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Sample records for sanitary landfill vinyl

  1. Ammonia nitrogen desorption from sanitary landfill leachate in filling towers

    OpenAIRE

    Leite,Valderi D.; Barros,Aldre J. M.; Lopes,Wilton S.; Sousa,José T. de

    2014-01-01

    Sanitary landfill leachates present high concentrations of carbonaceous and nitrogenous materials. The crucial point is that carbonaceous materials are of difficult biodegradation, what compromises the performance of biological treatment processes, while nitrogenous materials, such as ammonia nitrogen, probably preclude the use of biological treatments. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the desorption process of ammonia nitrogen from sanitary landfill leachate in filling towers. De...

  2. Electrochemical treatment of leachates from sanitary landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNABEL FERNANDES

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical treatment of leachate samples from a Portuguese intermunicipal sanitary landfill was carried out using anodic oxidation. The treatment was performed in a pilot plant that possesses an electrochemical cell, with boron-doped diamond electrodes, working in batch mode with recirculation. The influence of the applied current density and the flow rate on the performance of the electrochemical oxidation was investigated. Current density was decreased by steps, during the degradation, in order to study this effect on the efficiency of the process. For the assays run at equal flow rate and initial current intensity, chemical oxygen demand (COD removal seems to depend mainly on the charge passed and the variation of the current density during the anodic oxidation process can reduce the energetic costs. An increase in the recirculation flow rate leads to an increase in the organic load removal rate and a consequent decrease in the energetic costs, but it decreases the nitrogen removal rate. Also, the bias between dissolved organic carbon and COD removals increases with flow rate, indicating that an increase in recirculation flow rate decreases the mineralization index.

  3. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth Quarter 1997 and 1997 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1998-02-01

    A maximum of forty-eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Chloroethene (vinyl chloride) and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1997. Lead (total recoverable), 1,4-dichlorobenzene, mercury, benzene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), a common laboratory contaminant, tetrachloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, gross alpha, tritium, and 1.2-dichloropropane also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 139 ft/year during first quarter 1997 and 132 ft/year during fourth quarter.

  4. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. Second Quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  5. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standards for lead or the SRS flagging criteria.

  6. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report, Third Quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-12-08

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Third Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  7. International training seminar: high training on sanitary landfills design, Madrid 7-11, April 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The seminar on design of sanitary landfills was articulated in 5 sessions: 1.- Design of sanitary landfills depending on the quality of wastes. 2.- Legal, techniques and administrative aspects of management. 3.- Geotechniques studies 4.- Biogas 5.- Environmental impact of sanitary landfills.

  8. Methods of Sensing Land Pollution from Sanitary Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosanov, Myron Ellis; Bowerman, Frank R.

    1971-01-01

    Major cities are congested and large sites suitable for landfill development are limited. Methane and other gases are produced at most sanitary landfills and dumps. These gases may migrate horizontally and vertically and have caused fatalities. Monitoring these gases provides data bases for design and construction of safe buildings on and adjacent to landfills. Methods of monitoring include: (1) a portable combustible gas indicator; and (2) glass flasks valved to allow simultaneous exhaust of the flask and aspiration of the sample into the flask. Samples are drawn through tubing from probes as deep as twenty-five feet below the surface.

  9. Interim Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report (1998 Annual Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, D.

    1999-03-18

    The SRS Interim Sanitary Landfill opened in Mid-1992 and operated until 1998 under Domestic Waste Permit No. 025500-1120. Several contaminants have been detected in the groundwater beneath the unit.The well sampling and analyses were conducted in accordance with Procedure 3Q5, Hydrogeologic Data Collection.

  10. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report - Third and Fourth Quarters 2000 and 2000 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    2001-03-07

    A maximum of forty wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Quality Assessment Plan. Chloroethene (vinyl chloride) and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituent exceeding the Final Primary Drinking Water Standards during the calendar year 2000. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, benzene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), gross alpha, lead (total recoverable) mercury (total recoverable), thallium (total recoverable), and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill is to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate at this unit was approximately 122.64 ft/year during first quarter 2000 and 132.28 ft/year during fourth quarter 2000.

  11. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report - Third and Fourth Quarters 2000 and 2000 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    2001-03-07

    A maximum of forty wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Quality Assessment Plan. Chloroethene (vinyl chloride) and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituent exceeding the Final Primary Drinking Water Standards during the calendar year 2000. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, benzene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), gross alpha, lead (total recoverable) mercury (total recoverable), thallium (total recoverable), and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill is to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate at this unit was approximately 122.64 ft/year during first quarter 2000 and 132.28 ft/year during fourth quarter 2000.

  12. Interim Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 (formerly dWP-087A) and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  13. US EPA record of decision review for landfills: Sanitary landfill (740-G), Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Record of Decision System (RODS) database search conducted to identify Superfund landfill sites where a Record of Decision (ROD) has been prepared by EPA, the States or the US Army Corps of Engineers describing the selected remedy at the site. ROD abstracts from the database were reviewed to identify site information including site type, contaminants of concern, components of the selected remedy, and cleanup goals. Only RODs from landfill sites were evaluated so that the results of the analysis can be used to support the remedy selection process for the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  14. Characterization and toxicological evaluation of leachate from closed sanitary landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenike, Chijioke U; Fauziah, Shahul H; Agamuthu, P

    2012-09-01

    Landfilling is a major option in waste management hierarchy in developing nations. It generates leachate, which has the potential of polluting watercourses. This study analysed the physico-chemical components of leachate from a closed sanitary landfill in Malaysia, in relation to evaluating the toxicological impact on fish species namely Pangasius sutchi S., 1878 and Clarias batrachus L., 1758. The leachate samples were taken from Air Hitam Sanitary Landfill (AHSL) and the static method of acute toxicity testing was experimented on both fish species at different leachate concentrations. Each fish had an average of 1.3 ± 0.2 g wet weight and length of 5.0 ± 0.1 cm. Histology of the fishes was examined by analysing the gills of the response (dead) group, using the Harris haemtoxylin and eosin (H&E) method. Finneys' Probit method was utilized as a statistical tool to evaluate the data from the fish test. The physico-chemical analysis of the leachate recorded pH 8.2 ± 0.3, biochemical oxygen demand 3500 ± 125 mg L(-1), COD 10 234 ± 175 mg L(-1), ammonical nitrogen of 880 ± 74 mg L(-1), benzene 0.22 ± 0.1 mg L(-1) and toluene 1.2 ± 0.4 mg L(-1). The 50% lethality concentration (LC(50)) values calculated after 96 h exposure were 3.2% (v/v) and 5.9% (v/v) of raw leachate on P. sutchi and C. batrachus, respectively. The H&E staining showed denaturation of the nucleus and cytoplasm of the gills of the response groups. Leachate from the sanitary landfill was toxic to both fish species. The P. sutchi and C. batrachus may be used as indicator organisms for leachate pollution in water.

  15. MATERIALS FOR THE FINAL COVER OF SANITARY LANDFILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davorin Kovačić

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the selection of materials for the sea¬ling layer in the final cover of sanitary landfills. The sealing la¬yer is the most critical component of the final cover. Its role is to minimize percolation of water through the final cover. Ma¬terials used for the construction of the sealing layer are either of mineral origin (compacted clay or geosynthetic (geomem¬brane. They are most often used in combination creating com¬posite liners. Recently alternative materials are also used like paper mill sludge or discarded swelling clay.

  16. Sanitary landfill groundwater quality assessment plan Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, D.G.; Cook, J.W.

    1990-06-01

    This assessment monitoring plan has been prepared in accordance with the guidance provided by the SCDHEC in a letter dated December 7, 1989 from Pearson to Wright and a letter dated October 9, 1989 from Keisler to Lindler. The letters are included a Appendix A, for informational purposes. Included in the plan are all of the monitoring data from the landfill monitoring wells for 1989, and a description of the present monitoring well network. The plan proposes thirty-two new wells and an extensive coring project that includes eleven soil borings. Locations of the proposed wells attempt to follow the SCDHEC guidelines and are downgradient, sidegradient and in the heart of suspected contaminant plumes. Also included in the plan is the current Savannah River Site Sampling and Analysis Plan and the well construction records for all of the existing monitoring wells around the sanitary landfill.

  17. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1996 and 1996 summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    A maximum of eighty-nine wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Dichloromethane, a common laboratory contaminant, and chloroethene (vinyl chloride) were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1996. Benzene, trichloroethylene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead (total recoverable), gross alpha, mercury (total recoverable), tetrachloroethylene, fluoride, thallium, radium-226, radium-228, and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 141 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 132 ft/year during fourth quarter 1996

  18. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fourth Quarter 1999 and 1999 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    2000-03-13

    A maximum of thirty eight-wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Iron (Total Recoverable), Chloroethene (Vinyl Chloride) and 1,1-Dichloroethane were the most widespread constituents exceeding the Final Primary Drinking Water Standards during 1999. Trichloroethylene, 1,1-Dichloroethylene, 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, Aluminum (Total Recoverable), Benzene, cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene, Dichlorodifluoromethane, Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride), Gross Alpha, Mercury (Total Recoverable), Nonvolatile Beta, Tetrachloroethylene, Total Organic Halogens, Trichlorofluoromethane, Tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill is to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 144.175 ft/year during first quarter 1999 and 145.27 ft/year during fourth quarter 1999.

  19. Interim sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. 1996 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagwell, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Trichlorofluoromethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were elevated in one sidegradient well and one downgradient well during 1996. Zinc was elevated in three downgradient wells and also was detected in the associated laboratory blanks for two of those wells. Specific conductance was elevated in one background well and one sidegradient well. Barium and copper exceeded standards in one sidegradient well, and dichloromethane (a common laboratory contaminant) was elevated in another sidegradient well. Barium, copper, and dichloromethane were detected in the associated blanks for these wells, also. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Acquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 210 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 180 ft/yr during third quarter 1996.

  20. Sanitary landfill local-scale flow and transport modeling in support of alternative concentrations limit demonstrations, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, V.A.; Beach, J.A.; Statham, W.H.; Pickens, J.F. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1993-02-19

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located near Aiken, South Carolina which is currently operated and managed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Sanitary Landfill (Sanitary Landfill) at the SRS is located approximately 2,000 feet Northwest of Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) on an approximately 70 acre site located south of Road C between the SRS B-Area and UTRC. The Sanitary Landfill has been receiving wastes since 1974 and operates as an unlined trench and fill operation. The original landfill site was 32 acres. This area reached its capacity around 1987 and a Northern Expansion of 16 acres and a Southern Expansion of 22 acres were added in 1987. The Northern Expansion has not been used for waste disposal to date and the Southern Expansion is expected to reach capacity in 1992 or 1993. The waste received at the Sanitary Landfill is predominantly paper, plastics, rubber, wood, metal, cardboard, rags saturated with degreasing solvents, pesticide bags, empty cans, and asbestos in bags. The landfill is not supposed to receive any radioactive wastes. However, tritium has been detected in the groundwater at the site. Gross alpha and gross beta are also evaluated at the landfill. The objectives of this modeling study are twofold: (1) to create a local scale Sanitary Landfill flow model to study hydraulic effects resulting from capping the Sanitary Landfill; and (2) to create a Sanitary Landfill local scale transport model to support ACL Demonstrations for a RCRA Part B Permit Renewal.

  1. Application of Grey Situation Decision-Making Theory in Site Selection of a Waste Sanitary Landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Li-wen; CHENG Yun-huan; ZHANG Jing; ZHOU Xiao-zhi; LIAN Cui-xia

    2006-01-01

    An application of an unequal-weighted multi-objective decision making method in site selection of a waste sanitary landfill is discussed. The eight factors, which affected possible options, were: size and capacity of the landfill, permeability of the stratum, the average difference in elevation between the groundwater level and the bottom of the landfill pit, quality and source of clay, the quality grade of the landfill site, the effect of landfill engineering on nearby residents, distance to the water supply and the water source as well as the cost of construction and waste transport. These are determined, given the conditions of the geological environment, the need for environmental protection and landfill site construction and transportation related to the design and operation of a sanitary landfill. The weights of the eight factors were further investigated based on the difference in their relevance. Combined with practical experience from Xuzhou city (Jiangsu province, China), the objectives, effects and weights of grey decision-making were determined and the process and outcome of the landfill site selection are stated in detail. The decision-making results have been proven to be acceptable and correct. As we show, unequal-weighted multi-objective grey situation decision-mak- ing is characterized by easy calculations and good maneuverability when used in landfill site selection. The number of factors (objectives) affecting the outcome and the quantitative method of qualitative indices can be adjusted on the basis of concrete conditions in landfill site selection. Therefore, unequal-weighted multi-objective grey situation decision making is a feasible method in selecting landfill sites which offers a reference method for landfill site selection elsewhere. It is a useful, rational and scientific exploration in the choice of a landfill site.

  2. The Application Of Biofilter System For Reduction Of Methane Emissions From Modern Sanitary Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, K.; Park, S.

    2007-12-01

    Increased atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG) caused by anthropogenic activities has been related to global climate change. Methane, the second most important GHG after CO2, is 21 times more effective at trapping heat than CO2. Therefore, methane emission control is of utmost importance for global warming reduction. To minimize leachate production and protect groundwater resources, modern sanitary landfills are equipped with composite covers and gas collection systems. Methane from modern sanitary landfills is vented directly to the atmosphere, except for some of the largest landfills where it is recovered as energy and burned at the site. However, the efficiency of energy recovery systems in larger landfills is reduced as the amount of CH4 generated from landfill begins to decrease. In this study, the performance of a lab-scale model biofilter system was investigated to treat CH4 gas emitted from modern sanitary landfills by conducting batch and column experiments using landfill cover soil amended with earthworm cast as the filter bed medium. From the batch experiments to measure the influence of moisture content and temperature of the filter medium on CH4 removal capacity of a biofilter system, the optimum moisture content and temperature were found to be 10-15% by weight and 25-35°C, respectively. The column experiment was conducted to measure the influence of inlet CH4 concentration and CH4 loading rate on CH4 removal capacity of a biofilter system. As the inlet CH4 concentration decreased, the percentage of CH4 oxidized increased. Up to a CH4 loading rate of 2785 g CH4 m3 h- 1 (EBRT = 7.7 min), the CH4 removal efficiency of the biofilter was able to reach 100%. Based on the results of the study, the installation of a properly managed biofilter system should be capable of achieving a reduction in atmospheric CH4 emissions from modern sanitary landfills at low CH4 generation stage.

  3. Phyto cover for Sanitary Landfill Sites: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavya D. Shah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Landfill gases (LFG are produced due to biodegradation of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW when water comes in contact with buried wastes. The conventional clay cover is still practiced to mitigate the percolation of water in landfills in India. Gas extraction systems in landfill for gas collection are used but are much expensive. Thus, “Phytocapping” technique can be one of the alternatives to mitigate landfill gases and to minimize percolation of water into the landfill. Indian plants with locally available soil and municipal solid waste can be tested for the purpose of methane mitigation, heavy metals remediation from leachate. Methane oxidation due to vegetation can be observed compared to non-vegetated landfill. Root zone methane concentrations can be monitored for the plant species.

  4. Sanitary Landfilling – A Key Component of Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Johann Fellner

    2013-01-01

    In many affluent countries waste management is experiencing a fast transition from landfilling to sophisticated recycling and waste to energy plants. Thus, landfilling of waste becomes less important in these countries. The present paper discusses whether a similar development will take place in transition economies, or waste management systems will mainly rely on landfilling in the near future. For this purpose, the current waste management practices and associated environmental impacts as w...

  5. Size-resolved culturable airborne bacteria sampled in rice field, sanitary landfill, and waste incineration sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Yongju; Park, Jiyeon; Lim, Sung-Il; Hur, Hor-Gil; Kim, Daesung; Park, Kihong

    2010-08-01

    Size-resolved bacterial concentrations in atmospheric aerosols sampled by using a six stage viable impactor at rice field, sanitary landfill, and waste incinerator sites were determined. Culture-based and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods were used to identify the airborne bacteria. The culturable bacteria concentration in total suspended particles (TSP) was found to be the highest (848 Colony Forming Unit (CFU)/m(3)) at the sanitary landfill sampling site, while the rice field sampling site has the lowest (125 CFU/m(3)). The closed landfill would be the main source of the observed bacteria concentration at the sanitary landfill. The rice field sampling site was fully covered by rice grain with wetted conditions before harvest and had no significant contribution to the airborne bacteria concentration. This might occur because the dry conditions favor suspension of soil particles and this area had limited personnel and vehicle flow. The respirable fraction calculated by particles less than 3.3 mum was highest (26%) at the sanitary landfill sampling site followed by waste incinerator (19%) and rice field (10%), which showed a lower level of respiratory fraction compared to previous literature values. We identified 58 species in 23 genera of culturable bacteria, and the Microbacterium, Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus were the most abundant genera at the sanitary landfill, waste incinerator, and rice field sites, respectively. An antibiotic resistant test for the above bacteria (Micrococcus sp., Microbacterium sp., and Staphylococcus sp.) showed that the Staphylococcus sp. had the strongest resistance to both antibiotics (25.0% resistance for 32 microg ml(-1) of Chloramphenicol and 62.5% resistance for 4 microg ml(-1) of Gentamicin).

  6. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report - Fourth Quarter 1998 and 1998 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-04-09

    A maximum of fifty-three wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water permit and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  7. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report - Fourth Quarter 1998 and 1998 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-04-09

    A maximum of fifty-three wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water permit and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  8. Life cycle analysis of sanitary landfill and incineration of municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪晋仁; 韦洪莲; 刘阳生; 赵智杰

    2002-01-01

    Environmental consequences from sanitary landfill as well as incineration with power generation were compared in terms of life cycle analysis (LCA) for Laohukeng Waste-disposal Plant that is under consideration in Shenzhen. A variety of differences will be resulted from the two technologies, from which the primary issue that affects the conclusion is if the compensatory phase in power generation can be properly considered in the boundary definition of LCA. Upon the compensatory phase is taken into account in the landfill system, the negative environmental consequences from the landfill will be more significant than those from the incineration with power generation, although the reversed results can be obtained as the compensatory phase is neglected. In addition, mitigation of environmental impacts through the pollutant treatment in the incineration process will be more effective than in the landfill process.

  9. Evaluation of new location of Isfahan′s sanitary landfill site with Oleckno method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Salimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The objective of present study was to evaluate the new location of Isfahan solid waste sanitary landfill using Geographical Information System (GIS based on the Oleckno index method (OIM. Materials and Methods: This study was on the field- and library-based data collection and surveys of relevant data. Assessment parameters included average annual rainfall, soil type and ground water beneath and adjucent to the landfill site. To analyze data, ArcGIS version 9.3 was used. Results: In 2010 the total rainfall in the landfill location was less than 150 mm/year. The soil type was clay loam, and the average distance from the floor of the landfill to the groundwater level was 3-9 meters. As calculated results showed that, the Oleckno index (OI score in the study area was 40. Conclusion: The new Isfahan′s sanitary solid waste landfill site had a good OI and the possibility of contamination of groundwater by leachate production based on this method also was low.

  10. Final Disposal of Solid Waste in Sanitary Landfills and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Silveira Graudenz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a critical review of scientific literature on waste sanitary landfills and its effects on human health, with an approach to the adverse effects that are most commonly associated to living near waste landfills. The health variables included were low birth weight, congenital abnormalities, some types of neoplasms, allergies, asthma and other respiratory diseases using the MEDLINE, LILACS and CAPES’ thesis post graduation database for systematic review. In spite of the fact that some studies indicate positive asssociation between health risks and living close to landfills, the majority of the studies, mainly the most recent ones, do not demonstrate a significant health risk in this condition. Some common limitations and bias of the work in the field are discussed. The lack of direct quantification of exposure, lack of prospective approach and no comparaison of the different types and quality of management of the residues are common limitations to most studies. So far, there is weak evidence to support significant epidemiological health risks associated to landfills. More interdisciplinary research should improve the knoledge of the health risks related to living in the proximity to sanitary landfills.

  11. Barometric pumping of burial trench soil gases into the atmosphere at the 740-G Sanitary Landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyatt, D.E.; Pirkle, R.J.; Masdea, D.J.

    1992-12-01

    In 1991, a soil gas survey was performed at the Savannah River Site Sanitary Landfill as part of the characterization efforts required under the integrated Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation and Comprehensive Environmental Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation (RFI/RI) program. This report details the findings of this survey, which identified several areas of the landfill that were releasing volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere at levels exceeding regulatory standards. Knowledge of the rates of VOC outgassing is necessary to protect site workers, provide input into the human health and environmental risk assessment documents and provide input into the remedial design scenario.

  12. Preliminary site selection report for the new sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has proposed a new sanitary landfill (NSL) for solid waste. A site selection team, comprised of representatives from Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) evaluated potential landfill sites. The site selection team conducted an initial screening of SRS to eliminate unsuitable areas. The screening was based on criteria that were principally environmental factors; however, the criteria also included avoiding areas with unacceptable features for construction or operation of the facility. This initial screening identified seven candidate sites for further evaluation.

  13. Partial nitrification for nitrogen removal from sanitary landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagni, Alessandro; Psaila, Giuliana; Rizzo, Andrea

    2014-09-19

    Biological nitrogen removal using nitrite as a shortcut has recently been proposed for the treatment of high strength landfill leachate. The aim of this study was to assess the application of the SHARON (Single reactor High activity Ammonium Removal Over Nitrite) process for the partial nitrification of leachate generated in old landfills. Particular attention was given to the start-up phase of the process. This study demonstrated that partial nitrification can be obtained when treating raw leachate after biomass acclimation. Only a fraction (50-70%) of the ammonia present in the leachate can be oxidised due to a limited amount of alkalinity available. Stable nitritation was obtained by applying a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4-5 d, which is higher than the values proposed for the effluent of anaerobic digesters. This higher HRT could probably be allowed by the high concentration of free ammonia present in the leachate, which could severely inhibit the growth of nitrite-oxidising bacteria.

  14. Conceptual model elaboration for the safety assessment of phosphogypsum use in sanitary landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Stela D.; Braga, Leticia T.P.; Jacomino, Vanusa F., E-mail: sdsc@cdtn.b, E-mail: letsteixeira@gmail.co, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Phosphogypsum is a by-product of the phosphatic fertilizer production from the beneficiation of phosphate minerals (apatites). Produced in large quantities throughout the world and stored temporally in stacks, the final destination of this product is nowadays a subject of investigation. Due to the presence of radionuclides ({sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, mainly), possible applications for the phosphogypsum must be verified for radiological safety. The goal of this paper was to elaborate a representative water flow conceptual model of a sanitary landfill for the safety assessment of the impact of using phosphogypsum as a cover material. For this, the ground water flow in variably saturated conditions and solute transport model HYDRUS-2D has been used for simulating the impact in the saturated zone of potential radionuclides leaching. The conceptual model was developed by collecting and analyzing the data from environmental license documentation of municipal sanitary landfills located on the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In order to fulfill the requirements of HDRUS-2D model in terms of the necessary parameters, the physical characteristics and typical configuration of the landfills, as well as the hydrogeological parameters of soils and aquifers related to the local of placement of the landfills, were taken in account for the formulation of the conceptual model. (author)

  15. Study on the Natural Soil Properties Endau Rompin National Park (PETA as Compacted Soil Liner for Sanitary Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkifli Ahmad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper reviews and extends an understanding of a study on potential suitability of the natural soil in Endau Rompin National Park (PETA as a compacted soil liner for sanitary landfill. Since the demand for landfill system becomes obvious so that concerning construction and operation of landfills are increasing. A number of studies have been conducted for the liner system of landfill. Hence, study is required to choose the suitable type of material as liner barrier for the landfill system in term to achieve optimum long term performance. The sanitary landfill plays an important role in the framework of solid waste disposal. The compacted soil liner is a part of a liner structure for landfill to restrict leachate migration from facility into the environment. So that, if the landfill system is not well manage it will contaminate the soil and ground water, thus presenting a risk to human and environmental health. This study, natural soil will be taken from Endau Rompin National Park (PETA, Johor as soil sample for testing. Natural soil is an economy material as a liner system, and it does not decay easily from time to time. So it is an ideal material as a sanitary landfill liner system. In short, the purpose of this study is to compile and organize available information on the use of laboratory testing, as well as providing some guidance on the use of natural soil as barrier layer of landfill and also it suitability of physical and chemical properties natural soil as barrier layer of landfill. Based on the laboratory testing were conducted, found that soil sample taken form Endau Rompin National Park (PETA is suitable as compacted soil liner for sanitary landfill.

  16. Modelization of Biogas production in Sanitary landfills; Modelizacion de la produccion de Biogas en vertederos controlados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Iglesias, J.; Castrillon, L.; Maranon, E.; Sastre, H. [Universidad de Oviedo (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Amongst all the different alternatives for the eliminator or treatment of MSW (Municipal Solid Waste), sanitary landfills is probably the one that is most widely employed to date, due to its economic advantages. With the coming into effect of the Spanish Containers and Packaging Law, alongside that of the Council Directive 1999/31/CE, concerning waste disposal, this situation will be substantially modified. At the same time, the application of said Directive will influence the amount of biogas generated in landfills. The present research work a study of the influence that the aforementioned Directive will have on the production of biogas in a sanitary landfill which currently disposes of around 400.000 Tm/year of MSW, 52% of which is easily biodegradable organic matter. The model proposed by Marticorena was applied and the kinetic parameters, MPO and d, were experimentally obtained by means of a pilot-plant study of MSW anaerobic degradation, the values employed being 173 Nm3 of biogas/Tm of the organic fraction of MSW for MPO, and 3 years for d. The results obtained in the model are compared with those obtained experimentally at the COGERSA landfill, Asturias, Spain. Twenty wells were chosen to analyse the production of biogas, giving an overall average yield of 70%. In 1999, around 4,100 m''3/h of biogas were extracted at the COGERSA landfill. Application of the model gave an estimation for 1999 of an average production of 5,369 m''3/h giving a maximum yield in the extraction of biogas of around 75%. The difference between the two average yields obtained may be due to the fact that the model only takes into account the easily biodegradable organic fraction, whilst in the landfill, given that more time has passed, other substances with a longer period of degradation, such as paper and cardboard, may also be degraded. (Author) 10 refs.

  17. Mathematical numeric models for assessing the groundwater pollution from Sanitary landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Vasil; Stoyanov, Nikolay; Sotinev, Petar

    2014-05-01

    Landfills are among the most common sources of pollution in ground water. Their widespread deployment, prolonged usage and the serious damage they cause to all of the elements of the environment are the reasons, which make the study of the problem particularly relevant. Most dangerous of all are the open dumps used until the middle of the twentieth century, from which large amounts of liquid emissions flowed freely (landfill infiltrate). In recent decades, the problem is solved by the construction of sanitary landfills in which they bury waste or solid residue from waste utilization plants. The bottom and the sides of the sanitary landfills are covered with a protective waterproof screen made of clay and polyethylene and the landfill infiltrate is led outside through a drainage system. This method of disposal severely limits any leakage of gas and liquid emissions into the environment and virtually eliminates the possibility of contamination. The main topic in the conducted hydrogeological study was a quantitative assessment of groundwater pollution and the environmental effects of re-landfilling of an old open dump into a new sanitary landfill, following the example of the municipal landfill of Asenovgrad, Bulgaria. The study includes: 1.A set of drilling, geophysical and hydrogeological field and laboratory studies on: -the definition and designation of the spatial limits of the main hydrogeological units; -identification of filtration parameters and migration characteristics of the main hydrogeological units; -clarifying the conditions for the sustentation and drainage of groundwater; -determininng the structure of the filtration field; -identifying and assessing the size and the extent of groundwater contamination from the old open dump . 2.Mathematical numeric models of migration and entry conditions of contaminants below the bottom of the landfill unit, with which the natural protection of the geological environment, the protective effect of the engineering

  18. Sanitary landfills. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning refuse disposal in sanitary landfills. Among the topics reviewed are site selection criteria, leachate analysis and treatment, and economic and management aspects. Hydrologic studies pertaining to contaminant transport, and the use of liners and covers are discussed. Considerable attention is given to gas generation and recovery, and specific operations are described. Citations pertaining specifically to hazardous and industrial waste materials are excluded. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  19. Grouting of fly ash in sanitary landfills; Injektering av flygaska i hushaallsavfallsdeponi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockhom (Sweden); Andreas, Lale; Lagerkvist, Anders [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Jannes, Sara; Tham, Gustav [Telge Aatervinning AB, Soedertaelje (Sweden); Sjoeblom, Rolf [Tekedo AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential for stabilization of sanitary landfills by injecting fly ash. The method is supposed to prevent differential settlements in landfills and by that to counteract damages in the final cover. Injecting fly ash may also affect the chemical development in a positive way and prevent metal leaching. Pilot experiments at the Tveta waste recycling center (Tveta Aatervinningsanlaeggning) have been performed in order to estimate if the grouting technology is a suitable method for sanitary landfills. Fly ashes from the combustion of bio fuels were used in these tests. A literature study and laboratory experiments in order to prepare the field experiments were also part of the project. About 100 tons of ash slurry were injected during the pilot experiments. This corresponds to a filling degree of approximately 12-16 % of the available pores in the landfill body. As a result of the pilot test, the following conclusions can be drawn: Ash can be mixed with water to a pumpable slurry which can be injected without hardening inside the equipment. Neither the waste nor the grouting material caused a backpressure during the injection and nothing indicates that the injected ash deforms the landfilled waste. The ash-water-slurry flows through the voids in the waste easily. Thus, the ash may dispread quite far from the injection holes. Using a more powerful equipment backpressure and movements in the waste might occur. It was not possible to estimate the flow required for backpressure in this study. Large variations are possible but for safety reasons the maximal pressure should be limited with regard to the expected stability in the actual area. The grouted ash will harden within the landfill body within a couple of days. It accumulates in hard but brittle lumps, which may result in an increased stability of the landfill. Further studies are necessary in order to evaluate how the stability is affected and what amounts of ash are

  20. Ecotoxicological evaluation of leachate from the Limeira sanitary landfill with a view to identifying acute toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Euclides Stipp Paterniani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Final disposal of solid waste is still a cause for serious impacts on the environment. In sanitary landfills, waste undergoes physical, chemical, and biological decomposition, generating biogas and leachate. Leachate is a highly toxic liquid with a very high pollution potential. The purpose of this work is to evaluate toxicity of in natura leachate samples collected from Limeira Sanitary Landfill, in Limeira, SP. The ecotoxicological evaluation comprised acute toxicity assays using as test organisms Daphnia Similis, seeds of Eruca sativa (arugula, and Allium cepa roots (onion. Analyses of color, pH, turbidity, conductivity, hardness, nitrogen, total organic carbon (TOC, adsorbable organic halogen (AOX, and metals were also carried out. The main results for Eruca sativa (arugula and Allium cepa (onion indicated that the diluted leachate 50% presented similar toxicity to the phenol solution of 1000 mg.L-1 for arugula and 2000 mg.L-1 for onion. With the solution of Cr+6 concentrations of 3000 mg.L-1 for arugula and 2000 mg.L-1 for onion were found. For analyses with Daphnia Similis the EC50 was 9.3% on average. This way it was possible to observe that biological tests are necessary to evaluate the pollution in the effluents or water bodies. These tests serve to determine the toxic potential of a chemical agent or complex mixture.

  1. Sanitary Landfill Leachate Recycle and Environmental Problems at Selected Army Landfills: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    Benson, M. J. Staub , and M. A. Kamlys, Characteristics, Control and Treatment of Leachate at Military Irnstallations, !nterim Report N- 97/ADA097035...D. Smith, R. Pileccia, J. Handy, G. Gerdes, S. Kloster, G. Schanche, _. .1. fJanson, M. J. Staub , and M. A. Kamiya, Characteri.tic.i Control, and...Learned N 1. Do not construct buildings on top of or close to a closed landfill until methane gas production has stopped.... - 2. Note that explosive

  2. Children living near a sanitary landfill have increased breath methane and Methanobrevibacter smithii in their intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo Filho, Humberto Bezerra; Carmo-Rodrigues, Mirian Silva; Mello, Carolina Santos; Melli, Lígia Cristina Fonseca Lahoz; Tahan, Soraia; Pignatari, Antonio Carlos Campos; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the breath CH4 excretion and concentration of M. smithii in intestinal microbiota of schoolchildren from 2 slums. One hundred and eleven children from a slum near a sanitary landfill, 35 children of a slum located away from the sanitary landfill, and 32 children from a high socioeconomic level school were included in the study. Real-time PCR was performed to quantify the M. smithii nifH gene and it was present in the microbiota of all the participating children, with higher (P landfill (3.16 × 10(7) CFU/g of feces), comparing with the children from the slum away from the landfill (2.05 × 10(6) CFU/g of feces) and those from the high socioeconomic level group (3.93 × 10(5) CFU/g of feces). The prevalence of children who present breath methane was 53% in the slum near the landfill, 31% in the slum further away from the landfill and, 22% in the high socioeconomic level group. To live near a landfill is associated with higher concentrations of M. smithii in intestinal microbiota, comparing with those who live away from the landfill, regardless of their socioeconomics conditions.

  3. Leachates control in sanitary landfills of urban solid wastes in Gipuzkoa; Control de lixiviados en los vertederos de residuos solidos urbanos de Gipuzkoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Martin, M.A.; Antiguedad Auzmendi, I.

    1998-12-01

    The physico-chemical characterization of the leachates from seven sanitary landfills in Gipuzkoa has been studied. Flow rate, temperature and electric conductivity were monitored on line in some cases too. HELP model and other classic methods were applicated to calculate exactly the water balance. The authors conclude suggesting that these studies are essentials to know if the landfills are really sanitary landfills. (Author) 14 refs.

  4. Treatment of leachates of sanitary landfills of urban solid wastes. Tratamiento de lixiviados de vertederos controlados de residuos solidos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iza Lopez, J. (Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y de Medio Ambiente, ETSII, Bilbao (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    The method more used for Urban Solid Wastes is the sanitary landfill. Its management is similar to the industrial process plant. The minimization techniques of wastes are applicated to reduce the environmental impact and to increase the degradation process in order to improve the biogas as alternative energy. This article analyzes the anaerobic digestion, the leachates characterization and treatment of leachates. (Author)

  5. Membrane Fouling in Microfiltration of Sanitary Landfill Leachate for Removals of Colour and Solids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emad S.M.Ameen; Abdullrahim Mohd Yusoff; Mohd Razman Salim; Azmi Aris; Aznah Nor Anuar

    2013-01-01

    In this research,the treatability of solids from sanitary landfill leachate by microfiltration membrane was investigated and the fouling of the membrane was carefully studied.Continuous microfiltration process was carried out for 21 h in experimental system involved coagulation with Moringa oleifera followed by filtration using submerged hollow fibre microfiltration membrane (MFM).Coagulation with M.Oleifera,air diffusers and back flush technique were used for preventing or alleviating fouling of the membrane.The hollow fibre MFM showed high removals of 98%,91% and 99% for turbidity,colour and total suspended solids respectively.It was obtained at the beginning of the filtration.However,quality of the filtrate rapidly declined during the filtration process.Fouling was found to proceed according to the classical cake filtration model.Coagulation with M.Oleifera as well asthe back-flush technique could not fully restore the deterioration occurred to the membrane.

  6. Electrochemical treatment of concentrate from reverse osmosis of sanitary landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labiadh, Lazhar; Fernandes, Annabel; Ciríaco, Lurdes; Pacheco, Maria José; Gadri, Abdellatif; Ammar, Salah; Lopes, Ana

    2016-10-01

    Conventional sanitary landfill leachate treatment has recently been complemented and, in some cases, completely replaced by reverse osmosis technology. Despite the good quality of treated water, the efficiency of the process is low and a large volume of reverse osmosis concentrate has to be either discharged or further treated. In this study, the use of anodic oxidation combined with electro-Fenton processes to treat the concentrate obtained in the reverse osmosis of sanitary landfill leachate was evaluated. The anodic oxidation pretreatment was performed in a pilot plant using an electrochemical cell with boron-doped diamond electrodes. In the electro-Fenton experiments, a boron-doped diamond anode and carbon-felt cathode were used, and the influence of the initial pH and iron concentration were studied. For the experimental conditions, the electro-Fenton assays performed at an initial pH of 3 had higher organic load removal levels, whereas the best nitrogen removal was attained when the electrochemical process was performed at the natural pH of 8.8. The increase in the iron concentration had an adverse impact on treatment under natural pH conditions, but it enhanced the nitrogen removal in the electro-Fenton assays performed at an initial pH of 3. The combined anodic oxidation and electro-Fenton process is useful for treating the reverse osmosis concentrate because it is effective at removing the organic load and nitrogen-containing species. Additionally, this process potentiates the increase in the biodegradability index of the treated effluent.

  7. Nitrogen removal optimization in a sequencing batch reactor treating sanitary landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagni, Alessandro; Lavagnolo, M Cristina; Scarpa, Carlotta; Vendrame, Paola; Rizzo, Andrea; Luccarini, Luca

    2007-05-01

    Biological nitrogen removal via nitrite may represent a promising process for the optimization of nitrogen removal, in particular in the presence of a low biodegradable COD/TKN ratio. In the present study a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was monitored for approximately 2 years to evaluate the use of dissolved oxygen (DO), pH and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) as monitoring parameters in order to optimize nitrogen removal via nitrite from leachate generated in old sanitary landfills. The SBR manifested a nitrification efficiency exceeding 99% whereas, due to the low biodegradability of the organic matter presents in the leachates, COD removal reached approximately 40% and the addition of external COD was required to accomplish denitrification process. Moreover, the results demonstrate that DO, pH and ORP are reliable parameters for use in the monitoring of nitritation and denitritation processes in SBRs treating landfill leachates. Through manual modification of the length of the SBR phases to achieve nitrogen removal via nitrite, the nitritation and denitritation processes were rendered unstable leading to the saving of 20% in addition of external COD, almost half the theoretically achievable value. Furthermore, the low dissolved oxygen concentration applied during the oxic phases in an attempt to increase the nitritation process would appear to cause the settling characteristics of the activated sludge to deteriorate.

  8. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan; Shao, Li-Ming; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; He, Pin-Jing

    2014-05-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between landfill C&O and the total landfilling technology implies that the contribution of C&O to overall landfill emissions is not negligible. The non-toxic impacts induced by C&O can be attributed mainly to the consumption of diesel used for daily operation, while the toxic impacts are primarily due to the use of mineral materials. To test the influences of different landfill C&O approaches on environmental impacts, six baseline alternatives were assessed through sensitivity analysis. If geomembranes and geonets were utilized to replace daily and intermediate soil covers and gravel drainage systems, respectively, the environmental burdens of C&O could be mitigated by between 2% and 27%. During the LCA of landfill C&O, the research scope or system boundary has to be declared when referring to material consumption values taken from the literature; for example, the misapplication of data could lead to an underestimation of diesel consumption by 60-80%.

  9. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan

    2014-01-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through...... life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between...... of mineral materials. To test the influences of different landfill C&O approaches on environmental impacts, six baseline alternatives were assessed through sensitivity analysis. If geomembranes and geonets were utilized to replace daily and intermediate soil covers and gravel drainage systems, respectively...

  10. Report: the current situation of sanitary landfills in Brazil and the importance of the application of economic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Raul Oliveira; Petter, Carlos Otávio; Cortina, José Luis

    2009-12-01

    We present the development stage of the sanitary landfills in Brazil in the context of urban solid residue management, demonstrating the necessity and importance of the employment of economic models. In the article, a cost estimate model is proposed as the basis for studies to be applied by sector management, including the city council, companies, consultants and engineers, contributing to the choice of new areas, public bids, municipal consortia and private public partnerships.

  11. Report: the current situation of sanitary landfills in Brazil and the importance of the application of economic models

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Neto, Raúl; Otávio Petter, Carlos; Cortina Pallás, José Luís

    2009-01-01

    We present the development stage of the sanitary landfills in Brazil in the context of urban solid residue management, demonstrating the necessity and importance of the employment of economic models. In the article, a cost estimate model is proposed as the basis for studies to be applied by sector management, including the city council, companies, consultants and engineers, contributing to the choice of new areas, public bids, municipal consortia and private public partnerships. Peer Re...

  12. Potential production of electricity from biogas generated in a sanitary landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quetzalli Aguilar-Virgen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy forms the cornerstone of almost every economic, social and cultural sector in modern societies. Energy is regarded as an irreplaceable ingredient in such societies’ industrial development. The aim of this research was to estimate the generation of biogas in the city of Ensenada’s sanitary landfill to ascertain the amount of energy which could be generated from the solid waste being disposed of. Biogas estimates were conducted in two stages: a waste characterisation study followed by implementing the regulations proposed by SCS Engineers (SCS Engineers, 2009 regarding the Mexican biogas model (version 2.0. The results showed that a large quantity of organic matter (around 70% is a key element in anaerobic degradation of waste. As to energy generation, it is believed that a full 1.90 MW capacity will be reached in 2019. Such energy could increase Ensenada’s current electricity generation capacity by 3.46% and provide 60% of the energy needed for street lighting, thereby leading to USD $1.423 million in savings.

  13. Biogas from sanitary landfills for electricity production; Biogas de rellenos sanitarios para produccion de electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu F, Jose L; Huacuz V, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    There are many ways to eliminate the municipal solid wastes, but only a few help to treat them and to dispose of them suitably. Some of the forms to avoid the problems that the trash originate are: not to produce it, recycling it in a 100% or creating a fictitious market where its value is equal to or greater than the product that gave origin to it; in any case, these alternatives are not absolutely practical. The trash can be incinerated, be segregated, be recycled partially or also be arranged in sanitary landfills. Anyway, the trash has always existed and it will continue existing for sure. [Spanish] Existen muchas maneras de eliminar los residuos solidos municipales, pero solo unas pocas ayudan a tratarlos y disponerlos adecuadamente. Algunas de las formas para evitar los problemas que ocasiona la basura son: no produciendola, reciclandola en un 100% o creando un mercado ficticio donde su valor sea igual o mayor al del producto que le dio origen; en cualquier caso, estas alternativas no son del todo practicas. La basura tambien se puede incinerar, segregar, reciclar parcialmente o disponer en rellenos sanitarios. De cualquier manera, la basura siempre ha existido y seguramente seguira existiendo.

  14. The use of tritium content as an indicator of the groundwater contamination by sanitary landfills leachates in the region of Belo Horizonte City, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, J V; Mingote, R M; Baptista, M B; Oliveira, D M; Lima, F P

    2008-01-01

    Tritium content in the leachate of sanitary landfills, in concentrations well above those observed in global precipitation, can be used as a tracer for the evaluation of the contamination of groundwater in piezometers of the landfills and in neighbouring tubular wells. This possibility was first investigated in Brazil for sanitary landfills in the region of Belo Horizonte City. Tritium levels together with the content of metals present in water and the measurement of soil electrical conductivity, proved to be valuable for these studies and also as a tracer for hydrodynamic studies of the surface water in the Ressaca creek.

  15. Site selection of sanitary landfills on the small island of Mauritius using the analytical hierarchy process multi-criteria method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjeawon, T; Beerachee, B

    2008-10-01

    This paper focuses on the application of a multi-criteria analysis methodology - the analytical hierarchy process - for the locating of a sanitary landfill on the small island of Mauritius. Four candidate sites were assessed using three main criteria (environmental, technical and socio-economic) and twenty-one sub-criteria. Scores were assigned to each criterion and sub-criterion by stakeholders in the solid waste sector, based on the impact assessment of each site so as to obtain their relative importance. The analytical hierarchy process was then applied, which involved the combination of the weights obtained at the different stages of pair-wise comparisons. The candidate sites were finally ranked to obtain the optimum site. Because of political factors, the second best ranked site was chosen by the authorities for the location of a new landfill on the island. This technique provides a realistic approach for use by small island developing states such as Mauritius for choosing and justifying to all stakeholders the best location for a sanitary landfill site or any other waste management site.

  16. Heavy Metals Exposure and Hygienic Behaviors of Workers in Sanitary Landfill Areas in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsiri Decharat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The main objective of this study was to assess the cadmium and lead exposure levels in subject workers that work in sanitary landfill areas in southern Thailand. The study evaluated the blood cadmium and lead levels in terms of their possible role in worker contamination and transfer of cadmium and lead to the body. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 114 subjects. Whole blood samples were collected to determine cadmium and lead levels by graphite furnaces atomic absorption spectrometer chromium analyzer. Results and Discussion. The mean blood cadmium levels and blood lead levels of subjects workers were 2.95±0.58 μg/L (range 1.58–7.03 μg/L and 8.58±2.58 μg/dL (range 1.98–11.12 μg/dL, respectively. Gender, income, smoked cigarettes, work position, duration of work, personal protective equipment (PPE, and personal hygiene were significantly associated with blood cadmium level and blood lead levels (p<0.001 and p<0.001. A multiple regression model was constructed. Significant predictors of blood cadmium levels and blood lead levels included smoked cigarettes, hours worked per day, days worked per week, duration of work (years, work position, use of PPE (mask and gloves, and personal hygiene behavior (ate snacks or drank water at work and washed hands before lunch. Conclusion. The elevated body burden of toxic metals in the solid waste exposure of subject workers is an indication of occupational metal toxicity associated with personal hygiene practices.

  17. 简析生活垃圾卫生填埋场封场设计%Closure Design of Domestic Waste Sanitary Landfill Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴健萍

    2011-01-01

    Functions of closure of domestic waste sanitary landfill sites were sketched. Main contents about closure design were analyzed, including landfill pile shaping, structure determining of closure cover system, collection and drainage of landfill gas, and collection and discharge of rainwater in landfill pile.%简述了生活垃圾卫生填埋场封场的作用,分析了封场设计中堆体整形、封场覆盖系统结构的确定、填埋气体的收集导排、垃圾堆体雨水的收集排放等主要内容.

  18. Leachate treatment system using constructed wetlands, Town of Fenton sanitary landfill, Broome County, New York. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    Municipal sanitary landfills generate leachate that New York State regulations require to be collected and treated to avoid contaminating surface water and groundwater. One option for treating leachate is to haul it to municipal wastewater treatment facility. This option may be expensive, may require excessive energy for transportation, and may require pretreatment to protect the receiving facility`s processes. An alternative is on-site treatment and discharge. Personnel from the Town of Fenton, New York; Hawk Engineering, P.C.; Cornell University; and Ithaca College designed, built, and operated a pilot constructed wetland for treating leachate at the Town of Fenton`s municipal landfill. The system, consisting of two overland flow beds and two subsurface flow beds has been effective for 18 months in reducing levels of ammonia (averaging 85% removal by volatilization and denitrification) and total iron (averaging 95% removal by precipitation and sedimentation), two key constituents of the Fenton landfill`s leachate. The system effects these reductions with zero chemical and energy inputs and minimal maintenance. A third key constituent of the leachate, manganese, apparently passes through the beds with minimal removal. Details and wetland considerations are described.

