later for bacteriology and SCC determination. Composite milk yield, goat SCC, length of lactation, and survival data were collected. A partial budget was constructed to assess the cost effectiveness of treatment. At a cut point of greater than trace, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the CMT were 0.74, 0.74, 0.42, and 0.92, respectively. Treatment increased the bacteriological cure rate compared with no treatment [30/57 (53%) vs. 6/49 (12%)], but there was a pathogen by treatment interaction whereby treatment increased cure proportion in glands infected with minor, but not major, pathogens. Treatment reduced the foremilk gland-level SCC [1,595 (95% CI=1,106-2,300) vs. 3,028 (95% CI=2,091-4,385) geometric mean (× 1,000) cells/mL] but not the SCC at goat level [1,596 (95% CI=1,219-2,090) vs. 1,488 (95% CI=1,132-1,955) geometric mean (× 1,000) cells/mL] compared with no treatment. Milk yield, risk of removal from the herd, and length of lactation were not altered by treatment. Treatment resulted in a loss of NZ$20.39/doe. It was concluded that

  10. The genetic basis for the selection of dairy goats with enhanced resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckendorn, Felix; Bieber, Anna; Werne, Steffen; Saratsis, Anastasios; Maurer, Veronika; Stricker, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) severely affect small ruminant production worldwide. Increasing problems of anthelmintic resistance have given strong impetus to the search for alternative strategies to control GIN. Selection of animals with an enhanced resistance to GIN has been shown to be successful in sheep. In goats, the corresponding information is comparatively poor. Therefore, the present study was designed to provide reliable data on heritabilities of and genetic correlations between phenotypic traits linked to GIN and milk yield in two major dairy goat breeds (Alpine and Saanen). In all, 20 herds totalling 1303 goats were enrolled in the study. All herds had (i) a history of gastrointestinal nematode infection, (ii) uniform GIN exposure on pasture and (iii) regular milk recordings. For all goats, individual recordings of faecal egg counts (FEC), FAMACHA© eye score, packed cell volume (PCV) and milk yield were performed twice a year with an anthelmintic treatment in between. The collected phenotypic data were multivariately modelled using animal as a random effect with its covariance structure inferred from the pedigree, enabling estimation of the heritabilities of the respective traits and the genetic correlation between them. The heritabilities of FEC, FAMACHA© and PCV were 0.07, 0.22 and 0.22, respectively. The genetic correlation between FEC and FAMACHA© was close to zero and −0.41 between FEC and PCV. The phenotypic correlation between FEC and milk yield was close to zero, whereas the genetic correlation was 0.49. Our data suggest low heritability of FEC in Saanen and Alpine goats and an unfavourable genetic correlation of FEC with milk yield. PMID:28792887

  11. Evaluation of the use of transglutaminase in dairy drinks made from goat milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cristina Faria Vieira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of transglutaminase in dairy drinks made from with goat milk with 45% of serum, and the physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of these drinks within the expiration date of the product. In the first phase, five different levels of transglutaminase (0, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 U/g were evaluated. In the second phase, the drink that had the best sensory acceptability was evaluated for 30 days. It was observed that the dairy drink treated with 0.5 U/g transglutaminase showed higher sensory acceptability in relation to the 7.18 overall impression. The color values of the dairy drink treated with 0.5 U/g showed no significant difference (p<0.05. The values of lactic acid bacteria are established according to the legislation. Results show the feasibility of the use of transglutaminase in dairy drinks.

  12. Gastrointestinal nematodes of dairy goats, anthelmintic resistance and practices of parasite control in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) are one of the main constraints to ruminant production worldwide. Anthelmintic resistance (AR) has been reported in goats throughout Europe, yet little is known about the AR status in Italy. The aims of the study were: i) determine the frequency of AR in GINs in goat flocks in Northern Italy, Italy, ii) survey goat farmers on the current practices of parasite control, iii) update the species composition of the gastrointestinal helminthofauna. Thirty three flocks were enrolled and 1288 individual fecal samples were collected. Based on the egg per gram (EPG), 15 flocks were selected to evaluate the presence of AR in GINs with the Fecal Egg Count Reduction Test (FECRT). A questionnaire surveyed 110 dairy goat farmers to acquire information about farm management and drenching practices against GINs. Further, the gastrointestinal tracts of 42 goats were analyzed. Results The FECRs indicated that five of the 15 flocks had problems of AR, which was identified in all two of the anthelmintic classes tested. Resistance and suspected resistance was found in 40% of the flocks selected for AR testing that were treated with benzimidazoles while 20% of the flocks treated with eprinomectin had resistant GINs. Teladorsagia/Trichostrongylus L3 were isolated from the post-treatment coprocultures of all flocks with resistance but not from the flock with suspected oxfendazole resistance. Treatments against helminths were performed once annually in 73.63% of the flocks, but 20.00% of farmers declared not regularly treating their goats every year. Annual treatments usually occurred in autumn or winter at dose rate for sheep. Te. circumcincta, H. contortus, Tr. colubriformis, Skrjabinema caprae and Oesophagostomum venulosum were the most abundant and prevalent species of the gastrointestinal tract. Conclusions Strategies to prevent the development of AR should be widely adopted in Northern Italy. Further, farmers and practitioners should be

  13. The Influence of Microbiological Quality of Water Resources in Dairy Goat Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iancu Ramona Maria

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution is an essential component for the farmers in managing their agriculture fams. In almost all cases, without the chemical and microbiological analysis of water samples, the effect is damaging the animals and also the consumers. The study was carried out in Sibiu region of Romania, along Hârtibaciu River, and includes four farms, averaging 250 goats with different production system. Difficulties in ensuring quality milk, derived from various sources of contamination, the quality of water is directly depended on the maintenance of water suply. The foreign substances or microorganisms sometimes don’t affect the appearance or taste of the water, but can influence the health of animals and of course the quality of dairy products. This study was made to analyse the microbiological quality of water resources of the farmers, knowing that this is a major factor which influence the guality of the milk. The bacteriological tests were made onto Agar medium culture in petri dishes and were incubated at 37°C for 48h. Based on the microbiologicaly tests of the Hârtibaciu River resource, we could analyse the quality of the milk, too. The results of this study was presented and discused with the farmers and it was the starting point for them in changing their breeding technology, looking forward to improve their dairy production. A better quality of goat milk will be the main purpose of this study knowing that the farmers successed in their business

  14. Physiological and lactation responses of Egyptian dairy Baladi goats to natural thermal stress under subtropical environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud S.; El-Tarabany, Akram A.; Atta, Mostafa A.

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of thermal stress on milk production and physiological traits of Baladi goats under subtropical Egyptian conditions. Sixty dairy Baladi goats were exposed to three different levels of temperature-humidity index (THI), including low (less than 70), moderate (over 70 and up to 80), and high levels (over 80). The influence of THI on the milk composition and physiological, hematological, and biochemical traits was investigated. Rectal temperature and respiration rate were significantly greater at the higher THI than at low and moderate THI (p = 0.016 and 0.002, respectively). Baladi goats had decreased daily milk yield in a rate of 27.3 and 19.3 % at high THI level, compared with low and moderate THI, respectively (p = 0.031). On the contrary, no significant differences have been reported in protein, fat, and total solids percentages at different THI levels. Total leucocyte count, serum glucose, and total protein were significantly reduced at high THI in comparison with low and moderate THI levels (p = 0.043, 0.001, and 0.001, respectively). However, dairy goats maintained relatively stable estimates for erythrocytes count, hemoglobin, serum triglycerides, cholesterol, catalase, total antioxidant capacity, and triiodothyronine at different THI levels. Our results indicate that dairy Baladi goats can tolerate THI levels up to 80; however, variable reduction in milk yield and few biochemical (serum total protein and glucose) and hematological (leucocytes count) parameters have been reported at a THI level higher than 80.

  15. Physiological and lactation responses of Egyptian dairy Baladi goats to natural thermal stress under subtropical environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud S.; El-Tarabany, Akram A.; Atta, Mostafa A.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of thermal stress on milk production and physiological traits of Baladi goats under subtropical Egyptian conditions. Sixty dairy Baladi goats were exposed to three different levels of temperature-humidity index (THI), including low (less than 70), moderate (over 70 and up to 80), and high levels (over 80). The influence of THI on the milk composition and physiological, hematological, and biochemical traits was investigated. Rectal temperature and respiration rate were significantly greater at the higher THI than at low and moderate THI ( p = 0.016 and 0.002, respectively). Baladi goats had decreased daily milk yield in a rate of 27.3 and 19.3 % at high THI level, compared with low and moderate THI, respectively ( p = 0.031). On the contrary, no significant differences have been reported in protein, fat, and total solids percentages at different THI levels. Total leucocyte count, serum glucose, and total protein were significantly reduced at high THI in comparison with low and moderate THI levels ( p = 0.043, 0.001, and 0.001, respectively). However, dairy goats maintained relatively stable estimates for erythrocytes count, hemoglobin, serum triglycerides, cholesterol, catalase, total antioxidant capacity, and triiodothyronine at different THI levels. Our results indicate that dairy Baladi goats can tolerate THI levels up to 80; however, variable reduction in milk yield and few biochemical (serum total protein and glucose) and hematological (leucocytes count) parameters have been reported at a THI level higher than 80.

  16. Prevalence and molecular identification of Chlamydia abortus in commercial dairy goat farms in a hot region in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Hernández, Eleuterio; Vázquez-Chagoyán, Juan Carlos; Salem, Abdelfattah Z M; Saltijeral-Oaxaca, Jorge Antonio; Escalante-Ochoa, Cristina; López-Heydeck, Sandra M; de Oca-Jiménez, Roberto Montes

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence and presence of Chlamydia abortus in Saanen breed female goats from commercial dairy goat farms under intensive production in the municipality of Guanajuato, Mexico. Sera were collected to determine the prevalence of anti-C. abortus IgG antibodies using recombinant enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (rELISA) and cell culture. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to prove the presence of the pathogen in swab samples collected from the vagina and rectum of selected animals. Additionally, foetal tissue samples from a sudden abortion were collected. C. abortus prevalence in female goats of commercial milking farms sampled in Guanajuato, Mexico, was 4.87% (n = 246). Seropositive animals were found in six out of nine (66.6%) dairy goat farms sampled, and prevalence among animals in individual farms ranged between 3.44 and 13.51%. C. abortus was detected using PCR in spleen tissue from the aborted foetus. PCR-based detection, as well as isolation from vaginal and rectal swabs, was not possible in the present study. Isolation through cell culture was also unsuccessful from aborted foetal tissue samples. In conclusion, the results from rELISA and PCR show that C. abortus is present in dairy goat farms in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico.

  17. Enantiometric composition and isomeric-specific PCB determination in dairy products from three different species. Cow, sheep and goat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bordajandi, L.R.; Gonzalez, M.J. [Institute of Organic Chemistry-CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2004-09-15

    In the present study, the concentration of the most relevant PCB congeners and the enantiomeric fraction (EF){sup 5} of 11 chiral PCBs was determined in milk and dairy products made of milk from three different species (cow, sheep and goat). Heartcut multidimensional gas chromatography was employed for the unambiguous determination of both enantiomers, using two different chiral columns, i.e., Chirasil-Dex and BGB-172. The aim of the study was to assess the enantiomeric composition of the dairy samples and to evaluate the possible differences between species and between the dairy products.

  18. Towards Identifying Current Strategies and Innovative Approaches for the Growth of Dairy Goat Entrepreneurs: A Case Study of Njiru District, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philemon Lagat

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Dairy goats remain to be the most lucrative business where land fragmentation has resulted in the formation of small pieces of land that cannot support dairy cattle farming (Kinyanjui et al., 2008. From casual observation, this situation does not prevail in Njiru District since the growth is very slow hence the venture is risky. Nevertheless, some few farmers have risked by taking the initiative of venturing into the business so as to seize the opportunity. The purpose of this study was to identify current strategies and innovative approaches for the growth of dairy goat entrepreneurs.The population of this study was determined by getting a list of farmers engaged in micro and small dairy goat enterprises. This constituted the sampling frame. Simple random sampling method was used to select 36 dairy goat farmers from a list of dairy goat enterprises in Njiru District. The questionnaire comprised of closed and open ended questions. Descriptive statistics was used to collect data and included frequency tables. Further, a computer statistical package for social sciences (SPSS was used in entering and analyzing the data. The study established that the entrepreneurs adopted innovative approaches in their businesses. All of the respondents claimed that their businesses had increased in growth as a result of adopting current strategies and innovative approaches in their dairy goat enterprises.

  19. Usefulness of clinical observations and blood chemistry values for predicting clinical outcomes in dairy goats with pregnancy toxaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Miguel S; Silveira, Júlia M; Carolino, Nuno; Lamas, Luis P; Pascoal, Rita A; Hjerpe, Charles A

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy toxaemia (PT) is a disease that affects pregnant goats during their last month of gestation and is characterized by a high case fatality rate. This study involved 32 does maintained on a commercial dairy goat farm that were diagnosed with PT. A physical examination was performed on and haematology parameters obtained from each doe, at the time of diagnosis. The data from the 24 PT goats that died was compared with the corresponding data from the 8 PT goats that survived. Polypnea, swollen limbs, anorexia with absence of ruminal motility, recumbency, nervous signs and drooping ears were the most frequently observed clinical manifestations. Nineteen out of 21 recumbent goats died. Sixteen out of 17 goats with anorexia and absence of ruminal motility died. Mean beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) values in the goats that died were not significantly different from those in goats that survived. The blood values for pH and pCO2 (p < 0.005) as well as for HCO3(-), BE and K(+) (p < 0.001) were significantly lower in the goats that died than in those that survived. The clinical signs most indicative of a poor prognosis are anorexia with absence of ruminal motility and recumbency. Among the blood parameters to be considered, hypokalaemia and metabolic acidosis are the most relevant. Goats with PT have a high mortality and their condition can deteriorate very fast. Based on the authors's experience, a good strategy to minimize the economic losses caused by PT is to focus on the offspring survival rate since an early decision (induction of kidding or caesarian surgery) can increase the number of alive kids.

  20. QUALITY OF MILK FATTY ACID DURING LATE LACTATION IN DAIRY GOAT FED ON PUFA-DIET SUPPLEMENTED WITH YEAST AND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sulistyowati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yeast and curcumin of C. xanthorrhiza Roxb could be added into concentrate containingpolyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA to improve milk fatty acid quality of dairy goat. There were fivetreatments (PD0: PUFA- diet with no additive; PDA: PUFA- diet with 3 Asifit tablets; PDY: PUFA- dietwith 5 g yeast; PDC: PUFA- diet with 20 g curcuma powder; and PDM: PUFA- diet with a mixture of 5g yeast and 20 g curcuma powder applied onto 20 dairy goats during late lactation (4.6 ± 0.55 monthsof lactation. The treatments were allocated according to a completely completely randomized blockdesign. Results demonstrated that diet containing PUFA supplemented with 5 g yeast and 20 g curcumawere high in total fatty acid, medium chain fatty acid (MCFA, and long chain fatty acid (LCFA. Milkof goats with this treatment showed high in mono unsaturated fatty acid (MUFA and MUFA; while itwas low in short chain fatty acid (SCFA, n6/n3 ratio, and atherogenicity index. These qualities wereoptimally considered good in terms of healthier product. Therefore, the PUFA- diet with 5 g yeast and20 g curcuma was a reasonable choice to be applied for dairy goat.

  1. Serum progesterone concentrations associated with superovulation and premature corpus luteum failure in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbings, R B; Bosu, W T; Barker, C A; King, G J

    1986-01-01

    The incidence and cause of premature corpora lutea failure and the response to luteinizing hormone treatment was investigated in superovulated dairy goats. Does were treated with 1000 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin intramuscularly, followed by either luteinizing hormone (treated group) or saline (control group). Serum progesterone concentrations were used to monitor corpus luteum function. The dose of pregnant mare serum gonadotropin used induced superovulation in a majority of the does, but the responses varied depending on the time of year. Premature regression of the corpora lutea occurred in 4 of 18 does after pregnant mare serum gonadotropin treatment, but there was no difference in the incidence of corpora lutea failure between treated and control groups. Decreases in serum progesterone concentrations were evident by day 3 after ovulation in does that experienced corpora lutea failure indicating this to be the critical time for premature regression of the corpora lutea in superovulated does. PMID:3742374

  2. Mammary gland leptin in relation to lactogenesis in the periparturient dairy goat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Alice Neess; Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2008-01-01

    The role of leptin in development of mammary gland secretory function was studied during the periparturient period in dairy goats. Changes in mammary leptin and leptin receptor (short cytoplasmic form) expression were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR and related to changes in milk and plasma leptin...... concentrations from 5 weeks pre-partum to 7 weeks post-partum. It was further investigated if systemic leptin concentration in the neonate is affected by milk leptin intake. We found no evidence of accumulation of leptin in colostrum pre-partum. Pre- and post-partum milk leptin concentrations were similar......, but interestingly, leptin increased markedly post-partum to reach a peak 2 days after parturition (P=0.01). Plasma leptin concentrations were higher pre-partum than post-partum (Pleptin across the mammary gland were at no time significantly...

  3. Analysis of Q fever in Dutch dairy goat herds and assessment of control measures by means of a transmission model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontje, D M; Backer, J A; Hogerwerf, L; Roest, H I J; van Roermund, H J W

    2016-01-01

    Between 2006 and 2009 the largest human Q fever epidemic ever described occurred in the Netherlands. The source of infection was traced back to dairy goat herds with abortion problems due to Q fever. The first aim of control measures taken in these herds was the reduction of human exposure. To analyze Q fever dynamics in goat herds and to study the effect of control measures, a within-herd model of Coxiella burnetii transmission in dairy goat herds was developed. With this individual-based stochastic model we evaluated six control strategies and three herd management styles and studied which strategy leads to a lower Q fever prevalence and/or to disease extinction in a goat herd. Parameter values were based on literature and on experimental work. The model could not be validated with independent data. The results of the epidemiological model were: (1) Vaccination is effective in quickly reducing the prevalence in a dairy goat herd. (2) When taking into account the average time to extinction of the infection and the infection pressure in a goat herd, the most effective control strategy is preventive yearly vaccination, followed by the reactive strategies to vaccinate after an abortion storm or after testing BTM (bulk tank milk) positive. (3) As C. burnetii in dried dust may affect public health, an alternative ranking method is based on the cumulative amount of C. burnetii emitted into the environment (from disease introduction until extinction). Using this criterion, the same control strategies are effective as when based on time to extinction and infection pressure (see 2). (4) As the bulk of pathogen excretion occurs during partus and abortion, culling of pregnant animals during an abortion storm leads to a fast reduction of the amount of C. burnetii emitted into the environment. However, emission is not entirely prevented and Q fever will not be eradicated in the herd by this measure. (5) A search & destroy (i.e. test and cull) method by PCR of individual milk

  4. NITROGEN UTILIZATION BY DAIRY GOATS OFFERED DIFFERENT NITROGEN SOURCES AS SUPPLEMENTS IN HIGH ISOCALORIC ENERGY CONCENTRATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R.S. Asih

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Twelve growing female goats (Anglo-Nubian were assigned to a multiple latin square designexperiment to evaluate the effectiveness of additions of nitrogen (N supplements to a high isocaloricenergy ration on N utilization. In this experiment, microbial synthesis and N balance were assessed. Thedaily rations were either unsupplemented barley meal (BM, or BM supplemented with one of threenitrogen sources. All rations were isocaloric (3.0 Mcal ME/kg DM and the N supplements weresoybean meal (BSBM, cottonseed meal (BCSM or urea (BU to provide 2.9% N in the concentratecomponent. The unsupplemented BM contained 1.7% N. The addition of N supplements to the rationenhanced N utilization in dairy goats. The organic matter (OM intake, N intake, N balance, andmicrobial N synthesis for BM, BSBM, BCSM and BU were 660.5 g, 721.9 g, 728.1g and 703.5 g; 13.5g, 21.5 g, 20.9 g and 20.7 g; 2.7 g; 7.1 g, 5.4 g, and 5.7 g; and 14.1 g 19.1 g, 19.1 g, and 20.0 g,respectively. It can be concluded that when sufficient dietary energy was available for ruminal microbialactivities, the source of N did not affect N balance, and microbial N synthesis.

  5. Concentrations of volatile 4-alkyl-branched fatty acids in sheep and goat milk and dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaffarnik, Stefanie; Kayademir, Yasemin; Heid, Carolina; Vetter, Walter

    2014-11-01

    Goat and sheep milk and dairy products thereof are characterized by a strong and unique flavor. In this context, the volatile minor fatty acid 4-ethyloctanoic acid plays a prominent role along with 4-methyloctanoic acid when both are present in free form. Using a novel GC/MS method in the selected ion-monitoring mode, previously developed for sheep subcutaneous adipose tissue, we were able to analyze the total concentrations of these flavor-relevant minor fatty acids as methyl esters in goat and sheep milk as well as in their products. Differences between the concentrations and ratios of 4-methyloctanoic acid and 4-ethyloctanoic acid in goat milk (n = 4), goat cheese (n = 4), sheep milk (n = 2), and sheep cheese (n = 4) were observed. Goat milk and cheese resulted in higher concentrations for both fatty acids (190 to 480 μg/g milk fat) and smaller 4-Me-8:0 to 4-Et-8:0 ratios (1.4 to 2.7) compared to sheep milk and cheese (78 to 220 μg/g milk fat; 4-Me-8:0 to 4-Et-8:0 ratio: 15 to 42). In all samples, the concentration of 4-Me-8:0 exceeded the one of 4-Et-8:0. However, due to its lower flavor threshold value the contribution of 4-Et-8:0 to the flavor was generally >76%. The calculated flavor values were >1400 for goat milk and cheeses and >200 for sheep milk and cheeses. In goat milk and its products, only a proportion of milk and sheep samples would be sufficient to generate the characteristic goaty flavor. Parameters that promote or prevent the release of 4-Me-8:0, and especially 4-Et-8:0, will be decisive for the flavor in the resulting dairy product.

  6. Glucose intolerance in dairy goats with pregnancy toxemia: Lack of correlation between blood pH and beta hydroxybutyric acid values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Miguel S; Cota, João B; Vaz, Yolanda M; Ajuda, Inês G; Pascoal, Rita A; Carolino, Nuno; Hjerpe, Charles A

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the response to a glucose tolerance test in dairy goats with pregnancy toxemia (PT), in healthy, pregnant, non-lactating dairy goats in the last month of gestation (HP), and in healthy, lactating, non-pregnant, dairy goats in mid-lactation (HL). A 500 mL volume of a 5% glucose solution was administered by the IV route. Blood glucose concentrations returned to pre-infusion levels by 90 min in all 8 HL goats, and by 180 min in all 8 HP goats. In contrast, concentrations of blood glucose were still significantly above pre-infusion levels at 180 min post-infusion in all 8 PT goats. Thus, marked glucose intolerance was demonstrated in the PT goats, and mild intolerance was noted in the HP goats. In 25 goats diagnosed with PT and having blood beta hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) values ≥ 2.9 mmol/L, the correlation coefficient for BHBA with blood pH was non-significant.

  7. Fatty Acid Profile of Cheese from Dairy Goats Fed a Diet Enriched with Castor, Sesame and Faveleira Vegetable Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertha Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The addition of vegetable oils to the diets of dairy goats is an alternative to supplemental feeding during the dry period and improves the lipid profile of milk and by-products. Cheeses were produced using milk from cross bred goats (Saanen × Alpina fed diets enriched with 4% vegetable oil (faveleira, sesame or castor, the fatty acid profile of cheeses was studied. Supplementation with vegetable oils did not increase the total fat percentage of the cheese (p ≥ 0.05 but did increase the percentage of CLA isomers, long-chain fatty acids (LCFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; in addition, the index of desirable fatty acids (DFA - expressed as the sum of unsaturated fatty acids plus stearic acid was increased for cheese made from milk from goats fed sesame or faveleira oil. Cheeses may have had increased percentages of cis-9,trans-11-CLA due to the supplementation of animal diets with vegetable oils rich in C18:2, such as faveleira and sesame oils. The fatty acid profile of goat cheese did not change significantly in response to the use of castor oil. Thus, the addition of sesame and faveleira oils to goat diets positively altered the fatty acid profile, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat present in goat cheese.

  8. Construction of Antibacterial Peptide CecropinB Eukaryotic Recombinant Vector and Its Expression in Dairy Goat Mammary Gland Epithelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Xuejun; TONG Huili; YIN Deyun; ZHANG Li

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the expression of antibacterial peptide CecropinB eDNA in dairy goat mammary gland epithelial cells, the CecropinB gene was eloned and was inserted into a eukaryotic vector pECFP-Cl to construct the recombinant plasmid pECFP-B by genetic engineering technique. Recombinant plasmid pECFP-B was transfected into dairy goat mammary gland epithelial to detect the bactericidal activity of CeeropinB. The expression of CecropinB was also detected. The result of RT-PCR demonstrated CecropinB gene was expressed in transfeeted cells. CecropinB recombinant plasmid DNA was injected into udders and CecropinB was expressed in mammary gland, exhibiting bactericidal activity to Staphylococcus aureus in vivo experiments.

  9. Physiological and behavioral reactions elicited by simulated and real-life visual and acoustic helicopter stimuli in dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joosse Martin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anecdotal reports and a few scientific publications suggest that flyovers of helicopters at low altitude may elicit fear- or anxiety-related behavioral reactions in grazing feral and farm animals. We investigated the behavioral and physiological stress reactions of five individually housed dairy goats to different acoustic and visual stimuli from helicopters and to combinations of these stimuli under controlled environmental (indoor conditions. The visual stimuli were helicopter animations projected on a large screen in front of the enclosures of the goats. Acoustic and visual stimuli of a tractor were also presented. On the final day of the study the goats were exposed to two flyovers (altitude 50 m and 75 m of a Chinook helicopter while grazing in a pasture. Salivary cortisol, behavior, and heart rate of the goats were registered before, during and after stimulus presentations. Results The goats reacted alert to the visual and/or acoustic stimuli that were presented in their room. They raised their heads and turned their ears forward in the direction of the stimuli. There was no statistically reliable rise of the average velocity of moving of the goats in their enclosure and no increase of the duration of moving during presentation of the stimuli. Also there was no increase in heart rate or salivary cortisol concentration during the indoor test sessions. Surprisingly, no physiological and behavioral stress responses were observed during the flyover of a Chinook at 50 m, which produced a peak noise of 110 dB. Conclusions We conclude that the behavior and physiology of goats are unaffected by brief episodes of intense, adverse visual and acoustic stimulation such as the sight and noise of overflying helicopters. The absence of a physiological stress response and of elevated emotional reactivity of goats subjected to helicopter stimuli is discussed in relation to the design and testing schedule of this study.

  10. Exploring the Novel Genetic Variant of PITX1 Gene and Its Effect on Milk Performance in Dairy Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Xian-yong; ZHAO Hai-yu; LI Zhuan-jian; ZHOU Rui; PAN Chuan-ying; LEI Chu-zhao; CHEN Hong

    2013-01-01

    Paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 1 (PITX1) plays an important role in pituitary development by indirectly regulating the expression of the GH and PRL genes, and therefore PITX1 gene is regarded as a potential candidate gene for building the relationship between the gene polymorphism and milk traits. The aim of this study was to explore the novel genetic variant in PITX1 gene and its effect on milk performance in dairy goats. Herein, a novel genetic variation (NW_00314033:g.201G>A or IVS1+41G>A) located at nt41 position of the first intron of the goat PITX1 gene was reported at the P1 locus, which can be genotyped by the Msp I PCR-RFLP. In the Msp I PCR-RFLP analyis, the GG variant was a major genotype, and the A variant was a minor allele in Guanzhong dairy goats which was at Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (chi-squareχ2=140, P<0.01). The establishment of associations between different genotypes and milk performance was performed in the analyzed population. A total of three significant associations of the polymorphism with average milk fat content (%) (P=0.045), morning milk fat content (%) (P=0.049), and afternoon milk fat content (%) (P=0.050), were found, respectively. A significant relationship between the polymorphism and average total solid content (P=0.029) was also detected. This novel single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) extended the spectrum of genetic variation of the goat PITX1 gene, and its significant association with milk performance would benefit from the application of DNA markers related to improving milk performance through marker-assisted selection (MAS) in dairy goats.

  11. Feasibility and validity of animal-based indicators for on-farm welfare assessment of thermal stress in dairy goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, Monica; Barbieri, Sara; Fioni, Luna; Mattiello, Silvana

    2016-02-01

    This investigation tested the feasibility and validity of indicators of cold and heat stress in dairy goats for on-farm welfare assessment protocols. The study was performed on two intensive dairy farms in Italy. Two different 3-point scale (0-2) scoring systems were applied to assess cold and heat stress. Cold and heat stress scores were visually assessed from outside the pen in the morning, afternoon and evening in January-February, April-May and July 2013 for a total of nine sessions of observations/farm. Temperature (°C), relative humidity (%) and wind speed (km/h) were recorded and Thermal Heat Index (THI) was calculated. The sessions were allocated to three climatic seasons, depending on THI ranges: cold (65). Score 2 was rarely assessed; therefore, scores 1 and 2 were aggregated for statistical analysis. The amount of goats suffering from cold stress was significantly higher in the cold season than in neutral ( P < 0.01) and hot ( P < 0.001) seasons. Signs of heat stress were recorded only in the hot season ( P < 0.001). The visual assessment from outside the pen confirms the on-farm feasibility of both indicators: No constraint was found and time required was less than 10 min. Our results show that cold and heat stress scores are valid indicators to detect thermal stress in intensively managed dairy goats. The use of a binary scoring system (presence/absence), merging scores 1 and 2, may be a further refinement to improve the feasibility. This study also allows the prediction of optimal ranges of THI for dairy goat breeds in intensive husbandry systems, setting a comfort zone included into 55 and 70.

  12. Epidemiological characterization and risk factors associated with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in dairy goats in the Brazilian semiarid region

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    Theonys Diógenes Freitas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to conduct an epidemiological study and identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of paratuberculosis (Johne’s disease in dairy goats within the semiarid region of Paraíba State. The study was done during the period of March 2009 to July 2011, during which 727 female goats from 86 flocks from the city of Monteiro, Paraíba were investigated. For the serological diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map infection indirect ELISA tests (screening and confirmatory were performed. Of the 727 animals used six (0.82% were seropositive at the confirmatory test after screening, and of the 86 flocks six (6.97% presented at least one seropositive animal. In positive flocks the frequency of reactive animals ranged from 5.26% to 16.60%. Risk factors identified were production system (weaning and reproduction (odds ratio = 36.0; 95% CI = 2.6 –486.1; p < 0,001 and absence of technical infrastructure (odds ratio = 54.0; 95% CI = 4.5 –642.9; p < 0,001. It was concluded that Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is present in dairy goat flocks in the region; however, its influence on decrease productivity as well as the risk of transmission to humans through animal products must totally evaluated. Based on the analysis of risk factors, improvements are recommended for the technical infrastructure and the management of breeding goats.

  13. On-line monitoring of milk electrical conductivity by fuzzy logic technology to characterise health status in dairy goats

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    Mauro Zaninelli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Intramammary infection affects the quality and quantity of dairy goat milk. Health status (HS and milk quality can be monitored by electrical conductivity (EC. The aim of the study was to determine the detection potential of EC when measured on-line on a daily basis and compared with readings from previous milkings. Milk yields (MYs were investigated with the same approach. To evaluate these relative traits, a multivariate model based on fuzzy logic technology – which provided interesting results in cows – was used. Two foremilk samples from 8 healthy Saanen goats were measured daily over the course of six months. Bacteriological tests and somatic cells counts were used to define the HS. On-line EC measurements for each gland and MYs were also considered. Predicted deviations of EC and MY were calculated using a moving-average model and entered in the fuzzy logic model. The reported accuracy has a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 69%. Conclusions show that fuzzy logic is an interesting approach for dairy goats, since it offered better accuracy than other methods previously published. Nevertheless, specificity was lower than in dairy cows, probably due to the lack of a significant decrease of MY in diseased glands. Still, results show that the detection of the HS characteristics with EC is improved, when measured on-line, daily and compared with the readings from previous milkings.

  14. The intrauterine treatment of the retained foetal membrane in dairy goats by ozone: novel alternative to antibiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuricic, D; Valpotic, H; Samardzija, M

    2015-04-01

    One of the major post-parturient complications in dairy goats is the retention of foetal membrane (RFM), which negatively influences their health, reproductive efficacy and welfare. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of intrauterine either ozone (OZ) or antibiotic (AB) treatments to establish the use of OZ as a novel and potential alternative to AB therapy in does with the RFM. The study was performed on 7 herds of dairy goats (n = 563) kept in the farms in Croatia. The conception rate was 563 of 641 total matings or 87.83%. The does from selected farms were observed during early puerperium and were divided into animals without the RFM (n = 522) and with the RFM (n = 41), treated either with foam spray OZ (n = 21) or with foaming AB oxytetracycline tablets (n = 20). The does with the RFM were mated successfully and became pregnant next kidding season, regardless of the treatment applied. Treatment with OZ attained similar results to the standard AB therapy, indicating that it could be novel potential alternative therapy of the RFM in dairy goats.

  15. Paratuberculosis en rebaños caprinos chilenos Paratuberculosis in Chilean dairy goat herds

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    J Kruze

    2007-01-01

    origen.Paratuberculosis in goats is widely distributed throughout the world. Recently the disease has been officially reported in Chile. The purpose of this study was to determine the infection status of some dairy goat herds under two types of management systems (intensive and extensive in different regions of Chile. Faecal samples were collected from 383 female goats > 2 years old belonging to 8 dairy goat herds located in the Metropolitan Region (2, 9th Region (5 and 10th Region (1. Differences in routine management were not considered when selecting the herds. Faecal samples were collected via rectum, decontaminated with hexadecylpyridinium chloride (HPC and antibiotics, cultured on Herrold’s Egg Yolk Medium with mycobactin J, and incubated at 37ºC for up to nine months. The suspected colonies were confirmed by PCR (IS900 technology using specific primers for this pathogen (P90+ and P91+. Thirty five out of the 383 sampled goats were faecal culture positive (9.1%, all of them belonging to only four herds. These infected herds were generally larger, intensively managed, and they systematically violated most management recommendations for paratuberculosis control, including the routine introduction of animals of unknown paratuberculosis tests status from herds of unknown Map infection status. The remaining four uninfected herds were extensively managed, did not import goats from other herds, and were located in geographical areas where no mixed grazing with other susceptible ruminant species took place, this being a possible risk factor for paratuberculosis. This study reports the presence of caprine paratuberculosis in Chile, in particular in those dairy goat herds that have introduced high producing milk breeds of animals to improve the genetic capacity of milk production. Therefore, any attempt to evaluate the risk of introducing the infection in a paratuberculosisfree area as the result of purchasing animals is worthwhile.

  16. Evaluating the fitness of human lysozyme transgenic dairy goats: growth and reproductive traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kathryn A; Berg, Jolene M; Murray, James D; Maga, Elizabeth A

    2010-12-01

    While there are many reports in the literature describing the attributes of specific applications of transgenic animals for agriculture, there are relatively few studies focusing on the fitness of the transgenic animals themselves. This work was designed to gather information on genetically modified food animals to determine if the presence of a transgene can impact general animal production traits. More specifically, we used a line of transgenic dairy goats expressing human lysozyme in their mammary gland to evaluate the reproductive fitness and growth and development of these animals compared to their non-transgenic counterparts and the impact of consuming a transgenic food product, lysozyme-containing milk. In males, none of the parameters of semen quality, including semen volume and concentration, total sperm per ejaculate, sperm morphology, viability and motility, were significantly different between transgenic bucks and non-transgenic full-sib controls. Likewise, transgenic females of this line did not significantly differ in the reproductive traits of gestation length and litter size compared to their non-transgenic counterparts. To evaluate growth, transgenic and non-transgenic kid goats received colostrum and milk from either transgenic or non-transgenic does from birth until weaning. Neither the presence of the transgene nor the consumption of milk from transgenic animals significantly affected birth weight, weaning weight, overall gain and post-wean gain. These results indicate that the analyzed reproductive and growth traits were not regularly or substantially impacted by the presence or expression of the transgene. The evaluation of these general parameters is an important aspect of defining the safety of applying transgenic technology to animal agriculture.

  17. Signal spectral analysis to characterize gland milk electrical conductivity in dairy goats

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    Mauro Zaninelli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intramammary infection affects quality and quantity of milk. Having as final target the improving of animal health’ monitoring, this research studied the gland milk electrical conductivity (EC signal in order to identify a possible parameter more representative of the EC variations that can be observed, during a milking, when not healthy (NH glands are considered. Two foremilk gland samples, from 40 Saanen goats, were acquired for three weeks and lactation stages (LS: 0-60 Days In Milking; 61-120 DIM; =>120 DIM, for a total amount of 1440 samples. Bacteriological analyses and somatic cells counts (SCC were used to define glands health status. In case of negative bacteriological analyses and SCC <1,000,000 cells/mL, glands were classified as healthy; alternatively, when bacteriological analyses were positive or SCC higher than 1,000,000 cells/mL, for two or more consecutive days, glands were classified as NH. A spectral analysis, to calculate the frequency spectrum and the bandwidth length of the milk EC signal, was performed. To validate data acquired, A MIXED procedure was used considering the HS, LS and the LS x HS as explanatory variables of the statistical model. Results showed that spectral analysis allows characterizing the milk EC variations thorough the bandwidth length parameter. This parameter has a significant relationship with the gland health status and it provides more accurate information than other traits, like the statistical variance of the signal. Therefore, it could be useful to improve the performances of multivariate models/algorithms that detect dairy goat health status.

  18. Expression pattern of Boule in dairy goat testis and its function in promoting the meiosis in male germline stem cells (mGSCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingzhao; Liu, Chao; Zhu, Haijing; Sun, Junwei; Yu, Meng; Niu, Zhiwei; Liu, Weishuai; Peng, Sha; Hua, Jinlian

    2013-02-01

    Boule is a conserved gene in meiosis, which encodes RNA binding protein required for spermatocyte meiosis. Deletion of Boule was found to block meiosis in spermatogenesis, which contributes to infertility. Up to date, the expression and function of Boule in the goat testis are not known. The objectives of this study were to investigate the expression pattern of Boule in dairy goat testis and their function in male germline stem cells (mGSCs). The results first revealed that the expression level of Boule in adult testes was significantly higher than younger and immature goats, and azoospermia and male intersex testis. Over-expression of Boule promoted the expression of meiosis-related genes in dairy goat mGSCs. The expression of Stra8 was up-regulated by over-expression of Boule analyzed by Western blotting and Luciferase reporter assay. While, Cdc25a, the downstream regulator of Boule, was found not to affect the expression of Stra8, and our data illustrated that Cdc25a did not regulate meiosis via Stra8. The expression of Stra8 and Boule was up-regulated by RA induction. Taken together, results suggest the Boule plays an important role in dairy goat spermatogenesis and that over-expression of Boule may promote spermatogenesis and meiosis in dairy goat.

  19. The Effects of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 on Dairy Goat Mastitis and Cell Survival of Goat Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zheng, Huiling; Li, Lihui; Shen, Xingai; Zang, Wenjuan; Sun, Yongsen

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is a zinc-dependent enzyme, and plays a crucial role in extracellular matrix degeneration, inflammation and tissue remodeling. However, the relationship between MMP-9 and somatic cell count (SCC) in goat milk and the role of MMP-9 in the regulation of mastitis are still unknown. In this study, we found MMP-9 was predominantly expressed in the spleen, intestine and mammary gland. The SCC in goat milk was positively correlated with MMP-9 expression, and staphylococcus aureus could markedly increase MMP-9 expression in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC) in dosage and time dependent manner. We also demonstrated that SB-3CT, an inhibitor of MMP-9, promoted apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in GMEC. Thus, MMP-9 may emerge as an easily measurable and sensitive parameter that reflects the number of somatic cells present in milk and a regulatory factor of apoptosis in GMEC.

  20. Effects of different sources of protein on digestive characteristics, microbial efficiency, and nutrient flow in dairy goats

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    Nivea Regina de Oliveira Felisberto

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Diets formulated with protein sources presenting different resistance to ruminal degradation were compared by evaluating ruminal parameters, production and microbial efficiency and nutrients flow to the omasum in goats. Eight rumen cannulated non-lactating, non-pregnant goats were distributed in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with two replicates. Treatments consisted of four diets where different sources of plant protein accounted for the major protein source named soybean meal, source of higher ruminal degradability, and three other sources of higher resistance of degradation: roasted soybean, corn gluten meal, and cottonseed cake. Amounts of rumen protein were similar among rations; however, flows of dry matter, protein and non-fiber carbohydrate to omasum were higher for diets with protein source with reduced rumen degradation rate. Higher values of rumen ammonia were obtained by using ration with soybean meal as major source of protein. Higher values of pH were obtained for rations with roasted soybean e cottonseed cake. Regarding kinetic of transit, similar values were found among rations. Diets with protein sources presenting reduced ruminal degradation increase nutrients flow to the omasum in goats and alter digestive parameters such as pH and ammonia without compromising bacteria growth and efficiency, which grants their use for dairy goats with similar efficiency to rations using more degradable sources of protein.

  1. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Chlamydophila abortus infection in dairy goats in the Northeast of Brazil

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    Carolina S.A.B. Santos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Few data are available on the prevalence and risk factors of Chlamydophila abortus infection in goats in Brazil. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the flock-level prevalence of C. abortus infection in goats from the semiarid region of the Paraíba State, Northeast region of Brazil, as well as to identify risk factors associated with the infection. Flocks were randomly selected and a pre-established number of female goats > 12 mo old were sampled in each of these flocks. A total of 975 serum samples from 110 flocks were collected, and structured questionnaire focusing on risk factors for C. abortus infection was given to each farmer at the time of blood collection. For the serological diagnosis the complement fixation test (CFT using C. abortus S26/3 strain as antigen was performed. The flock-level factors for C. abortus prevalence were tested using multivariate logistic regression model. Fifty-five flocks out of 110 presented at least one seropositive animal with an overall prevalence of 50.0% (95%; CI: 40.3%, 59.7%. Ninety-one out of 975 dairy goats examined were seropositive with titers >32, resulting in a frequency of 9.3%. Lend buck for breeding (odds ratio = 2.35; 95% CI: 1.04-5.33 and history of abortions (odds ratio = 3.06; 95% CI: 1.37-6.80 were associated with increased flock prevalence.

  2. Risk factors for subclinical intramammary infection in dairy goats in two longitudinal field studies evaluated by Bayesian logistic regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koop, Gerrit; Collar, Carol A.; Toft, Nils

    2013-01-01

    are imperfect tests, particularly lacking sensitivity, which leads to misclassification and thus to biased estimates of odds ratios in risk factor studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors for the true (latent) IMI status of major pathogens in dairy goats. We used Bayesian logistic......, caprine arthritis encephalitis-virus infection status, and kidding season), and uncontrollable risk factors (parity, lactation stage, milk yield, pregnancy status, and breed) were measured in the Dutch study, the Californian study or in both studies. Bayesian logistic regression models were constructed...... in which the true (but latent) infection status was linked to the joint test results, as functions of test sensitivity and specificity. The latent IMI status was the dependent variable in the logistic regression model with risk factors as independent variables and with random herd and goat effects...

  3. ANALYSIS OF THE CAEV INFECTION IMPACT ON THE MILK YIELD AND MILK SCC OF POLISH DAIRY GOATS

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    Joanna Pławińska-Czarnak

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Goats’ milk is an attractive product for producers and consumers, because of its health benefits and chemical composition. But there arestill no strict regulations according to specific hygienic rules for this milk safety. Somatic cells number, which is the basic parameter for bovine milk (SCC vary in goats and it is affected by many factors, e.g. age, estrous phase, type of milking, but also by infectious factors. In our experiment we had analyzed the potential influence of CAEV infection on dairy goats productivity and milk SCC. The experiment was conducted on 24 individuals (12 seropositive/12 seronegative , with milk samples analysis during subsequent lactations (from 2nd to 5th. The results have shown the impact of viral infection on early and late lactations, with decreased milk yield & increased number of somatic cells in milk. We conclude that it could be correlated with infection progression and the efficiency of goats’ immune system.

  4. Dairy goat kids fed liquid diets in substitution of goat milk and slaughtered at different ages: an economic viability analysis using Monte Carlo techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knupp, L S; Veloso, C M; Marcondes, M I; Silveira, T S; Silva, A L; Souza, N O; Knupp, S N R; Cannas, A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the economic viability of producing dairy goat kids fed liquid diets in alternative of goat milk and slaughtered at two different ages. Forty-eight male newborn Saanen and Alpine kids were selected and allocated to four groups using a completely randomized factorial design: goat milk (GM), cow milk (CM), commercial milk replacer (CMR) and fermented cow colostrum (FC). Each group was then divided into two groups: slaughter at 60 and 90 days of age. The animals received Tifton hay and concentrate ad libitum. The values of total costs of liquid and solid feed plus labor, income and average gross margin were calculated. The data were then analyzed using the Monte Carlo techniques with the @Risk 5.5 software, with 1000 iterations of the variables being studied through the model. The kids fed GM and CMR generated negative profitability values when slaughtered at 60 days (US$ -16.4 and US$ -2.17, respectively) and also at 90 days (US$ -30.8 and US$ -0.18, respectively). The risk analysis showed that there is a 98% probability that profitability would be negative when GM is used. In this regard, CM and FC presented low risk when the kids were slaughtered at 60 days (8.5% and 21.2%, respectively) and an even lower risk when animals were slaughtered at 90 days (5.2% and 3.8%, respectively). The kids fed CM and slaughtered at 90 days presented the highest average gross income (US$ 67.88) and also average gross margin (US$ 18.43/animal). For the 60-day rearing regime to be economically viable, the CMR cost should not exceed 11.47% of the animal-selling price. This implies that the replacer cannot cost more than US$ 0.39 and 0.43/kg for the 60- and 90-day feeding regimes, respectively. The sensitivity analysis showed that the variables with the greatest impact on the final model's results were animal selling price, liquid diet cost, final weight at slaughter and labor. In conclusion, the production of male dairy goat kids can be economically

  5. Effect of complete rumen modifier (CRM and Calliandra calothyrus on productivity and enteric methane productions of PE dairy goat

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    Ni Made Suci Sukmawati

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Methanogenesis in the rumen is thought to represent 2-12% loss of energy intake. The energy loss as methane can decrease animal productivity and feed efficiency. In addition, methane is potentially involves in global warming that affects the atmosphere adversely. A research to improve PE dairy goat productivity and reduce enteric methane emission by supplementation of calliandra and complete rumen modifier (CRM was conducted for 6 months. In this experiment 20 PE dairy goats were divided into five blocks according to body weight. The experimental design used was a randomized block design that consisted of four treatments, A. Elephant grass 50% + concentrate 50% (control, B. Elephant grass 40% + concentrate 40% + calliandra 20%, C. Elephant grass 50% + concentrate 48% + CRM 2% and D. Elephant grass 40% + concentrate 38% + calliandra 20% + CRM 2%. Data were analyzed statistically using ANOVA and Duncan test. The result showed that calliandra and CRM did not affect nutrient consumption, except that protein consumption increased (P < 0.05 in calliandra treatments (B and D. Nutrient digestibility increased in CRM (C treatment, while other treatments did not differ from control. CRM also increased total bacteria (36.84%, milk production (67.21%, milk fat (25.0%, and reduced enteric methane production (65.71%. The improvement of milk production in CRM treatment (C was followed by better feed efficiency than other treatments. In conclusion, CRM was more effective than calliandra in improving milk production of PE dairy goats and reduced enteric methane emission, but its effectivity was reduced in combination with calliandra.

  6. Use of a staphylococcal vaccine to reduce prevalence of mastitis and lower somatic cell counts in a registered Saanen dairy goat herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautz, F M; Nickerson, S C; Ely, L O

    2014-08-01

    This investigation evaluated the efficacy of a bacterin in reducing the prevalence of staphylococcal mastitis and somatic cell counts (SCC) in a dairy goat herd. Does were vaccinated or left as controls, and the levels of mastitis and SCC monitored over 18 months. Staphylococcus caprae (42.5%), S. xylosus (15.1%), and S. simulans (10.0%) were the predominant causes of intramammary infections (IMI). The infection rate was 1.64 IMI/doe among vaccinates, which tended to be lower (P mastitis vaccines for use in managing staphylococcal mastitis and SCC in dairy goats. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The Effect of Different Doses of Composite Artemisia annua Extract on Ruminal Fermentation of Dairy Goats in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; LU De-xun; DING Guo-he; MA Yan-fen

    2011-01-01

    An in vitro study was conducted to determine the effect of different doses of Composite Artemisia annua extract (CAE) on rumen microbial fermentation.CAE was a crude extract from the stem and leaves of Composite Artemisia annua extracted with ethanol.The doses of CAE supplementation with frozen-dry form were:control (no addition),3,30,300 and 3 000 mg/L mixed culture fluid,respectively.Rumen fluid was taken from 3ruminally fistulated dairy goats fed a 50% forage to 50% mixed concentrate ratio diet.The rumen contents were thoroughly mixed and strained through 4 layers of cheese-cloth.

  8. Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamic Effects of Flunixin after Intravenous, Intramuscular and Oral Administration to Dairy Goats

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    Odensvik K

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacokinetics and the prostaglandin (PG synthesis inhibiting effect of flunixin were determined in 6 Norwegian dairy goats. The dose was 2.2 mg/kg body weight administered by intravenous (i.v., intramuscular (i.m. and oral (p.o. routes using a cross-over design. Plasma flunixin content was analysed by use of liquid chromatography and the PG synthesis was evaluated by measuring plasma 15-ketodihydro-PGF2α by a radioimmuno-assay. Results are presented as median (range. The elimination half-lives (t1/2·λ were 3.6 (2.0–5.0, 3.4 (2.6–6.8 and 4.3 (3.4–6.1 h for i.v., i.m. and p.o. administration, respectively. Volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss was 0.35 (0.23–0.41 L/kg and clearance (CL, 110 (60–160 mL/h/kg. The plasma concentrations after oral administration showed a double-peak phenomenon with the two peaks occurring at 0.37 (0.25–1 and 3.5 (2.5–5.0 h, respectively. Both peaks were in the same order of magnitude. Bioavailability was 79 (53–112 and 58 (35%–120% for i.m. and p.o. administration, respectively. 15-Ketodihydro-PGF2α plasma concentrations decreased after flunixin administration independent of the route of administration.

  9. Differentially expressed genes associated with Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisoni, G; Moroni, P; Genini, S; Stella, A; Boettcher, P J; Cremonesi, P; Scaccabarozzi, L; Giuffra, E; Castiglioni, B

    2010-06-15

    To study gene expression within the mammary glands of dairy goats with mastitis, mRNA was collected from milk somatic cells (MSCs) of left udder halves challenged with Staphylococcus aureus and right udder halves infused with PBS, as control, at different time points (0, 12, 24 and 48h post-infection). Transcriptional profiles were investigated using bovine cDNA microarrays; of the total 288 differentially expressed genes identified with ANOVA analysis (False Discovery Rate=0.05, 1.5-fold change), 26, 36 and 16 genes were down-regulated at 12, 24 and 48h post-infection, respectively, while 60, 141 and 9 genes were up-regulated at the same corresponding time points. The expression profiles clearly changed at 24h post-infection with 177 genes significantly altered, corresponding to a 10-fold increase of S. aureus bacterial count in milk from infected udders. Differential expression of selected genes (CD2BP2, BCAP31, MHCII, FOSL2, MAPK13, ILT5 and JUNB) was also confirmed by real-time PCR at the different time points considered, showing high correlation with the microarray measurements and high reliability of the microarray analyses. The most readily inducible classes of genes in caprine MSCs infected with S. aureus were pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and their receptors; IL-1alpha, lymphotoxin alpha, granulocyte chemotactic protein (CXCL6), and IL-2 receptor gamma were all up-regulated in infected udders versus healthy controls. This study identified a number of differentially expressed genes induced by S. aureus intramammary infection and demonstrates the intricacy of the patterns of gene expression that influence host response to a complex pathogen of significant relevance to both human and veterinary medicine.

  10. Intramammary antibiotics in dairy goats : withdrawal periods of three intramammary antibiotics compared to recommended withdrawal periods for cows

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    J. Karzis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Intramammary antibiotics are registered and tested for use in dairy cattle. This study investigated withdrawal periods of three intramammary antibiotics (Curaclox LC [Norbrook Pharmacia AH], Spectrazol Milking Cow (Schering-Plough Animal Health and Rilexine 200 LC (Logos Agvet [Virbac] in dairy goats and compared them to withdrawal periods recommended for use in cattle. Three trials were carried out in two different herds. The withdrawal periods for Curaclox LC in eight relatively low producing Saanen goats were 74.3 h (+ 19.21 measured by Thermo-Resistant Inhibitory Substances (TRIS, 90.0 h (+ 16.97 measured by colour dye, 99.4 h (+ 9.07 for cloxacillin measured by Parallux Beta Lactam Assay test (IDEXX distributors, and 92.6 h (+ 11.41 for ampicillin measured by Parallux. The withdrawal period for Curaclox LC recommended for use in cattle (72 h was significantly shorter than the withdrawal periods as measured by colour dye (P < 0.001, Parallux testing for cloxacillin (P < 0.001 and ampicillin (P = 0.003. There was a significant difference in withdrawal periods as measured by TRIS (P = 0.009 and colour dye (P = 0.036. The mean withdrawal periods measured on 12 relatively high producing Saanen and Saanen-Toggenburg crossbreed dairy goats measured by TRIS, colour dye and Parallux for ampicillin and cloxacillin were, however, shorter at 42.0 h (+ 7.077, 64.5 h (+ 60.26, 77.3 h (+ 13.56 and 70.7 h (+ 12.65, respectively. These withdrawal periods for Curaclox LC were significantly longer than the withdrawal periods recommended for cattle as measured by TRIS (P < 0.001 and colour dye (P < 0.001. The combined withdrawal periods for Curaclox LC in the two trials as measured by TRIS, colour dye, Parallux testing for Cloxacillin and Ampicillin were 58.64h (+ 24.31, 75.8 h (+ 17.70, 87.0 h (+ 16.10 and 80.3 h (+ 16.23, respectively. The withdrawal period, when data of the two trials were combined, measured by TRIS (P < 0.001 was significantly longer than

  11. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Coxiella burnetii (Q fever seropositivity in dairy goat farmers' households in The Netherlands, 2009-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Schimmer

    Full Text Available Community Q fever epidemics occurred in The Netherlands in 2007-2009, with dairy goat and dairy sheep farms as the implicated source. The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors for seropositivity in dairy goat farmers and their household members living or working on these farms. Sera of 268 people living or working on 111 dairy goat farms were tested for Coxiella burnetii IgG and IgM antibodies using immunofluorescence assay. Seroprevalences in farmers, spouses and children (12-17 years were 73.5%, 66.7%, and 57.1%, respectively. Risk factors for seropositivity were: performing three or more daily goat-related tasks, farm location in the two southern provinces of the country, proximity to bulk milk-positive farms, distance from the nearest stable to residence of 10 meters or less, presence of cats and multiple goat breeds in the stable, covering stable air spaces and staff not wearing farm boots. Goat farmers have a high risk to acquire this occupational infection. Clinicians should consider Q fever in this population presenting with compatible symptoms to allow timely diagnosis and treatment to prevent severe sequelae. Based on the risk factors identified, strengthening general biosecurity measures is recommended such as consistently wearing boots and protective clothing by farm staff to avoid indirect transmission and avoiding access of companion animals in the goat stable. Furthermore, it provides an evidence base for continuation of the current vaccination policy for small ruminants, preventing spread from contaminated farms to other farms in the vicinity. Finally, vaccination of seronegative farmers and household members could be considered.

  12. Relationships between the daily intake of unsaturated plant lipids and the contents of major milk fatty acids in dairy goats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez Marín, A.L.; Núñez Sánchez, N.; Garzón Sigler, A. I.; Peña Blanco, F.; Fuente, M.A. de la

    2015-07-01

    A meta-regression of the effects of the amount of plant lipids consumed by dairy goats on the contents of some milk fat fatty acids (FA) was carried out. Fourteen peer-reviewed published papers reporting 17 experiments were used in the study. Those experiments compared control diets without added fat with diets that included plant lipids rich in unsaturated FA, summing up to 64 treatments. The results showed that increasing daily intake of plant lipids linearly reduced the contents of all medium chain saturated FA in milk fat. Moreover, it was observed that the longer the chain of the milk saturated FA, the greater the negative effect of the plant lipid intake on their contents. On the other hand, the contents of stearic acid and the sum of oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids in milk fat linearly increased as daily plant lipid intake rose. The results obtained corroborate previous reports on the effects of feeding dairy goats with increasing amounts of unsaturated plant lipids on milk FA profile. (Author)

  13. Distribution and toxicity of monosodium methanearsonate following oral administration of the herbicide to dairy sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatpanahi, M; Anderson, A C

    1984-01-01

    Iranian fat-tailed sheep and dairy goats were administered the herbicide monosodium methanearsonate orally at a dose of 10 mg. MSMA (as arsenic) per kg. of body weight. The concentration time curves of MSMA in the blood of sheep and goats followed a first order composite exponential equation of the form: Cb(t) = Ae- alpha t + Be- beta t - C degrees be-kat. Absorption, distribution and elimination of MSMA, therefore, corresponds to an open two-compartment model. Arsenic from MSMA was readily absorbed from gastrointestinal tract and distributed in the body fluids and the various tissues. Approximately 90% of the arsenic was excreted in the urine within 120 hrs and small amounts were also recovered in feces. Arsenic accumulation in the tissues was low and urinary excretion was the most important exit route. Arsenic concentrations in milk were low when compared to the controls, which indicates that arsenic is not excreted in the milk to significant levels. The absorption, distribution and overall elimination rate constants for the two animal species studied were statistically different at the 0.95 level of confidence which indicates that there are apparently differences in MSMA metabolism by sheep and goats.

  14. Control measures against Q fever in Dutch dairy goat herds: epidemiological and economical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontje, D.M.; Backer, J.A.; Roest, H.I.J.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.; Roermund, van H.J.W.

    2013-01-01

    To analyse the disease dynamics in goat herds and to study the effect of control measures, a Q fever transmission model was developed by CVI. With such a model we can study questions like ‘What strategy can lower the incidence of Q fever in goats or even lead to disease extinction?’ and ‘Is vaccinat

  15. Control measures against Q fever in Dutch dairy goat herds: epidemiological and economical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontje, D.M.; Backer, J.A.; Roest, H.I.J.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.; Roermund, van H.J.W.