  19. Incorporation of electrochemical advanced oxidation processes in a multistage treatment system for sanitary landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Francisca C; Soler, J; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Boaventura, Rui A R; Brillas, Enric; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-09-15

    The current study has proved the technical feasibility of including electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) in a multistage strategy for the remediation of a sanitary landfill leachate that embraced: (i) first biological treatment to remove the biodegradable organic fraction, oxidize ammonium and reduce alkalinity, (ii) coagulation of the bio-treated leachate to precipitate humic acids and particles, followed by separation of the clarified effluent, and (iii) oxidation of the resulting effluent by an EAOP to degrade the recalcitrant organic matter and increase its biodegradability so that a second biological process for removal of biodegradable organics and nitrogen content could be applied. The influence of current density on an UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) process was firstly assessed. The oxidation ability of various EAOPs such as electro-Fenton (EF) with two distinct initial total dissolved iron concentrations ([TDI]0), PEF and solar PEF (SPEF) was further evaluated and these processes were compared with their analogous chemical ones. A detailed assessment of the two first treatment stages was made and the biodegradability enhancement during the SPEF process was determined by a Zahn-Wellens test to define the ideal organics oxidation state to stop the EAOP and apply the second biological treatment. The best current density was 200 mA cm(-2) for a PEF process using a BDD anode, [TDI]0 of 60 mg L(-1), pH 2.8 and 20 °C. The relative oxidation ability of EAOPs increased in the order EF with 12 mg [TDI]0 L(-1) < EF with 60 mg [TDI]0 L(-1) < PEF with 60 mg [TDI]0 L(-1) ≤ SPEF with 60 mg [TDI]0 L(-1), using the abovementioned conditions. While EF process was much superior to the Fenton one, the superiority of PEF over photo-Fenton was less evident and SPEF attained similar degradation to solar photo-Fenton. To provide a final dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of 163 mg L(-1) to fulfill the discharge limits into the environment after

  20. Research, development and demonstration in the design of sanitary landfill to optimize the generation and capture of compressible gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosanov, M. E.; Teeple, F. E.; Buesch, S. C.

    1982-02-01

    The influences of selected factors on the generation and recovery of methane gas from sanitary landfills were investigated. The factors included encapsulation, shredding, air classifying, moisture, and pH. Facilities consisting of six model sanitary landfill cells, each with a capacity of approximately 450 cubic yards of municipal waste, and auxiliary subsystems were constructed. Municipal waste in each cell is contained in a 30-mil thick polyvinly chloride plastic sheeting forming a virtually gas-tight envelope. Two cells were filled with as-collected urban waste, two with shredded waste, and two with shredded and air classified waste, constituting three pairs of cells. One of each pair is a control cell with the other used as an experimental variable. Systems were provided for adding measured amounts of water, removing and recirculating leachate, and for extracting gas and measuring gas flow. During testing, gas production and internal cell characteristics were measured to determine the effects of mechanical processing, moisture content, and leachate pH.

  1. Identifying suitable sanitary landfill locations in the state of Morelos, México, using a Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Luis E.; Torres, Vicente; Bolongaro, Andrea; Reyna, José A.; Pohle, O.; Hernández-Espriú, A.; Chavarría, Jerónimo; García-Barrios, R.; Tabla, Hugo Francisco Parra

    GIS is a powerful tool that may help to better manage natural resources. In this paper, we present a GIS model developed for the state of Morelos as an aid to determine whether a potential site, Loma de Mejia, met the Mexican Federal Guidelines. The Mexican Government has established federal guidelines for sanitary landfill site selection (NOM-083-SERMARNAT-2003). These guidelines were translated into a water-based Geographic Information System and applied to the state of Morelos, Mexico. For these examples, we used the SIGAM® (Sistema de Información Geográfico del Agua en México; a water-based GIS for Mexico) which has at least 60 layers from the National Water Commission (CONAGUA), the national mapping agency (INEGI; Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática), NASA, and academic institutions. Results show that a GIS is a powerful tool that may allow federal, state and municipal policy makers to conduct an initial regional site reconnaissance rapidly. Once potential sites are selected, further characterization must be carried out in order to determine if proposed locations are suitable or not for a sanitary landfill. Based on the SIGAM© software, the Loma de Mejia would not comply with the Mexican Federal Guidelines.

  2. Sustainable sanitary landfills for neglected small cities in developing countries: The semi-mechanized trench method from Villanueva, Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakley, Stewart M., E-mail: soakley@csuchico.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Chico State University, California State University, Chico, CA 95929 (United States); Jimenez, Ramon, E-mail: rjimenez1958@yahoo.com [Public Works, Municipality of Villanueva, Cortes (Honduras)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Open dumping is the most common form of waste disposal in neglected small cities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Semi-mechanized landfills can be a sustainable option for small cities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present the theory of design and operation of semi-mechanized landfills. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Villanueva, Honduras has operated its semi-mechanized landfill for 15 years. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cost of operation is US$4.60/ton with a land requirement of 0.2m{sup 2}/person-year. - Abstract: Open dumping is the most common practice for the disposal of urban solid wastes in the least developed regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Sanitary landfill design and operation has traditionally focused on large cities, but cities with fewer than 50,000 in population can comprise from 6% to 45% of a given country's total population. These thousands of small cities cannot afford to operate a sanitary landfill in the way it is proposed for large cities, where heavy equipment is used to spread and compact the waste in daily cells, and then to excavate, transport and apply daily cover, and leachate is managed with collection and treatment systems. This paper presents an alternative approach for small cities, known as the semi-mechanized trench method, which was developed in Villanueva, Honduras. In the semi-mechanized trench method a hydraulic excavator is used for 1-3 days to dig a trench that will last at least a month before it is filled with waste. Trucks can easily unload their wastes into the trench, and the wastes compact naturally due to semi-aerobic biodegradation, after which the trenches are refilled and covered. The exposed surface area is minimal since only the top surface of the wastes is exposed, the remainder being covered by the sides and bottom of the trench. The surplus material from trench excavation can be valorized for use as engineering fill onsite or off. The landfill in

  3. The effect of sanitary landfill leachate aging on the biological treatment and assessment of photoelectrooxidation as a pre-treatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, Gabriel Timm [Universidade Estadual do Rio Grande do Sul (UERGS), R. Gal. João Manoel, 50, CEP 90010-030 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Giacobbo, Alexandre [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Setor 4, Prédio 74, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Santos Chiaramonte, Edson Abel dos [Universidade Estadual do Rio Grande do Sul (UERGS), R. Gal. João Manoel, 50, CEP 90010-030 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Rodrigues, Marco Antônio Siqueira [Universidade FEEVALE, ICET, RS 239, 2755, CEP 93352-000 Novo Hamburgo, RS (Brazil); Meneguzzi, Alvaro [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Setor 4, Prédio 74, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Bernardes, Andréa Moura, E-mail: amb@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Setor 4, Prédio 74, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Photoelectrooxidation (PEO) emerges as a new technology for leachate treatment. • Aging of sanitary landfills acts on leachate composition and biodegradability. • PEO is applied as leachate pretreatment before the biological processes. • PEO produced significant changes in the leachate matrix, easing biological process. - Abstract: The sanitary landfill leachate is a dark liquid, of highly variable composition, with recalcitrant features that hamper conventional biological treatment. The physical–chemical characteristics of the leachate along the landfill aging, as well as their effects on the efficiency of the conventional treatment, were evaluated at this paper. The feasibility of photoelectrooxidation process as an alternative technique for treatment of landfill leachates was also determined. Photoelectrooxidation experiments were conducted in a bench-scale reactor. Analysis of the raw leachate revealed many critical parameters demonstrating that the recalcitrance of leachate tends to increase with time, directly influencing the decline in efficiency of the conventional treatment currently employed. The effects of current density and lamp power were investigated. Using a 400 W power lamp and a current density of 31.5 mA cm{sup −2}, 53% and 61% efficiency for the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand were respectively achieved by applying photoelectrooxidation process. With the removal of these pollutants, downstream biological treatment should be improved. These results demonstrate that photoelectrooxidation is a feasible technique for the treatment of sanitary landfill leachate, even considering this effluent’s high resistance to treatment.

  4. Application of Deuterium and Oxygen-18 to Trace Leachate Movement in Bantar Gebang Sanitary Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Pujiindiyati

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bantar Gebang landfill was constructed in 1986 with total area of 108 ha and approximately 6000 ton/day solid waste is disposed to this landfill. Mostly, the people living surrounding landfill get afraid of impact of the hazardous chemicals produced by waste disposal to their health. The purpose of this investigation was to study the migration of leachate to Cibitung River water and shallow groundwaters near to the river. It is possible to be done because chemical contents and isotopic characteristics of municipal landfill leachate are unique, relative to aqueous media in the most natural environments. Laser absorption method developed by the LGR (Los Gatos Research was used to measure absolute abundances of 2HHO, HH18O and HHO in a number of water samples. In-situ measurements were also conducted as an additional parameter besides their isotopes. The δ2H of the H2O in landfill leachate was significantly enriched, with values of - 22.6 ‰ to + 4.3 ‰. This deuterium enrichment was undoubtedly due to the extensive production of microbial methane within the limited reservoir of the landfill. However, the enriched deuterium value in leachate was not detected in the river which still had depleted values. It was probably caused by the amount of natural water in the river was comparatively large, with respect to limited leachate discarded to the river.The electrical conductivity of the leachate was higher (3200 to 7600 S and the decreasing values were still monitored in the river to approximately 12 km after streaming the landfills. The effect of the high electrical conductivity and enriched deuterium of leachate was not clearly indicated in the groundwater samples which still represented the local precipitation recharge, except a monitoring well located in Bantar Gebang landfill area which has an indication of leachate contamination.

  5. Growing trees on completed sanitary landfills. [Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies, Ginkgo biloba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leone, I.A.; Gilman, E.F.; Flower, F.B.

    1983-01-01

    A 10-year old completed landfill in New Jersey consisting of 9 m (depth) of refuse covered with 15-25 cm of soil was cleared of debris and vegetation and covered with 30 cm of subsoil and 15-25 cm of topsoil. Nineteen coniferous and broadleaved species were planted on the landfill and on a control site in 1975, and trees were maintained and growth and condition monitored over 4 years. On the basis of shoot length and stem area increase, the most successful of the surviving trees were Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies and Ginkgo biloba, in decreasing order of tolerance. Tolerance of landfill conditions appeared to be greatest in those species with low water requirements, a slow growth rate, high acid tolerance and a shallow root system. (Refs. 11).

  6. Sustainable sanitary landfills for neglected small cities in developing countries: the semi-mechanized trench method from Villanueva, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Stewart M; Jimenez, Ramón

    2012-12-01

    Open dumping is the most common practice for the disposal of urban solid wastes in the least developed regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Sanitary landfill design and operation has traditionally focused on large cities, but cities with fewer than 50,000 in population can comprise from 6% to 45% of a given country's total population. These thousands of small cities cannot afford to operate a sanitary landfill in the way it is proposed for large cities, where heavy equipment is used to spread and compact the waste in daily cells, and then to excavate, transport and apply daily cover, and leachate is managed with collection and treatment systems. This paper presents an alternative approach for small cities, known as the semi-mechanized trench method, which was developed in Villanueva, Honduras. In the semi-mechanized trench method a hydraulic excavator is used for 1-3 days to dig a trench that will last at least a month before it is filled with waste. Trucks can easily unload their wastes into the trench, and the wastes compact naturally due to semi-aerobic biodegradation, after which the trenches are refilled and covered. The exposed surface area is minimal since only the top surface of the wastes is exposed, the remainder being covered by the sides and bottom of the trench. The surplus material from trench excavation can be valorized for use as engineering fill onsite or off. The landfill in Villanueva has operated for 15 years, using a total land area of approximately 11 ha for a population that grew from 23,000 to 48,000, with a land requirement of 0.2m(2)/person year, a cover to waste ratio of 0.2, and an estimated soil surplus of 298,000 m(3) that is valorized and used onsite. The landfill has been operated solely by the municipality with an operational cost in 2010 estimated at US$4.60 per ton. A modified water balance analysis at Villanueva shows negligible leachate generation from covered trenches and 700 m(3)/yr (60 m(3)/ha yr) from the two open

  7. Public concerns about and perceptions of solid waste dump sites and selection of sanitary landfill sites in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Abu Hammad, Ahmad; Sharkas, Othman A; Sato, Chikashi

    2015-04-01

    Palestinian inhabitants have disposed of their solid wastes at open dumpsites over the past 40 years without an adequate solid waste management (SWM) plans. Recently, the Palestinian Authority initiated SWM planning to establish controlled sanitary landfills, based on a participatory approach. The purpose of this study was to assess public concerns about existing solid waste dumpsites and public perceptions of sanitary landfill site selection. The study will also take into consideration the effect of diverse social, economic, and environmental related factors of the inhabitants on sitting suitable landfill sites in three Palestinian districts in the West Bank, namely, "Nablus," "Salfit," and "Ramallah and Al-Bireh." The results of this study showed that 64.9% of the sample population are aware of the problems and potential impacts associated with random dumpsites, and 41.6% think that they are suffering from the dumps. Among the environmental, socioeconomic, and political factors, the environmental factors, air pollution in particular, are thought be the most important consideration in selecting a landfill site. The "fairness in selecting a landfill site" was chosen to be one of the most important socioeconomic factors, possibly as a reaction to the Israeli occupation and subsequent land use restrictions in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

  8. Applications of geotextiles in sanitary landfills; Aplicacion de geotextiles en vertederos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuenca Lorenzo, J. L.

    2001-07-01

    This article describes the applications of geo textiles in landfills with protection and filter functions. The usual way of design in many projects is revised in this paper and the needed properties to require to the geotextiles are showed too. Finally, a quality control of these properties which should be run to be sure that a good specified project is being fulfilled. (Author) 3 refs.

  9. Methodology for the determination of optimum power of a Thermal Power Plant (TPP) by biogas from sanitary landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tiago Rodrigo; Barros, Regina Mambeli; Tiago Filho, Geraldo Lúcio; Dos Santos, Ivan Felipe Silva

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to determine theoretically, the electrical optimum power of LFG using the maximum net benefit (MNB) methodology, and taking into consideration the economic, demographic, and regional aspects of the Inter municipal Consortium of the Micro-region of the High Sapucaí for Sanitary Landfill (CIMASAS, as acronym in Portuguese), that is located in the southern part of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. To this end, the prognosis for a 20-year period of household solid waste generation in this region was estimated and quantified based on population data, in order to estimate the LFG production and the energy that can be generated. From this point, the optimum power for thermal power plant (TPP) by LFG was determined. The results indicated that the landfill in this region could produce more 66,293,282m(3)CH4 (with maximum power of 997kW in 2036) in twenty years and that there would be no economic viability to generate energy from LFG, because the Net Present Value (NPV) would not be positive. The smallest population to that can achieve a minimum attractiveness rate (MAR) of 15% should be 3,700,000 inhabitants under the conditions studied. Considering the Brazilian National Electric Energy Agency (ANEEL) Resolutions, it would be 339,000 inhabitants with an installed power of 440kW. In addition, the outcome of the CIMASAS case-study demonstrated the applicability of MNB methodology for the determination of TPP optimum power. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Application of GIS/AHP in siting sanitary landfill: a case study in Northern Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Can; Doratli, Naciye

    2012-09-01

    The present study utilized a multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) method in a geographical information systems (GIS) environment to evaluate the suitability of potential landfill sites in Northern Cyprus. To determine the most suitable landfill site, one of the MCE techniques, called analytical hierarchy process (AHP), was combined with a GIS to examine 12 criteria: distance from waste generation centres; distance from roads; slope; distance from surface waters; distance from groundwater areas; distance from environmentally sensitive areas; vegetation types; soil productivity; soil permeability; distance from settlements; distance from cultural sites; distance from stone quarries. The relative importance weights of these criteria were estimated using AHP and criteria maps were developed by using GIS spatial analysis. At the final stage two different suitability maps were produced using two different groups of weights. The first group suitability map had 11 052 (ha) with high suitability class, whereas the high suitability areas decreased to 5982 (ha) in the second group. Moreover, the seven potential sites identified within the first group decreased to four in the second suitability map. However, potential sites such as Gungor, Degirmenlik, Kirklar and Cayonu had similarities with higher suitability values and these same locations were regarded as suitable according to the both first and second suitability map results.

  11. Optimisation of sanitary landfill leachate treatment in a sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagni, A; Marsili-Libelli, S; Lavagnolo, M C

    2008-01-01

    A bench-scale SBR was operated for almost three years in an attempt to optimise the treatment of leachates generated in old landfill. The results of the first two years were used to design a monitoring and control system based on artificial intelligence concepts. Nitrogen removal was optimized via the nitrite shortcut. Nitrification and N removal were usually higher than 98% and 90%, respectively, whereas COD (of the leachate) removal was approximately 30-40%. The monitoring and control system was demonstrated capable of optimizing process operation, in terms of phase length and external COD addition, to the varying loading conditions. Using the control system developed, a significant improvement of the process was obtained: COD and N load were increased (HRT decrease) and a significant decrease (approximately 34%) of the ratio of COD added to N leachate content was observed.

  12. Geotechnological characteristics of a sanitary land-fill:three years monitoring the sanitary landfills at Meruelo. Caracteristicas geotecnologicas de un vertedero controlado: tres aos de observacion de movimientos en el vertedero controlado de Meruelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Alciturri, J.M.; Palma, J.H.; Sagaseta, M.; Caizal, J. (Universidad de Cantabria. (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    As a part of research program on geotechnical problems involved in waste disposal, a sanitary landfill has been instrumented in Meruelo, in the region of Cantabria, Spain. It is located in a valley, with an initial retaining dyke whose height is increased by the ''upstream'' method up to a final value of 50 m. At present, the records of three years of monitoring are available, and they are analyzed in this paper. They include surface settlements in points with different thickness of waste (up to 16 m.) and horizontal and vertical movements of the front slope for stability assessment. (Author)

  13. Recycling potential of urban solid waste destined for sanitary landfills: the case of Indaiatuba, SP, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Sandro Donnini; Nogueira, Alex Rodrigues; Kagohara, Dennis Akira; Schwartzman, Jonas Age Saide; de Mattos, Tânia

    2007-12-01

    The urban solid waste of the city of Indaiatuba (pop. 175 000), located in the state of São Paulo, was characterized, focusing on the recycling potential. For this purpose, collected waste was subdivided into 27 items, classified by mass and volume. About 90% of this waste was found to be potentially recyclable and only 10% requiring landfilling. The compostable organic matter, in the form of food and garden waste, both with high moisture content (51 and 41%, respectively), represents 54% in mass and 21% in volume. The most common type of plastic in this waste is high density polyethylene, whose estimated disposal is about 5000kgday(-1). A socio-economic analysis of the waste generation indicates that low-income neighbourhoods discard relatively less packaging and more food waste, shoes and construction debris than middle and high income ones, which may be due to low purchasing power and schooling. Our findings indicate that more aluminium and uncoloured polyethylene terephthalate is discarded in the warmest months of the year, probably due to a greater consumption of canned and bottled drinks.

  14. Effects of ferric ions on the catalytic ozonation process on sanitary landfill leachates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messias Borges Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Leachates exhibiting an unstable ratio of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD of approximately 0.45 are typical of new landfills in the City of Cachoeira Paulista, Brazil. Although the organic matter portion is bio-treatable, the presence of refractory leached organic material requires unconventional effluent-treatment processes. Leachate treatment with ozone oxidation, in the presence of ferric ions, acts as catalyst in the formation of hydroxyl radicals. Ozone was obtained by corona-discharge from high-purity O2 gas. The treatment was performed in natura in a jacketed borosilicate glass reactor containing 900 ml of leachate. The analyzed response variable was expressed as the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC. In order to determine the optimal proportions to produce the greatest degradation rate for organic materials, variations in experimental O2 flow-fed to the generator, the Fe(iii concentration, and the output of the ozonator were conducted over two experimental runs. Experimental models showed a DOC degradation on the order of 81.25%.

  15. An innovative multistage treatment system for sanitary landfill leachate depuration: Studies at pilot-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia F C V; Soares, Petrick A; Manenti, Diego R; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2017-01-15

    In this work, an innovative methodology for the treatment of landfill leachates, after aerobic lagooning, is proposed and adjusted at pilot-scale. This methodology involves an aerobic activated sludge biological pre-oxidation (ASBO), a coagulation/sedimentation step (240mgFe(3+)/L, at pH4.2) and a photo-oxidation through a photo-Fenton (PF) reaction (60mg Fe(2+), at pH2.8) combining solar and artificial light. The ASBO process applied to a leachate after aerobic lagooning, with high organic and nitrogen content (1.1-1.5gC/L; 0.8-3.0gN/L) and low biodegradability (BOD5/COD =0.07-0.13), is capable to oxidise 62-99% of the ammonium nitrogen, consuming only the affluent alkalinity (70-100%). The coagulation/sedimentation stage led to the humic acids precipitation, promoting a marked change in leachate colour, from dark-brown to yellowish-brown (related to fulvic acids), accompanied by a reduction of 60%, 58% and 88% on DOC, COD and TSS, respectively. The PF system promoted the degradation of the recalcitrant organic molecules into more easily biodegradable ones. According to Zahn-Wellens biodegradability test, a leachate with 419mg DOC/L after coagulation, would have to be photo-oxidized until DOC 60%. The PF step cost to treat 100m(3)/day of leachate was 6.41€/m(3), combining 1339m(2) of CPCs with 31 lamps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Landfills

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This data set defines both current and historic landfills/waste disposal storage sites for the State of Vermont. Historic landfills were identified with the...

  17. Insights into solar photo-Fenton reaction parameters in the oxidation of a sanitary landfill leachate at lab-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia F C V; Ferreira, Rui; Soares, Petrick A; Manenti, Diego R; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-12-01

    This work evaluates the effect of the main photo-Fenton (PF) reaction variables on the treatment of a sanitary landfill leachate collected at the outlet of a leachate treatment plant, which includes aerated lagooning followed by aerated activated sludge and a final coagulation-flocculation step. The PF experiments were performed in a lab-scale compound parabolic collector (CPC) photoreactor using artificial solar radiation. The photocatalytic reaction rate was determined while varying the total dissolved iron concentration (20-100 mg Fe(2+)/L), solution pH (2.0-3.6), operating temperature (10-50 °C), type of acid used for acidification (H2SO4, HCl and H2SO4 + HCl) and UV irradiance (22-68 W/m(2)). This work also tries to elucidate the role of ferric hydroxides, ferric sulphate and ferric chloride species, by taking advantage of ferric speciation diagrams, in the efficiency of the PF reaction when applied to leachate oxidation. The molar fraction of the most photoactive ferric species, FeOH(2+), was linearly correlated with the PF pseudo-first order kinetic constants obtained at different solution pH and temperature values. Ferric ion speciation diagrams also showed that the presence of high amounts of chloride ions negatively affected the PF reaction, due to the decrease of ferric ions solubility and scavenging of hydroxyl radicals for chlorine radical formation. The increment of the PF reaction rates with temperature was mainly associated with the increase of the molar fraction of FeOH(2+). The optimal parameters for the photo-Fenton reaction were: pH = 2.8 (acidification agent: H2SO4); T = 30 °C; [Fe(2+)] = 60 mg/L and UV irradiance = 44 WUV/m(2), achieving 72% mineralization after 25 kJUV/L of accumulated UV energy and 149 mM of H2O2 consumed.

  18. Estimate the potential production of electricity: a case study of the sanitary landfill of Santo Andre, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Estimativa do potencial de producao de eletricidade: estudo de caso do aterro sanitario de Santo Andre, Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Elissando Rocha da; Moreira, Joao M. L.; Candiani, Giovano [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (IFSP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The recovery of the biogas generated from sanitary landfills, associated to its energetic use has been widely discussed. Thus, this paper aims to estimate the potential production of electric energy from sanitary landfill Santo Andre-SP. The biogas production was estimated using the rate of deposition of solid wastes in the landfill, using some mathematical models with parameters suggested by two models: LanGEM-USEPA (conventional landfill) and Word Bank. These results indicate that the potential of biogas production will be approximately 11 x 10{sup 6} Kg of methane/year in 2017 and production of electric energy in that year will be approximately 32,000 MWh, considering an of 75% over collection of biogas. (author)

  19. Analysis of the role of the sanitary landfill in waste management strategies based upon a review of lab leaching tests and new tools to evaluate leachate production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Lombardi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the role of sanitary landfills in current and future waste management strategies based upon the principles and the goals established by the European Framework Directive on Waste (2008/98/EC. Specific reference is made to studies of our research group regarding new tools developed to evaluate leachate production, taking into account the different characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW. Laboratory leaching tests and a methodology proposed to interpret the results are described and discussed, as well as tools developed to estimate landfill leachate production. Residual flows produced by mechanical-biological treatment (MBT plants, mainly Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF and Stabilized Organic Waste (SOW, incineration and composting plants are considered in particular. Experimental results showed that the most suitable end-uses or disposal options for the outputs of waste treatment plants are site-specific and should be defined on the basis of a detailed characterization. The application of the model developed to assess landfill leachate production showed a very good agreement with field data.

  20. Engineering geology and ground water considerations for sanitary landfills in Wisconsin-aged morainal deposits of central Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, T.R.

    1985-01-01

    In the past five years the author has been engaged as an engineering geology consultant concerning a number of existing and proposed landfills, located in the Wisconsin morainal plains of central Indiana. Work has involved the representation of landfill owners in some cases and opposing citizens in others. For each case except one, municipal waste or conventional waste landfills were involved with the other involving hazardous waste disposal. Several major geologic considerations are involved in proper sitting of landfills in this region. These include: (1) Type, nature and stratigraphy of unconsolidated materials; (2) Thickness of unconsolidated material; (3) Type and nature of bedrock below unconsolidated material: (4) Groundwater supplies in vicinity; (5) Topography of site including flood potential; and (6) Groundwater table and water bearing zones involved. Engineering details of landfill construction and monitoring must also be considered in regard to the site geology. Aspects of leachate generation and containment must be addressed as well.

  1. Electrical Characters of Sanitary Landfill Border%卫生垃圾填埋场边界的地电特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶腾飞; 董路; 龚育龄; 汤洪志; 刘玉强

    2011-01-01

    研究卫生垃圾填埋场边界的地电特性,界定卫生垃圾填埋场边界有助于场地环境的维护和管理,采用电阻率二维层析成像技术中的3种装置排列(测深、温纳、偶极-偶极)对小型卫生垃圾填埋场模型进行对比测量,通过电阴率二维层析成像技术对填埋场边界的地电特性进行分析研究.研究结果表明,在测深和温纳两种装置排列,不能进行精确定位;而偶极-偶极的反演图象中可以界定垃圾填埋场的侧向和底部边界,其误差小于5%.%To determine the boundary of a sanitary landfill more accurately, this paper introduces a technology, namely 2D electric resistivity tomography (ERT). Thus, a comparative survey was conducted, in which electrical characters of the landfill border were measured with three arrays such as sounding array, Wenner array and dipole-dipole array respectively. Result showed that dipole-dipole array is more accurate with an error lower than 5% in determining the landfill boundary,being useful in defining the landfill's lateral and bottom boundary.

  2. Development of the utilization of combustible gas produced in existing sanitary landfills: Effects of corrosion at the Mountain View, California landfill gas-recovery plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    Corrosion of equipment has occurred at the Mountain View, California Landfill Gas Recovery Plant. Corrosion is most severe on compressor valve seats and cages, tubes in the first and second stages of the interstage gas cooler, and first and second stage piping and liquid separators. Corrosion occurs because the raw landfill gas contains water, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. Some corrosion may also result from trace concentrations of organic acids present in the landfill gas. Corrosion of the third stage compressor, cooler, and piping does not occur because the gas is dehydrated immediately prior to the third stage. Controlling corrosion is necessary to maintain the mechanical integrity of the plant and to keep the cost of the gas competitive with natural gas. Attempts to reduce corrosion rates by injecting a chemical inhibitor have proved only partially successful. Recommendations for dealing with corrosion include earlier dehydration of the gas, selection of special alloys in critical locations, chemical inhibition, and regular plant inspections.

  3. Study of biogas production parameters in the sanitary landfill; Estudio de los parametros que afectan la produccion de biogas en un vertedero controlado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Domenech, G.; Gordillo Bolasell, M. A.; Sanchez Ferrer, A.

    2001-07-01

    The following article contents a study about some of the parameters affecting the evolution of the gas production in a sanitary landfill placed in the province of Barcelona. The work is focused on the quality of biogas produced, measured as the percentage of methane and thus its energy profitability. The parameters included in this paper are: -Situation of the gas extraction station -Age of the wastes. -Reinfiltration of concentrated liquid leachate in the considered cell. Among the previous factors, the situation of the gas station and the age of wastes showed a critical influence on the methane content, whereas the use of leachate reinfiltration did not produce significant differences in the quality of biogas in the short-term applications. (Author) 5 refs.

  4. Bioreactor landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hao; XING Kai; Anthony Adzomani

    2004-01-01

    Following the population expansion, there is a growing threat brought by municipal solid waste (MSW) against environment and human health. Sanitary landfill is the most important method of MSW disposal in China. In contrast to the conventional landfill, this paper introduces a new technique named bioreactor landfill (BL). Mechanisms, operation conditions as well as the advantages and disadvantages of BL are also discussed in this paper.

  5. Development of the utilization of combustible gas produced in existing sanitary landfills: Investigation of effects of air inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen and oxygen on landfill gas operations are discussed. A combustible gas mixture composed of methane and carbon dioxide is generated in municipal solid waste landfills. A consequence of the collection of this fuel gas is the inclusion of some air in the collected product. The effects include increased collected and purification costs, reduction in the quality of the fuel gas produced, corrosion, explosion hazards, and interference with odorant systems. The scope of such effects was determined by using landfill data of a gas recovery site as a basis. Useful supplemental fuel gas may be recovered despite the inclusion of air. Recommendations are made for establishing limits for nitrogen and oxygen content and minimizing the costs associated with their presence.

  6. Innovative technologies of liquid media treatment in the system of ecological and sanitary-hygienic control of waste landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the scientific and practical aspects of establishing a comprehensive system of environmental compliance for industrial and household waste landfills, including the system of industrial and environmental monitoring and control, modern innovations in the field of instrumental-analytical control of the state of environmental components, new methods of neutralization of complex industrial pollution. Priority is given to wastewater treatment from toxic compounds coming from the surface and drainage water seepage of landfill sites into surface and underground water sources.

  7. Sensitivity analysis of the leaching rate parameter in assessing the environmental risk of phosphogypsum application in sanitary landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesi, Marcos Vinicius A.; Hama, Naruhiko; Jacomino, Vanusa M.F.; Ladeira, Ana Claudia Q.; Cota, Stela D.S., E-mail: mvmarchesi@hotmail.com, E-mail: sdsc@cdtn.br, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.br, E-mail: ana.ladeira@cdtn.br, E-mail: naruhikohama@hotmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The attack with sulfuric acid to phosphate rock produces both phosphoric acid, basic raw material in the manufacture of fertilizers, as a by-product called phosphogypsum. Phosphogypsum is composed mostly of calcium sulfate dihydrated, but may have high levels of impurities from the phosphate rock matrix as a series of natural radionuclides, and heavy metals (e.g. Cd, Zn) and metalloids (e.g. , As and Se). Although it is used for agricultural purposes and more recently in construction, in Brazil the generation rate estimated at six million tons per year is much higher than the amount spent on existing alternatives, and therefore mostly deposited in piles in the same place production, causing thereby the risk of contamination of soil and water resources of the region and providing risk to human health. Taken into account the need to find alternative arrangements for phosphogypsum and reduce the impact generated by its contaminants, this study aims to analyze the sensitivity of the leaching rate parameter in the environmental risk evaluation of the application of phosphogypsum in landfills through mathematical modeling, where it is evaluated the concentration of heavy metals and radionuclides in the layer of the soil under the clay layer of the landfill.

  8. Determination of the coefficient of uranium and thorium distribution in phosphogypsum for their use in sanitary landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesi, Marcos Vinicius A.; Hama, Naruhiko; Jacomino, Vanusa M. F.; Ladeira, Ana Claudia Q.; Cota, Stela D. S., E-mail: mvmarchesi@hotmail.com, E-mail: sdsc@cdtn.br, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.br, E-mail: ana.ladeira@cdtn.br, E-mail: naruhikohama@hotmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes do; Taddei, Maria Helena, E-mail: pmarcos@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas

    2013-07-01

    Phosphogypsum is a byproduct from the production of phosphoric acid, and contain radionuclides, heavy metals and metalloids from phosphate rock. It represents a risk to the environment if improperly stored. Because it is composed mainly of dihydrated calcium sulphate, phosphogypsum can be used in anaerobic environments such as those found in landfills to accelerate microbial processes of decomposition of municipal solid waste and thus increase the life of these facilities. One of the options of your application being studied is the use of phosphogypsum replacing the covers of soil/clay in landfills. Besides reducing the demand for soil and clay, this application would be an alternative to disposal of the waste, since the alternatives are not sufficient for more than five million tons produced per year in Brazil. To ensure the safety of this application, the potential environmental impact of contaminants in phosphogypsum should be evaluated. The rate of leaching of contaminants are being studied by determining the coefficient of distribution of the contaminants in the phosphogypsum. Batch tests were performed by mixing different proportions of slurry and phosphogypsum. This work presents the results for the chain of uranium and natural thorium.

  9. Physical-chemical and bacteriological aspects of the groundwater in the sanitary landfills in the metropolitan region of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Dall´Antonia

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study of the physical-chemical and bacteriological qualities of the subterranean water at sanitary landfills in the Metropolitan Region of Londrina (PR, was carried out. The field of twelve wells that reach the groundwater as well as the emergence of the watertable of the Periquitos River, were also monitored. The results of the analyses of 120 samples of the collected water were compared to the permissible maximum values for human consumption according to the Federal Legislation in Brazil. Total excrements were found around 3,1 NMP/100mL (Well 4 and 120330 NMP/100mL (Periquitos River and fecal matter between 0 and 4100 NMP/100mL (Periquitos River. Such values were associated to the contamination caused by the presence of animals from neighbor properties, feeding themselves in that region. The pH, turbidity, COD and BOD were among the values expected, except for the conductivity that showed to be altered.

  10. Bench scale model studies on sanitary landfill leachate treatment with M. oleifera seed extract and hollow fibre micro-filtration membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Muyibi

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory-based study using a Bench Scale model of four unit operations made up of coagulation (using Moringa oleifera seed extract as a coagulant, flocculation, sedimentation and micro-filtration, have been adopted to treat the leachate from Air Hitman Sanitary Landfill at Puchong in Malaysia. M. oleifera dosages of 150 and 175 mg/L had achieved 43.8% Cadmium removal, 21.2% Total Chromium removal, 66.8% Lead removal and 16% Iron removal. It also removed 55.4% of Total Suspended Solids, 10% of Total Dissolved Solids and 24.2% of Volatile Suspended Solids. Micro-filtration hollow fibre membrane decreased the turbidity, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, volatile suspended solids, and organic matter in the leachate by 98.3%, 96.7%, 20.8%, 36.6% and 21.9% respectively. Overall heavy metals removal after micro-filtration using hollow fibre membrane was 94% for Cadmium, 29.8% for Total Chromium, 73.2% for Lead, and 18.3% for Iron. The results have shown that M. oleifera is a promising natural polymer for removing heavy metals from leachates and may be used as a pre-treatment to eliminate a portion of the toxic heavy metals, which limits the activity of micro organisms in the leachates.

  11. POSTCLOSURE GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION AND MONITORING AT THE SANITARY LANDFILL, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TRANSITIONING TO MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J; Walt Kubilius, W; Thomas Kmetz, T; D Noffsinger, D; Karen M Adams, K

    2006-11-17

    Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements for hazardous waste facilities include 30 years of post-closure monitoring. The use of an objective-based monitoring strategy allows for a significant reduction in the amount of groundwater monitoring required, as the groundwater remediation transitions from an active biosparging system to monitored natural attenuation. The lifecycle of groundwater activities at the landfill has progressed from detection monitoring and plume characterization, to active groundwater remediation, and now to monitored natural attenuation and postclosure monitoring. Thus, the objectives of the groundwater monitoring have changed accordingly. Characterization monitoring evaluated what biogeochemical natural attenuation processes were occurring and determined that elevated levels of radium were naturally occurring. Process monitoring of the biosparging system required comprehensive sampling network up- and down-gradient of the horizontal wells to verify its effectiveness. Currently, the scope of monitoring and reporting can be significantly reduced as the objective is to demonstrate that the alternate concentration limits (ACL) are being met at the point of compliance wells and the maximum contaminant level (MCL) is being met at the surface water point of exposure. The proposed reduction is estimated to save about $2M over the course of the remaining 25 years of postclosure monitoring.

  12. Estimation of the mass-balance of selected metals in four sanitary landfills in Western Norway, with emphasis on the heavy metal content of the deposited waste and the leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øygard, Joar Karsten; Måge, Amund; Gjengedal, Elin

    2004-07-01

    A worst-case simulation of the mass-balance for metals in the waste deposited during 1 year and the levels of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr) and iron (Fe) in the leachate was calculated for four sanitary landfills in Western Norway. Estimates of the levels of metal content in mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) were found by using recent literature values calculated in a mass-balance study at a Norwegian waste incinerator plant. Leachate from the landfills were sampled and analyzed monthly during 1 year, and from these measurements the total annual discharge of the selected metals through the leachate was determined. The levels of the measured heavy metals in the leachate were low. For Cd less than 0.06%, for Pb less than 0.01% and for Hg less than 0.02% of the estimated year's deposited mass of metals were leached from the landfills during the year of investigation. The high retention of these metals are most likely due to sulfide precipitation, but also due to the immobile condition of the metals in their original deposited solid state (plastics, ceramics, etc.). The percentage of Cr leached was relatively higher, but less than 1.0% per year. The mass balance of Fe suggests that this element is more mobile under the prevailing conditions. The percentage of Fe leached varied and was estimated to be between 1.9% and 18%. The present study clearly supports the theory that MSW only to a small extent will lead to discharge of metals if deposited at well-constructed sanitary landfills with top layers.

  13. Experimental Study on Compactness of Clay Liners in Sanitary Landfill%卫生填埋场黏土衬层密实性试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚育龄; 叶腾飞; 董路; 汤洪志

    2011-01-01

    开展卫生填埋场中的黏土衬层密实性试验研究对填埋场的工程设计和后期运营具有现实意义.黏土压实的直接影响之一就是孔隙率的减小,并改变黏土的电阻率,为高密度电阻率法在衬层密实性中的调查研究提供了前提条件和物理基础.文章采用高密度电阻率法三种装置(测深、温纳、偶极-偶极)进行对比测量,通过电阻率成像技术对压实黏土的电性特征进行分析研究,确定了偶极-偶极装置反演精度较高.研究结果表明,渗透系数K为1.0×10-6cm/s的电阻率为40 Ω·m左右;K为1.0×10-6 cm/s的电阻率为30 Ω·m左右;K为1.0×10-7 cm/s的电阻率为20 Ω·m左右.%The study on density of clay liners is helpful for design and post-operation of the sanitary landfill. Resistivity change is one of direct impacts of decreasing porosity in compacted clay. The difference of resistivity would provide preconditions and physical basis for high density resistivity method. Three arrays including sounding array, Wenner array and dipole-dipole array were implemented and compared using electrical resistivity tomography technology. Electrical character of the compacted clay was investigated through the performance of resistivity tomography technology, and the inverse results of dipole-dipole array are more accurate. Results indicate that resistivity is about 40 ft'm at hydraulic conductivity of l.OxlO^cm/s, resistivity is about 30 ft*m at hydraulic conductivity of l.OxlO"6 cm/s and resistivity is about 20 ft*m at hydraulic conductivity of 1.0x10-7 cm/s.

  14. ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF LANDFILLING MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Sanitary landfilling is the most important method of municipalsolid waste disposal in China. Landfill sites are always set up in mountain valley, on plain or beside seashore. A complete landfill consists of base system, cover system, and leachate collection and gas extraction system. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art landfilling technology in China and collection discusses research projects for engineers.

  15. Research on compatibility mechanism of recycled poly(vinyl chloride) materials coming from flexible sheet with styrenic by-product, for application on hydro-sanitary sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Sanoguera, David

    The treatment of waste is a topic that has grown in interest, due especially to the problem about location as a result of the fast growth of plastic waste during the last years. The PVC substitution by PET in packing sector has originated the disappearance of a residual source of excellent quality characterized by a good stiffness and used by other industries, like hydro-sanitary sector, main consumer of recycled PVC. The use of PVC coming from flexible sheets arises as alternative; however, in front of the residual coming from the packing industry, the PVC coming from credit cards presents a lower stiffness, since the origin product possesses high flexibility. For this reason, this material is not appropriate for hydro-sanitary sector which has a strict normative. The aim of this work is about the improvement of performance of recycled PVC coming from credit cards by means of mixing with different styrenic materials (SAN and ABS virgin and recycled), characterized by their high thermal stability. Previous degradation has been quantified in the recycled materials used by means of infrared analysis (FTIR), as well as miscibility has been determined in the different blends by means of Differential Scan Calorimetry (DSC). Also, the influence of styrenic materials on thermal stability of recycled PVC has been analyzed. Finally it has been carried out the study of mechanical properties of the different blends. On the other hand, different additives have been introduced in the blends, with the purpose of evaluating their influence in thermal and mechanical properties. It is necessary to take into account the low cost of recycled materials, as a consequence the additives cost will be a restrictive factor to consider for reaching some requirements, and also obtain an industrial application.

  16. Environmental characterization foundry sands used in sanitary landfills; Caracterizacao ambiental de areias descartadas de fundicao utilizadas na cobertura de residuos em aterros sanitarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingues, L.G.F.; Ferreira, G.C.S.; Pires, M.S.G.; Teixeira, I.; Carnin, R.; Sarro, W.S., E-mail: lucienegferrari@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The national solid waste policy recommends reducing solid waste generation and reusing them in different applications. Preliminary studies show that the foundry sand generated from cast metal parts undercut, has excellent applicability in grain size stabilization of soils for geotechnical functions, and therefore, should not be discarded as waste. This study aimed at environmental characterization of two lots of waste foundry sand (WFS), from different industries, to the particle size stabilization of a clayey soil for use in coverage of solid waste in landfills. The methodology included physicochemical characterization tests (grain size, permeability, XRF and heavy metals) and environmental (NBR 10004: 2004, NBR 10005: 2004, NBR 10006: 20004 and acute toxicity with Vibrio fischeri). The results prove the environmental viability of using these lots of WFS as functional material in the composition of landfills. (author)

  17. Coupling ARB-based biological and photochemical (UV/TiO2 and UV/S2O8(2-)) techniques to deal with sanitary landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Muhammad; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Fei; Wu, Dong; Hussain, Asif; Xie, Bing

    2016-09-12

    The aim of this study was to provide an alternative way to remove bio-refractory organics and ammonical-nitrogen from mature municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill leachate by combining biological and photochemical processes. To achieve this objective, the effectiveness of anoxic aged refuse-based bioreactor (ARB) for biological leachate pretreatment followed by Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) by heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO2/UV) and persulfate (S2O8(2-)) oxidation were tested. The results obtained after ARB based pre-treatment demonstrated a mean 72%, 81% and 92% degradation of COD, NH4N and TN, respectively. However, this treated leachate cannot be discharged without another treatment; hence, it was further treated by UV-mediated TiO2 photocatalysis and S2O8(2-) oxidation. An average 82% of COD was abated at optimum condition (1gL(-1) TiO2; pH 5) whereas, using an optimum 1.5gL(-1) persulfate at pH 5, 81% COD reduction occurred. Acidic and alkaline pH favored COD and NH4N removal respectively. The results of this study demonstrated that coupling ARB with AOPs is potentially applicable process to deal with bio-recalcitrant compounds present in mature landfill leachate.

  18. On optimization design for a flood intercepting trench of solid waste sanitary landfill in Shaanxi province%陕西省某生活垃圾卫生填埋场泄洪沟设计分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丰毅; 张莉平; 曹叶; 文国庆; 袁莹

    2012-01-01

    西北地区山谷形垃圾填埋场一般具有汇水面积大、土质疏松、易发生山体垮塌等特点,因而需进行降水拦截导排。以实际工程设计为基点,结合当地条件进行了基本参数的选取、断面比选、出口形式选择、消力区段设计计算等。针对场区地形高差大、坡度陡实际情况,给出了陡坡段消力设计计算的一般方法。%Valley-shaped solid waste sanitary landfill in northwest has generally the characteristics of large catchment area, loose soil and high incidence of mountain collapse, therefore, it is required to discharge the rainfall humanly. Based on the actual engineering design and combined with the local conditions, the selection of basic parameters, the choice of the section, outlet of the ditches and the calculation of hydraulic drop pipeline are discussed. According to the actual situation of high level difference and slope, general design and calculate method on hydraulic drop pipeline in slope area is given, and as well as a summary.

  19. Utilization of biogas from sanitary landfill for generation of electrical energy in Sao Paulo: a case study; Aproveitamento do biogas proveniente de aterro sanitario para geracao de energia eletrica em Sao Paulo: estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcilasso, Vanessa Pecora; Coelho, Suani Teixeira Coelho [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez [Universitaria Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Utilization of the biogas proceeding from urban solid residues for electricity generation: case study in Sao Paulo. The biogas, generated from organic matter degradation, is composed by a mixture of gases, the main components being carbon dioxide and methane, which is a greenhouse effect gas with global warming potential around 21 times greater when compared to CO{sub 2}. Biogas production is possible from a great variety of organic residues such as urban solid residues, residues from agricultural and livestock activities, swine livestock, sewage mud, among others. The sanitary landfills may count on techniques of capture of the produced biogas and its later burning in flare, where the methane is transformed in CO{sub 2}, minimizing the environmental impact. Besides the opportunity of reducing the environmental damages, biogas can also be used as fuel for generating electricity, thus adding environmental gain and reduction of costs, due to the diminishing of purchase of the energy consumed in the concessionaire. In this context, this article presents the project of utilization of biogas proceeding from urban solid residues for electricity generation and gas illumination, developed by CENBIO. This project is currently in development and the obtained results will provide technical and economic subsidies for its replication. (author)

  20. 高安屯卫生填埋场刚性调节池除臭新工艺的应用%Application of Deodorant Technology in Regulating Pond of Gao'antun Waste Sanitary Landfill Site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志茹; 彭旭阳; 任丽梅

    2012-01-01

    介绍了北京市朝阳区高安屯填埋场调节池除臭新工艺,即在原有设备基础上增加调节池密闭性,并抽出调节池内部臭气作为火炬助燃空气对调节池臭气进行除臭,实践证明该工艺可有效解决调节池除臭问题,满足GB14554-1993排放要求;且系统运行安全有效、成本较低.%The deodorant technology of regulating pond in Chaoyang District Gao'antun Waste Sanitary Landfill Site of Beijing was introduced. That is to say, the deodorant technology improved the leakproofness of regulating pond based on existing deodorant equipment, and extracted the air inside the regulation pond as combustion air for small torch system to deodorant. The project has been proved that it can effectively solve the deodorant problem for regulation ponds, and meet the emission requirements of GB 14554-1993. The system is safe and effective, and has low costs.

  1. Landfill gas from environment to energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gendebien, A.; Pauwels, M.; Constant, M.; Ledrut-Damanet, M.J.; Nyns, E.J. [Louvain Univ. (Belgium); Fabry, R.; Ferrero, G.L. [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium); Willumsen, H.C.; Butson, J.

    1992-11-01

    Landfill gas is an alternative source of energy which can be commercially exploited wherever municipal solid wastes are disposed of in sanitary landfills. In this context, it was decided to launch a comprehensive study on the subject of energy valorization of landfill gas. The main topics dealt with in the study, which is supported by a comprehensive literature survey and six detailed case-studies, include; (i) the environmental impact of landfill gas, (ii) the process of landfill gas genesis and the technology of landfill gas control by its exploitation, (iii) the monitoring of landfill gas emissions, (iv) the policies and legal aspects of landfill gas in the European Community and in the world, (v) the estimation of landfill gas potentials and economics of landfill gas control and exploitation, (vi) the status of landfill gas exploitation in the European Community and in the world. (authors). refs., figs., tabs.

  2. Methane emissions from sanitary landfills in Italy. Evaluation and forecasting; Le emissioni di metano dalle discariche di rifiuti in Italia: stima e scenari futuri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombari, F.; De Lauretis, R.; De Stefanis, P.; Gaudioso, D. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-07-01

    The report estimates the methane emissions from landfills by three different methodologies derived from IPCC experiences. A detailed evaluation of solid waste production (MSW) composition is shown in order to update results obtained from old researches. Finally it shows a prediction of MSW production from 1996 to 2011 in different scenarios related to MSW management strategies. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza la stima della quantita' di metano generato dalle discariche di rifiuti utilizzando tre differenti metodologie di calcolo, derivanti dalle conoscenze scientifiche dell'IPCC, dopo aver approfondito la composizione dei rifiuti. Riporta infine per il periodo 1996-2011, la stima della produzione e dello smaltimento dei rifiuti e la predisposizione di diversi scenari futuri di emissione del metano, relativi a differenti scelte all'interno del sistema di gestione dei rifiuti.

  3. Treatment of a sanitary landfill leachate using combined solar photo-Fenton and biological immobilized biomass reactor at a pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Rocha, Elisangela M R; Mota, Francisco S; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2011-04-01

    A solar photo-Fenton process combined with a biological nitrification and denitrification system is proposed for the decontamination of a landfill leachate in a pilot plant using photocatalytic (4.16 m(2) of Compound Parabolic Collectors - CPCs) and biological systems (immobilized biomass reactor). The optimum iron concentration for the photo-Fenton reaction of the leachate is 60 mg Fe(2+) L(-1). The organic carbon degradation follows a first-order reaction kinetics (k = 0.020 L kJ(UV)(-1), r(0) = 12.5 mg kJ(UV)(-1)) with a H(2)O(2) consumption rate of 3.0 mmol H(2)O(2) kJ(UV)(-1). Complete removal of ammonium, nitrates and nitrites of the photo-pre-treated leachate was achieved by biological denitrification and nitrification, after previous neutralization/sedimentation of iron sludge (40 mL of iron sludge per liter of photo-treated leachate after 3 h of sedimentation). The optimum C/N ratio obtained for the denitrification reaction was 2.8 mg CH(3)OH per mg N-NO(3)(-), consuming 7.9 g/8.2 mL of commercial methanol per liter of leachate. The maximum nitrification rate obtained was 68 mg N-NH(4)(+) per day, consuming 33 mmol (1.3 g) of NaOH per liter during nitrification and 27.5 mmol of H(2)SO(4) per liter during denitrification. The optimal phototreatment energy estimated to reach a biodegradable effluent, considering Zahn-Wellens, respirometry and biological oxidation tests, at pilot plant scale, is 29.2 kJ(UV) L(-1) (3.3 h of photo-Fenton at a constant solar UV power of 30 W m(-2)), consuming 90 mM of H(2)O(2) when used in excess, which means almost 57% mineralization of the leachate, 57% reduction of polyphenols concentration and 86% reduction of aromatic content. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison between controlled landfill reactor and conditioned landfill bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Feng; CHEN Wan-zhi; SONG Fu-zhong; LI Xiao-peng; ZHANG Guo-qing

    2004-01-01

    Bioreactor landfills allow a more active landfill management that recognizes the biological, chemical and physical processes involved in a landfill environment. The results of laboratory-scale simulators of landfill reactors treating municipal solid wastes were studied, the effect of solid waste size, leachate recirculation, nutrient balance, pH value, moisture content and temperature on the rate of municipal solid waste(MSW) biodegradation were determined, and it indicated the optimum pH value, moisture content and temperature can used to decompose MSW. The results of waste biodegradation were compared with that of the simulators of the leachate-recirculated landfill and conservative sanitary landfill. In the control experiment the antitheses of a decreasing trend of the organic load, measured as biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand, was shown, and heavy metals concentration was observed. An obvious enhancement of effective disposal from simulator of conservative sanitary landfill(CSL), to that of leachate-recirculated landfill(LRL) and to that of conditioned bioreactor landfill(CBL) would be noted, through displaying the compared results of solid waste settlement, heavy metal concentration in leachate, methane production rate, biogas composition, BOD and COD as well as their ratio.

  5. Management of Leadchate from Army Sanitary Landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    C0ONTAINNENT X x X X X COLLECTION SYSTEM LEACHATE TREATMENTxx -PROCESSES A GAS CONTROL SYSTEMS x x x GROUNDWATER RENOVATION TECHNOLOGIES x x x x 28 5 LEACHATE...Horace R. Collins Director Ohio Div. of Geol. Survey Servicio Geologico de P.R. Fountain Square, Bldg. B Dept. de Recursos Naturales Columbus, OH

  6. Study of the environmental effects of sanitary landfill in Pinto, Madrid (Spain); Estudio de la influencia del vertedero de residuos solidos urbanos de Pinto (Comunidad de Madrid) y su entorno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorronsoro, J.L.; Carreras, N.; Sanchez, D.M.; Quejido, A.; Sanchez, M.; Herranz, I.; Fernandez, M.E.

    1996-10-01

    Here we report the results obtained in the studies of the environmental affection of a municipal solid waste (MSW) Landfill (Pinto, spain). For this purpose samples of waters, soils, sediments, vegetation and leachates were analyzed during three years (1990-1993). The results do not indicate environmental affection, due to the favourable situation (low permeability and runoff and low population density) of the landfill.

  7. Methodology for environmental diagnosis of sanitary landfills: Data during 2003; Metodologia de diagnostico ambiental de vertederos como herramienta en la planificacion ambiental. Datos obtenidos en el Observatorio sobre Vertederos de residuos de 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uriarte, J.

    2003-07-01

    Lack of data regarding environmental matters in relation to the great majority of MSW landfills throughout Spanish territory makes it difficult to consider them suitable for exploitation or territorial expansion required for different activities demanded by society. The environmental risk of a landfill must be minimised with the help of environmental planning tools. One of these tools is based on the environmental diagnosis and characterisation of the areas affected by the solid waste deposit.. Diagnosis by means of quantifiable environmental indexes helped us in our work to determine the priorities for the environmental control of certain Spanish landfills. This diagnosis was used for creating the Observatory on Solid Waste Landfills, organized by ATEGRUS (Spanish Technical Association for Waste Management) in 2003 and presented at ATEGRUS 30th Annual conference on Controlled Landfills. (Author)

  8. Experiences of closing in sanitary landfills with geosynthetics clay liners and geocomposites drainage products in Spain and Portugal; Experiencias de sellado de vertederos con geocompuestos impermeabilizantes y drenantes en Espana y Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abad, P. L.

    2002-07-01

    Since the EC presents the Directive 1999/31 in reference with waste disposal, most of od landfills are closing and new landfills according with this directive are constructing. For this landfill closures, the best experienced solution, not only technically, even financially, is the use of geo synthetics clay liners and geo composites drainage products. Installation facilities are cheaper and the installation times are reduced, even slope stability are improved with this solution. The experience obtained during last years in Spain and Portugal are the purpose of this article. (Author)

  9. DETERMINATON OF ORGANIC MATTER PRESENT IN URBAN WASTE RESIDUE FROM A SANITARY LANDFILL USING THERMOGRAVIMETRIC CURVES: THE CASE OF SÃO CARLOS = DETERMINAÇÃO POR TERMOGRAVIMETRIA (TG DA MATÉRIA ORGÂNICA PRESENTE EM AMOSTRA DE RESÍDUO SÓLIDO URBANO DE ATERRO SANITÁRIO: O CASO DE SÃO CARLOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Schalch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The excessive amount of household waste produced by the population is generally deposited in sanitary landfills. Most of this waste is composed of organic matter, followed by paper and cardboard, plastic, metal and others. After the waste is covered with soil in the landfill, the organic matter begins to decompose, producing several organic compounds, among them the organic acids and acetates. Thermal analysis and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, which are Analytic Chemistry resources, as well as the dust x-rays method of analysis, were used in this study to identify the amount of organic matter, the kind of residue, and the metals present in a sample from a sanitary landfill. The results of the Thermogravimetric (TG analysis curves generated information about dehydration, thermal stability, thermal decomposition, and the amount of organic matter present in urban solid waste that had been deposited in the landfill for four years. = A quantidade excessiva de resíduo sólido domiciliar gerado pela população é em geral disposta em aterros sanitários. A maior parte desse resíduo é constituída de matéria orgânica seguido de papel e papelão, plástico, metal e outros. Após a cobertura do lixo com terra nos aterros, a matéria orgânica começa a se decompor gerando diversos compostos entre eles os ácidos orgânicos e acetatos. A Análise Térmica e a Espectrometria de Absorção Atômica, que são recursos da Química Analítica, bem como a análise de raios X método de pó foram usadas neste trabalho, visando identificar a quantidade de matéria orgânica, o tipo de resíduo final e a presença de metais em amostra retirada de aterro sanitário. O resultado da análise Termogravimétrica (TG forneceu informações sobre a desidratação, estabilidade térmica, decomposição térmica e a quantidade de matéria orgânica presente no resíduo sólido urbano (RSU, após quatro anos de disposição no aterro sanitário de São Carlos, SP.

  10. Mathematical modelization of physical process of biogas migration in sanitary landfills of urban solid wastes; Modelizacion matematica del proceso fisico de migracion del biogas en vertederos controlados de R.S.U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maranon Maison, E.; Sastre Andres, H.; Martin Gonzalez, S.

    1997-09-01

    An analysis of the laws that govern the biogas movements inside the landfill is carried out. The mathematical equations needed to resolve the problem are studied. Then, a model is defined and used to calculate the biogas movements in several situations. The results obtained are contrasted with data from the bibliography and with tests carried out at the La Zoreda, Landfill (Asturias Spain). (Author) 11 refs.

  11. Vinyl Record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartmanski, Dominik; Woodward, Ian

    2017-01-01

    . This relational process means that both the material affordances and entanglements of vinyl allow us to feel, handle, experience, project, and share its iconicity. The materially mediated meanings of vinyl enabled it to retain currency in independent and collector’s markets and thus resist the planned...

  12. The use of sewage sludges from waste water treatment plants for re-vegetation of sanitary landfills; Aplicacion de lodos de depuradora procedentes de aguas residuales urbanas en la revegetacion de vertederos de RSU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, F. I.; Camarero, J. G.; Morenilla Martinez, J. J.; Bernacer Bonora, I.; Herrero Chamorro, O.; Amores Blasco, S.; Fernandez, C.; Codoner, M. A.

    1999-08-01

    The use of forest soil for re vegetating sealed urban landfills is a practice leading to economic and environmental problems. Recently, it has been demonstrated a suitable technique for minimizing soil needs in re-vegetation of closed urban landfill in which, the layer of fertile soil usually added for plants to settle and develop in such degraded substrate is replaced by a layer of the degraded soil amended with anaerobic sewage sludge. In this work we expose the phases and the design for the implementation of a pilot project for the re-vegetation with this procedure of a closed landfill of municipal solid wastes managed by GIRSA, in a collaborative research between CIDE (CSIC-UVEG-GV), Entidad Publica de Saneamiento de Aguas Residuales de la Comunidad Valenciana and DAM, S.L. The closed landfill has a surface of 2,6 ha and its re-vegetation will be carried out by introducing native plants (annuals, bush and trees) after incorporation into the degrades soil of the anaerobic sewage sludge at the single dose of 60 tn/ha. Twelve plots of 20 m by 8 m will be employed to a quarterly research of the effects on the soil and on the introduced vegetation of three doses (0,60, 120 tn/ha) of the anaerobic sewage sludge. (Author) 17 refs.

  13. Application of urban waste water sludge in revegetation of sanitary landfills; Aplicacion de lodos de depuradora procedentes de aguas residuales urbanas en la revegetacion de vertederos de RSU (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingelmo Sanchez, F.; Garcia Camarero, J.; Morenilla Martinez, J. J.; Bernacer Bonora, I.; Herrero Chamorro, O.; Amores Blasco, S.

    2000-07-01

    The use of forest soil for re vegetating sealed urban landfills is a practice leading to economic and environmental problems. Recently, it has been demonstrated a suitable technique for minimizing soil needs in the re-vegetation of a closed urban landfill which, the layer of fertile soil usually added for plants to settle and develop in such degraded substrate is replaced by a layer of the degraded soil amended with urban anaerobic sewage sludges. In this work we expose the firsts results of a pilot project for the re-vegetation with this procedure of a closed landfill of municipal solid wastes managed by the company Gestion Integral de Residuos in a collaborative research among the Centro de Investigaciones sobre Desertificacion, the Entidad Publica de Saneamiento de Aguas Residuales de la Comunidad Valenciana and the company Depuracion de Aguas del Mediterraneo. The closed landfill has a surface of 2,6 ha and its re-vegetation will be carried out by introducing native plants (annuals, busch and trees) after incorporation into the degraded soil of the anaerobic sewage sludge at the single dose of 60 tn/ha. (Author) 3 refs.

  14. Landfilling: Hydrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Beaven, R.

    2011-01-01

    Landfill hydrology deals with the presence and movement of water through a landfill. The main objective in landfill hydrology is usually to predict leachate generation, but the presence and movement of water in a landfill also affect the degradation of the waste, the leaching of pollutants...... and the geotechnical stability of the fill. Understanding landfill hydrology is thus important for many aspects of landfill, in particular siting, design and operation. The objective of this chapter is to give a basic understanding of the hydrology of landfills, and to present ways to estimate leachate quantities......-circuiting. In the final section different existing hydrological models for landfills are presented with a special focus on the HELP model. This model is the most widely used tool for the prediction of leachate quantities in landfills, and for the sizing of leachate control and management infrastructure....

  15. Landfilling: Hydrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Beaven, R.

    2011-01-01

    Landfill hydrology deals with the presence and movement of water through a landfill. The main objective in landfill hydrology is usually to predict leachate generation, but the presence and movement of water in a landfill also affect the degradation of the waste, the leaching of pollutants...... and the geotechnical stability of the fill. Understanding landfill hydrology is thus important for many aspects of landfill, in particular siting, design and operation. The objective of this chapter is to give a basic understanding of the hydrology of landfills, and to present ways to estimate leachate quantities......-circuiting. In the final section different existing hydrological models for landfills are presented with a special focus on the HELP model. This model is the most widely used tool for the prediction of leachate quantities in landfills, and for the sizing of leachate control and management infrastructure....

  16. Microbiological indication of municipal solid waste landfill non-stabilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qi-xing; SYLVESTER Runyuzi; YU Ji-yu; ZHANG Qian-ru

    2004-01-01

    Accidental collapse resulted from unstable factors is an important technological problem to be solved in sanitary landfill. Microbiological degradation of organic matters in landfilled solid waste are an important unstable factor. A landfill reactor was thus manufactured and installed to examine quantitative and population dynamics of microorganisms during degradation of landfilled solid waste. It was showed that unstable landfill can be reflected and indicated by microbiological features such as rapidly decreased growth amount of microorganisms, no detection of fungi and actinomyces, and changing the dominant population into methanogenic bacteria and Acinotobacter.

  17. Ammonia release and conversion in bioreactor landfill simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubberding, H.; Valencia, R.; Salazar, R.; Lens, P.

    2009-07-01

    Bioreactor landfills are considered to be an improvements to normal sanitary landfills, because the Municipal Solid Waste is stabilised faster and the biogas is produced in a shorter period of time (Valencia et al 2008a, b). In spite of these advantages, it is still difficult to reach within 30 years a safe status of the landfill due to the elevated NH{sub 4}{sup +} levels (up to 3 g/L) in the leachate. (Author)

  18. Energetic use of biogas from sanitary landfill in Brazil: a technical feasibility study, economic and environmental; Do aproveitamento energetico do biogas em aterros sanitarios no Brasil: um estudo de viabilidade tecnica, economica e ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Fabio Viana de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Power generation through biogas in landfills is a production of clean and renewable energy in order to minimize the global impacts generated by the burning of municipal solid waste. In this article, the operational conditions of biogas are defined, and analyzed the appropriate areas and minimum flow of biogas, in m{sup 3}/h, to enable this type of project. The most significant environmental contribution of this project is to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), by converting the methane into carbon dioxide. According to the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), called developed countries can buy carbon credits from developing countries to meet their environmental goals. This alternative of raising revenue is one of the objects of this study. Are studied energy conversion technologies, with analysis of the best alternative for the conversion of landfill biogas energy. Comparative studies are presented and the results showed that the generating sets, using internal combustion engines (Otto or Diesel cycles) are more viable both technically and economic bias for energy conversion of landfill gas in Brazil through thermoelectric units.

  19. DEP Reported Sanitary Sewer Overflows

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — Sanitary sewer overflows reported to the Department of Environmental Protection by the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission or individuals in the County. Update...

  20. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Fliermans, C.B.

    1997-07-14

    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP).

  1. Desempenho operacional e ambiental de unidades de reciclagem e disposição final de resíduos sólidos domésticos financiadas pelo ICMS Ecológico de Minas Gerais Operational and environmental performance of sanitary landfills and recycling facilities supported by the Ecological ICMS in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco do Prado Filho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avalia sistemas de reciclagem e de disposição de resíduos sólidos domésticos que possuem incentivos fiscais definidos pela Lei Estadual nº 13.803/2000 de Minas Gerais. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida por análise de documentação de licenciamento ambiental de aterros sanitários e usinas de reciclagem e compostagem de resíduos financiados pela referida Lei e por visitas às unidades sanitárias, sendo usados os instrumentos metodológicos da agência ambiental do Estado de São Paulo (CETESB que avaliam as condições de instalação e operação desses tipos de empreendimentos. Do estudo, constatou-se que o incentivo de Minas Gerais, definido pela Lei do ICMS Ecológico, traz importantes benefícios ambientais aos municípios, embora ainda seja reduzido o número dos contemplados por esse fomento à gestão dos resíduos sólidos urbanos. Conclui-se, também, que algumas das unidades estudadas apresentam problemas de natureza ambiental e operacional.This paper reports a qualitative assessment made at the sanitary landfill, recycling centers and composting units sponsored by the State Law No 13.803/2000, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The analyses of all the documentation used for the environmental licensing process as well as field trips to sanitary landfills and domestic recycle/composting unities were performed. The IQC and IQR indexes from the São Paulo State Environmental Agency (CETESB were used as quality assessment tools. It is concluded that this State Law (Ecological ICMS Law has been promoting substantial environmental benefits to the local communities, despite it is still small the number of cities which have been attended by this regulation for solid waste management. On the other hand, it can be noticed that some operational and environmental issues remain to be addressed in the visited facilities.

  2. Design of Cut-off Ditch at Valley-type Small Waste Sanitary Landfill Site in Southwest China%西南地区山谷型小型垃圾填埋场截洪沟设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹许鑫; 吕燕; 尹滔

    2012-01-01

    对西南地区山谷型小型垃圾填埋场截洪沟设计展开探讨,结合相关规范优选适用于西南地区的截洪沟设计充满度、设计流速、径流系数等关键设计参数,对截洪沟的流量计算、断面选择、沟壁沟底材料及基础设计、出水口及转弯段的设计、整体平面布置等进行讨论,提出三种优化截洪沟断面.通过截洪沟的优化设计可实现清污分流,降低渗滤液产量,减少雨水对垃圾渗滤液收集及处理系统的冲击,降低垃圾渗滤液处理成本,确保垃圾填埋场正常、安全运行.%The design of cut-off ditch at valley-type small landfill site in the southwest China is explored. The design parameters of cut-off ditch applicable to the southwest China, such as design filling degree, design flow, runoff coefficient and other key design parameters are selected according to the related codes. The flow calculation, cross section selection, materials and foundation design for the ditch walls and bottom, design of outlet and curved segment and overall layout are discussed. Three kinds of optimized cross sections of cut-off ditch are proposed. The optimization design of cut-off dilch can achieve the separation of rainwater and sewage, reduce the leachate production, mitigate the impact of rainwater on collection and treatment systems of landfill leachate, thus reducing the treatment cost of landfill leachate and ensuring the normal and safe operation of landfill site.

  3. Managing the leachate at the regional landfill in Kikinda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Sanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In developed, industrial countries, there is 1.2kg waste per capita, waste being collected and disposed of in regulated, sanitary landfills, which have systems for the protection of groundwater and air from pollutants, in Serbia, the largest number of landfills does not meet even the basic safety criteria for environmental protection. Several municipalities in Serbia began with the organization of the regional waste management system and within that frame, the construction of regional landfills which meet European standards in terms of environmental protection. The paper presents a method of management and use of leachate at the regional waste landfill 'ASA', Kikinda.

  4. The biological degradation as an energy option, determination of the effects of the aerobic phase on the subsequent production of biogas in a sanitary landfill; La degradacion biologica como una opcion energetica, determinacion de los efectos de la fase aerobia sobre la subsecuente produccion de biogas en un relleno sanitario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar Juarez, Oscar [Asesoria de Servicios Ambientales del Bajio (ASSB), (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The present work deals with the energy evaluation of biological processes as energy source and is based on works concerning laboratory, pilot and field research. The objective of the research is to integrate the effect of the aerobic phase during the process of degradation of organic residues (basically the organic fraction of domestic residues), where the last aim is the biogas production. The usefulness of the results is reflected in the suitable estimation of the filling of a sanitary landfill considering the composition of the residues deposited and the effects that this management will have on the run-up time of the same and the velocity of biogas production. Finally, integrates a reflection on the intrinsic energy implications of the process and of the biogas yielding, which is evaluated as well as energy source. [Spanish] El presente trabajo trata sobre la valoracion energetica de procesos biologicos como fuente de energia y se basa en trabajos de investigacion a nivel de laboratorio, piloto y de campo. El objetivo de la investigacion es integrar el efecto de la fase aerobia durante el proceso de degradacion de residuos organicos (basicamente la fraccion organica de residuos domesticos), donde el fin ultimo es la produccion de biogas. La utilidad de los resultados se refleja en la estimacion adecuada del llenado de un relleno sanitario considerando la composicion de los residuos ahi depositados y los efectos que tendra esta gestion sobre el tiempo de estabilizacion de los mismos y la velocidad de produccion de biogas. Finalmente, se integra una reflexion sobre las implicaciones energeticas intrinsecas al proceso y del rendimiento de biogas, el cual a su vez es valorizado como fuente de energia.

  5. Multistage treatment system for raw leachate from sanitary landfill combining biological nitrification-denitrification/solar photo-Fenton/biological processes, at a scale close to industrial--biodegradability enhancement and evolution profile of trace pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia F C V; Silva, M Elisabete F; Cunha-Queda, A Cristina; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Sousa, M A; Gonçalves, C; Alpendurada, M F; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2013-10-15

    A multistage treatment system, at a scale close to the industrial, was designed for the treatment of a mature raw landfill leachate, including: a) an activated sludge biological oxidation (ASBO), under aerobic and anoxic conditions; b) a solar photo-Fenton process, enhancing the bio-treated leachate biodegradability, with and without sludge removal after acidification; and c) a final polishing step, with further ASBO. The raw leachate was characterized by a high concentration of humic substances (HS) (1211 mg CHS/L), representing 39% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content, and a high nitrogen content, mainly in the form of ammonium nitrogen (>3.8 g NH4(+)-N/L). In the first biological oxidation step, a 95% removal of total nitrogen and a 39% mineralization in terms of DOC were achieved, remaining only the recalcitrant fraction, mainly attributed to HS (57% of DOC). Under aerobic conditions, the highest nitrification rate obtained was 8.2 mg NH4(+)-N/h/g of volatile suspended solids (VSS), and under anoxic conditions, the maximum denitrification rate obtained was 5.8 mg (NO2(-)-N + NO3(-)-N)/h/g VSS, with a C/N consumption ratio of 2.4 mg CH3OH/mg (NO2(-)-N + NO3(-)-N). The precipitation of humic acids (37% of HS) after acidification of the bio-treated leachate corresponds to a 96% DOC abatement. The amount of UV energy and H2O2 consumption during the photo-Fenton reaction was 30% higher in the experiment without sludge removal and, consequently, the reaction velocity was 30% lower. The phototreatment process led to the depletion of HS >80%, of low-molecular-weight carboxylate anions >70% and other organic micropollutants, thus resulting in a total biodegradability increase of >70%. The second biological oxidation allowed to obtain a final treated leachate in compliance with legal discharge limits regarding water bodies (with the exception of sulfate ions), considering the experiment without sludge. Finally, the high efficiency of the overall treatment

  6. LANDFILL LEACHATES PRETREATMENT BY OZONATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Leszczyński

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the application of ozonation processes for stabilized landfill leachate treatment was investigated. The leachate came from a municipal sanitary landfill located nearby Bielsk Podlaski. The average values of its main parameters were: pH 8.23; COD 870 mgO2/dm3; BOD 90 mgO2/dm3; NH4+ 136.2 mgN/dm3; UV254 absorbance 0.312 and turbidity 14 NTU. The ozone dosages used were in the range of 115.5 to 808.5 mgO3/dm3 of the leachate. The maximum COD, color and UV254 absorbance removal wa.5 mgO3/dm3. After oxidation, the ratio of BOD/COD was increased from 0.1 up to 0.23.

  7. Numerical Model Study on Working Performance of Seepproof Liner in Sanitary Landfill%卫生填埋场防渗层工作性能的数值模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庭发; 张鹏伟; 胡黎明

    2012-01-01

    The anti-seepage and absorption ability of clay layer are main factors influencing landfill liner working performance. A ID convection-dispersion model was proposed to analyze the influence of permeability coefficient, diffusion coefficient, infiltration intensity, and absorption ability on the breakthrough time and leaching quantity. A 2D numerical model considering soil stratification, inhomogeneity, underground water motion and macro-dispersivity was introduced to reflett practical complex conditions, and parameter sensitivity analysis was conducted. The results show that keeping a relatively low leachate head is of great importance to obtaining well anti-seepage performance and durability of clay liner. The permeability coeffisient of clay liner varies within extensive range because of variation in material character and quality control during construction and the breakthrough time decrease sharply when the permeability coefficient increase by one order of magnitude. A nearly linear relation between breakthrough time and retardation factor can be obtained when the permeability keeps constant. Underground water can severely influence the transportation and distribution of pollutant. The results show that pollutant transport occures mainly in vertical direction when the water level is low. The pollutant concentration in lower layer soil and underground water is much lower because of intense absorption in unsaturated soil above the water level.%粘土衬垫的防渗性能和吸附阻滞性能对卫生填埋场防渗系统工作性能有着重要影响.通过建立一维对流-弥散模型,分析了渗透系数、扩散系数、入渗强度、吸附能力对渗漏量及衬垫击穿时间的影响.考虑实际工程的复杂性,建立能反映土体分层、土体非均质性、地下水运动及宏观弥散等复杂因素影响的污染物运移二维分析模型,并对各参数的敏感性进行分析.计算结果表明,保持填埋场在低渗滤液水位下运

  8. Biogas movements in sanitary landdfills; Movimiento de biogas en rellenos sanitarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidales A, Humberto

    1988-12-31

    This paper shows a model to study the physical and kinetic equations that determine the movement and diffusion of the biogas in sanitary landfills. This model for biogas flow was made in function of pressure, temperature, waste porosity and permeability, due to a diffusion coefficient of biogas determination 6 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Landfill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willumsen, H. (Crone and Koch, Viborg (Denmark))

    1990-08-01

    In most landfills, the refuse deposit usually has a high content of organic matter consisting of a mixture of household, industrial and garden waste. Immediately after the refuse has been placed in the landfill, aerobic decomposition of the organic waste begins. Once the oxygen has been exhausted, anaerobic decomposition begins. 'Biogas' is produced which has a methane content of approximately 50% and can be used as a fuel. The exploitation of landfill gas for energy purposes was initiated in the USA around 1975 and later in Europe. A landfill gas plant consists of a recovery system and a production system. A recovery system can consist of vertical perforated pipe wells, horizontal perforated pipes or ditches, or membrane covers to collect the generated gas. Under normal conditions it will not be necessary to process the gas except for the removal of water and other impurities (e.g. solid particles) if the gas is to be used in a boiler or engine. In the USA most often only power is produced, whereas in Europe the waste heat is normally exploited, making the plant function as a combined power and heating plant. It is also possible to upgrade the landfill gas to a methane content of nearly 100, after which it can be distributed with natural gas. There are several such plants in the USA. 8 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Biodegradability potential of two experimental landfills in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazoller Rosana Filomena

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid wastes anaerobic biodegradability, methane production potential and microbiological composition of two experimental sanitary landfills in Brazil, running for one year, were evaluated. The two landfills showed a similar organic matter stabilization during the methane production phase, despite the high heterogeneity of the solid wastes. Both landfills presented the same level of methane (around 91.5 L CH4 / kg Volatile Total Solids and organic acids, mainly acetic and butyric acids, in the leachate. Bacterial isolates belonged to genera Megasphaera, Selenomonas, Methanobacterium, Methanobrevibacter and Methanosarcina.

  11. Ocorrência de bactérias clinicamente relevantes nos resíduos de serviços de saúde em um aterro sanitário brasileiro e perfil de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos Occurrence of clinically relevant bacteria in health service waste in a Brazilian sanitary landfill and antimicrobial susceptibility profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago César Nascimento

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Os resíduos de serviços de saúde suscitam polêmica quanto a importância para a saúde humana, animal e ambiental. Avaliou-se a ocorrência de bactérias clinicamente relevantes na pilha de resíduos de serviços de saúde em um aterro sanitário e seu perfil de susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos. Alíquotas de chorume foram processadas para isolamento seletivo de Staphylococcus sp, bastonetes Gram negativos da família Enterobacteriaceae e não fermentadores. Resistência bacteriana a todos os antimicrobianos testados foi observada em todos os grupos microbianos, além de resistência a mais de uma droga. Os resultados permitem sugerir que bactérias viáveis nos resíduos de serviços de saúde representam riscos à saúde humana e animal. Além disso, a ocorrência de linhagens multirresistentes sustenta a hipótese dos resíduos de serviços de saúde atuarem como reservatórios de marcadores de resistência, com impacto ambiental. A falta de legislação regional de segregação, tratamento e destino de resíduos podem expor diferentes populações a riscos de transmissão de doenças infecciosas associadas a microrganismos multirresistentes.Health service waste gives rise to controversy regarding its importance for human, animal and environmental health. Occurrences of clinically relevant bacteria in piles of health service waste in a sanitary landfill and their antimicrobial susceptibility profile were evaluated. Aliquots of leachate were processed for selective isolation of Staphylococcus sp, Gram-negative rods of the Enterobacteriaceae family and non-fermenters. Bacterial resistance to all the antimicrobials tested was observed in all microbial groups, including resistance to more than one drug. The results make it possible to suggest that viable bacteria in health service waste represent risks to human and animal health. Furthermore, occurrences of multiresistant strains support the hypothesis that health service waste acts as a

  12. Avaliação dos níveis de metais pesados em efluente líquido percolado do aterro sanitário de Paranavaí, Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Assessment of heavy metal levels in percolated liquid from sanitary landfill in Paranavaí, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Akiko Nagashima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O percolado pode conter diversas substâncias químicas com características tóxicas, dentre elas os metais pesados oriundos de vários materiais provenientes de indústrias, atividades agrícolas, laboratórios, hospitais, residências. A contaminação pormetais apresenta amplo espectro de toxicidade que inclui efeitos neurotóxicos, hepatóxicos, nefrotóxicos, teratogênicos, carcinogênicos ou mutagênicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi aavaliação dos níveis de Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb e Zn do percolado gerado no aterro sanitário de Paranavaí - PR. As amostras foram coletadas a partir de setembro de 2006 a julho de 2007, em quatro pontos distintos nas lagoas de tratamento. Para detecção dosmetais utilizou-se o espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica com chama. Os resultados foram comparados com os limites máximos de concentração de metais em efluentes líquidos estabelecidos pela Resolução 397/2008 - Conama (BRASIL, 2008. Verificou-se que os níveis dos metais analisados, com exceção do Pb, estão dentro dos limites permissíveispela legislação ambiental.Percolated liquid may contain several chemical substances with toxic characteristics, among them heavy metals from industrial sources, agricultural activities, laboratories, hospitals and residences. Metal contamination presents a wide array of toxicities, such as neurotoxic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, teratogenic, carcinogenic or mutagenic effects. The objective of this work was to assess the levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in percolated liquid produced at the sanitary landfill in Paranavaí. The samples were collected from September of 2006 to July of 2007, at fourdistinct places of the treatment lake. An atomic absorption spectrophotometer with a burner was used to detect the metals. The results were compared with the maximum allowed values for metal concentration present in Resolution 397/2008 – Conama (BRAZIL, 2008.It was verified that the level of analyzed

  13. Sanitary costs of osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Franceschini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Muscoloskeletal disorders are the first cause of disability and the second cause of permanent disablement in Italy. Osteoarthritis is the most frequent rheumatic disease and affects about 4 million Italians. In spite of that, data concerning social costs are lacking. On account of this lack we measured sanitary costs of 314 patients suffering from osteoarthritis. A retrospective, prevalence- based multicentric study was performed using a bottom-up approach. The study period was 12 months and referred to 1999. Eight percent of patients didn’t take any drug for the treatment of osteoarthritis; NSAIDs were prescribed to 86.9% of patients, analgesics to 29.9%, chondroprotective drugs to 7.6%, and gastroprotective drugs to 36.9%. Total sanitary costs came to 455 € / patient / year: 122 € were spent on diagnostics, 293 € on therapy and 40 € on management of drug-related gastropathy. Since the costs of anti-inflammatory drugs came to 30 € we calculated iatrogenic cost factor of 2.3. Moreover, the study supplied interesting informations about prescriptive habits, which differ in Italy from international guidelines for the medical treatment of OA, about patient management, because of hospitalization, which by itself absorbs 1/3 of resources, and about physiotherapy, which costs twice as much as pharmacological therapy. At last, data analysis gave the cue for suggestions on changing patients’ management.

  14. The new Waste Law: Challenging opportunity for future landfill operation in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidiana, Christia; Gamse, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The Waste Law No. 18/2008 Article 22 and 44 require the local governments to run environmentally sound landfill. Due to the widespread poor quality of waste management in Indonesia, this study aimed to identify the current situation by evaluating three selected landfills based on the ideal conditions of landfill practices, which are used to appraise the capability of local governments to adapt to the law. The results indicated that the local governments have problems of insufficient budget, inadequate equipment, uncollected waste and unplanned future landfill locations. All of the selected landfills were partially controlled landfills with open dumping practices predominating. In such inferior conditions the implementation of sanitary landfill is not necessarily appropriate. The controlled landfill is a more appropriate solution as it offers lower investment and operational costs, makes the selection of a new landfill site unnecessary and can operate with a minimum standard of infrastructure and equipment. The sustainability of future landfill capacity can be maintained by utilizing the old landfill as a profit-oriented landfill by implementing a landfill gas management or a clean development mechanism project. A collection fee system using the pay-as-you-throw principle could increase the waste income thereby financing municipal solid waste management.

  15. Landfill is an important atmospheric mercury emission source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xinbin; TANG Shunlin; LI Zhonggen; WANG Shaofeng; LIANG Lian

    2004-01-01

    Since municipal wastes contain refuses with high mercury contents, incineration of municipal wastes becomes the major anthropogenic atmospheric mercury emission source. In China, landfills are however the main way to dispose of municipal wastes. Total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in landfill gas of Gaoyan sanitary landfill located in suburb of Guiyang City were monitored using a high temporal resolved automated mercury analyzer, and mono-methylmercury (MMHg) and dimethylmercury (DMHg) concentrations in landfill gas were also measured using GC coupled with the cold vapor atomic fluorescence (CVAFS) method. Meanwhile, the TGM exchange fluxes between exposed waste and air and the soil surface of the landfill and air, were measured using low Hg blank quartz flux chamber coupled with high temporal resolved automated mercury analyzer technique. TGM concentrations in landfill gas from half year filling area averaged out at 665.52±291.25 ng/m3, which is comparable with TGM concentrations from flue gas of a small coal combustion boiler in Guiyang. The average MMHg and DMHg concentrations averaged out at 2.06±1.82 ng/m3 and 9.50±5.18 ng/m3, respectively. It is proven that mercury emission is the predominant process at the surfaces of both exposed wastes and soil of landfill. Landfills are not only TGM emission source, but also methylmercury emission source to the ambient air. There are two ways to emit mercury to the air from landfills, one is with the landfill gas through landfill gas duct, and the other through soil/air exchange. The Hg emission processes from landfills are controlled by meteorological parameters.

  16. Nitrogen Removal from Landfill Leachate by Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio F. L. Pereira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Landfill leachates result from the degradation of solid residues in sanitary landfills, thus presenting a high variability in terms of composition. Normally, these effluents are characterized by high ammoniacal-nitrogen (N–NH4+ concentrations, high chemical oxygen demands and low phosphorus concentrations. The development of effective treatment strategies becomes difficult, posing a serious problem to the environment. Phycoremediation appears to be a suitable alternative for the treatment of landfill leachates. In this study, the potential of Chlorella vulgaris for biomass production and nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus removal from different compositions of a landfill leachate was evaluated. Since microalgae also require phosphorus for their growth, different loads of this nutrient were evaluated, giving the following N:P ratios: 12:1, 23:1 and 35:1. The results have shown that C. vulgaris was able to grow in the different leachate compositions assessed. However, microalgal growth was higher in the cultures presenting the lowest N–NH4+ concentration. In terms of nutrients uptake, an effective removal of N–NH4+ and phosphorus was observed in all the experiments, especially in those supplied with phosphorus. Nevertheless, N–NO3− removal was considered almost negligible. These promising results constitute important findings in the development of a bioremediation technology for the treatment of landfill leachates.

  17. Nitrogen Removal from Landfill Leachate by Microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sérgio F. L.; Gonçalves, Ana L.; Moreira, Francisca C.; Silva, Tânia F. C. V.; Vilar, Vítor J. P.; Pires, José C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Landfill leachates result from the degradation of solid residues in sanitary landfills, thus presenting a high variability in terms of composition. Normally, these effluents are characterized by high ammoniacal-nitrogen (N–NH4+) concentrations, high chemical oxygen demands and low phosphorus concentrations. The development of effective treatment strategies becomes difficult, posing a serious problem to the environment. Phycoremediation appears to be a suitable alternative for the treatment of landfill leachates. In this study, the potential of Chlorella vulgaris for biomass production and nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus) removal from different compositions of a landfill leachate was evaluated. Since microalgae also require phosphorus for their growth, different loads of this nutrient were evaluated, giving the following N:P ratios: 12:1, 23:1 and 35:1. The results have shown that C. vulgaris was able to grow in the different leachate compositions assessed. However, microalgal growth was higher in the cultures presenting the lowest N–NH4+ concentration. In terms of nutrients uptake, an effective removal of N–NH4+ and phosphorus was observed in all the experiments, especially in those supplied with phosphorus. Nevertheless, N–NO3− removal was considered almost negligible. These promising results constitute important findings in the development of a bioremediation technology for the treatment of landfill leachates. PMID:27869676

  18. Nitrogen Removal from Landfill Leachate by Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sérgio F L; Gonçalves, Ana L; Moreira, Francisca C; Silva, Tânia F C V; Vilar, Vítor J P; Pires, José C M

    2016-11-17

    Landfill leachates result from the degradation of solid residues in sanitary landfills, thus presenting a high variability in terms of composition. Normally, these effluents are characterized by high ammoniacal-nitrogen (N-NH₄⁺) concentrations, high chemical oxygen demands and low phosphorus concentrations. The development of effective treatment strategies becomes difficult, posing a serious problem to the environment. Phycoremediation appears to be a suitable alternative for the treatment of landfill leachates. In this study, the potential of Chlorella vulgaris for biomass production and nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus) removal from different compositions of a landfill leachate was evaluated. Since microalgae also require phosphorus for their growth, different loads of this nutrient were evaluated, giving the following N:P ratios: 12:1, 23:1 and 35:1. The results have shown that C. vulgaris was able to grow in the different leachate compositions assessed. However, microalgal growth was higher in the cultures presenting the lowest N-NH₄⁺ concentration. In terms of nutrients uptake, an effective removal of N-NH₄⁺ and phosphorus was observed in all the experiments, especially in those supplied with phosphorus. Nevertheless, N-NO₃(-) removal was considered almost negligible. These promising results constitute important findings in the development of a bioremediation technology for the treatment of landfill leachates.

  19. Landfills, Landfills, Published in 2003, Taylor County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Landfills dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2003. It is described as 'Landfills'. Data by this publisher are...

  20. Landfilling: Environmental Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Manfredi, Simone; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    to air, soil and water caused by the processes stabilizing the waste in the landfill. The main factors controlling the actual environmental impacts from the landfilling are: the nature and amount of the waste landfilled, the geological and hydrological setting of the landfill, the landfill technology......, the extent and quality of the technical environmental protection measures introduced, the daily operation and the timescale. This chapter describes the main potential environmental impacts from landfills. The modern landfill is able to avoid most of these impacts. However, in the planning and design...... of landfills it is important to understand the potential environmental impacts, which must be avoided. The emissions of landfill gas and leachate causing most of the environmental risks are described in detail in the chapters addressing specific landfill types: Chapter 10.5 (mineral waste landfill), Chapter 10...

  1. The estimation of methane emissions from landfills with different cover systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S.; Lee, K.; Sung, K.

    2006-12-01

    Methane is a very potent greenhouse gas, second only to CO2 as an anthropogenic contributor to global warming. Landfills are important anthropogenic source in the CH4 emissions. Microbially mediated CH4 oxidation in landfills with conventional soil covers can serve as an efficient biological sink. Methane from modern sanitary landfills equipped with composite covers and gas collection system is vented directly to the atmosphere, except for some of the largest landfills at which it is collected and burned. However, previous laboratory research has shown that biofilters have the potential to reduce CH4 emissions from landfills with modern composite covers. In this study a CH4 emission model was developed. The model used the calculated CH4 oxidation rates to estimate CH4 emissions from landfills constructed with conventional soil covers, modern composite covers, and modern composite covers plus biofilters. According to the CH4 emission rates predicted by CH4 emission model, it was estimated that 90% of the generated CH4 was emitted to the atmosphere for landfills with modern composite cover. For landfills with modern composite cover plus biofilters, an average of only 9% of the generated CH4 was estimated to be emitted. For landfills with conventional covers, an average of 83% of the generated CH4 was estimated to be emitted. By comparing the CH4 emission rates from three different landfill types, the use of a properly managed biofilter should be an effective technique to reduce CH4 emissions from landfills.

  2. Landfill stabilization focus area: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Landfills within the DOE Complex as of 1990 are estimated to contain 3 million cubic meters of buried waste. The DOE facilities where the waste is predominantly located are at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Landfills include buried waste, whether on pads or in trenches, sumps, ponds, pits, cribs, heaps and piles, auger holes, caissons, and sanitary landfills. Approximately half of all DOE buried waste was disposed of before 1970. Disposal regulations at that time permitted the commingling of various types of waste (i.e., transuranic, low-level radioactive, hazardous). As a result, much of the buried waste throughout the DOE Complex is presently believed to be contaminated with both hazardous and radioactive materials. DOE buried waste typically includes transuranic-contaminated radioactive waste (TRU), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), hazardous waste per 40 CFR 26 1, greater-than-class-C waste per CFR 61 55 (GTCC), mixed TRU waste, and mixed LLW. The mission of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver safer,more cost-effective and efficient technologies which satisfy DOE site needs for the remediation and management of landfills. The LSFA is structured into five technology areas to meet the landfill remediation and management needs across the DOE complex. These technology areas are: assessment, retrieval, treatment, containment, and stabilization. Technical tasks in each of these areas are reviewed.

  3. [Topical problems of sanitary and epidemiologic examination concerning projects of sanitary protection zones in airports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isayeva, A M; Zibaryov, E V

    2015-01-01

    The article covers data on major errors in sanitary protection zones specification for civil airports, revealed through sanitary epidemiologic examination. The authors focus attention on necessity to develop unified methodic approach to evaluation of aviation noise effects, when justifying sanitary protection zone of airports and examining sanitary and epidemiologic project documents.

  4. Applying of Electrical Imaging Survey (EIS) to Evaluate Leachate Pollution in Underground Area of Informal Landfill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Song; Wang, Di; Mou, Zishen

    2014-01-01

    An informal landfill is an open dump that pollutes the underground environment because it lacks an impervious liner. The leakage of such a landfill is unidirectional and thus difficult to directly test. This study uses electrical imaging survey to evaluate the pollution of the underground...... environment of an informal landfill for municipal solid waste in Beijing. We hypothesize that every location has a specific resistivity resulting from the leachate. We use the membership function of fuzzy mathematics to quantitatively represent the pollution of the underground environment in the sanitary...

  5. Assessment of groundwater contamination by landfill leachate: a case in México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-López, Jaime A; Ramírez-Hernández, Jorge; Lázaro-Mancilla, Octavio; Carreón-Diazconti, Concepción; Garrido, Miguel Martín-Loeches

    2008-01-01

    In México, uncontrolled landfills or open-dumps are regularly used as "sanitary landfills". Interactions between landfills/open-dumps and shallow unconfined aquifers have been widely documented. Therefore, evidence showing the occurrence of aquifer contamination may encourage Mexican decision makers to enforce environmental regulations. Traditional methods such as chemical analysis of groundwater, hydrological descriptions, and geophysical studies including vertical electrical sounding (VES) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) were used for the identification and delineation of a contaminant plume in a shallow aquifer. The Guadalupe Victoria landfill located in Mexicali is used as a model study site. This landfill has a shallow aquifer of approximately 1m deep and constituted by silty sandy soil that may favor the transport of landfill leachate. Geophysical studies show a landfill leachate contaminant plume that extends for 20 and 40 m from the SE and NW edges of the landfill, respectively. However, the zone of the leachate's influence stretches for approximately 80 m on both sides of the landfill. Geochemical data corroborates the effects of landfill leachate on groundwater.

  6. Landfilling: Environmental Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Manfredi, Simone; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Waste disposed of in a landfill is by its nature different from the material found in the surroundings of the landfill and thereby the landfill may potentially affect the surrounding environment. This may be in terms of attracting or repelling flora and fauna from the area and through the emissio...

  7. Landfill leachate treatment in assisted landfill bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Pin-jing; QU Xian; SHAO Li-ming; LEE Duu-jong

    2006-01-01

    Landfill is the major disposal route of municipal solid waste(MSW) in most Asian countries. Leachate from landfill presents a strong wastewater that needs intensive treatment before discharge. Direct recycling was proposed as an effective alternative for leachate treatment by taking the landfill as a bioreactor. This process was proved not only considerably reducing the pollution potential of leachate, but also enhancing organic degradation in the landfill. However, as this paper shows, although direct leachate recycling was effective in landfilled MSW with low food waste fraction (3.5%, w/w), it failed in MSW containing 54% food waste, as normally noted in Asian countries. The initial acid stuck would inhibit methanogenesis to build up, hence strong leachate was yielded from landfill to threaten the quality of receiving water body. We demonstrated the feasibility to use an assisted bioreactor landfill, with a well-decomposed refuse layer as ex-situ anaerobic digester to reducing COD loading in leachate. By doing so, the refuse in simulated landfill column (2.3 m high) could be stabilized in 30 weeks while the COD in leachate reduced by 95%(61000 mg/L to 3000 mg/L). Meanwhile, the biogas production was considerably enhanced, signaling by the much greater amount and much higher methane content in the biogas.

  8. Landfilling: Concepts and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Scharff, H.; Hjelmar, O.

    2011-01-01

    Landfilling of waste historically has been the main management route for waste, and in many parts of the world it still is. Landfills have developed from open polluting dumps to modern highly engineered facilities with sophisticated control measures and monitoring routines. However, in spite of all...... new approaches and technological advancement the landfill still is a long lasting accumulation of waste in the environment. Much of current landfill design and technology has been introduced as a reaction to problems encountered at actual landfills. The solution was in many cases sought in isolation...... to understand the concepts, the processes and the long-term aspects of landfilling. This chapter describes the main conceptual aspects of landfilling. The historical development is presented and key issues of time frames, mass balances and technical approaches are discussed. The environmental issues...