    2013-01-01

    To analyse the disease dynamics in goat herds and to study the effect of control measures, a Q fever transmission model was developed by CVI. With such a model we can study questions like ‘What strategy can lower the incidence of Q fever in goats or even lead to disease extinction?’ and ‘Is vaccinat

  16. Effects of co-grazing dairy heifers with goats on animal performance, dry matter yield, and pasture forage composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, T S; Unruh-Snyder, L J; Neary, M K; Nennich, T D

    2012-12-01

    Mixed livestock grazing can offer an alternative management system for rearing dairy replacement heifers (Bos taurus). A 2-yr study was conducted during 2009 (yr 1) and 2010 (yr 2) to determine the effects of co-grazing Holstein heifers under rotational stocking with Boer × Kiko goats on animal performance, pasture DM yield, and botanical composition. Each year, 24 heifers (134 ± 6 d of age and 147.4 ± 31.2 kg BW in yr 1; 166 ± 11 d of age and 168.0 ± 27.6 kg BW in yr 2) and 6 goats (2 yr old and 39.7 ± 16.2 kg BW in yr 1; 1 yr old and 33.7 ± 7.4 kg BW in yr 2) were divided into 6 paddocks with 4 heifers and 2 goats, where applicable, per group. Low endophyte-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) pastures were used to evaluate 2 grazing strategies (heifers grazed alone [HO] or heifers co-grazed with goats [HG]). In addition, 6 goats were assigned to 2 paddocks and grazed alone (GO) each year to estimate goat pasture forage intake and compare Haemonchus contortus infection to co-grazed goats. Forage samples were taken monthly to assess DM yield and botanical composition. Samples collected for botanical composition were manually sorted into grass, legume, and weed species. Forage DMI was estimated using a rising plate meter before and after grazing. Heifer BW at the conclusion of yr 1 and yr 2 did not differ between HO and HG (P = 0.40 and P = 0.12, respectively). Likewise, overall ADG did not differ between HO and HG, averaging 0.65 kg/d and 0.63 kg/d over both grazing seasons (P = 0.70). Grazing strategy did not affect forage or total DMI in yr 1; however, HO consumed 2.3 kg/d more forage DM than HG (P < 0.01), resulting in greater total DMI for HO in yr 2 (P < 0.01). Heights at the hip and withers were greater for HO than for HG during both grazing seasons (P < 0.05). Weed presence did not differ between grazing strategies over both grazing seasons as determined by manual harvesting, but visual estimation

  17. GDNF Up-Regulates c-Myc Transcription via the PI3K/Akt Pathway to Promote Dairy Goat Male Germline Stem Cells (mGSC) Proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jun-wei; ZHU Hai-jing; LIU Chao; LI Ming-zhao; HUA Jin-lian

    2013-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that regulation of GDNF on male germline stem cells (mGSCs) mainly through Ras/Erk1/2, Src family kinase and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways, but the signaling pathways GDNF-mediated are different when the species and cell lines varied. Whether GDNF regulates self-renewal of mGSCs isolated from livestock has not been reported. Here, we purified mGSCs from dairy goat testis using mixed enzymes and fibronectin. Immunofluoresce staining revealed the cultured dairy mGSCs expressed Vasa, Nanos2, Ngn3, Tert, Dazl, Lin28, Oct4, CD49f, Stra8 and GFRa1, reflecting that these cells were mGSCs phenotype. Then we cultured these dairy goat mGSCs in different concentrations of GDNF (0, 5, 10, or 20 ng mL-1) to optimize the best concentration of GDNF to sustain the dairy goat mGSCs self-renewal, after that the inhibitor of PI3K (LY294002, 10μmol L-1) was added to the medium which contains the optimal concentration of GDNF we obtained by experiments. The mGSCs cultured in different media were compared through the population doubling time (PDT), capacity of cell proliferation evaluated by PCNA and BrdU immunofluorescence staining, RT-PCR, QRT-PCR, Western blotting and flow cytometry. Results showed that 10 ng mL-1 was the optimal concentration of GDNF to maintain goat mGSCs self-renewal and GDNF up-regulates c-Myc transcription via the PI3K/Akt pathway to promote goat mGSCs proliferation. This study provides us an efficient model to study the mechanism in mGSCs proliferation and differentiation in goat, and has important implications in unveiling signaling pathways in livestock GSCs.

  18. Determining suitable dimensions for dairy goat feeding places by evaluating body posture and feeding reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Nina M; Pommereau, Marc; Patt, Antonia; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2017-02-01

    Confined goats spend a substantial part of the day feeding. A poorly designed feeding place increases the risk of feeding in nonphysiological body postures, and even injury. Scientifically validated information on suitable dimensions of feeding places for loose-housed goats is almost absent from the literature. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to determine feeding place dimensions that would allow goats to feed in a species-appropriate, relaxed body posture. A total of 27 goats with a height at the withers of 62 to 80 cm were included in the study. Goats were tested individually in an experimental feeding stall that allowed the height difference between the feed table, the standing area of the forelegs, and a feeding area step (difference in height between forelegs and hind legs) to be varied. The goats accessed the feed table via a palisade feeding barrier. The feed table was equipped with recesses at varying distances to the feeding barrier (5-55 cm in 5-cm steps) at angles of 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°, or 150° (feeding angle), which were filled with the goats' preferred food. In 18 trials, balanced for order across animals, each animal underwent all possible combinations of feeding area step (3 levels: 0, 10, and 20 cm) and of difference in height between feed table and standing area of forelegs (6 levels: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm). The minimum and maximum reach at which the animals could reach feed on the table with a relaxed body posture was determined for each combination. Statistical analysis was performed using mixed-effects models. The animals were able to feed with a relaxed posture when the feed table was at least 10 cm higher than the standing height of the goats' forelegs. Larger goats achieved smaller minimum reaches and minimum reach increased if the goats' head and neck were angled. Maximum reach increased with increasing height at withers and height of the feed table. The presence of a feeding area step had no influence on minimum and

  19. Suitability of Norwegian short-tail lambs, Norwegian dairy goats and Cashmere goats for meat production - Carcass, meat, chemical and sensory characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushi, D E; Eik, L O; Thomassen, M S; Sørheim, O; Dnøy, T

    2008-11-01

    Six female Norwegian lambs (29kg body weight, 8 months old), six castrated Norwegian goats (27kg body weight, 10 months old) and six castrated Cashmere goats (20kg body weight, 8 months old) were used to study the relative potential of Norwegian lambs, Norwegian goats and Cashmere goats for meat production. Animals were fattened on silage and commercial concentrate before slaughter. Lamb meat had 4 % lower (PNorwegian goats. Sensory panellists scored lamb meat fattier, juicier and more tender than goat meats. Meat from Cashmere goats scored highest (PNorwegian lamb and Cashmere goats, meats from them are nutritionally comparable to that from Norwegian goats. However, the higher proportion of SFA in Norwegian lambs and Cashmere goats may increase hardness of fat and being easily solidified upon cooling, may influence meat palatability.

  20. Mastitis diagnosis in dairy goats through somatic cell counts and California mastitis test. Preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, Álvaro; Valentim, Ramiro; Nunes, Manuel; Correia, Teresa Montenegro; Trigo, Margarida; Maurício, Raimundo; Costa, Cristina; Coelho, Alípio

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate somatic cell count (SCC) and Californian mastitis test (CMT) reliability as methods to survey mastitis in Serrana goats. Microbiological diagnosis, SCC and CTM were performed on 2028 samples, collected from individual glands during a lactation period. According to results CMT (predictive negative value = 69.5%) may be used as a cheap and practical method for sub clinical mastitis survey in Serrana goats. Decision on SCC use will depend on additional resear...

  1. Withdrawal periods and tissue tolerance after intramammary antibiotic treatment of dairy goats with clinical mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    J. Karzis; E.F. Donkin; I.M. Petzer

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine withdrawal periods (WP) and tissue irritation after administration of three intramammary antibiotics [Curaclox LC (Norbrook (ARK AH)], Spectrazol Milking Cow (Schering-Plough AH) and Rilexine 200 LC [Logos Agvet (Virbac)] in goats with clinical mastitis.Withdrawal periods in goats with clinical mastitis treated with Curaclox LC, were not significantly different from those recommended for use in cows (72 h) with (67 h) or without (48 h) the 24 h man...

  2. Evaluation of the adaptability of dairy goats in the Brazilian semiarid region with the aid of infrared thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Maria Nunes da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the adaptability of dairy goats with aid of infrared thermography in the environmental conditions of the Brazilian semiarid region. Were used 36 female goats, with a mean of 2.5 years and an average weight of 45 kg, distributed in a completely randomized design 2 x 2 in a factorial arrangement; two genotypes (Anglo Nubian and Alpine Brown and two shifts (morning and afternoon, with 18 repetitions. Analysis of variance showed that the shift had significant effect (P<0.05 on rectal temperature (RT, average surface temperature (AST and thermal gradients, but the breed had no significant effect (P>0.05 and there was no significant interaction between breed and shift. With respect to physiological parameters: respiratory rate (RR and surface temperature of the muzzle of cinnamon there was significant effect of breed and shift and significant interaction between breed and shift (P<0.05. Positive correlations between physiological parameters and room temperature and negative correlation between thermal gradients and more parameters. The Anglo Nubian breed had become more adapted to the semi-arid environmental conditions representing a good alternative for breeding programs. The Alpine breed increased respiratory effort required to dissipate heat and maintain homeothermy, proving to be more demanding regarding system creation and management in the semi-arid climatic conditions.

  3. The function of Msx1 gene in promoting meiosis of dairy goat male germline stem cells (mGSCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Hailong; Wu, Jiang; Zhu, Haijing; Li, Na; Tang, Furong; Yao, Xi; Yang, Churong; Peng, Sha; Li, Guangpeng; Hua, Jinlian

    2013-12-01

    During sequential stages of meiosis, numerous cytoplasmic and nuclear events take place in which many germline and non-germline genes involved. It is demonstrated that the germline gene Stra8 and synaptonemal complex protein 3 (Scp3) play an important role in the meiosis. Recently, studies showed Msx1, a DNA-binding protein taking part in the skeletal development, also having a functional attractive factor to Stra8 and Scp3 in the meiosis. In this study, we cloned the gene Msx1 then transfected the Msx1 constructed recombination plasmid, pMsx1-Ires2-AcGFP, into the dairy goat germline stem cells (male germline stem cells) and analysed the effects of Msx1 on the expression of Stra8 and Scp3. The results showed that Msx1 could enhance the expression of Stra8 and Scp3 and promote the meiosis in goat testicular cells. Bmp4 activated the expression of Msx1 and Stra8. This study suggests that Msx1 plays an important role in spermatogenesis and meiosis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Rumen-protected choline and vitamin E supplementation in periparturient dairy goats: effects on milk production and folate, vitamin B12 and vitamin E status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinotti, L; Campagnoli, A; D'Ambrosio, F; Susca, F; Innocenti, M; Rebucci, R; Fusi, E; Cheli, F; Savoini, G; Dell'orto, V; Baldi, A

    2008-07-01

    We investigated the effects of rumen-protected choline (RPC) and vitamin E (VITE) administration on milk production and status of folate, vitamin B12 and vitamin E during the periparturient period of dairy goats. Forty-eight Saanen multiparous goats were selected for the 72-day experiment, being moved to a maternity pen 30 days before expected parturition and assigned to one of the four experimental groups: control (CTR), no choline or vitamin E supplementation; choline (RPC), supplemented with 4 g/day choline chloride in rumen-protected form; vitamin E (VITE), supplemented with 200 IU/day vitamin E in rumen-protected form; and choline and vitamin E (RPCE), supplemented with 4 g/day RPC chloride and 200 IU/day vitamin E. Supplements were administered individually before the morning feed to ensure complete consumption, starting 30 days before kidding and continuing for 35 days after. During the experiment, milk yield and 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) yield were, respectively, 210 and 350 g/day higher in RPC-supplemented goats than in non-supplemented goats. Milk fat concentration and fat yield were also increased by RPC treatment. Milk yield and composition were unaffected by vitamin E supplementation. There were no significant interactions between RPC and VITE for any of the variables measured. Plasma metabolites did not differ between treatments before and after kidding except that plasma folate at parturition was higher in RPC-supplemented goats. Neither choline nor vitamin E affected vitamin B12 plasma concentrations, while a time effect was evident after the second week of lactation, when B12 levels in each treatment group started to increase. Vitamin E administration resulted in plasma α-tocopherol levels that were 2 to 2.5 times higher than in non-supplemented goats. Overall, these results suggest that greater choline availability can improve milk production and methyl group metabolism in transition dairy goats.

  5. Improved Isolation and Culture of Embryonic Germ Cells from Guanzhong Dairy Goat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wei-feng; GE Xiu-guo; HUA Jin-lian; SHEN Wen-zheng; DOU Zhong-ying

    2006-01-01

    A total of 219 embryonic-germ-cell-like (EG-like) clumps were derived from 15 selected goat fetuses. Isolation of primordial germ cells (PGCs) based on co-culture with primary goat embryonic fibroblast showed no difference from traditional feeder layer-based culture method used in mouse and human. The putative primary EG colonies were multilayer clumps of compact cells with unclear cell-cell boundaries. Three subculture methods of goat EG-like colony, traditional enzymatic digestion, mechanical cutting and combination of the both, were compared in this study. As a result, EG-like colonies traditionally disassociated with collagenase Ⅳ could be subcultured for up to 4 passages. And the mechanically disaggregated EG-like colonies were successfully maintained 9-12 passages with or without enzymatic treatment. The pluripotency of the EG-like colonies was identified by their specific marker staining, spontaneous differentiation and embryoid bodies (EBs) formation in vitro. Most goat EG-like colonies (> 80%) were AKP positive and immunocytochemically characterized with positive SSEA-1, Oct-4 and c-kit staining but SSEA-4. Under the condition of delaying passage, goat EG-like cells could differentiate into fibroblast-like, epithelium-like, and neuron-like cells. In addition, EBs could be obtained successfully in routine hanging drop culture. The serum free culture system (feeder layer-based) used in this study was suitable for keeping PGCs and EG-like cells in their undifferentiated condition, but failed to converse them to immortal cells. These results indicated that mechanical cutting is an effective method for passaging goat EG cell colonies.However, the microenvironment of conversing EG cells to immortal cells is still unclear.

  6. Effect of bromochloromethane on methane emission, rumen fermentation pattern, milk yield, and fatty acid profile in lactating dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abecia, L; Toral, P G; Martín-García, A I; Martínez, G; Tomkins, N W; Molina-Alcaide, E; Newbold, C J; Yáñez-Ruiz, D R

    2012-04-01

    Several technologies have been tested to reduce enteric methanogenesis, but very few have been successfully used in practical conditions for livestock. Furthermore, the consequences of reduced rumen methane production on animal performance and milk quality are poorly understood. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of feeding bromochloromethane (BCM), a halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbon with potential antimethanogenic activity, to dairy goats on rumen methane production, fermentation pattern, the abundance of major microbial groups, and on animal performance and milk composition. Eighteen goats were allocated to 2 experimental groups of 9 animals each: treated (BCM+) or not (BCM-) with 0.30 g of BCM/100 kg of body weight per day. The BCM was administered per os in 2 equal doses per day from parturition to 2 wk postweaning (10 wk). After weaning, methane emissions were recorded over 2 consecutive days (d 57 and 58 on treatment) in polycarbonate chambers. On d 59, individual rumen fluid samples were collected for volatile fatty acid (VFA) analysis and quantification of bacterial, protozoal, and archaeal numbers by real-time PCR. On d 69 and 70, daily milk production was recorded and samples were collected for determination of fat, protein, lactose, casein, and total solids concentration by infrared spectrophotometry, and fatty acid composition by gas chromatography. Treatment with BCM reduced methane production by 33% (21.6 vs. 14.4 L/kg of DMI) compared with nontreated animals, although it did not affect the abundance of rumen bacteria, protozoa, and total methanogenic archaea. The observed improvement in the efficiency of digestive processes was accompanied by a 36% increase in milk yield, probably due to the more propionic type of rumen fermentation and an increase in VFA production. The increase in milk yield was not accompanied by any changes in the concentrations or yields of fat, protein, or lactose. Despite the substantial decrease in methane

  7. Development and validation of a visual body condition scoring system for dairy goats with picture-based training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A; Brandão, S; Monteiro, A; Ajuda, I; Stilwell, G

    2015-09-01

    Body condition scoring (BCS) is the most widely used method to assess changes in body fat reserves, which reflects its high potential to be included in on-farm welfare assessment protocols. Currently used scoring systems in dairy goats require animal restraint for body palpation. In this study, the Animal Welfare Indicators project (AWIN) proposes to overcome this constraint by developing a scoring system based only on visual assessment. The AWIN visual body condition scoring system highlights representative animals from 3 categories: very thin, normal, and very fat, and was built from data sets with photographs of animals scored by a commonly used 6-point scoring system that requires palpation in 2 anatomical regions. Development of the AWIN scoring system required 3 steps: (1) identification and validation of a body region of interest; (2) sketching the region from photographs; and (3) creation of training material. The scoring system's reliability was statistically confirmed. An initial study identified features in the rump region from which we could compute a set of body measurements (i.e., measures based on anatomical references of the rump region) that showed a strong correlation with the assigned BCS. To validate the result, we collected a final data set from 171 goats. To account for variability in animal size and camera position, we mapped a subset of features to a standard template and aligned all the rump images before computing the body measurements. Scientific illustrations were created from the aligned images of animals identified as representative of each category to increase clarity and reproducibility. For training material, we created sketches representing the threshold between consecutive categories. Finally, we conducted 2 field reliability studies. In the first test, no training was given to 4 observers, whereas in the second, training using the threshold images was delivered to the same observers. In the first experiment, interobserver results

  8. Vitamin D status in growing dairy goats and sheep: Influence of ultraviolet B radiation on bone metabolism and calcium homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, M V; Wilkens, M R; Liesegang, A

    2017-08-16

    The aim of this study was to investigate how controlled UVB irradiation in combination with reduced nutritional vitamin D (vitD) supply affects vitD status and Ca metabolism of growing goats and sheep. The hypothesis was that, like dairy cows, goats and sheep are able to compensate for the missing nutritional supply of vitD through endogenous production in the skin, with the consequence of a high vitD status and a balanced Ca homeostasis. Sixteen lambs and 14 goat kids aged 3 and a half months were housed in an UVB free environment and fed hay and a vitD-free concentrate over a period of 13 wk. One group of each species was exposed to UVB lamps daily during individual feeding; the other groups served as controls. Serum, urine, and feces samples were taken at the start and at a monthly interval. Serum was analyzed for vitD metabolites, bone markers, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor I, Ca, and P. Apparent digestibility and urinary excretion of Ca and P were determined. The left metatarsus was analyzed by peripheral quantitative computer tomography for bone mineral density before starting and at the end of the trial. In wk 13, all animals were slaughtered and samples of skin, rumen, duodenum, kidney, and bone (metatarsus) were collected. Content of sterols of vitD synthesis in the skin, Ca flux rates in rumen and duodenum, expression of vitD receptor in duodenum and kidney, renal and intestinal gene expression of Ca transport proteins, and renal enzymes related to vitD metabolism were determined. The UVB exposure led to lower 7-dehydrocholesterol content in the skin and a better vitD status (higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D), but no signs of vitD deficiency were seen in the control groups and no effect of irradiation was detected in the analyzed parameters of Ca homeostasis. Differences between the 2 species were detected: lambs had a higher increase of bone mineral density, lower values of bone markers, growth hormone, and insulin-like growth factor I in

  9. Diagnosis of selenium status in grazing dairy goats on the Mexican plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Bribiesca, J E.; Tórtora, J L.; Huerta, M; Aguirre, A; Hernández, L M.

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the concentration of Selenium (Se) in soils, forages and the tissues of kids and does under extensive grazing conditions in two regions of the Tlaxcala state, Mexico (Carrillo Puerto and Ixtenco) in the dry and rainy season. There were no differences in the concentration of Se in soil (0.051 and 0.047ppm), pH of the soil (6.1 and 5.9), concentration of Se in the forage (0.052 and 0.075ppm) and blood serum of goats (0.02 and 0.021ppm) during the dry and rainy seasons, respectively. The Carrillo Puerto region had a significantly higher content of Se in the soil (31%), soil pH (7%), content of Se in forage (25.9%), and content of Se in blood serum of goats (16%) compared to the corresponding values obtained in Ixtenco. The mean concentration of Se in the serum of kids with clinical signs of white muscle disease, was significantly lower (36.3%) compared to the kids from the same farm that were apparently healthy. The results of this study suggest that soil, forages, and goats have a marginal Se status in both regions during the dry and rainy seasons. Further research is required to find the most appropriate method to correct the Se-deficiency in goats from these regions.

  10. Effects of using pistachio hull and Polyethylene Glycol on intake and digestibility of feed, blood metabolites and milk yield and fatty acids profile in Saanan dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atieh Rahimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding Pistachio Hull (PH as a source of tannin and Polyethylene Glycol (PEG supplementation on feed intake, nutrients digestibility, milk yield and compositions, blood lipid metabolits and milk fatty acids profile in Saanen dairy goats. Nine maltiparus Saanen dairy goats were used in a 3 × 3 replicated latin square design with 21-d periods, including 14 d of adaptation followed by 7 d of sampling. Three treatments were formulated: T1 Control, without PH, T2 30% PH and T3 30% PH + 1% PEG (DM basis. Results showed that DMI was not affected by the diets. DM, ADF and NDF digestibility were not significantly different between treatments (P

  11. Withdrawal periods and tissue tolerance after intramammary antibiotic treatment of dairy goats with clinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Karzis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine withdrawal periods (WP and tissue irritation after administration of three intramammary antibiotics [Curaclox LC (Norbrook (ARK AH], Spectrazol Milking Cow (Schering-Plough AH and Rilexine 200 LC [Logos Agvet (Virbac] in goats with clinical mastitis.Withdrawal periods in goats with clinical mastitis treated with Curaclox LC, were not significantly different from those recommended for use in cows (72 h with (67 h or without (48 h the 24 h mandatory safety margin while Spectrazol caused a significantly longer withdrawal period (122 h than that recommended for use in cattle with (60 h and without (36 h the 24h safety margin. The withdrawal period of clinical mastitis cases treated with Rilexine 200 LC was 48 h compared to the 96 h recommended for use in cows.A linear model of regression with factors influencing the WP in goats with clinical mastitis was as follows : WP = 30.21 + 4.692 (sampling time + 22.11 (udder pathology - 13.6 (floccules - 0.00649 (milk yield.Somatic Cell Counts (SCC of milk from udder halves with clinical mastitis ranged from 7 053 x 103 to 7 948 x 103 cells per mℓ without isolations of bacteria and between 6 476 x 103 and 8 479 x 103 cells per mℓ with isolations of bacteria. Most of the variation in SCC could not be explained and the California Milk Cell Test (CMCT and SCC on their own were not reliable methods for mastitis diagnosis. However, CMCT and SCC were indicators of udder irritation. In goats without clinical mastitis, Spectrazol Milking Cow caused the least tissue irritation followed by Rilexine 200 LC and Curaclox LC. For goats with clinical mastitis, Rilexine 200 LC caused the least irritation, followed by Curaclox LC while Spectrazol Milking Cow caused the most irritation.

  12. Withdrawal periods and tissue tolerance after intramammary antibiotic treatment of dairy goats with clinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karzis, J; Donkin, E F; Petzer, I M

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine withdrawal periods (WP) and tissue irritation after administration of three intramammary antibiotics [Curaclox LC (Norbrook (ARK AH)], Spectrazol Milking Cow (Schering-Plough AH) and Rilexine 200 LC [Logos Agvet (Virbac)] in goats with clinical mastitis. Withdrawal periods in goats with clinical mastitis treated with Curaclox LC, were not significantly different from those recommended for use in cows (72 h) with (67 h) or without (48 h) the 24 h mandatory safety margin while Spectrazol caused a significantly longer withdrawal period (122 h) than that recommended for use in cattle with (60 h) and without (36 h) the 24h safety margin. The withdrawal period of clinical mastitis cases treated with Rilexine 200 LC was 48 h compared to the 96 h recommended for use in cows. A linear model of regression with factors influencing the WP in goats with clinical mastitis was as follows: WP = 30.21 + 4.692 (sampling time) + 22.11 (udder pathology) - 13.6 (floccules) - 0.00649 (milk yield). Somatic Cell Counts (SCC) of milk from udder halves with clinical mastitis ranged from 7,053 x 10(3) to 7,948 x 10(3) cells per ml without isolations of bacteria and between 6,476 x 10(3) and 8,479 x 10(3) cells per ml with isolations of bacteria. Most of the variation in SCC could not be explained and the California Milk Cell Test (CMCT) and SCC on their own were not reliable methods for mastitis diagnosis. However, CMCT and SCC were indicators of udder irritation. In goats without clinical mastitis, Spectrazol Milking Cow caused the least tissue irritation followed by Rilexine 200 LC and Curaclox LC. For goats with clinical mastitis, Rilexine 200 LC caused the least irritation, followed by Curaclox LC while Spectrazol Milking Cow caused the most irritation.

  13. Bulk tank milk surveillance as a measure to detect Coxiella burnetii shedding dairy goat herds in the Netherlands between 2009 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Brom, R; Santman-Berends, I; Luttikholt, S; Moll, L; Van Engelen, E; Vellema, P

    2015-06-01

    In the period from 2005 to 2009, Coxiella burnetii was a cause of abortion waves at 28 dairy goat farms and 2 dairy sheep farms in the Netherlands. Two years after the first abortion waves, a large human Q fever outbreak started mainly in the same region, and aborting small ruminants were regarded as most probable source. To distinguish between infected and noninfected herds, a surveillance program started in October 2009, based on PCR testing of bulk tank milk (BTM) samples, which had never been described before. The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of this surveillance program and to evaluate both the effect of culling of pregnant dairy goats on positive farms and of vaccination on BTM results. Bulk tank milk samples were tested for C. burnetii DNA using a real-time PCR, and results were analyzed in relation to vaccination, culling, and notifiable (officially reported to government) C. burnetii abortion records. In spring and autumn, BTM samples were also tested for antibodies using an ELISA, and results were evaluated in relation to the compulsory vaccination campaign. Between October 2009 and April 2014, 1,660 (5.6%) out of 29,875 BTM samples from 401 dairy goat farms tested positive for C. burnetii DNA. The percentage of positive samples dropped from 20.5% in 2009 to 0.3% in 2014. In a multivariable model, significantly higher odds of being PCR positive in the BTM surveillance program were found in farms of which all pregnant dairy goats were culled. Additionally, the risk for C. burnetii BTM PCR positivity significantly decreased after multiple vaccinations. Bulk tank milk ELISA results were significantly higher after vaccination than before. The ELISA results were higher after multiple vaccinations compared with a single vaccination, and ELISA results on officially declared infected farms were significantly higher compared with noninfected farms. In conclusion, BTM surveillance is an effective and useful tool to detect C. burnetii shedding

  14. Intramammary antibiotics in dairy goats : effect of stage of lactation, parity and milk volume on withdrawal periods, and the effect of treatment on milk compositional quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Karzis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The length of the antibiotic withdrawal period after intramammary treatment was influenced by the milk yield of dairy goats during this trial. Shorter withdrawal periods were seen in relatively high yielding dairy goats (production above 1.5 ℓ per day compared to low producers (less than 1.3 ℓ per day. High yielding goats treated with Curaclox LC (Norbrook [Pharmacia AH] had a withdrawal period of 42 h, while low yielding goats, treated with the same product, had a withdrawal period of 74 h. The recommended withdrawal period for Curaclox LC for use in cattle is 72 h. Relatively high yielding goats treated with Rilexine 200 LC (Logos Agvet [Virbac] had a significantly shorter withdrawal period (37 h than that recommended for use in cattle (96 h. Low yielding goats treated with Spectrazol Milking Cow (Schering-Plough Animal Health had a significantly longer (95 h withdrawal period than that recommended for use in cattle (60 h. Withdrawal periods were also influenced by stage of lactation and parity. There was a moderate positive correlation between lactation number and withdrawal period, as measured by TRIS (R2 = 0.621, and a moderate negative correlation between stage of lactation and withdrawal period (R2 = -0.669. In Trials 1, 2 and 3 combined there was a moderate negative correlation between withdrawal period and volume (R2 = -0.511 and a strong positive correlation between withdrawal period and lactation number (R2 = 0.720. The differences in percentage milk fat, protein and lactose before, during and after treatment were not statistically significant except in Trial 3 (Curaclox LC and Rilexine 200 LC where protein and lactose differed significantly. In Trial 2 (Spectrazol Milking Cow milk fat percentages differed significantly between treatment and control groups as did protein percentages in Trial 3. These differences are however, not biologically meaningful.

  15. Developing a predictive model for the energy content of goat milk as the basis for a functional unit formulation to be used in the life cycle assessment of dairy goat production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danieli, P P; Ronchi, B

    2017-07-27

    Recent reports on livestock environmental impact based on life cycle assessment (LCA) did not fully consider the case of the dairy goat. Assignment of an environmental impact (e.g. global warming potential) to a specific product needs to be related to the appropriate 'unitary amount' or functional unit (FU). For milk, the energy content may provide a common basis for a definition of the FU. To date, no ad hoc formulations for the FU of goat milk have been proposed. For these reasons, this study aimed to develop and test one or more predictive models (DPMs) for the gross energy (GE) content of goat milk, based on published compositional data, such as fat (F), protein, total solids (TS), solid non-fat matter (SNF), lactose (Lac) and ash. The DPMs were developed, selected and tested using a linear regression approach, as a meta-analysis (i.e. meta-regression) was not applicable. However, in the final stage, a control procedure for spurious findings was carried out using a Monte Carlo permutation test. Because several published predictive models (PPMs) for GE in cow milk and goat milk were found in the literature, they were tested on the same data set with which the DPMs were developed. The best-performing DPMs and PPMs were compared directly with a subset of the individual data retrieved from the literature. Overall, the paucity of direct measurements of the GE in goat milk was a limiting factor in collecting data from the literature; thus, only a small data set (n=26) was established, even though it was considered sufficiently representative of milks from different goat breeds. The three best PPMs based on F alone gave more biased estimates of the GE content of the goat milk than the three new DPMs based on F, F and SNF and F and TS, respectively. Accordingly, three different formulations of FU are proposed, depending on the availability of data including both F and TS (or F and SNF) or F alone. Even though several metrics can be used in defining the FU for milk to

  16. Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in pre-weaned kids in a dairy goat farm in western France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieux, Anais; Paraud, Carine; Pors, Isabelle; Chartier, Christophe

    2013-02-18

    A longitudinal study was undertaken to characterize the course of Cryptosporidium infection in a dairy goat farm located in western France. Two cohorts of twenty-five and fifteen animals, respectively, were sampled once a week from birth to weaning. Each individual fecal sample was screened using direct immunofluorescence (IFT) and if found positive, the Cryptosporidium species was identified using PCR analysis. Seventeen (68% [95% CI: 44-91]) animals were positive at least once during the first study and 14 (93% [95% CI: 80-100]) during the second, after IFT examination. In the first study, the age at first excretion was 17 days and the peak of excretion (mean arithmetic excretion: 22,700 oocysts per gram (opg) of feces) was recorded when kids were between 22 and 28 days old. For the second study, the age at first excretion was 10 days and the peak of excretion (mean arithmetic excretion: 3.4 × 10(6)opg) was recorded in animals aged between 10 and 14 days. Clinical signs were observed only in animals of the second cohort. DNA sequence analysis at the 18S ribosomal RNA locus was successful for 9 of the 27 IFT-positive samples in the first cohort and for 10 of the 34 positive isolates in the second cohort. All isolates were identified as Cryptosporidium xiaoi except one which was identified as Cryptosporidium parvum. Our results confirm that goat kids are hosts for C. parvum and C. xiaoi and that infection by C. xiaoi may be associated with mild clinical signs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. High COD wastewater treatment in an aerobic SBR: treatment of effluent from a small farm goat's cheese dairy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrijos, M; Sousbie, P h; Moletta, R; Delgenes, J P

    2004-01-01

    In France, small goat's cheese dairies using traditional craft methods often have no profitable solution for dealing with the whey byproduct of their cheesemaking activity: it is usually mixed with the cleaning wastewater which, in the absence of other possibilities, is then discharged directly into the environment. The volume of such wastewater is small but it has a high COD of around 12-15 g/L. An aerobic SBR was proposed as a method for treating the mixture of wastewater and whey and the first installation was set up on a farm with 170 goats. Its operations were monitored for 7.5 months, particularly in order to measure any excess volume of sludge and to check that such excess remained within acceptable limits, given the high COD of the effluent requiring treatment. The results obtained show that the treated wastewater was of excellent quality, well within the most rigorous discharge norms. With this type of wastewater, excess sludge was produced in only very low amounts with 0.2 g of SS/g of COD. Moreover, the sludge proved to be quick settling which made it possible to: i) maintain a high level of SS in the reactor (up to 15 g/L); ii) withdraw sludge with concentrations reaching 30 g/L after 2 hours of settling. This resulted in a low volume of excess sludge (less than 5% of treated volume), making such aerobic biological treatment in an SBR competitive when compared to the straightforward spreading of all the wastewater.

  18. Effects of pistachio by-products on digestibility, milk production, milk fatty acid profile and blood metabolites in Saanen dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedighi-Vesagh, R; Naserian, A A; Ghaffari, M H; Petit, H V

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pistachio by-products (PBP) on nutrient digestibility, blood metabolites and milk fatty acid (FA) profile in Saanen dairy goats. Nine multiparous lactating Saanen goats (on day 90 post-partum, 45 ± 2/kg BW) were randomly assigned to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with three treatment diets: 1) control diet (alfalfa hay based), 2) 32% PBP and 3) 32% PBP + polyethylene glycol (PEG-4000; 1 g/kg dry matter). Each period lasted 21 days, including 14 day for treatment adaptation and 7 day for data collection. Pistachio by-products significantly decreased (p < 0.01) crude protein (CP) digestibility compared with the control diet (64.4% vs. 58.7%), but PEG addition did not differ for CP digestibility of goats fed 32% PBP + PEG and those fed the two other diets. The digestibility of NDF tended (p = 0.06) to decrease for goats fed PBP compared with those fed the control diet. Yields of milk and 4% fat-corrected milk were not affected by dietary treatments. Compared with the control diet, PBP supplementation appreciably changed the proportions of almost all the milk FA measured; the main effects were decreases (p < 0.01) in FA from 8:0 to 16:0 and increases (p < 0.01) proportions of cis-9, trans-11 18:2 and trans-11 18:1, monounsaturated FA, polyunsaturated FA and long-chain FA. The saturated FA, short-chain FA and medium-chain FA proportions were lower (p < 0.01) in goats fed the two PBP supplemented diet than in those fed the control diet and PEG addition led to intermediate proportions of saturated FA, unsaturated and monounsaturated FA. Inclusion of PBP in the diet decreased (p < 0.01) plasma concentrations of glucose and urea nitrogen compared with the control diet. It was concluded that PBP can be used as forage in the diet of dairy goats without interfering with milk yield. Inclusion of 32% PBP in the diet of dairy goats had beneficial effects on milk FA profile but PEG addition to PBP

  19. Occurrence and molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in sheep and goats reared under dairy husbandry systems in Greece☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzanidakis, Nikolaos; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Claerebout, Edwin; Ehsan, Amimul; Voutzourakis, Nikolaos; Kostopoulou, Despoina; Stijn, Casaert; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geurden, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are gastro-intestinal protozoa known to infect small ruminants. Both protozoa are also considered as a potential public health concern. The objective of this study was to determine their prevalence in lambs and goat kids kept under common Mediterranean dairy husbandry systems and to identify the species and genotypes infecting these small ruminants. In total, 684 faecal samples (429 from lambs and 255 from goat kids) were collected on 21 farms in Greece and examined using a quantitative immunofluorescence assay. G. duodenalis was detected in 37.3% of the lambs and 40.4% of the goat kids. On all but one of the farms G. duodenalis was detected. Most samples were typed as a mono-infection with G. duodenalis assemblage E, both on the β-giardin gene and the triose phosphate isomerase gene. Only 10% of samples were typed as mixed assemblage A and E infections. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 5.1% in lambs and 7.1% in goat kids. In total, 8 out of the 14 farms with a sheep flock and 7 out of the 14 farms with a goat flock were positive. Cryptosporidium parvum (subtype IId), C. ubiquitum and C. xiaoi were identified, the latter especially in goat kids. In conclusion, the results of the present study illustrate that G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. occur frequently on both sheep and goats farms. The prevalence of zoonotic genotypes or species was low, indicating a limited but existing risk for zoonotic infections. PMID:25187088

  20. Effect of treating alfalfa silage with pistachio by-products extract on Saanen dairy goats performance and microbial nitrogen synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarpour, A; Naserian, A A; Pourmollae, F; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-08-01

    A lactation experiment was conducted to determine the influence of addition of pistachio by-products extract (PBE) to alfalfa silage (AS) on performance, rumen fermentation, milk yield and composition, and microbial nitrogen synthesis. Eight multiparous dairy goats (1.8 ± 0.25 kg of milk yield) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to compare two types of AS (supplemented with or without PBE) with two levels of dietary crude protein (14% vs. 16% CP). Dietary treatments were (i) AS with 14% CP of DM diet without PBE (14%CP-PBE), (ii) AS with 14% CP of DM diet with PBE (14%CP + PBE), (iii) AS with 16% CP of DM diet without PBE (16%CP-PBE) and (iv) AS with 16% CP of DM diet with PBE (16%CP + PBE). PBE was sprayed on fresh alfalfa at a ratio of 500 ml/kg alfalfa DM to get the final concentration of 1% tannin as tannic acid equivalent on DM basis. Intake of CP was greater (p < 0.01) in goats fed 16% CP diets than those fed 14% CP diets, regardless of PBE supplementation. Supplementation of PBE tended to decrease (p = 0.09) rumen NH3 -N concentration regardless of the level of CP in the diet. Supplementation of PBE tended (p = 0.09) to decrease total purine derivatives regardless of the level of CP in the diet with no significant change in microbial nitrogen supply. Efficiency of microbial nitrogen synthesis (EMNS) had a tendency (p = 0.07) to decrease in PBE supplemented diets. There was also a tendency (p = 0.10) for more EMNS in 14% CP fed goats than those fed 16% CP diets. Therefore, AS supplemented with PBE may lead to less concentration of ruminal NH3 -N because of decreased degradation of CP by rumen micro-organisms in response to pistachio by-products tannins.

  1. Feed supplementation of Lactobacillus plantarum PCA 236 modulates gut microbiota and milk fatty acid composition in dairy goats--a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragkoudakis, Petros A; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Rosu, Craita; Zoumpopoulou, Georgia; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Dalaka, Eleni; Hadjipetrou, Andreas; Theofanous, Giorgos; Strozzi, Gian Paolo; Carlini, Nancy; Zervas, George; Tsakalidou, Effie

    2010-07-31

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential of a promising Lactobacillus plantarum isolate (PCA 236) from cheese as a probiotic feed supplement in lactating goats. The ability of L. plantarum to survive transit through the goat gastrointestinal tract and to modulate selected constituents of the gut microbiota composition, monitored at faecal level was assessed. In addition, L. plantarum effects on plasma immunoglobulins and antioxidant capacity of the animals as well as on the milk fatty acid composition were determined. For the purpose of the experiment a field study was designed, involving 24 dairy goats of the Damascus breed, kept in a sheep and goat dairy farm. The goats were divided in terms of body weight in two treatments of 12 goats each, namely: control (CON) without addition of L. plantarum and probiotic (PRO) treatment with in feed administration of L. plantarum so that the goats would intake 12 log CFU/day. The experiment lasted 5 weeks and at weekly time intervals individual faecal, blood and milk samples were collected and analysed. All faecal samples were examined for the presence of L. plantarum PCA 236. In addition, the culturable population levels of mesophilic aerobes, coliforms lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Streptococcus, Enterococcus, mesophilic anaerobes, Clostridium and Bacteroides in faeces were also determined by enumeration on specific culture media. In parallel, plasma IgA, IgM and IgG and antioxidant capacity of plasma and milk were determined. No adverse effects were observed in the animals receiving the lactobacillus during the experiment. Lactobacillus plantarum PCA 236 was recovered in the faeces of all animals in the PRO treatment. In addition, PRO treatment resulted in a significant (Pplasma did not differ between the treatments. In contrast, milk fat composition in the PRO treatment had a significantly higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic, a-linolenic and rumenic acids compared to CON, while there were no

  2. Short communication: Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus in bulk tank milk from dairy goat farms in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortimiglia, C; Bianchini, V; Franco, A; Caprioli, A; Battisti, A; Colombo, L; Stradiotto, K; Vezzoli, F; Luini, M

    2015-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is regarded as a leading cause of mastitis in goats. However, few data are available on the presence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in this species. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA in bulk tank milk samples from dairy goat farms in Northern Italy. Eighty-five out of 197 samples (43.1%) tested positive for S. aureus with counts ranging from 10 to more than 1.5 × 10(4) cfu/mL. The MRSA was screened by both direct plating followed by a disk diffusion test to evaluate methicillin resistance and a selective enrichment method. Methicillin-resistance was confirmed by mecA-specific PCR. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus was identified in 4 samples (2.0%) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed the presence of livestock-associated MRSA belonging to lineages ST398 (n = 3) and ST1 (n = 1). In one case we demonstrated that the same MRSA strain was able to persist over time on the farm, being isolated from both bulk tank milk and the udder of 3 goats 1 yr after the first isolation. The high prevalence of S. aureus-positive herds detected in this study and the presence of MRSA strains belonging to livestock-associated genotypes is of concern, and represents a novel finding in the Italian dairy goat production system. The application of stringent measures for the control of S. aureus mastitis at the farm level seems appropriate to reduce the economic losses, and to minimize the risk of foodborne illness and the transmission of MRSA to humans by occupational exposure. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Changes in cisternal udder compartment induced by milking interval in dairy goats milked once or twice daily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salama, A A K; Caja, G; Such, X

    2004-01-01

    intervals, cisterns of goats milked 1x did not become larger than cisterns of goats milked 2x after 5 wk of treatment. The highest correlation between cisternal area and cisternal milk was detected at 8 h after milking (r = 0.74). Primiparous goats had smaller cisternal areas and less cisternal milk than...... milking. Nevertheless, cisternal size did not increased after 1x milking, probably because of lesser milk yield. Multiparous goats had larger cisterns than primiparous goats and were able to store more milk in their cisterns at all milking intervals. Because of the high capacity of goat cisterns, no milk...

  4. The Genetic Diversity of TLR4 MHC-DRB Genes in Dairy Goats Using PCR-RFLP Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Petlane

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed at evaluating the genetic polymorphism of TLR4 and MHC-DRB genes in dairy goats [(Saanen, Etawah Grade-Saanen Crossbred (PESA, and Etawah Grade (PE] using PCR -RFLP. The two genes are involved in immunity where they play a crucial role in pathogens recognition and presentation to T-cells and CD4 cells. PCR was used to amplify genomic DNA for TLR4 (382 bp and CaLA-DRB (285 bp genes fragments. Genetic polymorphism was detected by digesting TLR4 amplimer with AluI while DRB amplimers were digested with PstI and TaqI in two separate reactions. The results showed that TLR4|AluI was monomorphic and fixed with allele T in all three breeds while DRB|TaqI and DRB|PstI loci were found polymorphic for all breeds. Heterozygosity expected (He and PIC were found low at both DRB|TaqI and DRB|PstI loci in PE and Saanen. Χ2 results showed that DRB|PstI in PE and DRB|TaqI in PESA were not in H-W equilibrium and did not display homozygous recessive genotype. The results declared that TLR4|AluI was not a good for marker for diseases resistance whereas DRB|TaqI and DRB|PstI gave hope for resistance based on their PIC.

  5. Indirect diagnostic tests for the detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy goats experimentally infected with Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo de Moraes Peixoto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to assess two diagnostic techniques (California mastitis test (CMT and the somatic cell count (SCC that can diagnose mastitis in dairy goats. Experimental infection was conducted using 20 mammary glands, a strain of Staphylococcus aureus, an infectious dose of 1.2x108CFU mL-1 and a volume of 1mL per mammary gland. The CMT and the SCC were used to detect subclinical mastitis. Bacterial culture (BC was performed immediately after milk collection and was used as the gold standard. Four experimental time points were established (0, 24, 48 and 72 hours post-inoculation. Analysis of the ROC curve confirmed that the best combination of sensitivity and specificity were obtained with a cutoff point of 405.5, 6030.0 and 729.5x103 cells mL-1, respectively at M1, M2 and M3. Furthermore, considering the drop in sensitivity throughout the experimental time points, the use of serial bacterial cultures are recommended, particularly in herds with a high prevalence of S. aureus.

  6. Short communication: In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma agalactiae strains isolated from dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterna, A; Sánchez, A; Gómez-Martín, A; Corrales, J C; De la Fe, C; Contreras, A; Amores, J

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the susceptibility to several antimicrobials of 28 isolates of Mycoplasma agalactiae obtained from goats in a region (southeastern Spain) where contagious agalactia is endemic. For each isolate, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against 12 antimicrobials of the quinolone, macrolide, aminoglycoside, and tetracycline families was determined. The antimicrobials with the lowest MIC were enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tylosin, and doxycycline, all with MIC90 (concentration at which growth of 90% of the isolates is inhibited) <1 µg/mL. Norfloxacin (a quinolone) showed a wide MIC range (0.1-12.8 µg/mL), suggesting a resistance mechanism toward this antimicrobial that was not elicited by enrofloxacin or ciprofloxacin (the other quinolones tested). Erythromycin showed the highest MIC90 such that its use against Mycoplasma agalactiae is not recommended. Finally, Mycoplasma agalactiae isolates obtained from goat herds with clinical symptoms of contagious agalactia featured higher MIC90 and MIC50 (concentration at which growth of 50% of the isolates is inhibited) values for many of the antimicrobials compared with isolates from asymptomatic animals. The relationship between the extensive use of antimicrobials in herds with clinical contagious agalactia and variations in MIC requires further study.

  7. Using Goat's Milk, Barley Flour, Honey, and Probiotic to Manufacture of Functional Dairy Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Magdy Mohamed; Hamad, Mohamed Farid; Elraghy, Esraa Mohamed

    2017-08-23

    Stirred yogurt manufactured using probiotic culture which usually called Rayeb milk in the Middle East region is one of the most important functional fermented milk products. To increase the health and functionality properties to this product, some ingredients like fruits, cereal, and whey protein are used in production. This study was carried out to prepare functional Rayeb milk from goat's milk, barley flour (15%) and honey (4%) mixtures using ABT culture. Also, vanilla and cocoa powder were used as flavorings. Adding barley flour and honey to goat's milk increased curd tension and water-holding capacity and decreased coagulation time and susceptibility to syneresis. The values of carbohydrate, total solids, dietary fiber, ash, total protein, water soluble nitrogen, total volatile fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, oleic, linoleic, α-linolenic acids, and antioxidant activity were higher in Rayeb milk supplemented with barley flour and honey than control. The viabilities of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 (Chr. Hansen's Lab A/S) increased in fortified Rayeb milk. The recommended level of 10(7) cfu g(-1) of bifidobacteria as a probiotic was exceeded for these samples. Addition of vanilla (0.1%) or cocoa powder (0.5%) improved the sensory properties of fortified Rayeb milk.

  8. Effects of prostaglandin administration 10 days apart on reproductive parameters of cyclic dairy nulliparous goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Fonseca

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study reported the effects of prostaglandin (PGF2a administration 10 days apart on reproductive parameters of cyclic artificial inseminated (AI nulliparous Alpine (n=9 and Saanen (n=9 goats. Animals received two doses of 22.5mg PGF2a 10 days apart. After 1st and 2nd PGF2a administrations, estrus was monitored at 12 h intervals, with a buck teaser. Plasma progesterone concentration (ng/mL was determined from blood sampled on day 0 (1st PGF2a and the following 5, 10 (2nd PGF2a, 15, 20, 25 and 30 days. After the onset of the second estrus, females were transrectally (5 MHz probe scanned at 4 hour intervals until at least 8h after ovulation. Pregnancy was checked through transrectal ultrasound on days 20, 25, 30, 35 and 90 after insemination. All parameters studied did not differ between breeds (P>0.05. Estrous response and interval to estrus, respectively, after 1st (78.9% and 50.6±17.2h and 2nd PGF2a (88.9% and 50.0±14.8h administration did not differ (P>0.05. Overall animals ovulating (100.0%, interval to ovulation after 2nd PGF2a (64.5±19.5h and after estrous onset (18.0±9.1h, ovulation rate (1.3±0.5, diameter of ovulatory follicle (8.1±1.1mm were recorded. Embryo loss occurred before day 30 of pregnancy. Estrus can be efficiently synchronized in nulliparous Alpine and Saanen goats with two doses of prostaglandin 10 days apart.

  9. Short communication: Feeding linseed oil to dairy goats with competent reticular groove reflex greatly increases n-3 fatty acids in milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Marín, A L; Gómez-Cortés, P; Carrión Pardo, D; Núñez Sánchez, N; Gómez Castro, G; Juárez, M; Pérez Alba, L; Pérez Hernández, M; de la Fuente, M A

    2013-01-01

    A crossover experiment was designed to compare the effects of 2 ways of feeding linseed oil on milk fat fatty acid (FA) composition. Ten lactating goats, trained to keep competent their inborn reticular groove reflex, received a daily dose of linseed oil (38 g/d) either with their solid (concentrate) feed (CON) or emulsified in skim milk and bottle-fed (BOT). Two groups of 5 goats received alternative and successively each of the treatments in two 15-d periods. α-Linolenic acid in milk fat rose up to 13.7% in the BOT versus 1.34% in the CON treatment. The n-6 to n-3 FA ratio was significantly reduced in goats receiving bottle-fed linseed oil (1.49 vs. 0.49). Contents of rumen biohydrogenation intermediates of dietary unsaturated FA were high in milk fat of goats under the CON treatment but low in those in the BOT treatment. These results point to a clear rumen bypass of the bottle-fed linseed oil. This strategy allows obtaining milk fat naturally very rich in n-3 FA and very low in trans FA. Translating this approach into practical farm conditions could enable farmers to produce milk enriched in specific FA. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Spatialization of climate, physical and socioeconomic factors that affect the dairy goat production in Brazil and their impact on animal breeding decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando B. Lopes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has high climate, soil and environmental diversity, as well as distinct socioeconomic and political realities, what results in differences among the political administrative regions of the country. The objective of this study was to determine spatial distribution of the physical, climatic and socioeconomic aspects that best characterize the production of dairy goats in Brazil. Production indices of milk per goat, goat production, milk production, as well as temperature range, mean temperature, precipitation, normalized difference vegetation index, relative humidity, altitude, agricultural farms; farms with native pasture, farms with good quality pasture, farms with water resources, farms that receive technical guidance, family farming properties, non-familiar farms and the human development index were evaluated. The multivariate analyses were carried out to spatialize climatic, physical and socioeconomic variables and so differenciate the Brazilian States and Regions. The highest yields of milk and goat production were observed in the Northeast. The Southeast Region had the second highest production of milk, followed by the South, Midwest and North. Multivariate analysis revealed distinctions between clusters of political-administrative regions of Brazil. The climatic variables were most important to discriminate between regions of Brazil. Therefore, it is necessary to implement animal breeding programs to meet the needs of each region.

  11. Simulation of diets for dairy goats and growing doelings using nonlinear optimization procedures

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    Leonardo Siqueira Glória

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to simulate total dry matter intake and cost of diets optimized by nonlinear programming to meet the nutritional requirements of dairy does and growing doelings. The mathematical model was programmed in a Microsoft Excel(r spreadsheet. Increasing values of body mass and average daily weight gain for growing doelings and increasing body mass values and milk yield for dairy does were used as inputs for optimizations. Three objective functions were considered: minimization of the dietary cost, dry matter intake maximization, and maximization of the efficiency of use of the ingested crude protein. To solve the proposed problems we used the Excel(r Solver(r algorithm. The Excel(r Solver(r was able to balance diets containing different objective functions and provided different spaces of feasible solutions. The best solutions are obtained by least-cost formulations; the other two objective functions, namely maximize dry matter intake and maximize crude protein use, do not produce favorable diets in terms of costs.

  12. Nutrient limits in diets for growing dairy goats Límites nutricionales para dietas de cabras lecheras en crecimiento

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    AL Martínez-Marín

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry matter intake and nutrient requirements of young growing dairy goats were reviewed in this paper to derive nutrient limits applicable for diet optimization through minimum cost linear programming. The diets offered to growing goats should be optimized from both nutritional and economic view. To get those objectives, the nutritionist has to estimate accurately forage and total dry matter intake, and the nutrient supply and requirements. The reviewed literature suggests that intake of young growing goats ranges between physical and physiological limits imposed by gut fill and energy requirements. The filling effect of the diet is related to its structural carbohydrate content, whereas the physiological satiety effect is related to diet metabolizable energy content. The minimum intake of forage required to keep rumen health is low, whereas maximum forage intake is probably related to the neutral detergent fibre content of the total diet. The energy and protein supply and requirements calculated according to the two most recent feed evaluation systems are similar, what makes no difference using any of both to optimize diets. Recent proposals to calculate calcium and phosphorus supply and requirements provide greater accuracy than the older ones.El objetivo del presente trabajo fue revisar el consumo de materia seca y las necesidades nutritivas de cabras lecheras de reposición estabuladas para establecer límites nutricionales aplicables a la formulación de dietas por programación lineal a mínimo coste. El diseño de dietas nutricionalmente adecuadas y económicas requiere que el nutricionista estime correctamente el consumo de materia seca y forraje y los aportes y las necesidades de nutrientes. La bibliografía revisada sugiere que el consumo total de materia seca de las cabras oscila entre los límites físico y fisiológico impuestos por la capacidad del tracto digestivo y las necesidades energéticas diarias. El efecto de llenado

  13. miR-544 Regulates Dairy Goat Male Germline Stem Cell Self-Renewal via Targeting PLZF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wencong; Mu, Hailong; Wu, Jiang; Liao, Mingzhi; Zhu, Haijing; Zheng, Liming; He, Xin; Niu, Bowen; Zhai, Yuanxin; Bai, Chunling; Lei, Anmin; Li, Guangpeng; Hua, Jinlian

    2015-10-01

    The balance between the self-renewal and differentiation of male germline stem cells (mGSCs) is critical for the initiation and maintenance of mammalian spermatogenesis. The promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF), a zinc finger protein, is a critical factor for maintaining the self-renewal of mGSCs, so, evaluation of the PLZF pathway in mGSCs may provide a deeper insight into mammalian spermatogenesis. miRNA was also an important regulating factor for the self-renewal and differentiation of mGSCs; however, there is currently no data indicating that which miRNA regulate the self-renewal and differentiation of mGSCs via PLZF. Here, we predicted the prospective miRNA targeting to PLZF using the online Bioinformatics database-Targetscan, and performed an analysis of the dual-luciferase recombinant vector, psiCHCEKTM-2-PLZF-3'UTR. miR-544 mimics (miR-544m), miR-544 inhibitors (miR-544i), Control (NC, scrambled oligonucleotides transfection), pPLZF-IRES2-EGFP or PLZF siRNA were transfected into mGSCs; the cells proliferation was evaluated by BRDU incorporation assay and flow cytometry, and the mGSC marker, GFRa1, PLZF, KIT, DAZL, and VASA expression were analyzed by RT-qPCR, immunofluorescence and Western blot. The results showed that miR-544 regulates dairy goat male germline stem cell self-renewal via targeting PLZF. Our study identifies a new regulatory pathway for PLZF and expands upon the PLZF regulatory network in mGSCs.

  14. Identification of novel and differentially expressed MicroRNAs of dairy goat mammary gland tissues using solexa sequencing and bioinformatics.

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    Zhibin Ji

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs are small, noncoding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level and play an important role in various biological processes. Although most microRNAs expression profiles studies have been performed in humans or rodents, relatively limited knowledge also exists in other mammalian species. The identification of the full repertoire of microRNAs expressed in the lactating mammary gland of Capra hircus would significantly increase our understanding of the physiology of lactating mammary glands. In this study, two libraries were constructed using the lactating mammary gland tissues of Laoshan dairy goats (Capra hircus during peak and late lactation. Solexa high-throughput sequencing technique and bioinformatics were used to determine the abundance and differential expression of the microRNAs between peak and late lactation. As a result, 19,044,002 and 7,385,833 clean reads were obtained, respectively, and 1,113 conserved known microRNAs and 31 potential novel microRNA candidates were identified. A total of 697 conserved microRNAs were significantly differentially expressed with a P-value<0.01, 272 microRNAs were up-regulated and 425 microRNAs were down-regulated during peak lactation. The results were validated using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. 762,557 annotated mRNA transcripts were predicted as putative target gene candidates. The GO annotation and KEGG pathway analysis suggested that differentially expressed microRNAs were involved in mammary gland physiology, including signal transduction, and cell-cell and cell-extracellular communications. This study provided the first global of the microRNA in Capra hircus and expanded the repertoire of microRNAs. Our results have great significance and value for the elucidation of complex regulatory networks between microRNAs and mRNAs and for the study of mammary gland physiology and lactation.

  15. Effect of microencapsulated fish oil on blood metabolites and rumen fatty acids in Sannan Lactating dairy goat

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    Rashid Safari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the effect of microencapsulated fish oil on blood metabolites, rumen and blood plasma fatty acids concentrations twelve Sannan dairy goats with 30 ± 5 days in milk (DIM were allocated to 3 treatments in a 3×2 change over design with 2 periods of 30 days. Treatments were: 1 the control (without fish oil, 2 microencapsulated fish oil (2% fish oil capsulated in 6% treated whey protein concentrate, 3 fish oil (2% fish oil and 6% whey protein concentrate. Concentration of C18:0 in the rumen for microencapsulated fish oil decreased significantly in comparison with the control. The same manner was observed in goat’s blood plasma for microencapsulated fish oil. Microencapsulated fish oil led to a significant increase in polyunsaturated fatty acids concentration, hence concentration of C18:3, C20:5 EPA, C22:5 DPA and C22:6 DHA as a source of ω3 fatty acids increased 10, 20, 10 and 13 folds in comparison with the control and 10, 20, 2 and 2.5 folds in comparison with the fish oil treatment, respectively. HDL concentration in protected fish oil was significantly higher than that for the control and unprotected fish oil treatments. It seems that fish oil supplementation caused significant changes in blood fatty acids composition of ruminants as well as ω3 fatty acids in their products. Significant increase of ω3 fatty acids in blood plasma of microencapsulated fish oil treatment showed the protective effect of capsulation against rumen microbial biohydrogenation.

  16. Human lysozyme expressed in the mammary gland of transgenic dairy goats can inhibit the growth of bacteria that cause mastitis and the cold-spoilage of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maga, Elizabeth A; Cullor, James S; Smith, Wayne; Anderson, Gary B; Murray, James D

    2006-01-01

    The addition of human milk components with intrinsic antimicrobial activity to livestock milk by genetic engineering has the potential to benefit milk safety and production as well as the health of the lactating animal. As a model for the dairy cow, we generated transgenic goats that expressed human lysozyme in their milk at 68% of the levels found in human milk. Milk from these transgenic animals had a bacteriostatic effect on both in vitro and in vivo growth of several microorganisms important to the dairy industry. In vitro, milk from transgenic animals was capable of slowing the growth of mastitis-causing strains of Escherichia coli (P transgenic animals. In vivo, milk from transgenic animals supported less bacterial growth than control milk. This transgenic model demonstrates the possibilities offered by genetic engineering to enhance the antimicrobial nature of milk and the udder.

  17. Selection of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria from goat dairies and their addition to evaluate the inhibition of Salmonella typhi in artisanal cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Iris da Silva; de Souza, Jane Viana; Ramos, Cintia Lacerda; da Costa, Mateus Matiuzzi; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Francesca Silva

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to select autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with probiotic and functional properties from goat dairies and test their addition to artisanal cheese for the inhibition of Salmonella typhi. In vitro tests, including survival in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT), auto- and co-aggregation, the hemolytic test, DNase activity, antimicrobial susceptibility, antibacterial activity, tolerance to NaCl and exopolysaccharide (EPS), gas and diacetyl production were conducted for sixty isolates. Based on these tests, four LAB isolates (UNIVASF CAP 16, 45, 84 and 279) were selected and identified. Additional tests, such as production of lactic and citric acids by UNIVASF CAP isolates were performed in addition to assays of bile salt hydrolase (BSH), β-galactosidase and decarboxylase activity. The four selected LAB produced high lactic acid (>17 g/L) and low citric acid (0.2 g/L) concentrations. All selected strains showed BSH and β-galactosidase activity and none showed decarboxylase activity. Three goat cheeses (1, 2 and control) were produced and evaluated for the inhibitory action of selected LAB against Salmonella typhi. The cheese inoculated with LAB (cheese 2) decreased 0.38 log10 CFU/g of S. Typhy population while in the cheese without LAB inoculation (cheese 1) the pathogen population increased by 0.29 log units. Further, the pH value increased linearly over time, by 0.004 units per day in cheese 1. In the cheese 2, the pH value decreased linearly over time, by 0.066 units per day. The cocktail containing selected Lactobacillus strains with potential probiotic and technological properties showed antibacterial activity against S. typhi in vitro and in artisanal goat cheese. Thus, goat milk is important source of potential probiotic LAB which may be used to inhibit the growth of Salmonella population in cheese goat, contributing to safety and functional value of the product.

  18. Effect of forage/concentrate ratio and soybean oil supplementation on milk yield and quality from dairy goats

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    P. Secchiari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary energy level is a limiting factor of milk production mainly in early lactation goats. Energy intake may be increased by incorporation of fat in ration. Currently, rumen protected fat is mainly adopted in goats nutrition, since the several studies have clearly confirmed that supplies of protected fat markedly improved the fat percentage of goat milk (Schmidely and Sauvant, 2001; Chilliard et al., 2003.

  19. Nutrient utilization, ruminal fermentation, microbial abundances, and milk yield and composition in dairy goats fed diets including tomato and cucumber waste fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Huelva, M; Ramos-Morales, E; Molina-Alcaide, E

    2012-10-01

    tomato and cucumber FB could replace 35% of the concentrate in the dairy goat diet, reducing animal feeding cost and methane production, leading to higher polyunsaturated fatty acid proportions in milk, and without compromising nutrient utilization or milk yield.

  20. [The effect of CSN1 S2, CSN3 and beta-lg genes on milk performance in Xinong Saanen dairy goat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Lan, Xian-Yong; Li, Rui-Biao; Lei, Chu-Zhao; Sun, Wei-Bin; Zhang, Run-Feng; Zheng, Yuan-Lin; Zhu, Bi-Cai

    2005-08-01

    PCR-RFLP technique was applied to analyze correlation between the polymorphisms of CSN1 S2 (alpha(s2) casein), CSN3 (kappa casein) and beta-lg (beta-lactoglobulin) genes and milk performance in 69 individuals of Xinong Saanen dairy goat. The results showed that there was significant correlation between different genotypes of CSN1 S2 locus and milk yield:average milk yield of individuals with genotype FF was less than that of genotype NN (P gene digested with endonuclease Hind III cleavage showed that no significant difference of milk yield between genotype DE and genotype EE was detected in first, second, third and fourth lactation milk yield and average milk yield (P > 0.05). The results of CSN3 gene with endonuclease Taq I cleavage showed that no significant difference of milk yield among individuals with genotype TT, TC and CC was detected (P > 0.05). No polymorphism was detected in PCR products of CSN3 gene digested with endonuclease Hae III. The analysis of beta-lg gene's 5' flanking region (710 bp) by PCR-RFLP in Xinong Saanen dairy goat showed that milk yield of individuals with genotype AA was higher than that with genotype AB in second, third lactation milk yield and average milk yield (P beta-lg gene's 5' flanking region is probably related to high milk yield.

  1. Effects of replacing wheat bran by pistachio skins on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield, milk composition and blood metabolites of dairy Saanen goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naserian, A A; Staples, C R; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pistachio skins (PiS) as a replacement of wheat bran on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield, milk composition and blood metabolites of dairy Saanen goats. Eight multiparous lactating Saanen goats (55 ± 7.2 days post-partum, 45 ± 2 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to one of the four dietary treatments arranged in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were 1) 0 g/kg PiS and 210 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (0PiS), 2) 70 g/kg PiS and 140 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (7PiS), 3) 140 g/kg PiS and 70 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (14PiS) and 4) 210 g/kg PiS and 0 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (21PiS). The trial consisted of four 21-day periods, each composed of 14 days adaptation and 7 days data collection. Dry matter intake (p goats without detrimental effects on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and milk production. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Physical-chemical characteristics and fatty acids composition in dairy goat milk in response to roughage diet

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    Marcelo Shizuo Torii

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to evaluate the physical-chemical characteristics (density, pH, acidity, fat, protein, lactose and total of solids contents and milk fatty acids composition (C: 4 to C: 20 in response to roughage sources (alfalfa hay T1; oat hay T2 and maize silage T3. Nine Saanen lactating goats were used, in a triple Youden square design (3 animals x 2 periods. There was no treatment effects in the physical-chemical variables in the univariate analyses; by multivariate analyses three distinct patterns of fatty acids could be defined: milk with greater quantity of short chain fatty acids and acids C17:1omega7 e C18:2omega6 (T1; milk with equivalent amounts of short, medium and long chain fatty acids (T2; and milk with greater amounts of acids C16:1omega7, C17:0, C18:1omega9 and C20:0 (T3. These results indicated that the roughage sources used in the diet of lactating dairy goats affected the fatty acids composition, without altering the milk physical-chemical characteristics. The acids more sensitive to the treatment effects were: C10:0, C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C16:1omega7, C18:0 and C18:3omega6.O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de fontes de volumosos (feno de alfafa T1; feno de aveia T2 e silagem de milho T3 nas características físico-químicas (densidade, pH, acidez, teores de gordura, proteína, lactose e sólidos totais e composição em ácidos graxos (C:4 a C:20 do leite. Foram utilizadas 9 cabras Saanen em lactação, em delineamento experimental triplo quadrado de Youden (3 animais x 2 períodos. Não houve efeito (P>0,05 dos tratamentos nas variáveis físico-químicas. Através de análise multivariada, verificou-se três padrões distintos de ácidos graxos: leite com maior quantidade de ácidos graxos de cadeia curta e dos ácidos C17:1ômega7 e C18:2ômega6 (T1; leite com quantidades equivalentes de ácidos graxos de cadeia curta, média e longa (T2 e leite com maiores quantidades dos

  3. In silico detection and characteristics of miRNAs in dairy goat%基于生物信息学方法挖掘奶山羊miRNAs研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲波; 甄贞; 仇有文; 袁肖寒; 王春梅

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs(miRNAs)是长约22 nt的内源非编码小分子RNA,在转录后基因调控中发挥重要作用。奶山羊是具有重要经济价值的产乳动物,有关奶山羊miRNAs研究相对匮乏,识别和鉴定新的奶山羊miRNA至关重要。文章以与奶山羊高度同源的绵羊基因组为参考数据库,应用生物信息学方法得到101条新的奶山羊miRNAs序列,并对其进行序列特性分析,为今后基因组信息不全物种的miRNAs挖掘与鉴定提供参考。%microRNAs (miRNAs) are a large class of endogenous non-coding smal RNAs that average 22 nucleotides (nt) in length, which play important roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation because they can negatively regulate gene expression. Dairy goat is a milk producing animal with economic importance. The studies on miRNAs in dairy goat are relatively lack and then detecting and identifying the new miRNAs of dairy goat is very important. In this study, 101 miRNAs of dairy goat were obtained using bioinformatics approach based on sheep genome, which was highly homologous with goat. Final y, detailed analysis of sequence characteristics in novel miRNAs of goat were carried out. This study would provide a reference for further identification of miRNAs in animals without complete genome.

  4. Use of spineless cactus (Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis) for dairy goats and growing kids: impacts on milk production, kid's growth, and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahouachi, M; Atti, N; Hajji, H

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of spineless cactus incorporation in food of dairy goats and growing kids on milk production and composition and on kid's growth and meat characteristics. Two experiments were conducted on Tunisian local goats. In the first, 30 females were divided into two groups; goats of Control group were reared on grazing pasture receiving indoor 0.5 kg of hay and 0.4 kg of concentrate. Goats for the second group (Cac-FL) were kept in feedlot and fed cactus ad libitum more 0.5 kg of hay and 0.4 kg of concentrate. In the second experiment, 14 kids were divided into 2 groups receiving 600 g of hay. The Control group received ad libitum a concentrate containing 130 g crude protein (CP) per kg of dry matter. The second group received cactus ad-libitum plus the half concentrate quantity of control one with 260 g CP/kg DM (Cactus). The daily milk production averaged 485 ml for Control group and 407 ml for Cac-FL one. The milk fat content was significantly higher for Control than Cac-FL group. In the second experiment, animals in Control and Cactus groups had similar growth rate. Carcass fat was significantly lower in Cactus than in the Control group. Cactus in the diet was associated with more C18:2 and conjugated linoleic acid as well as a higher proportion of PUFA than Control ones.

  5. Use of Spineless Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis for Dairy Goats and Growing Kids: Impacts on Milk Production, Kid's Growth, and Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mahouachi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of spineless cactus incorporation in food of dairy goats and growing kids on milk production and composition and on kid's growth and meat characteristics. Two experiments were conducted on Tunisian local goats. In the first, 30 females were divided into two groups; goats of Control group were reared on grazing pasture receiving indoor 0.5 kg of hay and 0.4 kg of concentrate. Goats for the second group (Cac-FL were kept in feedlot and fed cactus ad libitum more 0.5 kg of hay and 0.4 kg of concentrate. In the second experiment, 14 kids were divided into 2 groups receiving 600 g of hay. The Control group received ad libitum a concentrate containing 130 g crude protein (CP per kg of dry matter. The second group received cactus ad-libitum plus the half concentrate quantity of control one with 260 g CP/kg DM (Cactus. The daily milk production averaged 485 ml for Control group and 407 ml for Cac-FL one. The milk fat content was significantly higher for Control than Cac-FL group. In the second experiment, animals in Control and Cactus groups had similar growth rate. Carcass fat was significantly lower in Cactus than in the Control group. Cactus in the diet was associated with more C18:2 and conjugated linoleic acid as well as a higher proportion of PUFA than Control ones.

  6. Use of Spineless Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica f. inermis) for Dairy Goats and Growing Kids: Impacts on Milk Production, Kid's Growth, and Meat Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahouachi, M.; Atti, N.; Hajji, H.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of spineless cactus incorporation in food of dairy goats and growing kids on milk production and composition and on kid's growth and meat characteristics. Two experiments were conducted on Tunisian local goats. In the first, 30 females were divided into two groups; goats of Control group were reared on grazing pasture receiving indoor 0.5 kg of hay and 0.4 kg of concentrate. Goats for the second group (Cac-FL) were kept in feedlot and fed cactus ad libitum more 0.5 kg of hay and 0.4 kg of concentrate. In the second experiment, 14 kids were divided into 2 groups receiving 600 g of hay. The Control group received ad libitum a concentrate containing 130 g crude protein (CP) per kg of dry matter. The second group received cactus ad-libitum plus the half concentrate quantity of control one with 260 g CP/kg DM (Cactus). The daily milk production averaged 485 ml for Control group and 407 ml for Cac-FL one. The milk fat content was significantly higher for Control than Cac-FL group. In the second experiment, animals in Control and Cactus groups had similar growth rate. Carcass fat was significantly lower in Cactus than in the Control group. Cactus in the diet was associated with more C18:2 and conjugated linoleic acid as well as a higher proportion of PUFA than Control ones. PMID:22536135

  7. Changes in blood glucose, plasma non-esterified fatty acids and insulin in pregnant and non-pregnant goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, J R; Ludri, R S

    2002-02-01

    The blood glucose and the plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and insulin concentrations were estimated in jugular blood samples from 18 Alpine x Beetal and Sannen x Beetal goats during pregnancy and compared with samples from non-pregnant goats and from goats during the periparturient period. The blood glucose levels in the pregnant goats rose to a peak of about 60 +/- 1.36 mg/ml at 42-56 days and then declined to about 46 +/- 2.37 mg/ml at 112-126 days. In non-pregnant goats, the blood glucose levels were significantly (p goats, except between days 42 and 70 (59 +/- 1.36 mg/ml). On the day of kidding, the levels declined significantly (p goats from days 56 to 126. The NEFA concentration increased on the day of kidding, followed by a transient fall by day 3. The plasma insulin concentration was usually higher in pregnant than in non-pregnant goats, except between days 56 and 70 and from day 126 onwards. The insulin concentration fell late in pregnancy, but there was a transient increase 2 days after parturition. The blood glucose and plasma NEFA concentrations can be used as indices of nutritional status during pregnancy in goats.

  8. Occurrence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in meat and dairy goat herds in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Dantas de Medeiros

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is caused by Toxoplasma gondii, which is the main causative agent of abortion in small ruminants. Goats are among the animals that are most susceptible to this protozoon, and the disease that it causes leads to significant economic losses and has implications for public health, since presence of the parasite in products of goat origin is one of the main sources of human infection. Because of the significant economic impact, there is an urgent need to study the prevalence of T. gondii infection among goats in Sertão do Cabugi, which is the largest goat-producing region in Rio Grande do Norte. In the present study, the ELISA assay was used to test 244 serum samples from nine farms, located in four different municipalities in the Sertão do Cabugi region, which is an important goat-rearing region. The results showed that the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was 47.1% and that there was a significant association between positivity and the variables of age (≥ 34 months, location (Lajes, Angicos and Afonso Bezerra and farm (all the farms. The avidity test was applied to all the 115 ELISA-positive samples to distinguish between acute and chronic infection. One hundred and three samples (89.6% displayed high-avidity antibodies, thus indicating that most of the animals presented chronic infection, with a consequent great impact on the development of the goat production system and a risk to human health.

  9. Occurrence of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in meat and dairy goat herds in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Andréa Dantas de; Andrade, Milena de Medeiros Clementino; Vítor, Ricardo Wagner de Almeida; Andrade-Neto, Valter Ferreira de

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is caused by Toxoplasma gondii, which is the main causative agent of abortion in small ruminants. Goats are among the animals that are most susceptible to this protozoon, and the disease that it causes leads to significant economic losses and has implications for public health, since presence of the parasite in products of goat origin is one of the main sources of human infection. Because of the significant economic impact, there is an urgent need to study the prevalence of T. gondii infection among goats in Sertão do Cabugi, which is the largest goat-producing region in Rio Grande do Norte. In the present study, the ELISA assay was used to test 244 serum samples from nine farms, located in four different municipalities in the Sertão do Cabugi region, which is an important goat-rearing region. The results showed that the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibodies was 47.1% and that there was a significant association between positivity and the variables of age (≥ 34 months), location (Lajes, Angicos and Afonso Bezerra) and farm (all the farms). The avidity test was applied to all the 115 ELISA-positive samples to distinguish between acute and chronic infection. One hundred and three samples (89.6%) displayed high-avidity antibodies, thus indicating that most of the animals presented chronic infection, with a consequent great impact on the development of the goat production system and a risk to human health.

  10. Effects of Artemisia annua Extracts on Ruminal Fermentation Parameters in vivo,Concentration of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in the Rumen and Milk in Dairy Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-fang; MA Yan-fen; GAO Min; LU De-xun

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionIt has been well established that plant oil or fish oil could enhance cis-9 trans-11CLA content in the ruminant food products.However, it is generally accepted that adding unsaturated fatty acid to ruminant diets may exert negative effects on fiber degradation and rumen microbe populations.For this reason,there is growing interest in evaluating the potential measures of increasing cis-9 trans-11CLA content in the ruminant food products.Recently some researches showed that some plants or plant extracts could increase cis-9 trans-11CLA content in milk.The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of Artemisia annua Extracts (AAE) on ruminal fermentation parameters in vivo,the proportions of cis-9 trans11CLA and trans-11 C18∶1 in the ruminal fluid and in dairy goats milk.

  11. Bayesian validation of a serum and milk ELISA for antibodies against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Greek dairy goats across lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidou, E; Kostoulas, P; Leontides, L

    2014-02-01

    We validated a commercial (Idexx Pourquier, Montpellier, France) serum and milk indirect ELISA that detects antibodies against Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in Greek dairy goats. Each goat was sampled 4 times, starting from kidding and covering early, mid, and late lactation. A total of 1,268 paired milk (or colostrum) and serum samples were collected during the 7-mo lactation period. Bayesian latent class models, which allow for the continuous interpretation of test results, were used to derive the distribution of the serum and milk ELISA response for healthy and MAP-infected individuals at each lactation stage. Both serum and milk ELISA, in all lactation stages, had average and similar overall discriminatory ability as measured by the area under the curve (AUC). For each test, the smallest overlap between the distribution of the healthy and MAP-infected does was in late lactation. At this stage, the AUC was 0.89 (95% credible interval: 0.70; 0.98) and 0.92 (0.74; 0.99) for the milk and serum ELISA, respectively. Both tests had comparable sensitivities and specificities at the recommended cutoffs across lactation. Lowering the cutoffs led to an increase in sensitivity without serious loss in specificity. In conclusion, the milk ELISA was as accurate as the serum ELISA. Therefore, it could serve as the diagnostic tool of choice, especially during the implementation of MAP control programs that require frequent testing, because milk sampling is a noninvasive, rapid, and easy process. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic variation for infection status as determined by a specific antibody response against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in milk of Dutch dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hulzen, K J E; Koets, A P; Nielen, M; Hoeboer, J; van Arendonk, J A M; Heuven, H C M

    2012-10-01

    Classical control strategies based on management restrictions to reduce transmission, culling of infected goats, and vaccination have not been able to eradicate Johne's disease from infected herds. Selective breeding for less susceptibility to disease may be a useful additional tool to contribute to control of the disease. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic variation and heritability for infection status as determined by a specific antibody response against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in milk of Dutch dairy goats. Milk samples from 950 goats were tested for antibodies specific to Johne's disease by ELISA on 5 consecutive test days, with a time interval of around 3 mo. Test results were coded as infected or not infected according to the instructions of the manufacturer. Heritability of infection status was estimated for 3 data sets to determine the effect of repeated sampling: only test results obtained on the first test day (first-test); the maximum test result of each animal obtained on 1 of the 5 test days (max-test); and all test results per animal, with a maximum of 5 consecutive samplings (all-test). Data sets first-test and max-test were analyzed with a sire model with fixed effects for year of birth and stage of lactation, and random effects for sire and error. For data set all-test, an additional permanent environment effect was included in the model. The estimated heritability on the underlying scale ranged from 0.12 in data set first-test, to 0.09 in data set max-test, to 0.07 in data set all-test.

  13. Evaluation of the Fourier Frequency Spectrum Peaks of Milk Electrical Conductivity Signals as Indexes to Monitor the Dairy Goats' Health Status by On-Line Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Agazzi, Alessandro; Costa, Annamaria; Tangorra, Francesco Maria; Rossi, Luciana; Savoini, Giovanni

    2015-08-21

    The aim of this study is a further characterization of the electrical conductivity (EC) signal of goat milk, acquired on-line by EC sensors, to identify new indexes representative of the EC variations that can be observed during milking, when considering not healthy (NH) glands. Two foremilk gland samples from 42 Saanen goats, were collected for three consecutive weeks and for three different lactation stages (LS: 0-60 Days In Milking (DIM); 61-120 DIM; 121-180 DIM), for a total amount of 1512 samples. Bacteriological analyses and somatic cells counts (SCC) were used to define the health status of the glands. With negative bacteriological analyses and SCC 1,000,000 cells/mL, glands were classified as NH. For each milk EC signal, acquired on-line and for each gland considered, the Fourier frequency spectrum of the signal was calculated and three representative frequency peaks were identified. To evaluate data acquired a MIXED procedure was used considering the HS, LS and LS × HS as explanatory variables in the statistical model.Results showed that the studied frequency peaks had a significant relationship with the gland's health status. Results also explained how the milk EC signals' pattern change in case of NH glands. In fact, it is characterized by slower fluctuations (due to the lower frequencies of the peaks) and by an irregular trend (due to the higher amplitudes of all the main frequency peaks). Therefore, these frequency peaks could be used as new indexes to improve the performances of algorithms based on multivariate models which evaluate the health status of dairy goats through the use of gland milk EC sensors.

  14. Using the same CIDR up to three times for estrus synchronization and artificial insemination in dairy goats - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i3.10120 Using the same CIDR up to three times for estrus synchronization and artificial insemination in dairy goats - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i3.10120

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samara Rodrigues Martins

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of reusing a controlled internal drug release (CIDR device for up to three times in the reproductive performance of dairy goats raised in the semi-arid zone of northeastern Brazil. Forty-five goats were allocated into three hormone treatments, as follows: CIDR1x, treated with new CIDR during nine days. Two days prior to device removal, injections of 75 µg d-cloprostenol and 300 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG were administrated. For the other treatments, the same hormone protocol was used, differing only by the use of the same CIDR for a second time in CIDR2x and for a third time in CIDR3x. The interval from device removal to the onset of estrus (13.3 ± 1.1h vs. 13.8 ± 2.6h vs. 13.3 ± 1.4h, as well as estrus duration (33.6 ± 7.3h vs. 29.6 ± 3.2h vs. 32.8 ± 4.5h, did not differ (p > 0.05 among groups CIDR1x, CIDR2x and CIDR3x, respectively. All synchronized females were found to be in estrus. The overall fertility and prolificacy after artificial insemination were 82.2% and 1.9 kids, respectively, without significant difference (p > 0.05 among treatments. The use of the same CIDR for up to three times was effective using 9-day estrus synchronization protocols in dairy goats.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of reusing a controlled internal drug release (CIDR device for up to three times in the reproductive performance of dairy goats raised in the semi-arid zone of northeastern Brazil. Forty-five goats were allocated into three hormone treatments, as follows: CIDR1x, treated with new CIDR during nine days. Two days prior to device removal, injections of 75 µg d-cloprostenol and 300 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG were administrated. For the other treatments, the same hormone protocol was used, differing only by the use of the same CIDR for a second time in CIDR2x and for a third time in CIDR3x. The interval from device removal to the onset

  15. Synergy between selection for production and longevity and the use of extended lactation: insights from a resource allocation model in a dairy goat herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douhard, F; Tichit, M; Amer, P R; Friggens, N C

    2014-11-01

    Although most of the genetic progress in production efficiency is achieved through selection at a global scale, locally, farm managers can also influence the selection process to better match genotypes and their varying herd environment. This study focused on the influence of a particular management decision--the use of extended lactation (EL) in dairy goat production systems--as it affects the survival and reproduction rates at the herd level, which may then shape different long-term selection responses. The objective was to understand and quantify the influences of EL and variability in achieved intake level on the responses to selection for production, reproduction, and longevity. An animal model of resource allocation between life functions was applied to the dairy goat. It predicts the trajectory of change in the herd genetic composition as affected by the feeding level and the selection pressure applied by the manager. During 40 yr, goats were selected for milk yield, reproduction, and, with a different selection weight for age (WAGE), for longevity. Under varying achieved intake levels, increasing WAGE improved the survival rate but a nonlinear effect was observed for the average milk yield and BCS. When moderately increasing WAGE from 0, resources were reallocated from lactation towards body reserves and survival, which led to a trade-off at the herd level between improving survival and BCS and increasing milk yield. When further increasing WAGE, old females became systematically preferred regardless of their reproductive status and the proportion of EL in the herd increased. Females undergoing EL had reduced energetic costs of reproduction, which improved their probability of survival. Across generations, an increased herd incidence of EL led to a relaxation of the selection pressure on the resource allocation to body reserves, which is normally imposed by the manager's priority to achieve successful reproduction at each mating. As selection for longevity

  16. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... prescribed in Veterinary Services Memorandum 552.15. (2) Brucellosis. Dairy and breeding goats shall be... Test Procedures for the Diagnosis of Brucellosis.” 2 2 See footnote 2 to § 91.5. (3) No goat shall be... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Goats. 91.6 Section 91.6 Animals...

  17. 功能性寡糖对奶山羊瘤胃发酵功能的影响%Functional Oligosaccharides Affect Rumen Fermentation of Dairy Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖宇; 王利华; 程明; 祁茹; 褚永康; 林英庭

    2011-01-01

    为研究外源功能性寡糖对奶山羊瘤胃发酵功能的影响,试验选用6只体重( 32.80±2.45) kg装有永久性瘤胃瘘管的崂山奶山羊,采用分期分组试验设计,对照组不添加寡糖,试验组分别饲喂添加1%甘露寡糖、半乳甘露寡糖、果寡糖、寡木糖和异麦芽寡糖的试验饲粮.试验共分为4期,每期15 d,其中预试期13 d,正试期2d.结果表明:与对照组相比,1)不同寡糖都有降低瘤胃pH的作用,其中甘露寡糖与半乳甘露寡糖极显著降低了瘤胃pH(P<0.01);2)不同寡糖组瘤胃氨态氮(NH3-N)浓度均有所降低,其中半乳甘露寡糖与果寡糖显著降低了瘤胃NH3-N浓度(P<0.05);3)不同寡糖不同程度地增加了瘤胃内乙酸和总挥发性脂肪酸(TVFA)含量,其中,半乳甘露寡糖显著增加了乙酸和TVFA含量(P<0.05).综上所述,饲粮添加不同种类的寡糖有助于改善奶山羊的瘤胃发酵功能,其中半乳甘露寡糖对提高奶山羊瘤胃发酵功能的效果最佳.%To study the effects of different oligosaccharides on rumen fermentation of dairy goats, six dairy goats with an average body weight weight of 32. 80 ±2.45 kg fitted with rumen cannulas were used in a staging and grouping experimental design. Goats in control group were fed a basal diet without oligosaccharides, and the others in experimental groups were fed with the basal diet with 1 % mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) , galacto-mannan-oligosaccharides ( GMOS) , fructooligosaccharide ( FOS) , xylooligosaccharides ( XOS) and isomalto oligosaccharides (IMO) , respectively. The trial included 4 stages and each stage lasted for 15 days (13-day preliminary trial period and 2-day formal trial period). The results showed that compared with the control group, 1) oligosaccharides could decrease the rumen pH, MOS and GMOS significantly decreased the rumen pH(P<0.01). 2) The ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) concentration was decreased in oligosaccharide groups, GMOS and FOS

  18. Computational identification and characterization of novel microRNA in the mammary gland of dairy goat (Capra hircus)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BO QU; YOUWEN QIU; ZHEN ZHEN; FENG ZHAO; CHUNMEI WANG; YINGJUN CUI; QIZHANG LI; LI ZHANG

    2016-09-01

    Many studies have indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) influence the development of the mammary gland by posttranscriptionally affecting their target genes. The objective of this research was to identify novel miRNAs in the mammary gland ofdairy goats with a bioinformatics approach that was based on expressed sequence tag (EST) and genome survey sequence (GSS) analyses. We applied all known major mammals, miRNAs to search against the goat EST and GSS databases for the first time to identify new miRNAs. We, then, validated these newly predicted miRNAs with stem–loop reverse transcription followed by a SYBR Green polymerase chain reaction assay. Finally, 29 mature miRNAs were identified and verified, and of these, 14 were grouped into 13 families based on seed sequence identity and 85 potential target genes of newly verified miR-NAs were subsequently predicted, most of which seemed to encode the proteins participating in regulation of metabolism, signal transduction, growth and development. The predicting accuracy of the new miRNAs was 70.37%, which confirmed that the methods used in this study were efficient and reliable. Detailed analyses of the sequence characteristics of the novel miR-NAs of the goat mammary gland were performed. In conclusion, these results provide a reference for further identification of miRNAs in animals without a complete genome and thus improve the understanding of miRNAs in the caprine mammary gland.

  19. Comparison of ruminal lipid metabolism in dairy cows and goats fed diets supplemented with starch, plant oil, or fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Bernard, L; Belenguer, A; Rouel, J; Hervás, G; Chilliard, Y; Frutos, P

    2016-01-01

    Direct comparison of cow and goat performance and milk fatty acid responses to diets known to induce milk fat depression (MFD) in the bovine reveals relevant species-by-diet interactions in ruminal lipid metabolism. Thus, this study was conducted to infer potential mechanisms responsible for differences in the rumen microbial biohydrogenation (BH) due to diet and ruminant species. To meet this objective, 12 cows and 15 goats were fed a basal diet (control), a similar diet supplemented with 2.2% fish oil (FO), or a diet containing 5.3% sunflower oil and additional starch (+38%; SOS) according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 25-d experimental periods. On the last day of each period, fatty acid composition (by gas chromatography) and bacterial community (by terminal-RFLP), as well as fermentation characteristics, were measured in rumen fluid samples. Results showed significant differences in the response of cows and goats to dietary treatments, although variations in some fermentation parameters (e.g., decreases in the acetate-to-propionate ratio due to FO or SOS) were similar in both species. Main alterations in ruminal BH pathways potentially responsible for MFD on the SOS diet (i.e., the shift from trans-11 to trans-10 18:1 and related increases in trans-10,cis-12 18:2) tended to be more pronounced in cows, which is consistent with an associated MFD only in this species. However, changes linked to FO-induced MFD (e.g., decreases in 18:0 and increases in total trans-18:1) were stronger in caprine rumen fluid, which may explain their unexpected susceptibility (although less marked than in bovine) to the negative effect of FO on milk fat content. Altogether, these results suggest that distinct ruminal mechanisms lead to each type of diet-induced MFD and confirm a pronounced interaction with species. With regard to microbiota, differences between cows and goats in the composition of the rumen bacterial community might be behind the disparity in the microorganisms

  20. Coxiella burnetii in pregnant goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, H.I.J.

    2013-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of Q fever. The zoonotic impact of Q fever was recently underlined by the Dutch Q fever outbreak, which emerged from an endemic state. In this outbreak dairy goats and dairy sheep were deemed responsible for the human cases, alt

  1. Lin28a promotes self-renewal and proliferation of dairy goat spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) through regulation of mTOR and PI3K/AKT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fanglin; Zhou, Zhe; Li, Na; Zheng, Liming; Wu, Chongyang; Niu, Bowen; Tang, Furong; He, Xin; Li, Guangpeng; Hua, Jinlian

    2016-12-12

    Lin28a is a conserved RNA-binding protein that plays an important role in development, pluripotency, stemness maintenance, proliferation and self-renewal. Early studies showed that Lin28a serves as a marker of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and promotes the proliferation capacity of mouse SSCs. However, there is little information about Lin28a in livestock SSCs. In this study, we cloned Capra hircus Lin28a CDS and found that it is evolutionarily conserved. Lin28a is widely expressed in different tissues of Capra hircus, but is expressed at a high level in the testis. Lin28a is specifically located in the cytoplasm of Capra hircus spermatogonial stem cells and may also be a marker of dairy goat spermatogonial stem cells. Lin28a promoted proliferation and maintained the self-renewal of GmGSCs-I-SB in vivo and in vitro. Lin28a-overexpressing GmGSCs-I-SB showed an enhanced proliferation rate, which might be due to increased PCNA expression. Moreover, Lin28a maintained the self-renewal of GmGSCs-I-SB by up-regulating the expression of OCT4, SOX2, GFRA1, PLZF and ETV5. Furthermore, we found that Lin28a may activate the AKT, ERK, and mTOR signaling pathways to promote the proliferation and maintain the self-renewal of GmGSCs-I-SB.

  2. Lin28a promotes self-renewal and proliferation of dairy goat spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) through regulation of mTOR and PI3K/AKT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fanglin; Zhou, Zhe; Li, Na; Zheng, Liming; Wu, Chongyang; Niu, Bowen; Tang, Furong; He, Xin; Li, Guangpeng; Hua, Jinlian

    2016-01-01

    Lin28a is a conserved RNA-binding protein that plays an important role in development, pluripotency, stemness maintenance, proliferation and self-renewal. Early studies showed that Lin28a serves as a marker of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) and promotes the proliferation capacity of mouse SSCs. However, there is little information about Lin28a in livestock SSCs. In this study, we cloned Capra hircus Lin28a CDS and found that it is evolutionarily conserved. Lin28a is widely expressed in different tissues of Capra hircus, but is expressed at a high level in the testis. Lin28a is specifically located in the cytoplasm of Capra hircus spermatogonial stem cells and may also be a marker of dairy goat spermatogonial stem cells. Lin28a promoted proliferation and maintained the self-renewal of GmGSCs-I-SB in vivo and in vitro. Lin28a-overexpressing GmGSCs-I-SB showed an enhanced proliferation rate, which might be due to increased PCNA expression. Moreover, Lin28a maintained the self-renewal of GmGSCs-I-SB by up-regulating the expression of OCT4, SOX2, GFRA1, PLZF and ETV5. Furthermore, we found that Lin28a may activate the AKT, ERK, and mTOR signaling pathways to promote the proliferation and maintain the self-renewal of GmGSCs-I-SB. PMID:27941834

  3. First isolation of leptospires from dairy goats in Brazil Primeiro isolamento de leptospiras em caprinos no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Lilenbaum

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Leptospires have never been recovered from goats in Brazil. Serum samples were obtained from 248 goats from Rio de Janeiro and from the seroreactive animals, urine samples were collected and processed for Leptospira isolation. A total of 52 positive reactions were observed, corresponding to 20.9% of the samples. The most prevalent reactions were to serovars Hardjo (36.5%, Shermani (30.8%, Icterohaemorrhagiae (9.6%, Grippotyphosa (9.6%, Autumnalis (5.8%, Castellonis (3.8% and Bratislava (3.8%. Two strains of Leptospira sp. were isolated, both in the same region, but from different flocks. Presumptive identification based on serologic methods suggests those strains to be from Grippotyphosa serogroup.Leptospiras nunca foram isolados de caprinos no Brasil. Amostras de soros foram obtidas de 248 caprinos no Rio de Janeiro, e, dos animais sororeativos, amostras de urina foram coletadas e processadas para isolamento de leptospiras. Um total de 52 (20,9% reações positivas foi observado. Os serovares mais prevalentes foram Hardjo (36,5%, Shermani (30,8%, Icterohaemorrhagiae (9,6%, Grippotyphosa (9,6%, Autumnalis (5,8%, Castellonis (3,8% e Bratislava (3,8%. Duas estirpes de Leptospira sp. foram isoladas, ambas na mesma região, mas de diferentes rebanhos. A identificação sorológica presuntiva sugere trataram-se de amostras do sorogrupo Grippotyphosa.

  4. Knowledge in Goats in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winai PRALOMKARN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The goat population in Thailand is relatively small. However the past 10 years, has seen a marked increase due to an increased demand for goat meat and milk. In the past, the numbers of research publications concerning goats in Thailand were small, especially dairy goats compared with those in other economical livestock such as swine, cattle and poultry. However, the numbers have gradually increased owning to the promotion of goat production by the government. Major research areas have been focused on breeding and genetic improvement, feed and feeding, management, health, diseases and socio-economics. This paper presents background and facilities on goat research in Thailand such as knowledge in terms of breeds and genetic improvement (genetic resources, breed evaluation and breeding and molecular genetics, nutrition, management, diseases and parasites, goat’s milk and meat processing. Conclusions and recommendations are also provided.

  5. Intravenous supplementation of acetate, glucose or essential amino acids to an energy and protein deficient diet in lactating dairy goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safayi, S.; Nielsen, M. O.

    2013-01-01

    In the present experiment we aimed to study, if milk synthesis is more sensitive toward deficiency in supply of amino acids in early (EL) versus late lactation (LL), and if energy yielding substrates in the form of acetate (but not glucose) can contribute to sustain milk (protein) synthesis, when...... amino acid supply is suboptimal. Goats were fed a basal diet deficient in energy (90% of requirements) and protein (80% of requirements), and were randomly allocated to 4 treatments in a balanced 4 x 4 Latin square design. The treatments consisted of 4-d continuous intravenous infusions of isoosmotic...... protein energy recommendations for ruminants across the lactation period. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  6. Improved Fuzzy Logic System to Evaluate Milk Electrical Conductivity Signals from On-Line Sensors to Monitor Dairy Goat Mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaninelli, Mauro; Tangorra, Francesco Maria; Costa, Annamaria; Rossi, Luciana; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Savoini, Giovanni

    2016-07-13

    The aim of this study was to develop and test a new fuzzy logic model for monitoring the udder health status (HS) of goats. The model evaluated, as input variables, the milk electrical conductivity (EC) signal, acquired on-line for each gland by a dedicated sensor, the bandwidth length and the frequency and amplitude of the first main peak of the Fourier frequency spectrum of the recorded milk EC signal. Two foremilk gland samples were collected from eight Saanen goats for six months at morning milking (lactation stages (LS): 0-60 Days In Milking (DIM); 61-120 DIM; 121-180 DIM), for a total of 5592 samples. Bacteriological analyses and somatic cell counts (SCC) were used to define the HS of the glands. With negative bacteriological analyses and SCC 1,000,000 cells/mL, glands were classified as not healthy (NH). For each EC signal, an estimated EC value was calculated and a relative deviation was obtained. Furthermore, the Fourier frequency spectrum was evaluated and bandwidth length, frequency and amplitude of the first main peak were identified. Before using these indexes as input variables of the fuzzy logic model a linear mixed-effects model was developed to evaluate the acquired data considering the HS, LS and LS × HS as explanatory variables. Results showed that performance of a fuzzy logic model, in the monitoring of mammary gland HS, could be improved by the use of EC indexes derived from the Fourier frequency spectra of gland milk EC signals recorded by on-line EC sensors.

  7. Improved Fuzzy Logic System to Evaluate Milk Electrical Conductivity Signals from On-Line Sensors to Monitor Dairy Goat Mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Zaninelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop and test a new fuzzy logic model for monitoring the udder health status (HS of goats. The model evaluated, as input variables, the milk electrical conductivity (EC signal, acquired on-line for each gland by a dedicated sensor, the bandwidth length and the frequency and amplitude of the first main peak of the Fourier frequency spectrum of the recorded milk EC signal. Two foremilk gland samples were collected from eight Saanen goats for six months at morning milking (lactation stages (LS: 0–60 Days In Milking (DIM; 61–120 DIM; 121–180 DIM, for a total of 5592 samples. Bacteriological analyses and somatic cell counts (SCC were used to define the HS of the glands. With negative bacteriological analyses and SCC < 1,000,000 cells/mL, glands were classified as healthy. When bacteriological analyses were positive or showed a SCC > 1,000,000 cells/mL, glands were classified as not healthy (NH. For each EC signal, an estimated EC value was calculated and a relative deviation was obtained. Furthermore, the Fourier frequency spectrum was evaluated and bandwidth length, frequency and amplitude of the first main peak were identified. Before using these indexes as input variables of the fuzzy logic model a linear mixed-effects model was developed to evaluate the acquired data considering the HS, LS and LS × HS as explanatory variables. Results showed that performance of a fuzzy logic model, in the monitoring of mammary gland HS, could be improved by the use of EC indexes derived from the Fourier frequency spectra of gland milk EC signals recorded by on-line EC sensors.

  8. Effects of Non-fiber Carbohydrate to Neutral Detergent Fiber Ratios on Ruminal pH Dynamics in Dairy Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hong-lian; LU De-xun; LIU Da-cheng

    2011-01-01

    IntroductionSubacute ruminal acidosis (SARA)has become common and important economic and health issues for high-yielding dairy cows.Rumen pH takes a central position in the pathogenesis of SARA.So monitoring of rumen pH is play important role in recognizing,quantifying and subsequently controlling this disorder.The objective of the present study was to determine effects of different non-fiber carbohydrate to neutral detergent fiber ratios on ruminal pH dynamics.

  9. Soroprevalência de Toxoplasma gondii em rebanhos caprinos no Estado de São Paulo Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in dairy goats in the São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Soares Mainardi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi colhido um total de 442 soros em rebanhos caprinos de sete regiões do Estado de São Paulo e testados para anticorpos contra Toxoplasma gondii pela reação de imunofluorescência indireta. Em todos os rebanhos, foram encontrados caprinos reagentes, totalizando 64 (14,5% animais com sorologia positiva em diferentes capris.Four hundred forty-two serum samples were collected from dairy goats in seven regions of São Paulo State. These were tested for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. Sixty-four (14,5% serologically positive animals were found from all these goat farms studied.

  10. Disposition of melamine residues in blood and milk from dairy goats exposed to an oral bolus of melamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynes, Ronald E; Barlow, Beth; Mason, Sharon E; Riviere, Jim E

    2010-01-01

    There have been numerous reports of melamine-related illnesses following oral exposure to this contaminant. These studies have been in monogastrics, but there are few reports of adverse effects and pharmacokinetics of melamine in ruminants. The purpose of this project was to determine how melamine is systemically cleared from the blood and milk in lactating animals. Five lactating goats were given a single oral dose of 40 mg/kg body weight. Milk and blood samples were collected for 144 h and analyzed to determine key pharmacokinetic parameters. The apparent plasma half-life (11.12h) was 3 times longer in these ruminants than that reported in monogastrics and the apparent volume of distribution was more than 6 times greater than that reported in monogastrics. The milk had an apparent half-life of 9.44h and less than 0.4% of the melamine dose was eliminated in milk. All milk samples were below the LOQ at 4 days (96 h) after exposure. In summary, the pharmacokinetics of melamine in ruminants is not predictive from monogastrics and milk from similarly exposed animals should be condemned for at least 4days after the last exposure to avoid violation of proposed MRLs or safe levels for milk. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection and application of PIS genetic deficiency gene in dairy goat%奶山羊PIS 遗传缺陷基因的检测及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 贾丽丽; 赵德超; 孟丽云; 刘雪锋; 张燕军; 张文广; 李金泉

    2012-01-01

    文章旨在建立一种奶山羊无角间性综合征(Polled intersex syndrome,PIS)遗传缺陷基因检测方法.根据PIS 基因序列(AF404302)分别设计PIS -、PIS+、NEI 3 对扩增引物,利用PCR 技术鉴定奶山羊PIS 遗传缺陷基因型.基因型为PIS - PIS+与PIS -PIS + 的表型正常个体分别扩增出(141,300 bp)和(141,449,300 bp)的片段组合,隐性纯合间性山羊(PIS +PIS +)扩增出(449,300 bp)的片段组合.利用该方法检测一个224 个体的奶山羊群体,结果显示:PIS -PIS -、PIS-PIS + 和PIS +PIS+个体分别为70、150 和4 个.该群体中PIS -PIS +基因型频率高达66.9%,PIS +基因频率为35.3%,其子代群体出现间性山羊的可能性将超过12%.文章所开发的奶山羊PIS 遗传缺陷基因检测方法可直接准确判别种公羊的基因型,从而避免缺陷基因携带者种公羊的使用.该方法易操作且准确性高,对奶山羊的标记辅助选择及奶山羊产业的健康发展具有重要意义.%The purpose of this study was to develop a molecular method for detecting polled intersex syndrome (PIS) genetic deficiency gene in dairy goat. Three pairs of primers, PIS , PIS+, and NEI were designed based on PIS gene sequence (AF404302) to identify the PIS genetic deficiency genotype. For the normal phenotype, the fragments of 141 and 300 bp were obtained for the genotype PIS-PIS-, and 141, 449, and 300 bp for the genotype PIS-PIS+. For the PIS goat with the genotype PIS+PIS+, 449 and 300 bp were obtained. Two hundred and twenty-four dairy goats in one population were tested based on this method. The results showed that there were 150 PIS-PIS+, 70 PIS -PIS+, and 4 PIS-PIS+. The genotype frequency of PIS-PIS+ was 66.9%, and the gene frequency of PIS+ was 35.3% in the population. Therefore, the frequency of PIS offspring was over 12%. This study developed a method to detect PIS genetic deficiency dairy goat. The method could identify buck genotype accurately to avoid the occurrence of PIS

  12. Socio-economic aspects of goat farming enterprise in Teso region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    A study was conducted to document the socio-economic aspects of goat production in Teso sub- region of Uganda ... Key words: Benefits, farming system, goat production, Uganda. Introduction ...... level of adoption of innovations in dairy cattle.

  13. Technological suitability of goat milk for processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualda Danków

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The world population of dairy goats is estimated at 300 million of which approximately 56% is reared in Asia. Goats raised in Europe (about 12 million constitute 4% of the world herd of these animals. The world goat milk production is assessed to be at the level of about 12 million tons and constitutes over 2% of the global milk obtained from different animal species. In many European countries, goat milk as a dairy raw material comes second after cow milk. The goat population in Poland is estimated at 190 000 heads. With regard to the content of basic constituents, goat milk is similar to cow milk, although it differs from it as to the qualitative composition of fat and protein. Species protein structure of goat milk, different from that of cow milk, causes fewer allergic reactions which are observed to occur in the case of intolerance to cow milk proteins. Rennin curd from goat milk is softer and less compact. A wide range of different products is manufactured from goat milk including: liquid milk (pasteurised and UHT, rennin and cottage cheeses, fermented beverages such as yoghurt, kefir, butter milk, cream, condensed milk, powdered milk, rice goats, butter and even chocolates “Goat’s Milk”.

  14. Milk drink with goat milk and goat serum is alternative for exploitation of pulp umbu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkarthe Guerra Araújo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to develop and evaluate the acceptance and intention to purchase two dairy beverages formulations prepared with fermented umbus, goat serum and goat milk in order to add greater economic value to the three raw materials. The treatments consisted of the variation in serum concentrations goat (28,5% and 44% and goat milk (44% and 28,5%, respectively. The pulp has previously been analyzed and showed 15,21mg/100g of ascorbic acid. The fermented dairy beverages showed microbiological characteristics within the established by the legislation. It was found that there was no significant difference (p > 0,05 for color attributes, flavor and consistency of both, however, the flavor attributes and global acceptance have been significantly affected. The formulation with 28,5% of goat serum and 44% goat milk had the best average from 10 days, and acceptances up to 25 days of storage.

  15. Keeping goats or going north? Enhancing livelihoods of smallholder goat farmers through brucellosis control in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oseguera Montiel, D.

    2014-01-01

    Smallholder Mexican farmers are embedded in an adverse context, due to neoliberal globalization policies, which threatens their livelihoods, and has caused an unprecedented surge of migration to the US. Keeping goats is one strategy to diversify livelihoods. Goat husbandry is dairy oriented and has

  16. Keeping goats or going north? Enhancing livelihoods of smallholder goat farmers through brucellosis control in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oseguera Montiel, D.

    2014-01-01

    Smallholder Mexican farmers are embedded in an adverse context, due to neoliberal globalization policies, which threatens their livelihoods, and has caused an unprecedented surge of migration to the US. Keeping goats is one strategy to diversify livelihoods. Goat husbandry is dairy oriented and has

  17. The Effect of Rumex K-1 on Milk Performance in Guanzhong Dairy Goats%鲁梅克斯K-1对关中奶山羊产奶性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑞香

    2012-01-01

    为了研究鲁梅克斯K-1对关中奶山羊产奶性能的影响.选取50只健康、体质量、产奶量接近(P>0.5)的关中奶山羊,试验共分5个处理,每个处理10只,各处理每只羊每天均饲喂3kg粗饲料和1kg精饲料,对照组粗饲料全喂玉米秸杆青贮,A、B、C、D组用鲁梅克斯青贮分别替代0.5、1、1.5、2 kg玉米秸杆青贮,进行为期50天泌乳试验.结果表明:(1)整个试验期,处理C组共产羊奶1850 kg,处理C组分别比CK、A、B、D组多产奶490、325、260、310 kg,差异极显著(P<0.01);(2)处理C组比CK、A、B、D组奶山羊的乳干物质、乳脂率、乳蛋白及乳糖含量均有所改善,但差异不显著(P>0.5);(3)C组的纯收入为5675元,C组分别比CK、A、B、D组多收入2035、1350、1065、1215元,差异极显著(P<0.01).鲁梅克斯营养丰富,与玉米秸杆混合青贮能有效提高关中奶山羊产奶量,改善乳蛋白、乳糖及乳脂率,其在粗饲料中添加量在50%为宜.%In this study the milk performance was tested from Guanzhong dairy goat fed with Rumex K-1 Fifty healthy Guanzhong dairy goats with a similar index on body weight and milk production (P>0.5) were randomly divided into five groups, 10 goats per group. Each of experimental group was fed coarse fodder (3 kg/d) with concentrated feed (1 kg/d), respectively. The goats in normal control group was fed silage maize straw as coarse fodder, and other A, B, C, D groups were fed silage maize straw combined with Rumex K-1 with four dosage of 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 kg, respectively for 50 days. Results showed that: (1) Goats in C group had a niore milk production which totally produced 1850 kg milk during experimental time. Compared to the C group, the milk production had a significant decrease by about 490, 325, 260, 310 kg for CK, A, B and D (P 0.5). (3) Net income of goats in C group was 5675¥, which was reduced by about 2035¥, 1350¥, 1065¥ and 1215¥ for CK, A, B and D (P<0.01). These

  18. Reactive Nitrogen Intermediates Production by Macrophages of Mycobacterium bovis-Infected Goats and Supplemented with Dyhidroxyvitamin D3 in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Martinez-Romero

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Tuberculosis (TB remains one of the world's major health problems. To evaluate in vivo indices of cellular sensitization, antigen-induced Reactive Nitrogen Intermediates (RNI responses by blood mononuclear cells from Mycobacterium bovis BCG-infected goats supplemented with 1, 25 dyhidroxyvitamin D3 [1, 25-(OH2D3]. Approach: An experimental, longitudinal and comparative study was planned. Twelve animals of goat cattle 20-to 24-month-old sannen selected themselves. Five samplings were made, previous to the inoculation (zero d, 3, 7, 14 and 21 d after applying the treatments. The mononuclear cells by the Ficoll-hypaque method were obtained. The RNI, nitrites and nitrates (NO2- and NO3-­ were quantified by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. Results: The treatment with the 1, 25(OH2D3 stimulated the NO3- synthesis indicating, that by itself it is a good modulador of the micobacterial replication and in the treatment with M. bovis-BCG vaccine increased as a result to the treatment with 1,25(OH2D3. The exhibition to M. bovis-BCG vaccine with the treatment with 1, 25(OH2D3 was able to increase answer NO3-­ in exposed animals. Conclusion: The 1, 25(OH2D3 stimulated in vivo the production of RNI in goats exposed to M. bovis BCG vaccine.

  19. Measurement of Mammary Blood Flow in Dairy Goats%奶山羊乳腺血流量检测的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋移福; 马卫明; 王中华; 贺加双; 傅莹; 曹永芝; 池洪亮; 谢冰; 刘莲莲

    2011-01-01

    The mammary nutrition research in lactating ruminants, especially in dairy cows, has become a hot spot of animal nutrition research at present, and mammary blood flow is one of the key factors that affect the absorption, uptake and utilization of mammary nutrients, therefore, the accurate measurement of mammary blood flow has the theoretical and practical significance. This article took the mammary gland of dairy goats as the object and the transit-time ultrasonic blood flow meter was used to assess the measurement of mammary blood flow and the accuracy under different conditions. The results showed that external pudendal vein ligation could effectively prevent external pudendal vein blood refluxed into the mammary vein and did not affect the mammary blood flow (P >0.05); the effect of nutrition on mammary blood flow was slow but significant (P <0.01 ); milking had little effect on mammary blood flow ( P > 0.05 ), but lying could increase mammary blood flow significantly (P <0.01 ); increasing the feeding times could reduce mammary blood flow fluctuations and enhance the rate of accuracy of measuring mammary blood flow, the mammary blood flow was decreased gradually from 01:00 to 12:00 o' clock and then increased, at the same time the milk yield was in a positive correlation with the average of the blood flow. In conclusion, the external pudendal vein ligation can effectively prevent the blood flow measurement from inaccuracy; nutrition has a great effect on the mammary blood flow; milking has little effect on the blood flow while lying can increase blood flow significantly; the measurement of manmnary blood flow will be more accurate under the conditions of increasing the feeding times. [Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 2011, 23(6) :1035-1042]%目前泌乳反刍动物尤其是奶牛乳腺营养研究已成为动物营养研究中的热点,乳腺血流量是影响乳腺营养物质吸收、摄取和利用的关键因素之一,因此乳腺血流量的

  20. Risk factors associated with the occurrence of gastrointestinal helminths in dairy goats kept in grazing systemFatores de riscos associados à ocorrência de helmintos gastrintestinais em cabras leiteiras mantidas em sistema de pastejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adivaldo Henrique Fonseca

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Infection due to the gastrointestinal nematodes can negatively interact with the productive performance of dairy goats, and in some cases can induce mortality in the flocks. The objective was to study the influence of season, parturition order, postpartum, lactation and breed standard on the population of helminths in dairy goats. 31 goats were used, with 15 Saanen and 16 F1 (½ Boer + ½ Saanen. Of these, 13 were from the 1st lactation and 18 from the 2nd or more lactations. The highest fecal egg counts occurred during the summer and spring, with FEC in Saanen higher (p Infecção por nematóides gastrointestinais pode interagir negativamente com a performace produtiva de cabras de leite, e em alguns casos induzir a mortalidade em rebanhos. Objetivou-se conhecer a influência da estação do ano, ordem de parto, periparto, lactação e padrão racial sobre a população de helmintos em cabras leiteiras. Foram utilizadas 31 cabras, sendo 15 Saanen e 16 F1 (½ Saanen + ½ Bôer. Destas, 13 eram de 1º lactação e 18 de 2º ou mais lactações. As maiores contagens de OPG ocorreram no verão e primavera, sendo o OPG dos animais Saanen superior (p < 0,01 ao dos F1 (½ Saanen + ½ Bôer. Os animais de 1º lactação apresentaram OPG superior (p < 0,004 ao dos animais de 2º ou mais lactação. Durante o periparto as maiores contagem de OPG para os dois padrões raciais foram na semana do parto (p < 0,05, seguida pelo pós-parto e pré-parto. No periparto as cabras Saanen apresentaram OPG superior (p < 0,02 aos F1 e as primíparas (p < 0,008 em relação as pluríparas. Animais F1 são resistentes a helmintos quando comparado a animais Saanen, demonstrando que o cruzamento de raças resistentes com raças de alta produção é uma alternativa viável para aumentar a produtividade sem comprometer a estabilidade parasitaria do rebanho. O periparto constitui fator de risco associado á ocorrência de helmintos gastrintestinais, especialmente em cabras

  1. Glycaemia as a sign of the viability of the foetuses in the last days of gestation in dairy goats with pregnancy toxaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Miguel S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pregnancy toxaemia is one of the most common diseases affecting small ruminants in the last month of gestation. Nearly 80% of the foetal growth occurs in the last 6 weeks of gestation. Fat goats and goats carrying twins and triplets are at greater risk. Pregnancy toxaemia is characterized by metabolic acidosis, hypoglycaemia and ketonaemia and a very high mortality rate. In our study five does with pregnancy toxaemia showed a marked hyperglycaemia (12.4 ± 5.4 mmol/L. Although our findings are based on a small population sample (10 goats, we nonetheless postulate that hyperglycaemia could be explained by the death of the foetuses. Caesarian surgery was performed on four of the five does with hyperglycaemia (HG does. In the fifth, kidding was induced. In this group, two does had two dead foetuses, two had three dead foetuses and one does had four foetuses, only one of which was alive. Caesarian surgery was performed on all five does with hypoglycaemia (LG does. Four does of the LG group had three foetuses and one had two foetuses, all alive. The HG doe had lower rectal temperatures, lower sodium and higher urea nitrogen (BUN in the blood when compared with the LG does. As the condition of affected does may deteriorate quickly, the results of the present study suggest that in the last days of pregnancy goats with pregnancy toxaemia and concurrent hypoglycaemia should be considered for caesarian surgery.

  2. Chemical composition, rumen degradability, protein utilization and lactation response to selected tree leaves as substitute of cottonseed cake in the diet of dairy goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N.A.; Habib, G.; Ullah, G.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of leaves from Grewia oppositifolia (G. oppositifolia) and Ziziphus mauritiana (Z. mauritiana) as a crude protein (CP) supplements to low quality diets of goats in Pakistan. Chemical composition and CP degradability of the tree leaves were compa

  3. Genetic variation for infection status as determined by a specific antibody response against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in milk of Dutch dairy goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzen, K.J.E. van; Koets, A.P.; Nielen, M.; Hoeboer, J.; Arendonk, J.A. van; Heuven, H.C.

    2012-01-01

    Classical control strategies based on management restrictions to reduce transmission, culling of infected goats, and vaccination have not been able to eradicate Johne's disease from infected herds. Selective breeding for less susceptibility to disease may be a useful additional tool to contribute to

  4. Genetic variation for infection status as determined by a specific antibody response against Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in milk of Dutch dairy goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzen, van K.J.E.; Koets, A.P.; Nielen, M.; Hoeboer, J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Classical control strategies based on management restrictions to reduce transmission, culling of infected goats, and vaccination have not been able to eradicate Johne’s disease from infected herds. Selective breeding for less susceptibility to disease may be a useful additional tool to contribute to

  5. Dairies, DATCP licensed milk producers - including cow, goat, sheep, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Dairies dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as 'DATCP licensed milk...

  6. Different Exogenous Oligosaccharides Affect Serum Biochemical Indices and Antioxidant Indices of Dairy Goats%外源寡糖对奶山羊血清生化指标和抗氧化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖宇; 王利华; 孙国强; 程明; 汪文鑫; 张孝凯; 祁茹; 褚永康; 林英庭

    2012-01-01

    为研究外源寡糖对奶山羊血清生化指标和抗氧化指标的影响,试验选用体况良好、年龄相近、体重(32.80±2.45) kg的崂山奶山羊6只,采用分期分组试验设计,分别饲喂添加1%(以有效含量计)甘露寡糖、半乳甘露寡糖、果寡糖、寡木糖和异麦芽寡糖的试验饲粮,另设不添加寡糖的对照组.试验共分为4期,每期35 d,其中预试期7d,正试期28 d.结果表明:与对照组相比,果寡糖可显著降低血清丙二醛和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇含量(P<0.05),显著提高血清中总蛋白和球蛋白含量(P<0.05);甘露寡糖可显著降低血清丙二醛含量和谷丙转氨酶活性(P<0.05),提高血清中球蛋白和血清磷含量(P<0.05);半乳甘露寡糖可显著提高血清中总蛋白(P<0.05)、球蛋白(P<0.01)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(P<0.05)和血清磷含量(P<0.05),增强血清总超氧化物歧化酶活性(P<0.05),降低血清丙二醛(P<0.01)、尿素氮(P<0.05)、甘油三酯(P<0.05)和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(P<0.05)含量,降低血清谷丙转氨酶活性(P<0.05).各种寡糖对奶山羊血清谷草转氨酶、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶活性和白蛋白、葡萄糖、总胆固醇、血清钙含量无显著影响(P>0.05).综上所述,饲粮中添加不同寡糖能够在一定水平上提高奶山羊的抗氧化能力,改善机体脂质代谢、蛋白质合成以及钙、磷的吸收,且对肝脏和心脏无损害,建议在奶山羊饲粮中添加的寡糖种类有果寡糖、甘露寡糖和半乳甘露寡糖,其中半乳甘露寡糖为首选.%Effects of different exogenous oligosaccharides on serum biochemical indices and antioxidant indices of dairy goats were studied in this experiment. Six healthy dairy goats with an average body weight of (32.80 ± 2. 45) kg and similar age were used in a staging and grouping experimental design. Goats in the experimental groups were fed diets supplemented with 1 % mannan

  7. Dairy goat health management and milk production on organic and conventional system in BrazilEstudo comparativo da produção e manejo sanitário entre cabras leiteiras orgânica e convencional no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenevaldo Barbosa da Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aimed of this article is to measure risk factors on health and milk production on organic and conventional dairy goats in Brazil. Two experimental groups (organic and conventional were evaluated simultaneously. The study design was completely randomized. The organic herd consisted of 25 goats and 15 kids. In the conventional production system, a dairy herd comprising 40 goats and 20 kids participated in the study. Data on milk production and health management were available from January 2007 to December 2009. The abortion rate in the conventional system was 5% (2/40 whereas in organic system no abortion was diagnosed (0/25. The mortality rate at weaning in the conventional system was 5% (2/40 and in the organic system was 8% (2/25. Milk production was lower (2.20 kg/day in organic than conventional system (2.66 kg/day. Goats and kids in organic farm had a higher FEC (386±104 and 900±204, respectively (p O objetivo do artigo foi mensurar os fatores de risco referentes ao manejo sanitário e a produção entre cabras leiteiras sob sistema orgânico e convencional. Dois grupos experimentais (orgânico e convencional foram conduzidos simultaneamente. O desenho do estudo foi o inteiramente casualizado. O rebanho orgânico consistiu de 25 cabras e 15 cabritos e o sistema convencional por 40 cabras e 20 cabritos. Os parâmetros produtivos e sanitários foram monitorados entre janeiro de 2007 a dezembro de 2009. No sistema convencional, houve uma taxa de aborto de 5% (2/40, enquanto que no sistema orgânico nenhum aborto foi diagnosticado (0/25. A taxa de mortalidade ao desmame no sistema convencional foi de 5% (2/40 e no sistema orgânico foi de 8% (2/25. A produção de leite média diária por cabra no rebanho leiteiro orgânico (2,20 kg/dia foi mais baixa do que a do rebanho convencional (2,66 kg/dia. Os resultados indicaram que as cabras e cabritos mantidos em fazenda orgânica (386±104 e 900±204, respectivamente apresentaram maiores

  8. PEARL MILLET AS SUBSTITUTE OF CORN IN FEEDING TO DAIRY GOATS UTILIZAÇÃO DO MILHETO COMO SUBSTITUTO DO MILHO EM RAÇÕES PARA CABRAS LEITEIRAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldi Fernandes de Souza França

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum is an annual summer forage that grows in India and some African countries, used for human and animal feeding. Due to its high nutritive value it can be used for grain production and forage. Because of its physiologic characteristics, pearl millet is adapted to the soil and climate conditions of Brazilian cerrados region. This trial was conducted with the aim of evaluating the use of pearl millet (grain + ears to dairy goat feeding. Sixteen dairy goat females were alloted in a Latin square design and submitted to four levels of substitution of millet ear corn for pearl millet. The percentual levels of substitution used were 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% that correspond to treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The results, obtained in terms of average of milk production in a period of six days, were: 4.471, 4.621, 4.911 and 4.771 for treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. It was not observed any statistical difference between treatments with the use of Tukey test at the probability level of 5%.