  9. Landfill site selection using combination of GIS and fuzzy AHP, a case study: Iranshahr, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi-Kaveh, M; Babazadeh, R; Mohammadi, S D; Zaresefat, M

    2016-03-09

    One of the most important recent challenges in solid waste management throughout the world is site selection of sanitary landfill. Commonly, because of simultaneous effects of social, environmental, and technical parameters on suitability of a landfill site, landfill site selection is a complex process and depends on several criteria and regulations. This study develops a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) process, which combines geographic information system (GIS) analysis with a fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP), to determine suitable sites for landfill construction in Iranshahr County, Iran. The GIS was used to calculate and classify selected criteria and FAHP was used to assess the criteria weights based on their effectiveness on selection of potential landfill sites. Finally, a suitability map was prepared by overlay analyses and suitable areas were identified. Four suitability classes within the study area were separated, including high, medium, low, and very low suitability areas, which represented 18%, 15%, 55%, and 12% of the study area, respectively.

  10. Landfill mining: Resource potential of Austrian landfills--Evaluation and quality assessment of recovered municipal solid waste by chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Aldrian, Alexia; Sarc, Renato; Hermann, Robert; Höllen, Daniel; Budischowsky, Andreas; Zöscher, Andreas; Ragoßnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland

    2015-11-01

    Since the need for raw materials in countries undergoing industrialisation (like China) is rising, the availability of metal and fossil fuel energy resources (like ores or coal) has changed in recent years. Landfill sites can contain considerable amounts of recyclables and energy-recoverable materials, therefore, landfill mining is an option for exploiting dumped secondary raw materials, saving primary sources. For the purposes of this article, two sanitary landfill sites have been chosen for obtaining actual data to determine the resource potential of Austrian landfills. To evaluate how pretreating waste before disposal affects the resource potential of landfills, the first landfill site has been selected because it has received untreated waste, whereas mechanically-biologically treated waste was dumped in the second. The scope of this investigation comprised: (1) waste characterisation by sorting analyses of recovered waste; and (2) chemical analyses of specific waste fractions for quality assessment regarding potential energy recovery by using it as solid recovered fuels. The content of eight heavy metals and the net calorific values were determined for the chemical characterisation tests. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Minimizing N2O fluxes from full-scale municipal solid waste landfill with properly selected cover soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Municipal solid waste landfills emit nitrous oxide (N2O) gas. Assuming that the soil cover is the primary N2O source from landfills,this study tested, during a four-year project, the hypothesis that the proper use of chosen soils with fine texture minimizes N2O emissions. A full-scale sanitary landfill, a full-scale bioreactor landfill and a cell planted with Nerium indicum or Festuca arundinacea Schreb, at the Hangzhou Tianziling landfill in Hangzhou City were the test sites. The N2O emission rates from all test sites were considerably lower than those reported in the published reports. Specifically, the N2O emission rate was dependent on soil water content and nitrate concentrations in the cover soil. The effects of leachate recirculation and irrigation were minimal. Properly chosen cover soils applied to the landfills reduced N2O flux.

  12. Avaliação dos níveis de metais pesados em efluente líquido percolado do aterro sanitário de Paranavaí, Estado do Paraná, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i1.1154 Assessment of heavy metal levels in percolated liquid from sanitary landfill in Paranavaí, Paraná State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i1.1154

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Algayer da Silva

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available O percolado pode conter diversas substâncias químicas com características tóxicas, dentre elas os metais pesados oriundos de vários materiais provenientes de indústrias, atividades agrícolas, laboratórios, hospitais, residências. A contaminação por metais apresenta amplo espectro de toxicidade que inclui efeitos neurotóxicos, hepatóxicos, nefrotóxicos, teratogênicos, carcinogênicos ou mutagênicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi a avaliação dos níveis de Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb e Zn do percolado gerado no aterro sanitário de Paranavaí - PR. As amostras foram coletadas a partir de setembro de 2006 a julho de 2007, em quatro pontos distintos nas lagoas de tratamento. Para detecção dos metais utilizou-se o espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica com chama. Os resultados foram comparados com os limites máximos de concentração de metais em efluentes líquidos estabelecidos pela Resolução 397/2008 - Conama (BRASIL, 2008. Verificou-se que os níveis dos metais analisados, com exceção do Pb, estão dentro dos limites permissíveis pela legislação ambiental.Percolated liquid may contain several chemical substances with toxic characteristics, among them heavy metals from industrial sources, agricultural activities, laboratories, hospitals and residences. Metal contamination presents a wide array of toxicities, such as neurotoxic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, teratogenic, carcinogenic or mutagenic effects. The objective of this work was to assess the levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in percolated liquid produced at the sanitary landfill in Paranavaí. The samples were collected from September of 2006 to July of 2007, at four distinct places of the treatment lake. An atomic absorption spectrophotometer with a burner was used to detect the metals. The results were compared with the maximum allowed values for metal concentration present in Resolution 397/2008 – Conama (BRAZIL, 2008. It was verified that the level of

  13. Sustainable Approach for Landfill Management at Final Processing Site Cikundul in Sukabumi City, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Darwati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of landfill management in Indonesia is the difficulty in getting a location for Final Processing Sites (FPS due to limited land and high land prices. Besides, about 95% of existing landfills are uncontrolled dumping sites, which could potentially lead to water, soil and air pollution. Based on data from the Ministry of Environment (2010, The Act of the Republic of Indonesia Number 18 Year 2008 Concerning Solid Waste Management, prohibits open dumping at final processing sites and in ratification, the Local Governments have to convert the open dump sites into controlled or sanitary landfill. The Research Institute for Human Settlements has been conducting multi-year researches related to the rehabilitation of dumpsites toward sustainable landfill. The research methods are literature reviews, experiments, laboratory analysis and field observations. A pilot model of dumpsite rehabilitation was carried out in 2010 at the Final Processing Site at Cikundul in Sukabumi City, consisting of (1 mining landfill (2 construction of landfill cells in a former mining area with a semi aerobic landfill and an anaerobic landfill and (3 landfill operations using decomposed material from landfill mining as a soil cover. The purpose of the study is to develop a sustainable approach for landfill management and rehabilitation through landfill mining and implementation of semi aerobic landfill. Findings in the construction of landfill mining indicate that (1 the construction of landfill mining is constrained by leachate that is trapped in a pile of waste, therefore, the leachate needs to be pumped to leachate treatment installations, (2 the volume of waste excavation is expanding due to the high plastic content of about 26% in landfills (3 the potency of decomposed materials from landfill mining is 40–83% for landfill operations or greening.. The performance of landfill systems shows that leachate quality of semi aerobic landfill tends to be lower

  14. Trends in sustainable landfilling in Malaysia, a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauziah, S H; Agamuthu, P

    2012-07-01

    In Malaysia, landfills are being filled up rapidly due to the current daily generation of approximately 30,000 tonnes of municipal solid waste. This situation creates the crucial need for improved landfilling practices, as sustainable landfilling technology is yet to be achieved here. The objective of this paper is to identify and evaluate the development and trends in landfilling practices in Malaysia. In 1970, the disposal sites in Malaysia were small and prevailing waste disposal practices was mere open-dumping. This network of relatively small dumps, typically located close to population centres, was considered acceptable for a relatively low population of 10 million in Malaysia. In the 1980s, a national programme was developed to manage municipal and industrial wastes more systematically and to reduce adverse environmental impacts. The early 1990s saw the privatization of waste management in many parts of Malaysia, and the establishment of the first sanitary landfills for MSW and an engineered landfill (called 'secure landfill' in Malaysia) for hazardous waste. A public uproar in 2007 due to contamination of a drinking water source from improper landfilling practices led to some significant changes in the government's policy regarding the country's waste management strategy. Parliament passed the Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management (SWPCM) Act 2007 in August 2007. Even though the Act is yet to be implemented, the government has taken big steps to improve waste management system further. The future of the waste management in Malaysia seems somewhat brighter with a clear waste management policy in place. There is now a foundation upon which to build a sound and sustainble waste management and disposal system in Malaysia.

  15. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    the landfill section has been filled or several years later depending on the settlement patterns. Significant differential settlements may disturb the functioning of the top cover. The specific design of the cover system depends on the type of waste landfilled (municipal, hazardous, or inert waste...... such as lowpermeability clay soils and geomembranes are required. The avoidance of water input to organic waste may impede the microbial stabilization processes including gas generation. Therefore watertight top covers may be in conflict with the purposes of reactor landfills (see Chapter 10.6). At some sites covers...... sometimes are made to include components for recirculation of landfill leachate (see Section 10.9.2 for more details). The top cover is an important factor in the water management of landfills. Details about water infiltration through top covers and its influence on the hydrology of the landfill is covered...

  16. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    is landscaped in order to fit into the surrounding area/environment or meet specific plans for the final use of the landfill. To fulfill the above listed requirements landfill covers are often multicomponent systems which are placed directly on top of the waste. The top cover may be placed immediately after...... the landfill section has been filled or several years later depending on the settlement patterns. Significant differential settlements may disturb the functioning of the top cover. The specific design of the cover system depends on the type of waste landfilled (municipal, hazardous, or inert waste...... however, top covers may be the only environmental protection measure. In some landfill regulations (for instance the Subtitle D landfills receiving municipal solid waste in the USA) it is required to minimize infiltration into the waste layers. Therefore top covers containing liner components...

  17. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers... acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers (CAS Reg. No. 26221-27-2... accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers...

  18. Environmental and Geologic Assessment to Locate a Manual Sanitary Refill in the Mene de Mauroa Church, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón E. Morales-Soto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The inadequate disposal of urban wastes is nowadays an environmental issue having a negative impact on several communities. The objective of this investigation is to select the most adequate place to locate a manual sanitary landfill to dump the solid wastes from the Mene de Mauroa (Venezuela church. A total of 19 variables were subjected to a series of evaluations applying the scale and weight method. This method consists of comparing the variables according to their level of priority. The area with the highest score is to be selected as the most adequate area for the sanitary landfill according to a weighting scale of 5 values for the scoring of each variable.

  19. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  20. Vinyl ether silicones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzig, C.; Dauth, J.; Deubzer, B.; Weis, J. [Wacker-Chemie GmbH, Burghausen (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    Siloxanes with vinyl ether groups are prepared by hydrosilylation reaction of dihydrosiloxanes with divinyl ethers in excess. Different stoichiometry, produces linear copolymers of different viscosities and double bond concentrations always with an active vinyl ether group at each chain end. Polymerisations triggered by UV light were done with mixtures of these compounds and a series of onium salts. Very fast cure is observed even with low doses at 290 nm. V.E. silicones are found to cure essentially quantitative. The comparison with other highly reactive cationic monomers revealed that compounds are among the fastest curing prepolymers in cationic chemistry.

  1. Woody plant roots fail to penetrate a clay-lined landfill: Managment implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, George R.; Handel, Steven N.

    1995-01-01

    In many locations, regulatory agencies do not permit tree planting above landfills that are sealed with a capping clay, because roots might penetrate the clay barrier and expose landfill contents to leaching. We find, however, no empirical or theoretical basis for this restriction, and instead hypothesize that plant roots of any kind are incapable of penetrating the dense clays used to seal landfills. As a test, we excavated 30 trees and shrubs, of 12 species, growing over a clay-lined municipal sanitary landfill on Staten Island, New York. The landfill had been closed for seven years, and featured a very shallow (10 to 30-cm) soil layer over a 45-cm layer of compacted grey marl (Woodbury series) clay. The test plants had invaded naturally from nearby forests. All plants examined—including trees as tall as 6 m—had extremely shallow root plates, with deformed tap roots that grew entirely above and parallel to the clay layer. Only occasional stubby feeder roots were found in the top 1 cm of clay, and in clay cracks at depths to 6 cm, indicating that the primary impediment to root growth was physical, although both clay and the overlying soil were highly acidic. These results, if confirmed by experimental research should lead to increased options for the end use of many closed sanitary landfills.

  2. Environmental and Geologic Assessment to Locate a Manual Sanitary Refill in the Mene de Mauroa Church, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Simón E. Morales-Soto; Alina Rodríguez-Infante

    2016-01-01

    The inadequate disposal of urban wastes is nowadays an environmental issue having a negative impact on several communities. The objective of this investigation is to select the most adequate place to locate a manual sanitary landfill to dump the solid wastes from the Mene de Mauroa (Venezuela) church. A total of 19 variables were subjected to a series of evaluations applying the scale and weight method. This method consists of comparing the variables according to their level of priority. The ...

  3. Vintage Vinyl Record Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project in which his ninth-grade art students utilized a vinyl record as an unusual medium to create a work that exhibited solid design, great creativity, and strong craftsmanship. Students presented their pieces to the class for critique, explained the process, the media, and their feelings about their…

  4. Landfill Site Selection by AHP Based Multi-criteria Decision Making Tool: A Case Study in Kolkata, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Ankush; Hazra, Tumpa; Dutta, Amit

    2017-07-01

    This work presents a Multi-criteria Decision Making (MCDM) tool to select a landfill site from three candidate sites proposed for Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) area that complies with accessibility, receptor, environment, public acceptability, geological and economic criteria. Analytical Hierarchy Process has been used to solve the MCDM problem. Suitability of the three sites (viz. Natagachi, Gangajoara and Kharamba) as landfills as proposed by KMC has been checked by Landfill Site Sensitivity Index (LSSI) as well as Economic Viability Index (EVI). Land area availability for disposing huge quantity of Municipal Solid Waste for the design period has been checked. Analysis of the studied sites show that they are moderately suitable for landfill facility construction as both LSSI and EVI scores lay between 300 and 750. The proposed approach represents an effective MCDM tool for siting sanitary landfill in growing metropolitan cities of developing countries like India.

  5. 21 CFR 177.1970 - Vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers. 177... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1970 Vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers. The vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers identified in...

  6. Use of the Geographic Information System and Analytic Hierarchy Process for Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Site Selection: A Case Study of Najafabad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Afzali

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Following technological advancements and integrated municipal solid waste management in recent decades, various methods such as recycling, biotreatment, thermal treatment, and sanitary landfills have been developed and employed. Creating sanitary landfills is a major strategy in the integrated solid waste management hierarchy. It is cheaper and thus more common than other disposal methods. Selecting a suitable solid waste landfill site can prevent adverse ecological and socioeconomic effects. Landfill site selection requires the analysis of spatial data, regulations, and accepted criteria. The present study aimed to use the geographic information system and the analytic hierarchy process to identify an appropriate landfill site for municipal solid wastes in Najafabad (Isfahan, Iran. Environmental and socioeconomic criteria were evaluated through different information layers in the Boolean and fuzzy logics. The analytical hierarchy process was applied for weighing the fuzzy information layers. Subsequently, two suitable sites were identified by superimposing the maps from the Boolean and fuzzy logics and considering the minimum required landfill area for 20 years. However, proximity of these two sites to Tiran (a nearby city made them undesirable landfill sites for Najafabad. Therefore, due to the existing restrictions in Najafabad, the possibility of creating landfill sites in common with adjacent cities should be further investigated.

  7. IJER@2014 Page 57 Disposal Criteria of Bhanpur Solid Waste Landfill Site: Investigation and Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas Dasgpta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The solid waste management and design assist waste management officials in developing and encouraging environmentally sound methods for the disposal of "nonhazardous" solid waste. Promulgated under the authority of municipal act, the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF regulation act establish a framework for planning and implementing municipal solid waste landfill programs at the state and local levels. This framework sets minimum standards for protecting human health and the environment, while allowing states to develop more flexible MSWLF criteria. Intension to mitigate or expeditiously remediate potential adverse environmental impacts resulting from municipal landfills. However, other regulations existed prior to the revised MSWLF standards discussed in this module. The promulgation Criteria for Classification of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities and Practices. The established regulatory standards to satisfy the minimum national performance criteria for sanitary landfills governs only those solid waste disposal facilities and practices that do not meet the definition of a MSWLF. Such facilities include waste piles, industrial nonhazardous waste landfills, surface impoundments, and land application units. Environmental Protect Authority (EPA modified address the fact that these non-municipal non-hazardous wastes landfills may receive Conditionally Exempt Small Quantity Generator (CESQG hazardous waste, further clarify that construction and demolition landfills may receive residential lead-based paint waste as Solid Waste Disposal Facilities without for MSWLFs as long as all conditions are met.

  8. Solid waste management in Croatia in response to the European Landfill Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanic-Maruna, Ira; Fellner, Johann

    2012-08-01

    The European Landfill Directive 99/31/EC represents the most influential piece of waste legislation on the management of municipal solid waste. In addition to technical standards regarding the design and location of landfills, it calls for a decrease in the amount of biodegradable waste landfilled. In order to meet the reduction targets set in the Landfill Directive, national solid waste strategies need to be changed. This article outlines the impact of the Landfill Directive on the Croatian waste management strategy and discusses the key challenges of its implementation. In addition, three scenarios of future waste management (mechanical biological pre-treatment, waste-to-energy and landfilling) have been investigated and evaluated regarding environmental impacts and affordability. The results of the analysis show that Croatia has transposed the said Directive into its own legislation in an exemplary way. The developed national waste management strategy foresees the set up of a separate collection of recyclables, waste pre-treatment of MSW, as well as the upgrading of existing disposal sites to sanitary landfills. However, the practical progress of carrying out provisions implemented on paper is lagging behind. Concerning the investigated scenarios the results of the evaluation indicate that mechanical biological pre-treatment in conjunction with separate collection of recyclables appears to be the most feasible option (in terms of economic and ecologic parameters). This result is in line with the proposed national waste management strategy.

  9. A framework for assessment and characterisation of municipal solid waste landfill leachate: an application to the Turbhe landfill, Navi Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Harshit; Rathod, Merwan; Karmakar, Subhankar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-06-01

    Rapid industrialisation, growing population and changing lifestyles are the root causes for the generation of huge amounts of solid waste in developing countries. In India, disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) through open dumping is the most common waste disposal method. Unfortunately, leachate generation from landfill is high due to the prolonged and prominent monsoon season in India. As leachate generation rate is high in most of the tropical countries, long-term and extensive monitoring efforts are expected to evaluate actual environmental pollution potential due to leachate contamination. However, the leachate characterisation involves a comprehensive process, which has numerous shortcomings and uncertainties possibly due to the complex nature of landfilling process, heterogeneous waste characteristics, widely varying hydrologic conditions and selection of analytes. In order to develop a sustainable MSW management strategy for protecting the surface and ground water resources, particularly from MSW landfill leachate contamination, assessment and characterisation of leachate are necessary. Numerous studies have been conducted in the past to characterise leachate quality from various municipal landfills; unfortunately, none of these propose a framework or protocol. The present study proposes a generic framework for municipal landfill leachate assessment and characterisation. The proposed framework can be applied to design any type of landfill leachate quality monitoring programme and also to facilitate improved leachate treatment activities. A landfill site located at Turbhe, Navi Mumbai, India, which had not been investigated earlier, has been selected as a case study. The proposed framework has been demonstrated on the Turbhe landfill site which is a comparatively new and the only sanitary landfill in Navi Mumbai.

  10. Sanitary survey rapport 2: Nissum Bredning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Mørk; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Göke, Cordula

    .3and the associated sampling plan are required to be based on so-called ‘sanitary surveys’. A sanitary survey is an assessment of the interactions between potential sources of microbial pollution, climate conditions and oceanography in the area. The EU Commission guidance for making a sanitary...... survey formed the basis for this report. However, in certain cases, the Danish practice for microbiological sampling frequency and classification made previously on the basis of this, as described in ‘muslingebekendtgørelsen’ is summarized in Appendix 13. The report covers production areas P1, P2, P3...... is determined in samples of mussels, etc. taken at different sampling points within each area. The report points to the most precautionary fixed sampling points for future monitoring In summary, the sanitary survey of Nissum Broads identifies an area that in general is a microbial homogeneous, stable...

  11. Influence of Landfill Operation and Tropical Seasonal Variation on Leachate Characteristics: Results from Lysimeter Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam M. Rafizul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the influence of lysimeter operational condition and tropical seasonal variation of leachate characteristics generated from municipal solid waste (MSW deposited in landfill lysimeter at KUET campus, Bangladesh. Three different situations of landfill were considered here as well as both the open dump lysimeter-A having a base liner and sanitary landfill lysimeter-B and C at two different types of cap liner were simulated. The leachate characteristics, leachate generation and climatic influence parameter had been continually monitored, from June 2008 to May 2010. This period covers both dry and rainy season. The leachate generation followed the rainfall pattern and the open dump lysimeter-A without top cover was recorded to have the highest leachate generation. Moreover, the open dump lysimeter-A had lower concentration and load of total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N and dissolved organic carbon (DOC, while chemical oxygen demand (COD and biological oxygen demand (BOD5 concentration were higher compared with sanitary lysimeter-B and C. On the other hand, sanitary lysimeter-B, not only had lowest leachate generation, but also produced reasonably low COD and BOD5 concentration compared with open dump lysimeter-A. Based on evaluated results, it was also concluded that metal concentrations which were comparatively higher in leachate of open dump lysimeter were Ca and K, however, the heavy metal concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn and Mn, and those apparently lower were metals of Na, Mg and Fe as well as heavy metals of Cr, Pb and Ni. However, significant release of heavy metals under open dump lysimeter was observed compared to sanitary lysimeter. Moreover, meaningful correlation between DOC and leaching of Cu and Pb was observed. Result reveals that lysimeter operational mode had direct effect on leachate quality. Finally, it can be concluded that the knowledge of leachate quality will be useful in planning and

  12. Assessment of air pollutant emissions from the Akrotiri landfill site (Chania, Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalvatzaki, E; Lazaridis, M

    2010-09-01

    Air pollutants emitted from landfills affect air quality, contribute to the greenhouse effect and may cause serious problems to human health under certain circumstances. The current study was focused on the determination of air emissions from the Akrotiri landfill site which is located in the Akrotiri area (Chania, Greece). The landfill consists of two phases, phase A (first phase) which is currently closed (operational between 2003 and 2007) and phase B (second phase, operation between 2007 and (foreseen) 2013). Three different emission models (the EPA LandGEM model, the triangular model and the stoichiometric model) were used for the quantification of emissions. The LandGEM 3.02 software was further adopted and used in conjunction with the long-term dispersion model ISC3-LT for the evaluation of the dispersion of gaseous chemical components from the landfill. The emission and meteorological conditions under which the models were applied were based on the worst-case emission scenario. Furthermore, the concentration of hydrogen sulfide, vinyl chloride and benzene were determined in and around the landfill site. The concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and benzene were calculated to be far below the limit value proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) for human health safety. However, the vinyl chloride concentrations were above the WHO reference lifetime exposure health criteria for the phase B area.

  13. Turkey Run Landfill Emissions Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — landfill emissions measurements for the Turkey run landfill in Georgia. This dataset is associated with the following publication: De la Cruz, F., R. Green, G....

  14. Landfill Mining of Shredder Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jette Bjerre; Hyks, Jiri; Shabeer Ahmed, Nassera

    In Denmark, shredder residues (SR) are classified as hazardous waste and until January 2012 the all SR were landfilled. It is estimated that more than 1.8 million tons of SR have been landfilled in mono cells. This paper describes investigations conducted at two Danish landfills. SR were excavated...

  15. Production and the application of anaerobic granular sludge produced by landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Sludge granulation is considered to be the most critical parameter governing successful operation of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors. Pre-granulated seeding sludge could greatly reduce the required start-up time. Two lab-scale and a pilot-scale EGSB reactors were operated to treat Shaoxing Wastewater Treatment Plant containing wastewater from real engineering printing and dyeing with high pH and sulfate concentration. The microbiological structure and the particle size distribution in aerobic excess sludge, sanitary landfill sludge digested for one year, and the granular sludge of EGSB reactor after 400 d of operation were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and sieves. The lab-scale EGSB reactor seeded with anaerobic sludge after digestion for one year in landfill showed obviously better total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency than one seeded with aerobic excess sludge after cation polyacrylamide flocculation-concentration and dehydration. The TCOD removed was 470.8 mg/L in pilot scale EGSB reactor at short hydraulic retention time of 15 h. SEM of sludge granules showed that the microbiological structure of the sludge from different sources showed some differences. SEM demonstrated that Methanobacterium sp. was present in the granules of pilot-scale EGSB and the granular sludge produced by landfill contained a mixture of anaerobic/anoxic organisms in abundance. The particle size distribution in EGSB demonstrated that using anaerobic granular sludge produced by sanitary landfill as the seeding granular sludge was feasible.

  16. The impact of daily covers on sidewall leakage in landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welker, A. L. [Villanova Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, PA (United States)

    2000-09-01

    Typically, sanitary landfills are covered by 15 cm of locally available soil on a daily basis. This practice is intended to limit short term negative effects of the waste material on the above-ground environment such as odor, fire, or vermin attraction. Daily placement of compacted soil creates low hydraulic conductivity stratifying layers within the landfill which, in due course, may result in side-slope seepage, decreased stability and decreased efficiency of methane gas venting. The expense of soil acquisitions and the the diminishing availability of landfill space increases the need for alternative materials to replace the daily cover. This paper examines the the threat of sidewall landfill leakage for a hypothetical landfill with traditional soil cover and an alternative daily cover, to demonstrate that the threat of sidewall leakage is real and can be decreased with the use of alternative material as the daily cover such as crushed glass, sludge from waste-water treatment plants, industrial waste, foams and various geosynthetics. At the same time, results of the modelling study showed that with proper drainage sidewall seepage will not occur even with a daily cover that has a hydraulic conductivity two orders of magnitude smaller than the waste, despite positive pressure building up on top of the daily cover. These results imply that the threat of sidewall leakage is minimal, and while alternative daily cover material would help to reduce it even further, their use is most likely to be the result of economic, not technical, considerations. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  17. Studies Update Vinyl Chloride Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Rebecca

    1980-01-01

    Extensive study affirms that vinyl chloride is a potent animal carcinogen. Epidemiological studies show elevated rates of human cancers in association with extended contact with the compound. (Author/RE)

  18. 21 CFR 1210.14 - Sanitary inspection of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of plants. 1210.14 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.14 Sanitary inspection of plants. The sanitary conditions of any plant handling milk or cream any part of which is to be shipped or transported into...

  19. 21 CFR 1210.11 - Sanitary inspection of dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. 1210.11... UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.11 Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. The sanitary conditions of any dairy farm producing milk or cream to be shipped or transported...

  20. Differentiation of naturally-occurring vs. artificial hydrocarbons in a landfill groundwater investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaver, J.L.; Hartness, J.A.; Breeding, L.B.; Buchanan, D.M. [Law Environmental, Inc., Kennesaw, GA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Interpretation of groundwater sampling data at a large municipal/industrial landfill indicates contamination by both artificial and naturally-occurring hydrocarbons. Site hydrogeology consists of three different water bearing zones. The uppermost (shallow) aquifer is an unconfined unit consisting of silt, clay, and sand deposits. An intermediate depth semiconfined aquifer underlies the unconfined unit, and consists of a chert rubble zone and the upper portion of a fractured and solution-enhanced limestone formation. A regionally-extensive organic-rich shale underlies the semiconfined aquifer and separates it from the deep confined aquifer, which also consists of limestone. Groundwater investigations at the landfill have detected chlorinated and non-chlorinated hydrocarbons in the different aquifer intervals. Chlorinated hydrocarbons detected include tetrachloroethene, dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride and occur almost exclusively in the shallow aquifer. Aromatic hydrocarbons detected include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) and-occur in the intermediate and deep aquifers. The landfill was originally interpreted as the source of the contaminants. The observation of free-phase liquid hydrocarbons in the intermediate aquifer at the site, and high dissolved BTEX levels in the deep and intermediate aquifers upgradient of the landfill suggest that the aromatics were derived from a source other than the landfill. A potential source of BTEX contamination may be abandoned (pre-1930) natural gas wells located near the landfill. An additional BTEX source may be the organic-rich shale formation (a documented petroleum source rock).

  1. [Safety and electromagnetic compatibility in sanitary field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, M; Feroldi, P; Ferri, C; Ignesti, A; Olmi, R; Priori, S; Riminesi, C; Tobia, L

    2012-01-01

    In sanitary field and especially in a hospital, multiple sources of non ionizing radiation are used for diagnostic and therapeutic aims. In sanitary sector both workers and users are present at the same time, and in some cases general population could need higher protection than workers in relationship to the exposition to electromagnetic fields. In order to protect health and safety of patients, general population and workers of hospitals and with the aim to identify, analyze, evaluate and study its level of significance, electrical, magnetic and electromagnetic sources Research Italian project Si.C.E.O. (Safety And Electromagnetic Compatibility In Sanitary Field) was instituted. Target of our research project was to deepen risk of exposition elements with analysis of outdoor (e.g. power lines, transmission cabinets) and indoor (e.g. equipment for physical therapy) sources, located in sanitary structures and to verify the level exposition of workers and common population end the respect of specific regulation, and finally to define technical and organizational measures really useful for protection and reduction of risk.

  2. Sanitary technology. Special issue; Sanitairtechniek. Themanummer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodder, H. [Deerns Raadgevende Ingenieurs, Rijswijk (Netherlands); De Veer, T. [PWN Waterleidingbedrijf Noord-Holland, Velserbroek (Netherlands); Korstanje, H.; De Gids, Ph. K. [LegioFreeWaterSystems, Wijk bij Duurstede (Netherlands); Lansbergen, A. [Itho, Schiedam (Netherlands); Scheffer, W.J.H. [UNETO-VNI, Zoetermeer (Netherlands); Van Wolferen, H. [TNO Milieu en Energie, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Donker, H. [Kemper Nederland, Groenlo (Netherlands); Engelenburg, M. [ATECA, Den Haag (Netherlands); Wolters, J. [Tour en Andersson, Alphen aan den Rijn (Netherlands); Doldersum, R.H. [De Melker Sanitairtechniek, Veenendaal (Netherlands)

    2007-09-15

    In 11 articles attention is paid to several aspects of sanitary technology, in particular the prevention and control of legionella in heating systems and water supply installations. [Dutch] In 11 artikelen wordt aandacht besteed aan verschillende aspecten m.b.t. sanitaire techniek, in het bijzonder legionella preventie en beheer in verwarmingssystemen en leidingwaterinstallaties.

  3. 21 CFR 110.35 - Sanitary operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., when cleaning is necessary to protect against the introduction of microorganisms into food, all food... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary operations. 110.35 Section 110.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  4. [Sanitary-hygienic assessment of microbial biofertilizer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipchenko, N A; Akhtemava, G A; Lebedeva, T V; Voronina, A A; Makhan'kova, T I; Pavlova, M M; Shteĭntsaĭg, T A

    1991-10-01

    Biological treatment of sewage from pig-breeding complexes allowed to produce microbial biomass and primary sediments. The mixture of these components (1:1) after rendering harmless and drying out become the high effective biofertilizer. The results of chronic experiment on sanitary status of soil (microbial and helminthological indexes) under this biofertilizer usage are discussed, and the harmlessness of it is demonstrated.

  5. Yolo County controlled landfill project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augenstein, D. [IEM, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Yazdani, R.; Dahl, K.; Mansoub, A.; Moore, R. [Yolo County Department of Public Works, Davis, CA (United States); Pacey, J. [Emcon, San Mateo, CA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    A new landfill management approach controlled landfilling is being demonstrated by the Yolo County, California Department of Public Works at the Yolo County Central Landfill (YCCL) near Davis. Overall objectives are to obtain earlier and greater methane energy recovery from landfilled waste and to reduce landfill greenhouse gas emissions to near-negligible levels. Methane generation and waste stabilization were accelerated by improving biological conditions within a test cell through carefully controlled additions of water and leachate. A control cell was operated in parallel. Landfill gas capture was maximized, with emissions reduced to minimal levels, by a combination of surface membrane containment, a permeable layer conducting gas to collection points, and operation at slight vacuum. Cells are highly instrumented to determine performance. To date, normalized methane recovery is the highest seen from such a large waste mass, anywhere - about ten times that from conventional landfall practice. The rationale and details of this project, and first three years' results, are summarized. (author)

  6. Methane elimination methods on landfills

    OpenAIRE

    Ponikvar, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Increase in substance and energy exploitation from waste which reduces the greenhouse gas emissions are one of the main goals of environmental protection. Slovenian legislation defines that in case captured landfill gas cannot be used for energy acquisition, incineration on the landfill itself or some other equivalent procedure must be used to prevent gas emissions into the air. The graduation thesis is based on existing municipal landfill Volče where suitable gas elimination is yet to be arr...

  7. 46 CFR 151.50-34 - Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). 151.50-34... chloride (vinyl chloride monomer). (a) Copper, aluminum, magnesium, mercury, silver, and their alloys shall... equipment that may come in contact with vinyl chloride liquid or vapor. (b) Valves, flanges, and...

  8. The Importance of Landfill Gas Policy Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify and examine global policies, measures, and incentives that appear to be stimulating LFG use. As certain countries have made great advances in LFGE development through effective policies, the intention of this report is to use information from the IEA's Global Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Measures and Policies Databases to identify and discuss policies. By consolidating this information and categorising it according to policy type, the attributes that are most appealing or applicable to the circumstances of a particular country or area -- technology demonstration, financial incentives, awareness campaigns, etc. -- are more easily identified. The report begins with background information on LFG and sanitary landfill practices, including a discussion of regional disparities, followed by a description of LFG mitigation technologies. Barriers to LFGE projects are then outlined. An explanation of the importance and effectiveness of policy measures leads into a discussion of types and examples of measures that are being used to overcome these barriers and encourage LFGE development. The report concludes with lessons learned, recommendations for further study, and resources where more information can be found.

  9. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2014-02-11

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  10. Effect of nano-ZnO on biogas generation from simulated landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temizel, İlknur; Emadian, S Mehdi; Di Addario, Martina; Onay, Turgut T; Demirel, Burak; Copty, Nadim K; Karanfil, Tanju

    2017-05-01

    Extensive use of nanomaterials in commercial consumer products and industrial applications eventually leads to their release to the waste streams and the environment. Nano-ZnO is one of the most widely-used nanomaterials (NMs) due to its unique properties. It is also known to impact biological processes adversely. In this study, the effect of nano-ZnO on biogas generation from sanitary landfills was investigated. Two conventional and two bioreactor landfills were operated using real MSW samples at mesophilic temperature (35°C) for a period of about 1year. 100mg nano-ZnO/kg of dry waste was added to the simulated landfill reactors. Daily gas production, gas composition and leachate Zn concentrations were regularly monitored. A model describing the fate of the nano-ZnO was also developed. The results obtained indicated that as much as 99% of the nano-ZnO was retained within the waste matrix for both reactor operation modes. Waste stabilization was faster in simulated landfill bioreactors with and without the addition of nano-ZnO. Moreover, the presence of the nano-ZnO within the waste led to a decrease in biogas production of about 15%, suggesting that the nano-ZnO might have some inhibitory effects on waste stabilization. This reduction can have potentially significant implications on waste stabilization and the use of biogas from landfills as a renewable energy source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Alternative landfill cover technology demonstration at Kaneohe Marine Corps Base Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karr, L.A.; Harre, B. [Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, CA (United States); Hakonson, T.E. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Surface covers to control water infiltration to waste buried in landfills will be the remediation alternative of choice for most hazardous and sanitary landfills operated by the Department of Defense. Although surface covers are the least expensive method of remediation for landfills, they can still be expensive solutions. Conventional wisdom suggests that landfill capping technology is well developed as evidenced by the availability of EPA guidance for designing and constructing what has become known as the {open_quotes}RCRA Cap{close_quotes}. In practice, however, very little testing of the RCRA cap, or any other design, has been done to evaluate how effective these designs are in limiting infiltration of water into waste. This paper describes a low cost alternative to the {open_quotes}RCRA Cap{close_quotes} that is being evaluated at Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) Kaneohe Bay. This study uses an innovative, simple and inexpensive concept to manipulate the fate of water falling on a landfill. The infiltration of water through the cap will be controlled by combining the evaporative forces of vegetation to remove soil water, with engineered structures that limit infiltration of precipitation into the soil. This approach relies on diverting enough of the annual precipitation to runoff, so that the water that does infiltrate into the soil can easily be removed by evapotranspiration.

  12. Achieving "Final Storage Quality" of municipal solid waste in pilot scale bioreactor landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, R; van der Zon, W; Woelders, H; Lubberding, H J; Gijzen, H J

    2009-01-01

    Entombed waste in current sanitary landfills will generate biogas and leachate when physical barriers fail in the future, allowing the intrusion of moisture into the waste mass contradicting the precepts of the sustainability concept. Bioreactor landfills are suggested as a sustainable option to achieve Final Storage Quality (FSQ) status of waste residues; however, it is not clear what characteristics the residues should have in order to stop operation and after-care monitoring schemes. An experiment was conducted to determine the feasibility to achieve FSQ status (Waste Acceptance Criteria of the European Landfill Directive) of residues in a pilot scale bioreactor landfill. The results of the leaching test were very encouraging due to their proximity to achieve the proposed stringent FSQ criterion after 2 years of operation. Furthermore, residues have the same characteristics of alternative waste stabilisation parameters (low BMP, BOD/COD ratio, VS content, SO4(2-)/Cl- ratio) established by other researchers. Mass balances showed that the bioreactor landfill simulator was capable of practically achieving biological stabilisation after 2 years of operation, while releasing approximately 45% of the total available (organic and inorganic) carbon and nitrogen into the liquid and gas phases.

  13. Health assessment for E. H. Schilling Landfill, Ironton, Lawrence County, Ohio, Region 5. CERCLIS No. OHD980509847. Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-02

    The E.H. Schilling Landfill site is listed on the National Priorities List. The five-acre site was a landfill, licensed to accept only nonhazardous dry industrial waste, from 1971 until 1980 when it was closed. The environmental contamination on-site consists of polychlorinated biphenyls, vinyl toluene, cumene, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons or PAHs, including fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, and benzo(a)anthracene, in soil. The site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of exposure to hazardous substances via ground water, soil, sediment, surface water, and air.

  14. Estimation of future methane production from Hellenic landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsatsarelis, T.; Karagiannidis, A. [Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece). Lab. of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering

    2009-07-15

    Organic waste decomposition leads to the production of Landfill Gas (LFG). LFG mainly consists of methane (CH{sub 4}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). It is common understanding now that LFG should be considered either as a significant source of pollution and risk (if migrating uncontrollably to the air and ground), or as a significant source of renewable energy (if extracted and processed accordingly). There are two possible solutions for dealing with LFG emissions. In the case of low methane ratios, LFG should be extracted and flared or oxidized in biofilters. On the other hand, in the case of high methane content, LFG becomes an evidently valuable energy resource, as it is then able to sustain the fuelling of engines producing electricity and thermal energy. More specifically, it can be used as a supplementary or primary fuel to increase the production of electric power, as a pipeline quality gas and vehicle fuel, or even as a supply of heat and carbon dioxide for greenhouses and various industrial processes. Technologies that utilize LFG include internal combustion engines, gas turbines, fuel cells and boiler systems. The main objective of this research was to predict expected methane generation in Hellenic sanitary landfills, in order to evaluate its potential for energy production and to ensure health and safety in and around these sites on the long term. The study was performed for the period 2008--2028 with the use of a multi-phase model and included a sensitivity analysis in order to determine the impact of certain waste parameters. In this context, two 'extreme' reference scenarios were formulated and assessed, one anticipating fulfillment of the EU landfill directive (which sets limits to the amount of biodegradable and packaging materials to be deposited in sanitary landfills) whereas a second (do-nothing scenario) assuming no such timely compliance. The model used here for methane estimation is a multi-phase model developed by the Norwegian

  15. The Characteristics of Leachate and Groundwater Pollution at Municipal Solid Waste Landfill of Ibb City, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail A. Sabahi

    2009-01-01

    government should do sanitary landfill to prevent further contamination to surface water, groundwater as well as soil.

  16. Landfill Construction and Capacity Expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andre, F.J.; Cerda, E.

    2003-01-01

    We study the optimal capacity and lifetime of landfills taking into account their sequential nature.Such an optimal capacity is characterized by the so-called Optimal Capacity Condition.Particular versions of this condition are obtained for two alternative settings: first, if all the landfills are t

  17. Stabilizing Waste Materials for Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The test procedures used to evaluate the suitability of landfilled materials of varying stability and to determine the leachate from such materials are reviewed. A process for stabilizing a mixture of sulfur dioxide sludge, fly ash, and bottom ash with lime and other additives for deposition in landfills is detailed. (BT)

  18. The seasonal distribution of bioaerosols in municipal landfill sites: a 3-yr study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chu-Yun; Lee, Ching-Chang; Li, Fang-Chun; Ma, Yu-Pei; Su, Huey-Jen Jenny

    Landfill is the most common way to dispose waste in many countries, and most landfill sites after closure are often considered for public recreation purposes. It is important that the pollutant levels of closed landfill areas are free of adverse health concerns. However, only limited studies have investigated the airborne biological contamination in closed landfill sites. The objective of this study was to document the bioaerosol levels in a closed landfill site while the temporal, seasonal, and meteorological effects were also taken into accounts. Study site was at one sanitary landfill, taking mostly municipal wastes, in southern Taiwan. Airborne bacteria and fungi were collected on tryptic soy agar (Difco) and malt extract agar (Difco) by a Burkard impactor (Burkard Manufacturing Co. Ltd.) operating at about 10 l m -3 for 30 s. Air samples were collected sequentially in winter, spring, summer and fall in 1998, winter, spring, summer in 1999, as well as summer and fall in 2000. In addition, sampling was conducted in the morning, at noon, in the evening and the following morning during each field assessment. Levels of airborne bacteria and fungi were all far above 10 3 CFU m -3. The concentrations of culturable bacteria and fungi were higher in winter than in other seasons. The difference of bioaerosol level and fungal percentages between the undergoing-closure and closed areas was obvious, and the concentrations were higher in closed area. We therefore recommend that before any complete investigation can be conducted to assure the safety, the closed area of landfill site is probably not ready for immediate public use.

  19. [Modern problems of the application of sanitary regulations concerning sanitary protection zones and sanitary classification of enterprises, buildings and other facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomtev, A Iu; Eremin, G B; Mozzhukhina, N A; Kombarova, M Iu; Mel'tser, A V; Giul'mamedov, É Iu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper there was performed an analysis of the application of sanitary norms and rules concerning sanitary protective zones and sanitary classification of enterprises, buildings and other facilities, including requirements for the sufficiency and accuracy of information in the performance of projects in sanitary protection zone (SPZ). There is presented an analysis of regulations that set requirements for implementation of mapping works in drafting the SPZ. The design of the SPZ was shown to be, on the one hand, the element of territorial planning subjects of the Russian Federation, on the other hand, the object of capital construction. The substantiations of requirements for graphic and text content, structure, and composition of data, sources of their obtaining, methods of data convergence are reported. There are revealed inconsistencies in Sanitary Regulations and Norms (SanPins) and in their relationship with the Town Planning and Land Code and other laws, and regulations adopted in their development.

  20. Final Environmental Assessment for Sanitary Landfill Expansion on the Tonopah Test Range, NYE County, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Palma Bureau of Land Management Las Vegas Field Office 4701 N Torrey Pines Dr Las Vegas, NV 89130-2301 Mr. Robert Williams, State Supervisor U.S...Fish and Wildlife Service Nevada Ecological Field Office 1340 Financial Blvd, Ste 234 Reno, NV 89502 Ms. Cynthia Martinez US Fish and

  1. Environmental Assessment for Sanitary Landfill Expansion on the Tonopah Test Range, Nye County, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Administration 209 E Musser St, Room 200 Carson City, NV 89701-4298 Electronic format Mr. Juan Palma Bureau of Land Management Las Vegas... Ecological Field Office 1340 Financial Blvd, Ste 234 Reno, NV 89502 Ms. Cynthia Martinez US Fish and Wildlife Service Southern Nevada Field Office

  2. Life Cycle Comparison of Waste-to-Energy to Sanitary Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) can be used to evaluate the environmental footprint of products, processes, and services. An LCA allows decision makers to compare products and processes through systematic evaluation of supply chains. Also known as a “cradle-to-grave” approach, LCA ev...

  3. The applications of geotextiles in the sanitary landfills; Aplicaciones de los geotextiles en los vertederos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morera, J.; Marin, J.

    1999-11-01

    The spillways controlled of Solid Urban Residuals, Industrial Residuals and Industrial Special Residuals should be waterproofed. The waterproofing should be assured, to avoid the possibility of contamination of the aquifer for the filtration of leachates coming from the garbage and rain waters eventually polluted for their contact with the mass of deposited waste already.

  4. Appendices for Fort George G. Meade Active Sanitary Landfill and Clean Fill Dump Remedial Investigation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    FOR THE SPECIFIC TEST bA."E EXCEPT FOR THE FOLLOWING TEST NAMES: PH, COND, TEMP, OILGR, BOD, COD, TOC, HARD, ASBEST , TSS -LAB DOES NOT REQUIRE...ACENAPHTHYLENE. AI4ELNT *ANION ELUENT ANIL ANILINE AI4TRC ANTHRACENE ANTRCN 9-ANTHRACENECARBONITRILE ANTRQO ATHRAQUINONE / 9,10 -ANTHRACENED ONE AS ARSENIC ASBEST ...ANION ELUENT ANTRC ANTHRACENE ACHE ANTICHOLINESTERASE SB ANTIMONY AS ARSENIC ASEXT -ARSENIC, EXTRACTABLE ASTOT *AR.SENIC, TOTAL ASBEST ASBESTOS’ ANTROTJ

  5. Fort George G. Meade Active Sanitary Landfill and Clean Fill Dump, Remedial Investigation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    acceptable. However, the RME exposure yielded an unacceptable cancer risk. Clean Fill Dump A two-phase study was conducted at this site concurrently with...Indian hemp FACU Asclepias syriaca Pink milkweed UP* Aster spp. Asters UNK Cardamine hirsuta Hairy bitter cress FACU Centaurea maculata Batchelor’s...bound excess cancer risk associated with lifetime exposure to 1 mg/kg.day of a compound. There is a 95 percent chance that the actual risk value is

  6. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels; Effets sanitaires des combustibles fossiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (IN2P3/CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2006-07-01

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  7. Sanitary hot water; Eau chaude sanitaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Cegibat, the information-recommendation agency of Gaz de France for building engineering professionals, has organized this conference meeting on sanitary hot water to present the solutions proposed by Gaz de France to meet its clients requirements in terms of water quality, comfort, energy conservation and respect of the environment: quantitative aspects of the hot water needs, qualitative aspects, presentation of the Dolce Vita offer for residential buildings, gas water heaters and boilers, combined solar-thermal/natural gas solutions, key-specifications of hot water distribution systems, testimony: implementation of a gas hot water reservoir and two accumulation boilers in an apartment building for young workers. (J.S.)

  8. Landfill aeration for emission control before and during landfill mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello; Heerenklage, Joern; Pivato, Alberto; Ritzkowski, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The landfill of Modena, in northern Italy, is now crossed by the new high velocity railway line connecting Milan and Bologna. Waste was completely removed from a part of the landfill and a trench for the train line was built. With the aim of facilitating excavation and further disposal of the material extracted, suitable measures were defined. In order to prevent undesired emissions into the excavation area, the aerobic in situ stabilisation by means of the Airflow technology took place before and during the Landfill Mining. Specific project features involved the pneumatic leachate extraction from the aeration wells (to keep the leachate table low inside the landfill and increase the volume of waste available for air migration) and the controlled moisture addition into a limited zone, for a preliminary evaluation of the effects on process enhancement. Waste and leachate were periodically sampled in the landfill during the aeration before the excavation, for quality assessment over time; the evolution of biogas composition in the landfill body and in the extraction system for different plant set-ups during the project was monitored, with specific focus on uncontrolled migration into the excavation area. Waste biological stability significantly increased during the aeration (waste respiration index dropped to 33% of the initial value after six months). Leachate head decreased from 4 to 1.5m; leachate recirculation tests proved the beneficial effects of moisture addition on temperature control, without hampering waste aerobization. Proper management of the aeration plant enabled the minimization of uncontrolled biogas emissions into the excavation area.