    KEY-WORDS: Pearl millet; dairy goat; feeding.

    O milheto (Pennisetum americanum (L Leeke se constitui em uma forrageira anual de verão muito utilizada na Índia e em alguns países da África, tanto para alimentação humana como animal. Apresenta alto valor nutritivo, podendo ser utilizada para a produção de grãos ou de forragens. Por suas características fisiológicas se adapta muito bem às condições edafoclimáticas dos cerrados. O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o

  9. Eimeria infections in goats in Southern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Liliana Machado Ribeiro da; Vila-Viçosa, Maria João Martins; Nunes, Telmo; Taubert, Anja; Hermosilla, Carlos; Cortes, Helder Carola Espiguinha

    2014-01-01

    Coccidiosis caused by Eimeria species is a major form of intestinal infection affecting intensively and semi-intensively reared goats. The province of Alentejo is the main goat-producing area in Portugal. Therefore, all 15 Serpentina goat farms in Alentejo were analyzed regarding the occurrence and diversity of Eimeria species. Fecal samples obtained from 144 animals (52.1% dairy goats, 47.9% pre-pubertal goats) were examined using the modified McMaster technique to determine the number of oocysts per gram of feces. Eimeria spp. oocysts were present in 98.61% of the fecal samples and, overall, nine different Eimeria species were identified. The most prevalent species were E. ninakohlyakimovae (88%) and E. arloingi (85%), followed by E. alijevi (63%) and E. caprovina (63%). The average number of oocysts shed was significantly lower in dairy goats than in pre-adult animals. Astonishingly, no clinical signs of coccidiosis were observed in any of the animals examined, even though they were shedding high numbers of oocysts and were infected with highly pathogenic species. Thus, implementation of routine diagnostic investigation of the occurrence and diversity of caprine Eimeria species may be a useful tool for determination and better understanding of their potential economic impact on goat herds in southern Portugal.

  10. Aspectos metodológicos do comportamento ingestivo de cabras lactantes alimentadas com farelo de cacau e torta de dendê Methodological aspects of chewing activity of dairy goats fed cocoa meal or palm cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho

    2007-02-01

    different time intervals indicating that chewing activity of dairy goats fed increasing levels of dietary cocoa meal or palm cake can be measured at every 20 minutes rather than at every five minutes intervals.

  11. Microbiological quality of goat's milk obtained under different production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K. Kyozaire

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the safety of milk produced by smallholder dairy goat farms, a farm-based research study was conducted on commercial dairy goat farms to compare the microbiological quality of milk produced using 3 different types of dairy goat production systems (intensive, semi-intensive and extensive. A survey of dairy goat farms in and around Pretoria carried out by means of a questionnaire revealed that most of the smallholder dairy goat farms surveyed used an extensive type of production system. The method of milking varied with the type of production system, i.e. machine milking; bucket system machine milking and hand-milking, respectively. Udder half milk samples (n=270 were analysed, of which 31.1 % were infected with bacteria. The lowest intra-mammary infection was found amongst goats in the herd under the extensive system (13.3 %, compared with 43.3 % and 36.7 % infection rates under the intensive and semi-intensive production systems, respectively. Staphylococcus intermedius (coagulase positive, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus simulans (both coagulase negative, were the most common cause of intramammary infection with a prevalence of 85.7 % of the infected udder halves. The remaining 14.3 % of the infection was due to Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteriology of bulk milk samples on the other hand, showed that raw milk obtained by the bucket system milking machine had the lowest total bacterial count (16 450 colony forming units (CFU/mℓ compared to that by pipeline milking machine (36 300 CFU/mℓ or handmilking (48 000 CFU/mℓ. No significant relationship was found between the somatic cell counts (SCC and presence of bacterial infection in goat milk. In comparison with the herds under the other 2 production systems, it was shown that dairy goat farming under the extensive production system, where hand-milking was used, can be adequate for the production of safe raw goat milk.

  12. Keeping goats or going north? Enhancing livelihoods of smallholder goat farmers through brucellosis control in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Oseguera Montiel, D.

    2014-01-01

    Smallholder Mexican farmers are embedded in an adverse context, due to neoliberal globalization policies, which threatens their livelihoods, and has caused an unprecedented surge of migration to the US. Keeping goats is one strategy to diversify livelihoods. Goat husbandry is dairy oriented and has a range of functions for farmers, like income, food, insurance, credit, and a reason for not having to migrate to the US. However, caprine brucellosis, a zoonosis endemic in Mexico caused by Brucel...

  13. Construction of Molecular Genealogy and Analysis of Family Genetic Characteristics in Laoshan Dairy Goat%崂山奶山羊分子系谱的构建及家系遗传特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪志宾; 王桂芝; 王金凤; 陈珊珊; 王勇; 赵金山; 程明; 王建民

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The molecular genealogy of population known pedigree records in Laoshan Dairy Goat was constructed by using microsatellite DNA markers technology to verify the consistency with the known pedigree records, identify the factors affecting paternity testing, ascertain the genetic characteristics of family and provide a scientific basis for the conservation and genetic management of the groups. [Method] Twelve microsatellite markers with high polymorphism were selected from 25 ones for 212 Laoshan Dairy Goat with known pedigree records, parentage were analyzed with Cervus vs 2.0, molecular genealogy was built with Pedigraph vs 2.2, the genetic characteristics and phylogenesis of family were analysed with Molkin vs 3.0, MEGA4 and GeneClass2. The correlation coefficient between the exclusion probability(EP) per locus and PIC, He, Ho, K was analyzed with SPSS vs 16, and the effect of different locus and information source on the accuracy of paternity testing was analysed, also. [Result] Twelve highly polymorphic microsatellite DNA markers were selected from 25 ones in Laoshan Dairy Goat, the mean PIC value is 0.687, the mean number of allele is 5.75, the mean expected heterozygosity is 0.730. The two-parents combined exclusion probability is 0.9998 on the confidence level of 95%. The biological mother or grandmother of 115 offsprings were found from 80 candidate parents, 3 individuals were not accorded with the known pedigree records, the conincidence rate is 98.58%. The molecular genealogy was constructed on the basis of paternal strains. The correlation coefficient between the exclusion probability and the PIC is the biggest (0.99), and K with the smallest correlation coefficient (0.67). The CEP2 is more than 99.73% with 8 microsatellite loci. [Conclusion] Twelve microsatellite loci can be used for analysis of paternity or construct molecular genealogy in Laoshan Dairy Goat group. The built families have a good genetic basis, and a high genetic diversity

  14. A serological study on Brucella abortus, caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus and Leptospira in dairy goats in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilenbaum, Walter; de Souza, Guilherme Nunes; Ristow, Paula; Moreira, Madelayne Cortez; Fráguas, Suzana; Cardoso, Verônica da Silva; Oelemann, Walter Martin Roland

    2007-03-01

    In spite of the large number of goats found in several developing tropical countries, milk production remains unsatisfactory. The occurrence of infectious diseases, such as leptospirosis, brucellosis and caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE) may in part be responsible for sub-optimal production. In this study, 1000 serum samples were tested for leptospirosis, 953 for brucellosis and 562 for CAE. All tested flocks presented at least one seroreactive animal for leptospirosis and for CAE. Reactivity to leptospirosis was 11.1%, and serovar hardjo was the most frequently found. Anti-B. abortus agglutinins were found in 0.5% of the samples presented and 14.1% were seroreactive to CAE. Leptospirosis was considered to represent the major infectious problem in the studied goat flocks. The occurrence of infectious diseases in the tested flocks may represent an important factor contributing to the decreased productivity of the animals. These findings may be similar to those observed in other developing countries and require further study to define the relationship between seropositivity and reduced production.

  15. Nematóides resistentes a alguns anti-helmínticos em rebanhos caprinos no Cariri Paraibano Nematode resistant to some anthelmintics in dairy goats in Cariri Paraibano, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner C. Lima

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a resistência de nematódeos a alguns anti-helmínticos em rebanhos caprinos no Cariri Paraibano. Foram utilizados 144 animais no período seco e 120 animais no período chuvoso, fêmeas com idade acima de oito meses de vida e lactantes, distribuídos em 4 grupos: Grupo I não tratado, Grupo II tratado com albendazole a 10%, Grupo III tratado com ivermectina a 1% e Grupo IV tratado com fosfato de levamisole a 18,8%, nas doses recomendadas pelos fabricantes. Para avaliar a resistência, aplicou-se o teste de redução na contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (RCOF e o cultivo de larvas de helmintos. As amostras fecais foram coletadas no dia do tratamento (dia base e 7, 14 e 21 dias após o tratamento. No grupo tratado com Albendazole, observaram-se eficácias de 61%, 11% e 24% no período seco e de 55%, 14% e 12% no período chuvoso, aos 7, 14, e 21 dias, respectivamente. No grupo tratado com Ivermectina, a eficácia foi de 14%, 70% e 66% para o período seco, e de 76%, 34% e 71% para o período chuvoso, aos 7, 14 e 21 dias, respectivamente. O grupo tratado com fosfato de Levamisole apresentou percentuais de eficácia de 89%, 79% e 73% no período seco e de 76%, 69% e 67% no período chuvoso, aos 7, 14 e 21 dias, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos indicam que os nematódeos gastrintestinais de alguns rebanhos caprinos no Cariri Paraibano não são sensíveis aos princípios ativos Albendazole, Levamisole e Ivermectina. Durante o período de estudo foi identificada a presença de parasitas dos gêneros Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Oesophagostomum e Strongyloides.The aim of this paper was to evaluate the resistance of nematodes to some anthelmintics in dairy goats in Cariri Paraibano, Brazil. A total of 144 female goats, over 8 months of age, were used in the dry season and 120 ones during the rainy season, divided into four groups: Group I untreated, Group II treated with albendazole 10%, Group III treated with ivermectin

  16. 热应激对奶山羊生产性能及瘤胃上皮细胞形态结构的影响%Effect of Heat Stress on Dairy Goat Performance and Rumen Epithelial Cell Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马燕芬; 杜瑞平; 高民

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]Effect of heat stress on dairy goat production performance and rumen epithelial cell morphology were studied in order to provide a rational and experimental basis for animals in hot environments to maintain normal physiological function and to explore methods of resistance to heat stress. [Method] The animal modes were estabished when temperature and humidity index >72 (THI>72) of early, medium and evening for a week. The effect of heat stress on rumen fermentation pattern, digestion and metabolism of nutritive materials, performance, morphology and structure of rumen epithelial cell were studied with mid-and late-lactation dairy goats by animal nutrition methods in this project. [Result] The results showed that THI of test sheep was between 72 and 87 during the tests, and in the mild and high heat stress, which showed dairy goat in continuous heat stress state during the whole experiment period. Heat stress significantly increased rectal temperature and respiration rate (P0.05). Heat stress significantly decreased pH value, NH3-N concentration and TVFAs concentration (P<0.05) at each time point in a day. Compared with the control group, rumen fluid of dairy goat was found gruel shape and strongly sour flavor, and the rumen mucosa nipples showed a wide range of necrotic and fall off when in heat stress for 30 days, and the situations of mucosa papillary necrosis and fall off were more serious when in heat stress for 45 days. This showed that heat stress caused a certain degree injury to the animal rumen mucosa. In the heat stress for 30 days and 45 days, the length and width of rumen dorsal sac and ventral sacs villus were shorter than that of control group (P<0.05), and with the prolonged heat stress, the length and width of rumen dorsal sac and ventral sac villus were shortened more short (P<0.05). [Conclusion]Heat stress can significantly improve rectal temperature and respiration rate, significantly reduce dietary nutrient digestibility, rumen

  17. Genetic characterisation of CSN2 gene in Girgentana goat breed

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Among calcium sensitive caseins, β-casein is the most abundant in goat milk, representing up to 50% of total casein content. The goat β-casein locus has been widely investigated and at least ten alleles have been identified in different goat breeds. The aim of this work was to investigate the polymorphisms of β-casein gene in Girgentana dairy goat breed in order to assess the genotype distribution and evaluate how frequencies have changed during the last 10 years, as genotype is known to infl...

  18. An update on estrus synchronization in goats: a minor species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, N C; Jackson, D J

    2004-01-01

    Estrus synchronization allows for parturition at suitable times to take advantage of niche markets, feed supplies, labor, and rising price trends. In the past, synchronization of estrus in goats has focused primarily on dairy goats to allow for optimal timing of milk production. However, recent interest in meat goat production has resulted in attempts to use dairy goat, sheep, and cattle synchronization regimens in meat goat management systems. Methods of synchronization have included techniques as simple as alteration of light patterns or manipulation of social inputs (i.e., the buck effect) and as complex as varying timed hormonal treatments combined with light alteration and the buck effect. The synchronization of estrus using timed hormonal treatments seems to be more convenient in many meat goat production situations. Examples of hormones used include melatonin, progestogens (administered orally, as an injection, or by using intravaginal releasing devices), gonadotropins/GnRH (or agonists), and PG alone or in combination. As is seen with sheep and cattle, breed and/or breed type, stage of production, and environmental effects can influence synchronization success in goats. The introduction of breeds developed in other countries for rapid growth, such as the Boer goat, and increased consumer and producer interest have added to the impetus for developing cost-efficient and highly effective estrus synchronization regimens. New research is being conducted and various synchronization methods are being attempted in goats, a minor species, and the objective of this paper is to review these efforts.

  19. 转基因豆粕对崂山奶山羊生长性能、肌肉营养成分及组织器官中外源基因转移的影响%Effects of Genetically Modified Soybean Meal on Growth Performance, Meat Nutrient Composition, and Exogenous Gene Transformation to Tissues and Organs of Laoshan Dairy Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌; 秦志华; 黄娟; 张廷荣; 刘文达; 王述柏

    2014-01-01

    In order to analyze the effects of genetically modified soybean meal on growth performance, meat nutrient composition, and exogenous gene transformation to tissues and organs of Laoshan dairy goats, thirty 50-day-old Laoshan dairy goats were randomly divided into two groups with three replicates in each group and five goats per replicate. Goats in different groups were fed concentrates containing non-genetically modified soybean meal and genetically modified soybean meal ( MON89788 and GTS40-3-2 ) , respectively, and were fed the same roughage ( Chinese wildrye) . The experiment lasted for 150 days. The results showed as fol-lows: average daily feed intake, average daily gain and feed to gain ratio in the two groups were not signifi-cantly different (P>0. 05); the contents of dry matter, ether extract, crude protein, ash, calcium and phos-phorus in muscle of dairy goats were not significantly different either ( P >0 . 05 ) . Moreover, no gene rag-ments of genetically modified soybean meal were detected from muscle, liver, pancreas, kidney, spleen, thy-mus, lung, heart, abomasum and small intestine of dairy goats by real-time quantification PCR. The results suggest that genetically modified soybean meal ( MON89788 and GTS40-3-2 ) had no significant effects on growth performance and muscle quality of Laoshan dairy goats, and no genetic horizontal transformation is ob-served in tissues and organs.%本试验旨在研究转基因豆粕对崂山奶山羊生长性能、肌肉营养成分及组织器官中外源基因转移的影响。选取30只50日龄崂山奶山羊随机分为2组,每组3个重复,每个重复5只。精饲料分别以非转基因豆粕和转基因豆粕( MON89788和GTS40-3-2)配制,粗饲料均为干草。试验期150 d。结果表明:2组奶山羊平均日采食量、平均日增重和料重比均无显著差异( P >0.05);奶山羊肌肉的干物质、粗脂肪、粗蛋白质、粗灰分、钙、磷含量2组间亦均无显著差异( P>0

  20. Effect of sub-clinical mastitis on milk yield and composition of dairy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of sub-clinical mastitis on milk yield and composition of dairy goats in Tanzania. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... prevalence of mastitis in dairy goats appears to be high but studies on the influence of ...

  1. 外源寡糖对奶山羊免疫机能的影响%Effect of different oligosaccharides in diet on the immune function of dairy goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖宇; 程明; 汪文鑫; 王建华; 张孝凯; 祁茹; 褚永康; 李春蕾; 林英庭

    2012-01-01

    选用体况良好、年龄相近、体质量(32.80±2.45)kg、装有永久性瘤胃瘘管的崂山奶山羊6只,采用分期分组试验设计,分别饲喂添加1%(以有效含量计)甘露寡糖(MOS)、半乳甘露寡糖(GMOS)、果寡糖(FOS)、寡木糖(XOS)和异麦芽寡糖(IMO)的试验日粮,另设不添加寡糖的对照组。试验共分为4期,每期35d,其中预试期14d,正试期21d。结果表明:1)21d时,FOS组的血清碱性磷酸酶(AKP)含量显著升高(P〈0.05),GMOS组的血清AKP、溶菌酶含量显著升高(P〈0.05)。2)21d时,FOS组、MOS组和GMOS组的血清免疫球蛋白A含量显著或极显著升高(P〈0.05或P〈0.01);7、21d时,FOS组的血清免疫球蛋白G、M含量显著或极显著升高(P〈0.05或P〈0.01);14、21d时,GMOS组的血清免疫球蛋白G、M含量显著或极显著升高(P〈0.05或P〈0.01);7、14d时,MOS组的血清免疫球蛋白M含量极显著升高(P〈0.01)。3)7d时,FOS组血清白细胞介素-2、4、6含量显著或极显著升高(P〈0.05或P〈0.01);7、21d时,GMOS组血清白细胞介素-2、6含量显著升高(P〈0.05);14d时,FOS组和GMOS组血清白细胞介素-4含量显著升高(P〈0.05)。试验结果表明,不同外源寡糖对奶山羊有较好的免疫调节作用,其中,添加FOS和GMOS效果最好。%Effects of different oligosaccharides on the immune function of dairy goats were studied in this experiment.Six dairy goats with an average weight(32.80±2.45) kg,fitted with ruminal cannulas,were used by a staging and grouping experimental design.The test groups were fed on the diet on 1% of MOS,GMOS,FOS,XOS and IMO,respectively.The control group was fed on basal diet without oligosaccharides.The trial lasted for 4 stages of 35 days each,including preliminary trial period 14 days and formal trial period 21 days.The results showed that,compared with the control group,1) at 21 d,the serum concentration of AKP in FOS

  2. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC.

  3. Genetic components of milk Fourier-transform infrared spectra used to predict breeding values for milk composition and quality traits in dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnachew, B S; Meuwissen, T H E; Adnøy, T

    2013-09-01

    The usual practice today is that milk component phenotypes are predicted using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and they are then, together with pedigree information, used in BLUP for calculation of individual estimated breeding values. Here, this is referred to as the indirect prediction (IP) approach. An alternative approach-a direct prediction (DP) method-is proposed, where genetic analyses are directly conducted on the milk FTIR spectral variables. Breeding values of all derived milk traits (protein, fat, fatty acid composition, and coagulation properties, among others) can then be predicted as traits correlated only to the genetic information of the spectra. For the DP, no need exists to predict the phenotypes before calculating breeding values for each of the traits-the genetic analysis is done once for the spectra, and is applicable to all traits derived from the spectra. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of DP and IP of milk composition and quality traits on prediction error variance (PEV) and genetic gain. A data set containing 27,927 milk FTIR spectral observations and milk composition phenotypes (fat, lactose, and protein) belonging to 14,869 goats of 271 herds was used for training and evaluating models. Partial least squares regression was used for calibrating prediction models for fat, protein, and lactose percentages. Restricted maximum likelihood was used to estimate variance components of the spectral variables after principal components analysis was applied to reduce the spectral dimension. Estimated breeding values were predicted for fat, lactose, and protein percentages using DP and IP methods. The DP approach reduced the mean PEV by 3.73, 4.07, and 7.04% for fat, lactose, and protein percentages, respectively, compared with the IP method. Given the reduction in PEV, relative genetic gains were 2.99, 2.78, and 4.85% for fat, lactose, and protein percentages, respectively. We concluded that more accurate estimated breeding

  4. Different Exogenous Oligosaccharides Affect Rumen Microflora of Laoshan Dairy Goats%不同外源寡糖对崂山奶山羊瘤胃微生物区系的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁茹; 温建新; 程明; 汪文鑫; 肖宇; 褚永康; 林英庭

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different exogenous oligosaccharides on rumen microflora of dairy goats. Six Laoshan dairy goats with an average body weight of (32.80 ±2. 45) kg, fitted with permanent rumen cannula, were used in a staging and grouping design. The goats were fed a basal diet (control group) and the basal diet supplemented with 1% mannose-oligosaccharides (group MOS) , galacto-mannan-oligosaccharides ( group GMOS ) , xylo-oligosaccharides ( group XOS ) , isomalto-oligosaccharides (group IMO) and fructo-oligosaccharides (group FOS) , respectively. The experiment consisted of 4 stages with 23 d in each stage and 14-day pre-experimental period followed with 9-day experimental period per stage. Rumen liquid was collected for the analysis of number of total bacteria, cellulose-decomposing bacteria, protozoa and fungi after 0 h( before feeding) ,2,4,6,8 and 10 h( before feeding) of feeding in the morning. The results showed as follows: compared with the control group, the number of rumen liquid total bacteria in experimental groups trended to increase, but only that in the group MOS (Oh) was significantly increased (P < 0.05) ; the number of rumen liquid cellulose-decomposing bacteria in experimental groups was increased, and that in groups MOS (Oh), GMOS (0, 2 and 4 h) and FOS (0, 2 and 4 h) was significantly higher than that in the control group (P <0. 05) ; the number of rumen liquid protozoa in experimental groups was increased, and that in groups MOS (2 and 4 h) and XOS (4 h) was significantly increased (P <0. 05) ; the number of rumen liquid fungi in experimental groups was increased, and there were significant increments in groups GMOS and FOS (0 h, P <0. 01) , as well as in groups MOS (2 h) , IMO (2 h) , FOS (2 h) , MOS (4 h) and FOS (6h)(P<0.05). The number of rumen liquid total bacteria, cellulose-decomposing bacteria and protozoa trended to decrease at first and then increase, but that of fungi showed an opposite trend

  5. 外源寡糖对奶山羊粪便微生物区系的影响%Effects of Exogenous Oligosaccharides on Fecal Microflora of Dairy Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁茹; 温建新; 程明; 肖宇; 褚永康; 胡静; 朱亚俊; 陈俏俏; 林英庭

    2012-01-01

    本试验旨在研究不同外源寡糖对奶山羊粪便微生物区系的影响.试验采用不完全拉丁方设计,选用平均体重为(32.80±2.45)kg、安装有永久性瘤胃瘘管的崂山奶山羊6只,分为6组,试验组羊分别饲喂在基础饲粮中添加1%的甘露寡糖(MOS组)、半乳甘露寡糖(GMOS组)、寡木糖(XOS组)、低聚异麦芽糖(IMO组)和果寡糖(FOS组)的试验饲粮,对照组(CT组)羊饲喂基础饲粮.共进行4期试验,每期35 d,其中预试期14d,正试期21 d.于正试期第1、7、14、21天晨饲前采集新鲜粪便,测定粪便中乳酸杆菌、双歧杆菌、大肠杆菌和沙门氏菌的数量.结果表明:与CT组相比,试验组乳酸杆菌数量均有所增加,其中FOS组第7天开始达到极显著水平(P<0.01);试验组双歧杆菌数量增加,其中FOS组各采样时间均达到极显著水平(P<0.01);试验组大肠杆菌数量有所降低,其中MOS组和FOS组第7天达到极显著水平(P<0.01).本试验条件下,不同外源寡糖对增加奶山羊粪便乳酸杆菌、双歧杆菌数量,降低大肠杆菌数量的作用效果不同,其中果寡糖效果较明显.%The effects of different exogenous oligosaccharides on fecal microflora of dairy goats were studied in this experiment. Six Laoshan dairy goats with an average body weight of (32. 80 ± 2. 45) kg fitted with permanent rumen cannula were used, and an incomplete Latin square design was applied. Goats in experimental groups were fed a basal diet supplemented with 1% mannose-oligosaccharides (MOS group) , galactomannan-oliggosaccharides ( GMOS group) , xylo-oligosaccharides ( XOS group) , isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO group) and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS group) , respectively, and those in the control group ( CT group) were fed the basal diet. The experiment consisted of 4 stages with 35 d in each stage, each of which included a 14-day pre-experimental period and a 21-day experimental period. Fresh fecal sample was collected for the

  6. Expression of Estrogen Membrane Receptor GPR30 in Uterus of Pregnant Guanzhong Dairy Goats%雌激素膜受体 GPR30在妊娠期关中奶山羊子宫中的分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃初斌; 代盈盈; 王文丽; 刘红改; 赵慧英

    2013-01-01

    To investigate expression of G-protein coupled receptor 30 (GPR30)in uterus of goats during pregnancy.Immunochemistry SP method was used to detect the distribution of GPR30 and its protein a-bundance during the early pregnancy stage (1-30 d),mid-term pregnancy stage (31-120 d)and late preg-nancy stage (121-150 d).Different degree of GPR30 positive immunoreactions were observed in the endo-metrial layer,myometrium and serosa of uterus in dairy goats.GPR30 mainly located in the cell membrane and cytoplasm,especially in endometrial epithelial cells and glandular epithelium cells,while myometrium and serosa showed few or none immunoreactions.The staining was increased in endometrial epithelial cells and glandular epithelium with the progress of pregnancy.The relative level of GPR30 in uterus showed a trend of early pregnancy stage < mid-term pregnancy stage < late pregnancy stage,and the expression of GPR30 at the early stage of pregnancy was extremely lower than that of mid-term pregnancy stage and late pregnancy stage (P <0.01).GPR30 expression is maximal in the late pregnancy,but no significant differ-ence compared with mid-term pregnancy stage.GPR30 distribution and expression in the uterus of preg-nancy dairy goats showed certain regularity and mainly through the regulation of endometrial secretion in-volved in pregnancy and delivery and other physiological activities.%为了探讨雌激素膜受体 G 蛋白偶联受体30(G protein-coupled receptor 30,GPR30)在妊娠期山羊子宫组织中的分布和表达变化规律,通过免疫组织化学 SP 法,分别对妊娠前期(1 d~30 d)、妊娠中期(31 d~120 d)和妊娠后期(121 d~150 d)关中奶山羊子宫中 GPR30的分布及相对表达量的变化进行了研究。结果表明,GPR30免疫反应阳性产物在关中奶山羊子宫的子宫内膜、肌层和浆膜均有不同程度分布,主要位于细胞膜和细胞质,其中在子宫内膜腔上皮细胞和腺上皮中阳性

  7. Comportamento ingestivo de cabras leiteiras alimentadas com farelo de cacau ou torta de dendê Ingestive behavior of dairy goats fed on cocoa meal or palm cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de farelo de cacau e torta de dendê (0, 15 e 30% em substituição ao milho e farelo de soja no concentrado, sobre o comportamento ingestivo de cinco cabras Saanen, lactantes, não prenhes, com peso corporal médio inicial de 41,6 kg, alojadas em baias individuais durante cinco períodos experimentais. O volumoso utilizado foi a silagem de milho, em proporção de 40:60 (volumoso:concentrado. Distribuídos em um delineamento em quadrado latino 5x5, os animais foram observados em cada um dos cinco tratamentos, ao final de cada período experimental, durante 24 horas, a intervalos de 10 minutos. Não houve diferença entre os tempos de alimentação, ruminação e ócio. Embora os animais que receberam 30% de farelo de cacau tenham reduzido o consumo de matéria seca (MS, a eficiência alimentar (em g de MS/h e g de FDN/h foi semelhante em todos os tratamentos. No entanto, a eficiência de ruminação (em g de MS/h e g de FDN/h e a quantidade de MS e FDN (g/bolo ruminado foram maiores nos animais com dietas de 30% de farelo de cacau. O tempo total de mastigações (h/dia, o número de bolos ruminados (nº/dia, o número de mastigações merícicas (nº/dia e nº/bolo e o tempo de mastigações merícicas por bolo (s/bolo não apresentaram diferenças significativas. A inclusão de farelo de cacau ou torta de dendê na dieta influenciou parâmetros do comportamento ingestivo.The objective of this work was to study the effects of different cocoa meal and palm cake levels (0, 15 and 30% in substitution to corn and soybean meal, on the ingestive behavior of five non-pregnant lactating Saanen goats, with initial body weight of 41.6 kg. Animals were housed in individual barns during five experimental periods and were distribuided in a 5x5 latin square desing. Each animal was observed in each treatment, at the end of the experimental period, during 24 hours, with 10 minutes intervals

  8. 氨基酸螯合锌在奶山羊肠道消化吸收规律的研究%Digestion and Absorption of Zinc Amino Acid Chelate in the Intestinal Tract of Dairy Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨改青; 朱河水; 王林枫; 贺翠婷; 张振; 高建伟; 邵其斌; 冯亚强; 孙波

    2011-01-01

    本试验旨在研究氨基酸螯合锌(Zn-AA)在奶山羊体内的消化吸收规律及其在饲粮中的适宜添加水平.试验选取2.5~3.0岁,体重40~45 kg的关中奶山羊母羊6只,安装永久性瘤胃、十二指肠及回肠瘘管,首先从瘤胃灌注40 mg/kg的Zn-AA溶液,分别在灌注后的24、48、72、96、120、144和168 h采集十二指肠食糜、回肠食糜、粪样和血样,测定样品中锌含量,计算锌在小肠和全肠道消化率,检测血清锌水平,确定最佳采样时间.在此基础上,分别灌注0、20、60、80、100和200 mg/kg的Zn-AA溶液,测定不同水平的Zn-AA在小肠和全肠道的消化率及血清锌水平.结果表明,Zn-AA全肠道消化率在48和96 h分别出现吸收高峰,120 h后Zn-AA在小肠、全肠道的消化率和血清锌水平基本平衡并保持稳定;不同时间和水平的Zn-AA在全肠道的消化率均高于小肠,小肠是Zn-AA吸收的主要部位,大肠对Zn-AA也有不同程度地吸收;60 mg/kg时Zn-AA在全肠道消化率和血清中水平均达到最大值.研究得出,成年奶山羊饲粮中Zn-AA的最适宜添加水平为60 mg/kg,小肠是Zn-AA消化的主要部位,大肠对Zn-AA也表现出较强的消化吸收能力.%This trial was conducted to study the digestion and absorption of zinc amino acid chelate (Zn-AA) in intestinal tract of dairy goats and to determine the optimal supplemental level of Zn-AA in the diet. Six Guanzhong daffy goats aged 2. 5 to 3.0 years old with the body weight of 40 to 45 kg were selected and fixed with permanent fistulas in rumen, duodenum and ileum. At the beginning of the trial, 40 mg/kg Zn-AA solution was infused into the rumen, and samples were collected at 24, 48, 96, 120, 144 and 168 h after infusion. Digesta samples from the duodenum and ileum, and feces samples were collected to detect the zinc levels and calculate the digestibility in the small intestine, entire intestine and large intestine. At the same time, blood samples were

  9. Detection and control of lentiviral infections in sheep and goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, J.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Infections caused by the small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) of sheep (maedi visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus) are a serious economical threat to small ruminant farming particularly in the more intensive settings like dairy farms. Revenue is ultimately negatively

  10. Detection and control of lentiviral infections in sheep and goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, J.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Infections caused by the small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) of sheep (maedi visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus) are a serious economical threat to small ruminant farming particularly in the more intensive settings like dairy farms. Revenue is ultimately negatively influence

  11. Goat production check list

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Madsen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production.......This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production....

  12. Goat production check list

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Madsen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production.......This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production....

  13. Óleo de soja e própolis na alimentação de cabras leiteiras Soybean oil and propolis in the diets of dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério de Paula Lana

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste experimento, verificar os efeitos da adição de óleo de soja e/ou de extrato etanólico de própolis na alimentação de cabras leiteiras sobre o consumo, a digestibilidade de nutrientes, a produção e composição do leite e alguns parâmetros de fermentação ruminal. Foram utilizadas dezesseis cabras Alpinas (quatro fistuladas no rúmen. Os animais foram alocados em quatro quadrados latinos 4x4, em arranjo fatorial 2x2 dos tratamentos. Foram adicionados ao concentrado 0 ou 120 g de óleo de soja e 0 ou 10 mL de extrato etanólico de própolis/animal/dia (30% p/v de própolis bruta moída em solução alcoólica a 70% em água. As dietas foram isoprotéicas, com 11,5% de PB, e compostas de 67% de silagem de milho e 33% de concentrado à base de fubá de milho e farelo de soja. O óleo de soja reduziu os consumos de matéria seca (%PV e g/kg PV0,75, de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e de carboidratos não-fibrosos; diminuiu a digestibilidade da FDN; aumentou a digestibilidade da PB e do EE e o teor de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT; reduziu a produção e aumentou os percentuais de gordura, proteína e sólidos totais no leite; aumentou o pH; e reduziu a relação acetato:propionato no líquido ruminal. Houve interação entre óleo de soja e extrato etanólico de própolis, de modo que o óleo de soja reduziu os consumos de MS, MO e FDN (em kg/animal/dia somente na presença de própolis e aumentou o consumo de PB na ausência de própolis. O óleo de soja mostrou-se mais efetivo em alterar as variáveis analisadas que o extrato etanólico de própolis.The objective of this experiment was to verify the effects of soybean oil and/or ethanolic extract of propolis, in the diets of dairy goats, on intake, on digestibility of nutrients, on milk production and composition and some ruminal parameters. Sixteen Alpine female goats were used, in which four animals fistulated in the rumen. The animals were allocated in four 4

  14. Horny Goat Weed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horny goat weed is an herb. The leaves are used to make medicine. As many as 15 horny goat weed species are known as “yin yang huo” in Chinese medicine. Horny goat weed is used for weak back and knees, joint ...

  15. Effects of Different Proportions of Grass hay and Corn Silage on Lactation Performance and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Laoshan Dairy Goats%不同比例青干草与青贮玉米对崂山奶山羊泌乳性能和血清生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永臻; 苗福泓; 杨国锋; 程明; 袁力; 孙娟

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different proportions of grass hay and corn silage on lactation performance and serum biochemical parameters of Laoshan dairy goats. Twenty parous (2 times) Laoshan dairy goats in lactation with a milk yield of (1.65±0.05) kg/d were used and randomly di-vided into 4 groups with 5 goats per group. The proportions of grass hay and corn silage in roughages of differ-ent groups were 8∶2 ( group Ⅰ) , 6∶4 ( group Ⅱ) , 4∶6 ( group Ⅲ) and 2∶8 ( group Ⅳ) , respectively. The pretest period and test period lasted for 7 and 60 d, respectively. The results showed as follows:1) milk yield, dry matter intake and feed to milk ratio in different groups had no significant differences ( P>0.05) . There was no significant difference in milk fat content on days 0, 20 and 40 (P>0.05), but group Ⅱ was significantly higher than group Ⅲ on day 60 ( P0.05)。乳脂含量在第0天、第20天、第40天无显著差异( P>0.05),第60天试验Ⅱ组显著高于试验Ⅲ组( P<0.05)。试验Ⅱ组的乳蛋白含量平均值显著高于其他各组( P<0.05)。试验Ⅱ组和试验Ⅳ组的血清葡萄糖含量均显著高于试验Ⅰ组( P<0.05),试验Ⅱ组的血清胆固醇含量为最低值,且显著低于试验Ⅲ组( P<0.05)。综合得出,崂山奶山羊粗饲料青干草与青贮玉米以6∶4组合效果最好,乳脂、乳蛋白、乳糖等营养物质含量相对较高,血清中胆固醇含量相对较低。

  16. Genetic characterisation of CSN2 gene in Girgentana goat breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Tortorici

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among calcium sensitive caseins, β-casein is the most abundant in goat milk, representing up to 50% of total casein content. The goat β-casein locus has been widely investigated and at least ten alleles have been identified in different goat breeds. The aim of this work was to investigate the polymorphisms of β-casein gene in Girgentana dairy goat breed in order to assess the genotype distribution and evaluate how frequencies have changed during the last 10 years, as genotype is known to influence technological and nutritional milk properties. Sequencing analysis and alignment of the obtained sequences of β-casein exon 7, showed the presence of C, C1, and A strong alleles, and 0' null allele, with frequencies of 0.597, 0.326, 0.023, and 0.054, respectively. Seven genotypic classes were found in Girgentana goat breed and the most frequent genotype was CC1 (0.423 followed by CC (0.326, C1C1 (0.110, and C0' (0.096. No AA nor 0'0' homozygous individuals were found. The presence of strong alleles at CSN2 gene in Girgentana goat breed could be useful for the production of milk with high protein content and good cheese-making properties. Moreover, food business operators should consider the possibility of reviving interest in Girgentana goat milk using weak and null genotypes at CSN2 locus to make peculiar food products, such as drinking milk.

  17. Differences in sheep and goats milk fatty acid profile between conventional and organic farming systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiplakou, Eleni; Kotrotsios, Vaios; Hadjigeorgiou, Ioannis; Zervas, George

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether there is a difference in chemical composition and particularly in fatty acid (FA) profile, with emphasis on cis-9, trans-11 CLA, of milk obtained from conventional and organic dairy sheep and goats farms under the farming conditions practiced in Greece. Four dairy sheep and four dairy goat farms, representing common conventional production systems and another four dairy sheep and four dairy goat farms, organically certified, representing organic production and feeding systems were selected from all over Greece. One hundred and sixty two individual milk samples were collected from those farms in January-February 2009, about three months after parturition. The milk samples were analyzed for their main chemical constituents and their FA profile. The results showed that the production system affected milk chemical composition: in particular fat content was lower in the organic sheep and goats milk compared with the corresponding conventional. Milk from organic sheep had higher content in MUFA, PUFA, alpha-LNA, cis-9, trans-11 CLA, and omega-3 FA, whereas in milk from organic goats alpha-LNA and omega-3 FA content was higher than that in conventional one. These differences are, mainly, attributed to different feeding practices used by the two production systems. The results of this study show that the organic milk produced under the farming conditions practiced in Greece has higher nutritional value, due to its FA profile, compared with the respective conventional milk.

  18. Paratuberculosis in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, P A

    2015-12-14

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic insidious, often serious, disease of the global small ruminant industries, mainly causing losses from mortalities and reduced productivity on-farm, interference in trading and, in Australia, profound socio-economic impacts that have periodically compromised harmony of rural communities. The pathogenesis, diagnosis, impacts and disease management options for ovine and caprine paratuberculosis are reviewed, comparing current controls in the extensive management system for sheep in wool flocks in Australia with the semi-intensive system of dairy flocks/herds in Greece. Improved understanding of the immune and cellular profiles of sheep with varying paratuberculosis outcomes and the recognition of the need for prolonged vaccination and biosecurity is considered of relevance to future control strategies. Paratuberculosis in goats is also of global distribution although the prevalence, economic impact and strategic control options are less well recognized, possibly due to the relatively meagre resources available for goat industry research. Although there have been some recent advances, more work is required on developing control strategies for goats, particularly in dairy situations where there is an important need for validation of improved diagnostic assays and the recognition of the potential impacts for vaccination. For all species, a research priority remains the identification of tests that can detect latent and subclinical infections to enhance removal of future sources of infectious material from flocks/herds and the food chain, plus predict the likely outcomes of animals exposed to the organism at an early age. Improving national paratuberculosis control programs should also be a priority to manage disease risk from trade. The importance of strong leadership and communication, building trust within rural communities confused by the difficulties in managing this insidious disease, reflects the importance of change management

  19. Concentraciones sanguíneas de ß-hidroxibutirato, NEFA, colesterol y urea en cabras lecheras de tres rebaños con sistemas intensivos de producción y su relación con el balance nutricional Relationship between blood metabolites (ß-hydroxybutirate, NEFA, cholesterol and urea and nutritional balance in three dairy goat herds under confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Ríos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el comportamiento de algunos metabolitos sanguíneos indicadores del balance metabólico nutricional en la cabra lechera, sometida a sistemas intensivos de producción. Para ello se utilizaron tres rebaños de la región metropolitana de Chile, con 21 cabras cada uno. Los animales fueron divididos en grupos de 7 según su etapa de producción, siendo éstos preparto (PP, 3 a 6 semanas de lactancia (T1 y 16 a 20 semanas de lactancia (T2. Las determinaciones sanguíneas efectuadas correspondieron a ß-hidroxibutirato (ßHB, ácidos grasos no esterificados (NEFA, colesterol y urea, todas realizadas mediante métodos colorimétricos. Además se registró producción de leche y condición corporal (CC en forma individual. Para determinar el aporte de proteína total y energía metabolizable de la ración se realizó un análisis químico proximal de los insumos que componían la dieta de cada grupo productivo analizado. En los tres rebaños analizados se encontraron aumentos significativos de NEFA (PThe aim of this study was to assess some blood metabolites as indicators of nutritional balance in dairy goats under intensive conditions. Three dairy herds were selected and 21 goats chosen in each. Goats were separated into three groups of seven animals each according to their productive stage: pre-partum (PP, 3-6 weeks of lactation (T1 and 16-20 weeks of lactation (T2. Blood samples were obtained during the first milking of the day and ß- hydroxybutirate (BHB, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, cholesterol, and urea were determined by colorimetric methods. Body condition score (BCS and milk production were also registered. To establish protein (g/day and metabolic energy (Mcal/day content of the ration fed, a proximal chemical analysis was performed. Nutrient requirements of goats were determined by NRC. In the three herds, significant high values of NEFA (P<0.05 were coincident with a non -significant

  20. EVALUATION OF MILLET GRAIN (Pennisetun americanum IN SUBSTITUTION TO CORN IN DAIRY GOAT RATIONS AVALIAÇÃO DO GRÃO DE MILHETO (Pennisetum americanum EM SUBSTITUIÇÃO AO MILHO (Zea mays EM RAÇÕES PARA CABRAS EM LACTAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldi Fernandes de souza França

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The adoption of a system in de cerrado region, specially in the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, increased the millet grain and forage production in this region, because of its high biomass production potential, which is used as a soil covering in this system. Besides increasing the grain production, considered as a wastage, the millet has been tested as an ingredient in feed formulation to production animals. This research was carried out in the goat production section of the Escola de Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Goiás, and the aim was to evaluate the substitution of corn by millet grain in the rations formulated to dairy goats. Sixteen alpine dairy goats were distributed in Latin square design and alloted in four treatments with increasing levels of substitution: T1 - 0%; T2 - 33%; T3 - 66%; T4 - 99%. The data collected were analysed in ANOVA system that indicated no significant effects (P> 0.05 on milk production , milk fat (M.G, ash (MM, total dry extract (EST, unfatty dry extract (ESD, acidity (AC and crioscopy (CRIO, except for the milk protein that was linearly affected (P>0.05.

    KEY-WORDS: Millet; rations; goats; lactation.

    A adoção do sistema de plantio direto na região Centro-Oeste, notadamente nos Estados de Goiás, Mato Grosso e Mato Grosso do Sul, fez com que a cultura do milheto se expandisse na região, tendo em vista o seu alto potencial de produção de biomassa, a qual é utilizada para cobertura morta do solo no referido sistema. Entretanto, além da biomassa, a cultura considerada como um excedente ou subproduto, vem sendo testada na formulação de ração para animais domésticos. O presente trabalho foi conduzido no Setor de Caprinocultura da Escola de Veterinária / UFG, tendo como objetivo avaliar a substitui

  1. Effects of different concentrated protein levels on growing-fattening in male kids of Xinong Saanen dairy goat%不同蛋白水平日粮对西农萨能羊公羔肥育性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙爽; 罗军; 王维; 吴敏; 王慧; 席利萌; 张犁苹

    2013-01-01

    本研究旨在探讨不同蛋白水平日粮对西农萨能羊公羔肥育性能的影响.选择21只健康、体重相近的6月龄西农萨能羊公羔,随机分为3组,分别饲喂蛋白水平为19.5%、16.0%、13.4%的日粮.试验为期50 d,测定试验羊的体重、体尺、血液生化指标、屠宰性能和羊肉品质.结果显示:高蛋白组试验羊体重、日增重、胸围、体斜长最大,料重比最小(P>0.05);血浆中总蛋白、白蛋白、球蛋白、总胆固醇含量高于中、低蛋白组(P>0.05);屠宰率、净肉重、肉骨比、眼肌面积具有最大值(P>0.05);羊肉失水率最低(P>0.05)、嫩度最好(P<0.05).经综合评定,19.5%蛋白水平日粮更有利于西农萨能羊公羔短期育肥.%The aim of the project was to study the effect of different protein levels of concentrated feeds on the growing-fattening in male kids of Xinong Saanen dairy goat.Twenty-one healthy male kids of Xinong Saanen dairy goat with similar age and body weight were randomly divided into 3 groups.The protein levels of the diet were 19.5%,16%,and 13.4%.Data of body weight,body measurement,blood biochemical parameters,slaughter performance and meat quality traits were recorded and analyzed during 50 days.The results showed that the group of 19.5% dietary protein level had a better performance in many aspects,including their body weight gain,chest measurement,body length,daily gain,feed efficiency,carcass weight,slaughter performance and meat quality traits.In addition,the content of total protein,albumin,globulin and total cholesterol in the blood was better (P>0.05),and the meat tenderness was significantly improved (P<0.05).In conclusion,the protein level of 19.5% diet was more suitable for the growing-fattening male kids of Xinong Saanen dairy goat.

  2. Isolation, Culture and Induced Neuronal Differentiation of Laoshan Dairy Goat Fetal Bone Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells%崂山奶山羊胎儿骨髓间充质干细胞(BMSCs)的分离培养及成神经诱导分化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨培培; 程明; 王学梅; 刘萌萌; 张倩; 戴正浩; 刘宗正

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to establish the optimal in vitro method for isolating, purifying and proliferating of Laoshan dairy goat fetal bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and to assess their biological characteristic and induced neuronal differentiation potentiality. The femur samples were collected from a three-month-old fetus of a female Laoshan dairy goat. The BMSCs were harvested by centrifuging and were subsequently purified and proliferated. The population doubling time (PDT) of the BMSCs were determined. RT-PCR assay was used to assess the presence of oct4, Nanog and Sox2 genes. Passage 3 cultures of the BMSCs were used to conduct induced neuronal differentiation experiment, and the induced products were histologically and genetically identified. The results showed that the morphology of the isolated cells were uniform and was fibroblasts-liking spindle and the presence of oct4, Nanog and Sox2 genes were detected. After sub-cultured, the growth cells entered exponential growth phase on the 4th day and subsequently entered platform growth phase on the 8th day. The PDT of the first 10 passage cultures was 29.7 h. After induced neuronal differentiation, the purple-blue Nissl body was observed by toluidine blue staining method in passage 3 cultures. The specific expression of ENO2 and GFAP genes were positive in the induced cells. The results demonstrated that the BMSCs of Laoshan dairy goat is potential to be differentiated to neurons.%旨在建立崂山奶山羊胎儿骨髓间充质干细胞(BMSCs)体外分离培养方法,并研究其生物学特性和成神经分化的能力。取怀孕3个月的崂山奶山羊胎儿股骨,分离培养骨髓间充质干细胞,并进行传代培养,测定其细胞倍增时间,利用RT-PCR技术检测Oct4、Nanog、Sox2基因的表达;取P3 BMSCs分别向成神经细胞进行诱导分化,并从组织学水平和基因水平进行鉴定。结果表明,分离得到的胎儿骨髓间

  3. Sensory analysis and species-specific PCR detect bovine milk adulteration of frescal (fresh) goat cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golinelli, L P; Carvalho, A C; Casaes, R S; Lopes, C S C; Deliza, R; Paschoalin, V M F; Silva, J T

    2014-11-01

    The Brazilian market for dairy products made from goat milk is increasing despite the seasonality of production and naturally small milk production per animal, factors that result in high-priced products and encourage fraud. In Brazil, no official analytical method exists for detecting adulteration of goat dairy products with cow milk. The aim of this study was to design a strategy to investigate the adulteration of frescal (fresh) goat cheeses available in the Rio de Janeiro retail market, combining analysis of cheese composition and the perception of adulteration by consumers. Commercial goat cheeses were tested by using a duplex PCR assay previously designed to authenticate cheeses, by targeting the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA genes of both species simultaneously. The PCR test was able to detect 0.5% (vol/vol) cow milk added during goat cheese formulation. The analysis of 20 locally produced goat cheeses (20 lots of 4 brands) showed that all were adulterated with cow milk, even though the labels did not indicate the addition of cow milk. To estimate the ability of consumers to perceive the fraudulent addition of cow milk, a triangle test was performed, in which cheeses formulated with several different proportions of goat and cow milk were offered to 102 regular consumers of cheese. Detection threshold analysis indicated that almost half of the consumers were able to perceive adulteration at 10% (vol/vol) cow milk. Effective actions must be implemented to regulate the market for goat dairy products in Brazil, considering the rights and choices of consumers with respect to their particular requirements for diet and health, preference, and cost. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Isolation and culture of spermatogonial stem cells(SSCs) from cryopreserved dairy goat testicular tissues%奶山羊睾丸组织冷冻保存及复苏后精原干细胞的分离培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海鲸; 华进联; 宋文聪; 黄建升; 田泽华

    2011-01-01

    以关中奶山羊为材料,比较了2种玻璃化冷冻法和1种慢速冷冻法对睾丸组织保存的效率,复苏后发现3种冻存方法均有较高的成活率(超过50%),其中玻璃化Ⅱ组达65%以上,培养及检测后均有精原干细胞存活,在体外培养可以形成胚胎干细胞样克隆,其表达精原干细胞和多能性干细胞的相关特异性标记:碱性磷酸酶(AP)、CD49f、CD133、C-Myc、Oct4和Klf4阳性,证明睾丸组织冷冻可以提供一种有效的奶山羊精原干细胞的保存方法.试验中所使用的低温保存方法简便易行,效果良好,表明这些方法可为癌症治疗等造成的无精症及少精症等不育症患者的医治以及一些珍稀濒危物种和优良畜禽的生殖细胞保存提供一种简捷有效的途径.%The aim of this study was to explore an efficient procedure to cryopreserve dairy goat testis tissue. The testicular tissues of Guanzhong dairy goat were cryopreserved by two kinds of vitrification methods and a slow freezing method and compared the survival rate after thawing. The results showed high recovery rate(more than 50 %),vitrification( Ⅱ ) showed high efficiency(up to 65 % ),and spermatogonial stem cells(SSCs) were sucessfully obtained in these three cryoprservation methods. The cells growed and formed embryonic stem cells-like cells in vitro cultrue,and expressed AP,CD49f,CD133 ,C-Myc,Oct4 and Klf4. These cells can differentiate into embryonic bodies( EBs)including at least three germ layers and germ cells. This proved that testicular tissue frozen is a good route to efficiently preserve spermatogonia. It offers an efficient way to preserve SSCs for insterility and rare animals and eminent livestock.

  5. A review of nutritional and physiological factors affecting goat milk lipid synthesis and lipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilliard, Y; Ferlay, A; Rouel, J; Lamberet, G

    2003-05-01

    Although the effect of lactation stage is similar, the responses of milk yield and composition (fat and protein contents) to different types of lipid supplements differ greatly between goats and cows. Milk fat content increases with almost all studied fat supplements in goats but not in cows. However, the response of milk fatty acid (FA) composition is similar, at least for major FA, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in goats and cows supplemented with either protected or unprotected lipid supplements. Goat milk CLA content increases sharply after either vegetable oil supplementation or fresh grass feeding, but does not change markedly when goats receive whole untreated oilseeds. Important interactions are observed between the nature of forages and of oil supplements on trans-10 and trans-11 C18:1 and CLA. Peculiarities of goat milk FA composition and lipolytic system play an important role in the development of either goat flavor (release of branched, medium-chain FA) or rancidity (excessive release of butyric acid). The lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, although lower in goat than in cow milk, is more bound to the fat globules and better correlated to spontaneous lipolysis in goat milk. The regulation of spontaneous lipolysis differs widely between goats and cows. Goat milk lipolysis and LPL activity vary considerably and in parallel across goat breeds or genotypes, and are low during early and late lactation, as well as when animals are underfed or receive a diet supplemented with protected or unprotected vegetable oils. This could contribute to decreases in the specific flavor of goat dairy products with diets rich in fat.

  6. Paratuberculosis on small ruminant dairy farms in Ontario, Canada: A survey of management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Cathy A; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Menzies, Paula; Jansen, Jocelyn; Kelton, David

    2016-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken (October 2010 to August 2011) to determine the risk factors for dairy goat herds and dairy sheep flocks testing positive for paratuberculosis (PTB) in Ontario, Canada. A questionnaire was administered to 50 producers during a farm visit in which concurrently, 20 randomly selected, lactating animals over the age of 2 years underwent sampling for paratuberculosis testing. Only 1 of 50 farms (2.0%) was closed to animal movement, whereas 96.6% of dairy goat farms and 94.1% of sheep farms purchased livestock from other producers. Only 10.3% of dairy goat, and no dairy sheep farms used artificial insemination. Manure was spread on grazing pastures by 65.5% and 70.6% of dairy goat and dairy sheep farms, respectively. Because of the high true-prevalence of paratuberculosis infection detected, no risk factor analysis could be performed. This study demonstrates that biosecurity practices conducive to transmission of PTB are highly prevalent in Ontario small ruminant dairy farms.

  7. Effects of fish oil and starch added to a diet containing sunflower-seed oil on dairy goat performance, milk fatty acid composition and in vivo delta9-desaturation of [13C]vaccenic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Laurence; Mouriot, Julien; Rouel, Jacques; Glasser, Frédéric; Capitan, Pierre; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Chilliard, Yves

    2010-08-01

    The potential benefits on human health have prompted an interest in developing nutritional strategies for specifically increasing rumenic acid (RA) in ruminant milk. The aims of the present study were to (i) compare two dietary treatments with lipid supplements on milk yield and composition, (ii) measure the in vivo delta9-desaturation of vaccenic acid (VA) to RA using 13C-labelled VA and (iii) determine the effect of the dietary treatments on this variable. Treatments were 90 g sunflower-seed oil (SO) per d or 60 g sunflower-seed oil and 30 g fish oil per d plus additional starch (SFO), in a grassland hay-based diet given to eight Alpine goats in a 2 x 2 cross-over design with 21 d experimental periods. Milk yield and composition were similar between treatments. Goats fed SFO had higher milk 6 : 0-16 : 0 concentration, lower milk sigmaC18 concentrations and showed no effect on milk VA and RA, compared with SO. At the end of the experiment, intravenous injection of 1.5 g [13C]VA followed by measurements of milk lipid 13C enrichment showed that in vivo 31.7 and 31.6 % of VA was delta9-desaturated into milk RA in the caprine with the SO and SFO treatments, respectively. The expression of genes encoding for delta9-desaturase (or stearoyl-CoA desaturase; SCD1, SCD5) in mammary tissues and four milk delta9-desaturation ratios were similar between treatments. In conclusion, the present study provides the first estimates of in vivo endogenous synthesis of RA (63-73 % of milk RA) from VA in goats, and shows no difference between the two lipid supplements compared.

  8. Spatial epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitomir Djokić

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A major risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection is consumption of undercooked meat. Increasing demand for goat meat is likely to promote the role of this animal for human toxoplasmosis. As there are virtually no data on toxoplasmosis in goats in Serbia, we undertook a cross-sectional serological study, including prediction modelling using geographical information systems (GIS. Sera from 431 goats reared in 143 households/farms throughout Serbia, sampled between January 2010 and September 2011, were examined for T. gondii antibodies by a modified agglutination test. Seroprevalence was 73.3% at the individual level and 84.6% at the farm level. Risk factor analysis showed above two-fold higher risk of infection for goats used for all purposes compared to dairy goats (P = 0.012, almost seven-fold higher risk for goats kept as sole species versus those kept with other animals (P = 0.001 and a two-fold lower risk for goats introduced from outside the farm compared to those raised on the farm (P = 0.027. Moreover, households/farms located in centre-eastern Serbia were found to be less often infected than those in northern Serbia (P = 0.004. The risk factor analysis was fully supported by spatial analysis based on a GIS database containing data on origin, serology, land cover, elevation, meteorology and a spatial prediction map based on kriging analysis, which showed western Serbia as the area most likely for finding goats positive for T. gondii and centre-eastern Serbia as the least likely. In addition, rainfall favoured seropositivity, whereas temperature, humidity and elevation did not.

  9. [Care of pregnancy and prevention of lamb diseases in goats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elze, K; Krische, G

    1995-12-01

    The breeding of dairy goats has spread in Saxony for over 200 years. Recently the keeping of bigger flocks (30-300 animals) for milk and cheese production has become more common. Within the care of the pregnant she goats the feeding recommendation is a main point of the veterinary herd management. The special performances done by the pregnant animals are discussed. The daily need of energy intake is given with about 11 Megajoule Nettoenergy-lactation as well as the daily need of protein with 230 g. Additionally the minimal daily intake of minerals and vitamins is mentioned. Supervising she goats during lambing and avoiding temperatures lower than 18 degrees C in the stables is considered as necessary to prevent hypoglycemia of the newborn lambs. The enzootic process of Clostridium-perfringens-type-B-infection is discussed in connection with the intake of colostrum and the increasing density of pathogen microorganism during the lambing period.

  10. Prevalence and risk factors for intestinal parasite infection in goats raised in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanapob, Niorn; Arunvipas, Pipat; Kasemsuwan, Suwicha; Phimpraphai, Waraphon; Panneum, Supachart

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and risk factors for intestinal parasite infection in goats raised in Nakhon Pathom Province. Fecal samples from 190 goats in 12 herds were collected per rectum. Questionnaires focusing on the general information about the farm and farmers, and management practices on farms were completed. Modified McMaster counting technique was performed to detect eggs of intestinal parasites. Each egg found was classified into three groups of parasites based on its characteristics. Individual and herd prevalence were calculated. Multiple logistic regressions were performed to analyze risk factors of infection. Herd prevalence of intestinal parasite infection was 100%, while individual prevalence was 79.47%. Strongyle group was the most common intestinal parasite found in this study. Moniezia spp. (8/190) and Trichuris spp. (1/190) were also found. The average number of eggs found was 1,176 eggs per gram of feces. Risk factors for intestinal parasite infection were housing system, deworming interval, and type of goat in herd. Goats housed in groups had higher infection rates compared with goats housed individually (odds ratio (OR) = 6.34; P value = 0.009). Goats in herds in which anthelmintic drugs were administered in intervals of greater than 3 months were more likely to become infected with intestinal parasites (OR = 33.07; P value Goats in herds that kept only dairy goats were less likely to become infected than herd that kept only meat goats or kept both dairy and meat goats (OR = 46.20 and 8.75; P value <0.001 and 0.011, respectively).