  9. Biodegradation of blend films PVA/PVC, PVA/PCL in soil and soil with landfill leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Campos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the biodegradation of blends films of poly(vinyl alcohol/poly(vinyl chloride (PVA/PVC and poly(vinyl alcohol/poly(caprolactone (PVA/PCL blends films prepared with dimethylformamide under a variety of conditions by respirometry, spectrophotometry (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and contact angle. The films were buried in the garden soil and in the soil mixed with the landfill leachate for 120 days at 28ºC. Significant levels of biodegradation were achieved in fairly short incubation times in the soil. The results indicated that PVA was the most biodegradable film in the soil and in the soil with the leachate.

  10. Landfill gas management facilities design guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    In British Columbia, municipal solid waste landfills generate over 1000 tonnes of methane per year; landfill gas management facilities are required to improve the environmental performance of solid waste landfills. The aim of this document, developed by the British Columbia Ministry of the Environment, is to provide guidance for the design, installation, and operation of landfill gas management facilities to address odor and pollutant emissions issues and also address health and safety issues. A review of technical experience and best practices in landfill gas management facilities was carried out, as was as a review of existing regulations related to landfill gas management all over the world. This paper provides useful information to landfill owners, operators, and other professionals for the design of landfill gas management facilities which meet the requirements of landfill gas management regulations.

  11. Quantification of landfill methane using modified Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's waste model and error function analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindan, Siva Shangari; Agamuthu, P

    2014-10-01

    Waste management can be regarded as a cross-cutting environmental 'mega-issue'. Sound waste management practices support the provision of basic needs for general health, such as clean air, clean water and safe supply of food. In addition, climate change mitigation efforts can be achieved through reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from waste management operations, such as landfills. Landfills generate landfill gas, especially methane, as a result of anaerobic degradation of the degradable components of municipal solid waste. Evaluating the mode of generation and collection of landfill gas has posted a challenge over time. Scientifically, landfill gas generation rates are presently estimated using numerical models. In this study the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Waste Model is used to estimate the methane generated from a Malaysian sanitary landfill. Key parameters of the model, which are the decay rate and degradable organic carbon, are analysed in two different approaches; the bulk waste approach and waste composition approach. The model is later validated using error function analysis and optimum decay rate, and degradable organic carbon for both approaches were also obtained. The best fitting values for the bulk waste approach are a decay rate of 0.08 y(-1) and degradable organic carbon value of 0.12; and for the waste composition approach the decay rate was found to be 0.09 y(-1) and degradable organic carbon value of 0.08. From this validation exercise, the estimated error was reduced by 81% and 69% for the bulk waste and waste composition approach, respectively. In conclusion, this type of modelling could constitute a sensible starting point for landfills to introduce careful planning for efficient gas recovery in individual landfills.

  12. PRACTICE REVIEW OF FIVE BIOREACTOR/RECIRCULATION LANDFILLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six bioreactor landfills were analyzed to provide a perspective of current practice and technical issues that differentiate bioreactor landfills from conventional landfills. Five of the bioreactor landfills were anaerobic and one was aerated. In one case, nearly identical cells e...

  13. [Sanitary-and-epidemiologic examination of the food-products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, V B; Kerimova, M G; Elizarova, E V

    2011-01-01

    Some aspects of sanitary and epidemiologic examination of food products are considered. The examination is an important part of sanitary and epidemiologic control and surveillance in the sphere of food safety and quality, consumer rights protection, consumer market and human welfare.

  14. Mining the Midden: A Facility for Dynamic Waste Harvesting at the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Aaron

    Mining the Midden intends to re-frame the sanitary landfill as a new typology of public land containing an embodied energy of cultural and material value. By reconnecting the public with the landfill and seriously exposing its layers of history and then digesting both mined and new waste within an industrial facility of materials recovery and plasma gasification technology waste-to-energy plant. The sequence of experience for a public visitor begins where the waste is transformed to energy and flows in the opposite direction of the trash through the facility and then into the active landfill mining operation which is the large site component of the project. The mine is flanked by the visitor path, which is suspended from the soldier piles of the excavation system and allows the visitor to interpret along the 1/3 mile path their personal connection to the waste stream and the consumption patterns which drive our waste. Interpretation results from multi-sensory experience of the open mine and its connection to the processing structure as one hovers above, through moments of seeing through structural glass lagging directly into the sectional cut of the landfill, and through cultural artifacts harvested by landfill archaeologists which are displayed in rhythm with the structure and lagging. The culmination of the prescribed path is a narrow cut which frames the view of Mt. Rainier in the distance and opens up a visual connection with the remaining majority of the landfill which have up to this point been blocked by the small mountain of trash which they just walked up and through. This thesis intends that by confronting people with the juxtapositions of 2 potentially destructive mounds or mountains, and how we as a culture value and protect land while we simultaneously dump our rubbish on other lands, this experience will make the visitor more conscious of ones personal contribution to our culture of disposable commodities.

  15. Impact of landfill leachate on the groundwater quality: A case study in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda M. Abd El-Salam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alexandria Governorate contracted an international company in the field of municipal solid waste management for the collection, transport and disposal of municipal solid waste. Construction and operation of the sanitary landfill sites were also included in the contract for the safe final disposal of solid waste. To evaluate the environmental impacts associated with solid waste landfilling, leachate and groundwater quality near the landfills were analyzed. The results of physico-chemical analyses of leachate confirmed that its characteristics were highly variable with severe contamination of organics, salts and heavy metals. The BOD5/COD ratio (0.69 indicated that the leachate was biodegradable and un-stabilized. It was also found that groundwater in the vicinity of the landfills did not have severe contamination, although certain parameters exceeded the WHO and EPA limits. These parameters included conductivity, total dissolved solids, chlorides, sulfates, Mn and Fe. The results suggested the need for adjusting factors enhancing anaerobic biodegradation that lead to leachate stabilization in addition to continuous monitoring of the groundwater and leachate treatment processes.

  16. From phytoaccumulation to post-harvest use of water fern for landfill management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Uhram; Kim, Dae Won; Waldman, Bruce; Lee, Eun Ju

    2016-11-01

    We examined the potential of Azolla japonica as a remediating plant for leachate channels and post-accumulation use as fertilizer for landfill slope. The harvested biomass of Azolla after one month grown in leachate was 254% that of the initial biomass and the predicted annual harvestable biomass of Azolla using a growth model was 32 times that of the initial biomass. Na, Fe, Mn, Mg, and P were accumulated in Azolla at very high concentrations. Such rapid increase of biomass and high accumulation rates suggest that this plant could be an excellent remediating plant. The post-harvest use of Azolla as compost was studied for the management and use of phytoaccumulating Azolla. Metal contents of Azolla compost were below permissible limits for co-composting material. Nitrogen, organic matter, P, and Mg content of the Azolla compost improved the soil condition of the landfill and enhanced ecophysiological responses of the plants. The application of Azolla compost can improve management of sanitary landfills, including the restoration of vegetation. Considering its ease of harvesting, high accumulation rates, harvestable biomass and suitability for composting, Azolla can provide a suitable solution for sustainable management of leachate channels and landfill slopes.

  17. Yolo County's Accelerated Anaerobic and Aerobic Composting (Full-Scale Controlled Landfill Bioreactor) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, R.; Kieffer, J.; Akau, H.; Augenstein, D.

    2002-12-01

    Sanitary landfilling is the dominant method of solid waste disposal in the United States, accounting for about 217 million tons of waste annually (U.S. EPA, 1997) and has more than doubled since 1960. In spite of increasing rates of reuse and recycling, population and economic growth will continue to render landfilling as an important and necessary component of solid waste management. Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works, Division of Integrated Waste Management is demonstrating a new landfill technology called Bioreactor Landfill to better manage solid waste. In a Bioreactor Landfill, controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray-water, etc.) are added and recirculated to increase the moisture content of the waste and improve waste decomposition. As demonstrated in a small-scale demonstration project at the Yolo County Central Landfill in 1995, this process significantly increases the biodegradation rate of waste and thus decreases the waste stabilization and composting time (5 to 10 years) relative to what would occur within a conventional landfill (30 to 50 years or more). When waste decomposes anaerobically (in absence of oxygen), it produces landfill gas (biogas). Biogas is primarily a mixture of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's) which can be recovered for electricity or other uses. Other benefits of a bioreactor landfill composting operation include increased landfill waste settlement which increases in landfill capacity and life, improved leachate chemistry, possible reduction of landfill post-closure management time, opportunity to explore decomposed waste for landfill mining, and abatement of greenhouse gases through highly efficient methane capture over a much shorter period of time than is typical of waste management through conventional landfilling. This project also investigates the aerobic decomposition of waste of 13,000 tons of waste (2.5 acre) for

  18. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 5: Landfills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0) includes Record of Technical Change No. 1 (dated 9/17/2002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IT Corporation, Las Vegas, NV

    2002-05-28

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 5 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 5 consists of eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-15-01, Sanitary Landfill; 05-16-01, Landfill; 06-08-01, Landfill; 06-15-02, Sanitary Landfill; 06-15-03, Sanitary Landfill; 12-15-01, Sanitary Landfill; 20-15-01, Landfill; 23-15-03, Disposal Site. Located between Areas 5, 6, 12, 20, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), CAU 5 consists of unlined landfills used in support of disposal operations between 1952 and 1992. Large volumes of solid waste were produced from the projects which used the CAU 5 landfills. Waste disposed in these landfills may be present without appropriate controls (i.e., use restrictions, adequate cover) and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and/or the environment. During the 1992 to 1995 time frame, the NTS was used for various research and development projects including nuclear weapons testing. Instead of managing solid waste at one or two disposal sites, the practice on the NTS was to dispose of solid waste in the vicinity of the project. A review of historical documentation, process knowledge, personal interviews, and inferred activities associated with this CAU identified the following as potential contaminants of concern: volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel- and gasoline-range organics), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Metals, plus nickel and zinc. A two-phase approach has been selected to collect information and generate data to satisfy needed resolution

  19. Far-infrared laser action in vinyl chloride, vinyl bromide, and vinyl fluoride optically pumped by a CW N2O laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaud, C.; Redon, M.; Belland, P.; Fourrier, M.

    1984-06-01

    This paper reports the first use of a N2O laser for optically pumping vinyl halides, to obtain new cw submillimeter laser lines. Eighteen far-infrared (FIR) emissions have been observed in vinyl chloride, twenty five in vinyl bromide and thirty eight in vinyl flouride.

  20. Evaluation Of Landfill Gas Decay Constant For Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Operated As Bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prediction of the rate of gas production from bioreactor landfills is important to optimize energy recovery and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions. Landfill gas (LFG) composition and flow rate were monitored for four years for a conventional and two bioreactor landfill landfil...

  1. Landfill to Learning Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venner, Laura

    2008-05-01

    Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in scientific exploration and discovery is the main goal of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will bring hands-on scientific experiences to the 25,000 students and 3,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Our programs adhere to the New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards and are modified for accessibility for the underserved communities that visit us, specifically those individuals that have mobility, sensory, and/or cognitive ability differences. The programs are conducted in a classroom setting and are designed to nourish the individual's inquisitive nature and provide an opportunity to function as a scientist by, making observations, performing experiments and recording data. We have an $850,000, three year NSF grant that targets adults with disabilities and older adults with age related limitations in vision, hearing, cognition and/or mobility. From dip netting in the marsh to astronomical investigation of the cosmos, the MEC/CESE remains committed to reaching the largest audience possible and leaving them with a truly exceptional scientific experience that serves to educate and inspire.

  2. 29 CFR 1915.1017 - Vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1915.1017 Section 1915.1017 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... § 1915.1017 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this...

  3. 29 CFR 1926.1117 - Vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl chloride. 1926.1117 Section 1926.1117 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1117 Vinyl chloride. Note: The requirements applicable to construction work under this section are identical to...

  4. A review of landfill microbiology research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, D.; Reynolds, P.; Blakey, N.C.

    1995-05-01

    In May 1994 the DTI through ETSU commissioned WRc to undertake a comprehensive review of the landfill microbiology programme to date. The review has attempted to identify remaining gaps in knowledge which are most likely to find application in controlling the production of gas from landfills, and concludes with a list of recommendations for specific landfill process research which is likely to facilitate and optimise energy recovery from landfill. (UK)

  5. Landfill gas control facility with automatic wobbe-correction for Gas-Otto-Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, K.; Pauli, H.

    1986-01-01

    In open sanitary landfills large amounts of energy-rich landfillgas is generated. Without a purposeful collection, this gas would escape into the covering layers and into the air and thus burden the environment. In the sanitary landfill of 'Gummersloch' near Berne, the gas is systematically collected and piped to the Senior and Nursing Home of Kuehlewil where it is utilised in a thermal power-coupling facility (heating power station) of the Bernese Power Plants (BKW) to produce power and heat. This plant, with additional equipment for the automatic wobbe-correction, has been in operation for about 2 years and has proved its worth in practical use. By way of the automatic wobbe-correction through the disturbance-variable feed-forward system, the uncontrolled occuring fluctuations of the gas quality are being, up to 40%, so levelled out, that a faultless operation is guaranteed. Actual experiences have confirmed that the adaption to changing gas qualities by means of the constant extended wobbe-index is ideally suited to the use of gas engines.

  6. LANDFILL BIOREACTOR PERFORMANCE, SECOND INTERIM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

  7. LANDFILL BIOREACTOR PERFORMANCE, SECOND INTERIM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

  8. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...... of the ashes. Leaching test, however, must be selected carefully to provide information relevant for the actual disposal scenario and for evaluating the benefits of pre-treating the residues prior to landfilling. This paper describes research at the Technical University of Denmark addressing some...... of these issues focusing on pH-development in landfilled residues, effects of leaching test conditions on Cr leaching and effects of pre-treatment with FeSO4....

  9. Sustainable treatment of landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yusoff, Mohd. Suffian; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Hung, Yung-Tse

    2015-06-01

    Landfill leachate is a complex liquid that contains excessive concentrations of biodegradable and non-biodegradable products including organic matter, phenols, ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, heavy metals, and sulfide. If not properly treated and safely disposed, landfill leachate could be an impending source to surface and ground water contamination as it may percolate throughout soils and subsoils, causing adverse impacts to receiving waters. Lately, various types of treatment methods have been proposed to alleviate the risks of untreated leachate. However, some of the available techniques remain complicated, expensive and generally require definite adaptation during process. In this article, a review of literature reported from 2008 to 2012 on sustainable landfill leachate treatment technologies is discussed which includes biological and physical-chemical techniques, respectively.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE TO VINYL CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Vinyl chloride (VC monomer is a wellknown carcinogenic and mutagenic substance causes liver damages, angiosarcoma of the liver, acro – osteolysis, sclerodermalike changes in workers chronically exposed to this gas. There are following VC emitors to the environment: VC production plants, polymerization facilities and planes where polyvinyl products are fabricated. Because of that, the general population is coming into VC contact through polluted air, food and water. VC concentration in all mentioned sites is very low, often not detectable. There was found any health risk for the general population. The VC air concentration in the vicinity to antropogenic emitors is always higher. Such a situation may causes undesirable health effect for residents living in the neighbourhood. Epidemiological studies are performed to detect the adverse VC effect in selected cohorts. Non of the study did not confirmed cases of angiosarcoma among residents living near a vinyl chloride sites. VC production is growing permanently, so VC emission will be higher. Because of that health monitoring of general population and especially of selected groups seems to be necessary in the future.

  11. Astronomy on a Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venner, Laura

    2008-09-01

    Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of IYA 2009 to the approximately 25,000 students and 15,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Diversifying our traditional environmental science offerings, we have incorporated astronomy into our repertoire with "The Sun Through Time” module, which includes storytelling, cultural astronomy, telescope anatomy, and other activities that are based on the electromagnetic spectrum and our current knowledge of the sun. These lessons have also been modified to bring astronomy to underserved communities, specifically those individuals that have dexterity or cognitive ability differences. The program is conducted in a classroom setting and is designed to meet New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards. With the installation of our new 20” telescope, students and amateur astronomers will be given the opportunity to perform rudimentary research. In addition, a program is in development that will allow individuals to measure local sky brightness and understand the effects of light pollution on astronomical viewing. Teaching astronomy in an urban setting presents many challenges. All individuals, regardless of ability level or location, should be given the opportunity to be exposed to the wonders of the universe and the MEC/CESE has been successful in providing those opportunities.

  12. Climate co-benefits of energy recovery from landfill gas in developing Asian cities: a case study in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menikpura, S N M; Sang-Arun, Janya; Bengtsson, Magnus

    2013-10-01

    Landfilling is the most common and cost-effective waste disposal method, and it is widely applied throughout the world. In developing countries in Asia there is currently a trend towards constructing sanitary landfills with gas recovery systems, not only as a solution to the waste problem and the associated local environmental pollution, but also to generate revenues through carbon markets and from the sale of electricity. This article presents a quantitative assessment of climate co-benefits from landfill gas (LFG) to energy projects, based on the case of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, Thailand. Life cycle assessment was used for estimating net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, considering the whole lifespan of the landfill. The assessment found that the total GHG mitigation of the Bangkok project would be 471,763 tonnes (t) of carbon dioxide (CO(2))-equivalents (eq) over its 10-year LFG recovery period.This amount is equivalent to only 12% of the methane (CH(4)) generated over the whole lifespan of the landfill. An alternative scenario was devised to analyse possible improvement options for GHG mitigation through LFG-to-energy recovery projects. This scenario assumes that LFG recovery would commence in the second year of landfill operation and gas extraction continues throughout the 20-year peak production period. In this scenario, GHG mitigation potential amounted to 1,639,450 tCO(2)-eq during the 20-year project period, which is equivalent to 43% of the CH(4) generated throughout the life cycle. The results indicate that with careful planning, there is a high potential for improving the efficiency of existing LFG recovery projects which would enhance climate co-benefits, as well as economic benefits. However, the study also shows that even improved gas recovery systems have fairly low recovery rates and, in consequence, that emissions of GHG from such landfills sites are still considerable.

  13. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...... of the ashes. Leaching test, however, must be selected carefully to provide information relevant for the actual disposal scenario and for evaluating the benefits of pre-treating the residues prior to landfilling. This paper describes research at the Technical University of Denmark addressing some...

  14. 21 CFR 175.270 - Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. 175.270 Section 175... Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.270 Poly(vinyl fluoride) resins. Poly(vinyl fluoride... the purpose of this section, poly(vinyl fluoride) resins consist of basic resins produced by the...

  15. 42 CFR 84.250 - Vinyl chloride respirators; description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride respirators; description. 84.250... Respirators § 84.250 Vinyl chloride respirators; description. Vinyl chloride respirators, including all... escape from vinyl chloride atmospheres containing adequate oxygen to support life, are...

  16. Indoor Environmental Conditions and Sanitary Practices in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Sustainable Development ... Rapidly urbanizing cities are witnessing an increase in Day care centres (DCCs) whose ... Keywords: Day Care Centres, sanitary practices, indoor air quality, children, urban communities ...

  17. Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures in NAFTA: The Canada Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Terry Norman

    2005-01-01

    Canada's Experience in Implementing the Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) provisions of the North American free trade agreement (NAFTA). The NAFTA has been a major success story for Canada since its entry into force on January 1, 1994.

  18. Charles Dickens and the movement for sanitary reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litsios, Socrates

    2003-01-01

    Charles Dickens's adult life parallels the period when the movement for sanitary reform took root in England. Although he was not one of its leaders, he became in time one of its most outspoken advocates. This essay describes Dickens's growing involvement in the sanitary movement and looks at one of the most important ways he supported it--articles published in his weekly journal Household Words

  19. Quantifying capital goods for waste landfilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Stentsøe, Steen; Willumsen, Hans Christian

    2013-01-01

    Materials and energy used for construction of a hill-type landfill of 4 million m3 were quantified in detail. The landfill is engineered with a liner and leachate collections system, as well as a gas collection and control system. Gravel and clay were the most common materials used, amounting...... to approximately 260 kg per tonne of waste landfilled. The environmental burdens from the extraction and manufacturing of the materials used in the landfill, as well as from the construction of the landfill, were modelled as potential environmental impacts. For example, the potential impact on global warming was 2.......5 kg carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents or 0.32 milli person equivalents per tonne of waste. The potential impacts from the use of materials and construction of the landfill are low-to-insignificant compared with data reported in the literature on impact potentials of landfills in operation...

  20. Use of the landfill water pollution index (LWPI) for groundwater quality assessment near the landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalaj, Izabela A; Biedka, Pawel

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the paper is to assess the groundwater quality near the landfill sites using landfill water pollution index (LWPI). In order to investigate the scale of groundwater contamination, three landfills (E, H and S) in different stages of their operation were taken into analysis. Samples of groundwater in the vicinity of studied landfills were collected four times each year in the period from 2004 to 2014. A total of over 300 groundwater samples were analysed for pH, EC, PAH, TOC, Cr, Hg, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, as required by the UE legal acts for landfill monitoring system. The calculated values of the LWPI allowed the quantification of the overall water quality near the landfill sites. The obtained results indicated that the most negative impact on groundwater quality is observed near the old Landfill H. Improper location of piezometer at the Landfill S favoured infiltration of run-off from road pavement into the soil-water environment. Deep deposition of the groundwater level at Landfill S area reduced the landfill impact on the water quality. Conducted analyses revealed that the LWPI can be used for evaluation of water pollution near a landfill, for assessment of the variability of water pollution with time and for comparison of water quality from different piezometers, landfills or time periods. The applied WQI (Water Quality Index) can also be an important information tool for landfill policy makers and the public about the groundwater pollution threat from landfill.

  1. Cel vinyls: materials and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, S J

    1983-12-01

    Many commercial uses of media are applicable to medical/scientific media production and illustration, not the least of which are techniques pioneered in the commercial cartooning field. Whether or not the illustrative effort culminates in a "cartoon," the production techniques of the cartooning industry cannot be overlooked by the illustrator faced with providing projection graphics, whether animated or still, for slides, motion pictures, television or even print media. When Walt Disney introduced Mickey Mouse as "Steamboat Willie" in 1928, his technology opened the door for exploration of cartooning media by all artists. Only in comparatively recent years have these tools been used by the scientific illustrator. In this article cel vinyl acrylics or cartoon colors will be discussed: the rationale for the use of this medium, materials and methods, and considerations related to the photography of this art form.

  2. Effect of chain structure on hydrogen bonding in vinyl acetate - vinyl alcohol copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merekalova, Nadezhda D.; Bondarenko, Galina N.; Denisova, Yuliya I.; Krentsel, Liya B.; Litmanovich, Arkadiy D.; Kudryavtsev, Yaroslav V.

    2017-04-01

    FTIR spectroscopy and semi-empirical AM1 method are used to study hydrogen bonding in multiblock and random equimolar copolymers of vinyl acetate and vinyl alcohol. An energetically beneficial zip-holder complex, built on multiple inter- and intrachain hydroxyl-hydroxyl bonds and an intrachain hydroxyl-acetyloxy bond, can be formed between two vinyl alcohol sequences. As a result, multiblock copolymers reveal stronger degree of association that affects crystallinity, as well as various rheological and relaxation properties discussed in the literature. Macromolecular complexes in random copolymers are weak and tend to be destroyed in the presence of residual DMF solvent and adsorbed water. Nevertheless, a rather stable interchain quaternary complex can be formed that includes vinyl alcohol and vinyl acetate units and DMF and water molecules. For a single chain it is shown that an H-bond between neighboring vinyl alcohol and vinyl acetate monomer units mostly engages a carbonyl oxygen atom of the vinyl acetate, if the vinyl alcohol belongs to a short (case. On the whole, the quantum chemistry calculations shed much light on the origin of distinctions in the copolymer FTIR spectra, which may seem subtle when considered standalone.

  3. Emission Control and Utilization of Landfill Gas in Ningbo Waste Landfill Site%宁波市垃圾填埋场填埋气体排放控制及利用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌

    2013-01-01

    Taking Ningbo city as an example,the treatment measures of unorganized emission of odor landfill gas from domestic waste sanitary landfill site were discussed,for instance,ordered collection and incineration-power generation.It could treat greenhouse gases such as CH4 effectively to make the pollutions control,and use waste heat to produce electricity.Thus it would achieve energy-saving and emission-reduction.%以宁波市为例,探讨了生活垃圾卫生填埋场产生的无组织排放的异味填埋气体有序收集及焚烧发电的处理措施,既有效处理了CH4等温室气体,使污染排放得到有效控制,又利用余热发电,实现节能减排.

  4. Imaging and characterization of heterogeneous landfills using geophysical methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantaki, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays many countries use landfilling for the management of their waste or for treating old landfills. Emissions from landfills can be harmful to the environment and to human health, making the stabilization of landfills a priority for the landfill communities. Estimation of the emission potential

  5. Imaging and characterization of heterogeneous landfills using geophysical methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantaki, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays many countries use landfilling for the management of their waste or for treating old landfills. Emissions from landfills can be harmful to the environment and to human health, making the stabilization of landfills a priority for the landfill communities. Estimation of the emission potential

  6. SITE SELECTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS USING ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS METHOD IN A GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ENVIRONMENT IN GIROFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Javaheri, T. Nasrabadi, M. H. Jafarian, G. R. Rowshan, H. Khoshnam

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste generation is among the most significant sources which threaten the global environmental health. As an ideal selection depends on considering several independent factors concerning land use, socio economy and hydrogeology, the use of a multi criteria evaluation method seems inevitable. Taking benefit of geographic information system as a tool in combination with geographical information technology, equips the spatial decision support systems in appropriate site selection of sanitary landfills. The present study involves a kind of multi criteria evaluation method under the name of weighted linear combination by using geographical information technology as a practical instrument to evaluate the suitability of the vicinity of Giroft city in Kerman province of Iran for landfill. Water permeability, slope, distance from rivers, depth of underground watertable, distance from residential areas, distance from generation centers, general environmental criterion and distance from roads are the criteria which have been taken in to consideration in the process of analyzing. Superposing all of the raster type layers including geomorphologic, hydrologic, humanistic and land use criteria in land suitability, the final zoning of appropriate, fairly appropriate and inappropriate districts have been identified. Considering relative priority of all criteria in comparison with others, a specific weight is designated to each criterion according to their total influence on the whole process of decision making. The results from the application of the presented methodology are zones for landfill with varying zonal land suitability. Finally the zones will be ranked in descending order to indicate the priority of different options in front of the eyes of decision makers. The results achieved by this study may help policy makers of Giroft city by a variety of options for being considered as sanitary landfill locations.

  7. Landfill reduction experience in The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharff, Heijo, E-mail: h.scharff@afvalzorg.nl

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • ‘Zero waste’ initiatives never consider risks, side effects or experience of achieved low levels of landfill. • This paper provides insight into what works and what not. • Where strong gradients in regulations and tax occur between countries, waste will find its way to landfills across borders. • Strong landfill reduction can create a fierce competition over the remaining waste to be landfilled resulting in losses. • At some point a public organisation should take responsibility for the operation of a ‘safety net’ in waste management. - Abstract: Modern waste legislation aims at resource efficiency and landfill reduction. This paper analyses more than 20 years of landfill reduction in the Netherlands. The combination of landfill regulations, landfill tax and landfill bans resulted in the desired landfill reduction, but also had negative effects. A fierce competition developed over the remaining waste to be landfilled. In 2013 the Dutch landfill industry generated €40 million of annual revenue, had €58 million annual costs and therefore incurred an annual loss of €18 million. It is not an attractive option to prematurely end business. There is a risk that Dutch landfill operators will not be able to fulfil the financial obligations for closure and aftercare. Contrary to the polluter pays principle the burden may end up with society. EU regulations prohibiting export of waste for disposal are in place. Strong differentials in landfill tax rate between nations have nevertheless resulted in transboundary shipment of waste and in non-compliance with the self-sufficiency and proximity principles. During the transformation from a disposal society to a recycling society, it is important to carefully plan required capacity and to guide the reorganisation of the landfill sector. At some point, it is no longer profitable to provide landfill services. It may be necessary for public organisations or the state to take responsibility for the

  8. Removal and transformation of recalcitrant organic matter from stabilized saline landfill leachates by coagulation-ozonation coupling processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje-Ramirez, I; Orta de Velásquez, M T

    2004-05-01

    The Bordo Poniente sanitary landfill in Mexico City currently receives 11,500 ton/day of solid wastes. The landfill has been in operation since 1985, in what was formerly Texcoco Lake, now a dried-up lakebed. The physico-chemical characteristics of the leachate generated by this particular landfill are altered by the incorporation of freatic saline water present in the area. This paper reports the results from a study evaluating coagulation and ozonation as alternative processes for removing and transforming recalcitrant organic matter from stabilized saline landfill leachate. Coagulation with ferric sulfate was found to remove up to 67% of COD and 96% of leachate color. The remaining 33% COD was removed with ozone. Recalcitrant organic matter removal by ozonation is limited by the reaction kinetic due mainly to ozone's low reactivity with the organic compounds present in the leachates (amines, amides, alcohols, aliphatic compounds, and carboxylic acids). However, ozone contributes greatly to changing the recalcitrant characteristics of organic matter. Leachate biodegradability was found to be significantly enhanced through ozonation: BOD(5) values reach 265%, and the BOD(5)/COD ratio increases from 0.003 to 0.015. Infrared analysis of ozonated leachates shows that the main by-products of recalcitrant organic matter ozonation are an increase in the hydroxyl and carboxylic groups, and the presence of aldehydes groups.

  9. Bioleach: a mathematical model for the joint evaluation of leachate and biogas production in urban solid waste landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Clavero, Maria-Elena; Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier

    2017-04-01

    One of the most serious environmental problems in modern societies is the management and disposal of urban solid waste (MSW). Despite the efforts of the administration to promote recycling and reuse policies and energy recovery technologies, nowadays the majority of MSW still is disposed in sanitary landfills. During the phases of operation and post-closure maintenance of any solid waste disposal site, two of the most relevant problems are the production of leachate and the generation of biogas. The leachate and biogas production formation processes occur simultaneously over time and are coupled together through the consumption and/or production of water. However, no mathematical models have been easily identified that allow to the evaluation of the joint production of leachate and biogas, during the operational and the post-closure phase of an urban waste landfill. This paper introduces BIOLEACH, a new mathematical model programmed on a monthly scale, that evaluates the joint production of leachate and biogas applying water balance techniques and considers the management of the landfill as a bioreactor. The application of such a model on real landfills allows to perform an environmentally sustainable management that minimizes the environmental impacts produced being also economically more profitable.

  10. A 3D FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF INCOMPRESSIBLE FLUID FLOW AND CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT THROUGH A POROUS LANDFILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADEGUN, I. K.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigated the flow of incompressible fluid and contaminant transport through a Porous Landfill using a numerical technique. A threedimensional finite element analysis technique was adopted for the solution. The problem was based on the Darcy’s Law and the Advection-Dispersion equation. The solutions of the Darcy’s and Advection-Dispersion equations were generated using Finite Element Analysis Software known as COMSOL Multiphysics. This simulation tool tracked the contaminant transport in the Landfill for 360 days at 10 days interval. It first modeled steady-state fluid flow by employing the Darcy’s Law Application Mode and then followed up with a transient solute-transport simulation by employing the Solute-Transport Application Mode from the Earth Science Module of COMSOL. The solution results obtained from this model were found to be in close agreement with reallife data obtained at the 130- million ton Bukit Tagar Mega Sanitary Landfill site, Selangor near Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This showed that the model can effectively predict the trends in the distributions of pollutants from a Municipal Solid Waste Landfill into nearby land and water sources. The model is thus applicable to the issues of environmental protection and safety of groundwater.

  11. Quantification of methane emissions from danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Mønster, Jacob; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Whole-landfill methane emission was quantified using a tracer technique that combines controlled tracer gas release from the landfill with time-resolved concentration measurements downwind of the landfill using a mobile high-resolution analytical instrument. Methane emissions from 13 Danish...... landfills varied between 2.6 and 60.8 kg CH4 h–1. The highest methane emission was measured at the largest (in terms of disposed waste amounts) of the 13 landfills, whereas the lowest methane emissions (2.6-6.1 kgCH4 h–1) were measured at the older and smaller landfills. At two of the sites, which had gas...... collection, emission measurements showed that the gas collection systems only collected between 30-50% of the methane produced (assuming that the produced methane equalled the sum of the emitted methane and the collected methane). Significant methane emissions were observed from disposed shredder waste...

  12. Landfilling: Bottom Lining and Leachate Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Manfredi, Simone; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    from entering the groundwater or surface water. The bottom lining system should cover the full footprint area of the landfill, including both the relatively flat bottom and the sideslopes in the case of an excavated configuration. This prevents the lateral migration of leachate from within the landfill...... triple) liners, are extremely effective in preventing leachate from entering into the environment. In addition, the risk of polluting the groundwater at a landfill by any leakage of leachate depends on several factors related to siting of the landfill: distance to the water table, distance to surface...... water bodies, and the properties of the soil beneath the landfill. In addition to the lining and drainage systems described in this chapter, the siting and hydrogeology of the landfill site (Chapter 10.12) and the top cover (Chapter 10.9) are also part of the barrier system, contributing to reducing...

  13. Congenital anomalies and proximity to landfill sites.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, E

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of congenital anomalies in proximity to municipal landfill sites in the Eastern Region (counties Dublin, Kildare, Wicklow) was examined by small area (district electoral division), distance and clustering tendancies in relation to 83 landfills, five of which were major sites. The study included 2136 cases of congenital anomaly, 37,487 births and 1423 controls between 1986 and 1990. For the more populous areas of the region 50% of the population lived within 2-3 km of a landfill and within 4-5 km for more rural areas. In the area-level analysis, the standardised prevalence ratios, empirical and full Bayesian modelling, and Kulldorff\\'s spatial scan statistic found no association between the residential area of cases and location of landfills. In the case control analysis, the mean distance of cases and controls from the nearest landfill was similar. The odds ratios of cases compared to controls for increasing distances from all landfills and major landfills showed no significant difference from the baseline value of 1. The kernel and K methods showed no tendency of cases to cluster in relationship to landfills. In conclusion, congenital anomalies were not found to occur more commonly in proximity to municipal landfills.

  14. Landfill Barrier-Overview and Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Liange; Zhao Yongsheng

    2000-01-01

    Landfill is the primary method of waste disposal. The increasing attention focused on the effect of landfill on environment prompts the development of environmental sound landfill system. As the key parts of landfill, the barrier system can provide impermeabilization of leachate and prevent biogas from escaping intotheenvironment. In recent years, the technology pertaining the barrier system developed rapidly. In this paper, new materials used in liners and new concept of barrier construction are reviewed; the mechanisms of leachate through clay liner and geomembrane, the calculation of leaks through liner and the effect of freezing/thaw on liner are discussed.

  15. Landfills - LANDFILL_BOUNDARIES_IDEM_IN: Waste Site Boundaries in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — LANDFILL_BOUNDARIES_IDEM_IN.SHP is a polygon shapefile that contains boundaries for open dump sites, approved landfills, and permitted landfills in Indiana, provided...

  16. [Sanitary regulation in Mexico and the Free Trade Treaty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-López, M

    1994-01-01

    In this paper are discussed essential issues about the concept, characteristics and general functions of sanitary regulation, as well as the principles and main lines of action contained in the Program of Modernization of the Sanitary Regulation, which is being implemented by the Ministry of Health of Mexico. In addition, some considerations are offered regarding the supporting role of such a program, in the context of the free trade era that Mexico is undergoing. After 40 years of an outdated sanitary regulation based in a non-functional licensing concept, the new and improved scheme relies on several ammendments to the General Health Law. Thus, the present approach, focuses on a set of flexible, simple and efficient rules, strengthened by proven scientific and technical procedures.

  17. Estimation of the environmental risk posed by landfills using chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological testing of leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejczyk, Marek; Płaza, Grażyna A; Nałęcz-Jawecki, Grzegorz; Ulfig, Krzysztof; Markowska-Szczupak, Agata

    2011-02-01

    The leachates from 22 municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill sites in Southern Poland were characterized by evaluation of chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological parameters. Chemical analyses were mainly focused on the identification of the priority hazardous substances according to Directive on Priority Substances, 2008/105/EC (a daughter directive of the WFD) in leachates. As showed, only five substances (Cd, Hg, hexachlorobutadiene, pentachlorobenzene and PAHs) were detected in the leachates. The compounds tested were absent or present at very low concentrations. Among them, only PAHs were found in all samples in the range from 0.057 to 77.2 μg L⁻¹. The leachates were contaminated with bacteria, including aerobic, psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria, coliform and fecal coliforms, and spore-forming-bacteria, including Clostridium perfringens, and with filamentous fungi. From the analysis of specific microorganism groups (indicators of environmental pollution by pathogenic or opportunistic pathogenic organisms) it can be concluded that the landfill leachates showed sanitary and epidemiological hazard. In the ecotoxicological study, a battery of tests comprised of 5 bioassays, i.e. Microtox(®), Spirotox, Rotoxkit F™, Thamnotoxkit F™ and Daphtoxkit F™ magna was applied. The leachate samples were classified as toxic in 13.6%, highly toxic in 54.6% and very highly toxic in 31.8%. The Spirotox test was the most sensitive bioassay used. The percentage of class weight score was very high - above 60%; these samples could definitely be considered seriously hazardous and acutely toxic to the fauna and microflora. No correlations were found between the toxicity values and chemical parameters. The toxicity of leachate samples cannot be explained by low levels of the priority pollutants. It seems that other kinds of xenobiotics present in the samples at subacute levels gave the high aggregate toxic effect. The chemical, ecotoxicological and microbiological

  18. PROPOSAL OF SANITARY MANAGEMENT OF EDIBLE ECHINODERMS IN SARDINIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Terrosu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus is an edible echinoderm very common in the Mediterranean sea. In the Sardinian gastronomic tradition it represents a product very used in some periods of the year, but in practice the sanitary controls by the competent authorities are very difficult. The Reg. (EC n. 853/2004 provides that, as regards as the control on production, echinoderms are assimilable to live bivalve molluscs, with the exception of the provisions on purification. In this work a proposal for the sanitary management of the phases of gathering, transport and selling of the sea urchins has been studied.

  19. Sanitary Transportation of Human and Animal Food. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-06

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is issuing a final rule to establish requirements for shippers, loaders, carriers by motor vehicle and rail vehicle, and receivers engaged in the transportation of food, including food for animals, to use sanitary transportation practices to ensure the safety of the food they transport. This action is part of our larger effort to focus on prevention of food safety problems throughout the food chain and is part of our implementation of the Sanitary Food Transportation Act of 2005 (2005 SFTA) and the Food Safety Modernization Act of 2011 (FSMA).

  20. Prenatal susceptibility to carcinogenesis by xenobiotic substances including vinyl chloride.

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, J M

    1981-01-01

    The carcinogenicity of vinyl chloride for experimental animals when administered transplacentally is reviewed in comparison with known transplacental carcinogens, including those that, like vinyl chloride, are dependent on enzyme-mediated metabolic conversion to a reactive intermediate in maternal or fetal tissues. Vinyl chloride is converted by mixed-function oxidases to the reactive metabolite chlorooxirane, the carcinogenicity of which is also reviewed. Vinyl chloride is unequivocally a tr...

  1. Degradable vinyl polymers for biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delplace, Vianney; Nicolas, Julien

    2015-10-01

    Vinyl polymers have been the focus of intensive research over the past few decades and are attractive materials owing to their ease of synthesis and their broad diversity of architectures, compositions and functionalities. Their carbon-carbon backbones are extremely resistant to degradation, however, and this property limits their uses. Degradable polymers are an important field of research in polymer science and have been used in a wide range of applications spanning from (nano)medicine to microelectronics and environmental protection. The development of synthetic strategies to enable complete or partial degradation of vinyl polymers is, therefore, of great importance because it will offer new opportunities for the application of these materials. This Review captures the most recent and promising approaches to the design of degradable vinyl polymers and discusses the potential of these materials for biomedical applications.

  2. LANDFILL GAS PRETREATMENT FOR FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the U.S. EPA's program, underway at International Fuel Cells Corporation, to demonstrate landfill methane control and the fuel cell energy recovery concept. In this program, two critical issues are being addressed: (1) a landfill gas cleanup method that would ...

  3. MONITORING APPROACHES FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS - Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 30CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppor...

  4. Characterisation of landfills using a multidisciplinary approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paap, B.F.; Bakker, M.A.J.; Hoekstra, N.K.; Oonk, H.

    2011-01-01

    The Netherlands has about 3800 abandoned landfills with a total surface of about 9000 ha. As they are often located near urban areas and their influence extends into their surrounding environment they put pressure on available space. Most abandoned landfills were in use until the 1960s and 1970s. Th

  5. MONITORING APPROACHES FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS - Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 30CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppor...

  6. Imaging scatterers in landfills using seismic interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantaki, L.A.; Dragnov, D.S.; Heimovaara, T.J.; Ghose, R.

    2013-01-01

    A significant problem with landfills is their aftercare period. A landfill is considered to be safe for the environment only after a relatively long period of time. Until it reaches such a condition, it has to be periodically treated. Not only are treatments very expensive, but they could be dangero

  7. Quantifying capital goods for waste landfilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogaard, Line K; Stentsøe, Steen; Willumsen, Hans Christian; Christensen, Thomas H

    2013-06-01

    Materials and energy used for construction of a hill-type landfill of 4 million m(3) were quantified in detail. The landfill is engineered with a liner and leachate collections system, as well as a gas collection and control system. Gravel and clay were the most common materials used, amounting to approximately 260 kg per tonne of waste landfilled. The environmental burdens from the extraction and manufacturing of the materials used in the landfill, as well as from the construction of the landfill, were modelled as potential environmental impacts. For example, the potential impact on global warming was 2.5 kg carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents or 0.32 milli person equivalents per tonne of waste. The potential impacts from the use of materials and construction of the landfill are low-to-insignificant compared with data reported in the literature on impact potentials of landfills in operation. The construction of the landfill is only a significant contributor to the impact of resource depletion owing to the high use of gravel and steel.

  8. 40 CFR 721.3140 - Vinyl epoxy ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vinyl epoxy ester. 721.3140 Section... Substances § 721.3140 Vinyl epoxy ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance vinyl epoxy ester (PMN P-85-527) is subject to reporting under...

  9. Designer discodermolide segments via ozonolysis of vinyl phosphonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollat du Jourdin, Xavier; Noshi, Mohammad; Fuchs, P L

    2009-02-01

    To apply our collection of enantiopure 7-ring vinyl sulfones to probe the anticancer SAR of a series of computer-designed (+)-discodermolide analogs, the ozonolytic reactivity of transposed cyclic vinyl phosphonates was explored. Successful preparation of the desired aldehyde-esters and lactones from vinyl phosphonates via an oxidative cleavage-phosphite/methanol exchange sequence is described.

  10. Retention of vinyl chloride in the human lung.

    OpenAIRE

    Krajewski, J.; Dobecki, M; Gromiec, J

    1980-01-01

    Experiments with volunteers showed that 42% of an inhaled dose of vinyl chloride is retained in the lungs. This value is independent of the concentration of vinyl chloride in the air. Elimination of vinyl chloride through the lungs is negligible since its concentration in expired air decreases immediately after the cessation of exposure.

  11. Kinetics of Vinyl Chloride Polymerization with Mixture of Initiators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Kinetic models for the rate constants of vinyl chloride polymerization in the presence of initiator mixtures were proposed. They may be used to design the initiator recipes for the vinyl chloride polymerization with uniform rate at different temperatures at which various grades of poly(vinyl chloride) will be prepared.

  12. 46 CFR 154.1745 - Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations. 154.1745 Section 154.1745 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Operating Requirements § 154.1745 Vinyl chloride: Transferring operations. A vessel carrying vinyl...

  13. 46 CFR 154.1740 - Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. 154.1740... Operating Requirements § 154.1740 Vinyl chloride: Inhibiting and inerting. When a vessel is carrying vinyl chloride, the master shall ensure that: (a) Section 154.1818 is met; or (b) Section 154.1710 is met,...

  14. 49 CFR 179.102-4 - Vinyl fluoride, stabilized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vinyl fluoride, stabilized. 179.102-4 Section 179...-4 Vinyl fluoride, stabilized. Each tank used to transport vinyl fluoride, stabilized, must comply... subchapter), Type 304, 304L, 316 or 316L, in which case impact tests are not required; or (2) Steel complying...

  15. 21 CFR 177.1350 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. 177.1350 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1350 Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers may be safely used as articles or components of...

  16. Qualitative Research and Evaluation of Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Kačinskaja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, depositing municipal waste in landfills is the dominating method in Lithuania. A large amount of landfill leachate is the main environmental problem. Municipal waste landfill leachate is characterized by high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD containing a number of heavy metals and concentration of organic compounds. The colmatation of landfill leachate collection systems is another burning problem that occurs due to certain characteristics of leachate such as suspended solids, an increase in calcium and magnesium concentrations and vital activity of microorganisms. Therefore, it is necessary to examine conditions affecting these parameters. The paper presents and analyses the characteristics of experimental data, assesses the factors having the greatest influence on recent development and introduces the measures that should be taken into account so that to the ensure optimal operation of the systems for collecting municipal waste landfill leachate.Article in Lithuanian

  17. GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN OF SOLID WASTE LANDFILL SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat AKBULUT

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste landfills are important engineering structures for protection of wastes, decrease of environmental pollution, and especially prevention of soil and water pollution. Solid wastes should conveniently be maintained in landfill areas to control environmental pollution caused by waste disposals. Until the middle of this century clay liners were used for maintenance of waste disposal, but it was observed that these liner systems were insufficient. Today thinner and less permeable liner systems are constructed by using synthetic materials. In this study, by evaluating the waste landfills, site assessment of landfills and construction of natural and synthetic liner systems were summarized respectively, and especially the design properties of these systems were examined intensively. Also, leachate collection and removal facilities, landfill gas collection unites, and final cover unites were evaluated in a detailed way.

  18. Biogeochemistry of landfill leachate plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Kjeldsen, Peter; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2001-01-01

    is on dissolved organic matter, xenobiotic organic compounds, inorganic macrocomponents as anions and cations, and heavy metals. Laboratory as well as field investigations are included. This review is an up-date of an earlier comprehensive review. The review shows that most leachate contamination plumes...... the behavior of the contaminants in the plume as the leachate migrates away from the landfill. Diverse microbial communities have been identified in leachate plumes and are believed to be responsible for the redox processes. Dissolved organic C in the leachate, although it appears to be only slowly degradable...

  19. Conducting Sanitary Surveys of Water Supply Systems. Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976

    This workbook is utilized in connection with a 40-hour course on sanitary surveys of water supply systems for biologists, chemists, and engineers with experience as a water supply evaluator. Practical training is provided in each of the 21 self-contained modules. Each module outlines the purpose, objectives and content for that section. The course…

  20. 30 CFR 75.1712-10 - Underground sanitary facilities; maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a clean and sanitary condition. Holding tanks shall be serviced and cleaned when full and in no case... recharging. Transfer tanks and transfer equipment used underground shall be equipped with suitable fittings to permit complete drainage of holding tanks without spillage and allow for the...

  1. [Ways of urban sanitary and epidemiological well-being management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreĭmer, M A

    2010-01-01

    The scientific rationale for preventive measures based on sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance on environmental objects is considered. The sizes of functional zones and space for various types of communal services and amenities and leisure are regulated to ensure good urban vital activities. Multistorey housing causes an increase in the number of negative factors per area units and in their impact on health. A proposal has been made for the standardization of the ranges of urban population upsurge and size, by using the sanitary-and-hygienic rules and norms rather than climatic parameters. A criterion system for assessing the data of statistical observations has been substantiated and 5 levels of analysis and managerial decision-making have been proposed. Cause-and-effect relations may be determined for the parameters of the second level; models of program-oriented studies for the third level, only sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance is possible for the fourth and fifth levels. The space planning scheme must provide for water supply reserves, generation areas for pure air coming into the town, and waste disposal areas. The general layout may use statistical observation parameters characterizing the second level of occurrence of negative phenomena. The statistical observation parameters characterizing the third and fourth levels of occurrence of negative phenomena may be used for municipal improvements and sanitary maintenance. These characterizing the fourth and fifth level may be used for prevention in therapeutic-and-prophylactic institutions.

  2. 21 CFR 110.37 - Sanitary facilities and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKING, OR HOLDING HUMAN FOOD Buildings and Facilities § 110.37 Sanitary facilities and controls. Each plant shall be... water to required locations throughout the plant. (2) Properly convey sewage and liquid disposable waste...

  3. Planning solutions of sanitary facilities in modern residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the short historical review on the design of sanitary rooms and their configurations is given. The main errors of the recent years, which led to the decrease in accommodation convenience because of the wrong approach from both the architect and engineers, are given. It is possible to use a small useful area for sanitary facilities, but it is connected with the lack of possibility of connecting washing and dishwashers. The author considers the options of engineering equipment placement in sanitary rooms taking into account the convenience of use, safety, and also resource-saving aspect. Various solutions on the organization of heating and ventilation are provided. The possible technical solutions allowing solving a flooding problem of the first floors in elite housing estates in case of accident are offered with the help of full waterproofing of sanitary rooms, and also the whole area of the apartment. The main attention was focused on the improvements of sanitary rooms for one-room and two-room apartments, which are the most demanded in the modern market of real estate. Layout solutions of the reduced bathrooms on the placement of the necessary equipment with choice justification are provided. The attention is paid to the layout solution for modern kitchens on order to increase their comfort by the use of special two-section sinks, and also a grinder of food waste in order to allow to lower the load of the systems of rubbish disposal of a building, by dumping the crushed garbage in an internal sewer network. Various options of evolutionary development of sanitary rooms for increasing the comfort degree are given. First of all, the development should happen in the direction of not only sanitation and hygiene, but also of the maintenance of the physical health of the people living in the building. It can be carried out by increase in a useful area of sanitary rooms, installation of exercise machines, medical bathtubs and a Jacuzzi

  4. Evaluation of the Oedometer Tests of Municipal Landfill Waste Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Emőke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the ongoing research is (i to develop a new biodegradation landfill technique so that the landfill gas production could be controlled and the utilisation of the landfill gas could economically be optimized, (ii to plan the energy utilisation of the landfill including individual and combined solutions (solar, wind, geothermal energy, energy storage using methanol etc.. [1, 2, 3

  5. Atmospheric fate of methyl vinyl ketone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praske, Eric; Crounse, John D; Bates, Kelvin H

    2015-01-01

    First generation product yields from the OH-initiated oxidation of methyl vinyl ketone (3-buten-2-one, MVK) under both low and high NO conditions are reported. In the low NO chemistry, three distinct reaction channels are identified leading to the formation of (1) OH, glycolaldehyde, and acetyl...

  6. Intramolecular crosslinking of poly(vinyl alcohol)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebben, Bert; Berg, van den Hans W.A.; Bargeman, Dick; Smolders, Cees A.

    1985-01-01

    Poly(vinyl alcohol) is crosslinked in dilute solution (c=0.1 wt%) with glutaraldehyde. The reaction product is characterized by viscometry and gel permeation chromatography (g.p.c.). The intrinsic viscosity decreases with increasing degree of crosslinking and does not depend on temperature. G.p.c. r

  7. Heat Bonding of Irradiated Ethylene Vinyl Acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Reliable method now available for joining parts of this difficult-tobond material. Heating fixture encircles ethylene vinyl acetate multiplesocket part, providing heat to it and to tubes inserted in it. Fixtures specially designed to match parts to be bonded. Tube-and-socket bonds made with this technique subjected to tensile tests. Bond strengths of 50 percent that of base material obtained consistently.

  8. Microbial activity in the landfill soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinska, M Swiontek; Burkowska, A; Walczak, M

    2012-01-01

    The research objective was to determine the activity of microorganisms in the soil exposed to direct influence of a landfill, as well as in the soil beyond its influence. Fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolytic activity and respiration in the soil were determined. The highest number of cultivated bacteria was recorded at the site located within the zone of direct influence exerted by the landfill, whereas the least amount was found at a distance of 1000 metres from the landfill. In contrast, the largest numbers of molds were observed in the soil at a distance of 1000 m from the headquarters of the landfill. The highest FDA hydrolytic activity and biological oxygen demand (BOD5) were recorded in the soil by the headquarters of the landfill, and the least parameters were revealed at a distance of 1000 m from the landfill. It was found a high correlation between the number of bacteria and FDA hydrolytic activity of soil and BOD5 in the north-eastern of the landfill. However, in the same place, there is a low correlation between the number of molds, and FDA hydrolytic activity of soil and BOD5.

  9. Controlled landfill project, Yolo County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augenstein, D.C.; Benemann, J.R. [Inst. for Environmental Management Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Yazdani, R.; Kieffer, J.; Akau, H. [Yolo County Dept. of Public Works, Woodland, CA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Controlled bioreactor landfill tests were conducted at the Central Landfill in Yolo County, California to determine how to maximize methane recovery for energy use while minimizing methane emissions to the atmosphere. Landfill gas has the potential to contribute 1 per cent to the total electricity supplies in the United States. The failure to use methane to its potential is due to unpredictability, variability and slow rates of production and low recovery factors of landfill methane. The main challenge lies in accelerating the biological decomposition and treatment of the municipal solid waste (MSW). The breakdown rate of MWS can be increased through the use of basic landfill biochemical engineering methods. This study demonstrated the influence of adding supplemental water and leachate to the MSW. Moisture, temperature and gas pressures were recorded throughout the waste mass. This study also focused on eliminating volatile organic compounds, reducing the costs for post-closure landfill care, improving the economics of scale for energy use, improving leachate quality and reducing the costs for off-site disposal of landfill leachate. It was shown that methane capture was maximized when a surface membrane was placed over a permeable layer and when the bioreactor was operated at a slight vacuum. Accelerated methane production and waste reduction were noted in the enhanced test cell. The first order rate constant for methanogenesis was about 0.45 per year. The control cell stopped producing gas after one year. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Closure Alternatives for Municipal Waste Landfills.Study Case: Municipal Waste Landfill Medias,Sibiu County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHĂIESCU R.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, the environmental impact produced by municipal solid wastes has received specialattention. All new EU countries are involved in the process of implementation of the European Council Directive31/99/EC on the landfill of waste in the European Union. As consequence National legislation, adapted to fit the EUrequirements, focuses on integrated waste management and environmental control of municipal solid waste landfills,from start-up to closure and assimilation into the environment. In Romania, by Government decision, HG 349/2005,was established the obligatoriness of closing unconform waste landfills located in urban areas starting at July 2009. Asconsequence the owner of municipal waste landfill Medias started the proceedings of closure for the landfill. The aim ofthis study is to compare, from an environmental point of view, different alternatives for the closure of the municipalsolid waste landfill Somard-Medias (Romania.

  11. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of solid waste management strategies in Tehran: landfill and composting plus landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduli, M A; Naghib, Abolghasem; Yonesi, Mansoor; Akbari, Ali

    2011-07-01

    As circumstances of operating and maintenance activities for landfilling and composting in Tehran metropolis differ from those of cities in developed countries, it was concluded to have an environmental impact comparison between the current solid waste management (MSW) strategies: (1) landfill, and (2) composting plus landfill. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare these scenarios for MSW in Tehran, Iran. The Eco-Indicator 99 is applied as an impact assessment method considering surplus energy, climate change, acidification, respiratory effect, carcinogenesis, ecotoxicity and ozone layer depletion points of aspects. One ton of municipal solid waste of Tehran was selected as the functional unit. According to the comparisons, the composting plus landfill scenario causes less damage to human health in comparison to landfill scenario. However, its damages to both mineral and fossil resources as well as ecosystem quality are higher than the landfill scenario. Thus, the composting plus landfill scenario had a higher environmental impact than landfill scenario. However, an integrated waste management will ultimately be the most efficient approach in terms of both environmental and economic benefits. In this paper, a cost evaluation shows that the unit cost per ton of waste for the scenarios is 15.28 and 26.40 US$, respectively. Results show landfill scenario as the preferable option both in environmental and economic aspects for Tehran in the current situation.

  12. Characterization of a soil used as sanitary landfill liner at an experimental cell of municipal solid waste

    OpenAIRE

    Mariane Alves de Godoy Leme

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: A geração dos resíduos sólidos urbanos (RSU) é uma ocorrência diária que deve ser gerenciada. Os aterros sanitários são os empreendimentos para disposição adequada desses resíduos. Dentre os constituintes estruturais dos aterros sanitários, há as barreiras impermeabilizantes de base, que podem ser de vários tipos, sendo as constituídas por solo argiloso compactado amplamente utilizadas. Este trabalho objetivou-se caracterizar o solo utilizado como camada mineral compactada no sistema ...

  13. Leachates treatment with oxygen in Sanitary landfills of urban solid waste; Depuracion de lixiviados con oxigeno en vertederos de RSU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, P.

    1999-11-01

    The leachate of spillways of solid waste is a product of the rain and of the humidity contributed by the residuals that is deposited in it. When water is filtered through the residuals in decompositions, biological materials and chemical compounds are dragged and dilute, being many of them very polluting. For their treatment, one must keep in mind that the composition chemistry of the leachates varies a lot according to the technique of exploitation and the antiquity of the spillway. (Author)

  14. American Canyon Sanitary Landfill Operation Regulatory Permit Application, Napa County, California, Public Notice 9297-29R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    of an excessive ultimate estuary load. 9. In essence Alternative #2R may be considered "conditioned" in that it incorporates the proposed project as...average daily trips (ADT). Eucalyptus Drive, the main access road to the site, is currently at 15 percent of this capacity. The most likely point of

  15. Geophysical technique and groundwater monitoring in the surrounding area of a sanitary landfill, Londrina (PR-Brazil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, D. D.; Silva, S. M. C. P.; Fernandes, F.; Texeira, R. S.; Celligoi, A.; Dall' Antonia, L. H.

    2009-07-01

    The use of non-invasive techniques such as surface geophysics usually allows a preliminary mapping providing information that will guide the use of invasive techniques of soil investigation. surface geophysics also helps the location of unconfined aquifer and monitoring wells (Mondelli 2004). However is necessity to point out that results obtained through surface geophysics are not conclusive, and their combination with data from monitoring wells is indicated in order to identify or confirm the behavior of the underground resistivity, which in turn may change according to some conditions such as: intrinsic porosity of rock and sediment, air and aqueous fluid content and variations of the groundwater chemical composition. (Author)

  16. Consortia of microalgae and bacteria in the performance of a stabilization pond system treating landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, R H R; Martins, C L; Fernandes, H; Velho, V F

    2014-01-01

    This study treated sanitary landfill leachate and was conducted in a pilot-scale system composed of three serial ponds (P1, P2 and P3), followed by a rock filter, in order to evaluate the microbial consortium influence on system performance and to investigate microorganism dynamics in the process. The system was broken into three stages, with a continuous flow rate (Q = 200 L d⁻¹) for 43 weeks. The stages were as follows: conventional operation (stage I), 12 h aeration in P2 (stage II), and 18 h aeration in P2 (stage III). The results showed the possibilities for treating landfill leachate, presenting an average efficiency of 75% for both filtered biochemical oxygen demand and ammonium. At the end of stage III, the ammonium concentration was 6 mg L⁻¹, which is lower than that established by Brazilian regulations for wastewater discharge (CONAMA 430/2011). The aeration applied in P2 led to a change in the microbial consortia during the second and third stage, which influenced the quality of the final effluent. The best performance was seen in stage III, where the system showed high microbial diversity, including the presence of nitrifying bacteria.

  17. Modelling the Potential Biogas Productivity Range from a MSW Landfill for Its Sustainable Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cristina Rada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of biogas generation was modified and applied to the case of a sanitary landfill in Italy. The modifications considered the role of the temperature field normally established within each layer of waste. It must be pointed out the temperature affects the anaerobic biodegradation kinetics. In order to assess the effect of moisture on the waste biodegradation rate, on the bacteria process and then on the methane production, the model was compared with the LandGEM one. Information on the initial water content came from data concerning waste composition. No additional information about the hydrological balance was available. Thus, nine sets of kinetic constants, derived by literature, were adopted for the simulations. Results showed a significant variability of the maximal hourly biogas flows on a yearly basis, with consequences for the collectable amount during the operating period of a hypothetical engine. The approach is a useful tool to assess the lowest and highest biogas productivity in order to analyze the viability of biogas exploitation for energy purposes. This is useful also in countries that must plan for biogas exploitation from old and new landfills, as a consequence of developments in the waste sector.

  18. A combined treatment of landfill leachate using calcium oxide, ferric chloride and clinoptilolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orescanin, Visnja; Ruk, Damir; Kollar, Robert; Mikelic, Ivanka Lovrencic; Nad, Karlo; Mikulic, Nenad

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was development of appropriate procedure for treatment of landfill leachate taken from old sanitary landfill Piskornica (Koprivnica, Croatia). Due to complex nature of the effluent a combined treatment approach was applied. Samples were treated with calcium oxide followed by ferric chloride and finally with clinoptilolite. The optimum amount of treating agents and contact time were determined. Application of calcium oxide (25 g/L, 20 min. contact time) resulted in the reduction of color, turbidity, suspended solids and ammonia for 94.50%, 96.55%, 95.66% and 21.60%, respectively, while the removal efficiency of Cr (VI), Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb was 75.00%, 95.34%, 56.52%, 78.72%, 73.02% and 100.00%, respectively. After addition of ferric chloride (570 mg Fe(3+)/L, 20 min. contact time) removal efficiency of color, turbidity, suspended solids and ammonia increased to 96.04%, 99.27%, 98.61%, and 43.20%, respectively. Removal of ammonia (81.60%) increased significantly after final adsorption onto clinoptilolite (25 g/L, 4 h contact time). Removal of COD after successive treatment with calcium oxide, ferric chloride and clinoptilolite was 64.70%, 77.40% and 81.00%, respectively.

  19. Performance of landfill leachate treatment system with disc-tube reverse osmosis units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanping LIU; Xiujin LI; Baozhen WANG; Shuo LIU

    2008-01-01

    Reverse osmosis system with the disc-tube module (DT-RO) was applied to treat landfill leachate on full scale at the Changshengqiao Sanitary Landfill, Chongqing City, China. In the first six-mouth operation phase, the treatment performance of DT-RO system had been excel-lent and stable. The removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), electrical con-ductivity (EC), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) reached 99.2-99.7%, 99.2%, 99.6%, and over 98%, respectively. The rejection of Ca2+,Ba2+, and Mg2+ was over 99.9%, respectively. Suspended solid (SS) was not detected in prod-uct water. Effective methods had been adopted to control membrane fouling, of which chemical cleaning is of utmost importance to guarantee the long smooth operation of the DT-RO system. The DT-RO system is cleaned in turns with Cleaner A and Cleaner C. At present, the 1st stage cleaning cycle by Cleaner A and Cleaner C is conducted every 100 and 500 h, respectively, depending on raw the water quality.

  20. Removal of hydrogen sulfide gas and landfill leachate treatment using coal bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C Y; Hesu, P H; Yang, D H

    2001-06-01

    Coal bottom ashes produced from three thermal power plants were used in column and batch experiments to investigate the adsorption capacity of the coal ash. Hydrogen sulfide and leachates collected from three sanitary landfill sites were used as adsorbate gas and solutions, respectively. Experimental results showed that coal bottom ash could remove H2S from waste gas or reduce the concentrations of various pollutants in the leachate. Each gram of bottom ash could remove up to 10.5 mg of H2S. In treating the landfill leachate, increasing ash dosage increased the removal efficiency but decreased the adsorption amount per unit mass of ash. For these tested ashes, the removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH3-N, total Kjeldhal nitrogen (TKN), P, Fe3+, Mn2+, and Zn2+ were 36.4-50, 24.2-39.4, 27.0-31.1, 82.2-92.9, 93.8-96.5, 93.7-95.4, and 80.5-82.2%, respectively; the highest adsorption capacities for those parameters were 3.5-5.6, 0.22-0.63, 0.36-0.45, 0.027-0.034, 0.050-0.053, 0.029-0.032, and 0.006 mg/g of bottom ash, respectively. The adsorption of pollutants in the leachate conformed to Freundlich's adsorption model.

  1. International Sanitary Conferences from the Ottoman perspective (1851–1938

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Ersoy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for international measures to prevent and control epidemics of cholera, the plague, yellow fever, malaria and typhus which ravaged the world throughout the 19th century, led to a series of International Sanitary Conferences and Conventions under the leadership of European states. Between 1851 and 1938 fourteen conferences - Paris (1851, Paris (1859, Istanbul (1866, Vienna (1874, Washington D.C. (1881, Rome (1885, Venice (1892, Dresden (1893, Paris (1894, Venice (1897, Paris (1903, (1911, (1926 and (1938 - and eight conventions - 1892, 1893, 1894, 1897, 1903, 1912, 1926, 1938 were held. Both conferences and conventions shaped social life, health policies, politics, laws, and transportation, economic, commercial rules of the European, Asian and also American countries. In this study we reviewed the reasons, process and the results of each international sanitary conference from the Ottoman social and health perspective.

  2. Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The program models rainfall, runoff, infiltration, and other water pathways to estimate how much water builds up above each landfill liner. It can incorporate data on vegetation, soil types, geosynthetic materials, initial moisture conditions, slopes, etc.

  3. Landfills in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Locations of landfills and waste transfer stations in 11 western states. Data was obtained from state and federal agencies in GIS, tabular, and map format.

  4. Operating a fuel cell using landfill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trippel, C.E.; Preston, J.L. Jr.; Trocciola, J.; Spiegel, R.

    1996-12-31

    An ONSI PC25{trademark}, 200 kW (nominal capacity) phosphoric acid fuel cell operating on landfill gas is installed at the Town of Groton Flanders Road landfill in Groton, Connecticut. This joint project by the Connecticut Light & Power Company (CL&P) which is an operating company of Northeast Utilities, the Town of Groton, International Fuel Cells (IFC), and the US EPA is intended to demonstrate the viability of installing, operating and maintaining a fuel cell operating on landfill gas at a landfill site. The goals of the project are to evaluate the fuel cell and gas pretreatment unit operation, test modifications to simplify the GPU design and demonstrate reliability of the entire system.

  5. Marketing Specialization in the Sanitary-Veterinary Field

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Cornelia Prejmerean

    2006-01-01

    Public health and food safety are main consumer rights in the European Union. Sanitary standards related to animal health, animal welfare, food production are developed and standardizEditura The objective is to detect, diagnose and control animal diseases and to have a safe food chain. Although the input of the animal health industry is low in the agricultural production, it allows European farmers to produce high quality meat and dairy products, minimise environmental impact. Romania as a fu...

  6. [The sanitary question in the modernity-postmodernity debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriart, C; Spinelli, H

    1994-12-01

    This work analyzes the sanitary question in the modernity-postmodernity debate. Such analyses are performed form a philosophical position that states the crisis of Modernity and questions the ideological twist that to itself propitiates postmodernity, shutting out questioning views or visions. It propitiates an alternative view of politics, thinking of it from the potency plane and giving a role to the subject in the decision of producing transformations.

  7. Landfill mining: Developing a comprehensive assessment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Robert; Wolfsberger, Tanja; Pomberger, Roland; Sarc, Renato

    2016-11-01

    In Austria, the first basic technological and economic examinations of mass-waste landfills with the purpose to recover secondary raw materials have been carried out by the 'LAMIS - Landfill Mining Österreich' pilot project. A main focus of its research, and the subject of this article, is the first conceptual design of a comprehensive assessment method for landfill mining plans, including not only monetary factors (like costs and proceeds) but also non-monetary ones, such as the concerns of adjoining owners or the environmental impact. Detailed reviews of references, the identification of influences and system boundaries to be included in planning landfill mining, several expert workshops and talks with landfill operators have been performed followed by a division of the whole assessment method into preliminary and main assessment. Preliminary assessment is carried out with a questionnaire to rate juridical feasibility, the risk and the expenditure of a landfill mining project. The results of this questionnaire are compiled in a portfolio chart that is used to recommend, or not, further assessment. If a detailed main assessment is recommended, defined economic criteria are rated by net present value calculations, while ecological and socio-economic criteria are examined in a utility analysis and then transferred into a utility-net present value chart. If this chart does not support making a definite statement on the feasibility of the project, the results must be further examined in a cost-effectiveness analysis. Here, the benefit of the particular landfill mining project per capital unit (utility-net present value ratio) is determined to make a final distinct statement on the general benefit of a landfill mining project.

  8. 40 CFR 61.63 - Emission standard for vinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standard for vinyl chloride... for Vinyl Chloride § 61.63 Emission standard for vinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of a vinyl chloride plant shall comply with the requirements of this section and § 61.65. (a) Vinyl...

  9. [Construction of the Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance System: arguments to debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Seta, Marismary Horsth; Dain, Sulamis

    2010-11-01

    This paper analyzes the Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance System as an arrangement aimed at regulating and reducing health risks associated with consumption of products, use of health services and the environment. Historical, political and tax aspects were considered and their development compared with the National Health Surveillance System, which has received strong international cooperation. The comparison was based on the trajectory of their national systems and related federal agencies, as well as on criteria adopted for decentralization. The central category of analysis is federative coordination and was based on the framework of federalism and intergovernmental relations. The institutional context of health and sanitary surveillance presents strong political competition, instability in the project and probable reduction of the ability of federal coordination after the Pact for Health. The National Sanitary Surveillance System due to its nature of public good and high externality in its field of action requires federal coordination for increasing the regional and local cooperation, also because of the structural heterogeneity of Brazilian municipalities.

  10. Comparison of Diffrent Coagulants Efficiency for Treatment of Hamedan Landfills Leachate Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hasanvand

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives:In Iran , indicated that the municipal landfill leachate has been one of the major problem for environment. In the operations, leachate treatment is a very difficult and expensive process. Although, young leachate can be treated easily by biological treatment, COD removal efficiency are usually low due to high ammonium ion content and the presence of toxic compounds such as metal ions. Treatment of leachate is necessary.The aim of this study is reduction of Chemical Oxygen Demond (COD and Total Suspended Solids (TSS from hamedan city sanitary landfill leachate by three coagulants: alum, PAC and ferrous sulfate."nMaterials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of treatment of landfill leachate by a coagulation-flocculation process. The effects of different amounts of coagulant and different pH values on the coagulation processes were compared."nResults:Result shown the high efficiency for reduction of CODby PAC in pH=12 and concentration of 2500(mg/l (62.66%, and by alum in pH=12 and concentration of 1000 (mg/l (60% , by ferrous sulfate in pH=2 and concentration of 1000 (mg/l (70.62%. Also result shown the high efficiency for TSS removal by PAC in pH=12 and 2500(mg/l concentration of PAC was 58.37%, with alum in pH=2 and 1500 (mg/l concentration of alum was39.14% , by ferrous sulfate in pH=7 and 2500(mg/l concentration of ferrous sulfate was 35.58%."nConclusion:The best coagulant for COD removal is ferrous sulfate.The physico-chemical process may be used as a useful pretreatment step, especially for fresh leachates, prior to post-treatment (polishing step for partially stabilized leachates.

  11. Soil chemistry and pollution study of a closed landfill site at Ampar Tenang, Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Adnan, Siti Nur Syahirah Binti; Yusoff, Sumiani; Piaw, Chua Yan

    2013-06-01

    A total of 20 landfills are located in State of Selangor, Malaysia. This includes the Ampar Tenang landfill site, which was closed on 26 January 2010. It was reported that the landfill has been upgraded to a level I type of sanitary classification. However, the dumpsite area is not being covered according to the classification. In addition, municipal solid waste was dumped directly on top of the unlined natural alluvium formation. This does not only contaminate surface and subsurface soils, but also initiates the potential risk of groundwater pollution. Based on previous studies, the Ampar Tenang soil has been proven to no longer be capable of preventing pollution migration. In this study, metal concentrations of soil samples up to 30 m depth were analyzed based on statistical analysis. It is very significant because research of this type has not been carried out before. The subsurface soils were significantly polluted by arsenic (As), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and aluminium (Al). As and Pb exceeded the safe limit values of 5.90 mg/kg and 31.00 mg/kg, respectively, based on Provincial Sediment Quality Guidelines for Metals and the Interim Sediment Quality Values. Furthermore, only Cu concentrations showed a significantly decreasing trend with increasing depth. Most metals were found on clay-type soils based on the cluster analysis method. Moreover, the analysis also differentiates two clusters: cluster I-Pb, As, zinc, Cu, manganese, calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium and Fe; cluster II-Al. Different clustering may suggest a different contamination source of metals.

  12. Nitroethylation of vinyl triflates and bromides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Salinas, Rosaura; Walvoord, Ryan R; Tcyrulnikov, Sergei; Kozlowski, Marisa C

    2013-08-02

    A two-carbon homologation of vinyl triflates and bromides for the synthesis of homoallylic nitro products is described. This palladium-catalyzed double coupling of nitromethane exploits the anion stabilizing and leaving group properties of nitromethane, generating the homo allyl nitro products via a tandem cross-coupling/π-allylation sequence. The resultant process provides a mild and convenient entry to nitroethylated products, which are versatile precursors to β,γ-unsaturated carbonyls, homoallylic amines, and nitrile oxides.

  13. PHOTOCOPOLYMERIZATION OF MALEIC ANHYDRIDE AND VINYL ACETATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiaofang; LI Shanjun; QIN Anwei; YU Tongyin

    1990-01-01

    The charge-transfer complex of maleic anhydride and vinyl acetate was copolymerized under UV light. The chain composition and structure of the copolymer were analyzed with conductometry and NMR, and the chain sequence was determined as alternating. The copolymerization rates at different feed ratios, temperatures and in different solvents were investigated, giving evidence to the very active involvement of the CT complexes in the copolymerization. Terpolymerization with acrylonitrile also showed that the complex mechanism was a proper one for this system.

  14. Catalytic intermolecular hydroamination of vinyl ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahadi, Nirmal K; Tunge, Jon A

    2009-12-01

    This manuscript details the development of a palladium-catalyzed hydroamination of vinyl ethers. It is proposed that palladium catalyzes the hydroamination via Bronsted base catalysis, where palladium is protonated by the relatively acidic sulfonamide to generate a palladium hydride as well as the active anionic sulfonamide nucleophile. Thus, this process is distinct from known palladium-catalyzed hydroaminations of styrene derivatives that utilize less acidic amines.

  15. Gaseous methyl- and inorganic mercury in landfill gas from landfills in Florida, Minnesota, Delaware, and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, S. E.; Southworth, G.; Prestbo, E. M.; Wallschläger, D.; Bogle, M. A.; Price, J.

    2005-01-01

    Municipal waste landfills contain numerous sources of mercury which could be emitted to the atmosphere. Their generation of methane by anaerobic bacteria suggests that landfills may act as bioreactors for methylated mercury compounds. Since our previous study at a single Florida landfill, gaseous inorganic and methylated mercury species have now been identified and quantified in landfill gas at nine additional municipal landfills in several regions of the US. Total gaseous mercury occurs at concentrations in the μg m-3 range, while methylated compounds occur at concentrations in the ng m-3 range at all but one of the landfill sites. Dimethylmercury is the predominant methylated species, at concentrations up to 100 ng m-3, while monomethyl mercury was generally lower. Limited measurements near sites where waste is exposed for processing (e.g. working face, transfer areas) suggest that dimethylmercury is released during these activities as well. Although increasing amounts of landfill gas generated in the US are flared (which should thermally decompose the organic mercury to inorganic mercury), unflared landfill gas is a potentially important anthropogenic source of methylated mercury emissions to the atmosphere.

  16. Evolution on qualities of leachate and landfill gas in the semi-aerobic landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qifei; YANG Yufei; PANG Xiangrui; WANG Qi

    2008-01-01

    To study the characteristics of stabilization in semi-aerobic landfill, large-scale simulated landfill was constructed based on the semi-aerobic landfill theory. Consequently, the concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen, and nitrite nitrogen, and the pH value in leachate, as well as the component contents of landfill gas composition (methane, carbon dioxide, and oxygen) in landfill were regularly monitored for 52 weeks. The results showed that COD and ammonia concentrations declined rapidly and did not show the accumulating rule like anaerobic landfill, and remained at about 300 and 100 mg/L, respectively, after 48 weeks. Meanwhile, the descending rate reached 98.9% and 96.9%, respectively. Nitrate concentration increased rapidly after 24 weeks and fluctuated between 220-280 mg/L after 43 weeks. The pH values were below 7 during the first 8 weeks and after that leachates appeared to be alkaline. Carbon dioxide was the main composition in landfill gas and its concentration remained at a high level through the whole stabilization process. The average contents of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and methane varied between 19 vol.%-28 vol.%, 2 vol.%-8 vol.%, and 5 vol.%-13 vol.%, respectively. A relative equilibrium was reached after 48 weeks. The highest temperature in the landfill chamber could amount to 75.8 degrees centigrade.

  17. Millimeter Wave Spectrum and Astronomical Search for Vinyl Formate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, E. R.; Kolesniková, L.; Tercero, B.; Cabezas, C.; Alonso, J. L.; Cernicharo, J.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2016-11-01

    Previous detections of methyl and ethyl formate make other small substituted formates potential candidates for observation in the interstellar medium. Among them, vinyl formate is one of the simplest unsaturated carboxylic ester. The aim of this work is to provide direct experimental frequencies of the ground vibrational state of vinyl formate in a large spectral range for astrophysical use. The room-temperature rotational spectrum of vinyl formate has been measured from 80 to 360 GHz and analyzed in terms of Watson’s semirigid rotor Hamiltonian. Two thousand six hundred transitions within J = 3-88 and K a = 0-28 were assigned to the most stable conformer of vinyl formate and a new set of spectroscopic constants was accurately determined. Spectral features of vinyl formate were then searched for in Orion KL, Sgr B2(N), B1-b, and TMC-1 molecular clouds. Upper limits to the column density of vinyl formate are provided.

  18. Photovoltaics on Landfills in Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for a feasibility study of m0treAlables on several brownfield sites. The EPA defines a brownfield as 'a property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant.' All of the brownfields in this study are landfill sites. Citizens of Puerto Rico, city planners, and site managers are interested in redevelopment uses for landfills in Puerto Rico, which are particularly well suited for solar photovoltaic (PV) installation. The purpose of this report is to assess the landfills with the highest potential for possible solar PV installation and estimate cost, performance, and site impacts of three different PV options: crystalline silicon (fixed-tilt), crystalline silicon (single-axis tracking), and thin film (fixed-tilt). Each option represents a standalone system that can be sized to use an entire available site area. In addition, the report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system. The feasibility of PV systems installed on landfills is highly impacted by the available area for an array, solar resource, operating status, landfill cap status, distance to transmission lines, and distance to major roads. All of the landfills in Puerto Rico were screened according to these criteria in order to determine the sites with the greatest potential. Eight landfills were chosen for site visits based on the screening criteria and location. Because of time constraints and the fact that Puerto Rico is a relatively large island, the eight landfills for this visit were all located in the eastern half of the island. The findings from this report can be applied to landfills in the western half of the island. The economics of a potential PV system on landfills in Puerto Rico depend

  19. Impact of plastics on fate and transport of organic contaminants in landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saquing, Jovita M; Saquing, Carl D; Knappe, Detlef R U; Barlaz, Morton A

    2010-08-15

    Factors controlling organic contaminant sorption to common plastics in municipal solid waste were identified. Consumer plastics [drinking water container, prescription drug bottle, soda bottle, disposable cold cup, computer casing, furniture foam, carpet, vinyl flooring, formica sheet] and model polymers [high-density polyethylene (HDPE), medium-density polyethylene, low-density polyethylene, poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)] were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and elemental analysis. The material characterization was used to interpret batch isotherm and kinetic data. K(p) values describing toluene sorption to rubbery or "soft" polymers could be normalized by the amorphous polymer fraction (f(amorphous)) but not by the organic carbon fraction (f(oc)). Diffusion coefficients (D) describing the uptake rate of toluene by rubbery plastics (HDPE, drinking water container, prescription drug bottle) were similar (D approximately 10(-10) cm(2)/s), indicating that pure HDPE can be used as a model for rubbery plastics. Toluene diffusivity was similar among glassy or "hard" plastics (PVC, soda bottle, computer casing, disposable cold cup; D approximately 10(-12) cm(2)/s) but lower than for rubbery plastics. Plastics in landfills are potential sinks of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) because of their higher affinity for HOCs compared to lignocellulosic materials and the slow desorption of HOCs from glassy plastics.

  20. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Augenstein

    1999-01-11

    ''Conventional'' waste landfills emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in quantities such that landfill methane is a major factor in global climate change. Controlled landfilling is a novel approach to manage landfills for rapid completion of total gas generation, maximizing gas capture and minimizing emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated and brought to much earlier completion by improving conditions for biological processes (principally moisture levels) in the landfill. Gas recovery efficiency approaches 100% through use of surface membrane cover over porous gas recovery layers operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project's results at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California are, to date, highly encouraging. Two major controlled landfilling benefits would be the reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions.

  1. Hydrotelluration of alkynes: a unique route to Z-vinyl organometallics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Maurício L.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrotelluration reaction of alkynes is reviewed. The transformation of vinylic tellurides into reactive vinyl organometallics and the coupling reactions of vinylic tellurides with alkynes and organometallics are presented.

  2. Landfill leachate treatment by solar-driven AOPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Elisangela M.R. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Centro de Tecnologia, Departamento de Engenharia Hidraulica e Ambiental, Laboratorio de Saneamento (LABOSAN), Avenida da Universidade, 2853 - Benfica, 60020-181 Fortaleza (Brazil); Vilar, Vitor J.P.; Boaventura, Rui A.R. [LSRE - Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Fonseca, Amelia; Saraiva, Isabel [Efacec Ambiente, SA, Rua Eng. Frederico Ulrich - Guardeiras, Apartado 3003, 4471-907 Moreira da Maia (Portugal)

    2011-01-15

    Sanitary landfill leachate resulting from the rainwater percolation through the landfill layers and waste material decomposition is a complex mixture of high-strength organic and inorganic compounds which constitutes serious environmental problems. In this study, different heterogeneous (TiO{sub 2}/UV, TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) and homogenous (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV, Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) photocatalytic processes were investigated as an alternative for the treatment of a mature landfill leachate. The addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to TiO{sub 2}/UV system increased the reduction of the aromatic compounds from 15% to 61%, although mineralization was almost the same. The DOC and aromatic content abatement is similar for the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV and TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV processes, although the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} consumption is three times higher in the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV system. The low efficiency of TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV system is presumably due to the alkaline leachate solution, for which the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} becomes highly unstable and self-decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} occurs. The efficiency of the TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV system increased 10 times after a preliminary pH correction to 4. The photo-Fenton process is much more efficient than heterogeneous (TiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) or homogeneous (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) photocatalysis, showing an initial reaction rate more than 20 times higher, and leading to almost complete mineralization of the wastewater. However, when compared with TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV with acidification, the photo-Fenton reaction is only two times faster. The optimal initial iron dose for the photo-Fenton treatment of the leachate is 60 mg Fe{sup 2+} L{sup -1}, which is in agreement with path length of 5 cm in the photoreactor. The kinetic behaviour of the process (60 mg Fe{sup 2+} L{sup -1}) comprises a slow initial reaction, followed by a first-order kinetics (k = 0.020 LkJ{sub UV

  3. Thermal Cloud Point Fractionation of Poly(vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate): Partition of Nanogels in the Fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Gérard Riess; Leonard I. Atanase

    2011-01-01

    Poly(vinyl acetate-co-vinyl alcohol) (PVA), well-known as emulsion stabilizers, are obtained by partial hydrolysis of poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc). Their thermal cloud point fractionation was performed in aqueous medium between 40 and 75 °C. This fractionation was carried out in order to get an insight in the partition of the initially present nanogels in the different fractions. All the fractions were characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), NMR and dynamic light scattering (DLS) ...

  4. MOLECULAR AND CULTURAL METHODOLOGIES FOR ENUMERATING BACTERIA IN LANDFILL LEACHATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfill bioreactor technology has been under investigation in the field for its potential economic and waste treatment benefits over conventional landfill systems. A better understanding of biological influences on the stabilization process is needed for incorporation into the e...

  5. Landfills and the waste act implementation - what has changed?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of landfill permits by Section 20 of the Environment Conservation Act, 1989, resulted in the development of the Minimum Requirements series of documents to guide waste disposal to landfill. The promulgation of the National...

  6. Feasibility analysis of remedial scheme of Qilongcun landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yun-ju; LIU Dong-yan; LIU Xin-rong; LI Xiu-lan

    2006-01-01

    Based on hydro-geological of Qilongcun landfill, the transportation mathematical model of leachat was established. The boundaries conditions and replenishment of model were determined. The leachate COD density and the water level were simulated, and the model was identified, and then the right model was defined. The right model was used to simulate leachate COD density in the interior, exterior, and peripheral of landfill. The results show that the COD densities are not high. The pollution is slight in the interior of landfill and is little in the exterior of landfill. They are proving the overburden on top of landfill and drain around the landfill is right. The max. density on the south of landfill shows it is scientific that the cisterns are building on the south of landfill. The paper shows the remediation scheme is feasible.

  7. EVALUATION OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA LANDFILL MINING DEMONSTRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the landfill mining process as demonstrated under the U.S. EPA, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory's Municipal Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program by the Collier County (Florida) Solid Waste Management Department. Landfill mining is the ...

  8. Landfills as a biorefinery to produce biomass and capture biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolan, N S; Thangarajan, R; Seshadri, B; Jena, U; Das, K C; Wang, H; Naidu, R

    2013-05-01

    While landfilling provides a simple and economic means of waste disposal, it causes environmental impacts including leachate generation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. With the introduction of gas recovery systems, landfills provide a potential source of methane (CH4) as a fuel source. Increasingly revegetation is practiced on traditionally managed landfill sites to mitigate environmental degradation, which also provides a source of biomass for energy production. Combustion of landfill gas for energy production contributes to GHG emission reduction mainly by preventing the release of CH4 into the atmosphere. Biomass from landfill sites can be converted to bioenergy through various processes including pyrolysis, liquefaction and gasification. This review provides a comprehensive overview on the role of landfills as a biorefinery site by focusing on the potential volumes of CH4 and biomass produced from landfills, the various methods of biomass energy conversion, and the opportunities and limitations of energy capture from landfills.

  9. Artificial sweeteners as potential tracers of municipal landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, James W; Van Stempvoort, Dale R; Bickerton, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners are gaining acceptance as tracers of human wastewater in the environment. The 3 artificial sweeteners analyzed in this study were detected in leachate or leachate-impacted groundwater at levels comparable to those of untreated wastewater at 14 of 15 municipal landfill sites tested, including several closed for >50 years. Saccharin was the dominant sweetener in old (pre-1990) landfills, while newer landfills were dominated by saccharin and acesulfame (introduced 2 decades ago; dominant in wastewater). Cyclamate was also detected, but less frequently. A case study at one site illustrates the use of artificial sweeteners to identify a landfill-impacted groundwater plume discharging to a stream. The study results suggest that artificial sweeteners can be useful tracers for current and legacy landfill contamination, with relative abundances of the sweeteners potentially providing diagnostic ability to distinguish different landfills or landfill cells, including crude age-dating, and to distinguish landfill and wastewater sources.

  10. THE COMPATIBILITY OF BLENDS OF POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) OR CHLORINATED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) WITH POLY(METHYL METHACRYLATE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qingguo; CHENG Rongshi

    1988-01-01

    IR spectral shifts of carbonyl vibrational absorption for ethyl acetate, which acts analogically as the structural unit of poly(methyl methacrylate), in cyclohexane, chloroform, chlorinated paraffins, poly(vinyl chloride) and chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) were measured. The results suggest that there are specific interactions between the carbonyl groups and the chlorinated hydrocarbons which could be responsible for the apparent compatibility of poly(vinyl chloride) -poly(methyl methacrylate) and chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) -poly(methyl methacrylate) blends. Additionally, the effects of the preparation mode of blend films on phase separation and observed compatibility are discussed.

  11. Ecotoxicological diagnosis of a sealed municipal landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, A J; Bartolomé, C; Pérez-Leblic, M I; Rodríguez, J; Alvarez, J; Pastor, J

    2012-03-01

    Assessing the environmental impact of a soil-topped landfill requires an accurate ecotoxicological diagnosis. This paper describes various diagnostic protocols for this purpose and their application to a real case: the urban solid waste (USW) municipal landfill of Getafe (Madrid, Spain). After their initial sealing with soil from the surroundings about 20 years ago, most USW landfills in the autonomous community of Madrid have continued to receive waste. This has hindered precise assessment of their impact on their environment and affected ecosystems. The procedure proposed here overcomes this problem by assessing the situation in edaphic, aquatic and ecological terms. The present study focused on the most influential soil variables (viz. salinity due largely to the presence of anions, and heavy metals and organic compounds). These variables were also determined in surface waters of the wetland most strongly affected by leachates running down landfill slopes. Determinations included the characterization of plant communities and microbial biodiversity. The study was supplemented with a bioassay under controlled conditions in pots containing soil contaminated with variable concentrations of Zn (as ZnCl(2)) intended to assess ecochemical actions in a population of Bromus rubens, which grows profusely in the landfill. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Engineering geology of landfill gas migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingley, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis is divided into five chapters: Part one is an introduction to landfill gas, and why it is considered to be a problem. The subject of the migration of the gas is taken further with an examination of the state of art with respect to theories of gas transport mechanisms. A description of work which has previously been carried out upon real soils and landfill sites is included. In part two the technique developed in this research to enable a laboratory examination of real soils is discussed. Experiments are then described which form part of the landfill gas monitoring programme in the field. The whole group of data, collected at a variety of sites, included measurements of meteorological conditions, ground pressures on and off the landfill, and ground gas concentrations. The observations were used to construct a model of ground gas interchange between the landfill and surrounding land. Field pumping trials have been used to confirm these findings. The third part of the thesis is an examination of case histories, presented in order of detail available for each; results of a survey carried out between other county councils in England, and then the results of a survey in the county of Kent. Finally there is a presentation of the detailed histories of the waste disposal sites which have been examined for the purposes of this research. (Author).

  13. Oral drug delivery system based on interpolymer complex formation between poly(acrylic acid) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Germishuizen, A

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available system based on interpolymer complex formation between poly(acrylic acid) and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) 13 July 2005 André Germishuizen Supporting the Manufacturing and Materials Industry in its quest for global competitiveness CSIR... approved polymers square4 Polyacids - crosslinked poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) - poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) - poly(vinyl acetate phthalate) (PVAP) - cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) square4 Polybases - poly(vinyl pyrrolidone-co-vinyl acetate) (PVP...

  14. The application of irradiation to phyto sanitary problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, R.T. [USDA/APHIS/PPQ. Department of Agriculture, Room 1630 Soagribg, 1400 Independence Ave. Sw. Mail Code Stop 3438, 20250 Washington D.C. (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The first formally adopted regulatory policy for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States was issued in 1989 and was based on Title 7 of the Code of Federal Regulations. These regulations authorized irradiation as a quarantine treatment for papayas intended for movement from the State of Hawaii to the continental United States (U.S.), Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. This authorization was specific for commodity, place of origin, and program, but was designed for a complex of three fruit flies rather than a single pest. Routine commercial shipments were never realized under this regulation due to the lack of a treatment facility in Hawaii. However, the authorization has proven useful from the standpoint of beginning to establish policies for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) remains dedicated to using the most up-to-date, appropriate and least intrusive technology to provide quarantine security. The need for alternative treatments for pests mitigation systems is greater than ever. Global trade pressures and the possible loss of methyl bromide make it imperative that all practical treatment options be explored. Since 1989 irradiation treatment concepts have matured significantly. Technological advances, greater experience, and an increasingly larger body of research indicate that irradiation has important potential as a treatment for quarantine pest problems. It is in this light that PPQ is expanding its regulatory framework, is addressing irradiation treatment options, and is developing comprehensive policy statements intended to facilitate the development and formalization of new treatments for phyto sanitary applications. (Author)

  15. Removal of high concentrated ammonia nitrogen from landfill leachate by landfilled waste layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hui-dong; HE Pin-jing; SHAO Li-ming; LI Guo-jian

    2004-01-01

    The landfill of municipal solid waste(MSW) could be regarded as denitrification reactor and used in ammonia nitrogen biological removal process. In this research, the process was applied to municipal solid waste(MSW) collected in Shanghai, China, which was characterized with high food waste content. The NH4+ removal efficiency in the system of SBR nitrifying reactor followed by fresh and matured landfilled waste layer in series was studied. In the nitrifying reactor, above 90% of NH4+ in leachate was oxidized to NO2- and NO3-. Then high concentrated NO2- and NO3- was removed in the way of denitrification process in fresh landfilled waste layer. At the same time, degradation of fresh landfilled waste was accelerated. Up to the day 120, 136.5 gC/(kg dry waste) and 17.9 gN/(kg dry waste) were produced from waste layer. It accounted for 50.15% and 86.89% of the total carbon and nitrogen content of preliminary fresh waste, which was 4.42 times and 5.17 times higher than that of reference column respectively. After filtering through matured landfilled waste, BOD5 concentration in leachate dropped to below 100 mg/L, which would not affect following nitrification adversely. Because the matured landfilled waste acted as a well methanogenic reactor, 23% of carbon produced accumulatively from fresh landfilled waste degradation was converted into CH4.

  16. Sanitary-hygienic and ecological aspects of beryllium production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvinskykh, E.M.; Savchuk, V.V.; Sidorov, V.L.; Slobodin, D.B.; Tuzov, Y.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant, Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The Report describes An organization of sanitary-hygienic and ecological control of beryllium production at Ulba metallurgical plant. It involves: (1) the consideration of main methods for protection of beryllium production personnel from unhealthy effect of beryllium, (2) main kinds of filters, used in gas purification systems at different process areas, (3) data on beryllium monitoring in water, soil, on equipment. This Report also outlines problems connected with designing devices for a rapid analysis of beryllium in air as well as problems of beryllium production on ecological situation in the town. (author)

  17. [Sanitary and chemical protection during the Great Patriotic War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imangulov, R G; Grebeniuk, A N; Rybalko, V M; Nosov, A V

    2011-05-01

    During the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945) there was a real danger of use by German armies of the chemical weapon against staff of Red Army. However German command didn't risked to go on conducting large-scale chemical war against the USSR that rescued from painful death millions person. A principal cause of this decision was well organized and technically provided system of antigas protection in Red Army, including precisely organized actions of sanitary-chemical protection, qualitative preparation of military doctors on these questions and presence at them effective antidotes and other means of treatment of injuries by fighting poison gases.

  18. Redox zones of a landfill leachate pollution plume (Vejen, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngkilde, John; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1992-01-01

    Downgradient from an old municipal landfill allowing leachate, rich in dissolved organic carbon, to enter a shallow sandy aerobic aquifer, a sequence of redoxe zones is identified from groundwater chemical analysis. Below the landfill, methanogenic conditions prevail, followed by sulfidogenic...... the fate of reactive pollutants leached from the landfill....

  19. Quantifying landfill biogas production potential in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study presents an overview of the biogas (biomethane) availability in U.S. landfills, calculated from EPA estimates of landfill capacities. This survey concludes that the volume of landfill-derived methane in the U.S. is 466 billion cubic feet per year, of which 66 percent is collected and onl...