  11. Caracterização da mastite subclínica em caprinos produzidos em sistema orgânico no Rio Grande do Sul Characterization of subclinical mastitis in dairy goats herds raised on an organic system in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Schmidt

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O leite e derivados são reconhecidos como veículos de patógenos para humanos, secundário a contaminação pós-ordenha ou de infecções do próprio animal, particularmente na mastite. Foi estudada a ocorrência de mastite e aspectos do manejo em cabras de três propriedades criadas em sistema orgânico. O exame clínico da glândula mamária de 64 cabras em diferentes períodos de lactação, não acusou a presença de mastite clínica. Entretanto, o Califórnia Mastitis Test (CMT identificou 54 (22,7% metades mamárias reagentes (+ ou ++. Foram colhidas 238 amostras de leite, das quais houve isolamento bacteriano em 37 (15,6%. Em apenas oito amostras houve coincidência entre o isolamento bacteriano e o resultado do CMT, indicando sensibilidade de 21,6% para este teste no diagnóstico de mastite subclínica em caprinos. Staphylococcus coagulase negativa (SCN foi o microrganismo mais freqüente (83,8%. O teste de sensibilidade microbiana in vitro revelou resistência das linhagens de SCN ao cotrimoxazol (50%, ampicilina (48,1%, nitrofurantoína (7,7%, cefaclor (7,14% e oxacilina (3,85%. Cefalotina, gentamicina, neomicina, estreptomicina e tetraciclina foram os antimicrobianos mais efetivos frente aos isolados. Não se evidenciou relação entre a ocorrência de mastite subclínica com a raça, a fase de lactação, sistema de ordenha ou qualidade da água utilizada nas propriedades.Milk and derivates are recognized as vehicle of different pathogens for humans. These micoorganisms may manifest as post-milking contamination or as in infections in the animal itself, particularly in mastitis. The aim of present study was characterizes the occurrence of mastitis and management aspects in dairy-goats raised in three farms of organic milk. The correlation between mastitis and goat husbandry was also investigated. The clinical exam of the mammary glands of 64 dairy-goats did not reveal the presence of clinical mastitis. Nevertheless, the California

  12. Using the same CIDR up to three times for estrus synchronization and artificial insemination in dairy goats = Uso do mesmo CIDR por até três vezes para sincronização do estro e inseminação artificial de cabras leiteiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Maia Nogueira

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of reusing a controlled internal drug release (CIDR device for up to three times in the reproductive performance of dairy goats raised in the semi-arid zone of northeastern Brazil. Forty-five goats were allocated into three hormone treatments, as follows: CIDR1x, treated with new CIDR during nine days. Two days prior to device removal, injections of 75 ƒÝg d-cloprostenol and 300 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG were administrated. For the other treatments, thesame hormone protocol was used, differing only by the use of the same CIDR for a second time in CIDR2x and for a third time in CIDR3x. The interval from device removal to the onset of estrus (13.3 „b 1.1h vs. 13.8 „b 2.6h vs. 13.3 „b 1.4h, as well as estrus duration (33.6 „b 7.3h vs. 29.6 „b 3.2h vs. 32.8 „b 4.5h, did not differ (p > 0.05 among groups CIDR1x, CIDR2x and CIDR3x, respectively. All synchronized females were found to be in estrus. The overall fertility and prolificacy after artificial insemination were 82.2% and 1.9 kids, respectively, without significant difference (p > 0.05 among treatments. The use of the same CIDR for up to three times waseffective using 9-day estrus synchronization protocols in dairy goats.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da utilizacao do mesmo dispositivo de liberacao controlada de drogas (CIDR por ate tres vezes sobre odesempenho reprodutivo de cabras leiterias exploradas no semiarido do Nordeste Brasileiro. Foram utilizadas 45 cabras divididas em tres tratamentos de sincronizacao do estro, sendo: CIDR1x, tratadas com CIDR novo durante nove dias. Dois dias antes da retirada do dispositivo, foram aplicados 75 ƒÝg de d-cloprostenol e 300 UI de gonadotrofina corionica equina (eCG. Para os demais tratamentos, foi utilizado o mesmo protocolo hormonal, diferindo apenas pelo uso do mesmo CIDR pela segunda vez no grupo CIDR2x e uso pela terceira vez no grupo CIDR3x. O intervalo entre

  13. Milk adulteration: Detection of bovine milk in bulk goat milk produced by smallholders in northeastern Brazil by a duplex PCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, N P A; Givisiez, P E N; Queiroga, R C R E; Azevedo, P S; Gebreyes, W A; Oliveira, C J B

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the adulteration of goat milk produced by smallholders in semiarid northeastern Brazil with bovine milk as an adulterant. The study was requested by the association of smallholder producers in the region to investigate and to inhibit adulteration practices as a need to ensure the quality and safety of goat milk. A duplex PCR assay has been developed and standardized. Further validation was performed in 160 fresh bulk goat milk samples. The detection limit of the duplex PCR was 0.5% bovine milk in goat milk and the results indicated that 41.2% of the goat milk presented to market was positive for bovine milk. Making the test available to the association of producers, together with extension activities, have been applied to reduce adulteration in goat milk sold to small-scale dairy plants and to ensure the species origin for goat milk in the state of Paraíba.

  14. Caprine and ovine Greek dairy products: The official German method generates false-positive results due to κ-casein gene polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsartsianidou, V; Triantafillidou, D; Karaiskou, N; Tarantili, P; Triantafillidis, G; Georgakis, E; Triantafyllidis, A

    2017-03-16

    Caseins are widely used for species identification of dairy products. Isoelectric focusing (IEF) of para-κ-casein peptide is used as the official German method for the differentiation between caprine (isoform A) and ovine (isoform B) dairy products, based on their different isoelectric points. The discrimination between Greek goat and ewe dairy products using IEF has, however, been shown to be problematic because of the existence of the ewe isoform in milk from Greek indigenous dairy goats. This could be due to nucleotide polymorphisms within the goat κ-casein gene of Greek indigenous breeds, which alter the isoelectric point of the para-κ-casein peptide and lead to false positive results. Previous DNA analysis of the goat κ-casein gene has shown high levels of polymorphism; however, no such information is available for Greek indigenous dairy goats. Therefore, 87 indigenous dairy goats were sequenced at exon IV of κ-casein gene. In total, 9 polymorphic sites were detected. Three nonsynonymous point mutations were identified, which change the isoelectric point of the goat para-κ-casein peptide so that it appears identical to that of the ewe peptide. Ten composite genotypes were reconstructed and 6 of them included the problematic point mutations. For the verification of genetic results, IEF was carried out. Both goat and ewe patterns appeared in the problematic genotypes. The frequency of these genotypes could be characterized as moderate (0.23) to high (0.60) within Greek indigenous breeds. However, this is not an issue restricted to Greece, as such genotypes have been detected in various non-Greek goat breeds. In conclusion, IEF based on the official German method is certainly inappropriate for ovine and caprine discrimination concerning Greek dairy goat products, and consequently a new method should be established.

  15. Evaluation of quality of kefir from milk obtained from goats supplemented with a diet rich in bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cais-Sokolińska, Dorota; Pikul, Jan; Wójtowski, Jacek; Danków, Romualda; Teichert, Joanna; Czyżak-Runowska, Grażyna; Bagnicka, Emilia

    2015-04-01

    The composition of bioactive components in dairy products depends on their content in raw milk and the processing conditions. The experimental material consisted of the milk of dairy goats supplemented with 120 g d(-1) per head of false flax cake. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of kefir produced from goat's milk with a higher content of bioactive components resulting from supplementation of the goats' diet with false flax cake. The administration of false flax cake to goats had a positive effect on the fatty acid profile of the raw milk, causing an increase in the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and n-3 fatty acids. Their increased percentage was detected in the kefir after production as well as after storage. The processing value of the harvested milk did not differ from the qualitative characteristics of milk from goats of the control group. Increasing the proportion of bioactive components in goat's milk did not result in changes in the acidity, texture, colour, flavour, aroma or consistency of the kefir obtained. Milk and kefir obtained after the administration of false flax cake to goats contain bioactive components (PUFA including CLA, n-3 and monoenic trans fatty acids) in significant amounts. Kefir from experimental goat's milk did not differ in quality from kefir made from the milk of the control group. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Thermal equilibrium of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Alex S C; Nascimento, Sheila T; Nascimento, Carolina C N; Gebremedhin, Kifle G

    2016-05-01

    The effects of air temperature and relative humidity on thermal equilibrium of goats in a tropical region was evaluated. Nine non-pregnant Anglo Nubian nanny goats were used in the study. An indirect calorimeter was designed and developed to measure oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, methane production and water vapour pressure of the air exhaled from goats. Physiological parameters: rectal temperature, skin temperature, hair-coat temperature, expired air temperature and respiratory rate and volume as well as environmental parameters: air temperature, relative humidity and mean radiant temperature were measured. The results show that respiratory and volume rates and latent heat loss did not change significantly for air temperature between 22 and 26°C. In this temperature range, metabolic heat was lost mainly by convection and long-wave radiation. For temperature greater than 30°C, the goats maintained thermal equilibrium mainly by evaporative heat loss. At the higher air temperature, the respiratory and ventilation rates as well as body temperatures were significantly elevated. It can be concluded that for Anglo Nubian goats, the upper limit of air temperature for comfort is around 26°C when the goats are protected from direct solar radiation.

  17. Dairy development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegwater, P.; Hoorweg, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    The growth of the dairy sector as it has occurred in Kilifi and Malindi Districts is one of the few examples of successful agricultural development in the coastal region in the past decades. Between 1985 and 1997 dairy cattle have more than doubled in number. Three livestock systems are described:

  18. Sustaining dairy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villarreal Herrera, Georgina

    2017-01-01

    Dairy in Europe has undergone many changes in the last few years—the abolition of milk production quotas being a fundamental one. This study explores these changes in relation to the sustained social and environmental viability of the sector and how dairy processors' sustainability

  19. Proximity to goat farms and Coxiella burnetii seroprevalence among pregnant women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, W. van der; Meekelenkamp, J.C.; Dijkstra, F.; Notermans, D.W.; Bom, B.; Vellema, P.; Rietveld, A.; Duynhoven, Y.T.H.P. van; Leenders, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    During 2007-2009, we tested serum samples from 2,004 pregnant women living in an area of high Q fever incidence in the Netherlands. Results confirmed that presence of antibodies against Coxiella burnetii is related to proximity to infected dairy goat farms. Pregnant women and patients with certain c

  20. Subprodutos industriais na ensilagem de capim-elefante para cabras leiteiras: consumo, digestibilidade de nutrientes e produção de leite Industrial by-products in elephant grass silage for dairy goats: intake, nutrient digestibility and milk yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jobel Beserra de Oliveira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o consumo, a digestibilidade aparente e a produção do leite em cabras alimentadas com silagens de capim-elefante contendo subprodutos industriais. Utilizaram-se oito cabras da raça Saanen, distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos 4 × 4, com 4 períodos de 14 dias (10 dias de adaptação e 4 dias para coleta de dados. Os tratamentos foram: silagem de capim-elefante + concentrado; silagem de capim-elefante com 15% de farelo de mandioca + concentrado; silagem de capim-elefante com 15% de casca de café + concentrado; silagem de capim-elefante com 15% farelo de cacau + concentrado. Os maiores consumos de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, carboidratos totais (CT, carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF e nutrientes digestíveis totais foram observados entre os animais alimentados com a silagem contendo farelo de mandioca. As silagens com farelo de mandioca ou casca de café promoveram maior consumo de extrato etéreo. Os maiores valores de digestibilidade da MS, MO, EE e CT foram obtidos na dieta contendo silagem de capim-elefante com farelo de mandioca. O valor de digestibilidade dos CNF foi semelhante entre as dietas contendo silagem de capim-elefante com farelo de mandioca, casca de café e farelo de cacau. A digestibilidade de fibra em detergente neutro e de fibra em detergente ácido foi maior para a silagem sem aditivo, com farelo de mandioca ou farelo de cacau. Entre os subprodutos avaliados, o farelo de mandioca é o que promove maiores consumos, digestibilidades dos nutrientes e produção de leite em cabras alimentadas com silagem de capim-elefante.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the intake, apparent digestibility and the milk yield of goats fed elephant grass silages containing industrial by-products. Eight Saanen breed goats were used, distributed in two 4 × 4 Latin squares, with four 14-day periods (ten days of adaptation and four days for data collection. The treatments were

  1. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of yoghurts made from goat and cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Roberto Germano; Beltrão Filho, Edvaldo Mesquita; de Sousa, Solange; da Cruz, George Rodrigo Beltrão; Queiroga, Rita de Cássia Ramos do Egypto; da Cruz, Eliel Nunes

    2016-05-01

    Substituting goats' milk for cows' milk could improve the quality of dairy products, because it adds new sensorial characteristics. The aim of this study was to develop a type of yoghurt using goats' milk (25, 50, 75 and 100%) in place of cows' milk and to compare their characteristics. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics were evaluated using a nine-point hedonic scale and purchase intention test. The data obtained in the physicochemical analysis were submitted to regression analysis and the sensory results were evaluated through analysis of variance. Among the physicochemical characteristics of the yoghurts, variation (P < 0.05) of ash, acidity and lactose was observed. Tasters in the sensory analysis indicated that yoghurts up to 50% of goats' milk received favorable averages; with lower scores for higher goats' milk concentrations (75% and 100%). No difference was reported in acidity. Replacing cows' milk with goats' milk in yoghurt preparation promotes variations in the physicochemical characteristics for ash, acidity and lactose. However, it does not cause alterations in the sensory attributes (50% goat milk) and therefore could be considered as an alternative for the production of dairy products. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Spoilage potential of Pseudomonas species isolated from goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scatamburlo, T M; Yamazi, A K; Cavicchioli, V Q; Pieri, F A; Nero, L A

    2015-02-01

    Pseudomonas spp. are usually associated with spoilage microflora of dairy products due to their proteolytic potential. This is of particular concern for protein-based products, such as goat milk cheeses and fermented milks. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to characterize the proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from goat milk. Goat milk samples (n=61) were obtained directly from bulk tanks on dairy goat farms (n=12), and subjected to a modified International Organization for Standardization (ISO) protocol to determine the number and proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. Isolates (n=82) were obtained, identified by PCR, and subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with XbaI macro-restriction. Then, the isolates were subjected to PCR to detect the alkaline protease gene (apr), and phenotypic tests were performed to check proteolytic activity at 7°C, 25°C, and 35°C. Mean Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 2.9 to 4.8 log cfu/mL, and proteolytic Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 1.9 to 4.6 log cfu/mL. All isolates were confirmed to be Pseudomonas spp., and 41 were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, which clustered into 5 groups sharing approximately 82% similarity. Thirty-six isolates (46.9%) were positive for the apr gene; and 57 (69.5%) isolates presented proteolytic activity at 7°C, 82 (100%) at 25°C, and 64 (78%) at 35°C. The isolates were distributed ubiquitously in the goat farms, and no relationship among isolates was observed when the goat farms, presence of apr, pulsotypes, and proteolytic activity were taken into account. We demonstrated proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. present in goat milk by phenotypic and genotypic tests and indicated their spoilage potential at distinct temperatures. Based on these findings and the ubiquity of Pseudomonas spp. in goat farm environments, proper monitoring and control of Pseudomonas spp. during production are critical.

  3. Efeito da suplementação de lipídios sobre a digestibilidade e os parâmetros da fermentação ruminal em cabras leiteiras Effect of lipid supplementation on digestibility and ruminal metabolism in dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Maria Cândido da Silva

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da inclusão de óleo de soja (OS, sais de cálcio de ácidos graxos de cadeia longa (SC e grão de soja (GS na dieta sobre o consumo, as digestibilidades total e ruminal dos nutrientes, os parâmetros ruminais e a produção e eficiência de produção de proteína microbiana em cabras. Foram utilizadas oito cabras não-gestantes e não-lactantes, fistuladas no rúmen, distribuídas em delineamento experimental em quadrado latino 4 x 4, com duas repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro dietas, sendo uma controle (C, isenta de lipídio suplementar, e as demais, adicionadas de um dos suplementos testados, contribuindo com 4,5% de EE suplementar (6,5% na dieta total. A suplementação lipídica não alterou o consumo de MS. Os coeficientes das digestibilidades total e ruminal do EE nas dietas com suplementos lipídicos foram superiores aos da dieta controle. Maior tempo de retenção de partículas sólidas foi obtido com o uso de grão de soja como suplemento. Os tratamentos não influenciaram o pH, a síntese e a eficiência de proteína microbiana, mas reduziram a concentração de amônia no rúmen. A suplementação com lipídios no nível de 4,5% pode ser utilizada de modo eficiente em dietas para caprinos.Eight non-pregnant, non-lactating dairy goats fitted with ruminal cannulas were assigned to two replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares to evaluate the effects of lipid supplementation on intake, total tract and ruminal digestibility of nutrients, ruminal metabolism, and microbial protein synthesis. Animals were fed a control diet (no fat supplementation; 2.0% ether extract or a diet supplemented (4.5% of added ether extract with soybean oil (SO, calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (CS or whole soybean grain (WS. No significant differences were observed for dry matter intake among diets. Apparent total tract and ruminal digestibilities of ether extract were greater on diets containing fat supplements than on the

  4. 崂山奶山羊硬脂酰-CoA去饱和酶基因(SCD)多态性及其与泌乳性状的相关分析%Association between Polymorphism of Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase Gene (SCD) and Milk Production Traits in Laoshan Dairy Goat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂芝; 王金凤; 秦孜娟; 王建民; 赵金山; 程明; 王建华

    2013-01-01

    The current study was aimed to analyze the association of exon 3 of stearoyl-CoAdesaturase gene (stearoyl-CoA desaturase,SCD) with milk traits in Laoshan dairy goat (Capra hircus).Direct sequencing was applied to identify SNPs in exon 3 and its flanking regions of SCD gene in Laoshan dairy goat population containing 174 samples,and least square method was performed to evaluate the association of polymorphism in SCD with milk traits.Four SNPs havebeen identified as followed,E315 E/e and E368H/h in exon3,I346 R/r and I355Q/q in in eron3 of SCD gene.The distribution of alleles and genotypes in this group were all under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.And the alleles and genotypes distribution of E315 were consistent with that of I355,so the two sites were linked sites.The difference between genotypes EE/QQ and ee/qq was statistically significant for all milk ingredients (P<0.05 or P<0.01).And the difference between genotypes EE/QQ and Ee/Qq was significant for protein rate,milk density (P<0.05).Allele E/ Q had positive effects on all milk ingredients,in which the additive effects were highly significant (P<0.01) and the dominant effects were not significant (P>0.05).The difference between genotype hh with genotypes HH and Hh was statistically significant for all milk ingredients (P< 0.05 or P<0.01).Meanwhile the allele h had positive effects on all milk ingredients.The additive effects and the dominant effects of allele on all milk ingredients were both highly significant (P<0.01).The milk yield of genotype rr was significantly higher than that of RR (P<0.01).Allele r had positive effect on milk yield,while it had no significant effect on milk ingredients (P >0.05).Then we analyzed the association of polymorphisms in SCD gene with milk traits in Group F and Group P respectively.The difference among genotypes were very low on milk traits in Group F,while that was higher in Group P.Four SNPs have been identified in exon 3 and its flanking regions of SCD

  5. Reproductive cycle of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatet, Alice; Pellicer-Rubio, Maria-Teresa; Leboeuf, Bernard

    2011-04-01

    Goats are spontaneously ovulating, polyoestrous animals. Oestrous cycles in goats are reviewed in this paper with a view to clarifying interactions between cyclical changes in tissues, hormones and behaviour. Reproduction in goats is described as seasonal; the onset and length of the breeding season is dependent on various factors such as latitude, climate, breed, physiological stage, presence of the male, breeding system and specifically photoperiod. In temperate regions, reproduction in goats is described as seasonal with breeding period in the fall and winter and important differences in seasonality between breeds and locations. In tropical regions, goats are considered continuous breeders; however, restricted food availability often causes prolonged anoestrous and anovulatory periods and reduced fertility and prolificacy. Different strategies of breeding management have been developed to meet the supply needs and expectations of consumers, since both meat and milk industries are subjected to growing demands for year-round production. Hormonal treatments, to synchronize oestrus and ovulation in combination with artificial insemination (AI) or natural mating, allow out-of-season breeding and the grouping of the kidding period. Photoperiodic treatments coupled with buck effect now allow hormone-free synchronization of ovulation but fertility results after AI are still behind those of hormonal treatments. The latter techniques are still under study and will help meeting the emerging social demand of reducing the use of hormones for the management of breeding systems.

  6. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the suitability of goat milk protein as a source of protein in infant formulae and in follow-on formulae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    On request from the European Commission following an application by Dairy Goat Co-operative (NZ) Ltd, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on the suitability of goat milk protein as a source of protein in infant and follow-on formulae...

  7. 不同日粮模式对奶山羊乳成分和乳腺中脂肪合成相关基因表达的影响研究%Effects of Different Model Diets on Milk Composition and Expression of Genes Related to Fatty Acid Synthesis in Mammary Gland of Lactating Dairy Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张航; 敖长金; 哈斯额尔敦; 宋利文; 张兴夫

    2016-01-01

    The current study determined the effects of two diets with different forage profiles on milk composition and the expression of key genes associated with fatty acid synthesis in the mammary gland of lactating dairy goats. Eight multiparous lactating goats (BW = 45.6 ± 2.5 kg, days in milk = 90 ± 12 d) fitted with external pudic artery (EPA) and subskin abdominal vein (SAV) intubations were assigned to two treatments in a crossover design. Animals were fed diets with different roughage profiles with the concentrate-roughage ratio in the treatments being 40:60. Diets were:(1) a high quality roughage treatment (HCA) containing 30% Chinese wildrye hay, 20% corn silage, 10% alfalfa and 40% concentrate (CP: 10.6%, NDF: 50.4% and ME: 2.24 Mcal/kg).(2) a low quality roughage treatment (HCS) containing 30% Chinese wildrye hay, 30% corn stover and 40% concentrate (CP: 14.2%, NDF: 39.7% and ME: 2.39 Mcal/kg), on dry matter (DM) basis. Each period lasted 21 d. The first 18 d served as an adaptation period, followed by a 3 d sample collection period. Dry matter intake (DMI) and milk yield and milk composition were measured. Milk and blood samples from EPA and SAV were collected for fatty acid (FA) analysis. Mammary gland biopsies were performed after milking on the last day of each period and the tissues were analyzed for mRNA expression of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase- α (ACACA), fatty acid synthesis (FASN), stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL). Milk yield was lower in HCA than HCS (496.5 vs. 515.5 g/d). Milk fat content was significantly higher in HCA than in HCS (3.16% vs. 2.96%).Milk protein content was higher in HCA than in HCS (2.99% vs. 2.89%). Milk fatty acid composition had no significant changed between HCA and HCS except for C18:3 (0.27 vs. 0.15 g/100g), which was significantly different. Compared with HCS, HCA had an increase in subskin abdominal vein (SAV) plasma concentration of total fatty acids (0.62 vs. 0.44 mg/mL). No differences

  8. Pseudomonas aeruginosa mastitis in two goats associated with an essential oil-based teat dip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, E Jane; Wilson, David J

    2016-11-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that has been associated with mastitis in dairy animals, including goats. Often, the environmental sources of the bacteria are water-related (such as hoses and muddy pastures). Mastitis attributable to P. aeruginosa was identified in 2 goats in a small herd. Efforts were made to identify environmental sources of the pathogen. Multiple samples from the goats' environment were cultured, including water from the trough, bedding, the hose used to wash udders, and the teat dip and teat dip containers. The bacterium was isolated from the teat dip and the teat dip container. The teat dip consisted of water, liquid soap, and several drops of essential oils (including tea tree, lavender, and peppermint). This case illustrates a potential problem that may arise as a result of the use of unconventional ingredients in teat dips. The use of alternative products by goat producers is likely to increase in the future. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. The complement system of the goat: Haemolytic assays and isolation of major proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno-Indias Isabel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to develop a haemolytic assay for the study of the complement system in dairy goats (Capra aegagrus hircus and to characterize the major goat complement system proteins. Results The commonly used sheep erythrocyte sensitized with rabbit antibodies were not sensitive to lysis by goat serum, but the combination of human red blood cells (RBC plus rabbit antibodies was the best option found for goat complement assay. A buffer based on HEPES instead of the classical veronal (barbitone was developed. Three proteins were isolated: factor H, C1q and C3 and these were compared with the corresponding human proteins. A novel affinity chromatography technique was developed for isolation of factor H. Conclusions Human RBC plus rabbit antibodies were a suitable option for haemolytic assays. The isolated proteins are similar to the human counterparts.

  10. Male Germ Cells Specification of Embryonic Gonad from Guanzhong Dairy Goat%雄性关中奶山羊胎儿生殖细胞增殖分化的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超; 朱海鲸; 刘维帅; 郑伟俊; 王静; 杨春荣; 华进联

    2011-01-01

    旨在阐明山羊胚性腺的发生规律,这对于山羊的繁殖育种、丰富胚胎学有关研究内容都具有重要意义.该研究对22枚从39日胎龄胎儿至初生奶山羊性腺进行石蜡组织切片,用组织学和免疫组化、免疫荧光方法对山羊胎儿性腺发育的组织学特点,山羊胎儿性腺发育过程中VASA及细胞增殖核抗原(PCNA)的表达规律进行了系统研究.结果表明:奶山羊性腺在39~47日胎龄时已出现精索和白膜,已发生性别分化,并可分辨出生殖细胞、支持细胞及间质细胞,细胞增殖率较高.在大约50日胎龄前生殖细胞可称作性原细胞,细胞为球形、核质比高.在51~59日胎龄,生殖细胞发生剧烈变化:体积增大、核质比降低.此后逐渐由性原细胞发育为前精原细胞,并且在此期间表达VASA的生殖细胞增多.50~90日胎龄,生殖细胞增殖率最高,生殖细胞所占比例也达到峰值.在90日胎龄后生殖细胞增殖率下降,比例下降,间质细胞大量退化.结果表明,山羊胎儿的生殖细胞在50日胎龄后由性原细胞发育为前精原细胞,生殖细胞在50~90日胎龄的增殖率最高,VASA可作为雄性山羊胎儿前精原细胞的标记.%To expound the development and specification of germ cells in fetal embryonic gonad is important for the goat breeding and reproduction, and can enrich the content of embryology. 22 goat embryonic gonads from 39 to 150 dpc (days post conception) were studied with histological methods , immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. The results showed that spermatic cord and tunica albuginea have already appear and sex differentiation have already occurred at 39-47 dpc. The germ cells, Sertoli cells and leydig cells could be identified at that time. Before 50 dpc,the germ cell with small size and high nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio can be called gonocytes. The germ cells experienced dramatic change during 51-59 dpc. Then gonocytes differentiating into

  11. Seroconversion and seroreactivity patterns of dairy goats naturally exposed to caprine arthritis-encephalitis virus in Brazil Soroconversão e sororeatividade de cabras leiteiras naturalmente expostas ao virus da artrite-encefalite caprina no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Soares Castro

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A labelled avidin-biotin ELISA (lab-ELISA using repeated serum samples of goats showed a progressive seroconversion with higher seroconversion rate at the period going from the beginning of the breeding up to the last half of lactation (35.0%, compared to that recorded at the beginning of breeding (17.8%(pForam realizados exames sorológicos em cabras leiteiras, utilizando-se ELISA marcado com avidina-biotina (LAB-ELISA. Esses exames mostraram soroconversão progressiva, com uma taxa maior entre os animais a partir do início da reprodução até a última metade da lactação (35% comparada à observada nos animais até o início da reprodução (17,8%(p<0,05. Além disso, o padrão de sororeatividade das amostras colhidas a cada 30-40 dias, durante 12 meses, avaliado pelo LAB-ELISA, foi caracterizado por alta variabilidade individual. Não foi observada sororeversão, e títulos mais altos foram obtidos mais no grupo constituído por animais que entraram em lactação (n=6, média de títulos=913,4 do que no grupo constituído por animais que cruzaram, mas não conceberam (n=4, média de títulos=261,2(p<0,01.

  12. Effect of micro-alga supplementation on goat and cow milk fatty acid composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Póti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The microalgae cultivation has been developed over the last decades because it is capable of producing valuable metabolites, such as n-3 fatty acids for nutraceutical purposes. Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the micro-alga as fat supplement on fatty acid profile of goat and cow milk, with particular reference to n-3 fatty acids and rumenic acid. Twenty dairy goats and 16 dairy cows were randomly allocated to two isonitrogenous treatment groups to investigate the effect of micro-alga supplementation on the composition and fatty acid profile of milk. The 1st goat group was fed with alfalfa hay and concentrate; the 2nd goat group received the same forages but the concentrate was supplemented with 10 g kg-1 DM intake micro-alga. The control group cows were fed with alfalfa hay, corn silage and concentrate, while the experimental animals were fed with the same forages but the concentrate was supplemented with 7.4 g kg-1 DM intake micro-alga. The experimental periods lasted for 17 d. The micro-alga supplements considerably increased rumenic acid concentration in milk (1.20% ví. 1.54%, P < 0.001 for goats; 0.75% vs. 0.85%, P < 0.05 for cows. The n-3 fatty acids were higher in milk (1.02 vs. 1.35; P < 0.001 for goats; 0.47 vs. 0.56; P < 0.05 for cows and in addition the n-6/n-3 ratio was also more favorable in the micro-alga supplemented groups (3.53 vs. 2.88; P < 0.01 for goats; 4.18 vs. 3.36; P < 0.05 for cows. It is concluded that the diet with micro-alga supplementation significantly increased the concentration of beneficial fatty acids in both goat and cow milk.

  13. Healthy goats naturally devoid of prion protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benestad Sylvie L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prion diseases such as scrapie in small ruminants, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE in cattle and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD in man, are fatal neurodegenerative disorders. These diseases result from the accumulation of misfolded conformers of the host-encoded prion protein (PrP in the central nervous system. To date naturally-occurring PrP free animals have not been reported. Here we describe healthy non-transgenic animals, Norwegian Dairy Goats, lacking prion protein due to a nonsense mutation early in the gene. These animals are predicted to be resistant to prion disease and will be valuable for research and for production of prion-free products.

  14. Early weight development of goats experimentally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa N Malone

    Full Text Available Johne's disease is an infectious chronic inflammatory bowel disease in ruminants. The key factor for the management of this disease is an early positive diagnosis. Unfortunately, most diagnostics detect animals with Johne's disease in the clinical stage with positive serology and/or positive fecal cultures. However, for effective management of the disease within herds, it is important to detect infected animals as early as possible. This might only be possible with the help of parameters not specific for Johne's disease but that give an early indication for chronic infections such as weight development. Here we report our findings on the development of total body weight and weight gain during the first six months of goats experimentally infected to induce Johne's disease. Twenty dairy goat kids age 2 to 5 days were included in this study. Goats were divided into two groups: a negative control group and a positive infected group. The weight was obtained weekly throughout the study. Goats of the positive group were infected at the age of seven weeks. We detected significant changes in weight gain and total body weight as early as one week after infection. Differences are significant throughout the six month time period. Weight as a non-specific parameter should be used to monitor infection especially in studies on Johne's disease using the goat model. Our study suggests that goats with Johne's disease have a reduced weight gain and reduced weight when compared with healthy goats of the same age.

  15. Relationship of goat milk flow emission variables with milking routine, milking parameters, milking machine characteristics and goat physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, G; Panzalis, R; Ruegg, P

    2017-04-10

    The aim of this paper was to study the relationship between milk flow emission variables recorded during milking of dairy goats with variables related to milking routine, goat physiology, milking parameters and milking machine characteristics, to determine the variables affecting milking performance and help the goat industry pinpoint farm and milking practices that improve milking performance. In total, 19 farms were visited once during the evening milking. Milking parameters (vacuum level (VL), pulsation ratio and pulsation rate, vacuum drop), milk emission flow variables (milking time, milk yield, maximum milk flow (MMF), average milk flow (AVMF), time until 500 g/min milk flow is established (TS500)), doe characteristics of 8 to 10 goats/farm (breed, days in milk and parity), milking practices (overmilking, overstripping, pre-lag time) and milking machine characteristics (line height, presence of claw) were recorded on every farm. The relationships between recorded variables and farm were analysed by a one-way ANOVA analysis. The relationships of milk yield, MMF, milking time and TS500 with goat physiology, milking routine, milking parameters and milking machine design were analysed using a linear mixed model, considering the farm as the random effect. Farm was significant (Pvariables. Milk emission flow variables were similar to those recommended in scientific studies. Milking parameters were adequate in most of the farms, being similar to those recommended in scientific studies. Few milking parameters and milking machine characteristics affected the tested variables: average vacuum level only showed tendency on MMF, and milk pipeline height on TS500. Milk yield (MY) was mainly affected by parity, as the interaction of days in milk with parity was also significant. Milking time was mainly affected by milk yield and breed. Also significant were parity, the interaction of days in milk with parity and overstripping, whereas overmilking showed a slight tendency

  16. Driving with a Goat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高素菊

    2006-01-01

    <正>A highway patrol officer was sitting in his car beside the road one day when he noticed a man driving with a goat in the back seat of his car.Turning on the lights,he pulled out,sped up, and pulled the man over.

  17. Asian Yellow Goat Cloned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ It was released on August 24,2005 by Prof. CHEN Dayuan (Da-Yuan Chen) from the CAS Institute of Zoology that the first success in cloning the Asian Yellow Goat by nuclear transfer had recently been achieved in east China's Shandong Province.

  18. Time resolved fluorescence of cow and goat milk powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandao, Mariana P.; de Carvalho dos Anjos, Virgílio; Bell., Maria José V.

    2017-01-01

    Milk powder is an international dairy commodity. Goat and cow milk powders are significant sources of nutrients and the investigation of the authenticity and classification of milk powder is particularly important. The use of time-resolved fluorescence techniques to distinguish chemical composition and structure modifications could assist develop a portable and non-destructive methodology to perform milk powder classification and determine composition. This study goal is to differentiate milk powder samples from cows and goats using fluorescence lifetimes. The samples were excited at 315 nm and the fluorescence intensity decay registered at 468 nm. We observed fluorescence lifetimes of 1.5 ± 0.3, 6.4 ± 0.4 and 18.7 ± 2.5 ns for goat milk powder; and 1.7 ± 0.3, 6.9 ± 0.2 and 29.9 ± 1.6 ns for cow's milk powder. We discriminate goat and cow powder milk by analysis of variance using Fisher's method. In addition, we employed quadratic discriminant analysis to differentiate the milk samples with accuracy of 100%. Our results suggest that time-resolved fluorescence can provide a new method to the analysis of powder milk and its composition.

  19. Substituição do farelo de soja pela farinha de glúten de milho na alimentação de cabras leiteiras Substitution of soybean meal protein by corn gluten meal protein in dairy goat feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gonzaga Pego de Macedo

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento com cabras Saanen, primíparas, pesando em média, 50 kg, alojadas em baias individuais de 3 m², objetivando avaliar a substituição da proteína do farelo de soja (FS pela proteína da farinha de glúten de milho (FGM, na produção e composição do leite, consumo voluntário e níveis de uréia plasmática. O delineamento experimental foi o triplo quadrado latino 4x4, com quatro períodos de 21 dias, sendo 14 dias de adaptação à dieta e sete dias para colheita das amostras. As cabras foram alimentadas e ordenhadas pela manhã e tarde. Os níveis de substituição estudados foram 0, 10, 30 e 50% de FGM (base na proteína bruta. A substituição do farelo de soja pela farinha de glúten de milho não afetou o consumo (kg/dia e %PV de matéria seca, proteína bruta e fibra em detergente ácido, mas houve efeito quadrático, para o consumo de fibra em detergente neutro (kg/dia e % PV. Houve efeito sobre os níveis de uréia plasmática (UP, que foram inferiores para os menores níveis de substituição, sendo os maiores valores de UP observados para o tratamento que possuía somente FS. A produção de leite decresceu linearmente com a inclusão da farinha de glúten de milho. Os níveis de substituição resultaram em decréscimos lineares na produção de gordura (kg/dia, no teor de gordura do leite (% e no teor de sólidos totais. Houve efeito quadrático para produção de lactose (kg/dia, observando-se o menor valor estimado para o nível de substituição de 31,6%. Não foi observado efeito sobre a produção de proteína bruta no leite, cujo valor médio foi de 0,083 kg/dia. Os teores de proteina bruta, lactose e sólidos totais não sofreram efeito dos níveis de substituição, sendo os valores médios percentuais de 2,98; 4,35 e 11,51%, respectivamente.It was carried out an experiment with goats Saanen, on the first lactation, with 50 kg of body weight, housed in individual stalls of 3 m², to evaluate

  20. Dairy goat husbandry amongst the household agriculture: herd and economic indexes from a case study in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil A caprinocultura leiteira na agricultura familiar: índices zootécnicos e econômicos de um estudo de caso no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Augusto Mendonça Vieira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two dairy goat systems conducted according to the household model were evaluated in terms of income generation. An enterprise budget analysis was performed using data collected from August, 2004, to July, 2005. Farms named A and B were smallholdings and raised Saanem goats intensively. Herd indexes, incomes, taxes, fuel, energy, concentrates, opportunity costs and interest in capital were computed. Net present value and internal rate of return were estimated to appreciate the business appeal in terms of income generation. Herd indexes were mostly affected by management decisions interfering on the amounts and time-trends related to milk production. Seasonal variation was reduced at unit B due to heat induction, a decision not shared by farmer A. The daily body weight gain of doelings after weaning (89 and 76 g/d for A and B was low if compared to current recommendations. Average records of lactation (441 and 606 L/doe and fertility (86.95% and 85.71% were amongst the literature range. Daily tasks related to unit B consumed 5 hours and 55 minutes for an average milk production of 40.9 L/d, whereas 8 hours and 16 minutes on average were daily spent at unit A in order to produce 32.2 L/d. Unit B presented a total production cost (R$ 0.79548/L lower than unit A (R$ 1.50239/L, but operated profitably. Unit A presented a positive gross margin (R$ 0.284/L, but operated unprofitably. The income generated on B was equivalent to a monthly salary of R$ 732.96 (US$ 278.52, a competitive income compared to the Brazilian minimum wage of R$ 300.00 (US$ 114.00 paid monthly. These results corroborate the hypothesis that the dairy goat husbandry fits adequately to the household production model and generates income competitively.Dois sistemas de produção de caprinos leiteiros praticados de acordo com o modelo familiar foram avaliados quanto à geração de renda. Um teste para verificação de viabilidade econômica do empreendimento foi executado utilizando

  1. 外源寡糖对山羊瘤胃液酶活及粗饲料瘤胃降解率的影响%Effects of Exogenous Oligosaccharides on Enzymes Activities of Rumen Fluid and Degradation Rates of Roughages in Rumen of Laoshan Dairy Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林英庭; 祁茹; 王利华; 朱风华; 赵发盛; 胡静

    2014-01-01

    为比较不同外源寡糖对山羊瘤胃液主要酶活及常用粗饲料瘤胃降解率的影响,选用体况良好、体重(62.80±2.45) kg、装有永久性瘤胃瘘管的成年崂山奶山羊去势公羊6只。采用6×4不完全拉丁方试验设计。羊只分别饲喂基础饲粮(对照)及添加1%外源寡糖[甘露寡糖( MOS)、半乳甘露寡糖( GMOS)、寡木糖( XOS)、低聚异麦芽寡糖( IMO)、果寡糖( FOS)]的试验饲粮;试验进行4期,每期35 d,其中预试期25 d,正试期10 d。结果表明:1)饲粮添加MOS可显著提高羧甲基纤维素酶活性( P<0.05);GMOS、IMO和FOS可显著提高滤纸纤维素酶活性(P<0.05);添加IMO、XOS、GMOS和FOS可显著或极显著提高β-葡萄糖苷酶活性(P<0.05或P<0.01);添加MOS、GMOS、XOS、FOS和IMO可显著或极显著提高木聚糖酶活性( P<0.05或P<0.01);添加IMO、GMOS和FOS可显著提高中性蛋白酶活性( P<0.05);添加FOS可显著提高α-淀粉酶活性( P<0.05)。2)饲粮添加MOS、GMOS、IMO、XOS、FOS可提高玉米全株青贮、花生蔓、羊草、苜蓿中干物质、中性洗涤纤维、酸性洗涤纤维的瘤胃降解率。综合各项指标,在1%添加水平下,GMOS和FOS在山羊饲粮中添加效果较好。%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of different oligosaccharides on main enzyme ac-tivities of rumen fluid and degradation rates of roughages in rumen of dairy goats. Six healthy mature castrated Laoshan dairy goats [(62.80±2.45) kg] with permanent cannulas were used. A 6×4 incomplete Latin square design was adopted. Goats were fed a basal diet ( control) and the basal diet supplemented with 1% mannanoli-gosaccharide ( MOS) , galacto-mannanoligosaccharides ( GMOS) , xylooligosaccharide ( XOS) , isomaltooli-gosaccharide ( IMO) and fructooligosaccharide ( FOS) , respectively. The trial lasted for 4 stages with 35 days per stage, and each stage included 25 days pre-test period before 10 days trial period. The results

  2. 饲粮不同NFC/NDF对奶山羊瘤胃溶纤维丁酸弧菌、牛链球菌及埃氏巨型球菌含量变化的影响%Effect of Different Dietary NFC/NDF on Populations of B. fibrisolvens,S. bovis and M. elsdenii in Rumen of Dairy Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵培厅; 刘大程; 高民; 胡红莲; 韩昊奇; 周向丽; 邓维康; 王鹏飞

    2011-01-01

    试验旨在探讨在饲粮不同非纤维性碳水化合物/中性洗涤纤维条件下,奶山羊发生亚急性瘤胃酸中毒(subacute rumen acidosis,SARA)过程中瘤胃溶纤维丁酸弧菌、牛链球菌及埃氏巨型球菌数量的变化。选用6只安装有永久性瘤胃瘘管的泌乳期关中奶山羊为试验动物,采用动物自身前后对照法,试验分4期进行,每期10d,依次饲喂NFC/NDF比分别为1.02(Ⅰ期)、1.24(Ⅱ期)、1.63(Ⅲ期)、2.58(Ⅳ期)的4种饲粮,以逐渐增加饲粮精料含量的方式诱导奶山羊发生SARA,并采用实时定量PCR技术对瘤胃内溶纤维丁酸弧菌、牛链球菌及埃氏巨型球菌的数量变化进行定量分析。结果表明:①随着饲粮NFC/NDF比的逐步升高,溶纤维丁酸弧菌和埃氏巨型球菌的数量均增加,但当饲粮NFC/NDF比升至2.58时,与其他试验期相比,埃氏巨型球菌的数量极显著增加(P〈0.01),而溶纤维丁酸弧菌的数量却极显著降低(P〈0.01);②牛链球菌的数量随着饲粮NFC/NDF比的逐步增加呈显著下降趋势(P〈0.05),但到第Ⅳ期又恢复到第Ⅰ期的数量。结果提示,当奶山羊发生SARA时,瘤胃牛链球菌的数量无明显变化,对低pH值敏感的溶纤维丁酸弧菌数量急剧下降,而耐酸性的埃氏巨型球菌数量表现为大幅增加。%The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of increasing dietary NFC/NDF on populations of B. fibrisolvens,S. bovis and M. elsdenii in the rumen of dairy goats under the condition of induced subacute rumen acidosis (SARA).Six lactating Guanzhong dairy goats fitted with permanent rumen fistulae were used in a self-contrast experiment design.This experiment consisted of four experimental periods,with ten days in each period.Goats were fed 4 diets with different NFC/NDF (1.02,1.24,1.63 and 2.58,respectively).The induction of SARA was conducted by gradually increasing dietary NFC/NDF.Realtime PCR

  3. The effect of glutamine supplementation on the barrier function of ruminal epithelium during high grain diet feeding in dairy goats%谷氨酰胺对饲喂高精料的奶山羊瘤胃上皮的保护效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉洁; 刘军花; 许婷婷; 朱伟云; 毛胜勇

    2014-01-01

    本研究旨在探讨过瘤胃谷氨酰胺对饲喂高精料的奶山羊瘤胃上皮屏障的保护效应。实验采用随机区组设计,将12头健康奶山羊随机分为高精料组(n=6)和高精料添加谷氨酰胺组(n=6),谷氨酰胺添加量为50 g/(d·头)。谷氨酰胺处理4周后,每组各选取4头山羊进行屠宰。HE染色、扫描和透射电镜法观察瘤胃上皮的组织形态学变化,实时荧光定量 PCR 法检测瘤胃上皮炎症因子及紧密连接蛋白 mRNA 的相对表达水平。结果表明,与对照组相比,添加谷氨酰胺显著降低了瘤胃液中丙酸浓度(P<0.01),有降低瘤胃乳酸、提高丁酸浓度的趋势,但对瘤胃液pH、乙酸、异丁酸、总挥发性脂肪酸浓度无显著影响(P>0.05);对组织形态的观察结果表明,添加过瘤胃谷氨酰胺可维持瘤胃复层扁平上皮各细胞层的完整性,保护角质层,减少细胞凋亡;并显著降低瘤胃上皮组织中TNF-α的mRNA相对表达量(P<0.05),显著提高occludin的 mRNA 相对表达量(P<0.05);但对 IFN-γ、IL-1β、IL-6、IL-10、claudin-1、claudin-4和ZO-1 mRNA表达量无显著影响(P>0.05)。结果说明,高精料日粮下添加过瘤胃谷氨酰胺可降低瘤胃上皮的炎症反应,改善上皮紧密连接,从而维护瘤胃上皮屏障的正常功能。%The effect of protected glutamine supplementation on the barrier function of ruminal epithelium in dairy goats fed high grain diet was investigated using twelve dairy goats that were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 treatments:high-grain (HG)diet group (n= 6)or glutamine (Gln)supplementation group (n= 6,50 g/d Gln supplementation).After four weeks feeding,four goats in each group were slaughtered to characterize the changes in ruminal epithelial structure,tight junction (TJ)proteins mRNA expression,and inflammatory cy-tokines mRNA expression using H-E dyeing,scanning and

  4. Goat production system in peri-urban areas of Khartoum state, Sudan

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    Safaa A Abdalla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Data was collected from one hundred goats’ owners from peri- urban areas in Khartoum state and were used to study the characteristics of dairy goat production. Reproduction traits, diseases prevalence, breeding objectives, feeding, housing and constraints were investigated. Crossbred flocks had the highest flock size, followed by flocks made up of Nubian goats and pure Saanen flocks recorded the lowest herd size. The main reasons for males to exit the flock were sales, slaughter and gifts. The main reasons for females’ disposal were sales, death and gifts. 33.0% of owners constructed goat pens using untreated wood, 32.0% of owners used plastic sheets and scrap iron, 19.0% used iron sheets, and 11.0% used mud and a few used bricks and concrete for construction. A Few owners had clear ideas about the long-term aims of their goat enterprise. Most owners suggested improvement of their goats by crossing, while a few suggested improvement by selection and management. The Saanen breed seems to be a suitable dairy breed for crossing purposes in the Sudan. 

  5. Sistemas produtivos de caprinocultura leiteira no semiárido paraibano: caracterização, principais limitantes e avaliação de estratégias de intervenção Productive systems of dairy goats in the semiarid of Paraiba: characterization, major limiting factors and evaluation of intervention strategies

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    Beatriz Riet-Correa

    2013-03-01

    , após a adoção de práticas adequadas. Problemas reprodutivos foram relatados por 75% dos proprietários. Em quatro propriedades, as taxas de mortalidade de animais jovens foram maiores do que as aceitáveis (8%. Após análise dos dados, observou-se que a assistência técnica permanente e multidisciplinar pode minimizar os fatores limitantes à caprinocultura leiteira. O estudo demonstrou que os produtores aceitam a implantação de novas tecnologias, desde que estas sejam gradativamente implantadas e adequadas aos sistemas de produção.Through a multidisciplinary study, eight dairy goat farms from the semiarid of Paraíba were studied for a period of two years with the aim to identify the main limiting factors for milk production and to propose and evaluate intervention strategies. A questionnaire was used to obtain information about the farms and their herd management. The forage availabilities were evaluated and proposals were made for correction. The animals were identified to facilitate the zootechnical bookkeeping and the milk production control. The major diseases were diagnosed. Analysis of variance, multiple linear regression and t test were used for data analysis. The average animal numbers in the herds were 53 at the start of the first year, 62 in the end of the year, and 49 in the second year. None herd had a defined breed. In the first year, seven farms had forage deficiency during the dry season, but only two during the rainy season. In the second year, after technical advertisement, six farms still had forage deficiency during the dry season and only two during the rainy season; however in six farms the yearly forage production was adequate and storing fodder during the rainy season would prevent the deficit during drought. The average milk production per goat was 1.19 liters. The most inadequate goat facilities were those used to keep the goat kids. Zootechnical bookkeeping was originally not practiced in any farm at the start of the study, but

  6. miR-200家族在西农萨能奶山羊乳腺组织中的表达分析%Expression Profiles of miR-200 Family in Mammary Gland of Xinong Saanen Dairy Goat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张犁苹; 罗军; 林先滋; 朱江江; 石恒波; 史怀平; 李君

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish the expression profiles of miR-200 family in mammary gland tissues of Xinong Saanen dairy goats,and to analyze the correlation between miR-200 family and milk composition.Real-Time qPCR was used for detecting the expression of miR-200 family in mammary gland during mid-lactation and dry period.Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis was used to determine the correlations of different miR-200 family members and goat milk composition.MiRanda,TargetScan 6.2,RNAhybrid,and PITA software were used for predicting the target genes of miR-200 family.Results showed that the expression levels of all miR-200 family members during mid-lactation were significantly higher than that during dry period (P < 0.01).Correlation analysis showed the significant correlations between miR-200a and miR-141 (P<0.05),and miR-200b and miR-200c (P<0.01).Furthermore,the expression levels of miR-200c significantly correlated with the contents of goat milk protein,solids-not-fat (SNF),and Freezing point depression (FPD) (P<0.05).We also found STAT4,a key regulator for milk fat synthesis,was a predicted target genes of miR-200a and miR-141.We concluded that miR-200 family might regulate milk protein and fatty acid synthesis in lactating goats.%笔者拟获得山羊miR-200家族乳腺组织表达谱,研究miR-200家族成员之间表达相关性及miR-200家族成员与山羊乳成分的相关性.通过定量PCR,检测miR-200家族在西农萨能奶山羊泌乳中期和干奶期乳腺组织中的表达量;利用Pearson相关系数分析miR-200家族不同成员表达量之间的相关性,同时分析miR-200家族成员与山羊乳成分之间的相关关系;利用miRanda和TargetScan 6.2软件分析、RNAhybrid和PITA软件预测miR-200家族的靶基因.结果表明,miR-200家族在奶山羊泌乳中期的乳腺组织中的表达量极显著高于干奶期(P<0.01);miR-200a与miR-141之间的表达量显著相关(P<0.05),miR-200b与miR-200c

  7. miR-200a对奶山羊乳腺上皮细胞乳脂合成相关基因mRNA表达的影响%The Effect of miR-200a on Gene mRNA Expression Related to Milk Fat Synthesis in Dairy Goat Mammary Gland Epithelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林先滋; 罗军; 张犁苹; 朱江江; 石恒波; 苟德明

    2012-01-01

    旨在构建pAd-pri-miR-200a重组腺病毒,使其在奶山羊乳腺上皮细胞中稳定表达miR-200a,研究miR-200a对乳脂合成相关基因mRNA表达的影响.以西农萨能羊DNA为模板扩增pri-miR-200a.采用Ad-Easy系统构建重组腺病毒载体pAd-pri-miR-200a,并于HEK 293细胞株中进行病毒的包装、扩繁.TCI50法测定病毒滴度.qRT-PCR检测miR-200a及16个乳脂合成相关基因mRNA表达水平.序列分析结果显示,pri-miR-200a包括pre-miR-200a 86 bp和侧翼序列共297 bp.酶切结果证实pAd-pri-miR-200a构建成功.Ad-pri-miR-200a滴度达8×109 PFU· mL-1.实时定量结果表明,Ad-pri-miR-200a(MOI为200)感染奶山羊乳腺上皮细胞72 h,miR-200a的表达量较对照高出2.4倍.同时miR-200a的过表达引起10个基因mRNA表达量下调,6个基因mRNA表达量上调.其中脂肪酸从头合成相关基因FASN、脂滴生成相关基因TIP47及脂肪酸运输相关基因FABP4降幅较大,分别下降了0.47、0.89及0.65倍.而TAG生成相关基因DGAT1和脂解相关基因HSL较对照分别增加了0.52和1.49倍.本研究获得的重组腺病毒Ad-pri-miR-200a能在山羊乳腺上皮细胞中稳定表达miR-200a,同时miR-200a过表达影响乳脂合成相关基因mRNA表达水平.%To study the effect of miR-200a on mRNA expression of genes related to milk fat synthesis, recombinant adenovirus pAd-pri-miR-200a was constructed and miR-200a was stably expressed in goat mammary gland epithelial cell. Pri-miR-200a was amplified from DNA from Xinong Saanen Goat. Recombinant plasmid pAd-pri-miR-200a was constructed using Ad-Easy System. The virus was packaged and amplified in HEK 293 cells. Virus titer was indentified by TCI50 assay. The expression of miR-200a and 16 genes related to milk fat synthesis in dairy goat mammary gland epithelial cells were analyzed by qRT-PCR. Sequencing analysis showed that the length of pri-miR-200a was 297 bp, including 86 bp pre-miR-200a and flank sequences. Enzyme digestion analysis

  8. Óleo de soja e própolis na alimentação de cabras leiteiras: consumo de matéria seca e de nutrientes e parâmetros de fermentação ruminal Soybean oil and propolis in the diets of dairy goats: intake of nutrients and ruminal metabolism

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    Rogério de Paula Lana

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a inclusão de níveis crescentes de óleo de soja (0; 1,5; 3,0; 4,5; 6,0; e 7,5% da MS, extrato etanólico de própolis (0; 1,0; 2,0; 4,0; 8,0 e 12,0 mL/animal/dia, 50% p/v de própolis moída em solução alcoólica a 70% em água e própolis bruta moída (0; 0,5; 1,0; 2,0; 4,0 e 6,0 g/animal/dia na alimentação de cabras leiteiras. Avaliaram-se o consumo de MS e de nutrientes e alguns parâmetros de fermentação ruminal, como pH, amônia (NH3, ácidos graxos voláteis (AGV e atividade específica de produção de amônia (AEPA pela microbiota ruminal. Foram utilizadas seis cabras Alpinas fistuladas no rúmen, em seis períodos experimentais. As dietas foram compostas de 67% de silagem de milho e 33% de concentrado à base de fubá de milho e farelo de soja. Os animais foram submetidos ao tratamento controle e, em seguida, a cinco níveis crescentes de óleo de soja, extrato etanólico de própolis e própolis bruta moída utilizando-se dois animais para cada produto testado, em seis períodos experimentais. Não houve efeito de níveis de óleo de soja, extrato etanólico de própolis e própolis bruta moída sobre o consumo de MS e de nutrientes e sobre os parâmetros ruminais estudados. Sugere-se, no entanto, a realização de mais pesquisas com a adição de própolis na alimentação de ruminantes, pois existem efeitos antimicrobianos comprovados in vitro e evidências de que seu fornecimento a esses animais reduz a relação acetato:propionato e a concentração de butirato no rúmen.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the increasing levels of soybean oil (0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, and 7.5% of diet dry matter, ethanolic extract of propolis (0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, and 12.0 mL/animal/day and ground crude propolis (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 g/animal/day on intake and ruminal metabolism (pH, ammonia N, VFA, and specific activity of ammonia production in dairy goats. Six ruminally fistulated female Alpine

  9. Soroprevalência da infecção pelo vírus da artrite-encefalite caprina (caev no rebanho de caprinos leiteiros da região da Grande Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil Seroprevalence of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis vírus infection in dairy goats in the region of "Grande Fortaleza", Ceará, Brazil

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    Ana Célia Mendes Melo

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada uma pesquisa sorológica, com base no teste de imunodifusão em ágar gel (AGID com antígeno (p28 do vírus Maedi/Visna, para estimar a soroprevalência da infecção pelo vírus da Artrite-Encefalite Caprina (CAEV na população de caprinos leiteiros da região da Grande Fortaleza, Ceará. O estudo abrangeu um total de oito criatórios. dos quais cinco praticam o manejo intensivo e três o manejo semi-intensivo. A população estudada é composta, por animais puros de raças exóticas como a Saanen, Parda Alpina, Anglonubiana e Toggenburg, por animais Meio Sangue e alguns sem raça definida (SRD. Foi realizado exame clinico e coleta de amostra de soro em 248 caprinos, bem como a aplicação de questinonário epidemiológico. A análise dos dados revelou uma soroprevalência de 40,73% (101/248. As amostras soropositivas foram todas provenientes das propriedades com manejo intensivo (5/8. A distribuição da soroprevalência em cada um destes criatórios foi 61% (54/89, 74,28% (26/35, 61,11% (11/18, 11,36% (5/44 e 75% (6/8. Diferença significativa (P0,05 quanto aos falares idade e sexo dos animais estudados.A serologic survey was performed using a agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID with the Maedi/Visna virus antigen (p28 to estimate the seroprevalence of the caprine arthritisencephalitis virus infection (CAEV in a dairy goat population in the region of "Grande Fortaleza", in the state of Ceará, Brazil. In this study a total of eight flocks were examined, five included intensive and three semi-intensive managements. The population studied consisted of three groups: pure-bred animais of exotic races such as Saanen, Alpine Parda, Anglonubian and Toggenburg: crossbreeds and animais of undefined breed. Serum samples were colleted from 248 goats, clinicai analysis were performed, andan epidemiologic survey was applied. Analysis of the results showed a seroprevalence of 40.73% (101/248. All seropositive samples carne from the flocks

  10. Padrão Nictemeral do pH Ruminal e Comportamento Alimentar de Cabras Leiteiras Alimentadas com Dietas Contendo Diferentes Relações Volumoso: Concentrado Nictemeral Pattern of Ruminal pH and Feeding Behavior of Dairy Goats Fed Diets with Different Roughage to Concentrate Ratio

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    André Luigi Gonçalves

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do presente estudo foram a caracterização do padrão nictemeral do pH ruminal e a avaliação do comportamento alimentar de cabras leiteiras alimentadas com dietas compostas por diferentes relações volumoso:concentrado. Foram utilizadas cinco cabras, com peso médio de 58 kg, não-lactantes, não-gestantes, fistuladas no rúmen, em cinco períodos experimentais. Cada animal foi observado em cada um dos cinco tratamentos, que consistiram das relações volumoso:concentrado de 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60 e 20:80, em um delineamento em quadrado latino 5×5. As dietas foram fornecidas a cada 6 horas, buscando amenizar a variação dos níveis de pH ruminal, durante o período de 24 horas, para todos os tratamentos. Após a adaptação dos animais às dietas experimentais, estes foram observados por um período de 48 horas, no qual foi mensurado o pH ruminal a cada hora, bem como em outro período de mesma duração, em que se observou o comportamento a cada 10 minutos. Foi constatado que o nível de concentrado crescente resultou em decréscimo sobre o pH, cujos valores decresceram mais drasticamente em níveis acima de 60%. Observou-se também o efeito de tratamento sobre tempo de alimentação, ruminação e ócio. O tempo de alimentação foi maior para as dietas contendo valores acima de 60% de volumoso. A dieta contendo 100% de volumoso apresentou maior tempo de ruminação e menor ócio, seguida das dietas contendo 80 e 60% de volumoso, enquanto aquelas contendo 40 e 20% apresentaram menor tempo de ruminação e maior ócio.The objectives of the present study were to characterize nictemeral pattern of ruminal pH and feed behavior of dairy goats fed diets presenting different ratios of roughage:concentrate. Five non pregnant non lactating goats, ruminally cannulated, and averaging 58 kg were used during the five experimental periods. A 5x5 Latin square was used to evaluate five treatments consisted of roughage to concentrate

  11. Influência da condição corporal e da concentração de energia nas dietas no periparto sobre o desempenho de cabras em lactação Body condition score and peripartum energy density on performance of dairy goats

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    Carla Aparecida Florentino Rodrigues

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da interação nível de energia líquida (EL nas dietas × condição corporal (CC no periparto sobre o desempenho de cabras nos primeiros 60 dias da lactação e as concentrações plasmáticas de ácidos graxos não-esterificados (AGNE no pós-parto. Os animais foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 3 x 2 com quatro repetições, composto de duas condições corporais, três níveis de EL (baixo, médio, alto na dieta no pré-parto e dois níveis de EL (médio, alto no pós-parto. Inicialmente, os animais foram separados em dois grupos, de acordo com a CC, adotando-se o valor de 3,25 como mediano. Dietas no pré e no pós-parto foram isoprotéicas, com 13 e 16% de PB, respectivamente. No período pré-parto, os níveis de energia das dietas foram 1,1; 1,4 e 1,6 Mcal de EL/kg de MS e, no período pós-parto, de 1,4 e 1,6 Mcal de EL/kg de MS. A interação CC × níveis de EL no pós-parto influenciou o consumo de FDN, de modo que cabras com menor CC consumiram mais fibra (FDN com a redução da concentração de EL nas dietas. Os níveis de EL fornecidos durante o pós-parto influenciaram o consumo de nutrientes e a produção de leite, pois a presença de níveis elevados de FDN na dieta com 1,4 Mcal EL/kg MS limitou a expressão do potencial produtivo dos animais. Não foram observados efeitos das CC e dos níveis de EL nas dietas sobre a concentração plasmática de AGNE no pós-parto, indicando pequena mobilização de reservas de lipídios do tecido adiposo.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of body condition score (BCS and different dietary net energy (NE levels during prepartum on performance and concentration of plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA in early lactating dairy goats. Animals (four replicates per treatment were assigned to a completely randomized design in a 2 x 3 x 2 factorial arrangement

  12. The burden of Coxiella burnetii among aborted dairy animals in Egypt and its public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moein, Khaled A; Hamza, Dalia A

    2017-02-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease of mounting public health implications. Dairy animals are major reservoir for such disease whereas abortion is the main clinical outcome. The current study was conducted to investigate the burden of C. burnetii abortions among dairy animals in Egypt to provide more knowledge for better control of such disease. For this purpose, placental cotyledons and vaginal discharges from 108 aborted dairy animals (27 sheep, 29 goats, 26 cattle, 26 buffaloes) were examined for the presence of C. burnetii by nested PCR. Serum samples from 58 human contacts were examined for the presence of C. burnetii IgG antibodies using ELISA. Out of the 108 examined animals only one goat yielded positive result in both placental tissue and vaginal discharges with an overall prevalence 0.9% while that among goats is 3.4%. Moreover, the seroprevalence of C. burnetii IgG antibodies among the examined individuals was 19% whereas the prevalence in farmers is significantly higher than that among veterinarians and veterinary assistants. In conclusion, C. burnetii may play a role in dairy goat abortions rather than other dairy animals in Egypt while its public health implications cannot be ruled out.