  20. Production of methyl-vinyl ketone from levulinic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumesic, James A [Verona, WI; West,; Ryan, M [Madison, WI

    2011-06-14

    A method for converting levulinic acid to methyl vinyl ketone is described. The method includes the steps of reacting an aqueous solution of levulinic acid, over an acid catalyst, at a temperature of from room temperature to about 1100 K. Methyl vinyl ketone is thereby formed.

  1. Electrocoagulation and decolorization of landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussa, Zainab Haider; Othman, Mohamed Rozali; Abdullah, Md Pauzi

    2013-11-01

    In this study, several operating conditions such as electrode material, treatment time, applied voltage, Cl□ concentration and PH of solution were tested on treatability of landfill leachate by using electrocoagulation (EC) method. According to the results, EC method can be used efficiently for the treatment of landfill leachate by using proper operating conditions. The best removal rats were obtained when C (rod) electrode as anode, operating time is 120 min, voltage applied is 10 V, NaCl concentration is 5.85 g/L and the raw PH, for these conditions, 70% color removal was obtained.

  2. Designing systems for landfill gas migration control in Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, J. [Camp, Dresser & McKee, Inc., St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Camp, Dresser & McKee (CDM) has designed or is in the process of designing several landfill gas migration control systems in Minnesota. The systems are for both active and closed municipal solid waste landfills. The sites have a variety of covers, including geomembranes, clay caps, and non-engineered soil covers. The control system types include small perimeter systems, full-site systems and phased systems for active sites. Figure 1 shows the locations of the systems CDM is working on in Minnesota. This paper focuses on four sites: Oak Grove Landfill, Hopkins Landfill, Washington County Landfill, and Elk River Landfill. Table 1 provides an outline of the individual site characteristics. The first three sites are closed landfills. The Oak Grove Landfill system was designed and constructed for a group of industries responsible for closure and remedial action. The Hopkins and Washington County landfills are under the control of the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA). The MPCA enacted a remedial action program at closed landfills, taking over responsibility for long-term liability under the terms of legally binding agreements negotiated with the site owners. The Elk River Landfill is an active, privately-owned facility. The migration problems and solutions developed for these four landfills are generally descriptive of all the landfills CDM is working on in Minnesota. All landfills have unique characteristics requiring site-specific solutions. CDM, after designing a number of migration control systems in Minnesota, is able to provide a generalized description of design options for specific types of sites. This paper discussions design options used to address different cover types, aesthetic needs, and waste depths, and includes a discussion of design needs for cold climates. A brief case history of the Oak Grove Landfill is included.

  3. Ambient gold-catalyzed O-vinylation of cyclic 1,3-diketone: A vinyl ether synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yumeng; Dong, Boliang; Shi, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    Gold-catalyzed O-vinylation of cyclic 1,3-diketones has been achieved for the first time, which provides direct access to various vinyl ethers. A catalytic amount of copper triflate was identified as the significant additive in promoting this transformation. Both aromatic and aliphatic alkynes are suitable substrates with good to excellent yields.

  4. Ambient gold-catalyzed O-vinylation of cyclic 1,3-diketone: A vinyl ether synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumeng Xi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Gold-catalyzed O-vinylation of cyclic 1,3-diketones has been achieved for the first time, which provides direct access to various vinyl ethers. A catalytic amount of copper triflate was identified as the significant additive in promoting this transformation. Both aromatic and aliphatic alkynes are suitable substrates with good to excellent yields.

  5. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF BLENDS OF PAMAM DENDRIMERS WITH POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) AND POLY(VINYL ACETATE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hybrid blends of poly(amidoamine) PAMAM dendrimers with two linear high polymers, poly(vinyl chloride), PVC, and poly(vinyl acetate), PVAc, are reported. The interaction between the blend components was studied using dynamic mechanical analysis, xenon nuclear magnetic resonacne ...

  6. Methane Gas Utilization Project from Landfill at Ellery (NY)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantelis K. Panteli

    2012-01-10

    Landfill Gas to Electric Energy Generation and Transmission at Chautauqua County Landfill, Town of Ellery, New York. The goal of this project was to create a practical method with which the energy, of the landfill gas produced by the decomposing waste at the Chautauqua County Landfill, could be utilized. This goal was accomplished with the construction of a landfill gas to electric energy plant (originally 6.4MW and now 9.6MW) and the construction of an inter-connection power-line, from the power-plant to the nearest (5.5 miles) power-grid point.

  7. Influence of landfill structures on stabilization of fully recycled leachate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to treat the leachate from two simulating columns by recycling to the columns themselves without being discharged into the enviroment. The columns were employed to simulate anaerobic and semi-aerobic landfills separately. The influence of landfill structure on stabilization of fully recycled leachate was studied. The results show that semi-aerobic landfill structure accelerates the stabilization of leachate recycled. The full recycle of leachate in semi-aerobic landfill is a very feasible and effective technology for leachate treatment with low cost and energy saving especially in arid and rare rainfall regions. Meanwhile, the environmental impact of landfill can be greatly minimized.

  8. 30 CFR 75.1712-8 - Application for waiver of location requirements for underground sanitary facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground sanitary facilities. Applications for waivers of the location requirements of § 75.1712-6 shall be... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application for waiver of location requirements for underground sanitary facilities. 75.1712-8 Section 75.1712-8 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND...

  9. [Scientific and practical substantiation of the methodology for sanitary-epidemiological auditing procedure for educational institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonkina, S G; Ivanenko, A V; Kuchma, B R

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of sanitary and epidemiological auditing - a promising trend in the sanitary-epidemiological well-being of the population including children. Thus, it provides pupils' rights on the safety conditions of educational activities for their life and health without toughening of administrative influence.

  10. LANDFILLS AS BIOREACTORS: RESEARH AT THE OUTER LOOP LANDFILL, LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY; FIRST INTERIM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interim report resulting from a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between US EP A's Officeof Research and Development - National Risk Management Research Laboratory and a n ongoing field demonstrationof municipal waste landfills being operated as bioreact...

  11. Comparison Of Four Landfill Gas Models Using Data From Four Danish Landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster, Jacob G.; Mou, Zishen; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    , and to compare the four Danish landfill sites. The results show that three of the models generally give similar methane generation output. Only the LandGem model seems to give a much higher methane generation for Danish waste data, most likely due to a low organic fraction. Interpretation of the waste data......Data about type and quantity of waste disposed in four Danish landfills was collected and used on four different landfill gas generation models. This was done to compare the output data in order to evaluate the performance of the four landfill gas models when used on Danish waste types...... and the categorization of the waste play an important role in the methane prediction and combining the model predictions with whole site methane measurements would therefore be advised....

  12. Back-Analyses of Landfill Instability Induced by High Water Level: Case Study of Shenzhen Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In June 2008, the Shenzhen landfill slope failed. This case is used as an example to study the deformation characteristics and failure mode of a slope induced by high water levels. An integrated monitoring system, including water level gauges, electronic total stations, and inclinometers, was used to monitor the slope failure process. The field measurements suggest that the landfill landslide was caused by a deep slip along the weak interface of the composite liner system at the base of the landfill. The high water level is considered to be the main factor that caused this failure. To calculate the relative interface shear displacements in the geosynthetic multilayer liner system, a series of numerical direct shear tests were carried out. Based on the numerical results, the composite lining system simplified and the centrifuge modeling technique was used to quantitatively evaluate the effect of water levels on landfill instability.

  13. Preparation of Syndiotactic Poly(vinyl alcohol)/Poly(vinyl pivalate/vinyl acetate) Microspheres with Radiopacity Using Suspension Copolymerization and Saponification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok Lyoo, Won; Wook Cha, Jin; Young Kwak, Kun; Jae Lee, Young; Yong Jeon, Han; Sik Chung, Yong; Kyun Noh, Seok

    2010-06-01

    To prepare Poly(vinyl pivalate/vinyl acetate) [P(VPi/VAc)] microspheres with radiopacity, the suspension copolymerization approach in the presence of aqueous radiopaque nanoparticles was used. After, The P(VPi/VAc) microspheres with radiopacity were saponified in heterogeneous system, and then P(VPi/VAc) microspheres without aggregates were converted to s-PVA/P(VPi/VAc) microspheres of skin/core structure through the heterogeneous surface saponification. Radiopacity of microspheres was confirmed with Computed tomography (CT).

  14. Measurement of representative landfill gas migration samples at landfill perimeters: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kiernan, Breda M.; Beirne, Stephen; Fay, Cormac; Diamond, Dermot

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a fully integrated autonomous system based on existing infrared sensing technology capable of monitoring landfill gas migration (specifically carbon dioxide and methane) at landfill sites. Sampling using the described system was validated against the industry standard, GA2000 Plus hand held device, manufactured by Geotechnical Instruments Inc. As a consequence of repeated sampling during validation experiments, fluctuations in the gas mixtures became ap...

  15. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    For the inventory analysis of environmental impacts associated with products in LCA there is a great need for estimates of emissions from waste products disposed at municipal solid waste landfills (product specific emissions). Since product specific emissions can not be calculated or measured...... directly at the landfills, they must be estimated by modelling of landfill processes. This paper presents a landfill model based on a large number of assumptions and approximations concerning landfill properties, waste product properties and characteristics of various kinds of environmental protection...... systems (e.g. landfill gas combustion units and leachate treatment units). The model is useful for estimation of emissions from waste products disposed in landfills and it has been made operational in the computer tool LCA-LAND presented in a following paper. In the model, waste products are subdivided...

  16. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    directly at the landfills, they must be estimated by modelling of landfill processes. This paper presents a landfill model based on a large number of assumptions and approximations concerning landfill properties, waste product properties and characteristics of various kinds of environmental protection...... systems (e.g. landfill gas combustion units and leachate treatment units). The model is useful for estimation of emissions from waste products disposed in landfills and it has been made operational in the computer tool LCA-LAND presented in a following paper. In the model, waste products are subdivided......For the inventory analysis of environmental impacts associated with products in LCA there is a great need for estimates of emissions from waste products disposed at municipal solid waste landfills (product specific emissions). Since product specific emissions can not be calculated or measured...

  17. Assessing the market opportunities of landfill mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.; Achterkamp, M.C.; de Visser, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    Long-term estimates make clear that the amount of solid waste to be processed at landfills in the Netherlands will sharply decline in coming years. Major reasons can be found in the availability of improved technologies for waste recycling and government regulations aiming at waste reduction. Conseq

  18. Assessing the opportunities of landfill mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, D.J. van der; Achterkamp, M.C.; Visser, B.J. de

    2003-01-01

    Long-term estimates make clear that the amount of solid waste to be processed at landfills in the Netherlands will sharply decline in coming years. Major reasons can be found in the availability of improved technologies for waste recycling and government regulations aiming at waste reduction. Conseq

  19. FUEL CELL ENERGY RECOVERY FROM LANDFILL GAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Fuel Cells Corporation is conducting a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored program to demonstrate energy recovery from landfill gas using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. The US EPA is interested in fuel cells for this application b...

  20. Assessing the market opportunities of landfill mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.; Achterkamp, M.C.; de Visser, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    Long-term estimates make clear that the amount of solid waste to be processed at landfills in the Netherlands will sharply decline in coming years. Major reasons can be found in the availability of improved technologies for waste recycling and government regulations aiming at waste reduction.

  1. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-14

    This document consists of page replacements for the Y-12 industrial waste landfill. The cover page is to replace the old page, and a new set of text pages are to replace the old ones. A replacement design drawing is also included.

  2. Assessing the opportunities of landfill mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, D.J. van der; Achterkamp, M.C.; Visser, B.J. de

    2003-01-01

    Long-term estimates make clear that the amount of solid waste to be processed at landfills in the Netherlands will sharply decline in coming years. Major reasons can be found in the availability of improved technologies for waste recycling and government regulations aiming at waste reduction.

  3. BIOREACTOR DESIGN - OUTER LOOP LANDFILL, LOUISVILLE, KY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioreactor field demonstration projects are underway at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, USA. The research effort is a cooperative research effort between US EPA and Waste Management Inc. Two primary kinds of municipal waste bioreactors are under study at this site. ...

  4. RAFT Polymerization of Vinyl Esters: Synthesis and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Harrisson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is the first comprehensive review on the study and use of vinyl ester monomers in reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization. It covers all the synthetic aspects associated with the definition of precision polymers comprising poly(vinyl ester building blocks, such as the choice of RAFT agent and reaction conditions in order to progress from simple to complex macromolecular architectures. Although vinyl acetate was by far the most studied monomer of the range, many vinyl esters have been considered in order to tune various polymer properties, in particular, solubility in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2. A special emphasis is given to novel poly(vinyl alkylates with enhanced solubilities in scCO2, with applications as reactive stabilizers for dispersion polymerization and macromolecular surfactants for CO2 media. Other miscellaneous uses of poly(vinyl esters synthesized by RAFT, for instance as a means to produce poly(vinyl alcohol with controlled characteristics for use in the biomedical area, are also covered.

  5. Preparation and characterization of chitosan/poly(Vinyl alcohol)/poly(Vinyl pyrrolidone) electrospun fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Guiping; YANG Dongzhi; ZHOU Yingshan; JIN Yu; NIE Jun

    2007-01-01

    Ultrafine fibers of chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol)/poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (CS/PVA/PVP) were prepared via electrospinning.The structure and morphology of CS/PVA/PVP ultrafine fibers was characterized by the Fourier transform inflared (FT-IR) spectroscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM).Furthermore.the effects of the concentration of PVA,PVP and the electrospinning voltage on the morphology of ultrafine fibers were investigated by the SEM.When the concentration of PVA was at the range of 30wt%-40wt%,ultrafine fibers could be obtained.The diameter distributions of ultrafine fibers decreased when the electrospinning voltage increased from 20to 30kV. The rough surface fibers could be obtained after etching with CHCl3.

  6. Preparation of vinyl chloride – vinyl ether copolymers via partial etherification from PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The chemical modifications of poly (vinyl chloride with aliphatic and aromatic alcohols compounds have been investigated at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, catalysed by a new green basic catalyst, the Maghnite-K+. The presence of ether groups in the products is proven by infra red spectroscopy (IR as well as by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR, and characterized by intrinsic viscosity as well as by gel permeation chromatography (GPC.

  7. PHASE EQUILIBRIUM FOR THE TERNARY SYSTEM VINYL CHLORIDE-CHLORINATED POLYETHYLENE-POLY (VINYL CHLORIDE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOU Jianfeng; WENG Zhixue; HUANG Zhiming; PAN Zuren

    1991-01-01

    Swelling capacity of vinyl chloride (VC) in chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) with 25- 40 wt% Cl at temperature 30- 57 ℃ was studied and their relationships were correlated with Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption equations. A ternary phase diagram for VC-CPE-PVC was also established.In-situ polymerization conditions of CPE-g -VC were proposed and CPE content control was analyzed for the manufacturing process of CPE-g-VC graft product based on results of phase equilibrium study.

  8. [Sanitary quality of water supply for human consumption in Campeche].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac-Márquez, A P; Lezama-Dávila, C M; Ku-Pech, P P; Tamay-Segovia, P

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents data of a study undertaken to know the sanitary features of water supply (deep pools) for human consumption in the city of Campeche, Mexico. Levels of intestinal bacteria (total and fecal coliforms) were monitored, as well as heterotrophic plate counts and the surroundings of each deep pool were inspected. Each water supply was monitored three times from January to July, 1993 and presented unacceptable levels of heterotrophic plate counts and coliforms which is a strong evidence of fecal contamination of animal or human origin. These findings are a clear indication of unacceptable contamination of water supply for human consumption which requires an improvement and systematic inspection in order to provide good quality water to the population of Campeche.

  9. [Sanitary and nutritional control of the Catania school catering service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Elena; Allegra, Antonio Dino; Cannizzaro, Virginia; Fardella, Maristella; La Carrubba, Rosanna

    2005-01-01

    Sanitary and nutritional control of meals distributed by school catering services is one of the institutional duties of the Food Hygiene and Nutrition Services (Servizi Igiene Alimenti e Nutrizione - SIAN) of the Local Health Units. In order to carry out this activity properly it is necessary to ask oneself beforehand what the main outcome of control activities should be. The answer to this question can only be that "proper nutrition is essential for healthy growth". Starting from this assumption, control activities performed along the entire chain of the scholastic catering service, starting from the final dish served at school up to the primary producer, were reviewed. The review was carried out by a team of multiprofessionals which included a physician, a prevention technician, a dietician, a biologist, an agronomist and a veterinarian. Preliminary results are extremely positive and show that the multidisciplinary integration of roles entrusted to the coordinators of SIAN is crucial to obtaining the best results.

  10. Sanitary Sewage Treatment with Jet Inner-loop Bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Qin-xue; Chen Zhi-qiang; Lu Bing-nan; Wen Yan

    2004-01-01

    A jet inncr-loop bioreactor (JIBR) was used to treat synthetic sanitary sewage with low, medium and high COD load. The experimental resuhs show that it could meet discharge standard at 20-30 min of HRT (hydraulic retention time) for low COD concentration and 60-120 min of HRT for medium and high COD concentration. The maximal COD volume loading and COD sludye loading of 27kg·m-3·d-1 and 5 kg/d per kg MLSS were achieved respectively, that were 10-20 times higher than those of traditional wastewater treatment processes. The BOD5 removal efficiency was more than 90 % and NH1-N more than 85 %. The study on the activity showed that the oxygen consumption rate of the activated times higher than that of the SBR(Sequencing Batch Reactor)and thc dominant bacteria in jet inner-loop bioreactor was Pseudomonas species.

  11. Influence of the physico-chemical process as previous treatment to the electrocoagulation. Study with leachate of a landfill; Influencia del proceso fisicoquimico como tratamiento previo a la electrocoagulacion. Estudio con lixiviados de un relleno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado Martinez, I. D.; Reyes Avila, D.

    2007-07-01

    This article has as purpose to show the influence of the method physico-chemical as previous process to the novel technique of electrocoagulation, presenting as a new alternative to depurate wastewaters. to obtain it, was done tests measuring the very parameters to leachates so much affluent as effluent from treatment plant of the Sanitary Landfill La Esmeralda, situated near to the Manizales city(Colombia), and so much before as later to apply this electrochemical technology, looking for this way to compare the obtained removals. (Author)

  12. Compatibility of Soybean Protein and Poly (vinyl alcohol)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈婕; 肖茹; 顾利霞

    2004-01-01

    Bicomponent fibers were wet-spun from soybean protein and poly (vinyl alcohol). The fiber was brittle and showed a high frequency of breakage upon drawing and the bad compatibility between soybean protein and poly (vinyl alcohol) was thought to be the causes for the poor drawability. Our effort was then to study the soybean protein and poly (vinyl alcohol) solution, with the aim of trying to improve the components' compatibility and to determine the proper solution condition for dissolving them.The effects of alkali, sodium sulfite and urea on the compatibility of the solution were examined.

  13. Characterization and treatment of Denizli landfill leachate using anaerobic hybrid/aerobic CSTR systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ağdağ, Osman Nuri

    2011-01-01

    Leachate generated in municipal solid waste landfill contains large amounts of organic and inorganic contaminants. In the scope of the study, characterization and anaerobic/aerobic treatability of leachate from Denizli (Turkey) Sanitary Landfill were investigated. Time-based fluctuations in characteristics of leachate were monitored during a one-year period. In characterization study; chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, alkalinity, volatile fatty acids, total nitrogen, NH4-N, BOD5/COD ratio, suspended solid, inert COD, anaerobic toxicity assay and heavy metals concentrations in leachate were monitored. Average COD, BOD and NH4-N concentration in leachate were measured as 18034 mg/l, 11504 mg/l and 454 mg/l, respectively. Generally, pollution parameters in leachate were higher in summer and relatively lower in winter due to dilution by precipitation. For treatment of leachate, two different reactors, namely anaerobic hybrid and aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) having effective volumes of 17.7 and 10.5 litres, respectively, were used. After 41 days of start-up period, leachate was loaded to hybrid reactor at 10 different organic loading rates (OLRs). OLR was increased by increasing COD concentrations. COD removal efficiency of hybrid reactor was carried out at a maximum of 91%. A percentage of 96% of residual COD was removed in the aerobic reactor. NH4-N removal rate in CSTR was quite high. In addition, high methane content was obtained as 64% in the hybrid reactor. At the end of the study, after 170 operation days, it can be said that the hybrid reactor and CSTR were very effective for leachate treatment.

  14. Enhancing filterability of activated sludge from landfill leachate treatment plant by applying electrical field ineffective on bacterial life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya, Gulizar Kurtoglu; Sekman, Elif; Top, Selin; Sagir, Ece; Bilgili, Mehmet Sinan; Guvenc, Senem Yazici

    2017-03-09

    The aim of this study is to investigate filterability enhancement of activated sludge supplied form a full-scale leachate treatment plant by applying DC electric field while keeping the biological operational conditions in desirable range. The activated sludge samples were received from the nitrification tank in the leachate treatment plant of Istanbul's Odayeri Sanitary Landfill Site. Experimental sets were conducted as laboratory-scale batch studies and were duplicated for 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, and 5A of electrical currents and 2, 5, 10, 15, and 30 min of exposure times under continuous aeration. Physicochemical parameters such as temperature, pH, and oxidation reduction potential in the mixture right after each experimental set and biochemical parameters such as chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus, and ammonia nitrogen in supernatant were analyzed to define the sets that remain in the range of ideal biological operational conditions. Later on, sludge filterability properties such as capillary suction time, specific resistance to filtration, zeta potential, and particle size were measured for remaining harmless sets. Additionally, cost analyses were conducted in respect to energy and electrode consumptions. Application of 2A DC electric field and 15-min exposure time was found to be the most favorable conditions to enhance filterability of the landfill leachate-activated sludge.

  15. Estimation of cost reduction and increase for the final disposal associated with the categorization of inert waste landfills in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hirofumi; Tsuchida, Daisuke; Shimaoka, Takayuki

    2012-02-01

    This study estimates the overall cost savings that have been realized due to disposal of inert wastes in Japan because this material has been deposited in inert waste landfills (IWLs) that are designed exclusively for this purpose, instead of being co-dipsosed with organic wastes in more costly in sanitary landfills (SLs). The total realized cost savings were based on the disposed volume of inert waste and the actual disposal fees for IWLs and SLs for the period 1977-2006. The estimated reduction in expense is 4748 billion JPY for the period. On the other hand, if organic wastes had been deposited in IWLs along with inert wastes, costs would be incurred to clean up the sites because the surrounding environment may be polluted by the decomposition of the non-inert wastes and considerable efforts probably would be required to restore the polluted environment to its normal condition (this is because IWLs typically do not have a barrier system.) The potential cleanup cost was estimated to be 616 to 1226 billion JPY. These estimated costs were compared and it was found that the net reduction in expense was 3522 billion to 4122 billion JPY. Although the expense was reduced substantially, it was noted that a considerable cleanup cost would be generated. In particular, it was found that the increase in cleanup costs becomes most significant after the late 1990s.

  16. State of the art design: A closure system for the largest hazardous waste landfill at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, S.F.; Serrato, M.G.; McMullin, S.R.

    1992-12-31

    This paper discusses the cover system proposed for a 55-acre, hazardous waste closure of the sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed cover system has been designed to accommodate a significant amount of post-closure settlement while maintaining a permeability of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm/s or less throughout its 30-year, regulatory lifetime. A composite cover consisting of a geomembrane (GM) underlain by a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) was selected because of its extremely low permeability, ability to elongate without tearing, and capacity to ``self-heal`` if punctured. These characteristics will enable the cover system to accommodate differential settlement without cracking or tearing, this providing long-term protection with minimal maintenance. Also, to improve the ability of the cover system to span voids that may develop in the underlying waste, a geogrid has been included in the foundation layer. A gas vent layer has been included to allow for the safe collection and venting of landfill gases.

  17. State of the art design: A closure system for the largest hazardous waste landfill at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, S.F.; Serrato, M.G.; McMullin, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the cover system proposed for a 55-acre, hazardous waste closure of the sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed cover system has been designed to accommodate a significant amount of post-closure settlement while maintaining a permeability of 1 [times] 10[sup [minus]7] cm/s or less throughout its 30-year, regulatory lifetime. A composite cover consisting of a geomembrane (GM) underlain by a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) was selected because of its extremely low permeability, ability to elongate without tearing, and capacity to self-heal'' if punctured. These characteristics will enable the cover system to accommodate differential settlement without cracking or tearing, this providing long-term protection with minimal maintenance. Also, to improve the ability of the cover system to span voids that may develop in the underlying waste, a geogrid has been included in the foundation layer. A gas vent layer has been included to allow for the safe collection and venting of landfill gases.

  18. The influence of soil and landfill leachate microorganisms in the degradation of PVC/PCL films cast from DMF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana de Campos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While the use of plastics continues to increase in our daily lives in a growing range products, these materials are very persistent in the environment. The blending of aliphatic polyesters with other thermoplastic polymers is a profitable way of producing materials with changed physical properties and biodegradability, which can facilitate microbial adhesion to the polymer matrix and help to reduce (post-consumer degradation time of these materials in landfills. This study was an investigation of the biodegradation of films of blends of poly(vinyl chloride (PVC and poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL by soil microorganisms and leachate, by means of respirometry, infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR, differential calorimetry scanning (DSC, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, contact angle and weight loss. The results showed that in the soil, the films suffered oxidative biodegradation. The PCL promoted degradation of the PVC in the film of PVC/PCL and the PVC inhibited the rapid degradation of the PCL.

  19. Estudo de compostos orgânicos em lixiviado de aterros sanitários por EFS e CG/EM Study of organic compounds in landfill leachate by SPE and GC/MSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irajá do Nascimento Filho

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work was the qualitative study of organic compounds in landfill leachate. The samples were collected from a sanitary landfill located at Gravataí, a southern Brazilian city, that receive both, industrial and domestic refuse. The samples were submitted to solid phase extraction (SPE with XAD-4 resin as the stationary phase. The instrumental analysis was performed by Gas Chromatography with a Mass Spectrometry Detector (GC/MSD. The compounds achieved in the SPE extracts were tentatively identified by the GC/MS library. It was found several oxygen and nitrogen compounds like carboxylic acids, ketones, amines and amides. Sulfur compounds and phthalate esters are also identified.

  20. Material flow-based economic assessment of landfill mining processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieckhäfer, Karsten; Breitenstein, Anna; Spengler, Thomas S

    2017-02-01

    This paper provides an economic assessment of alternative processes for landfill mining compared to landfill aftercare with the goal of assisting landfill operators with the decision to choose between the two alternatives. A material flow-based assessment approach is developed and applied to a landfill in Germany. In addition to landfill aftercare, six alternative landfill mining processes are considered. These range from simple approaches where most of the material is incinerated or landfilled again to sophisticated technology combinations that allow for recovering highly differentiated products such as metals, plastics, glass, recycling sand, and gravel. For the alternatives, the net present value of all relevant cash flows associated with plant installation and operation, supply, recycling, and disposal of material flows, recovery of land and landfill airspace, as well as landfill closure and aftercare is computed with an extensive sensitivity analyses. The economic performance of landfill mining processes is found to be significantly influenced by the prices of thermal treatment (waste incineration as well as refuse-derived fuels incineration plant) and recovered land or airspace. The results indicate that the simple process alternatives have the highest economic potential, which contradicts the aim of recovering most of the resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Sanitary regulation as part of health policy in Brazil: gaps and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Christiane; Guilhem, Dirce

    2016-05-01

    Objective To outline and discuss the main challenges for sanitary regulation contained in the federal-level Brazilian health policy. Methods For the present qualitative study, based on the analysis of public policies, information was collected from documents and interviews. Document analysis provided a historical overview of the insertion of sanitary regulation into the Brazilian health policy between 1999 and 2009 (first decade of existence of the national health surveillance agency, Anvisa). In addition, 13 interviews were carried out with actors selected for their historical, technical, or academic role in the field. Content analysis was used to define themes emerging from the materials analyzed with a focus on the "content" category, which refers to strategic and operational guidelines of policy programs, projects, initiatives, and normative framework. Results Content analysis revealed five themes that reflect the challenges to sanitary regulation in Brazil: 1) objects under regulation treated as isolated cases; 2) a Brazilian-specific model of sanitary regulation that is different from other international models; 3) ignorance regarding the role of sanitary surveillance in health care; 4) absence of an information system; and 5) absence of performance indicators and assessment tools. Conclusions Sanitary surveillance must have a mission that is disentangled from inspection tasks to become an effective instrument of health protection. For that, an information system that brings the National Sanitary Surveillance System together toward major objectives is essential. The adoption of tools for assessment of action is also required, with the establishment of adequate indicators.

  2. Gas Production Potential in the Landfill of Tehran by Landfill Methane Outreach Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazoki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Landfilling is the most common way of municipal solid waste (MSW disposal in Iran. Many countries have targeted landfill methane recovery among greenhouse gas mitigation strategies, since methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Major questions remain with respect to actual methane production rates in field settings as well as the relative mass of methane that is recovered, emitted, oxidized by methanotrophic bacteria, laterally migrated, or temporarily stored within the landfill volume. Landfill gas (LFG consists of 50% - 60 vol% methane and 30% - 40 vol% carbon dioxide as well as trace amounts of numerous chemical compounds such as aromatics, chlorinated organic compounds and sulfur compounds. Landfill methane outreach program (LMOP is a voluntary assistance program which helps reduce methane emissions from landfills by encouraging the recovery and the beneficial use of LFG as an energy resource. Objectives In this study, the volume of LFG of Tehran by landfill methane outreach program (LMOP software was calculated. In addition, the relationship between the time of gas collection system operation and the volume of LFG production was evaluated. Materials and Methods The LMOP software was used. The available information and some presumptions were used to operate the software. The composition of the solid waste collected from the landfill of Tehran had specific details. A large amount of it was organic materials, which was about 67.8%. These materials have a good potential to produce gas. In addition, LMOP Colombia model uses the first-order equations in all the analytical equations. Furthermore, it is assumed that the landfill operation time is 30 years and the process is considered in two conditions; first, the gas was recovered in 2000, and second, the process started in 2015. Results The modeling results showed that for the gas recovery starting in 2000 and 2015, the power generation would be 2

  3. Narratives of Public Health in Dickens's Journalism: The Trouble with Sanitary Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ralph F

    2015-01-01

    Although Dickens is still known as having been a highly visible supporter of England's well-known nineteenth-century sanitary movement, he became, in fact, deeply troubled by many of this movement's fundamental tenets, as evidenced by journal narratives on fever that he edited and wrote in the mid-nineteenth century. Rather than water and sewer engineering works and a sanitary regime policed by government agencies as envisaged by Edwin Chadwick and other sanitary reformers, Dickens's view by 1855 was that only a massive erasure of the existing social and political systems and their replacement by an utterly new infrastructure would suffice.

  4. Releasing behavior of copper in recirculated bioreactor landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Hu, Li-Fang; Jiang, Chen-Jing; Fang, Cheng-Ran; Wang, Feng-Ping; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the releasing behavior of copper in municipal solid waste (MSW) in landfill with respect to refuse and leachate as an inseparable system. Two simulated bioreactor landfills, one with leachate recirculation and the other without, were operated in room temperature for 320 days. Copper in refuse showed behaviors of staggered migration and retention, which corresponded with the degradation process of landfill obviously. The significant different amounts of Cu2+ leached out from refuse into leachate of two landfills were 24.74 mg and 118.53 mg after 320 days' operation, respectively. It also reflected the releasing behavior of copper in landfill refuse at different stage accordingly. The results confirmed that the refuse in landfill had high potential of secondary pollution after closure.

  5. Characterization and Energy Generation of Sharda Landfill at Agra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Ayub

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the global municipal solid waste is dumped in non regulated landfills and the generated methane is emitted to the atmosphere which has global warming potential. Some of the modern regulated landfills attempt to capture and utilize landfill gas. An attempt has been made in this study for the recovery of energy potential of Shadra site. This includes different methodologies to determine the feasibility of recovery project. The laboratory results show that the percentage by volume of methane is 51%. The landfill gas (LFG generation is very low (i.e. low-range recovery scenario and it is un-economical to recover such low flow gases produced in landfill. So, this reveals that flaring is only the option to reduce the global warming potential (GWP and also the problems of odour in the vicinity of landfill.

  6. Detection and quantification of methane leakage from landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljungberg, Sven-Aake; Maartensson, Stig-Goeran (Univ. of Gaevle, Gaevle (Sweden)); Meijer, Jan-Erik; Rosqvist, Haakan (NSR AB, Helsingborg (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this project was to detect gas leakage and to measure and quantify methane emission from landfills using modern remote sensing techniques. In this project, a handheld laser instrument and an IR camera were used. The overall objective was to develop cost-effective methods for detecting and quantifying methane emissions from landfills. There are many methods available for measuring the methane concentration in air, both from close-up and from long distances. Combined with the use of a tracer gas, the methane emission from entire landfills can be measured relatively accurately. A number of methods are used to detect leakage from parts of landfill surfaces, but there are few methods for quantifying leakage from sub-zones. Field measurements with the laser instrument and the IR camera were carried out at seven Swedish landfills and two landfills in France. The investigated surfaces at the Swedish landfills were divided into different zones, such as top surface, slope, crest and toe of slope. The field measurements in France were taken over entire landfills. The methane emission varied between the different landfills in the project, and also between the different landfill zones. The results from repeated field measurements indicated that a landfill with a final cap and a successful gas recovery system produces barely measurable emissions. The weak points at a landfill are generally slopes, including crests and toes of slopes. Where the covering of the waste is inadequate, leakage often occurs at lift joints and in areas where waste protrudes through the cover. Other weak points are deficiencies in the gas recovery system. Leachate systems can lead landfill gas and thereby cause methane leakage. Along with wind velocity and variations in atmospheric pressure, moisture content in the ground is an important factor that affects methane emissions from landfill surfaces. Results from field measurements of the same feature/surface at different points in time and

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions through cap barriers of landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourc, J.P.; Staub, M.; Simonin, R. [Grenoble Univ. (France). LTHE

    2009-07-01

    A study was conducted to examine the environmental impacts of landfill cap covers used to produce biogas. The sensitivity of the environmental performance of landfills on biogas collection and recovery systems as well as on cap cover characteristics was investigated. The study examined both soil and geosynthetic landfill cap covers used to maintain impermeability at landfill sites as well as to enable biogas recovery. Two types of cap cover were discussed: (1) a cover that enabled passive wetting of the landfill wastes through rainfall; and (2) an impermeable cap used to control leachate recirculation. The environmental impacts of both caps were discussed. The study showed that landfill cap covers are a significant means of sequestering greenhouse gases (GHGs).

  8. Palladium- (and nickel-) catalyzed vinylation of aryl halides†

    OpenAIRE

    DENMARK, SCOTT E.; Butler, Christopher R.

    2008-01-01

    Functionalized styrenes are extremely useful building blocks for organic synthesis and for functional polymers. One of the most general syntheses of styrenes involves the combination of an aryl halide with a vinyl organometallic reagent under catalysis by palladium or nickel complexes. This Feature Article provides the first comprehensive summary of the vinylation methods currently available along with a critical comparison of the efficiency, cost and scope of the methods.

  9. Copper-catalyzed Decarboxylative Hydroboration: Synthesis of Vinyl Boronic Esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irudayanathan, Francis Mariaraj; Raja, Gabriel Charles Edwin; Kim, Han-Sung; Na, Kyungsu; Lee, Sunwoo [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Vinyl boronic esters were synthesized from aryl alkynyl carboxylic acids and bis(pinacolato)diboron using a copper-catalyzed decarboxylative reaction. The reaction was conducted with CuI (10 mol %), bis-[2-(diphenylphosphino)phenyl]ether(20 mol %), and LiOMe (20 mol %) in DMSO at 50 .deg. C for 16 h. This method provided the desired vinyl boronic esters in good-to-moderate yields and showed good functional group tolerance.

  10. Wearing ambidextrous vinyl gloves does not impair manual dexterity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabek, Tomas; Boucek, Charles D; Buffington, Charles W

    2013-01-01

    Universal precautions mandate that health care workers wear gloves to prevent the unintended spread of bloodborne pathogens. Gloves may affect manual dexterity, generally delaying task completion. Our previous study showed that wearing the wrong size latex surgical glove degraded manual dexterity. The use of non-sterile and non-latex gloves may limit certain risks and be more cost-effective. However, such gloves may produce different results. We hypothesized that ambidextrous vinyl examination gloves would degrade manual dexterity compared with bare hands. We studied 20 random subjects from a medical environment. Subjects performed a standard battery of Grooved Pegboard tasks while bare-handed, wearing ambidextrous non-sterile vinyl gloves that were their preferred size, a size too small, and a size too large. The order was randomized with a Latin Square design to minimize the effects of time, boredom, and fatigue on the subjects. Subjects were also invited to comment on the fit of different size gloves. Wearing vinyl gloves of both the preferred size and a size up or down failed to affect manual dexterity vs. bare hands on time to insert pegs, and pegs dropped during insertion or removal. In contrast, the time to remove pegs was reduced by wearing preferred size vinyl gloves compared with performing the task with bare hands (P<0.05). Subjects reported a generally poor fit in all sizes. Vinyl gloves that were too small caused significant hand discomfort. Vinyl gloves surprisingly do not degrade manual dexterity even when worn in ill-fitting sizes. Wearing a preferred size vinyl glove vs. bare hands may improve dexterity in selected tasks. Choosing a comfortable, large size seems the best strategy when the preferred size is unavailable. Thinner vinyl gloves may improve grip and may not degrade touch as much as latex surgical gloves and may thus represent a reasonable choice for selected tasks.

  11. Research on Health Risk-Based Radioactive Acceptance Criteria of Municipal Solid Waste Landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The article focuses on the topics of Health Risk-Based Radioactive Acceptance Criteria of Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWL, including municipal refuse landfills or industrial solid waste landfills, MSWL). At first, health risk assessment

  12. Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge : Potential impacts from Dare County Landfills

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Surface runoff or leachate from two landfills (East Lake Landfill and the Dare County Construction and Demolition Debris Landfill) have the potential to impact fish...

  13. Landfill liners from dam reservoir sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koś Karolina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Landfill liners from dam reservoir sediments. Every municipal solid waste landfill has to be properly secured to protect the natural environment from possible leachate. Most often an artificial sealing is used, which is based on a soil liner from cohesive soils (clays, silts. Usability evaluation of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir for building these liners was presented in the paper. Sediments from dam reservoirs, gathered as a result of the siltation process, can be a valuable material for earthworks purposes. Determination of their possible ways of usage is important, especially before the planned dredging, because thanks to that this material will not be put on a heap. Based on the analysis of the geotechnical parameters of these sediments it was stated that this material can be preliminary allowed for using in liners.

  14. Performance of geotextiles in landfills covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitz, L.J.; Holtz, R.D.

    1997-11-01

    As part of the research into the performance of geotextiles in landfill covers, 14 test pits were excavated in five landfill covers constructed between 1988 and 1992 in Washington State. Materials used in the drainage system were examined and documented. Specimens of geotextiles (all 8 oz/yd{sup 2}, needle punched nonwovens) as well as samples of the vegetative and sand drainage soils, were obtained for laboratory analyses. Laboratory tests indicated that the geotextiles satisfactorily performed their intended filtration function. No apparent migration of fines into the drainage layer was detected. The degree of clogging was evaluated by performing permittivity tests on specimens of the exhumed geotextiles, as retrieved and after washing. Washing typically resulted in permittivity increases on the order of 30 to 90 percent.

  15. Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of Anti-Vinyl Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raston, Paul; Bunn, Hayley

    2016-06-01

    Vinyl alcohol can exist in two rotameric forms, known as syn- and anti- vinyl alcohol, where syn is the most stable. Both rotamers have been observed in the interstellar medium towards Sagittarius B2(N) making them of particular astrophysical importance. Vinyl alcohol has been subject to various spectroscopic investigations, however, the anti rotamer has only been obsvered in the microwave region. We report the high resolution (0.001 wn) FTIR spectrum of anti-vinyl alcohol collected at the infrared beamline facility of the Australian Synchrotron. Vinyl alcohol was produced via the pyrolysis of 2-chloroethanol at 900°C, and its far infrared spectrum reveals the presence of the strong νb{15} fundamental and hot band of anti-vinyl alcohol. Rotational and centrifugal distortion constants of this higher energy rotamer have since been determined for the νb{15} and 2νb{15} states, and the ground state constants have been refined. B. E. Turner, A. J. Apponi, ApJ 561, 207 (2001) M. Rodler, J. Mol. Spec. 114, 23 (1985) D-L Joo, et al., J. Mol. Spec. 197, 68 (1999)

  16. Quantification of long term emission potential from landfills

    OpenAIRE

    Heimovaara, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Novel approaches for the after-care of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills are based on technological measures to reduce the long term emission potential in a short time period. Biological degradation in landfills is a means to significantly reduce the long term emission potential. Leachate emission to the groundwater is considered to be one of the largest long-term impacts related to landfilling. Currently we are starting up a research program, partly subsidized by the Dutch Technology fou...

  17. Suggested guidelines for gas emission monitoring at danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Landfill gas is produced on waste disposal sites receiving organic waste resulting in emission of methane. Regulation requires that the landfill gas is managed in order to reduce emissions, but very few suggestions exist to how the landfill gas management activities are monitored, what requirements...... measures to determine the efficiency of the performed emission mitigation is defined. Finally, several principles are presented for how criteria can be developed for when a monitoring program can be terminated....

  18. Proposed Expansion of Acme Landfill Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    decays, it produces bacteria that release gases. Methane develops in phases. Initially, during a phase which can last several days to months, a...90 and 95°F. Another factor which affects landfill gas production is pH. Methanogenic bacteria need a pH near 7.0 to produce optimal amounts of...Los Osos-Millsholm-Los Gatos soil association while the other four sites were located in the Altamont-Diablo-Fontana association. A standard slope

  19. Analysis of the generation of electric energy through the use of biogas obtained from sanitary fillings in Mexico; Analisis de la generacion de energia electrica a traves de biogas procedente de rellenos sanitarios en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerda Sauvage, Tania Kalinka [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    Through this work a theoretical analysis conducted for the use of biogas obtained from sanitary landfills for the generation of electrical energy is presented, as well as the evaluation of the main elements that limit or favor the development of this technology in our country. In the introductory part of this work are presented some causes considered have favored the development of technologies as the one proposed here. In the first part it is exposed what the biogas is and what conditions are necessary for its production, which explains the production of biogas in the sanitary landfills, in addition, describes the distribution of the solid residues that give raise to the present situation of the sanitary landfills and the biogas production process in these. The work continues with a description of the electrical energy generation process through the gas originated in sanitary landfills, indicating the necessary conditions in order that the filling complies with its basic functions; following our process until obtaining the final item, electrical energy. For the description of the process and to analyze some factors that take part, it is advisable to include the main aspects of a plant located in Monterrey that occupies this technology. This project shows project shows off in a tangible form the barriers that this technology faces, as well as its main advantages and disadvantages. Are exposed the limiting factors of this technology in technological, economic, political and social aspects, the barriers that can and must overcome as well as the reasons that justify the effort to overcome them. Finally are presented the conclusions it arrives, as well as the commentaries and suggestions in respect to the subject. [Spanish] A traves de este trabajo se expone un analisis teorico efectuado al uso de biogas extraido de rellenos sanitarios para la generacion de energia electrica, asi como evaluar los principales elementos que limitan o favorecen el desarrollo de esta

  20. Behavior of engineered nanoparticles in landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolyard, Stephanie C; Reinhart, Debra R; Santra, Swadeshmukul

    2013-08-01

    This research sought to understand the behavior of engineered nanoparticles in landfill leachate by examining the interactions between nanoparticles and leachate components. The primary foci of this paper are the effects of ZnO, TiO2, and Ag nanoparticles on biological landfill processes and the form of Zn, Ti, and Ag in leachate following the addition of nanoparticles. Insight into the behavior of nanoparticles in landfill leachate was gained from the observed increase in the aqueous concentrations over background for Zn, Ti, and Ag in some tested leachates attributed to leachate components interacting with the nanoparticle coatings resulting in dispersion, dissolution/dissociation, and/or agglomeration. Coated nanoparticles did not affect biological processes when added to leachate; five-day biochemical oxygen demand and biochemical methane potential results were not statistically different when exposed to nanoparticles, presumably due to the low concentration of dissolved free ionic forms of the associated metals resulting from the interaction with leachate components. Chemical speciation modeling predicted that dissolved Zn in leachate was primarily associated with dissolved organic matter, Ti with hydroxide, and Ag with hydrogen sulfide and ammonia; less than 1% of dissolved Zn and Ag was in the free ionic form, and free ionic Ti and Ag concentrations were negligible.

  1. Methane production in simulated hybrid bioreactor landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiyong; Jin, Xiao; Ma, Zeyu; Tao, Huchun; Ko, Jae Hac

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this work was to study a hybrid bioreactor landfill technology for landfill methane production from municipal solid waste. Two laboratory-scale columns were operated for about ten months to simulate an anaerobic and a hybrid landfill bioreactor, respectively. Leachate was recirculated into each column but aeration was conducted in the hybrid bioreactor during the first stage. Results showed that leachate pH in the anaerobic bioreactor maintained below 6.5, while in the hybrid bioreactor quickly increased from 5.6 to 7.0 due to the aeration. The temporary aeration resulted in lowering COD and BOD5 in the leachate. The volume of methane collected from the hybrid bioreactor was 400 times greater than that of the anaerobic bioreactor. Also, the methane production rate of the hybrid bioreactor was improved within a short period of time. After about 10 months' operation, the total methane production in the hybrid bioreactor was 212 L (16 L/kgwaste).

  2. Degradation of Refuse in Hybrid Bioreactor Landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN LONG; Yu-YANG LONG; HAI-CHUN LIU; DONG-SHENG SHEN

    2009-01-01

    Objectivess To explore the process of refuse decomposition in hybrid bioreactor landfill. Methods The bioreactor landfill was operated in sequencing of facultative-anaerobic and aerobic conditions with leachate recireulation, pH, COD, and ammonia in the leachate and pH, biodegradable organic matter (BDM), and cation exchange capacity (CEC) in refuse were detected. Results CEC increased gradually with the degradation of refuse, which was negatively correlad, With BDM. COD and ammonia in the leachate was declined to 399.2 mg L-1 and 20.6 mg N L-1, respectively, during the 357-day operation. The respective concentrations of ammonia and COD were below the second and the third levels of current discharge standards in China. Conclusion The refuse is relatively stable at the end of hybrid bioreactor landfill operation. Most of the readily biodegradable organic matter is mineralized in the initial phase of refuse degradation, whereas the hard-biodegradable organic matter is mainly humidified in the maturity phase of refuse degradation.

  3. Case study: City of Industry landfill gas recovery operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-11-01

    Development of civic, recreation, and conservation facilities throughout a 150-acre site which had been used for waste disposal from 1951 to 1970 is described. The history of the landfill site, the geology of the site, and a test well program to assess the feasibility of recoverying landfill gas economically from the site are discussed. Based on results of the test well program, the City of Industry authorized the design and installation of a full-scale landfill gas recovery system. Design, construction, and operation of the system are described. The landfill gas system provides fuel for use in boilers to meet space heating and hot water demands for site development (MCW)

  4. Proposal Of Landfill Site Model In The Particular Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stopka Ondrej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, waste logistics is a relevant element within the worldwide logistics system. This paper is focused on the proposal of the appropriate model of landfill site for disposal of municipal waste. This issue refers to waste logistics in urban areas. In this regard, three different alternative models of landfill sites are considered. Landfill site model can significantly influence the waste management productivity and effectiveness of the enterprise. In the paper, one of the decision-making problem methods is utilized. This particular method enables to assess each model of landfill site in relation to each of the specified criterion and order the models according to the achieved results.