  13. Productive and Reproductive Performances of Female Etawah Crossbred Goats in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Ketut Sutama

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Although Etawah Crossbred (PE goat is considered to be dual purpose (meat and milk goat, it is mainly raised for meat production. Since early 1990, there has been a growing interest of the farmer in some places to raise PE goat for milk production without sacrificing its role to produce kids for meat. The average birth weight of PE kids varied widely (2.8 – 5 kg, resulted in a high variation in weaning weight (9 – 14 kg. A high pre-weaning mortality of 10 – 50% was a major source of lost in goat production in Indonesia, partly due to low birth weight and/or miss mothering ability. Young female PE goat reached puberty at 8 – 12 months of age and at body weight of about 18 – 22 kg or about 53 – 60% of mature body weight. Gestation length varied between 142 – 156 days, and first post partum estrous occurred at 3 – 5 months after parturition took place, resulted in 8 – 10 months of kidding intervals. Lactation period lasted for 5 – 8 months with total milk yield of 177 – 203 kg/lactation (average 0.85 kg/day. Although milk yield of PE goat was not as high as milk yield of some other dairy goats, the ability of PE goat to cope with harsh local environment, particularly climate and feed conditions, was an advantage. Therefore, raising PE goat would still be an important part of farmer activities in the rural areas in Indonesia.

  14. POSTIMPACT OF DIFFERENT FEEDSTUFFS ON GOAT MILK PRODUCTIVITY IN ORGANIC FARMING

    OpenAIRE

    Sprūžs, Jāzeps; Šeļegovska, Elita

    2015-01-01

    Goats fed on high-quality and valuable forage provides the production of high quality milk and dairy products. In organic farming improper and poor feeding during lactation period reduce milk yield and quality of products. The goal of our research was to ascertain the post impact of different feedstuffs (oat meal, wheat bran, sunflower cake, rapeseed cake) on goat milk productivity and quality indices. The trial was carried out in farm “Bērzi”, Talsi district in autumn period for 60 days tota...

  15. Dataset of milk whey proteins of two indigenous greek goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios K; Katsafadou, Angeliki I; Pierros, Vasileios; Kontopodis, Evangelos; Fthenakis, George C; Arsenos, George; Karkabounas, Spyridon Ch; Tzora, Athina; Skoufos, Ioannis; Tsangaris, George Th

    2016-09-01

    Due to its rarity and unique biological traits, as well as its growing financial value, milk of dairy Greek small ruminants is continuously attracting interest from both the scientific community and industry. For the construction of the present dataset, cutting-edge proteomics methodologies were employed, in order to investigate and characterize, for the first time, the milk whey proteome from the two indigenous Greek goat breeds, Capra prisca and Skopelos. In total 822 protein groups were identified in milk whey of the two breeds, The present data are further discussed in the research article "Milk of Greek sheep and goat breeds; characterization by means of proteomics" [1].

  16. Dataset of milk whey proteins of two indigenous greek goat breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios K. Anagnostopoulos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to its rarity and unique biological traits, as well as its growing financial value, milk of dairy Greek small ruminants is continuously attracting interest from both the scientific community and industry. For the construction of the present dataset, cutting-edge proteomics methodologies were employed, in order to investigate and characterize, for the first time, the milk whey proteome from the two indigenous Greek goat breeds, Capra prisca and Skopelos. In total 822 protein groups were identified in milk whey of the two breeds, The present data are further discussed in the research article “Milk of Greek sheep and goat breeds; characterization by means of proteomics” [1].

  17. Intensification of Mediterranean Goat Production Systems: A Case Study in Northern Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Florence Godber

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Goats are important contributors to both food and financial security of the resource poor, particularly in marginal environments such as those in the Mediterranean region. To fully understand the feasibility and potential consequences of any intensification or husbandry changes that could contribute to higher outputs, it is important to have a thorough prior understanding of the functional dynamics of these systems. Here the current performance of ten goat holdings in the northern region of Morocco, classified as either commercial milk producers, commercial cheese producers or non-commercial dairy producers, was recorded, based on the Food and Agricultural Organisation and International Centre for Advanced Mediterranean Agronomic Studies (FAO-CIHEAM technical and economic indicators, to assess whether intensification of dairy production was financially viable. Fecundity and prolificacy rates were comparatively lower than those achieved by many European Mediterranean herds. Both kid and doe mortality were higher on commercial dairy holdings, where dairy sales provided an additional, rather than alternative, source of income to goat sales. Despite this, due to significantly higher expenditure on supplementary feed, gross margin per doe did not differ significantly between holding types. With the exception of indigenous Greek herds, all European Mediterranean herds outperform those of northern Morocco. The study suggests that a low level of supplementary feeding is constraining goat dairy production in northern Morocco, and that the current high cost and limited availability of additional supplementary feed restricts the financial viability of intensification. Alternative feeding strategies within a participatory approach that might ameliorate these problems, and value chain constraints, are discussed.

  18. Occurrence of human pathogenic Clostridium botulinum among healthy dairy animals: an emerging public health hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Moein, Khaled A; Hamza, Dalia A

    2016-01-01

    The current study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of human pathogenic Clostridium botulinum in the feces of dairy animals. Fecal samples were collected from 203 apparently healthy dairy animals (50 cattle, 50 buffaloes, 52 sheep, 51 goats). Samples were cultured to recover C. botulinum while human pathogenic C. botulinum strains were identified after screening of all C. botulinum isolates for the presence of genes that encode toxins type A, B, E, F. The overall prevalence of C. botulinum was 18.7% whereas human pathogenic C. botulinum strains (only type A) were isolated from six animals at the rates of 2, 2, 5.8, and 2% for cattle, buffaloes, sheep, and goats, respectively. High fecal carriage rates of C. botulinum among apparently healthy dairy animals especially type A alarm both veterinary and public health communities for a potential role which may be played by dairy animals in the epidemiology of such pathogen.

  19. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koop, G.; Dik, N.; Nielen, M.; Lipman, L.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms,

  20. Animal welfare aspects in respect of the slaughter or killing of pregnant livestock animals (cattle, pigs, sheep, goats,horses)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    More, Simon J.; Bicout, Dominique; Bøtner, Anette

    2017-01-01

    . Limiteddata on European prevalence and related uncertainties necessitated a structu red expert knowledgeelicitation (EKE) exercise. Estimated median percentages of animals slaughtered in the last third ofgestation are 3%, 1.5%, 0.5%, 0.8% and 0.2% (dairy cows, beef cattle, pigs, sheep and goats...

  1. Effect of selenium-vitamin E injection in selenium-deficient dairy goats and kids on the Mexican plateau Efeito do selênio e da vitamina E sobre a produtividade de cabras e cabritos no México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Ramírez-Bribiesca

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were carried out to determine the optimum selenium-vitamin E injection level to maintain acceptable blood selenium (Se status of does and kids, as well as to determine the relation of that status to mortality rates in kids. In experiment 1, 238 goats were assigned to one of three groups during the mating period: A1-control, A2- 0.06mgSe+0.8IU vitE/kgBW and A3-0.125mgSe+1.7IU vitE/kgBW. No differences (P>.05 for fertility and prolificacy were observed among the groups. Blood Se concentration did not differ among Se-vit E groups and control group before injection, and both groups showed Se deficient condition. There was a trend (PForam conduzidos três experimentos para determinar a quantidade ótima da injeção de selênio-vitamina E (Se-vit E para manter o nível aceitável do status de selênio no sangue de cabras e cabritos e determinar essa relação com o status sobre a taxa de mortalidade de cabritos. No primeiro experimento, 238 cabras foram usados em um dos três grupos durante o período do acasalamento: A1- controle, A2- 0,06mgSe+0,8UI vit E/kg de peso-vivo e A3- 0,125mgSe+1,7UI vitE/kg de peso-vivo. Não houve diferenças (P>0,05 entre os grupos para fertilidade e prolificidade. A concentração de Se no sangue não foi diferente entre os grupos que receberam Se-vit E e o controle antes da injeção e ambos os grupos mostravam deficiência de Se. Sessenta dias pós-tratamento houve tendência (P<0,05; 32% de aumentar o nível de Se no sangue e não houve diferença entre os grupos A2 e controle. Houve diferença significativa (P<0,05; 103% entre os grupos A1 e A2 e o grupo A3. No segundo experimento, 48 cabras foram divididas em quatro grupos: B1- controle, B2- 0,125mgSe+1,7UI vitE/kg de peso-vivo, B3- 0,25mgSe+3,4UI vitE/kg de peso-vivo e B4- 0,31mgSe+4,2UI vitE/kg de peso-vivo. O grupo B4 alcançou a concentração mais alta no terceiro mês depois da injeção (0,11ppm e diminuiu depois de 100 dias, quando o valor

  2. Congenital Goitre in Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Cheema, A. Shakoor and A. H. Shahzad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One full-term, dead foetus was successfully removed from a 5-year old, crossbred black and white goat. The goat was stall-fed with green fodder and it delivered two dead foetuses in the previous pregnancy. The foetus had a large swelling in the cranio-ventral neck region. Upon cutting skin, the swelling revealed extremely enlarged thyroid gland having two asymmetrical lobes with the right lobe was 8.10 x 15.0 cm and the left 5.5 x 8.6 cm in size. The skin was devoid of hair, pale-white and thickened with myxedema. Histologically, the enlarged thyroid consisted of colloid goitre and the lungs were oedematous. This case of congenital goitre was unusual and differed from the reported cases in two aspects viz 1 the two lobes were enlarged but unequal and 2 histologically goitre was colloid instead of usual hyperplastic type.

  3. Effects of fermentation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on product quality and fatty acids of goat milk yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ru; Chen, Han; Chen, Hui; Ding, Wu

    2016-01-01

    The effect of fermentation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on the product quality of goat milk yogurt using traditional yogurt starter was studied through single-factor experiments and orthogonal experiments. The optimum fermentation condition was evaluated by the titratable acidity of goat milk yogurt, water-retaining capability, sensory score, and texture properties; the fatty acids of the fermented goat milk were determined by a gas chromatograph. Results indicate that high product quality of goat milk yogurt can be obtained and the content of short-chain and medium-chain fatty acids can be decreased significantly when amount of sugar added was 7%, inoculation amount was 3%, the ratio of 3 lactic acid bacteria--Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, and L. rhamnosus GG--was 1:1:3, and fermentation temperature was 42°C. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of hippuric acid content in goat milk as a marker of feeding regimen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpio, A; Bonilla-Valverde, D; Arce, C; Rodríguez-Estévez, V; Sánchez-Rodríguez, M; Arce, L; Valcárcel, M

    2013-09-01

    Organic producers, traders, and consumers must address 2 issues related to milk: authentication of the production system and nutritional differentiation. The presence of hippuric acid (HA) in goat milk samples has been proposed as a possible marker to differentiate the feeding regimen of goats. The objective of this work is to check the hypothesis that HA could be a marker for the type of feeding regimen of goats by studying the influence of production system (conventional or organic) and feeding regimen (with or without grazing fodder). With this purpose, commercial cow and goat milk samples (n=27) and raw goat milk samples (n=185; collected from different breeds, localizations, and dates) were analyzed. Samples were grouped according to breed, feeding regimen, production system, and origin to compare HA content by ANOVA and honestly significant difference Tukey test at a confidence level of ≥95%. Hippuric acid content was obtained by analyzing milk samples with capillary electrophoresis. This method was validated by analyzing part of the samples with HPLC as a reference technique. Sixty-nine raw goat milk samples (of the total 158 samples analyzed in this work) were quantified by capillary electrophoresis. In these samples, the lowest average content for HA was 7±3 mg/L. This value corresponds to a group of conventional raw milk samples from goats fed with compound feed. The highest value of this group was 28±10 mg/L, corresponding to goats fed compound feed plus grass. Conversely, for organic raw goat milk samples, the highest concentration was 67±14 mg/L, which corresponds to goats fed grass. By contrast, the lowest value of this organic group was 26±10 mg/L, which belongs to goats fed organic compounds. Notice that the highest HA average content was found in samples from grazing animals corresponding to the organic group. This result suggests that HA is a good marker to determine the type of goats feeding regimen; a high content of HA represents a diet

  5. PROFIL ASAM LEMAK DAN ASAM AMINO SUSU KAMBING SEGAR DAN TERFERMENTASI [Fatty Acid and Amino Acid Profile of Fresh and Fermented Goat Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Erna Kustyawati*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to investigate the composition of fatty acids and amino acids in fresh and fermented goa-milk. The milk was in oculated with 4% (v/v of L. casei and fermented at 37°C for 48 h. Analysis of fatty acids of fresh and fermented goat and cow’s milk was done by HPLC method, where as amino acid composition was analyzed by GC method. Twenty five semi-trained panelists evaluated the sensory characteristics of fermented milk. Results showed that the fermentation process changed fatty acid profile in goat milk. The saturated fatty acids found in fermented goat-milk were lauric, misristic, and palmitic acid while the unsaturated fatty acids were oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acid. The total amount of saturated fatty acid of fermented goat-milk was higher while unsaturated fatty acid was lower than those in fresh goat milk. The aroma of goaty flavor, strong and musky or “prengus”, was slightly detected in fermented goat milk. Linoleic acid was not detected in fermented goat milk and therefore it was less susceptible from oxidativedeterioration. On the other hand, the fermentation process did not change the profile of amino acids in goat milk. Fermented dairy product made from whole goat milkand cow’s milk was accepted by the panelist as it hadslightly sour taste, yellowish color, and slightly goaty flavor, yet it had high amount of saturated fatty acids.

  6. Metabolic and oxidative status of Saanen goats of different parity during the peripartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin, Lada; Šimpraga, Miljenko; Vince, Silvijo; Kostelić, Antun; Milinković-Tur, Suzana

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to research changes in metabolic and antioxidative status of Saanen goats of different parity occurring during the peripartum period. Blood samples were taken on 10-7 and 3-1 d prepartally and 1-3, 14 and 28 d postpartally from goats allocated in three groups according to their parity: primiparous (PRIM), goats that kidded the 2nd or 3rd time (MID), and goats that kidded 4 or more times (MULTI)). Metabolic profile parameters (non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), glucose, triglycerides, albumin and urea) and indicators of oxidative stress ((superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA)) were determined. Intense metabolic changes associated with late pregnancy and onset of lactation were pronounced the most in MULTI goats that also had the biggest litter per goat. Significant differences were found in metabolic parameters NEFA, BHB, glucose, triglycerides within groups during peripartum period, as well as between them (the effect of parity). MDA concentrations were indicative of increased lipid peroxidation around parturition, especially pronounced in MULTI group 1-3 d prepartally, when the highest GSH-Px/SOD ratio was also found. Postpartally, antioxidant enzymes ratio in MID and MULTI group decreased while MDA concentrations remained high, suggesting antioxidant system inefficiency. Significant time × group interaction was observed for most of the parameters. The obtained results show that the goats of higher parity display higher levels of metabolism intensity and consequently, varying levels of oxidative stress during the peripartum period. Further studies should determine applicability of NEFA and BHB in periparturient metabolic profiling in dairy goats as well as establish normal ranges and cut-off levels for these biomarkers.

  7. Density-Dependent Spacing Behaviour and Activity Budget in Pregnant, Domestic Goats (Capra hircus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Vas

    Full Text Available Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e., distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance and activity budgets (e.g., resting, feeding, social activities were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period. The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation.

  8. Density-Dependent Spacing Behaviour and Activity Budget in Pregnant, Domestic Goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vas, Judit; Andersen, Inger Lise

    2015-01-01

    Very little is known about the spacing behaviour in social groups of domestic goats (Capra hircus) in the farm environment. In this experiment, we studied interindividual distances, movement patterns and activity budgets in pregnant goats housed at three different densities. Norwegian dairy goats were kept in stable social groups of six animals throughout pregnancy at 1, 2 or 3 m2 per individual and their spacing behaviours (i.e., distance travelled, nearest and furthest neighbour distance) and activity budgets (e.g., resting, feeding, social activities) were monitored. Observations were made in the first, second and last thirds of pregnancy in the mornings, at noon and in the afternoons of each of these phases (4.5 hours per observation period). The findings show that goats held at animal densities of 2 and 3 m2 moved longer distances when they had more space per animal and kept larger nearest and furthest neighbour distances when compared to the 1 m2 per animal density. Less feeding activity was observed at the high animal density compared to the medium and low density treatments. The phase of gestation also had an impact on almost all behavioural variables. Closer to parturition, animals moved further distances and the increase in nearest and furthest neighbour distance was more pronounced at the lower animal densities. During the last period of gestation, goats spent less time feeding and more on resting, social behaviours and engaging in other various activities. Our data suggest that more space per goat is needed for goats closer to parturition than in the early gestation phase. We concluded that in goats spacing behaviour is density-dependent and changes with stages of pregnancy and activities. Finally, the lower density allowed animals to express individual preferences regarding spacing behaviour which is important in ensuring good welfare in a farming situation.

  9. Characterization of an unusual transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in goat by transmission in knock-in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rona; King, Declan; Hunter, Nora; Goldmann, Wilfred; Barron, Rona M

    2013-08-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of cattle, and its transmission to humans through contaminated food is thought to be the cause of the variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. BSE is believed to have spread from the recycling in cattle of ruminant tissue in meat and bone meal (MBM). However, during this time, sheep and goats were also exposed to BSE-contaminated MBM. Both sheep and goats are experimentally susceptible to BSE, and while there have been no reported natural BSE cases in sheep, two goat BSE field cases have been documented. While cases of BSE are rare in small ruminants, the existence of scrapie in both sheep and goats is well established. In the UK, during 2006-2007, a serious outbreak of clinical scrapie was detected in a large dairy goat herd. Subsequently, 200 goats were selected for post-mortem examination, one of which showed biochemical and immunohistochemical features of the disease-associated prion protein (PrP(TSE)) which differed from all other infected goats. In the present study, we investigated this unusual case by performing transmission bioassays into a panel of mouse lines. Following characterization, we found that strain properties such as the ability to transmit to different mouse lines, lesion profile pattern, degree of PrP deposition in the brain and biochemical features of this unusual goat case were neither consistent with goat BSE nor with a goat scrapie herdmate control. However, our results suggest that this unusual case has BSE-like properties and highlights the need for continued surveillance.

  10. Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) for the determination of the milk fat fatty acid profile of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Sánchez, N; Martínez-Marín, A L; Polvillo, O; Fernández-Cabanás, V M; Carrizosa, J; Urrutia, B; Serradilla, J M

    2016-01-01

    Milk fatty acid (FA) composition is important for the goat dairy industry because of its influence on cheese properties and human health. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the feasibility of NIRS reflectance (oven-dried milk using the DESIR method) and transflectance (liquid milk) analysis to predict milk FA profile and groups of fats in milk samples from individual goats. NIRS analysis of milk samples allowed to estimate FA contents and their ratios and indexes in fat with high precision and accuracy. In general, transflectance analysis gave better or similar results than reflectance mode. Interestingly, NIRS analysis allowed direct prediction of the Atherogenicity and Thrombogenicity indexes, which are useful for the interpretation of the nutritional value of goat milk. Therefore, the calibrations obtained in the present work confirm the viability of NIRS as a fast, reliable and effective analytical method to provide nutritional information of milk samples.

  11. GOAT MILK: A CHALLENGE FOR RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT SECTOR FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.D. POP

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past 20 years the study of goat caseins genetic polymorphisms received a considerable research interest. In particular the researches were focused on CSN1S1 locus which is the most polymorphic, 17 alleles being known so far. These alleles are associated with four different levels of protein synthesis, affecting significantly goat milk quality and its technological properties. In this context the present review is describing recent literature data at international and national level, which allow the understanding of goat milk quality variation in relation with its physical-chemical characteristics, milk protein genetic polymorphisms and physiological factors. We also describe the current stage of researches concerning the use of milk protein polymorphisms in identifying possible adulterations from dairy industry and also studies on milk allergenic potency.

  12. Relationship between liver and low rumen pH in goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z; Jiang, X; Ye, P; Zhang, Y; Ni, Y; Zhuang, S; Shen, X

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the response of dry goat liver to sub-acute ruminal acidosis induced by a highly concentrated diet. Non-pregnant, non-lactating female Poll-goats (N = 12) were randomly assigned to either a high-concentrate (HG) or a low-concentrate (LG) diet. Low rumen pH was successfully induced with HG (more than 3 h with rumen pH liver was decreased in the HG group compared to the LG group. These data indicate that the expression of hepatic proteins alters the regulation of endogenous lipopolysaccharide during low rumen pH in dry dairy goats. In particular, the protective effect of the liver may occur through inhibition of aldehyde and/or peroxide formation.

  13. Variation in udder health indicators at different stages of lactation in goats with no udder infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Ylva; Larsen, Torben; Nyman, Ann-Kristin

    2014-01-01

    (CMT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, N-acetyl-β-d-glucoseaminidase (NAGase) activity and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity. Milk samples from twenty-four clinically healthy dairy goats were collected on two consecutive days in early, mid and late lactation. At milking, each goat's udder half...... was given a CMT score before udder half milk samples were collected. The milk samples were then analyzed for SCC, LDH, NAGase and AP, and investigated for bacterial growth. Variation in udder health indicators between udder half within goat, samples between sampling days and samples between stages...... there was a significant association with udder half with a higher general (over period and day) probability of higher CMT scores in the right udder half compared to the left. This study shows that SCC, LDH, NAGase and AP were all affected by period of lactation but also to some extent by sampling day and udder half...

  14. Functional analyse of GLUT1 and GLUT12 in glucose uptake in goat mammary gland epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Yu

    Full Text Available Glucose transport, mediated by glucose transporters, is necessary for mammary gland development and lactation. GLUT1 and GLUT12 could both be expressed in the pregnant and lactating mammary gland to participate in the glucose uptake process. In this study, the goat GLUT1 and GLUT12 genes were cloned from Saanen dairy goats and transfected into goat mammary gland epithelial cells to assess their biological functions and distributions. The results showed that both goat GLUT1 and GLUT12 had 12 predicted membrane-spanning helices. Goat GLUT1 and GLUT12 each influenced the mRNA expression of the other transporter and increased the glucose consumption and lactose yield in GLUT1- and GLUT12-transfected goat mammary gland epithelial cells, respectively. The overexpression of GLUT1 or GLUT12 also increased the expression of amino acid transporters SLC1A5, SLC3A2 and SLC7A5 and affected genes expressions in GMGE cells. Using immunofluorescence staining, GLUT1 was detected throughout the cytoplasm and localized to the Golgi apparatus around the nuclear membrane, whereas GLUT12 was mainly distributed in the perinuclear region and cytoplasm. This study contributes to the understanding of how GLUT1 and GLUT12 cooperate in the incorporation of nutrient uptake into mammary gland epithelial cells and the promotion of milk synthesis in the goat mammary gland during lactation.

  15. Isolation and Evaluation Virulence Factors of Salmonella typhimurium and Salmonella enteritidis in Milk and Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Shaigan nia

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: To our best knowledge the present study is the first prevalence report of Salmonella spp., Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium in raw sheep and goat samples in Iran. Consumption of pasteurized milk and dairy products can reduce the risk of salmonellosis.

  16. Occurrence of aflatoxin M(1) in dairy products in southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Maria Teresa; Napoli, Christian; De Giglio, Osvalda; Iatta, Roberta; Barbuti, Giovanna

    2008-12-01

    A screening survey of the presence of aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) was carried out on 265 samples of cheese made from cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, sheep-goat milk collected in the Apulia region (Southern Italy). Selected samples included unripened, medium and long-term ripened cheeses. AFM(1) was found in 16.6% of the analyzed samples. The highest positive incidence was for medium and long-term ripened cheeses, especially those made from sheep-goat milk, while buffalo cheeses tested consistently negative. Our results show that the level of contamination by AFM(1) in dairy products from Apulia Region are lower than in other Italian and European regions. Moreover, it is important to underline that a common European norm concerning the AFM(1) threshold limits for dairy products is still lacking.

  17. Occurrence of Aflatoxin M1 in Dairy Products in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Barbuti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A screening survey of the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 was carried out on 265 samples of cheese made from cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, sheep-goat milk collected in the Apulia region (Southern Italy. Selected samples included unripened, medium and long-term ripened cheeses. AFM1 was found in 16.6% of the analyzed samples. The highest positive incidence was for medium and long-term ripened cheeses, especially those made from sheep-goat milk, while buffalo cheeses tested consistently negative. Our results show that the level of contamination by AFM1 in dairy products from Apulia Region are lower than in other Italian and European regions. Moreover, it is important to underline that a common European norm concerning the AFM1 threshold limits for dairy products is still lacking.

  18. Relationship between Somatic Cell Counts, Mastitis and Milk Quality in Ettawah Grade and PESA Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molefe PETLANE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis is a bacterial disease that leads to increased somatic cell counts and reduced milk quality in dairy goats. Reduction in quality is manifested through a reduction in fat, protein, lactose content and an increase in milk somatic cell counts and salts content. Thus mastitis affects productivity of animals and hence their economic value. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of somatic cell counts (SCC and mastitis on milk quality in PE and PESA. On-Farm mastitis tests were performed on 38 lactating dairy goats and milk samples were collected from both mastitis positive and healthy animals from which quality parameters were measured using a milko tester while bacterial isolation and enumeration were done following standard protocols. Data was analyzed descriptively and the results showed that somatic cell counts and somatic cell score correlate positively with mastitis (P < 0.05. Lactose and fat content decreased with severity of mastitis in both breeds whereas in PESA protein content increased with mastitis. Salt content increases with mastitis in both breeds. S. aureus was the most isolated bacteria and associated with high SCC whereas E. coli was poorly isolated. The study concludes that mastitis leads to increased SCC and reduced milk quality in dairy goats.

  19. Big Animal Cloning Using Transgenic Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: A Case Study of Goat Transgenic Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hui; Li, Hui; Huang, Mingrui; Xu, Dan; Wang, Ziyu; Wang, Feng

    2016-02-01

    Using of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) could improve production traits and disease resistance by improving the efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technology. However, robust ESCs have not been established from domestic ungulates. In the present study, we generated goat induced pluripotent stem cells (giPSCs) and transgenic cloned dairy goat induced pluripotent stem cells (tgiPSCs) from dairy goat fibroblasts (gFs) and transgenic cloned dairy goat fibroblasts (tgFs), respectively, using lentiviruses that contained hOCT4, hSOX2, hMYC, and hKLF4 without chemical compounds. The giPSCs and tgiPSCs expressed endogenous pluripotent markers, including OCT4, SOX2, MYC, KLF4, and NANOG. Moreover, they were able to maintain a normal karyotype and differentiate into derivatives from all three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. Using SCNT, tgFs and tgiPSCs were used as donor cells to produce embryos, which were named tgF-Embryos and tgiPSC-Embryos. The fusion rates and cleavage rates had no significant differences between tgF-Embryos and tgiPSC-Embryos. However, the expression of IGF-2, which is an important gene associated with embryonic development, was significantly lower in tgiPSC-Embryos than in tgF-Embryos and was not significantly different from vivo-Embryos.

  20. Consumo e digestibilidade dos nutrientes em cabras Moxotó recebendo dietas com diferentes níveis de feno de maniçoba Intake and digestibility of nutrients in Moxotó dairy goats fed diets with different Maniçoba hay levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Jácome de Araújo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a utilização do feno de maniçoba (Manihot glaziovii Muell. Arg. em diferentes níveis (30, 40, 50 e 60% sobre os consumos e as digestibilidades de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, energia bruta (EB, extrato etéreo (EE, carboidratos totais (CT, carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e os consumos de água e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT. Utilizaram-se oito cabras da raça Moxotó, multíparas, com aproximadamente 60 dias de lactação, pesando 44,26 ± 4,23 kg, em delineamento quadrado latino duplo 4 × 4, com quatro tratamentos, quatro períodos e quatro animais. Cada período teve duração de 15 dias (10 de adaptação dos animais às dietas e 5 para coleta de dados. Utilizou-se a fibra em detergente ácido indigestível (FDAi como indicador interno para estimativa da produção de matéria seca fecal. A utilização do feno de maniçoba nos níveis de 30, 40, 50 e 60% nas dietas para cabras em lactação não alterou os consumos de MS, MO, PB, EE, MM e CT. Os consumos de CNF, NDT e água diminuíram linearmente com o aumento no nível de feno de maniçoba nas dietas, enquanto os de FDN e FDA (kg/dia, %PC e g/kg0,75 aumentaram linearmente. A digestibilidade aparente de MS, MO, PB, EE, CT, CNF, EB e FDA reduziu linearmente, enquanto a da FDN não se alterou com o aumento dos níveis de feno na dieta.This research was conducted with the objective of evaluating the use of different Maniçoba hay (Manihot glaziovii Muell. Arg levels (30, 40, 50 and 60% on intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, gross energy (GE, ether extract (EE, total carbohydrates (TCHT, non fiber carbohydrates (NFC, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, water intake (WI, besides total digestible nutrients intake (TDNI. Eight multiparous Moxotó dairy goats with initial

  1. Comportamento da Curva de Lactação de Cabras Mestiças Saanen em Função da Suplementação de Concentrado e do Sistema de Produção Lactation Curve Behavior of Cross Breed Saanen Dairy Goats in Function of the Concentrate Supplementation and the Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente de Paulo Macedo

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se o comportamento da curva de lactação em 31 cabras mestiças Saanen e o efeito de duas estratégias de suplementação de concentrado: 30% das exigências em energia líquida da 3ª semana até o final da lactação (ESC.1; 60% das exigências em energia líquida diária da 3ª à 13ª semana, e 15% da 14ª semana até o final da lactação (ESC.2, em sistemas de produção semi-confinamento e pastagem. Os seguintes modelos foram avaliados: Wood linear e não-linear, Morant linear e não-linear, D-set e Grossman. O modelo Wood não linear foi o que melhor descreveu o comportamento da curva de lactação. A resposta da estratégia de suplementação com concentrado variou em função do sistema de produção. A estratégia de suplementação com concentrado afetou mais intensamente o comportamento da curva de lactação no sistema de produção semi-confinamento. A estratégia ESC.2, de suplementação com concentrado, resultou em mais dias para atingir o pico de produção, no sistema semi-confinamento, e maior produção no pico em ambos sistemas.The behavior of lactation curve of 31 crossbred Saanen dairy goats and the effect of two strategies of supplementation with concentrate: 30% of requirements in net energy from third week until the end of lactation (ESC.1; or 60% of requirements in daily net energy from the 3rd to the 13th week and 15% from 14th until the end of lactation (ESC.2, in a pasture or semi-confined systems, were studied. The following models were evaluated: Wood linear and non-linear, Morant linear and non-linear, D-set and Grossman. Non-linear Wood model was the best in describing the behavior of lactation curve. The responses to the strategy of supplementation with concentrate were different in function of production systems. The strategy of supplementation affected the behavior of lactation curve more intensely in the semi-confined system. The ESC.2 strategy of supplementation resulted in more days to reach

  2. Gambaran Darah Kambing Gembrong, Kambing Peranakan Etawah, dan Kambing Kacang di Bali (BLOOD ILLUSTRATION OF GEMBRONG GOAT, ETAWAH CROSSBRED GOAT AND KACANG GOAT IN BALI)

    OpenAIRE

    Wayan Sayang Yupardhi; I Gusti Lanang Oka; Ida Bagus Mantra; I Nyoman Suyasa; I Gede Suranjaya

    2015-01-01

    There were three kinds of goat developed in Bali since a long time ago i.e. Gembrong goat, EtawahCrossbred goat, and Kacang goat. Gembrong goat is nearly disappearingrecently due to decrease of itspopulation from year to year. The Gembrong goat has very interesting performance, funny, and this speciesis Balinese native goats. The objective of thisexperiment was to know the blood illustration among thethree speciesof the Balinese native goatwhere in the future it can be used as a guide to deve...

  3. Occurrence of enterotoxin-encoding genes in Staphylococcus aureus causing mastitis in lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daneelly H. Ferreira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal enterotoxins are the leading cause of human food poisoning worldwide. Staphylococcus spp. are the main mastitis-causing agents in goats and frequently found in high counts in goat milk. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of enterotoxin-encoding genes in Staphylococcus aureus associated with mastitis in lactating goats in Paraiba State, Brazil. Milk samples (n=2024 were collected from 393 farms. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 55 milk samples. Classical (sea, seb, sec, sed, see and novel (seg, seh, sei enterotoxin-encoding genes were investigated by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR. From thirty-six tested isolates, enterotoxin-encoding genes were detected in 7 (19.5% S. aureus. The gene encoding enterotoxin C (seC was identified in six isolates, while seiwas observed in only one isolate. The genes sea, seb, sed, see, seg and seh were not observed amongst the S. aureus investigated in this study. In summary, S. aureus causing mastitis in goats can harbor enterotoxin-encoding genes and seC was the most frequent gene observed amongst the investigated isolates. This finding is important for surveillance purposes, since enterotoxin C should be investigated in human staphylococcal food poisoning outbreaks caused by consumption of goat milk and dairy products.

  4. One Health approach to controlling a Q fever outbreak on an Australian goat farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, K A; Vincent, G; Wilks, C R; Franklin, L; Sutton, B; Stenos, J; Cowan, R; Lim, K; Athan, E; Harris, O; Macfarlane-Berry, L; Segal, Y; Firestone, S M

    2016-04-01

    A recent outbreak of Q fever was linked to an intensive goat and sheep dairy farm in Victoria, Australia, 2012-2014. Seventeen employees and one family member were confirmed with Q fever over a 28-month period, including two culture-positive cases. The outbreak investigation and management involved a One Health approach with representation from human, animal, environmental and public health. Seroprevalence in non-pregnant milking goats was 15% [95% confidence interval (CI) 7-27]; active infection was confirmed by positive quantitative PCR on several animal specimens. Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii DNA obtained from goat and human specimens was identical by two typing methods. A number of farming practices probably contributed to the outbreak, with similar precipitating factors to the Netherlands outbreak, 2007-2012. Compared to workers in a high-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA) filtered factory, administrative staff in an unfiltered adjoining office and those regularly handling goats and kids had 5·49 (95% CI 1·29-23·4) and 5·65 (95% CI 1·09-29·3) times the risk of infection, respectively; suggesting factory workers were protected from windborne spread of organisms. Reduction in the incidence of human cases was achieved through an intensive human vaccination programme plus environmental and biosecurity interventions. Subsequent non-occupational acquisition of Q fever in the spouse of an employee, indicates that infection remains endemic in the goat herd, and remains a challenge to manage without source control.

  5. Effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production in different farming systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rapetti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to test the effect of raw sunflower seeds on goat milk production. Two farms with different farming systems (intensive and semi-intensive participated to the trial. In each farm about 60 mid-lactation Alpine goats were divided in two groups during spring-summer time. A diet containing 5-6% of sunflower seeds on DM basis was compared with a control diet in a change-over design. In the semi-intensive farm milk yield of goats fed sunflower was 3.46 kg/d compared to 3.58 kg/d of goats fed control diet, whereas in the intensive farm milk yield was 4.60 kg/d vs 4.66 kg/d. Fat content increased significantly from 2.99% to 3.23% only in the intensive farm. The research in the intensive farm investigated also milk and cheese fatty acids composition. Medium and short chain fatty acids (C8-C16 content dropped and long chain fatty acids content increased when sunflower was added. In conclusion raw sunflower seed inclusion in dairy goat diets can be useful, in order to limit the inversion of fat and protein percentages in milk.

  6. GOATS Image Projection Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Benjamin M.; Green, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    When doing mission analysis and design of an imaging system in orbit around the Earth, answering the fundamental question of imaging performance requires an understanding of the image products that will be produced by the imaging system. GOATS software represents a series of MATLAB functions to provide for geometric image projections. Unique features of the software include function modularity, a standard MATLAB interface, easy-to-understand first-principles-based analysis, and the ability to perform geometric image projections of framing type imaging systems. The software modules are created for maximum analysis utility, and can all be used independently for many varied analysis tasks, or used in conjunction with other orbit analysis tools.

  7. ASAS Centennial Paper: Impact of animal science research on United States goat production and predictions for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlu, T; Dawson, L J; Gipson, T A; Hart, S P; Merkel, R C; Puchala, R; Wang, Z; Zeng, S; Goetsch, A L

    2009-01-01

    Goat research in the United States has increased but at a rate less than that in production. Research on goat meat includes nutritional quality, packaging, color, sensory characteristics, and preslaughter management. Goat skins have value for leather, but quality of goat leather has not been extensively studied. Research in the production, quality, antibiotic residues, and sensory characteristics of goat milk and its products has aided development of the US dairy goat industry. Limited progress has been made in genetic improvement of milk or meat production. There is need to explore applications of genomics and proteomics and improve consistency in texture and functionality of goat cheeses. New goat meat and milk products are needed to increase demand and meet the diverse tastes of the American public. Despite research progress in control of mohair and cashmere growth, erratic prices and sale of raw materials have contributed to further declines in US production. Innovative and cooperative ventures are needed for profit sharing up to the consumer level. Internal parasites pose the greatest challenge to goat production in humid areas largely because of anthelmintic resistance. Study of alternative controls is required, including immunity enhancement via nutrition, vaccination, pasture management such as co-grazing with cattle, and genetic resistance. Similarly, the importance of health management is increasing related in part to a lack of effective vaccines for many diseases. Nutrition research should address requirements for vitamins and minerals, efficiencies of protein utilization, adjusting energy requirements for nutritional plane, acclimatization, and grazing conditions, feed intake prediction, and management practices for rapid-growth production systems. Moreover, efficient technology transfer methods are needed to disseminate current knowledge and that gained in future research.

  8. Moleculer analysis of genotype kappa casein and composition of goat milk Etawah grade, Saanen and their crossbred

    OpenAIRE

    Yayu Zurriyati; R. R. Noor; R. R. A. Maheswari

    2011-01-01

    Polymorphism of goat casein gene closely linked to the quality of milk protein. κ-casein is one of the casein fractions that influence the shape and stability of grain milk. This study is aimed to identify the variation of genotype κ-casein and related with milk quality from Etawah grade, Saanen and their crossbreed (PE-SA). The number of dairy goats used in this study was 150 animals consisted of Etawah grade (48 animals), Saanen (51 animals) and PE-SA (51 animals). Steps of experiment were:...

  9. Subclinical mastitis in goats is associated with upregulation of nitric oxide-derived oxidative stress that causes reduction of milk antioxidative properties and impairment of its quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silanikove, Nissim; Merin, Uzi; Shapiro, Fira; Leitner, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the existence of a nitric oxide (NO) cycle in goat milk and to study how changes in it affect milk composition during subclinical mastitis. Fifteen lactating dairy goats in which one udder-half was free from bacterial infection and the contra-lateral one was naturally infected with various species of coagulase-negative staphylococci were used. In comparison to uninfected glands, subclinical mastitis was associated with a decrease in milk yield, lactose concentration, and curd yield and an increase in nitrite and nitrate concentrations and with measurements reflecting increased formation of NO-derived free-radical nitrogen dioxide. The occurrence of NO cycling in goat milk was largely confirmed. The increase in the NO-derived stress during subclinical infection was not associated with significant increase in oxidatively modified substances, 3-nitrotyrosine, and carbonyls on proteins, but with increased levels of peroxides on fat. However, the relatively modest nitrosative stress in subclinically infected glands was associated with significant reduction in total antioxidant capacity and vitamin C levels in milk. We concluded that subclinical mastitis in goats caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci imposes negative changes in milk yield, milk quality for cheese production, and negatively affects the nutritional value of milk as food. Thus, subclinical mastitis in goats should be considered as a serious economic burden both by farmers and by the dairy industry. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The effects of prenatal stocking densities on the fear responses and sociality of goat (Capra hircus kids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Chojnacki

    Full Text Available Prenatal stress (stress experienced by a pregnant mother and its effects on offspring have been comprehensively studied but relatively little research has been done on how prenatal social stress affects farm animals such as goats. Here, we use the operational description of 'stress' as "physical or perceived threats to homeostasis." The aim of this study was to investigate the prenatal effects of different herd densities on the fear responses and sociality of goat kids. Pregnant Norwegian dairy goats were exposed to high, medium or low prenatal animal density treatments throughout gestation (1.0, 2.0 or 3.0 m2 per animal, respectively. One kid per litter was subjected to two behavioral tests at 5 weeks of age. The 'social test' was applied to assess the fear responses, sociality and social recognition skills when presented with a familiar and unfamiliar kid and the 'separation test' assessed the behavioral coping skills when isolated. The results indicate goat kids from the highest prenatal density of 1.0 m2 were more fearful than the kids from the lower prenatal densities (i.e. made more escape attempts (separation test: P < 0.001 and vocalizations (social test: P < 0.001; separation test: P < 0.001. This effect was more pronounced in females than males in the high density (vocalizations; social test: P < 0.001; separation test: P  =  0.001 and females were generally more social than males. However, goat kids did not differentiate between a familiar and an unfamiliar kid at 5 weeks of age and sociality was not affected by the prenatal density treatment. We conclude that high animal densities during pregnancy in goats produce offspring that have a higher level of fear, particularly in females. Behavioral changes in offspring that occur as an effect of prenatal stress are of high importance as many of the females are recruited to the breeding stock of dairy goats.

  11. Detection of Coxiella burnetii in the bulk tank milk from a farm with vaccinated goats, by using a specific PCR technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, van der R.; Engelen, van E.; Vos, J.; Luttikholt, S.J.; Moll, L.; Roest, H.I.J.; Heijden, van der H.M.J.F.; Vellema, P.

    2013-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease, caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Between 2007 and 2010, Q fever has been a major public health concern in the Netherlands, with almost 3500 human cases reported and dairy goats considered to be the most probable source. At the end of 20

  12. Phenotypic characterization of Ethiopian indigenous goat populations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... A survey was conducted to study the morphological characteristics of indigenous goats in ... Both qualitative and quantitative traits were recorded on 158 goats randomly sampled from six ...

  13. Comparison of the nutritional regulation of milk fat secretion and composition in cows and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toral, P G; Chilliard, Y; Rouel, J; Leskinen, H; Shingfield, K J; Bernard, L

    2015-10-01

    A study with 2 ruminant species (goats and cows) with inherent differences in lipid metabolism was performed to test the hypothesis that milk fat depression (MFD) due to marine lipid supplements or diets containing high amounts of starch and plant oil is caused by different mechanisms and that each ruminant species responds differently. Cows and goats were allocated to 1 of 3 groups (4 cows and 5 goats per group) and fed diets containing no additional oil (control) or supplemented with fish oil (FO) or sunflower oil and wheat starch (SOS) according to a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 26-d experimental periods. In cows, milk fat content was lowered by FO and SOS (-31%), whereas only FO decreased milk fat content in goats (-21%) compared with the control. Furthermore, FO and SOS decreased milk fat yield in cows, but not in goats. In both species, FO and SOS decreased the secretion of C16 FA output. However, SOS increased milk secretion of >C16 FA in goats. Compared with the control, SOS resulted in similar increases in milk trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in both species, but caused a 2-fold larger increase in trans-10 18:1 concentration in cows than for goats. Relative to the control, responses to FO in both species were characterized by a marked decrease in milk concentration of 18:0 (-74%) and cis-9 18:1 (-62%), together with a ~5-fold increase in total trans 18:1, but the proportionate changes in trans-10 18:1 were lower for goats. Direct comparison of animal performance and milk FA responses to FO and SOS treatments demonstrated interspecies differences in mammary lipogenesis, suggesting a lower sensitivity to the inhibitory effects of trans-10,cis-12 CLA in goats and that ruminal biohydrogenation pathways are more stable and less prone to diet-induced shifts toward the formation of trans-10-containing intermediates in goats compared with cows. Even though a direct cause and effect could not be established, results suggest that regulation of milk

  14. The effect of Isabel grape addition on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of probiotic goat milk yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Francyeli Araújo; de Oliveira, Maria Elieidy Gomes; de Figueirêdo, Rossana Maria Feitosa; Sampaio, Karoliny Brito; de Souza, Evandro Leite; de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Vasconcelos; Pintado, Maria Manuela Estevez; Ramos do Egypto Queiroga, Rita de Cássia

    2017-06-21

    Goat milk is an attractive food because of its nutritional properties, easy digestibility and hypoallergenicity. Goat milk yogurt is an appropriate matrix for the inclusion of new ingredients such as probiotic cultures, fruit and its derivatives. Grapes are rich in polyphenols and recognized for their health benefits. The aim of this study was to improve the quality characteristics of probiotic goat milk yogurt by the addition of an Isabel grape (Vitis labrusca L.) preparation (IGP). For this, the influence of the addition of IGP on the physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of goat milk yogurt containing the probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-05 was evaluated during 28 days of refrigerated storage (5 ± 0.5 °C). Four yogurt formulations were prepared, each varying in the added IGP amount, as follows: Y0 (not containing IGP), YG15 (containing 15 g per 100 mL of IGP), YG20 (containing 20 g per 100 mL of IGP), and YG25 (containing 25 g per 100 mL of IGP). All formulations showed probiotic counts ranging from 7 to 8 log CFU mL(-1) over the assessed storage period. The addition of 20 g per 100 mL of IGP affected positively the colour, viscosity, and sensory acceptance of the yogurt formulations. The production of goat milk yogurt containing L. acidophilus LA-05 and IGP is an option for developing a new goat dairy product with added value due to the inclusion of components with potential functional properties.

  15. Effects of herbage intake on goat performance in the mediterranean type natural pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakyemez, Basri H; Gokkus, Ahmet; Savas, Turker; Yurtman, Ismail Y

    2009-02-01

    This study aimed at identifying changes in natural pastures during the grazing season and investigating the effects of these changes on pasture feeding potential for high yielding dairy goats. During the study, 12 dairy goats were grazed on a 1.5 ha natural pasture for three months from April to June in 2003, 2004 and 2005. The goats were fed 0.5 kg/day of concentrate as a supplement during the grazing season. Botanical composition, herbage production and intake, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents of the pasture were determined. Live weight, milk yield, milk dry matter (DM) and fat content of the goats were monitored. The data were analyzed using a linear model, which evaluated the effects of grazing seasons in each year. Based on the three-year average, 87% of pasture was herbaceous plants and the remaining was shrubs in DM basis with Cistus creticus, Quercus ithaburensis, Pistacia atlantica and Asparagus acutifolius being the major shrub species. The herbage yield in June was significantly lower than in other months in all years (P = 0.001). In all experimental years, the CP content of the pasture decreased but the structural carbohydrates increased as the grazing season proceeded. While live weight was not affected by grazing periods except for 2004 (P = 0.001), milk yield significantly decreased with advancing grazing period (P = 0.001). The results of the present study indicate that natural pasture has a supportive effect in April and May on the milk yield of lactating goats which are in mid-lactation, and suggested that supplementary feeding is required in consecutive grazing periods.

  16. Murciano-Granadina Goat Performance and Methane Emission after Replacing Barley Grain with Fibrous By-Products.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Ibáñez

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to study the effects of substituting dietary barley grain with orange pulp or soybean hulls on energy, nitrogen and carbon balance, methane emission and milk performance in dairy goats. Twelve Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in midlactation were selected and divided into three groups based on similar body weight (42.1 ± 1.2 kg and milk yield (2.16 ± 0.060 kg/goat/day. The experiment was conducted in an incomplete crossover design where one group of four goats was fed a mixed ration of barley grain (BRL, another group of four goats replaced barley grain with orange pulp (OP and the last group of four goats with soybean hulls (SH. After adaptation to diets, the goats were allocated to individual metabolism cages and intake, faeces, urine and milk were recorded and analysed. Then, gas exchange measurements were recorded by a mobile open-circuit indirect calorimetry system using a head box. Dry matter intake was similar for all three groups (2.03 kg/d, on average. No influence of the diet was observed for energy balance and the efficiency of use of metabolizable energy for milk production was 0.61. The OP and SH diets showed greater (P < 0.05 fat mobilization (-42.8 kJ/kg of BW0.75, on average than BRL (19.2 kJ/kg of BW0.75. Pentadecanoic acid (15:0 and heptadecanoic acid (17:0 were potential biomarkers of rumen function because the higher contents found in the milk of OP and SH goats than BRL suggest a negative impact of these diets on rumen bacterial metabolism; probably linked to the lower nitrogen supply of diet OP to synthesize microbial protein and greater content of fat in diet SH. Replacement of cereal grain with fibrous by-products did not increased enteric methane emissions (54.7 L/goat per day, on average. Therefore, lactating goats could utilize dry orange pulp and soybean hulls diets with no detrimental effect on milk performance.

  17. Problems Digesting Dairy Products?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Problems Digesting Dairy Products? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... the natural sugar found in milk and other dairy products. People who cannot digest lactose have a ...

  18. Bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF04Mi isolated from goat milk: evaluation of the probiotic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Danielle N; Todorov, Svetoslav D; Landgraf, Mariza; Destro, Maria T; Franco, Bernadette D G M

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria capable of producing bacteriocins and presenting probiotic potential open innovative technological applications in the dairy industry. In this study, a bacteriocinogenic strain (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF4Mi) was isolated from goat milk, and studied for its probiotic potential. Lc. lactis DF4Mi was resistant to acidic pH and oxbile, presented co-aggregation with Listeria monocytogenes, and was not affected by several drugs from different generic groups, being sensitive to most tested antibiotics. These properties indicate that this Lc. lactis strain can be used for enhancement of dairy foods safety and quality, in combination with potential probiotic properties.

  19. Bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis subsp: lactis DF04Mi isolated from goat milk: Evaluation of the probiotic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle N. Furtado

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria capable of producing bacteriocins and presenting probiotic potential open innovative technological applications in the dairy industry. In this study, a bacteriocinogenic strain (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF4Mi was isolated from goat milk, and studied for its probiotic potential. Lc. lactis DF4Mi was resistant to acidic pH and oxbile, presented co-aggregation with Listeria monocytogenes, and was not affected by several drugs from different generic groups, being sensitive to most tested antibiotics. These properties indicate that this Lc. lactis strain can be used for enhancement of dairy foods safety and quality, in combination with potential probiotic properties.

  20. Nutritional fibrous osteodystrophy in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo M Bandarra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Seven out of 25 goats from a southern Brazilian flock developed nutritional fibrous osteodystrophy. Affected animals were younger than 1 year of age and were confined in stalls and fed a concentrate ration containing 1:6 calcium:phosphorus ratio. The remaining flock (35 goats was managed at pasture and showed no disease. Clinical signs were characterized by mandibular and maxillary enlargements, varying degrees of mouth opening and protruding tongue, dyspnea, apart of abnormalities of prehension and mastication. Affected animals had increased seric levels of phosphorus and parathormone, as well as higher alkaline phosphatase activity. Postmortem examination on three succumbed goats revealed bilateral enlargement of the maxilla and mandibula, and loose teeth, apart of multiple incomplete rib fractures in one of them. Severe diffuse proliferation of loose connective tissue surrounded the osteoid trabeculae, many of which were partially or completely non-mineralized. Mineralized osteoid trabeculae showed osteoclasts in the Howship's lacunae.

  1. The bacteriological quality of goat and ovine milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Bogdanovičová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study concentrates on information concerning the microbiological hazards that can be present in raw milk from animal species other than cows. A total of 54 (23 of ovine and 31 of goat bulk tank milk samples from 10 farms in the Czech Republic were collected in years 2013 - 2014. The sampling was done at regular time intervals during the whole year, with five to eight samples collected from each of the 10 dairy farms involved in the study. All milk samples were collected into sterile sampling bottles and transported in a cooler sampling case to the laboratory for immediate examination. Farms were randomly selected to cover the whole area of the Czech Republic. The prevalence and characteristic of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes was studied. Raw cow's milk can be contaminated by E. coli intramammarily during clinical or subclinical mastitis and either directly through animal feces or indirectly during milk collection through farm employees or the milking equipment. E. coli was detected in 90.3% of the goat milk and 95.7% of the ovine milk samples. The genes encoding Shiga toxins 1 and 2- (stx1, stx2 were not detected and no STEC was identified. The Eae was the detected in 3 (4.6% isolates. S. aureus was detected in 9 (29.0% samples of goat milk and 8 (34.8% samples of ovine milk. A total 12 (57.1% enterotoxin positive S. aureus were obtained; 6 (28.6% were positive for the production of sec encoding enterotoxin SEC; in 4 (19.0% isolates the gene seh was detected; 2 (9.5% isolates were proven positive for seg (4.8% and combination seg and sei (4.8%. The presence of MRSA was not detected in the tested samples in our study. L. monocytogenes was detected in 1 (3.2% samples of goat milk and 1 (4.3% samples of ovine milk. The serotype (1/2a, 1/2b was detected in our study. Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. were not isolated from any of the samples. These results form

  2. Discrimination and characterization of different intensities of goaty flavor in goat milk by means of an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C J; Ding, W; Ma, L J; Jia, R

    2015-01-01

    An electronic nose based on metal oxide sensors was used to measure goaty flavor in goat milk samples. To study the relationships between electronic nose data, sensory data, and levels of free fatty acids (FFA), multivariate partial least square regression (PLS) was carried out. The electronic nose system evaluation correlated well with sensory evaluation. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) of the PLS models reached 90.0%. The electronic nose, combined with principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis, can discern among goat milk samples with different goaty flavor intensities. In addition, Fisher discriminant analysis and back-propagation neural network were carried out to evaluate goaty flavor intensity, and the prediction accuracies were 98.2 and 100.0%, respectively. The electronic nose is a potentially useful tool to evaluate goaty flavor intensity in goat milk samples. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Contamination Level of Staphylococcus spp. in Raw Goat Milk and Associated Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Taufik

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the presence of pathogenic bacteria in raw goat milk by using Staphylococcus spp. as indicator bacteria, and also to evaluate the potential risk factors associated with them. Information regarding potential risk factors was collected by questionnaire. The conventional bacteriological method for bacterial isolation and the indirect test (California Mastitis Test (CMT for determining udder inflammation status were employed. A sample size of 300 udder halves milk samples from three commercial dairy goat farms in the Bogor District, West Java Province, Indonesia were investigated for counts and prevalence of indicator bacteria. Ten potential risk factors were also evaluated in relation to counts and prevalence of indicator bacteria. The results showed that the median value of indicator bacterial count from overall udder-half milk samples was 3.00 log cfu/ml. The indicator bacterial count from udder-half milk samples was significantly different (P<0.05 among farms. Overall prevalence of Staphylococcus spp. was 78.7%. As one of potential risk factors, udder inflammation status was found to be risk factor for Staphylococcus spp. contamination in milk. Udders with inflammation had significant association and a higher chance of having contaminated samples by Staphylococcus spp. as compared to udders without inflammation. Additionally, according to these study results, CMT can be used as an effective, reliable, cheap and “farm and farmer friendly test” for screening test of intramammary infection (IMI or sub clinical mastitis in dairy goats.

  4. Cardiovascular, endocrine and behavioural responses to suckling and permanent separation in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winblad von Walter Louise

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Suckling can be a peaceful or vulnerable event for goats and kids, whereas, separation is suggested as stressful. The aim of this study was to investigate physiology and behaviour in these two different situations in dairy goats. Methods Four studies were performed with seven goats kept with their first-born kid in individual boxes. The goats were videotaped and heart rate and arterial blood pressure were recorded every minute by telemetry from parturition until 24 hours after separation. One to two days after parturition, Study 1 was performed with analyses of heart rate and blood pressure around a suckling. In Study 2, performed 3-5 days after parturition, blood sampling was done before, during and after suckling. Study 3 was performed 4-6 days post partum, with blood sampling before and after a permanent goat and kid separation. In addition, vocalisations were recorded after separation. Blood samples were obtained from a jugular vein catheter and analysed for plasma cortisol, β-endorphin, oxytocin, and vasopressin concentrations. Study 4 was performed during the first (N1 and second nights (N2 after parturition and the nights after Study 2 (N3 and 3 (N4. Heart rate, blood pressure and time spent lying down were recorded. Results The kids suckled 2 ± 0.2 times per hour and each suckling bout lasted 43 ± 15 s. In Study 1, heart rate and blood pressure did not change significantly during undisturbed suckling. In Study 2, plasma cortisol (P ≤ 0.05 during suckling and P ≤ 0.01 five minutes after suckling and β-endorphin (P ≤ 0.05 concentrations increased during suckling, but oxytocin and vasopressin concentrations did not change. In Study 3, the goats and kids vocalised intensively during the first 20 minutes after separation, but the physiological variables were not affected. In Study 4, heart rate and arterial blood pressure declined gradually after parturition and were lowest during N4 (P ≤ 0.05 when the goats

  5. Repeatability of differential goat bulk milk culture and associations with somatic cell count, total bacterial count, and standard plate count

    OpenAIRE

    Koop, G.; Dik, N; Nielen, M; Lipman, L. J. A.

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess how different bacterial groups in bulk milk are related to bulk milk somatic cell count (SCC), bulk milk total bacterial count (TBC), and bulk milk standard plate count (SPC) and to measure the repeatability of bulk milk culturing. On 53 Dutch dairy goat farms, 3 bulk milk samples were collected at intervals of 2 wk. The samples were cultured for SPC, coliform count, and staphylococcal count and for the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, SCC ...

  6. A cross-sectional study of PRNP gene in two native Sicilian goat populations in Italy: a relation between prion gene polymorphisms and scrapie incidence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SERGIO MIGLIORE; STEFANO AGNELLO; SALVATORE D’AVOLA; WILFRED GOLDMANN; VINCENZO DI MARCO LO PRESTI; MARIA VITALE

    2017-06-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of neurodegenerative diseases affecting humans and animals, and scrapie in small ruminants is considered the archetype of TSEs. Derivata di Siria is a native dairy goat of Sicily (south Italy), which is related to Syrian goat breeds. Scrapie disease is considered endemic in Sicily since 1997, following the administration of an infected vaccine.Derivata di Siria goatswere involved in six of 66 scrapie-infected flocks in Sicily. Prion protein gene (PRNP) analysis revealed that none of the scrapie cases carried the p.Gln222Lys variant. Sequencing of PRNP in this goat population showed a high frequency (15%) of p.Gln222Lys variant confirming itsassociation with scrapie resistance. PRNP polymorphisms were also analysed in the population of Pantelleria, a small Sicilian Island, where scrapie has never been reported. The native goat breed ‘Pantesca’ was maintained up to almost80 years and the size of the sheep population on this island has historically been very low. Currently, a crossbreed goat population of 253 heads is present on the island. PRNP genotyping of Pantelleria goats showed genetic variation, withlow presence of wild-type goats and the lack of protective alleles. These data reinforce the association between PRNP polymorphisms in small ruminants and scrapie incidence.

  7. An outbreak of Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus associated with consumption of fresh goat cheese

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    Hakkinen Marjaana

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus equi subspecies zooepidemicus is a rare infection in humans associated with contact with horses or consumption of unpasteurized milk products. On October 23, 2003, the National Public Health Institute was alerted that within one week three persons had been admitted to Tampere University Central Hospital (TaYS because of S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus septicaemia. All had consumed fresh goat cheese produced in a small-scale dairy located on a farm. We conducted an investigation to determine the source and the extent of the outbreak. Methods Cases were identified from the National Infectious Disease Register. Cases were persons with S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus isolated from a normally sterile site who had illness onset 15.9-31.10.2003. All cases were telephone interviewed by using a standard questionnaire and clinical information was extracted from patient charts. Environmental and food specimens included throat swabs from two persons working in the dairy, milk from goats and raw milk tank, cheeses made of unpasteurized milk, vaginal samples of goats, and borehole well water. The isolates were characterized by ribotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Results Seven persons met the case definition; six had septicaemia and one had purulent arthritis. Five were women; the median age was 70 years (range 54–93. None of the cases were immunocompromized and none died. Six cases were identified in TaYS, and one in another university hospital in southern Finland. All had eaten goat cheese produced on the implicated farm. S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus was isolated from throat swabs, fresh goat cheese, milk tank, and vaginal samples of one goat. All human and environmental strains were indistinguishable by ribotyping and PFGE. Conclusion The outbreak was caused by goat cheese produced from unpasteurized milk. Outbreaks caused by S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus may not be detected if streptococcal strains are only

  8. Consumption of milk from transgenic goats expressing human lysozyme in the mammary gland results in the modulation of intestinal microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maga, Elizabeth A; Walker, Richard L; Anderson, Gary B; Murray, James D

    2006-08-01

    Lysozyme is a key antimicrobial component of human milk that has several health-promoting functions including the development of a healthy intestinal tract. However, levels of lysozyme in the milk of dairy animals are negligible. We have generated transgenic dairy goats that express human lysozyme (HLZ) in their milk in an attempt to deliver the benefits of human milk in a continual fashion. To test the feasibility of this transgenic approach to achieve a biological impact at the level of the intestine, feeding trials were conducted in two animal models. Pasteurized milk from HLZ transgenic animals was fed to both kid goats (ruminant model) and young pigs (human model), and the numbers of total coliforms and Escherichia coli present in the small intestine were determined. Data from this proof-of-principle study demonstrate that milk from transgenic animals was capable of modulating the bacterial population of the gut in both animal models. Pigs that consumed pasteurized milk from HLZ transgenic goats had fewer numbers of coliforms and E. coli in their intestine than did those receiving milk from non-transgenic control animals. The opposite effect was seen in goats. Milk from these transgenic animals not only represent one of the first transgenic food products with the potential of benefiting human health, but are also a unique model to study the development and role of intestinal microflora on health, well-being and resistance to disease.

  9. Serological Analysis of Tuberculosis in Goats by Use of the Enferplex Caprine TB Multiplex Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Amanda; Whelan, Clare; Clarke, John B; Hayton, Alastair; Watt, Neil J; Harkiss, Gordon D

    2017-02-01

    Tuberculosis in goats is usually diagnosed clinically, at postmortem, or by a positive skin test. However, none of these approaches detects all infected animals. Serology offers an additional tool to identify infected animals missed by current tests. We describe the use of the Enferplex Caprine TB serology test to aid the management of a large dairy goat herd undergoing a tuberculosis breakdown. Initial skin and serology testing showed that IgG antibodies were present in both serum and milk from 100% of skin test-positive animals and in serum and milk from 77.8 and 95.4% of skin test-negative animals, respectively. A good correlation was observed between serum and milk antibody levels. The herd had been vaccinated against Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, but no direct serological cross-reactions were found. Subsequent skin testing revealed 13.7% positive animals, 64.9% of which were antibody positive, while 42.1% of skin test-negative animals were seropositive. Antibody responses remained high 1 month later (57.1% positive), and the herd was slaughtered. Postmortem analysis of 20 skin test-negative goats revealed visible lesions in 6 animals, all of which had antibodies to six Mycobacterium bovis antigens. The results provide indirect evidence that serology testing with serum or milk could be a useful tool in the diagnosis and management of tuberculosis in goats. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Effects of plane of nutrition on oxidative stress in goats during the peripartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celi, Pietro; Di Trana, Adriana; Claps, Salvatore

    2010-04-01

    This study aimed to monitor the effect of a high (HD; 140% of energy requirements) versus a low diet (LD; 80% energy requirements) on oxidative status in goats during the peripartum period. Blood samples were taken from all goats at -2, -1, 0 (partum), +2 and +4 weeks from delivery. Blood samples were assayed for their content of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs), thiol (SH) groups, total antioxidant capacity (OXY) and for glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. The observation that ROMs levels significantly increased during the peripartum period was accompanied by a decrease of GSH-Px activity at weeks 2 and 4 postpartum, which suggested that the goats might have experienced some degree of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. Overall, changes to the nutritional level of the diet had very little or no effect on redox homeostasis. The lack of any correlation between the biomarkers measured indicated that each oxidative stress marker responded differently, indicating that redox homeostasis was impaired in these dairy goats during the peripartum period. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Changes on expected taste perception of probiotic and conventional yogurts made from goat milk after rapidly repeated exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M P; Balthazar, C F; Franco, R M; Mársico, E T; Cruz, A G; Conte, C A

    2014-05-01

    Goat milk yogurt is an excellent source of fatty acids, protein, and minerals; however, it is not well accepted by many consumers, due to its typical flavor derived from caprylic, capric, and caproic acids present in this milk and dairy products. Recently, the repeated-exposure test has been used to increase the consumption of particular foods. This methodology has been used to increase children's willingness to eat food in some settings and has also been used to reduce sodium in soup. Based on these considerations, the aim of this study was to investigate whether repeated exposures may increase acceptance of both goat milk yogurt and probiotic goat milk yogurt. In a pre-exposure session, a total of 45 panelists (28 females and 17 males) from southeastern Brazil, who were not used to consuming dairy goat milk, evaluated the expected taste perception and the perceived liking after tasting 3 yogurt preparations. Then, consumers were randomly divided into 3 groups and participated in rapidly repeated exposure sessions performed within 6 d. Each panelist consumed only the yogurt that he or she would be exposed to. The day after the exposure sessions, all panelists returned to participate in the postexposure session and were asked to evaluate acceptance, familiarity, and the "goaty taste" characteristic of each yogurt. Regarding the expected liking before tasting, results showed higher expectations for cow milk yogurt compared with goat milk yogurt, which proved that consumers were not familiar with the goat milk yogurt. Likewise, only cow milk yogurt presented high acceptance and familiarity rates, confirming that these panelists were used to consuming cow milk products. With respect to the rapidly repeated exposure, 6 d were enough to significantly increase the consumers' familiarity with goat milk yogurt and probiotic goat milk yogurt. However, this method was not suitable to significantly increase the acceptance of such products. Nonetheless, a correlation existed

  12. INDONESIAN EFFORTS TO CONSERVE GEMBRONG GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanatun Hasinah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gembrong goat are mainly found in eastern part of Bali Island, especially in the village of Tumbu, Karangasem. Throughout Indonesia these goats are found no more than 50 heads. This condition puts Gembrong goat in a critical status that indicates the need of emergency and quick action. The present study was carried out to assess the characteristic of this breed and to preserve it through some proposed action plan.  Information was obtained by personal observation and discussion with the leader of farmer group.  Body weight (BW and various body measurement were taken from 15 head of Gembrong goat. In general, the color of Gembrong goat body is white, or partly brown or solid brown. The average body weight is of 23.2 kg for females and 30.7 kg for males.  The averages Body length of males is 60 cm, height 58.2 cm, and 14.4 cm ear length in males, and in females body length is 56.2 cm, height 55.1 cm and ear length 14.2 cm. To preserve Gembrong goat population from extinction collaborative activities is needed, namely: (1 multiplication of existing Gembrong goat population, (2 Rescuing animal genetic material and (3 up-grading female Kacang goat with Gembrong male goat as to achieve 99% Gembrong goat genetic composition.

  13. Marketing of Sahelian Goats in North -Eastern Nigeria: Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated Sahelian goat marketing in Northeastern Nigeria, ... of the respondents as well as the channel and problem of Sahelian goat market. ... study, it was recommended that government should put in place modern goat market ...

  14. Effects of milk from goat fed Crotalaria spectabilis seeds on growing rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Maria Trindade de Medeiros

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Crotalaria spectabilis, containing the pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA monocrotaline (MCT, were fed to a lactating dairy goat. Milk from this goat was fed to rats for 8 weeks to determine whether MCT or its toxic metabolites are transferred into the goat’s milk. Rats from the experimental group showed significantly higher (p<0.05 serum levels of ALT, AST, GGT and LDH and less weight gains (p<0.05 than control rats. The most significant lesions in rats consuming the experimental ration were mild to moderate interstitial pneumonia and a vacuolar degeneration and occasionally necrosis of periportal hepatocytes. The results of this study indicate that the PA and/or its metabolites are eliminated in milk.

  15. Dairy Sheep Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Rosanna Scipioni

    2010-01-01

    This book, edited by the colleague Giuseppe Pulina, is the result of the project "Further development of a diet formulation model for sheep and goat", supported by the Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies, in Italy.

  16. Respostas fisiológicas de cabras leiteiras submetidas ao regime de suplementação com concentrado em dois sistemas de produção - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2157 Physiologic response of dairy goats submitted to supplementation diet with concentrate in two production systems - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i1.2157

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Damasceno

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Analisaram-se as variáveis fisiológicas e a produção de calor, de setembro (1997 a junho (1998, de 30 cabras mestiças em dois sistemas de produção: pastagem (S1 e semiconfinamento (S2 e dois regimes de concentrado: 30% das exigências em energia líquida em toda lactação (R1, 60% das exigências diárias em energia líquida da 3a a 13a semana de lactação e 15% das exigências em energia líquida da 14a semana ao final da lactação (R2. O sistema de produção influenciou a temperatura retal da tarde (TRt, a freqüência respiratória da manhã e da tarde (FRm e FRt. O regime alimentar influenciou a TRt. A temperatura retal da manhã (TRm sofreu efeito da produção inicial e da temperatura do globo da manhã. A TRt foi influenciada pela ordem de lactação, temperatura do globo da tarde (TGt, velocidade do vento da manhã e da tarde (VVm e VVt e umidade relativa da manhã. A FRm sofreu efeito do peso mensal, TGt, VVt, da temperatura do ar da manhã (TBSm e umidade relativa da tarde (URt. A FRt foi influenciada pela TGt, temperatura do ar da tarde (TBSt e URt. A produção de calor da noite influenciou a FRm e FRt; a produção de calor da madrugada influenciou a TRt e FRt; a produção de calor da manhã influenciou a FRm, a FRt e a produção de calor da tarde influenciou a FRm, FRt, TRm e a TRt.Physiological variables and heat production were analyzed, from September (1997 to June (1998, estimative of 30 cross breed Saanen dairy goats which were submitted to two production systems, pasture (S1 and semi-confined (S2 and two different diets: 30% of dairy requirements in net energy supplied by concentrate during all lactation (D1 and 60% of requirements from the third to the 13th week of lactation and 15% from the 14th until the end of lactation (D2. The afternoon rectal temperature (RTa, the morning and the afternoon respiratory rate (RRm and RRa were influenced by the production system. The morning rectal temperature (RTm was

  17. [Serum gamma globulin concentration in goat kids after colostrum administration: effect of time of administration, volume and type of colostrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsel, K; van Amerongen, J J; Zadoks, R N; van Doorn, D C; Wensing, T

    2000-12-01

    In this study, which was performed on a Dutch dairy goat farm, several aspects of the administration of colostrum to new-born goat kids were examined. Time of colostrum administration and amount and type of colostrum administered were compared. Effectiveness was measured as total serum protein content and gamma globulin fraction. No significant differences in serum gamma globulin titre were observed between kids that received colostrum at 30 or 60-90 minutes post partum, respectively. Titres were significantly lower in kids that received 100 ml of colostrum instead of 150-200 ml. The effect of sheep colostrum replacer or cow colostrum was also examined. Gamma globulin titres were significantly high with goat colostrum than with cow colostrum or sheep colostrum replacer, and titres were higher with cow colostrum than with sheep colostrum replacer. Based on the results of this experiment, the following protocol is suggested for colostrum administration to goat kids: single administration of 150-200 ml of goat colostrum within 90 minutes of birth. Use of cow colostrum is not advised because it may lead to transmission of paratuberculosis. Use of sheep colostrum replacer as a source of passive immunity is not recommended.

  18. Moleculer analysis of genotype kappa casein and composition of goat milk Etawah grade, Saanen and their crossbred

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayu Zurriyati

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphism of goat casein gene closely linked to the quality of milk protein. κ-casein is one of the casein fractions that influence the shape and stability of grain milk. This study is aimed to identify the variation of genotype κ-casein and related with milk quality from Etawah grade, Saanen and their crossbreed (PE-SA. The number of dairy goats used in this study was 150 animals consisted of Etawah grade (48 animals, Saanen (51 animals and PE-SA (51 animals. Steps of experiment were: blood and milk sampling collection, DNA amplification by PCR and the product digestion using Pst1 enzyme, κ-casein gene sequencing and analyzing the quality of fresh milk. The results showed that κ-casein gene is monomorphic by PCR-RFLP (Pst1 for all the goat breeds, but DNA sequencing indicated 38 point of mutation. Observation on goat milk quality showed that Etawah grade milk had highest (P < 0.05 density value (1.033 ± 0.002 and solid non fat (9.577 ± 0.704% than those of Saanen and PE-SA fresh milk goat.

  19. Financial analysis of brucellosis control for small-scale goat farming in the Bajío region, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseguera Montiel, David; Bruce, Mieghan; Frankena, Klaas; Udo, Henk; van der Zijpp, Akke; Rushton, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is an endemic disease in small-scale goat husbandry systems in Mexico. It is a zoonosis and the economic consequences can be large, although estimates are not available for the Mexican goat sector. Our objective was to conduct a financial analysis of brucellosis control in a prominent dairy goat production area of the Bajío region, Mexico. We used three models: (1) a brucellosis transmission model at village flock level (n=1000 head), (2) a flock growth model at smallholder flock level (n=23 head) using output of model 1 and (3) cost-benefit analysis of several brucellosis control scenarios based on output of model 2. Scenarios consisted of test-and-slaughter or vaccination or a combination of both compared to the base situation (no control). The average net present values (NPV) of using vaccination over a 5-year period was 3.8 US$ (90% CI: 1.3-6.6) and 20 US$ (90% CI: 11.3-28.6) over a 10-year period per goat. The average benefit-cost ratios over a 5-year period and 10-year period were 4.3 US$ (90% CI: 2.2-6.9) and 12.3 US$ (90% CI: 7.5-17.3) per goat, respectively. For the total dairy goat population (38,462 head) of the study area (the Bajío of Jalisco and Michoacán) the NPV's over a 5-year and 10-year period were 0.15 million US$ and 0.8 million US$. However, brucellosis prevalence was predicted to remain relatively high at about 12%. Control scenarios with test-and-slaughter predicted to reduce brucellosis prevalence to less than 3%, but this produced a negative NPV over a 5-year period ranging from -31.6 to -11.1 US$ and from -31.1 to 7.5 US$ over a 10-year period. A brucellosis control campaign based on vaccination with full coverage is economically profitable for the goat dairy sector of the region although smallholders would need financial support in case test-and-slaughter is applied to reduce the prevalence more quickly.

  20. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Tamime

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  1. Inheritance of goat coat colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adalsteinsson, S; Sponenberg, D P; Alexieva, S; Russel, A J

    1994-01-01

    Goat color inheritance was evaluated based on color description of 218 kids and their parents (10 sires, 178 dams) from mixed crosses between several goat populations in an experiment on cashmere fiber production. Altogether 10 color patterns were observed. They were postulated to be caused by 10 alleles at the Agouti locus, with the allele for white or tan color being the top dominant allele, and the nine others codominant. The bottom recessive allele, for nonagouti color, was the 11th allele at this locus. The postulated alleles are white or tan (A(wt)), black mask (A(blm)), bezoar (A(bz)), badgerface (A(b)), grey (A(g)), lightbelly (A(lb)), swiss markings (A(sm)), lateral stripes (A(ls)), mahogany (A(mh)), red cheek (A(rc)), and nonagouti (Aa). Two types of eumelanin pigment were observed, black and light brown, the latter being dominant. Recessive brown was not observed.

  2. Bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF04Mi isolated from goat milk: Application in the control of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh Minas-type goat cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle N. Furtado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogen frequently found in dairy products. Its control in fresh cheeses is difficult, due to the psychrotrophic properties and salt tolerance. Bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria (LAB with proven in vitro antilisterial activity can be an innovative technological approach but their application needs to be evaluated by means of in situ tests. In this study, a novel bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis strain (Lc. lactis DF4Mi, isolated from raw goat milk, was tested for control of growth of L. monocytogenes in artificially contaminated fresh Minas type goat cheese during storage under refrigeration. A bacteriostatic effect was achieved, and counts after 10 days were 3 log lower than in control cheeses with no added LAB. However, this effect did not differ significantly from that obtained with a non-bacteriocinogenic Lc. lactis strain. Addition of nisin (12.5 mg/kg caused a rapid decrease in the number of viable L. monocytogenes in the cheeses, suggesting that further studies with the purified bacteriocin DF4Mi may open new possibilities for this strain as biopreservative in dairy products.

  3. Bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF04Mi isolated from goat milk: Application in the control of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh Minas-type goat cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Danielle N; Todorov, Svetoslav D; Landgraf, Mariza; Destro, Maria T; Franco, Bernadette D G M

    2015-03-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogen frequently found in dairy products. Its control in fresh cheeses is difficult, due to the psychrotrophic properties and salt tolerance. Bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with proven in vitro antilisterial activity can be an innovative technological approach but their application needs to be evaluated by means of in situ tests. In this study, a novel bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis strain ( Lc . lactis DF4Mi), isolated from raw goat milk, was tested for control of growth of L. monocytogenes in artificially contaminated fresh Minas type goat cheese during storage under refrigeration. A bacteriostatic effect was achieved, and counts after 10 days were 3 log lower than in control cheeses with no added LAB. However, this effect did not differ significantly from that obtained with a non-bacteriocinogenic Lc. lactis strain. Addition of nisin (12.5 mg/kg) caused a rapid decrease in the number of viable L. monocytogenes in the cheeses, suggesting that further studies with the purified bacteriocin DF4Mi may open new possibilities for this strain as biopreservative in dairy products.

  4. Identification of goat milk powder by manufacturer using multiple chemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Rebecca J; Prosser, Colin G; Wakefield, Joshua W

    2016-02-01

    varied among samples and individual elements. The findings of this study support the use of trace elements and stable isotope ratios to test the authenticity of goat WMP, which can likely be applied to other dairy goat products. This approach could be used test to the factory of origin (and potentially batch of origin) of products in the supply chain, thus providing the ability to audit the supply chain and monitor for fraudulent activity. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF04Mi isolated from goat milk: characterization of the bacteriocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Danielle N; Todorov, Svetoslav D; Landgraf, Mariza; Destro, Maria T; Franco, Bernadette D G M

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria capable of producing bacteriocins and presenting probiotic potential open innovative technological applications in the dairy industry. In this study, a bacteriocinogenic strain (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF4Mi) was isolated from goat milk, and studied for its antimicrobial activity. The bacteriocin presented a broad spectrum of activity, was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes, resistant to heat and pH extremes, and not affected by the presence of SDS, Tween 20, Tween 80, EDTA or NaCl. Bacteriocin production was dependent on the components of the culture media, especially nitrogen source and salts. When tested by PCR, the bacteriocin gene presented 100% homology to nisin Z gene. These properties indicate that this L. lactis subsp. lactis DF4Mi can be used for enhancement of dairy foods safety and quality.

  6. Bacteriocinogenic Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF04Mi isolated from goat milk: characterization of the bacteriocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle N. Furtado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria capable of producing bacteriocins and presenting probiotic potential open innovative technological applications in the dairy industry. In this study, a bacteriocinogenic strain (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis DF4Mi was isolated from goat milk, and studied for its antimicrobial activity. The bacteriocin presented a broad spectrum of activity, was sensitive to proteolytic enzymes, resistant to heat and pH extremes, and not affected by the presence of SDS, Tween 20, Tween 80, EDTA or NaCl. Bacteriocin production was dependent on the components of the culture media, especially nitrogen source and salts. When tested by PCR, the bacteriocin gene presented 100% homology to nisin Z gene. These properties indicate that this L. lactis subsp. lactis DF4Mi can be used for enhancement of dairy foods safety and quality.

  7. Effect of Feeding Oxidized Soybean Oil against Antioxidant role of Pomegranate Seed on Physiology and Metabolism of Periparturient Saanen Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Ehsan Ghiasi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Oxidative stress is metabolic and physiologic status caused by imbalance between free radical production and antioxidant defense of body. In some physiological status such as rapid growth, parturition, disease and high production rate that imbalance would occur. High producing dairy animals are suspected to oxidative stress and require to antioxidant supplementation. Negative energy balance in early lactation force the nutrition specialist to apply oil and high NFC diet to exceed the requirement of high producing dairy animals such as Holstein cows and Saanen goats. In recent years, the attention to the use of herbal or organic antioxidant in animal nutrition has increased. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of feeding oxidized soybean oil (OSO plus pomegranate seed (PS as a natural antioxidant, on metabolism and physiology of Preparturient Saanen Goats. Materials and Methods Eighteen Saanen dairy goats with initial body weight of 47 ± 9 kg were assigned to three dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with repeated measurements for 21 days before anticipated parturition. Experimental treatments including: 1 base diet and 4% fresh soybean oil (FSO, 2 base diet and 4% oxidized soybean oil (DM basis respectively, and 3 base diet plus 4% OSO and 8% Pomegranate seed (OSO-PS. After 2 weeks of feeding trial diets, goats were sampled for blood, rumen liquor, faeces and urine for measuring parameters of blood glucose, BHBA, lipid and nitrogen profile, rumen liquor ammonia nitrogen, urine pH and volume, faeces qualitative and quantitative variables and other responses such as nutrients digestibility. The GLM procedure of SAS software v.9.2 were used for statistical analysis. Initial body weight and metabolic variables were used as covariate in the model. Results and discussion All nutrients digestibility, Ruminal ammonia nitrogen and voluntary feed intake were decreased by OSO (p

  8. A sightability model for mountain goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, C.G.; Jenkins, K.J.; Chang, W.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    Unbiased estimates of mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) populations are key to meeting diverse harvest management and conservation objectives. We developed logistic regression models of factors influencing sightability of mountain goat groups during helicopter surveys throughout the Cascades and Olympic Ranges in western Washington during summers, 20042007. We conducted 205 trials of the ability of aerial survey crews to detect groups of mountain goats whose presence was known based on simultaneous direct observation from the ground (n 84), Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry (n 115), or both (n 6). Aerial survey crews detected 77 and 79 of all groups known to be present based on ground observers and GPS collars, respectively. The best models indicated that sightability of mountain goat groups was a function of the number of mountain goats in a group, presence of terrain obstruction, and extent of overstory vegetation. Aerial counts of mountain goats within groups did not differ greatly from known group sizes, indicating that under-counting bias within detected groups of mountain goats was small. We applied HorvitzThompson-like sightability adjustments to 1,139 groups of mountain goats observed in the Cascade and Olympic ranges, Washington, USA, from 2004 to 2007. Estimated mean sightability of individual animals was 85 but ranged 0.750.91 in areas with low and high sightability, respectively. Simulations of mountain goat surveys indicated that precision of population estimates adjusted for sightability biases increased with population size and number of replicate surveys, providing general guidance for the design of future surveys. Because survey conditions, group sizes, and habitat occupied by goats vary among surveys, we recommend using sightability correction methods to decrease bias in population estimates from aerial surveys of mountain goats.

  9. Feeding a High Concentrate Diet Down-Regulates Expression of ACACA, LPL and SCD and Modifies Milk Composition in Lactating Goats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Tao

    Full Text Available High concentrate diets are fed to early and mid-lactation stages dairy ruminants to meet the energy demands for high milk production in modern milk industry. The present study evaluated the effects of a high concentrate diet on milk fat and milk composition, especially, cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk and gene expression of lactating goats. Eight mid-lactating goats with rumen fistula were randomly assigned into a high concentrate diet (HCD group and low concentrate diet (LCD group. High concentrate diet feeding significantly increased lipopolysaccharides (LPS in plasma and decreased milk fat content, vaccenic acid (VA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA in milk of the lactating goats. The mRNA expression levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein B 1c (SREBP1c, lipoprotein lipase (LPL, fatty acid synthetase (FASN and acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (ACACA, ACCα involving in lipid metabolism were analyzed, and ACACA and LPL all decreased in their expression level in the mammary glands of goats fed a high concentrate diet. DNA methylation rate of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD was elevated and decreased, and SCD mRNA and protein expression was reduced significantly in the mammary glands of goats fed a high concentrate diet. In conclusion, feeding a high concentrate diet to lactating goats decreases milk fat and reduced expression of SCD in the mammary gland, which finally induced cis-9, trans-11 CLA content in milk.

  10. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited....

  11. The placenta shed from goats with classical scrapie is infectious to goat kids and lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, David A; Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A; Zhuang, Dongyue; Truscott, Thomas C; Dassanayake, Rohana P; O'Rourke, Katherine I

    2015-08-01

    The placenta of domestic sheep plays a key role in horizontal transmission of classical scrapie. Domestic goats are frequently raised with sheep and are susceptible to classical scrapie, yet potential routes of transmission from goats to sheep are not fully defined. Sparse accumulation of disease-associated prion protein in cotyledons casts doubt about the role of the goat's placenta. Thus, relevant to mixed-herd management and scrapie-eradication efforts worldwide, we determined if the goat's placenta contains prions orally infectious to goat kids and lambs. A pooled cotyledon homogenate, prepared from the shed placenta of a goat with naturally acquired classical scrapie disease, was used to orally inoculate scrapie-naïve prion genotype-matched goat kids and scrapie-susceptible lambs raised separately in a scrapie-free environment. Transmission was detected in all four goats and in two of four sheep, which importantly identifies the goat's placenta as a risk for horizontal transmission to sheep and other goats.

  12. Effects of Male Goat Pheromones on Feeding Behavior of Female Markhoz Goats during Breeding Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Mohamadi, H. Daghigh Kia*, A. Hossein Khani and S. Alijani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of male goat on feeding behavior of female goats in breeding season. Sixty four Markhoz female goats, 3.5 years old, two or three parity, 43±2 kg live weight, body condition score 3, along with 10 male goats were used to study the effects of male pheromones on feeding behavior. The study was done in 6 weeks. Female goats were equally divided into three treatments (a1, a2 and a3 along with a control treatment (c with 8 animals in each group. Variable factor of treatments was the distance of the male goats box (source of pheromone secretion or male effect, which was supposed to be the a1 (0-5 meters, a2 (10-15 meters and a3 (25-30 meters. The results of study showed a decrease in feed intake of the female goats due to distance from male goats (P<0.01. It was concluded that the distance of female from male goats or the concentration of pheromones can significantly affect feed intake of the Markhoz female goats. Therefore, in order to increase livestock production and reproductive performance, the management of nutrition must be paid more attention.

  13. Effects of supercritical fluid extraction pressure on chemical composition, microbial population, polar lipid profile, and microstructure of goat cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Macías, D; Laubscher, A; Castro, N; Argüello, A; Jiménez-Flores, R

    2013-03-01

    The consumer trend for healthier food choices and preferences for low-fat products has increased the interest in low-fat cheese and nutraceutical dairy products. However, consumer preference is still for delicious food. Low- and reduced-fat cheeses are not completely accepted because of their unappealing properties compared with full-fat cheeses. The method reported here provides another option to the conventional cheese-making process to obtain lower fat cheese. Using CO(2) as a supercritical fluid offers an alternative to reduce fat in cheese after ripening, while maintaining the initial characteristics and flavor. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of pressure (10, 20, 30, and 40 × 10(6) Pa) of supercritical CO(2) on the amount of fat extracted, microbial population, polar lipid profile, and microstructure of 2 varieties of goat cheese: Majorero, a protected denomination of origin cheese from Spain, and goat Gouda-type cheese. The amount of fat was reduced 50 to 57% and 48 to 55% for Majorero and goat Gouda-type cheeses, respectively. Higher contents (on a fat basis) of sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine were found in Majorero cheese compared with control and goat Gouda-type cheeses. The microbial population was reduced after supercritical fluid extraction in both cheeses, and the lethality was higher as pressure increased in Majorero cheese, most noticeably on lactococcus and lactobacillus bacteria. The Gouda-type cheese did not contain any lactobacilli. Micrographs obtained from confocal laser scanning microscopy showed a more open matrix and whey pockets in the Majorero control cheese. This could explain the ease of extracting fat and reducing the microbial counts in this cheese after treatment with supercritical CO(2). Supercritical fluid extraction with CO(2) has great potential in the dairy industry and in commercial applications. The Majorero cheese obtained after the supercritical fluid extraction treatment was an excellent

  14. Hepatic and subcutaneous adipose lipid metabolism genes modulation by dietary fish oil and stearate in transition goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Farina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to understand the interaction between saturated or unsaturated fatty acids and genes involved in lipid metabolism in liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue. With this purpose, further gene expression assays were performed on obtained adipose and liver samples from a previous in vivo study where expression levels of ADIPOQ, LPIN1, LPL, PPARG, SREBF1 and THRSP were already determined. The study consisted on the administration of either a no fat-supplemented, or a stearic acid or fish oil supplemented diets to dairy goats from the last week of gestation until 21 days after kidding. Fat-supplied goats received 30g/head/d extra fatty acids during the dry period and 50g/head/d during lactation. Liver and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were harvested at day ­7, 7 and 21 relative to kidding and immediately snap frozen in liquid nitrogen. At the present moment, quantitative real-time RT-PCR of ACAT1, MSMO1, CPT1, IL6 on liver and ACACA, LEP, LPL, FASN, IL6 and PLIN2 on adipose tissue are running. Data obtained will be analysed using the MIXED procedure of SAS and results may increase the knowledge on the mechanism of action of saturated or unsaturated dietary fatty acid sources in the fatty acid metabolism changes during transition in dairy goats.

  15. Metabolomic biomarkers identify differences in milk produced by Holstein cows and other minor dairy animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongxin; Zheng, Nan; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhang, Yangdong; Han, Rongwei; Yang, Jinhui; Zhao, Shengguo; Li, Songli; Guo, Tongjun; Zang, Changjiang; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-03-16

    Several milk metabolites are associated with breeds or species of dairy animals. A better understanding of milk metabolites from different dairy animals would advance their use in evaluating milk traits and detecting milk adulteration. The objective of this study was to characterize the milk metabolite profiles of Chinese Holstein, Jersey, yak, buffalo, goat, camel, and horse and identify any differences using non-targeted metabolomic approaches. Milk samples were tested using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and differences in milk metabolites between Holstein and the other dairy animals were assessed using orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. Differential metabolites were identified and some metabolites, such as choline and succinic acid, were used to distinguish Holstein milk from that of the other studied animals. Metabolic pathway analysis of different metabolites revealed that glycerophospholipid metabolism as well as valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis were shared in the other ruminant animals (Jersey, buffalo, yak, and goat), and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids was shared in the non-ruminant animals (camel and horse). These results can be useful for gaining a better understanding of the differences in milk synthesis between Holstein and the other dairy animals.

  16. Genetic Relationship Between Gembrong Goat, Kacang Goat and Kacang X Etawah Crossbred (PE) Based on Their Mitochondrial DNA

    OpenAIRE

    I Gusti Lanang Oka; Wayan SayangYupardhi; Ida Bagus Mantra; Nyoman Suyasa; Anak Agung Sagung Dewi

    2012-01-01

    Gembrong goat is a specific type of goat which has long hair covers its whole body including its neckand face, originated from eastern part of Bali (Karangasem). A study of this type of goat and its relationshipwith other local goats (Kacang and Kacang x Etawah crossbred) was carried out at Sawe village, Jembrana,Bali.. A number of 12 gembrong goats, 3 kacang goats from Kubu village, Karangasem and 3 Kacang xEtawah crossbred goats from Denpasar were used in this study. Blood samples of all go...

  17. Production technology and characterization of Fior di latte cheeses made from sheep and goat milks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faccia, M; Trani, A; Gambacorta, G; Loizzo, P; Cassone, A; Caponio, F

    2015-03-01

    Innovation in the small ruminant dairy sector faces structural challenges because dairies are often involved in breeding and produce cheeses that appeal essentially to local markets using traditional technologies and facilities. An investigation was carried out to produce Fior di latte, a traditional, soft pasta filata cheese, from sheep and goat milks at the farm level. Fior di latte is an Italian high-moisture, round mozzarella currently produced from cow and water buffalo milks; it is very popular in Europe. Cheesemaking trials were performed and the most appropriate technology proved to be a combination of direct acidification and lactic fermentation, with some modifications to the milk coagulation phase. The gross composition of the experimental cheeses was similar to that of bovine Fior di latte, and the overall hygienic quality was satisfactory even though the milk had not been pasteurized. The new cheeses were similar in appearance to the bovine type, but some specific features were detected. Besides the typical "goaty" and "sheepy" flavors, some novel and distinctive descriptors of odor, flavor, and texture were noted. Our experiment showed that good quality Fior di latte cheese that complies with microbiological requirements of the European legislation can be obtained from sheep and goat milks by appropriately modifying the cheesemaking technology.

  18. Effect of Polyherbal Formulations on Ruminal digestion in Goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikanth

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Rumen ecology plays vital role in the digestion, absorption and assimilation of ingesta in cattle. Digestive disorders in cattle directly affects the economics of dairy farm due to impact on production, hence the present study was planned to evaluate efficacy of herbal rumen ecology modulator AV/RMF/17 and Ruchamax on rumen liquor profile in goats. Total healthy twenty-one female goats were selected and divided randomly into three equal groups. Group (T1 was untreated control while, group T2 & T3 were supplemented with herbal Rumen modulator (AV/RMF/17 and Ruchamax (M/s Ayurvet Ltd. Baddi, HP @ 1.5 kg/ tone of feed and 1 kg/ tone of feed for 45 days respectively. Physical, biochemical examination of rumen liquor and growth parameters were evaluated. Among physical properties colour, consistency and odour recorded on 0 day observed which was observed to be greenish brown with watery consistency while odour was slightly amonical, which changes to greenish brown with viscous consistency and aromatic odour in T2 and T3 group within 7th day post treatment. Biochemical examination of rumen liquor reveals significantly decreased pH, TTA, TVFA and lactic acid in control group which were significantly increased in T2 and T3 groups in post treatment period as compared to control. Growth parameters viz. body weight gain, feed consumption and FCR were also improved as compared to untreated control. From overall observation indicated that animal treated with AV/RMF/17 and Ruchamax therapies showed better results on physical, biochemical examination of rumen liquor and improvement in performance parameters indicates normalization of rumen microflora. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 230-233

  19. Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infections in goat abortions from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unzaga, J M; Moré, G; Bacigalupe, D; Rambeaud, M; Pardini, L; Dellarupe, A; De Felice, L; Gos, M L; Venturini, M C

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this study were to identify the occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum abortions in goats from Argentina by serological, macroscopical and microscopical examination and bioassay, and to characterize the obtained isolates by molecular techniques. For this purpose, 25 caprine fetal fluids, 18 caprine fetal brains and 10 caprine placentas from 8 dairy/meat goat farms from Argentina were analyzed. Gestational age of the aborted fetuses was determined in 18 cases. Protozoal infections were detected by at least one of the applied diagnostic techniques in 44% (11/25) of examined fetuses; specifically, 24% (6/25) were positive to T. gondii, 8% (2/25) were positive to N. caninum and 12% (3/25) were positive to both parasites. In this study IFAT titers were similarly distributed in younger and older fetuses. Macroscopical and microscopical examination of one placenta revealed chalky nodules in the fetal cotyledons and normal intercotyledonary areas, as well as necrosis and calcification of mesenchymal cells in villi. Tachyzoites were observed in peritoneal wash from 2 mice inoculated with brain and a pool of brain and placenta of two fetuses. Cell culture growth of tachyzoites was achieved from one inoculated mouse, and confirmed as T. gondii by PCR. The T. gondii isolate was identified as atypical or non-canonical by nested-PCR-RFLP. This is the first study that investigated the involvement of N. caninum and T. gondii in cases of goat abortion in Argentina.

  20. Gross composition, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of Saanen goat milk fed with Cacti varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catunda, Karen Luanna Marinho; de Aguiar, Emerson Moreira; de Góes Neto, Pedro Etelvino; da Silva, José Geraldo Medeiros; Moreira, José Aparecido; do Nascimento Rangel, Adriano Henrique; de Lima Júnior, Dorgival Morais

    2016-08-01

    The use of cactus is an alternative for sustainable production systems in Northeast Brazil. The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of supplying five cacti species from the Brazilian semi-arid northeast region on the physical-chemical sensory characteristics and the profile of fatty acids of Saanen goat milk. Five multiparous goats were used, confined, and distributed in a Latin square 5 × 5 design, with five experimental diets and five periods. Treatments consisted of 473 to 501 g/kg of a cactaceous mix (Pilosocereus gounellei, Cereus jamacaru, Cereus squamosus, Nopalea cochenillifera, or Opuntia stricta) added to 187.8 to 197.9 g/kg of "Sabiá" (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia) hay and 311 to 329 g/kg of concentrate. No effects of experimental diets (P > 0.05) were evidenced in the physical and chemical composition of milk for fat, total solids, or salt levels. However, protein, lactose, solids-not-fat levels, and cryoscopy point were influenced by diet (P  0.05) in the profile of fatty acids between treatments for all acids found, except for butyric acid. Diets also did not (P > 0.05) confer sensory changes in milk characteristics. The use of the native cacti in the dairy goats' diet did not influence the sensory characteristics or lipid profile of milk.

  1. Biometric variability of goat populations revealed by means of principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Luanna Chácara; Machado, Théa M Medeiros; Araújo, Adriana Mello; Olson, Timothy A; da Silva, João Batista Lopes; Torres, Robledo Almeida; Costa, Márcio da Silva

    2012-12-01

    The aim was to analyze variation in 12 Brazilian and Moroccan goat populations, and, through principal component analysis (PCA), check the importance of body measures and their indices as a means of distinguishing among individuals and populations. The biometric measurements were wither height (WH), brisket height (BH) and ear length (EL). Thorax depth (WH-BH) and the three indices, TD/WH, EL/TD and EL/WH, were also calculated. Of the seven components extracted, the first three principal components were sufficient to explain 99.5% of the total variance of the data. Graphical dispersion by genetic groups revealed that European dairy breeds clustered together. The Moroccan breeds were separated into two groups, one comprising the Drâa and the other the Zagora and Rhâali breeds. Whereas, on the one side, the Anglo-Nubian and undefined breeds were the closest to one another the goats of the Azul were observed to have the highest variation of all the breeds. The Anglo-Nubian and Boer breeds were similar to each other. The Nambi-type goats remained distinct from all the other populations. In general, the use of graphical representation of PCA values allowed to distinguish genetic groups.

  2. Biometric variability of goat populations revealed by means of principal component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luanna Chácara Pires

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to analyze variation in 12 Brazilian and Moroccan goat populations, and, through principal component analysis (PCA, check the importance of body measures and their indices as a means of distinguishing among individuals and populations. The biometric measurements were wither height (WH, brisket height (BH and ear length (EL. Thorax depth (WH-BH and the three indices, TD/WH, EL/TD and EL/WH, were also calculated. Of the seven components extracted, the first three principal components were sufficient to explain 99.5% of the total variance of the data. Graphical dispersion by genetic groups revealed that European dairy breeds clustered together. The Moroccan breeds were separated into two groups, one comprising the Drâa and the other the Zagora and Rhâali breeds. Whereas, on the one side, the Anglo-Nubian and undefined breeds were the closest to one another the goats of the Azul were observed to have the highest variation of all the breeds. The Anglo-Nubian and Boer breeds were similar to each other. The Nambi-type goats remained distinct from all the other populations. In general, the use of graphical representation of PCA values allowed to distinguish genetic groups.

  3. Analysis of raw goat milk microbiota: impact of stage of lactation and lysozyme on microbial diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnis, Elizabeth A; Kalanetra, Karen M; Mills, David A; Maga, Elizabeth A

    2015-04-01

    To protect infants from infection, human milk contains high levels of the enzyme lysozyme, unlike the milk of dairy animals. We have genetically engineered goats to express human lysozyme (hLZ milk) in their milk at 68% the amount found in human milk to help extend this protection. This study looked at the effect of hLZ on bacteria in raw milk over time. As the microbial diversity of goats' milk has yet to be investigated in depth using next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, we applied NGS and clone library sequencing (CLS) to determine the microbiota of raw goat milk (WT milk) and hLZ milk at early, mid and late lactation. Overall, in WT milk, the bacterial populations in milk at early and mid lactation were similar to each other with a shift occurring at late lactation. Both methods found Proteobacteria as the dominant bacteria at early and mid lactation, while Actinobacteria surged at late lactation. These changes were related to decreases in Pseudomonas and increases in Micrococcus. The bacterial populations in hLZ milk were similar to WT milk at early and mid lactation with the only significant differences occurring at late lactation with the elevation of Bacillaceae, Alicyclobacillaceae, Clostridiaceae and Halomonadaceae.

  4. A quadruplex PCR (qxPCR) assay for adulteration in dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrimonti, Caterina; Pirondini, Andrea; Marmiroli, Marta; Marmiroli, Nelson

    2015-11-15

    This study describes the development of a quadruplex quantitative Real Time PCR (qxPCR) based on SYBR®GreenER chemistry, for rapid identification of DNA of cow, goat, sheep and buffalo in dairy products, and for quantification of cow DNA in these products. The platform was applied to: (i) mixes of milks at fixed percentages; (ii) cheeses prepared with the same mixes; (iii) commercial dairy products. The methodology enabled the detection of DNA from cow in mixes of milk and cheeses with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1%. When applied to commercial dairy products the qxPCR gave results comparable with each single-plex Real Time PCR. A good correlation (R(2)>0.9) between peaks' area of derivative of melting curves of amplicons and percentages of cow milk in milk mixes and cheeses, allows for an estimation of cow DNA in a dynamic range varying from 0.1-5% to 1-25%.

  5. Genetic and environmental information in goat milk Fourier transform infrared spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnachew, B S; Kohler, A; Adnøy, T

    2013-06-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is often used in prediction of major milk components in genetic evaluation of dairy animals. Until now genetic variability of goat milk FTIR spectra has only been known indirectly through their contribution to the major milk components. In this study, genetic and environmental components of goat milk FTIR spectra were examined directly. A data set containing 83,858 milk FTIR spectral observations belonging to 29,320 Norwegian dairy goats of 271 herds was used for the study. Principal components analysis was applied on both unprocessed and preprocessed spectral data, and new traits (latent traits) were defined because a multitrait analysis of all spectral variables for variance components could not be done. Eight and 7 latent variables, explaining approximately 99% of the total unprocessed and preprocessed spectral variation, respectively, were kept from the principal components analysis for genetic analysis. Genetic and environmental variance components were estimated for the latent traits using restricted maximum likelihood. Genetic-to-total phenotypic variance ratios (heritabilities) of the latent traits were between 0.011 and 0.285 for the unprocessed spectra and between 0.135 and 0.262 for the preprocessed spectra. The estimated variance components for the latent traits were back transformed to the spectral variables. Heritabilities of these spectral variables ranged from 0.018 to 0.408 and variance ratios of the permanent environmental effects of goats were between 0.002 and 0.184 of the phenotypic spectral variation. High-to-moderate heritabilities were observed in particular in spectral regions related to major milk components (fat, lactose, and protein): between 1,030 and 1,300 cm(-1), 1,500 and 1,600 cm(-1), 1,700 and 1,800 cm(-1), and 2,800 and 3,000 cm(-1). Our results confirmed that a substantial amount of genetic variation exists in goat milk FTIR spectra. Not all spectral variations are of genetic origin

  6. Cloned goats (Capra hircus) from adult ear cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO; Jitong(郭继彤); AN; Zhixing(安志兴); LI; Yu(李煜); LI; Xuefeng(李雪峰); LI; Yuqiang(李裕强); GUO; Zekun(郭泽坤); ZHANG; Yong(张涌)

    2002-01-01

    The average number of available oocytes recovered per ovary collected during the breeding season in dairy goats was 5.5 (1815/330). 66.17% (1201/1815) of oocytes extruded the first polar body after maturation in vitro for 20 h. 75.44% (906/1201) of matured oocytes with membrane evagination around the MⅡchromosomes were enucleated. Ear skin fibroblast cells were derived from an adult female Jining Grey goat (C. hircus). The cells were cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen after passage 2. Thawed cells were further cultured for 3-6 passages and were subjected to serum starvation by 0.5% FBS for 2-10 d, then used as donor cells for nuclear transfer. 98.12% (889/906) of the enucleated oocytes were reconstructed by intracytoplasmic injection of karyoplast. The reconstructed embryos were activated by 5 μmol/L ionomycin for 4.5 min and further activated by culturing with 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP) for 3 h. After 36 h of culture in mCR1aaBF, 76.69% (645/841) of the cloned embryos cleaved. There were no significant differences in development in vitro between the cloned embryos derived from donor cells precooled at 4℃ for 24 h and nonprecooled donor cells. The cleavage rates, 4-cell development, and blastocyst development of reconstructed embryos were 72.48% (79/109), 53.16% (42/79), and 19.05% (8/42) in precooled group; 68.5% (211/308), 59.72% (126/211), and 17.46% (22/126) in nonprecooled group, respectively. Eighteen cloned 4-cell embryos derived from precooled donor cells were transferred and one cloned kid was born. Eighty-four cloned 4-cell embryos derived from nonprecooled donor cells were transferred and no offspring were produced. Of 18 cloned morale from nonprecooled donor cells transferred, one kid was born. The results of microsatellite DNA analyses indicated that the two cloned kids were from the same donor fibroblast cell line derived from an adult goat ear skin.

  7. Dairy production medicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Risco, Carlos A; Melendez Retamal, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    ... Insemination José Eduardo P . Santos Applications of Ultrasonography in Dairy Cattle Reproductive Management Jill D. Colloton 3 7 19 27 33 73 81 99 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Diseases that Affect the Reprod...

  8. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure...... the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  9. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the potential consequences of modern dairy cattle breeding for the welfare of dairy cows. The paper focuses on so-called genomic selection, which deploys thousands of genetic markers to estimate breeding values. The discussion should help to structure...... the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits......, unfavourable genetic trends for metabolic, reproductive, claw and leg diseases indicate that these attempts have been insufficient. Today, novel genome-wide sequencing techniques are revolutionising dairy cattle breeding; these enable genetic changes to occur at least twice as rapidly as previously. While...

  10. Latent infection of male goats with Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri at an artificial insemination centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fe, Christian; Gómez Martín, Angel; Amores, Joaquín; Corrales, Juan C; Sánchez, Antonio; Poveda, José B; Contreras, Antonio

    2010-10-01

    Contagious agalactia affects goats and is caused by several species of mycoplasma including Mycoplasma agalactiae and Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri (Mmc). Male goats, latently infected with M. agalactiae and Mmc, were identified at a dairy goat breeding artificial insemination centre. In three samplings, conducted over 1 year, ear swabs were assessed for both of the above organisms using culture and PCR techniques. Serological examination for antibodies against these organisms was performed at each time-point and conjunctival, nasal, rectal and preputial swabs were taken from a sub-sample of animals. Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri and M. agalactiae were detected in 80 and four ear swabs, respectively and serology confirmed the presence of both agents. A point prevalence of 0.06 goats infected with Mmc at the first sampling point increased to 0.97 at the last sampling, suggesting spread of infection. Both organisms were also detected in preputial and conjunctival swabs suggesting the shedding of these pathogens by other routes. These findings should inform World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) guidelines on avoiding the introduction of such pathogens into artificial insemination centres and suggest the need to review current recommendations.

  11. Fatty acid profile of goat milk in diets supplemented with chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, B; Vega, S; Gutiérrez, R; Escobar, A; Romero, J; Domínguez, E; González-Ronquillo, M

    2017-08-01

    Chia seed (Salvia hispanica L.) is the greatest known plant source of n-3 α-linolenic acid. The present study evaluated the effects of 3 inclusion levels of chia seed [zero (control); low, 2.7% (CLow); and high, 5.5% (CHigh)] in diets of dairy goats on milk yield and fatty acid profile. Nine Saanen dairy goats in the last third of lactation period, live weight 38 ± 8.7 kg, housed in metabolic cages, were fed iso-proteic and iso-energetic (160 g of crude protein/d and 11 MJ of metabolizable energy/d) diets. Gas chromatography was used to analyze fatty acid profile and total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Silver ion HPLC was used to analyze the isomeric profile of CLA. The results were subjected to variance analysis using a Latin square design repeated 3 × 3. The CHigh treatment was higher for dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber intake compared with CLow and control diets. Digestibility was not affected by the inclusion of chia seeds. The CHigh diet improved N intake with respect to the control and CLow diet. Milk yield and chemical composition were not affected by the treatment. The milk fatty acid profile of C18:0, C18:1, C18:2, and C:20 was higher for CHigh than the other treatments. The in vitro gas production (mL of gas/g of dry matter) was lower in CHigh than the control diet. In conclusion, the addition of chia seeds at the CHigh level in dairy goat diets negatively affected in vitro rumen fermentation, but increased the milk fatty acid profile of C18:0, C18:1n-9 cis, and C:20, monounsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The total CLA content increased from 0.33 to 0.73% with the supplementation of chia to the diet, as well as the isomers cis-9,trans-11, trans-7,cis-9, trans-11,cis-13, and trans-12,trans-14. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Biological control of infective larvae of a gastro-intestinal nematode (Teladorsagia circumcincta) and a small lungworm (Muellerius capillaris) by Duddingtonia flagrans in goat faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraud, C; Chartier, C

    2003-01-01

    The high prevalence of benzimidazole-resistant nematodes in French grazing dairy goat flocks led to a search for nematode-control schemes based on integrated approaches with non-chemical options, like vaccination, grazing management, or biological control using nematophagous fungi. The effect of the daily feeding of goats with spores of the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans on third-stage larvae (L3) of Teladorsagia circumcincta was examined in faecal cultures. In addition, the effect of D. flagrans on the survival of first-stage larvae (L1) of Muellerius capillaris was tested. Twenty-two culled dairy goats previously raised in a zero-grazing system were twice infected at monthly intervals with 5,000 and then 7,500 T. circumcincta L3. Eight animals were infected with a benzimidazole-susceptible (BZs) strain while the remainder received a benzimidazole-resistant one (BZr). Six culled goats naturally infected with M. capillaris were purchased from private farms. All the goats were divided in two groups, one group receiving daily 5 x 10(5) chlamydospores of D. flagrans/kg body weight per goat for seven consecutive days in the food, the other group acting as control. For T. circumcincta-infected goats, individual egg counts and coprocultures (13 days, 25 degrees C) followed by L3 extraction with the Baermann method were performed. For M. capillaris-infected goats, extraction of L1 with the Baermann apparatus was individually performed on day 0 and after coprocultures on days 7, 10 and 14. Reductions in percentage development of T. circumcincta L3 in fungus groups compared with control groups ranged from 84% (BZs strain) to 90% (BZr strain). A decrease in M. capillaris L1 recovery was noted on days 7 and 10 (a reduction of 70% compared with day 0) and on day 14 (85%), but this pattern was similar in both groups, whether receiving the fungus or not. At the dosage of 5 x 10(5) spores/kg body weight, D. flagrans was highly effective in reducing the larval

  13. Gambaran Darah Kambing Gembrong, Kambing Peranakan Etawah, dan Kambing Kacang di Bali (BLOOD ILLUSTRATION OF GEMBRONG GOAT, ETAWAH CROSSBRED GOAT AND KACANG GOAT IN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Sayang Yupardhi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There were three kinds of goat developed in Bali since a long time ago i.e. Gembrong goat, EtawahCrossbred goat, and Kacang goat. Gembrong goat is nearly disappearingrecently due to decrease of itspopulation from year to year. The Gembrong goat has very interesting performance, funny, and this speciesis Balinese native goats. The objective of thisexperiment was to know the blood illustration among thethree speciesof the Balinese native goatwhere in the future it can be used as a guide to develop each ofthem. The experiment was used nine adults goats namely three adult male Gembrong goats, three adultmale Etawah Crossbred goats, and three adult male Kacang Goats respectively. The animal fed dailygreen feed grows around them and additional rice bran. Blood samples of the animals were collected forabout10-15 mL each with venoject, and then was kept in a cooler box and subsequently sent to the ProdiaClinic Laboratory at Denpasar. The results of the experiment showed that blood illustration of the threekinds of goat was not significantly different (P > 0.05 except the triglyseride.

  14. Pre-weaning growth performance of Etawah Crossbred goats fed milk replacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment the effect of feeding milk replacer and dairy milk on the growth performance of pre-weaning of Etawah Crossbred goats was studied. Thirty eight heads of pre-weaning of Etawah Crossbred kids were divided into 2 groups, Group A receiving dairy milk and Group B receiving formulated milk replacer. All kids were fed with colostrum at the first 3 days. The milk replacer was formulated from skim milk, cassava flour, soy flour, corn flour, vitamin, mineral, salt and amino acids (lysine and methionine. The milk replacer was diluted ten times with warm water, then probiotic and sugar were added. The pre-weaning kids fed 300-600 ml milk twice a day, in the morning and in the afternoon. The liveweight of pre-weaning kids were measured every 2 weeks. The experiment was carried out for 12 weeks. The parameter measured were nutrient intakes, ADG and mortality rate. Data was analysed by T test. The proximate analysis results of milk replacer were DM 93.50%, CP 22.20%, Fat 4.62%, GE 3869 kcal/kg, CF 1.31%, ash 4.22%, Ca 0.60% and P 0.46%. The DM and CP intakes were 111.98 and 28.93 g/d; 97.31 and 23.10 g/d, with ME 659 and 379 kcal/kg for group A and B, respectively. The ADG of pre-weaning kids for Group A and B were significantly different (P < 0.05 which were 96.03 ± 11.83 and 83.62 ± 16,34 g/d; mortality rates were 0% and 10% for group A and B, respectively. It is concluded that the rate of the pre-weaning kids of Crossbred Etawah goat fed formulated milk replacer grew slower than kids receiving dairy milk.

  15. Coronary artery anatomy of the goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovetsky, G; Fenoglio, J J; Gieger, M; Srinivasan, M R; Dobelle, W H

    1983-05-01

    The coronary arteries of the goat heart were studied using angiographic techniques and molds of the coronary vessel trees. Blood supplies to the left and right ventricles, interventricular septum, atrioventricular node, and apex of the caprine heart were studied. The goat possesses a left dominant pattern of coronary supply with relatively uniform coronary anatomy and may provide a good large animal model for testing cardiovascular assist devices.

  16. Worm control practice against gastro-intestinal parasites in Norwegian sheep and goat flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatn Synnøve

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthelmintic treatment is the most common way of controlling nematode infections in ruminants. However, several countries have reported anthelmintic resistance (AR, representing a limitation for sustainable small ruminant production. The knowledge regarding worm control management represents a baseline to develop a guideline for preventing AR. The aim of the present study was therefore to improve our knowledge about the worm control practices in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Methods A questionnaire survey regarding worm control practices was performed in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Flocks were selected from the three main areas of small ruminant farming, i.e. the coastal, inland and northern areas. A total of 825 questionnaires, comprising 587 sheep flocks (return rate of 51.3% and 238 goat flocks (52.6% were included. Results The results indicated that visual appraisal of individual weight was the most common means of estimating the anthelmintic dose used in sheep (78.6% and goat (85.1% flocks. The mean yearly drenching rate in lambs and ewes were 2.5 ± 1.7 and 1.9 ± 1.1, respectively, whereas it was 1.0 (once a year in goats. However, these figures were higher in sheep in the coastal area with a rate of 3.4 and 2.2 in lambs and ewes, respectively. Benzimidazoles were the predominant anthelmintic class used in sheep flocks (64.9% in 2007, whereas benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones were both equally used in dairy goat flocks. In the period of 2005-2007, 46.3% of the sheep flocks never changed the anthelmintic class. The dose and move strategy was practiced in 33.2% of the sheep flocks. Conclusions The present study showed that inaccurate weight calculation gives a risk of under-dosing in over 90% of the sheep and goat flocks in Norway. Taken together with a high treatment frequency in lambs, a lack of anthelmintic class rotation and the common use of a dose-and-move strategy, a real danger for development of

  17. Prevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. in cattle, sheep, goats, horses and camels in the State of Eritrea; influence of husbandry systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, M K; Skjerve, E; Holstad, G; Woldehiwet, Z; Macmillan, A P

    2000-10-01

    Samples from 2427 cattle, 661 goats, 104 sheep, 98 camels and 82 horses were screened for brucella infections by the Rose Bengal Test and positive reactors confirmed by the complement fixation test. In cattle, the highest individual seroprevalence was in dairy herds kept under the intensive husbandry system, with an individual prevalence of 8.2% and unit (herd) seroprevalence of 35.9%. This was followed by the pastoral husbandry system in the Western Lowlands with 5.0% individual but a higher unit (vaccination site) prevalence of 46.1%. The lowest was in the mixed crop-livestock system in the Southern Highlands with individual 0.3% and unit (village) prevalence of 2.4%. In sheep and goats, no positive animals were detected in the mixed crop-livestock areas. In the Eastern Lowlands individual prevalences of 3.8% (goats) and 1.4% (sheep) and unit prevalence of 33.3% (goats) and 16.7% were found, while 14.3% of individual goats and 56.3% of the units in the Western Lowlands were positive. No positive horses were found. The present study documents the first serological evidence of Brucella spp. infection in camels (3.1%) in Eritrea.

  18. Mastitis therapy and antimicrobial susceptibility: a multispecies review with a focus on antibiotic treatment of mastitis in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, John

    2011-12-01

    Mastitis occurs in numerous species. Antimicrobial agents are used for treatment of infectious mastitis in dairy cattle, other livestock, companion animals, and humans. Mastitis is an economically important disease of dairy cattle and most mastitis research has focused on epidemiology and control of bovine mastitis. Antibiotic treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle is an established component of mastitis control programs. Research on the treatment of clinical and subclinical mastitis in other dairy species such as sheep and goats has been less frequent, although the general principles of mastitis therapy in small ruminants are similar to those of dairy cattle. Research on treatment of clinical mastitis in humans is limited and as for other species empirical treatment of mastitis appears to be common. While antimicrobial susceptibility testing is recommended to direct treatment decisions in many clinical settings, the use of susceptibility testing for antibiotic selection for mastitis treatments of dairy cattle has been challenged in a number of publications. The principle objective of this review is to summarize the literature evaluating the question, "Does antimicrobial susceptibility predict treatment outcome for intramammary infections caused by common bacterial pathogens?" This review also addresses current issues related to antimicrobial use and treatment decisions for mastitis in dairy cattle. Information on treatment of mastitis in other species, including humans, is included although research appears to be limited. Issues related to study design, gaps in current knowledge and opportunities for future research are identified for bovine mastitis therapy.

  19. Dairy products and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Johanna W

    2011-10-01

    Cancer is a group of more than 100 diseases in which cells display uncontrolled growth, invasion, and sometimes metastasis. Milk and dairy products contain micronutrients and several bioactive constituents that may influence cancer risk and progression. Much of the focus of human, population-based studies has been on the effects of intake of milk and total dairy products or of calcium intake. Based on a systematic review of the epidemiologic literature, the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research report concluded there was a probable association between milk intake and lower risk of colorectal cancer, a probable association between diets high in calcium and increased risk of prostate cancer, and limited evidence of an association between milk intake and lower risk of bladder cancer. For other cancers, the evidence was mixed or lacking. Since the 2007 report, several additional, large-cohort studies have been published, including two that show an inverse association between intake of cultured dairy products and bladder cancer. Little is known about the potential effect of various bioactives produced during rumen microbe metabolism on cancer risk. Furthermore, studies support a role of live microbes present in some dairy products in the modulation of the human gut microbial community and gut metabolism. Given the growing appreciation for the role of the gut microbial community in relation to immune function and health and disease, including cancer, the potential role of various dairy products in the modulation of the human gut microbiome warrants further evaluation. Key teaching points: As a dietary exposure, dairy products are a complex group of foods and composition varies by region, which makes evaluation of their association with disease risk difficult. For most cancers, associations between cancer risk and intake of milk and dairy products have been examined only in a small number of cohort studies, and data are inconsistent or

  20. A comprehensive dairy valorization model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banaszewska, A.; Cruijssen, F.C.A.M.; Vorst, van der J.G.A.J.; Claassen, G.D.H.; Kampman, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Dairy processors face numerous challenges resulting from both unsteady dairy markets and some specific characteristics of dairy supply chains. To maintain a competitive position on the market, companies must look beyond standard solutions currently used in practice. This paper presents a comprehensi

  1. Silage Quality and Dairy Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    High quality silages are often the keystone of rations for dairy cows. Rations for dairy animals may contain 10 to 90%; therefore silage quality, which encompasses all silage characteristics that impact animal performance, is often crucial in meeting the nutrient requirements for dairy production. N...

  2. Body linear traits for identifying prolific goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Haldar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted on prolific goat breed to identify body linear type traits that might be associated with prolificacy trait in goats. Materials and Methods: Two-stage stratified random sample survey based data were collected from 1427 non-pregnant goats with the history of single, twin and triplet litter sizes (LZ between January 2008 to February 2011 for 3 years in 68 villages located in East and North East India. Data on sixteen body linear traits were analyzed using logistic regression model to do the step-wise selection for identifying the body linear traits that could determine LZ. An average value for each identified body linear trait was determined for classifying the goats into three categories: Goats having the history of single LZ, goats having the history of twin LZ and goats having the history of triplet LZ. Results: The LZ proportions for single, twin and triplet, were 29.50, 59.14 and 11.36%, respectively, with the prolificacy rate of 181.85% in Indian Black Bengal goats. A total of eight body linear traits that could determine LZ in prolific goats were identified. Heart girth (HG measurement (>60.90 cm, paunch girth (PG (>70.22 cm, wither height (WH (>49.75 cm, neck length (>21.45 cm, ear length (>12.80 cm and distance between trochanter major (DTM bones (>12.28 cm, pelvic triangle area (PTA (>572.25 cm2 and clearance at udder (CU (>23.16 cm showed an increase likelihood of multiple LZ when compared to single LZ. Further, HG measurement (>62.29 cm, WH (>50.54 cm, PG (>71.85 cm and ear length (>13.00 cm, neck length (>22.01 cm, PTA (>589.64 cm2, CU (>23.20 cm and DTM bones (>12.47 cm were associated with increased likelihood of triplet LZ, when compared with that of twin LZ. Conclusion: HG measurement was the best discriminating factor, while PG, neck length, DTM bones, CU, PTA, WH and ear length measurements were other important factors that could be used for identifying prolific goats to achieve economic

  3. Prevalence of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia in Goats in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted between November and December 2012 in ... Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae using competitive ELISA. ... goats and also higher in male (66.7%) than female (63.7%) goats (P<0.05).

  4. Milk production potential of South African Boer and Nguni goats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    and the relatively high maintenance costs of cattle, make goat farming an alternative proposition for meat and milk production. Goats are hardy, less labor intensive and have less maintenance nutritional requirements .... Beijing, China. pp132.

  5. Factors affecting goat production in a communal farming system in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting goat production in a communal farming system in the Eastern ... and for cash sales (23%), and only 15% kept goats for home meat consumption. ... is likely to increase to the detriment of other ruminant species in the future.

  6. Cestrum laevigatum poisoning in goats in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, P V; Brust, L C; Duarte, M D; Franca, T N; Duarte, V C; Barros, C S

    2000-02-01

    Natural and experimental poisonings by Cestrum laevigatum are described in goats. Histologically, livers had marked centrolobular and midzonal coagulative necrosis and hemorrhage. Spontaneous toxicosis by this plant in goats has not been previously reported.

  7. Status and implementation of reproductive technologies in goats in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mené

    2015-02-19

    Feb 19, 2015 ... massively, since goat herds are geographically dispersed and they are a species ..... seed stock producers still rely on the importation of semen from .... the follicular stage of the goat and the heterogeneous response of ...

  8. Evaluation of cashmere production of the meat producing Boer goat

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, JA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available the cashmere production of the experimental Boer goat flock at the Adelaide Experimental Station. The results shown that initiating a cashmere industry with pure Boer goats does not seem to be viable option...

  9. A probably minor role for land-applied goat manure in the transmission of Coxiella burnetii to humans in the 2007-2010 Dutch Q fever outbreak.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René van den Brom

    Full Text Available In 2007, Q fever started to become a major public health problem in the Netherlands, with small ruminants as most probable source. In order to reduce environmental contamination, control measures for manure were implemented because of the assumption that manure was highly contaminated with Coxiella burnetii. The aims of this study were 1 to clarify the role of C. burnetii contaminated manure from dairy goat farms in the transmission of C. burnetii to humans, 2 to assess the impact of manure storage on temperature profiles in dunghills, and 3 to calculate the decimal reduction time of the Nine Mile RSA 493 reference strain of C. burnetii under experimental conditions in different matrices. For these purposes, records on distribution of manure from case and control herds were mapped and a potential relation to incidences of human Q fever was investigated. Additionally, temperatures in two dunghills were measured and related to heat resistance of C. burnetii. Results of negative binomial regression showed no significant association between the incidence of human Q fever cases and the source of manure. Temperature measurements in the core and shell of dunghills on two farms were above 40°C for at least ten consecutive days which would result in a strong reduction of C. burnetii over time. Our findings indicate that there is no relationship between incidence of human Q fever and land applied manure from dairy goat farms with an abortion wave caused by C. burnetii. Temperature measurements in dunghills on two farms with C. burnetii shedding dairy goat herds further support the very limited role of goat manure as a transmission route during the Dutch human Q fever outbreak. It is very likely that the composting process within a dunghill will result in a clear reduction in the number of viable C. burnetii.

  10. A probably minor role for land-applied goat manure in the transmission of Coxiella burnetii to humans in the 2007-2010 Dutch Q fever outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brom, René; Roest, Hendrik-Jan; de Bruin, Arnout; Dercksen, Daan; Santman-Berends, Inge; van der Hoek, Wim; Dinkla, Annemiek; Vellema, Jelmer; Vellema, Piet

    2015-01-01

    In 2007, Q fever started to become a major public health problem in the Netherlands, with small ruminants as most probable source. In order to reduce environmental contamination, control measures for manure were implemented because of the assumption that manure was highly contaminated with Coxiella burnetii. The aims of this study were 1) to clarify the role of C. burnetii contaminated manure from dairy goat farms in the transmission of C. burnetii to humans, 2) to assess the impact of manure storage on temperature profiles in dunghills, and 3) to calculate the decimal reduction time of the Nine Mile RSA 493 reference strain of C. burnetii under experimental conditions in different matrices. For these purposes, records on distribution of manure from case and control herds were mapped and a potential relation to incidences of human Q fever was investigated. Additionally, temperatures in two dunghills were measured and related to heat resistance of C. burnetii. Results of negative binomial regression showed no significant association between the incidence of human Q fever cases and the source of manure. Temperature measurements in the core and shell of dunghills on two farms were above 40°C for at least ten consecutive days which would result in a strong reduction of C. burnetii over time. Our findings indicate that there is no relationship between incidence of human Q fever and land applied manure from dairy goat farms with an abortion wave caused by C. burnetii. Temperature measurements in dunghills on two farms with C. burnetii shedding dairy goat herds further support the very limited role of goat manure as a transmission route during the Dutch human Q fever outbreak. It is very likely that the composting process within a dunghill will result in a clear reduction in the number of viable C. burnetii.

  11. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Morsy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5 fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA, and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017 ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (p<0.001 and acetate (p = 0.034 concentrations. Serum glucose increased (p = 0.013 in SO and SS goats vs Control. The SO and SS treated goats had improved milk yield (p = 0.007 and milk fat content (p = 0.002. Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048 and feed efficiency (p = 0.046 compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (p<0.05 milk unsaturated fatty acids content specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021 C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3, without detrimental effects on animal performance.

  12. Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, T A; Kholif, S M; Kholif, A E; Matloup, O H; Salem, A Z M; Elella, A Abu

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5) fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control) in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS) or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO) in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA), and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017) ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (p<0.001) and acetate (p = 0.034) concentrations. Serum glucose increased (p = 0.013) in SO and SS goats vs Control. The SO and SS treated goats had improved milk yield (p = 0.007) and milk fat content (p = 0.002). Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048) and feed efficiency (p = 0.046) compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (p<0.05) milk unsaturated fatty acids content specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021) C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3), without detrimental effects on animal performance.

  13. Degree of antioxidant protection: a parameter to trace the origin and quality of goat's milk and cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzoferrato, L; Manzi, P; Marconi, S; Fedele, V; Claps, S; Rubino, R

    2007-10-01

    Traceability is an essential tool in reassuring consumers and traders that food is as safe, authentic, and of good quality as expected. Today, food traceability procedures often consist of attached documents and declarations, but scientific parameters that could objectively identify a product would be preferable. Scientific efforts in this area are mostly focused on selection and validation of experimental indicators that would be useful for tracing a food product in any step of its commercial life, describing its raw materials, processing procedures, and storage conditions. In this research, milk and cheese samples from zero grazing and grazing goats were studied to identify a tracing parameter correlated to the feeding system. In particular, alpha-tocopherol and cholesterol were analyzed by HPLC on a normal phase column and were combined to calculate the degree of antioxidant protection (DAP). This parameter, expressed as the molar ratio between antioxidant compounds and an oxidation target, is useful for tracing and distinguishing products from grazing and zero-grazing animals. Degree of antioxidant protection values greater than 7.0 x 10(-3) were found in samples from grazing goats and values lower than 7.0 x 10(-3) were found in samples from zero-grazing goats, for both milk and cheese, meaning that cholesterol was highly protected against oxidative reactions when herbage was the only feed or was dominant in the goat diet. The reliability of DAP to measure the antioxidant protection of cholesterol appeared more effective when the feeding system was based on grazing than when cut herbage was utilized indoors by animals. The DAP index was able to distinguish dairy products when the grazed herbage in the goats' diet exceeded 15%.

  14. Lipoprotein Lipase, Tissue Expression and Effects on Genes Related to Fatty Acid Synthesis in Goat Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Sheng Zhao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein lipase (LPL serves as a central factor in hydrolysis of triacylglycerol and uptake of free fatty acids from the plasma. However, there are limited data concerning the action of LPL on the regulation of milk fat synthesis in goat mammary gland. In this investigation, we describe the cloning and sequencing of the LPL gene from Xinong Saanen dairy goat mammary gland, along with a study of its phylogenetic relationships. Sequence analysis showed that goat LPL shares similarities with other species including sheep, bovine, human and mouse. LPL mRNA expression in various tissues determined by RT-qPCR revealed the highest expression in white adipose tissue, with lower expression in heart, lung, spleen, rumen, small intestine, mammary gland, and kidney. Expression was almost undetectable in liver and muscle. The expression profiles of LPL gene in mammary gland at early, peak, mid, late lactation, and the dry period were also measured. Compared with the dry period, LPL mRNA expression was markedly greater at early lactation. However, compared with early lactation, the expression was lower at peak lactation and mid lactation. Despite those differences, LPL mRNA expression was still greater at peak, mid, and late lactation compared with the dry period. Using goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC, the in vitro knockdown of LPL via shRNA or with Orlistat resulted in a similar degree of down-regulation of LPL (respectively. Furthermore, knockdown of LPL was associated with reduced mRNA expression of SREBF1, FASN, LIPE and PPARG but greater expression of FFAR3. There was no effect on ACACA expression. Orlistat decreased expression of LIPE, FASN, ACACA, and PPARG, and increased FFAR3 and SREBF1 expression. The pattern of LPL expression was similar to the changes in milk fat percentage in lactating goats. Taken together, results suggest that LPL may play a crucial role in fatty acid synthesis.

  15. Lipoprotein Lipase, Tissue Expression and Effects on Genes Related to Fatty Acid Synthesis in Goat Mammary Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wang-Sheng; Hu, Shi-Liang; Yu, Kang; Wang, Hui; Wang, Wei; Loor, Juan; Luo, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) serves as a central factor in hydrolysis of triacylglycerol and uptake of free fatty acids from the plasma. However, there are limited data concerning the action of LPL on the regulation of milk fat synthesis in goat mammary gland. In this investigation, we describe the cloning and sequencing of the LPL gene from Xinong Saanen dairy goat mammary gland, along with a study of its phylogenetic relationships. Sequence analysis showed that goat LPL shares similarities with other species including sheep, bovine, human and mouse. LPL mRNA expression in various tissues determined by RT-qPCR revealed the highest expression in white adipose tissue, with lower expression in heart, lung, spleen, rumen, small intestine, mammary gland, and kidney. Expression was almost undetectable in liver and muscle. The expression profiles of LPL gene in mammary gland at early, peak, mid, late lactation, and the dry period were also measured. Compared with the dry period, LPL mRNA expression was markedly greater at early lactation. However, compared with early lactation, the expression was lower at peak lactation and mid lactation. Despite those differences, LPL mRNA expression was still greater at peak, mid, and late lactation compared with the dry period. Using goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC), the in vitro knockdown of LPL via shRNA or with Orlistat resulted in a similar degree of down-regulation of LPL (respectively). Furthermore, knockdown of LPL was associated with reduced mRNA expression of SREBF1, FASN, LIPE and PPARG but greater expression of FFAR3. There was no effect on ACACA expression. Orlistat decreased expression of LIPE, FASN, ACACA, and PPARG, and increased FFAR3 and SREBF1 expression. The pattern of LPL expression was similar to the changes in milk fat percentage in lactating goats. Taken together, results suggest that LPL may play a crucial role in fatty acid synthesis. PMID:25501331

  16. Educational Possibilities of Keeping Goats in Elementary Schools in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Naoko; Kutsumi, Shiho; Hirose, Toshiya; Watanabe, Gen

    2016-01-01

    Many Japanese elementary schools keep small animals for educational purposes, and the effects and challenges have been investigated. Although goats are medium-sized animals that are familiar to Japanese, few practical studies have been conducted on keeping goats in schools. This study investigated the effects and challenges of keeping goats in elementary schools and discussed its educational possibilities. A semi-structured interview survey was conducted with 11 personnel that were responsible for keeping goats in 6 elementary schools in urban areas. They described benefits, problems, and tips related to keeping goats. Participant observation was also conducted on daily human-goat interactions in these schools. The results indicated that children in all six grades were able to care for goats. Goats were used for various school subjects and activities. As a result of keeping goats, children developed affection for them, attitude of respect for living things, greater sense of responsibility, and enhanced interpersonal interactional skills. Stronger ties between the schools and parents and community were developed through cooperation in goat-keeping. Some anxieties existed about the risk of injury to children when interacting with goats. Other challenges included the burden of taking care of the goats on holidays and insufficient knowledge about treatment in case of their illness or injury. The results suggested similarities to the benefits and challenges associated with keeping small animals in elementary schools, although the responsibility and the burden on the schools were greater for keeping goats than small animals because of their larger size and the need for children to consider the goats' inner state and to cooperate with others when providing care. At the same time, goats greatly stimulated interest, cooperation, and empathy in children. Goats can expand educational opportunities and bring about many positive effects on child development.

  17. Traditional goat husbandry may substantially contribute to human toxoplasmosis exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raising goats in settings that are highly contaminated with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii may contribute significantly to human exposure to this zoonotic parasite. Increasing consumption of young goats in Romania, where goats are typically reared in backyards that are also home to cats (the definitiv...

  18. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have reacted to a test for brucellosis shall not be slaughtered in an official establishment....

  19. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Signe A.; Sørensen, Camilla; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met......, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark....

  20. Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MIHAIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its� product�s quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating its authenticity and hygienic quality. The methods used involved the molecular testing (PCR-technique for identifying cow, sheep or goat DNA in the dairy products� samples collected from the small-scale producers market. The hygienic quality of these samples was determined through classical microbiology methods, highly developed techniques (Trek System and PCR for bacterial species confirmation. The results showed that a high percent (65%, from the products found were adulterated with other species milk, mostly cow milk. The most commonly falsified buffalo dairy products were the cheese and the traditional product �telemea�. The prevalence of the bacterial species identified belonged to Listeria innocua and Listeria welshmeri. The conclusion of this study is the need of a durable development system in this particular dairy chain to improve and assure the authenticity and quality of the small-scale producers� products and their reliability for the consumers.

  1. Assessment of Small-scale Buffalo Milk Dairy Production-A Premise for a Durable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian MIHAIU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Buffalo husbandry is an important source of income for a number of small-scale producers in Romania that is why an assessment of its products quality is much needed for improvement and evaluation of their vulnerability to international competition. In order to ascertain possible developments in the buffalo dairy sector and to broadly identify areas of intervention that favor small-scale dairy producers, the study examined the potential to improve buffalo milk production by evaluating its authenticity and hygienic quality. The methods used involved the molecular testing (PCR-technique for identifying cow, sheep or goat DNA in the dairy products samples collected from the small-scale producers market. The hygienic quality of these samples was determined through classical microbiology methods, highly developed techniques (Trek System and PCR for bacterial species confirmation. The results showed that a high percent (65%, from the products found were adulterated with other species milk, mostly cow milk. The most commonly falsified buffalo dairy products were the cheese and the traditional product telemea. The prevalence of the bacterial species identified belonged to Listeria innocua and Listeria welshmeri. The conclusion of this study is the need of a durable development system in this particular dairy chain to improve and assure the authenticity and quality of the small-scale producers products and their reliability for the consumers.

  2. Influência do transporte e mudança de local de manejo nas variáveis fisiológicas e produtivas de cabras Alpinas Physiologic and productive responses of Alpine goats submitted to transportation to a new dairy location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Canaes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se o efeito do transporte e a mudança de local de manejo sobre a produção e a composição do leite e sobre as variáveis fisiológicas, utilizando-se 12 cabras da raça Alpina em final de lactação. Semanalmente, foram mensuradas a produção e composição do leite e a contagem de células somáticas, além do volume do leite residual após administração de ocitocina. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue para dosagem hormonal (cortisol e enzimática (glicose no plasma no dia do transporte: antes (7h10min e após (8h20min, 8h30min e 10h30min o transporte. Nas três semanas subsequentes ao transporte, também foram colhidas amostras de sangue às 8h20min. Obtiveram-se teores mais elevados (PThe effects of transportation and reallocation on milk production and composition and physiological responses were studied in 12 late-lactation Alpine goats. Weekly, somatic cell count, milk production and composition, and residual milk volume (after administration of oxytocin were monitored. Blood samples were taken for hormonal (cortisol and enzymatic dosages (glucose in plasma on the day of transportation: before (7h10min and after transportation (8h20min, 8h30min, and 10h30min. During the three weeks after transportation, blood samples were also taken at 8h20min. Higher levels (P<0.05 of cortisol and glucose after transportation and reallocation were observed and milk yield was significantly lower (P<0.05 one day after them. Milk fat percentage and somatic cell count (P<0.05 were higher after transportation. Results allow concluding that transportation is a stressor agent that may momentarily influence animal production.

  3. Cinética de Degradação de Alguns Volumosos Usados na Alimentação de Cabras Leiteiras por Intermédio da Técnica de Produção de Gases sob Diferentes Níveis de pH Degradation Kinetics of Forages Fed to Dairy Goats by Using the Gas Production Approach under Different pH levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luigi Gonçalves

    2001-12-01

    to characterize and estimate parameters of kinetics of carbohydrate degradation using alfalfa hay, elephant grass, tifton 85, and corn silage, fed to dairy goats under different forage: concentrate ratio. Kinetic parameters of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber degradation at different pH values were estimated by using cumulative gas production technique and their values contrasted with those obtained by both in vitro and in situ studies. Kinetic interpretation for specific degradability, rate of degradation and the potentially digestible insoluble fraction was done by using the logistic model V(t = Vf / (1+exp(2+4c(L-T. A modified McDougall buffer was used for the in vitro assay to adjust pH to the values observed in the animals, by adding 1M of citric acid solution according to the roughage to concentrate ratio studied of 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60 e 20:80. Similar pattern was found for extent and rate of degradation of the potentially digestible insoluble fraction which confirm the interference of pH on kinetic parameter of carbohydrates in the rumen. Gas production approach yielded the lowest variation coefficient for the values of dry matter degradation but lower figures were found as compared to both in situ and in vitro techniques. Similar values were found for NDF as the three approaches were compared and it was suggested that they can be used interchangeably to precisely estimate NDF degradation.

  4. 7 CFR 1150.112 - Dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Dairy products. 1150.112 Section 1150.112 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PROMOTION PROGRAM Dairy Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1150.112 Dairy products. Dairy products means products manufactured for...

  5. 7 CFR 1170.4 - Dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Dairy products. 1170.4 Section 1170.4 Agriculture... and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DAIRY PRODUCT MANDATORY REPORTING § 1170.4 Dairy products. Dairy Products means: (a) Manufactured dairy products that are used by the Secretary to...

  6. The heat stress for workers employed in a dairy farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marucci

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The italian dairy production is characterized by high heterogeneity. The typology quantitatively more important (80% of national production is represented by cow’s milk cheeses (Grana Padano cheese, string cheese, Parmesan cheese, etc.,while the cheese from buffalo’s milk (especially string cheese such as mozzarella and cheese from sheep and goats represents respectively 4% and 8% of the national dairy production, and are linked to specific regional contexts. Some phases of the cycle of milk processing occur at certain temperatures that not are comfortable for the operator also in relation to possible problems due to thermal shock. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of heat stress on workers operating in a dairy for processing of buffalo milk. The research was conducted at a dairy farm located in the province of Viterbo, Italy, during the spring-summer period. To carry out the research were detected major climatic parameters (air temperature, relative humidity, mean radiant temperature, air velocity and the main parameters of the individual operators (thermal insulation provided by clothing and the energy expenditure required from the work done by employees in the work areas investigated. Subsequently were calculated main indices of heat stress assessment provided by the main technical standards. In particular have been calculated Predicted Mean Vote (PMV and Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD in moderate environments, provided by the UNI EN ISO 7730 and the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT in severe hot environments required by UNI EN 27243. The results show some phases of risk from heat stress and possible solutions to improve the safety of the operators.

  7. The heat stress for workers employed in a dairy farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Marucci

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Italian dairy production is characterized by high heterogeneity. The typology quantitatively more important (80% of national production is represented by cow’s milk cheeses (Grana Padano cheese, string cheese, Parmesan cheese, etc., while the cheese from buffalo’s milk (especially string cheese such as mozzarella and cheese from sheep and goats represents respectively 4% and 8% of the national dairy production, and are linked to specific regional contexts. Some phases of the cycle of milk processing occur at certain temperatures that are not comfortable for the workers also in relation to possible problems due to thermal shock. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of heat stress on workers operating in a dairy for processing of buffalo milk. The research was conducted at a dairy farm located in the province of Viterbo, Italy, during the spring-summer period. To carry out the research were detected major climatic parameters (air temperature, relative humidity, mean radiant temperature, air velocity and the main parameters of the individual operators (clothing thermal insulation and the energy expenditure required from the work done by employees. Subsequently, main indices of heat stress assessment provided by the main technical standards were calculated. In particular have been calculated predicted mean vote and predicted percentage of dissatisfied in moderate thermal environments (environments in which the objective, in the design and management phases, is to achieve the thermal comfort, provided by the UNI EN ISO 7730 and the wet bulb globe temperature in severe hot environments (environments in which you must protect the health of workers required by UNI EN ISO 27243. The results show some phases of risk from heat stress especially during times of test in which the internal air temperature exceeds the threshold of 30°C and possible solutions to improve the safety of the operators.

  8. Dairy chemistry and physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walstra, P.; Jenness, R.

    1984-01-01

    Milk and products made from it affect the lives of a large proportion of the world’s population. Many dairy products are consumed at times and in places far removed from the point at which the milk was produced. This is made possible by the chemical and physical treatments and fractionations applied

  9. Dairy Sector Profit Squeeze

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ Like any other industries in China,the potential in the dairy industry is huge but competition is tough,The big players such as Mengniu and Yili are happy to stay engaged in a price war that has raged for the last year,seemingly not affected by rising raw material prices.

  10. Experimental transmission of Pasteurella multocida 6:B in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafarin, M S; Zamri-Saad, M; Jamil, S M; Siti Khairani, B; Saharee, A A

    2007-04-01

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute disease of cattle and buffaloes caused by Pasteurella multocida 6:B. Outbreaks of the disease have been closely associated with carrier animals that transmit the organism to susceptible animals during stressful condition. This study was conducted to determine whether goats exposed intranasally to P. multocida 6:B can transmit the organism to contact goats. Thirty-six healthy local Katjang goats were divided into four groups and goats of groups 1 and 3 were each inoculated intranasally with a 1-ml inoculum that contained 1 x 10(9) CFU/ml of live P. multocida 6:B. Following the exposure, all goats of groups 3 and 4 were injected with dexamethasone at the rate of 1 mg/kg for three consecutive days. At the end of the dexamethasone treatment, goats of groups 1 and 2 were commingled but kept separate from goats of groups 3 and 4, which were commingled in another pen. Three surviving goats from each group were killed on days 7, 14 and 21 post-exposure for postmortem examination. Naso-pharyngeal mucus and heart blood were collected on swabs. Tissues from lungs, lymph nodes and tonsils were collected for bacteriological isolation and identification. Only one goat of group 3 died 6 days post-exposure showing clinical signs and lesions typical of HS. Other goats showed mild signs of upper respiratory tract infection. Goats of all groups developed acute mild pneumonic lesions, however, those treated with dexamethasone had significantly (P multocida 6:B was isolated from the nasal mucosa and lung lesions of exposed and contact goats not treated with dexamethasone. Exposed and contact goats treated with dexamethasone carried the organism for 21 days. P. multocida isolation from heart blood was made only from exposed and contact goats treated with dexamethasone. P. multocida was isolated from the lymph node of the goat that died during the experiment.

  11. Dairy cow disability weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  12. Effects of the percentage of concentrate on rumen fermentation, nutrient digestibility, plasma metabolites, and milk composition in mid-lactation goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serment, A; Schmidely, P; Giger-Reverdin, S; Chapoutot, P; Sauvant, D

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of the dietary percentage of concentrate on patterns of intake, the evolution of rumen fermentation characteristics and plasma metabolites after a meal, nutrient digestibility, and milk production and composition in a medium-term trial in dairy goats. These effects have been well studied in dairy cattle but seldom in goats. Thirteen ruminally and duodenally cannulated dairy goats (95±4 d in milk) fed ad libitum were used in this study. Goats were assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments: high-concentrate (70% concentrate on dry matter basis) or a low-concentrate (35%) total mixed rations. The experiment was conducted over a period of 10 wk, including 3 wk of adaption to the diets. Patterns of intake, rumen fermentation characteristics, and plasma metabolites after a meal and fatty acids profile of milk fat were compared at the onset and at the end of the experiment. The increase in dietary percentage of concentrate decreased rumen pH, acetate to propionate ratio, ammonia-N concentration, and plasma urea concentration. The percentage of concentrate did not affect total volatile fatty acid concentrations. The high-concentrate diet increased the rate of intake during the morning meal at the onset of the experiment, whereas it decreased total dry matter intake and the rate of intake during the morning meal at the end of the experiment. The high-concentrate diet resulted in greater organic matter digestibility. Raw milk yield and protein yield were greater in goats fed the high-concentrate diet, whereas fat yield was not affected by dietary treatments. The milk fat content was lower in goats fed the high-concentrate diet. Proportions of the trans-C18:1 isomer relative to total fatty acids in milk were higher with the high-concentrate diet, but no modification of the proportion of total trans-C18:1 was detected, in particular no shift from trans-11 C18:1 to trans-10 C18:1 was observed. Further, the isomer trans-10,cis-12 C18

  13. Quantificação de coliformes, Staphylococcus aureus e mesófilos presentes em diferentes etapas da produção de queijo frescal de leite de cabra em laticínios Enumeration of coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus and aerobic mesofilic bacteria throughout the manufacture process of a goat unripened cheese produced in a dairy plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Ulrich Picoli

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi acompanhar a produção de queijo frescal de leite de cabra, avaliando a qualidade higiênica do processamento pela quantificação de coliformes, S. aureus e mesófilos totais. A produção de três diferentes lotes de queijo foi acompanhada, sendo coletadas amostras de várias etapas do processamento. Além disso, amostras de queijo pertencente ao lote acompanhado foram coletadas na prateleira de um estabelecimento comercial durante seu período de validade. Os suabes coletados foram semeados em ágar sangue ovino; as amostras de água foram submetidas à Colimetria; as demais amostras foram submetidas à contagem de S. aureus, coliformes e mesófilos totais por meio de protocolos de rotina. Verificou-se que, apesar da pasteurização ter diminuído consideravelmente as populações microbianas presentes no leite cru, a falta de sanificação adequada de um equipamento que entrava em contato com o leite cru e que dá acesso ao tanque de coagulação, resultou na recontaminação da matéria-prima. Ao final do processamento, o queijo encontrava-se dentro dos padrões exigidos pela legislação, contudo a elevada contagem de mesófilos totais sugere que sejam melhoradas as medidas de sanitização durante o processamento, a fim de garantir a qualidade higiênica e uma maior vida de prateleira ao queijo produzido.The aim of this study was to evaluate the hygienic conditions throughout the manufacture process of a goat unripened cheese, using the enumeration of coliforms, S. aureus and aerobic mesofilic bacteria as indicators. The production of three different lots of cheese was followed, being collected samples throughout the processing steps. Furthermore, samples of cheese belonging to the same sampled lot were collected in the shelf of a commercial establishment throughout the shelf life period. Swabs were streaked onto blood agar plates; water samples were submitted to colimetric assays; all other samples were

  14. Renal (uremic) encephalopathy in a goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Z A; Thomsen, B V; Summers, B A

    2005-10-01

    Renal encephalopathy was diagnosed in a 2-year-old male boar goat with a history of chronic weight loss and ataxia. Histopathological examination of the brain revealed a striking myelin vacuolation distributed mainly in two patterns: (i) along the junction of the neocortex and corona radiata, and (ii) in the bundles of the internal capsule as it dissects through the basal nuclei. The kidneys had diffuse severe tubular and glomerular necrosis and degeneration. The neural lesions are consistent with renal (uremic) encephalopathy. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of renal encephalopathy in a goat.

  15. Disposition of fenbendazole in the goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, C R; Barker, S A; Hsieh, L C; Ou, S P; Davis, L E; Koritz, G; Neff-Davis, C A; Bevill, R F; Munsiff, I J; Sharma, G C

    1987-05-01

    The disposition of fenbendazole was studied in goats after oral or IV administration. Plasma concentration vs time profiles were determined for fenbendazole and all of its metabolites. The total excretion of the drug and its metabolites in urine and feces was also measured for 6 days. A biliary cannula was inserted in 1 goat to study the excretion of fenbendazole and its metabolites into the bile. Fenbendazole was converted to its sulfoxide (oxfendazole), and the sulfone, primary amine, and p-hydroxylated metabolites. The active metabolite, oxfendazole, appeared in plasma, but only trace amounts were found in feces or urine. The major excretory metabolite was p-hydroxyfenbendazole.

  16. An economic analysis of communal goat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Sebei

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic impact of different extension messages used was calculated using enterprise budgeting (gross margin analysis. Input data were gleaned from the literature, from participatory appraisals, as well as a field study, spanning 12 months, of small-scalecommunal goat farming systems in Jericho in the Odi District of NorthWest Province. The number of offspring weaned per annum, as a proportion of does owned, was selected as the desired output for analysis. This study has shown that small-scale communal goat farmers are not adopting or implementing extension messages to improve production capacity. In south Africa the majority of goats are slaughtered in the informal sector. If the informal sector is to be persuaded to market goats commercially through formal channels, then knowledge of the economics of goat farming on communal lands should be provided. The economic aspects of extension messages are probably an important factor in determining acceptance and sustainability yet appear to be seldom investigated. The probable reason for lack of adoption of standard extension messages, which promote improved nutrition, parasite control, vaccination and treatment of goats, was economic. In other words, the so-called 'poor management practices' used by communal farmers appeared to be economically more profitable than the 'good management practices' suggested to increase production. The price of communal goats was not related to their mass. A higher level of inputs would probably have resulted in a heavier kid, however it was established that this would not have influenced the price received as a majority of the goats were slaughtered for ritual purposes where age, colour and sex were more important to the purchaser than body mass. It is standard practice in commercial farming systems to evaluate the economic benefits of all management practices before they are implemented. Production animal veterinarians use veterinary economics to compare different

  17. Communal goat production in Southern Africa: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumosa Gwaze, F; Chimonyo, M; Dzama, K

    2009-10-01

    Despite the fact that about 64% of goats in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are located in rural arid (38%) and semi-arid (26%) agro-ecological zones and that more than 90% of goats in these zones are indigenous, information on indigenous breeds is inadequate. This paper reviews the social and economic importance of goats to the communal farmer and assesses the potential of using goats in rural development in Southern Africa. Farmers in Southern Africa largely use the village goat management system. There are various goat breeds in Southern Africa, of which the Mashona, Matabele, Tswana, Nguni and the Landim are the dominant ones. It is, however, not clear if these breeds are distinct. Major constraints to goat production include high disease and parasite prevalence, low levels of management, limited forage availability and poor marketing management. Potential research areas that are required to ensure that goats are vehicles for rural development include evaluation of constraints to goat production, assessing the contribution of goats to household economies and food securities throughout the year, genetic and phenotypic characterisation of the indigenous breeds to identify appropriate strains and sustainable methods of goat improvement through either selection or crossbreeding.

  18. Effect of Crossbreed on the Muscle Quality (Chemical Composition) in Yun-Ling Black Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Jun-jing; TIAN Yun-bo; ZHANG Xi; HUANG Qi-chao; WEN Sheng-ping; GU Feng-ying; GE Chang-rong; CAO Zhen-hui; CHENG Zhi-bin; M. Jois

    2009-01-01

    Twenty castrated male goats, each of Yun-Ling Black goats (YLB goat), N×YLB hybrid goats (Nubian ♂×Yun-Ling Black goats ♀) and B×YLB hybrid goats (Boer ♂×Yun-Ling Black goats ♀), were used to evaluate the effect of crossbreeding on the meat chemical composition in the YLB goats of China. After weaning of 90 days, all the experimental goats were reared on natural pasture when they were slaughtered at an age of 730 days. The longissimus dorsi (LD) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles were sampled from each carcass to determine chemical compositions. Both hybrid goats had higher protein content (P0.05). The YLB goats had significantly higher (P0.05). In contrast, the proportion of poly-unsaturated in the YLB goats was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that in the hybrid goats.

  19. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 in milk and dairy products from Libya: Isolation and molecular identification by partial sequencing of 16S rDNA

    OpenAIRE

    Aboubaker M. Garbaj; Enas M. Awad; Salah M. Azwai; Said K. Abolghait; Naas, Hesham T.; Moawad, Ashraf A.; Fatim T. Gammoudi; Ilaria Barbieri; Ibrahim M. Eldaghayes

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this work was to isolate and molecularly identify enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157 in milk and dairy products in Libya, in addition; to clear the accuracy of cultural and biochemical identification as compared with molecular identification by partial sequencing of 16S rDNA for the existing isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 108 samples of raw milk (cow, she-camel, and goat) and locally made dairy products (fermented cow’s milk, Maasora, Ricotta and ice c...

  20. Concentration of trace element in milk of West African dwarf goats affected by state of lactation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinsoyinu, A.O.; Tewe, O.O.; Mba, A.U.

    1979-06-01

    Ten adult West African dwarf (Fouta djallon) does about 2 yr old and weighing from 22 to 28 kg were kept for two lactations with 18 wk per lactation. During these periods the does were handmilked twice daily, and the daily samples were bulked for each animal for subsequent chemical analysis. Each goat was fed Cynodon nlemfuensis ad libitum and 1 kg of dairy concentrate mixture daily. Colostrum contained (mg/liter) much higher iron, 2.46 +- .27; copper, 3.14 +- .12; manganese, .20 +- .03; zinc, 14.11 +- .45; and iodine, 319.69 +- 14.13 mg/liter than the corresponding values in mature milk which were .43 +- .12; .28 +- .20; .5 +- .04; 4.01 +- .51, and 108.52 +- 28.25. These elements in the colostrum approached normal values between the 5th and 6th day after parturition. The concentration decreased with advance in lactation except for zinc.

  1. Anti-bacterial activity of recombinant human β-defensin-3 secreted in the milk of transgenic goats produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine whether recombinant human β-defensin-3 (rHBD3 in the milk of transgenic goats has an anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae that could cause mastitis. A HBD3 mammary-specific expression vector was transfected by electroporation into goat fetal fibroblasts which were used to produce fourteen healthy transgenic goats by somatic cell nuclear transfer. The expression level of rHBD3 in the milk of the six transgenic goats ranged from 98 to 121 µg/ml at 15 days of lactation, and was maintained at 90-111 µg/ml during the following 2 months. Milk samples from transgenic goats showed an obvious inhibitory activity against E. coli, S. aureus and S. agalactiae in vitro. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of rHBD3 in milk against E. coli, S. aureus and S. agalactiae were 9.5-10.5, 21.8-23.0 and 17.3-18.5 µg/mL, respectively, which was similar to those of the HBD3 standard (P>0.05. The in vivo anti-bacterial activities of rHBD3 in milk were examined by intramammary infusion of viable bacterial inoculums. We observed that 9/10 and 8/10 glands of non-transgenic goats infused with S. aureus and E. coli became infected. The mean numbers of viable bacteria went up to 2.9×10(3 and 95.4×10(3 CFU/ml at 48 h after infusion, respectively; the mean somatic cell counts (SCC in infected glands reached up to 260.4×10(5 and 622.2×10(5 cells/ml, which were significantly higher than the SCC in uninfected goat glands. In contrast, no bacteria was presented in glands of transgenic goats and PBS-infused controls, and the SSC did not significantly change throughout the period. Moreover, the compositions and protein profiles of milk from transgenic and non-transgenic goats were identical. The present study demonstrated that HBD3 were an effective anti-bacterial protein to enhance the mastitis resistance of dairy animals.

  2. Anti-bacterial activity of recombinant human β-defensin-3 secreted in the milk of transgenic goats produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Luo, Yan; Ge, Hengtao; Han, Chengquan; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yongsheng; Su, Jianmin; Quan, Fusheng; Gao, Mingqing; Zhang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine whether recombinant human β-defensin-3 (rHBD3) in the milk of transgenic goats has an anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Streptococcus agalactiae (S. agalactiae) that could cause mastitis. A HBD3 mammary-specific expression vector was transfected by electroporation into goat fetal fibroblasts which were used to produce fourteen healthy transgenic goats by somatic cell nuclear transfer. The expression level of rHBD3 in the milk of the six transgenic goats ranged from 98 to 121 µg/ml at 15 days of lactation, and was maintained at 90-111 µg/ml during the following 2 months. Milk samples from transgenic goats showed an obvious inhibitory activity against E. coli, S. aureus and S. agalactiae in vitro. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of rHBD3 in milk against E. coli, S. aureus and S. agalactiae were 9.5-10.5, 21.8-23.0 and 17.3-18.5 µg/mL, respectively, which was similar to those of the HBD3 standard (P>0.05). The in vivo anti-bacterial activities of rHBD3 in milk were examined by intramammary infusion of viable bacterial inoculums. We observed that 9/10 and 8/10 glands of non-transgenic goats infused with S. aureus and E. coli became infected. The mean numbers of viable bacteria went up to 2.9×10(3) and 95.4×10(3) CFU/ml at 48 h after infusion, respectively; the mean somatic cell counts (SCC) in infected glands reached up to 260.4×10(5) and 622.2×10(5) cells/ml, which were significantly higher than the SCC in uninfected goat glands. In contrast, no bacteria was presented in glands of transgenic goats and PBS-infused controls, and the SSC did not significantly change throughout the period. Moreover, the compositions and protein profiles of milk from transgenic and non-transgenic goats were identical. The present study demonstrated that HBD3 were an effective anti-bacterial protein to enhance the mastitis resistance of dairy animals.

  3. The cardiac biomarkers troponin I and CK-MB in nonpregnant and pregnant goats, goats with normal birth, goats with prolonged birth, and goats with pregnancy toxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharwat, M; Al-Sobayil, F; Al-Sobayil, K

    2012-10-15

    This study was designed to establish the reference range for the cardiac biomarkers cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and creatine kinase myocardial band (CK-MB) in nonpregnant and pregnant goats, goats with normal birth, goats with prolonged birth associated with dystocia, and goats with pregnancy toxemia. Fifty-seven does, categorized into three groups (G1 to G3), were used. These groups were comprised of 20 healthy does (G1), 19 does with prolonged birth (G2), and 18 does with pregnancy toxemia (G3). Six blood samples (T0 to T5) were collected from G1. The first blood sample (T0) was taken before insemination, the second (T1) at the first trimester, the third (T2) at the second trimester, the fourth (T3) at the last trimester, the fifth (T4) within 12 h of parturition, and the sixth blood sample (T5) was taken 10 days after parturition. A sample of blood was obtained from G2 and G3 upon admission to the hospital. At T0 to T3, no cTnI was detected in any of the 20 does in G1. At parturition (T4), seven of the 20 goats (35%) exhibited slightly elevated cTnI concentrations (range, 0.01 to 0.04 ng/mL). Ten days after parturition (T5), cTnI was not detected in any of the 20 goats. In 10 of the 19 goats (53%) with prolonged birth (G2), the cTnI was significantly elevated to a mean value of 0.094 ± 0.155 ng/mL, with a maximum value of 0.61 ng/mL. In 16 of the 18 goats (89%) with pregnancy toxemia (G3), the cTnI was significantly elevated to a value of 0.852 ± 1.472 ng/mL, with a maximum value of 5.219 ng/mL. Comparing the values of CK-MB in G1 (T0 to T5), G2 and G3 revealed nonsignificant differences. Only a slight elevation in the CK-MB levels in goats with prolonged birth (G2) was noted. We concluded that in healthy does, the cardiac biomarker cTnI is not elevated during normal pregnancy. The serum cTnI concentration may be elevated in a number of goats at normal vaginal or cesarean delivery. Finally, cTnI is significantly elevated in does with pregnancy toxemia and could

  4. Genetic Relationship Between Gembrong Goat, Kacang Goat and Kacang X Etawah Crossbred (PE Based on Their Mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Lanang Oka

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Gembrong goat is a specific type of goat which has long hair covers its whole body including its neckand face, originated from eastern part of Bali (Karangasem. A study of this type of goat and its relationshipwith other local goats (Kacang and Kacang x Etawah crossbred was carried out at Sawe village, Jembrana,Bali.. A number of 12 gembrong goats, 3 kacang goats from Kubu village, Karangasem and 3 Kacang xEtawah crossbred goats from Denpasar were used in this study. Blood samples of all goats were collectedfor mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA analysis. PCR amplification of D-loop mitochondrial DNA was carriedout by using two primers i.e. CAP-F (5’-CGTGTATGCAAGTACATTAC -3’ and CAP-R (5’-CTGATTAGTCATTAGTCCATC – 3’ . Sequencing of 550 bp (base-pairs of mitochondrial DNA (productof PCR only found one polymorphic site at base number 231 with two haplotypes in gembrong goat only,while the other base-pairs were similar between the three goat types (Gembrong, Kacang and Kacang xEtawah crossbred .The frequency of haplotype 1 was 83.3% and the frequency of haplotype 2 was 16.7%.It was concluded that based on their mitochondrial DNA sequences and “phylogenic analysis”, the threetypes of goat (Gembrong,Kacang and Kacang xEtawah crossbred had a very close genetic relationship(kinship.

  5. Outgrowth of fibroblast cells from goat skin explants in three different culture media and the establishment of cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mahipal; Sharma, Anil K

    2011-02-01

    Three different commercially available media, known to support human and porcine-specific fibroblast cultures, were tested for their growth potential on goat skin explants. Although outgrowth of fibroblasts was observed in all media tested, irrespective of breed, porcine-specific media exhibited higher rate of growth. Using this media, three fibroblast cell lines (GSF289, GSF737, and GSF2010) from ear skin explants of normal healthy dairy goats of Kiko and Saanen breed were successfully established in culture. Liquid nitrogen stocks of these frozen cells had a viability rate of 96.2% in in vitro cultures. These cells were morphologically indistinguishable from the cell stocks prior to freezing. Analysis of the growth of a fifth passage culture revealed an 'S' shaped growth curve with a population doubling time of 25 h. The cell lines were found negative for microbial, fungal, and mycoplasma contaminations. These goat skin fibroblast lines and the simple method of their isolation and freezing with high rate of viability will provide additional tools to study molecular mechanisms that regulate fibroblast function and for genetic manipulation of small ruminants.

  6. Efficiency of feeding Duddingtonia flagrans chlamydospores to control nematode parasites of first-season grazing goats in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraud, C; Pors, I; Chartier, C

    2007-04-01

    A field trial, conducted over two consecutive years, was aimed at assessing the efficacy of the administration of spores of the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans to young goats for the control of nematode parasite infections on a French commercial dairy goat flock. For both years, the first-year grazing kids were divided into two similarly managed groups (fungus and control groups): in 2003 a daily dose rate of 5 x 10(5) spores/kg body weight was given to the fungus-group animals, while in 2004 a daily dose rate of 10(6) spores/kg body weight was used; the other half of the kids, acting as control, did not receive the spores. Parameters measured every 3 weeks included nematode egg excretion, larval development in faecal cultures and pasture larval counts. Additionally, at the beginning, the middle and the end of each grazing season, the goats were weighed and blood samples for pepsinogen determination were collected. In 2003, similar results were recorded for all the measured parameters in the control and fungus groups. In contrast, in 2004, the kids receiving the spores showed lower faecal egg counts and pepsinogen levels at the end of the season and higher growth rate compared to kids of the control group.

  7. Reducing Dietary Cation-Anion Difference on Acid-Base Balance, Plasma Minerals Level and Anti-Oxidative Stress of Female Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Wen-xuan; YANG Yi; ZHANG Ji-kun; LI Sheng-li

    2013-01-01

    Reducing dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) has been proved an effective way to prevent milk fever in dairy cows. Based on the similar physiological gastro-intestinal tract anatomy and metabolic process between female goats and dairy cows, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of varying DCAD on fluid acid-base status, plasma minerals concentration and anti-oxidative stress capacity of female goats. Urinary pH, plasma Ca, P and Mg;and anti-oxidative stress indices of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined to evaluate the effect. Forty-eight Guizhou black female goats ((15±1.9) mon of old, (22.3±3.75) kg of BW) were randomly allocated to 4 blocks of 12 goats each and were fed 1 of 4 diets differed in DCAD level (calculated as Na+K-Cl-S, mEq kg-1 DM). Levels of DCAD were preliminarily designed to be control (+150 mEq kg-1 DM, CON), high DCAD (+300 mEq kg-1 DM, HD), low DCAD (0 mEq kg-1 DM, LD) and negative DCAD (-150 mEq kg-1 DM, ND), respectively. A commercial anionic salts (Animate) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) were supplemented to reduce and increase DCAD level, respectively. There was no difference in dry matter intake for 4 groups of goats. Urine pH was aggressively decreased (P0.05) plasma Mg level. There was no significant (P>0.05) difference in plasma GSH-Px activity and H2O2, but anionic salts supplementation in LD and ND significantly increased (P<0.05) plasma T-SOD activity and tended to reduce MDA (P<0.1) over HD and CON. Results from this study indicated that reducing DCAD could decrease urine pH and increase plasma Ca concentration of female goats. Additionally, reducing DCAD was helpful to enhance anti-oxidative stress capability of female goats.

  8. Effect of rice bran as a replacement for oat grain in energy and nitrogen balance, methane emissions, and milk performance of Murciano-Granadina goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscioni, P; Fernández, C

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of substituting oat grain with rice bran on energy, nitrogen and carbon balance, methane emissions, and milk performance in dairy goats. Ten Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in late lactation (46.1 ± 3.07 kg) were assigned to 2 treatments in a crossover design, where each goat received both treatments in 2 periods. One group of 5 goats was fed a mixed ration with 379 g of oat grain/kg of dry matter (O diet) and the other group of 5 goats was fed a diet that replaced oat grain with 379 g/kg dry matter of rice bran (RB diet). Diets were formulated to be isoenergetic and isoproteic, so bypass fat was added to reach the same amount of energy in both diets. The goats were allocated to individual metabolism cages. After 14 d of adaptation, feed intake, total fecal and urine outputs, and milk yield were recorded daily over a 5-d period. Then, gas exchange measurements were recorded individually by a mobile open-circuit indirect calorimetry system using a head box. Dry matter intake was different for both diets [1.83 ± 0.11 vs. 1.61 ± 0.08 (means ± SD), for O and RB, respectively]. Metabolizable energy intake and heat production were not significantly different between diets, with average values of 1,254 [standard error of the mean (SEM) = 110.0] and 640 (SEM = 21.0) kJ/kg of BW(0.75), respectively. Significant differences were found in milk fat content (5.3 and 6.9%, SEM = 0.36; for O and RB, respectively) and milk fatty acids: medium-chain fatty acids (17.17 vs. 12.90 g/100g, SEM = 0.969; for O and RB, respectively) and monounsaturated fatty acids (20.63 vs. 28.29 g/100g, SEM = 1.973; for O and RB, respectively). Enteric CH4 emission was lower for the RB diet (23.2 vs. 30.1g/d, SEM = 2.14; for O and RB, respectively), probably because of the higher lipid content in RB diets than O diets (11.7 vs. 4.1%, respectively). Lactating goats utilized RB without detrimental effects on energy metabolism. Higher milk fat

  9. U.S. Dairy Forage Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Vision: Leading the world in integrated dairy forage systems research. Mission: Providing dairy industry solutions for food security, environmental sustainability,...

  10. U.S. DAIRY FORAGE RESEARCH CENTER

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Vision: Leading the world in integrated dairy forage systems research. Mission: Providing dairy industry solutions for food security, environmental sustainability,...

  11. Trace metal accumulations in tissues of goats fed silage produced on sewage sludge-amended soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, B.J.; Dowdy, R.H.; Goodrich, R.D.; Pamp, D.E.

    Studies were conducted to document the impact of sewage sludge-fertilized corn (Zea mays L.) on the feed and food chain under controlled experimental conditions that eliminated any direct ingestion of sewage sludge by animals. Accumulations of trace metals were measured in various tissues of dairy goats (Capra hircus) consuming corn silage that contained up to 5.3 mg Cd/kg and 113 mg Zn/kg, for 3 consecutive years. The Cd concentrations in goat livers increased as the amount of silage-borne Cd increased and reached a high concentration of 2.94 mg/kg. Kidney Cd concentrations were approximately 10 times greater than those observed in liver, ranging from 3 mg/kg for animals fed control corn silage to 22 mg/kg for those consuming silage grown on soil amended with the highest rate of sewage sludge. However, this concentration is an order of magnitude less than the critical level suggested for induction of renal dysfunction. Kidney Zn ranged from 76.6 to 91.8 mg/kg with animals fed control silage having less Zn than animals fed sludge-fertilized corn silage. Concentrations of Zn in livers did not differ among treatments. Copper concentrations in livers and kidneys were significantly lower (approximately 2 mg/kg) in animals receiving sludge-fertilized silage than in animals fed control silage. The reduced Cu absorption may have been caused by a Cd and/or Zn metabolic interference. The elemental concentrations of 12 other metals and minerals in goat liver and kidney were not affected by treatment. Similarly, elemental concentrations in heart and muscle were not affected by treatment.

  12. Hormone-free protocols for the control of reproduction and artificial insemination in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Sebastián, A; Coloma, M A; Toledano, A; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2014-10-01

    The dairy goat industry is of great economic importance to certain rural areas of the European Union (EU), especially the Mediterranean region. Its sustainability, however, is severely affected by the seasonality of goat reproduction, which leads to fluctuations in the availability of final products. Classical hormone treatments based on progestagens and eCG are the main tools employed in the effort to achieve fertility outside of the normal breeding season. They are also used to induce and synchronize oestrus and ovulation in artificial insemination programs. The food safety policy of the EU is becoming ever stricter with regard to the use of hormonal treatments for reproductive purposes, pushing livestock-raising towards ever cleaner and greener production systems. Recent advances in the use of natural methods able to generate endocrine signals that induce the ovulatory process have improved our capacity to foster reproduction in the non-breeding season. When used in a fashion appropriate for the latitude at which animals live, their breed, and the management system under which they are raised, environmental (photoperiod), nutritional and sociosexual (the male effect) signals offer alternatives to classic hormonal techniques. This affords the fragile and heterogeneous goat production sector with new opportunities. This article describes the most representative advances made in the use of the male effect as a natural method of inducing ovulation during seasonal anoestrus. Its association with other methods for optimizing responses and synchronizing induced ovulation is also discussed; such associations allow it to be used as an alternative to hormonal treatment in artificial insemination programs.

  13. Genetic diversity and some aspects of antimicrobial activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavicchioli, Valéria Quintana; Dornellas, Wesley Dos Santos; Perin, Luana Martins; Pieri, Fábio Alessandro; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Todorov, Svetoslav Dimitrov; Nero, Luís Augusto

    2015-03-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB, n = 57) were previously obtained from raw goat milk, identified as Lactococcus spp. (n = 24) and Enterococcus spp. (n = 33), and characterized as bacteriocinogenic. Fingerprinting by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) demonstrated high genetic diversity, and 30 strains were selected and exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against 46 target strains (LAB, spoilage, and foodborne pathogens). Six strains (Lactococcus lactis: GLc03 and GLc05; and Enterococcus durans: GEn09, GEn12, GEn14, and GEn17) were selected to characterize their bacteriocinogenic features, using Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 7644 as the target. The six strains produced bacteriocins at higher titer when incubated in MRS at 37 °C up to 12 h, when compared to growth at 25 and 30 °C. The produced bacteriocins kept their antimicrobial activity after exposure to 100 °C for 2 h and 121 °C for 20 min; the antimicrobial activity was also observed after treatment at pH 2.0 to 10.0, except for GLc03. L. monocytogenes populations were reduced approximately two logs after treatment with cell-free supernatants from the selected strains. These data show that goat milk can contain a diverse microbiota able to inhibit L. monocytogenes, a common pathogen found in dairy products, and can be potentially employed in biopreservation of food produced under different processing conditions.

  14. Factors Influencing the Concentration of Certain Liposoluble Components in Cow and Goat Milk: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria COZMA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat contains a large number of fatty acids (FA and other liposoluble components that exhibit various effects on human health. The present article reviews some of the factors affecting FA, vitamin A and cholesterol concentrations in milk from dairy cow and goat. Milk fat composition is linked to many factors, both intrinsic (animal species, breed, lactation stage and extrinsic (environmental. The effect of animal species on milk fat composition is important, as reflected by higher concentrations of short- and medium-chain FA, vitamin A and cholesterol in goat than in cow milk. In a given ruminant species, the effects linked to breed are significant but limited and they can only be achieved over long periods of time. The lactation stage has an important effect on milk FA composition, mainly linked to body fat mobilisation in early lactation, but it only lasts a few weeks each year. Furthermore, changes in feeding have a marked influence on milk fat composition. Changing the forages in the diet of ruminants, pasture in particular, or supplementing lipids to the diet, represent an efficient mean to modify milk fat composition by decreasing saturated FA and cholesterol, and increasing cis-9,trans-11-CLA and vitamin A. Nutrition therefore constitutes a natural strategy to rapidly modulate milk FA, vitamin A and cholesterol composition, with the overall aim of improving the long-term health of consumers.

  15. Fatal melioidosis in goats in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonpitak, Walaiporn; Sornklien, Chulabha; Chawanit, Mongkol; Pavasutthipaisit, Suvarin; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Hantrakun, Viriya; Amornchai, Premjit; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Day, Nicholas P J; Yingst, Samuel; Peacock, Sharon J; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

    2014-08-01

    Bangkok, Thailand, is a city considered to be at low risk for melioidosis. We describe 10 goats that died of melioidosis in Bangkok. Half of them were born and reared in the city. Multilocus sequence typing ruled out an outbreak. This finding challenges the assumption that melioidosis is rarely acquired in central Thailand.

  16. Infiltrative Cutaneous Hemangiolipoma in a Goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R. Collier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An approximately 4-year-old castrated male, Saanen cross goat presented to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation and removal of a 22 cm × 22 cm, dark red, thickened, and crusted cutaneous lesion along the left ventrolateral thorax. An initial incisional biopsy performed approximately 8 weeks earlier was suspicious for cutaneous hemangiosarcoma. Surgical excision was deemed to be the most appropriate treatment option for this goat. A complete physical exam, complete blood count, and chemistry profile were performed and results were within normal limits. Thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound were performed to rule out metastatic disease and comorbid conditions; no metastatic lesions or other abnormalities were observed. En bloc surgical excision of the affected skin was performed and the entire tissue was submitted for histopathology. A final diagnosis of cutaneous hemangiolipoma was reached upon extensive sectioning and histologic examination of the larger tissue specimen. The goat recovered well from surgery and has had no further complications up to 9 months postoperatively. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a hemangiolipoma in a goat and surgical excision for such lesions appears to be a viable treatment method.

  17. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Van den R.; Engelen, van E.; Roest, H.I.J.; Hoek, van der W.; Vellema, P.

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirt

  18. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Van den R.; Engelen, van E.; Roest, H.I.J.; Hoek, van der W.; Vellema, P.

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and

  19. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Van den R.; Engelen, van E.; Roest, H.I.J.; Hoek, van der W.; Vellema, P.

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirt

  20. A conjugated linoleic acid (CLA supplement containing trans-10, cis-12 CLA reduces milk fat synthesis in lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bauman

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of a lipid-encapsulated trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid supplement (LE-CLA on milk production and milk fatty acid (FA profile was investigated. Thirty multiparous Alpine lactating goats (50 ± 7.4 kg in late lactation were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Does were fed a diet of bermudagrass hay, dehydrated alfalfa pellets, and concentrate. Does were randomly allocated to three treatments; A unsupplemented (Control, B supplemented with 30 g/d LE-CLA (low-dose; LLE, and C supplemented with 60 g/d LE-CLA (high-dose; HLE. Milk yield, DMI, and milk protein content and yield were unaffected by treatment (P > 0.05. Compared with Control, milk fat yield was reduced 8.1% by the LLE treatment and 21.2% by the HLE treatment (P < 0.001, with milk fat content reduced 4.8 and 17.6% by the LLE and HLE treatments, respectively (P < 0.001. Milk fat content of trans-10, cis-12 CLA was 0.03, 0.09 and 0.19 g/100 g of fatty acids for the Control, LLE and HLE treatments, respectively. The transfer efficiency of trans-10, cis-12 CLA from the two levels of CLA supplement into milk fat was not different between treatments and averaged 1.85%. In conclusion, trans-10, cis- 12 CLA reduced milk fat synthesis in lactating goats in a manner similar to that observed for lactating dairy cows and sheep. However, dose-response comparisons suggest that the degree of reduction in milk fat synthesis is less in goats compared with sheep and dairy cows.

  1. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from raw goat milk and effect of farming practices on the dominant species of lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormo, Hélène; Ali Haimoud Lekhal, Djamila; Roques, C

    2015-10-01

    Lactic acid bacteria, in particular Lactococcus lactis, play a decisive role in the cheese making process and more particularly in lactic cheeses which are primarily produced on goat dairy farms. The objective of this study was therefore to identify the main lactic acid bacteria found in raw goats' milk from three different regions in France and evaluate if certain farming practices have an effect on the distribution of species of lactic acid bacteria in the various milk samples. Identification at genus or species level was carried out using phenotypic tests and genotypic methods including repetitive element REP-PCR, species-specific PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The distribution of the main bacterial species in the milk samples varied depending on farms and their characteristics. Out of the 146 strains identified, L. lactis was the dominant species (60% of strains), followed by Enterococcus (38%) of which Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Within the species L. lactis, L. lactis subsp lactis was detected more frequently than L. lactis subsp cremoris (74% vs. 26%). The predominance of L. lactis subsp cremoris was linked to geographical area studied. It appears that th