  5. Generating CO(2)-credits through landfill in situ aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzkowski, M; Stegmann, R

    2010-04-01

    Landfills are some of the major anthropogenic sources of methane emissions worldwide. The installation and operation of gas extraction systems for many landfills in Europe and the US, often including technical installations for energy recovery, significantly reduced these emissions during the last decades. Residual landfill gas, however, is still continuously produced after the energy recovery became economically unattractive, thus resulting in ongoing methane emissions for many years. By landfill in situ aeration these methane emissions can be widely avoided both, during the aeration process as well as in the subsequent aftercare period. Based on model calculations and online monitoring data the amount of avoided CO(2-eq). can be determined. For an in situ aerated landfill in northern Germany, acting as a case study, 83-95% (depending on the kind and quality of top cover) of the greenhouse gas emission potential could be reduced under strictly controlled conditions. Recently the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has approved a new methodology on the "Avoidance of landfill gas emissions by in situ aeration of landfills" (UNFCCC, 2009). Based on this methodology landfill aeration projects might be considered for generation of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) in the course of CDM projects. This paper contributes towards an evaluation of the potential of landfill aeration for methane emissions reduction. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Multiculturalità, “diritti” e differenziazioni giuridiche: il caso dei trattamenti sanitari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Anello

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Contributo sottoposto a valutazione SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Multiculturalità, “diritti” e trattamenti sanitari - 3. Alcune problematiche del cd. testamento biologico in una prospettiva interculturale - 4. Conclusioni.

  7. Research and development of intelligent controller for high-grade sanitary ware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Kongjun; Shen, Qingping

    2013-03-01

    With the social and economic development and people's living standards improve, more and more emphasis on modern society, people improve the quality of family life, the use of intelligent controller applications in high-grade sanitary ware physiotherapy students. Analysis of high-grade sanitary ware physiotherapy common functions pointed out in the production and use of the possible risks, proposed implementation of the system hardware and matching, given the system software implementation process. High-grade sanitary ware physiotherapy intelligent controller not only to achieve elegant and beautiful, simple, physical therapy, water power, deodorant, multi-function, intelligent control, to meet the consumers, the high-end sanitary ware market, strong demand, Accelerate the enterprise product Upgrade and improve the competitiveness of enterprises.

  8. Acetogenic microbial degradation of vinyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, P.M.; Chapelle, F.H.

    2000-01-01

    Under methanogenic conditions, microbial degradation of [1,2-14C]vinyl chloride (VC) resulted in significant (14 ?? 3% maximum recovery) but transient recovery of radioactivity as 14C-acetate. Subsequently, 14C- acetate was degraded to 14CH4 and 14CO2 (18 ?? 2% and 54 ?? 3% final recoveries, respectively). In contrast, under 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid (BES) amended conditions, 14C-acetate recovery remained high (27 ?? 1% maximum recovery) throughout the study, no 14CH4 was produced, and the final recovery of 14CO2 was only 35 ?? 4%. These results demonstrate that oxidative acetogenesis may be an important mechanism for anaerobic VC biodegradation. Moreover, these results (1) demonstrate that microbial degradation of VC to CH4 and CO2 may involve oxidative acetogenesis followed by acetotrophic methanogenesis and (2) suggest that oxidative acetogenesis may be the initial step in the net oxidation of VC to CO2 reported previously under Fe(III)-reducing, SO4-reducing, and humic acids- reducing conditions.Under methanogenic conditions, microbial degradation of [1,2-14C]vinyl chloride (VC) resulted in significant (14 ?? 3% maximum recovery) but transient recovery of radioactivity as 14C-acetate. Subsequently, 14C-acetate was degraded to 14CH4 and 14CO2 (18 ?? 2% and 54 ?? 3% final recoveries respectively). In contrast, under 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid (BES) amended conditions, 14C-acetate recovery remained high (27 ?? 1% maximum recovery) throughout the study, no 14CH4 was produced, and the final recovery of 14CO2 was only 35 ?? 4%. These results demonstrate that oxidative acetogenesis may be an important mechanism for anaerobic VC biodegradation. Moreover, these results (1) demonstrate that microbial degradation of VC to CH4 and CO2 may involve oxidative acetogenesis followed by acetotrophic methanogenesis and (2) suggest that oxidative acetogenesis may be the initial step in the net oxidation of VC to CO2 reported previously under Fe(III)-reducing, SO4-reducing, and

  9. Estimation of emissions of nonmethane organic compounds from a closed landfill site using a landfill gas emission model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwachukwu, A.N. [Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Sciences, School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Science, University of Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Diya, A.W. [Health Sciences Research Group, School of Medicine, University of Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Nonmethane organic compounds (NMOC) emissions from landfills often constitute significant risks both to human health and the general environment. To date very little work has been done on tracking the emissions of NMOC from landfills. To this end, a concerted effort was made to investigate the total annual mass emission rate of NMOC from a closed landfill site in South Manchester, United Kingdom. This was done by using field estimates of NMOC concentration and the landfill parameters into the Landfill Gas Emission Model embedded in ACTS and RISK software. Two results were obtained: (i) a deterministic outcome of 1.7218 x 10-7 kg/year, which was calculated from mean values of the field estimates of NMOC concentration and the landfill parameters, and (ii) a probabilistic outcome of 1.66 x 10-7 - 1.78 x 10-7 kg/year, which is a range of value obtained after Monte Carlo simulation of the uncertain parameters of the landfill including NMOC concentration. A comparison between these two results suggests that the probabilistic outcome is a more representative and reliable estimate of the total annual mass emission of NMOC especially given the variability of the parameters of the model. Moreover, a comparison of the model result and the safety standard of 5.0 x 10-5 kg/year indicate that the mass emission of NMOC from the studied landfill is significantly less than previously thought. However, given that this can accumulate to a dangerous level over a long period of time (such as the age of this landfill site); it may have started affecting the health of the people living within the vicinity of the landfill. A case is therefore made for more studies to be carried out on the emissions of other gases such as CH4 and CO2 from the studied landfill site, as this would help to understand the synergistic effect of the various gases being emitted from the landfill.

  10. Synthesis of styrenes by palladium(II)-catalyzed vinylation of arylboronic acids and aryltrifluoroborates by using vinyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, Jonas; Sävmarker, Jonas; Nilsson, Peter; Sjöberg, Per J R; Larhed, Mats

    2009-01-01

    One Heck of a reaction: Treatment of arylboronic acids or aryltrifluoroborates with vinyl acetate by using a palladium(II) catalyst gives the corresponding styrenes (see scheme). No palladium reoxidant is needed and the vinylation is performed under non-inert conditionsReactions of aromatic and heteroaromatic boronic acids or aryltrifluoroborate salts with vinyl acetate in the presence of a palladium(II) catalyst give the corresponding styrenes in good yields. This Heck reaction proceeds with microwave heating in less than 30 min at 140 degrees C in the absence of base and tolerates a variety of substituents. No palladium reoxidant is needed and the vinylation is performed under non-inert conditions. Mass spectrometry (electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESIMS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)) was used to identify cationic palladium-containing complexes in ongoing reactions. The key intermediates that have been detected, together with experiments that used deuterated vinyl acetate, support the existence of catalytically active palladium hydride species, and that it is the arylation of ethylene, not vinyl acetate, which generates the styrene product. The mechanism of the reaction is discussed in terms of the palladium(II) intermediates mentioned above.

  11. Chromium in soil layers and plants on closed landfill site after landfill leachate application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Marija; Justin, Maja Zupancic; Bukovec, Peter; Selih, Vid Simon

    2009-06-01

    Landfill leachate (LL) usually contains low concentrations of heavy metals due to the anaerobic conditions in the methanogenic landfill body after degradation of easily degradable organic matter and the neutral pH of LL, which prevents mobilization and leaching of metals. Low average concentrations of metals were also confirmed in our extensive study on the rehabilitation of an old landfill site with vegetative landfill cover and LL recirculation after its treatment in constructed wetland. The only exception was chromium (Cr). Its concentrations in LL ranged between 0.10 and 2.75 mg/L, and were higher than the concentrations usually found in the literature. The objectives of the study were: (1) to understand why Cr is high in LL and (2) to understand the fate and transport of Cr in soil and vegetation of landfill cover due to known Cr toxicity to plants. The total concentration of Cr in LL, total and exchangeable concentrations of Cr in landfill soil cover and Cr content in the plant material were extensively monitored from May 2004 to September 2006. By obtained data on Cr concentration in different landfill constituents, supported with the data on the amount of loaded leachate, amount of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (ETP) during the performance of the research, a detailed picture of time distribution and co-dependency of Cr is provided in this research. A highly positive correlation was found between concentrations of Cr and dissolved organic carbon (r=0.875) in LL, which indicates the co-transport of Cr and dissolved organic carbon through the system. Monitoring results showed that the substrate used in the experiment did not contribute to Cr accumulation in the landfill soil cover, resulting in percolation of a high proportion of Cr back into the waste layers and its circulation in the system. No negative effects on plant growth appeared during the monitoring period. Due to low uptake of Cr by plants (0.10-0.15 mg/kg in leaves and 0.05-0.07 mg

  12. The SWOT Analysis of a Romanian Post-Sanitary Institution in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Iorga

    2016-01-01

    Starting from a comprehensive research (literature review, the paper proposes the realization of aSWOT analysis within a post-sanitary school, which aims at emphasizing the main advantages of apost-secondary schools perceived by students and discovering major development opportunities forthe quality of services offered by it, as a premise of the improvement of the sanitary schools, andthus, the health system in Romania.

  13. Benjarong Sanitary Ware: Design and development for commerce in Samut Sakhon Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanchai Sama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This investigation has three primary aims: 1 to study the traditional knowledge of Benjarong in Samut Sakhon Province; 2 to study designs and the production process of Benjarong sanitary ware in Samut Sakhon Province; 3 to develop Benjarong sanitary ware for commerce in Samut Sakhon Province. The research area for this investigation was purposively selected as Samut Sakhon Province. Data was gathered by document study, survey, participant and non-participant observation, structured and non-structured interview, focus group discussion and workshop. Results show that Benjarong sanitary products have been inherited from generation to generation in Samut Sakhon Province and continue to provide local jobs. Benjarong sanitary ware production uses a high budget because of the high price of colour inks, gold and electricity, so there are problems securing adequate funding. There are also problems with the management process and a lack of expert craftsmen to write and design modern patterns in harmony with contemporary art and Thai social identity. Moreover, many Thai people do not realize the value of cultural heritage and Benjarong inheritance is at risk. Benjarong sanitary ware can reflect local knowledge and traditional handicrafts. The researchers propose patterns for three types of Benjarong sanitary ware: washbasins, wall tiles and soap ledges. Development of these products will increase functionality and aesthetics, whilst maintaining Thai heritage.

  14. Unpleasantness and physiological responses in using sanitary napkins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi-Kyong; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the physiological and psychological effects of sanitary napkins (SN) on women in hemorrhage treatment during the menstrual phase. Mesh and non-woven napkins were employed, and the effects were studied during the follicular and menstrual phases; mesh SN presented a higher textural surface-roughness. In both phases, the increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly dependent on the application intervals. The low-frequency component of systolic blood pressure variability significantly increased, while the salivary secretion rate decreased with the use of mesh SN during the follicular phase compared with non-woven SN. In addition, the heart rate during the menstrual phase significantly increased in subjects after the replacement of mesh SN compared with non-woven SN. In cases of wearing the unpleasant mesh SN, electroencephalography (EEG) manifested bilateral enhancements in beta and alpha2 waves in the frontal areas increased arousal level during both phases. From the above findings, napkin use increased physiological loading and wearing napkins with higher textural surface-roughness tended to increase activities of the autonomic nervous system and brain arousal level.

  15. Impact assessment of concentrate recirculation on the landfill gas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džolev Nikola M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of concentrate recirculation, as a product of leachate treated by reverse osmosis plant, on the production of landfill gas at the real-scale landfill for municipal solid waste. In an effort to come up with results experimental measurements were carried out at the landfill in Bijeljina. All measurements performed, were divided into 3 groups. The aims of two groups of measurement were to determine landfill gas and methane yield from concentrate and leachate in laboratory conditions (1st group and to find out concentrations of oxidizing matters (COD and BOD5 present in leachate and concentrate at different points of treatment as well as its variability over the time (2nd group which could be used to calculate the potential of landfill gas and methane generation from concentrate by recirculation, theoretically. 3rd group of measurements, carried out in parallel, have goal to determine the quality and quantity of the collected landfill gas at wells throughout the landfill. The results of analysis carried out in this experimental research show the clear evidence of concentrate recirculation impact on methane production by increasing the landfill gas flow, as well as its concentration within the landfill gas composition, at the nearby well. Although results indicated relatively high impact of concentrate recirculation on landfill gas production, comparing to its theoretical potential, the influence on the landfill at whole, is negligible, due to relatively low volumes in recirculation with respect to its size and objectively low potential given by organic matter present in concentrate.

  16. Dispersibility and emulsion-stabilizing effect of cellulose nanowhiskers esterified by vinyl acetate and vinyl cinnamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sèbe, Gilles; Ham-Pichavant, Frédérique; Pecastaings, Gilles

    2013-08-12

    The surface of cotton cellulose nanowhiskers (CNW's) was esterified by vinyl acetate (VAc) and vinyl cinnamate (VCin), in the presence of potassium carbonate as catalyst. Reactions were performed under microwave activation and monitored by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The supramolecular structure of CNW's before and after modification was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Distinctively from the acetylation treatment, an increase in particles dimensions was noted after esterification with VCin, which was assigned to π-π stacking interactions that may exist between cinnamoyl moieties. The dispersibility and emulsion stabilizing effect of acylated CNW's was examined in ethyl acetate, toluene, and cyclohexane, three organic solvents of medium to low polarity. The acylated nanoparticles could never be dispersed in toluene nor cyclohexane, but they formed stable dispersions in ethyl acetate while remaining dispersible in water. Stable ethyl acetate-in-water, toluene-in-water, and cyclohexane-in-water emulsions were successfully prepared with CNW's grafted with acetyl moieties, whereas the VCin-treated particles could stabilize only the cyclohexane-in-water emulsions. The impact of esterification treatment on emulsion stability and droplets size was particularly discussed.

  17. STATE OF THE PRACTICE FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS - SUMMARY OF USEPA WORKSHOP ON BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS: SUMMARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a summary of the Workshop on Landfill Bioreactors, held 9/6-7/2000 in Arlington, VA. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum to EPA, state and local governments, solid waste industry, and academic research representatives to exchange information and ideas on b...

  18. STATE OF THE PRACTICE FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS - SUMMARY OF USEPA WORKSHOP ON BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS: SUMMARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a summary of the Workshop on Landfill Bioreactors, held 9/6-7/2000 in Arlington, VA. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum to EPA, state and local governments, solid waste industry, and academic research representatives to exchange information and ideas on b...

  19. Quantification of long term emission potential from landfills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimovaara, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Novel approaches for the after-care of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills are based on technological measures to reduce the long term emission potential in a short time period. Biological degradation in landfills is a means to significantly reduce the long term emission potential. Leachate emissi

  20. COMMERCIAL-SCALE AEROBIC-ANAEROBIC BIOREACTOR LANDFILL OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sequential aerobic-anaerobic treatment system has been applied at a commercial scale (3,000 ton per day) municipal solid waste landfill in Kentucky, USA since 2001. In this system, the uppermost layer of landfilled waste is aerated and liquid waste including leachate, surface w...

  1. COMMERCIAL-SCALE AEROBIC-ANAEROBIC BIOREACTOR LANDFILL OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sequential aerobic-anaerobic treatment system has been applied at a commercial scale (3,000 ton per day) municipal solid waste landfill in Kentucky, USA since 2001. In this system, the uppermost layer of landfilled waste is aerated and liquid waste including leachate, surface w...

  2. Composition of leachate from old landfills in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Christophersen, Mette

    2001-01-01

    smaller landfills by a comprehensive review of the investigations carried out by the counties. In total 106 landfills were selected by criteria avoiding dilution effects. A database was constructed using a standard program. Statistical evaluations showed that the leachate concentrations in general...

  3. Kinetics of UV curable alkyl 3-mercaptopropionate-vinyl silizane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiale SONG; Lixin CHEN; Yazhou WANG; Weiwei CHEN; Rumin WANG

    2008-01-01

    Photopolymerization of vinyl-containing liquid silizane preceramic monomers copolymerized with thiol monomers, based on a step-growth radical polymerization mechanism, is a novel, rapid, inexpensive and simple tech-nique for producing preceramic structures from liquid pre-cursors. The kinetics of alkyl 3-mercptopropionate-vinyl silizane under UV irradiation is investigated by using real-time Fourier transform infrarcd (FT-IR) and photo-dif-ferential scanning calorimetry (photo-DSC). The experi-mental results show preliminarily that: (1) about 80% conversion of vinyl group has been achieved in the pres-ence of a low concentration photoinitiator under UV irra-diation; (2) by increasing the functionalities of the thiol group, the peak rate of copolymerization increases and the final conversion of the vinyl group decreases; (3) the copolymerization is primarily a bimolecular radical ter-mination process; (4) the copolymerization is first-order, i.e., its rate is proportional to the vinyl group concentra-tion and independent of the concentration of thiol group.

  4. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Augenstein; Ramin Yazdani; Rick Moore; Michelle Byars; Jeff Kieffer; Professor Morton Barlaz; Rinav Mehta

    2000-02-26

    Controlled landfilling is an approach to manage solid waste landfills, so as to rapidly complete methane generation, while maximizing gas capture and minimizing the usual emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated to more rapid and earlier completion to full potential by improving conditions (principally moisture, but also temperature) to optimize biological processes occurring within the landfill. Gas is contained through use of surface membrane cover. Gas is captured via porous layers, under the cover, operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project has been ongoing under NETL sponsorship for the past several years near Davis, CA. Results have been extremely encouraging. Two major benefits of the technology are reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times, more predictably, than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role both in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions and in US renewable energy. The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with

  5. Closed landfills to solar energy power plants: Estimating the solar potential of closed landfills in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsell, Devon R.

    Solar radiation is a promising source of renewable energy because it is abundant and the technologies to harvest it are quickly improving. An ongoing challenge is to find suitable and effective areas to implement solar energy technologies without causing ecological harm. In this regard, one type of land use that has been largely overlooked for siting solar technologies is closed or soon to be closed landfills. Utilizing Geographic Information System (GIS) based solar modeling; this study makes an inventory of solar generation potential for such sites in the state of California. The study takes account of various site characteristics in relation to the siting needs of photovoltaic (PV) geomembrane and dish-Stirling technologies (e.g., size, topography, closing date, solar insolation, presence of landfill gas recovery projects, and proximity to transmission grids and roads). This study reaches the three principal conclusions. First, with an estimated annual solar electricity generation potential of 3.7 million megawatt hours (MWh), closed or soon to be closed landfill sites could provide an amount of power significantly larger than California's current solar electric generation. Secondly, the possibility of combining PV geomembrane, dish-Stirling, and landfill gas (LFG) to energy technologies at particular sites deserves further investigation. Lastly, there are many assumptions, challenges, and limitations in conducting inventory studies of solar potential for specific sites, including the difficulty in finding accurate data regarding the location and attributes of potential landfills to be analyzed in the study. Furthermore, solar modeling necessarily simplifies a complex phenomenon, namely incoming solar radiation. Additionally, site visits, while necessary for finding details of the site, are largely impractical for a large scale study.

  6. Landfill energy complex based on the renewable energy installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanshin, Iskander; Kashapov, Nail; Gilmanshina, Suriya; Galeeva, Asiya

    2016-06-01

    The article presents the analysis of standard approaches to degassing of landfills. The need of comprehensive work on the degassing of the landfill body is identified. The author's task decomposition of the landfill degassing is formulated. The analysis of existing methods of work on degassing of landfills is presented. The author's approach is including implements of series of parallel studies in the framework of achieving a common goal to reduce the anthropogenic pressure on the ecosystem of the region due to the need for disposal of solid waste. An action plan for the development of the target problem-oriented management techniques of the landfill with the following development of the effective energy complex is formulated.

  7. Ultrasound assisted biogas production from landfill leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oz, Nilgün Ayman, E-mail: nilgunayman@comu.edu.tr; Yarimtepe, Canan Can

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Effect of low frequency ultrasound pretreatment on leachate was investigated. • Three different ultrasound energy inputs (200, 400 and 600 W/l) was applied. • Low-frequency ultrasound treatment increased soluble COD in landfill leachate. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased biogas production about 40%. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased total methane production rate about 20%. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to increase biogas production and methane yield from landfill leachate in anaerobic batch reactors by using low frequency ultrasound as a pretreatment step. In the first part of the study, optimum conditions for solubilization of organic matter in leachate samples were investigated using various sonication durations at an ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz. The level of organic matter solubilization during ultrasonic pretreatment experiments was determined by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) to total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD). The sCOD/tCOD ratio was increased from 47% in raw leachate to 63% after 45 min sonication at 600 W/l. Non-parametric Friedman’s test indicated that ultrasonic pretreatment has a significant effect on sCOD parameter for leachate (p < 0.05). In the second part of the study, anaerobic batch reactors were operated for both ultrasonically pretreated and untreated landfill leachate samples in order to assess the effect of sonication on biogas and methane production rate. In anaerobic batch reactor feed with ultrasonically pretreated leachate, 40% more biogas was obtained compared to the control reactor. For statistical analysis, Mann–Whitney U test was performed to compare biogas and methane production rates for raw and pretreated leachate samples and it has been found that ultrasonic pretreatment significantly enhanced biogas and methane production rates from leachate (p < 0.05) in anaerobic batch reactors. The overall results showed that low frequency

  8. Characterization and treatment of municipal landfill leachates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welander, Ulrika

    1998-03-01

    The efficiency of different leachate treatment methods for the removal of refractory organic compounds and ammonium-nitrogen was investigated. The methods evaluated were nitrification, denitrification, adsorption onto activated carbon, precipitation by ferric chloride or aluminum sulphate and oxidation by ozone or Fenton`s reagent. Furthermore, analyses were performed on leachates from municipal landfills of different kinds (a biocell deposit, a conventional mixed landfill containing household and industrial waste, and an ash deposit) in order to study the leachate composition in regard to various hydrophobic organic compounds as a function of the type of waste deposited. The results suggested that, in order to achieve a satisfactory removal of both ammonium-nitrogen and organic substances, the treatment of methanogenic leachates should be performed through a process combining biological and physical or chemical stages. When the biological treatment was not combined with a physical or a chemical process a COD removal of only 20-30% was achieved, whereas the toxicity of the leachate was significantly reduced. In contrast, a combination of nitrification and either adsorption onto activated carbon or oxidation using Fenton`s reagent resulted in a COD removal of about 80%, although certain specific organic compounds, such as phthalates, were unaffected by the treatment. A combination of nitrification, precipitation by ferric chloride and adsorption onto activated carbon removed 96% of the TOC. The analyses of leachates from municipal landfills of different types showed the leachate from the ash deposit to contain more C4-substituted phenols than the other leachates and to likewise contain alkanes, which the others did not 154 refs, 12 figs, 4 tabs

  9. Residential landfill remedial action construction case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creamer, P.D.; Martin, K.E. [RMT, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Fahrney, J.S. [City of Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The City of Madison - Mineral Point Park is located on Madison`s west side within a well-established neighborhood on approximately 11 acres of open green space, which was formerly the Mineral Point Landfill. In 1994, a comprehensive remedial action construction project was implemented to more effectively extract methane gas and control gas migration, to minimize potential groundwater contamination, and to improve surface water run-off controls. This was accomplished by installing two new gas extraction systems, constructing a 4-foot-thick composite final cover with a geosynthetic subsurface drainage system, and adding 12 feet of relief and a storm sewer system to promote positive surface water drainage. While these features alone are not uncommon to many other landfills, the challenging aspect of this project was to install them in extreme proximity to homes, condominiums, and a school that were quickly developed shortly after the landfill closed. Some of the issues unique to this project due to the residential setting included strict noise, dust, and odor controls, easement negotiations, limited hours of operation, limited material storage areas, utility relocations and crossings, continuous operation of the existing gas extraction system, limited construction access, and increased health and safety concerns for the general public. The need to keep the neighboring residents informed, as well as to address their concerns and requests, was also a critical requirement in both the design and construction phases. This paper will review the design of the remedial action plan and present the construction process, highlighting the constructability issues encountered and the innovative means to overcome them. The program for communication with the neighbors throughout the design and construction phases will also be addressed.

  10. [Design of software and hardware complex of automated systems for the management of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nichenko, P I; Muzychenko, F V; Malinovskiĭ, A A; Leont'ev, L Iu; Ustiukhin, N V

    2005-05-01

    A new information system (IS) - the software and hardware complex for controlling the state sanitary-and-epidemiological inspection (SSEI) was created. The system represents the aggregate of automated working places of RF MD chief state sanitary physician arid specialists from the department of state sanitary-and-epidemiological inspection of the Main Military Medical Headquarters. They interact through communications with working places of specialists from SSEI Main Center, chief state sanitary physicians from the Armed Forces, military districts (fleets) and RFAF CSSEI. The special software provides automation of the following technological processes: operative sanitary-and epidemiological and epidemiological monitoring; the epidemiological analysis of infectious diseases; the evaluation of quality and efficiency of sanitary-and epidemiological work. At present the complex works in the regime of experimental exploitation when the adjustment of communications and special software is performed.

  11. Airborne monitoring of landfills CH_{4} emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarra, Daniele; Gioli, Beniamino; Carlucci, Pantaleone; Magliulo, Vincenzo; Toscano, Piero; Zaldei, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    The disposal and treatment of waste produces emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), which contribute to global climate change. In particular, large quantities of Methane are released in the breakdown of organic matter in landfills. In this work we present a new payload of the Sky Arrow ERA aircraft and an original methodology to compute methane emissions, based on the atmospheric mass budget approach. The payload is presently being used for intensive measurements in the area known as "Terra dei fuochi". In this area, located between the provinces of Naples and Caserta (Southern Italy), urban waste combined with industrial toxic waste has been illegally dumped in old quarries or buried in the nearby countryside for decades. This led to patchy sources of methane, with several hot spots spread over a heterogeneous land. In this context, the use of aircraft allows for the investigation at the landscape as well as at the regional scale, taking into account all sources, including those of small dimensions. The Sky Arrow ERA is equipped with the Mobile Flux Platform, capable of deriving the 3D wind vector at 50 Hz, while CO2 and water vapor densities are measured by an infrared gas analyzer (Licor 7500). A new configuration of the Licor 7700 open path fast methane gas analyzer was developed, based on enclosing the sensor within a cylinder exposed to the external air in-flow. This set-up allows for fast response measurements, while avoiding external modifications, subjected to restrictions. Ambient methane mixing ratios in excess of 7 ppm were measured during landfills overpasses; performing grid flight plans at different heights, to describe a virtual box enclosing the study area, and applying interpolation procedures, it was possible to reconstruct wind components and scalar concentrations in a 5x5 kilometers domain containing 6 different landfills, with a resolution of 50 m horizontal and 20 m vertical. For each flight the methane mass flows along and across the wind

  12. Methane recovery from landfill in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaolai, L.

    1996-12-31

    GEF has approved a special project for a demonstration project for Methane Recovery from the Urban Refuse Land Fill. This paper will introduce the possibility of GHG reduction from the landfill in China, describe the activities of the GEF project, and the priorities for international cooperation in this field. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) approved the project, China Promoting Methane Recovery and Unlization from Mixed Municipal Refuse, at its Council meeting in last April. This project is the first one supported by international organization in this field.

  13. A facile synthesis of radioiodinated (Z)-vinyl iodides via vinylboronates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabalka, George W. E-mail: Kabalka@utk.edu; Akula, Murthy R.; Zhang, Jinhua

    2003-05-01

    A direct radioiodination of (Z)-vinylboronic acid esters to the corresponding vinyl iodides using Na{sup 123}I and chloramine-T is described. The boronates were prepared from vinyl iodides via palladium coupling reactions.

  14. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistarol, Giovana O.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E. M.; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A. B.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26635734

  15. Riduzione del tabagismo nei futuri operatori sanitari: alcune proposte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aporti

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: valutazione della prevalenza di fumatori negli studenti di medicina e di infermieristica al fine di migliorarne le competenze e i comportamenti in tema di tabagismo, in vista anche del loro futuro ruolo nelle Aziende Sanitarie1.

    Materiali e metodi: nell’ambito della Facoltà di Medicina dell’Università di Bologna è stato condotto uno studio sugli aspetti motivazionali e comportamentali delle abitudini al fumo nei giovani iscritti al primo anno di Medicina e di Infermieristica negli AA 1999-2000 e 2002-2003. L’indagine è stata svolta somministrando questionari anonimi agli studenti in aula. Si è ottenuta così una percentuale di rispondenti pari all’ 87 e al 90% della popolazione studentesca iscritta. Risultati: la prevalenza di fumatori cronici o occasionali è andata incrementandosi negli ultimi due anni del 7% tra gli studenti di infermieristica e dell’8,8% tra quelli di medicina, sino a raggiungere rispettivamente il 42,4% e il 25,7%. Nel 2002 il 13,5% dei fumatori ha dichiarato di contemplare la possibilità di smettere entro la fine del corso di studi. Nonostante la giovane età, il 10% di loro erano recidivi da tentativi di disassuefazione falliti.

    Conclusioni: evidente il trend di aumento dell’abitudine al fumo nelle categorie considerate e la difficoltà, a volte notevole, di evitare ricadute nel tabagismo in assenza di adeguato sostegno. Da questi dati è emersa la necessità di impegnarsi per garantire agli studenti sia una più specifica preparazione (si è previsto nel curriculum studi un modulo elective sul tabagismo che una possibilità di disassuefazione precoce, grazie a un canale preferenziale presso il centro per la Disassuefazione dal Fumo di Tabacco dell’ Azienda S. Orsola Malpighi (ove operano docenti del modulo.

  16. Environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana De Oliveira Fistarol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g. virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms, or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g. vibrios. Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift towards flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro.

  17. Synthesis and characterisation of polymeric nanofibers poly (vinyl alcohol and poly (vinyl alcohol/silica using indigenous electrospinning set up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sasipriya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous design and fabrication horizontal of electrospinning set up was developed to facilitate with double drum conveyor belt system to make ease in harvesting nanofibers rapidly. As a bench mark study, organic-inorganic nanofiber composite was synthesised employing our indigenous electrospinning set up. The aqueous solution of poly (vinyl alcohol and poly (vinyl alcohol/silica sol were employed to produce nanofiber mats in order to vary the experimental parameters such as voltage, solvent effect and the effect of catalyst. The synthesised pure electro spun poly (vinyl alcohol and poly (vinyl alcohol/silica sol fibers were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Atomic force microscopy (AFM and Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR. According to the results, the fine polymeric nanofibers were achieved in the size range of 100-500 nm for pure poly (vinyl alcohol fiber and 100-700 nm for polyvinyl alcohol/silica and the constitution of silica in rendering better fiber mats with this double drum set up.

  18. Synthesis and characterisation of polymeric nanofibers poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly (vinyl alcohol)/silica using indigenous electrospinning set up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasipriya, K.; Suriyaprabha, R.; Prabu, P.; Rajendran, V., E-mail: veerajendran@gmail.com [Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, K. S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-11-01

    Indigenous design and fabrication horizontal of electrospinning set up was developed to facilitate with double drum conveyor belt system to make ease in harvesting nanofibers rapidly. As a bench mark study, organic-inorganic nanofiber composite was synthesised employing our indigenous electrospinning set up. The aqueous solution of poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly (vinyl alcohol)/silica sol were employed to produce nanofiber mats in order to vary the experimental parameters such as voltage, solvent effect and the effect of catalyst. The synthesised pure electro spun poly (vinyl alcohol) and poly (vinyl alcohol)/silica sol fibers were characterized by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR). According to the results, the fine polymeric nanofibers were achieved in the size range of 100-500 nm for pure poly (vinyl alcohol) fiber and 100-700 nm for polyvinyl alcohol/silica and the constitution of silica in rendering better fiber mats with this double drum set up. (author)

  19. Determination of vinyl orientation of mouse neuroglobin by 2D nuclear Overhauser spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Yuan Zhou; Xiao Yan Wei

    2007-01-01

    1H NMR has been used to determine the 2-, 4-vinyl orientation of heme active site from oxidized mouse neuroglobin (mNgb).The NOEs between 3-methyl and Hα, Hβ of 2-vinyl, together with the NOEs between 5-methyl and Hα, Hβ of 4-vinyl, allowed the unambiguous determination of trans and cis orientations for the 2- and 4-vinyl groups in the mNgb, respectively.

  20. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Robert; Curcija, Charlie; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2011-07-07

    The subject of glass solar reflectance and its contribution to permanent vinyl siding distortion has not been extensively studied, and some phenomena are not yet well understood. This white paper presents what is known regarding the issue and identifies where more research is needed. Three primary topics are discussed: environmental factors that control the transfer of heat to and from the siding surface; vinyl siding properties that may affect heat build-up and permanent distortion; and factors that determine the properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces, including insulating window glass. Further research is needed to fully characterize the conditions associated with siding distortion, the scope of the problem, physical properties of vinyl siding, insulating window glass reflection characteristics, and possible mitigation or prevention strategies.

  1. Radiation-chemical preparation of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duflot, Anastasia V.; Kitaeva, Natalia K.; Duflot, Vladimir R.

    2015-02-01

    This work reports the usage of method of radiation-chemical synthesis to prepare cross-linked hydrogels from poly(vinyl alcohol) modified with glycidyl methacrylate. Synthesis kinetics of modified poly(vinyl alcohol) and properties of hydrogels were studied. The gel fraction, swelling, mechanical properties, and water content of the hydrogels were measured. It was found that gel fraction increases with increasing radiation dose, concentration of modified poly(vinyl alcohol), and reaches 60%. It was established by differential scanning calorimetry that a fraction of the "bound" water in hydrogels is 50-70% and independent of gel fraction content. In addition to "bound" and "free" states, water in hydrogels is also present in the intermediate state.

  2. [Activity of sanitary surveillances/offices in Warsaw at the time of the second republic of Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Włodzimierz

    2006-01-01

    At the time of the Second Republic of Poland, Warsaw, the capital of the rebirth country, was a neglected town as regards sanitary conditions. The genesis of this situation dates back to the period of the national bondage by the Russian partitioner, and since 1915 by the German invader who did not care about the problems associated with public health. The sanitary and hygienic conditions worsened significantly in 1916, after incorporating into Warsaw large out-of-town regions whose housing was of the rural character with numerous wooden cottages, field roads, without any sanitary sewage system. Poor municipal sanitary-maintenance conditions and infectious diseases spreading in Warsaw made the Town Authorities implement preventive action and entrust sanitary surveillances with this difficult task. These surveillances were set up at the time of the First World War, and after 1920 were changed into sanitary offices. Their duties included control of acute infectious diseases, sanitary inspection of living quarters, sites of production and selling of food articles, plants, service outlets, shops of a different character, as well as surveillance of food purchased by the inhabitants. In each sanitary office a doctor was employed who supervised the work of one, two or three sanitary inspectors.

  3. Assessing methods to estimate emissions of non-methane organic compounds from landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saquing, Jovita M.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Yazdani, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    in estimating speciated NMOC flux from landfills; (2) determine for what types of landfills the ratio method may be in error and why, using recent field data to quantify the spatial variation of (CNMOCs/CCH4) in landfills; and (3) formulate alternative models for estimating NMOC emissions from landfills...

  4. Where Are Used Pallets Going? New Study to Connect Landfills and Pallet Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip A. Araman; Robert Bush

    1995-01-01

    What's happening across the U.S. with landfills and used pallets? Are landfills still accepting wood pallets? And, if so, how many? Have the number of pallets being landfilled increased or decreased? Are separated pallets being recycled at the landfills, or are they simply buried? What are the tipping fees? Are tipping fees lower if pallets are separated prior to...

  5. 40 CFR 60.752 - Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... municipal solid waste landfills. 60.752 Section 60.752 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... of Performance for Municipal Solid Waste Landfills § 60.752 Standards for air emissions from municipal solid waste landfills. (a) Each owner or operator of an MSW landfill having a design capacity...

  6. Laboratory millimeter wave spectrum and astronomical search for vinyl acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesniková, L.; Peña, I.; Alonso, J. L.; Cernicharo, J.; Tercero, B.; Kleiner, I.

    2015-05-01

    Context. The recent discovery of methyl acetate in Orion KL makes vinyl acetate, CH3C=OOCH=CH2, a potential molecule in the interstellar medium. We obtained very accurate spectroscopic constants in a comprehensive laboratory analysis of its rotational spectra which can be used to predict those transition frequencies towards interstellar sources. Aims: We present the experimental study and theoretical analysis of the ground torsional state of vinyl acetate in a large spectral range for astrophysical use. Methods: The room-temperature rotational spectrum of vinyl acetate has been measured from 125 to 305 GHz to provide direct frequencies to the astronomical community. Additional measurements have also been made using a broadband CP-FTMW spectrometer in the region of 6-18 GHz. Transition lines, corresponding to the most stable conformer, have been observed and assigned. All the rotational transitions revealed the A-E splitting due to the methyl internal rotation and had to be treated with a specific internal rotation code (BELGI-Cs). Results: We analyzed 2508 transitions up to J'' = 75 for vt = 0 for the most stable conformer of vinyl acetate. The new lines were globally fitted with previously published data and 24 parameters of the Hamiltonian were accurately determined. The spectral features of vinyl acetate were then searched for in Orion KL. Using the whole line survey of Orion KL (80-280 GHz) obtained with the IRAM 30 m radio telescope we can provide only an upper limit to the column density of vinyl acetate. However, using the ALMA science verification data we obtain a tentative detection of this species that will require further search at other frequencies to confirm its presence in this high mass star forming region. Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/577/A91

  7. Palladium-catalyzed conversion of aryl and vinyl triflates to bromides and chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoqiang; Hyde, Alan M; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2010-10-13

    The palladium-catalyzed conversion of aryl and vinyl triflates to aryl and vinyl halides (bromides and chlorides) has been developed using dialkylbiaryl phosphine ligands. A variety of aryl, heteroaryl, and vinyl halides can be prepared via this method in good to excellent yields.

  8. An improved palladium-catalyzed conversion of aryl and vinyl triflates to bromides and chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jun; Wang, Xinyan; Zhang, Yong; Buchwald, Stephen L

    2011-09-16

    A facile Pd-catalyzed conversion of aryl and vinyl triflates to aryl and vinyl halides (bromides and chlorides) is described. This method allows convenient access to a variety of aryl, heteroaryl, and vinyl halides in good to excellent yields and with greatly simplified conditions relative to our previous report. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  9. 46 CFR 154.1750 - Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. 154... and Operating Requirements § 154.1750 Butadiene or vinyl chloride: Refrigeration system. A refrigeration system for butadiene or vinyl chloride must not use vapor compression unless it: (a) Avoids...

  10. Determination of Vinyl Chloride at ug/l. Level in Water by Gas Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellar, Thomas A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    A quantitative method for the determination of vinyl chloride in water is presented. Vinyl chloride is transfered to the gas phase by bubbling inert gas through the water. After concentration on silica gel or Carbosieve-B, determination is by gas chromatography. Confirmation of vinyl chloride is by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. (Author/BT)

  11. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. 61.65 Section 61.65 Protection of Environment... AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.65 Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of an ethylene...

  12. 21 CFR 177.1960 - Vinyl chloride-hexene-1 copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl chloride-hexene-1 copolymers. 177.1960... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1960 Vinyl chloride-hexene-1 copolymers. The vinyl chloride-hexene-1 copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section or...

  13. 21 CFR 178.2650 - Organotin stabilizers in vinyl chloride plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Organotin stabilizers in vinyl chloride plastics... AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Antioxidants and Stabilizers § 178.2650 Organotin stabilizers in vinyl chloride... vinyl chloride homopolymers and copolymers complying with the provisions of § 177.1950 or § 177.1980...

  14. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8658 Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and.... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and...

  15. 21 CFR 175.350 - Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. 175.350... COATINGS Substances for Use as Components of Coatings § 175.350 Vinyl acetate/crotonic acid copolymer. A copolymer of vinyl acetate and crotonic acid may be safely used as a coating or as a component of a...

  16. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-29

    The Y-12 Plant, K-25 Site, and ORNL are managed by DOE`s Operating Contractor (OC), Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) for DOE. Operation associated with the facilities by the Operating Contractor and subcontractors, DOE contractors and the DOE Federal Building result in the generation of industrial solid wastes as well as construction/demolition wastes. Due to the waste streams mentioned, the Y-12 Industrial Waste Landfill IV (IWLF-IV) was developed for the disposal of solid industrial waste in accordance to Rule 1200-1-7, Regulations Governing Solid Waste Processing and Disposal in Tennessee. This revised operating document is a part of a request for modification to the existing Y-12 IWLF-IV to comply with revised regulation (Rule Chapters 1200-1-7-.01 through 1200-1-7-.08) in order to provide future disposal space for the ORR, Subcontractors, and the DOE Federal Building. This revised operating manual also reflects approved modifications that have been made over the years since the original landfill permit approval. The drawings referred to in this manual are included in Drawings section of the package. IWLF-IV is a Tennessee Department of Environmental and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class 11 disposal unit.

  17. Detection of contaminant plumes released from landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenigül, N. B.; Hendsbergen, A. T.; Elfeki, A. M. M.; Dekking, F. M.

    2006-06-01

    Contaminant leaks released from landfills are a significant threat to groundwater quality. The groundwater detection monitoring systems installed in the vicinity of such facilities are vital. In this study the detection probability of a contaminant plume released from a landfill has been investigated by means of both a simulation and an analytical model for both homogeneous and heterogeneous aquifer conditions. The results of the two models are compared for homogeneous aquifer conditions to illustrate the errors that might be encountered with the simulation model. For heterogeneous aquifer conditions contaminant transport is modelled by an analytical model using effective (macro) dispersivities. The results of the analysis show that the simulation model gives the concentration values correctly over most of the plume length for homogeneous aquifer conditions, and that the detection probability of a contaminant plume at given monitoring well locations match quite well. For heterogeneous aquifer conditions the approximating analytical model based on effective (macro) dispersivities yields the average concentration distribution satisfactorily. However, it is insufficient in monitoring system design since the discrepancy between the detection probabilities of contaminant plumes at given monitoring well locations computed by the two models is significant, particularly with high dispersivity and heterogeneity.

  18. LANDFILL SITTING USING MCDM in TEHRAN METROPOLITAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Abediniangerabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Managing Municipal Solid Waste in order to control waste materials in Tehran Metropolitan with a population of over 8.5 million persons and daily production of 7500 tons of trash seems an evitable necessity. Daily production of such amount of trash and accumulation of them in the southern part of Tehran (Kahrizak due to lack of proper and standard methods of landfilling have caused severe problems by creating a latex lake of twelve hectares. Among these problems, penetration of infection and contamination to underground waters, causing excessive problems for soil and agricultural lands can be mentioned. In such conditions caused for Tehran, lack of solution finding for the issue would bring heavy outcomes for the Tehran Metropolitan in terms of environmental and economic issues. In this paper, efforts are taken to find a new place as a landfill by applying sustainable development approach. For this, in order to use the criteria propounded in sustainable development, multi-criteria decision making methods has been applied for weighing and spatial analysis has been used to combining them for indicating the most appropriate site. In this way, the new site would be selected by observance of sustainable development would be a place with the least environmental and social damages while being economically affordable.

  19. Acetylation of cellulose nanowhiskers with vinyl acetate under moderate conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Nihat Sami; Tingaut, Philippe; Ozmen, Nilgül; Henry, Nathan; Harper, David; Dadmun, Mark; Sèbe, Gilles

    2009-10-08

    A novel and straightforward method for the surface acetylation of cellulose nanowhiskers by transesterification of vinyl acetate is proposed. The reaction of vinyl acetate with the hydroxyl groups of cellulose nanowhiskers obtained from cotton linters was examined with potassium carbonate as catalyst. Results indicate that during the first stage of the reaction, only the surface of the nanowhiskers was modified, while their dimensions and crystallinity remained unchanged. With increasing reaction time, diffusion mechanisms controlled the rate, leading to nanowhiskers with higher levels of acetylation, smaller dimensions, and lower crystallinity. In THF, a solvent of low polarity, the suspensions from modified nanowhiskers showed improved stability with increased acetylation.

  20. [Activity of sanitary surveillances in Vilnius at the time of the Second Republic of Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Włodzimierz

    2009-01-01

    At the time of the Second Republic of Poland, in March 1922, the city of Vilnius together with the Vilnius Region was incorporated into Poland. Sanitary and health negligence was one of the main problems of the city. The genesis of that situation dates back to the 120-year national bondage, when the city was under the Russian rule. Since 1915 it was occupied by the German invader, and from January to April 1919 it belonged to Soviet Russia. The legacy left by this epoch concerned bad housing conditions, problems with removal of impurities, scarcity of fresh water supply, uneven and dirt roads, which along with other bionegative factors resulted in dissemination of contagious diseases and occurrence of other health risks. In Vilnius of the interwar period, similarly to other big cities in Poland, sanitary surveillances played a significant role in controlling acute contagious diseases, inspecting sanitary conditions of living quarters, service outlets, industrial plants, sites of production and selling food articles, as well as surveillance of food. Municipal doctors supervised the work of sanitary inspectors in each sanitary office.

  1. Danish landfill gas plants with automatic measuring and regulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willumsen, H. [Danish Land Development Service (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The first landfill gas plants in the USA were established on large and deep landfills. A number of wells were made and connected to a horizontal suction pipe through which the gas was sucked from the landfill. Most of the gas extraction systems are still constructed that way. However, control and optimising of the gas extraction can be problematic when a great number of drillings are connected to the same suction pipe. Since 1981 the Danish Ministry of Energy has supported selected research and development projects in connection with extraction and utilisation of landfill gas from Danish landfills, including a pilot plant implemented in 1983. In 1985 a EU-financed demonstration plant was established in Viborg, Denmark. In connection with the pilot and EU demonstration plant an automatic measuring and regulation system was developed to secure optimal gas recovery, identical gas quality and furthermore, it has the advantage of remote monitoring and regulation which save operational costs. The automatic measuring and regulation system is in particular well-suited when the landfill is of a relatively low depth and where regulation of the extraction may cause problems embodied in atmospheric air being sucked down in the landfill causing fluctuation of the gas quality and consequently of the gas quantity. (Author)

  2. Recovery of landfill gas. Udnyttelse af lossepladsgas; Demonstrationsprojekt: Endelige rapporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willumsen, H.C. (Novo Industri A/S, Bagsvaerd (Denmark))

    1989-01-01

    The present report treats of the establishment of a demonstration plant for exploitation of landfill gas, the experience that has been gleaned and the results achieved in this connection. The main objective of the project was to construct a plant which can ensure optimum recovery and exploitation of the landfill gas in small landfills where the filling height is relatively low. Also, the plant should be economically viable. For optimum recovery a special adjustment system was introduced, which has proved very satisfactory, as it has resulted in an increase in the recovered gas volume and ensures a constant methane content. The landfill gas is used in a boiler which supplies heat to Viborg district heating system. Some of the gas is used in a Stirling motor in order to test how this particular motor works on landfill gas. The report contains information about the measuring and registration system of the plant and data derived from the measuring programme. The project has been implemented by Crone Koch in a close cooperation with the owner of the landfill, Viborg Municipality, and the main contractor, A/S Marius Pedersen. The demonstration project has been granted financial support by the Commission of the EEC (Contract no. BM741/83, Recovery of Landfill Gas''), and by the Danish Ministry of Energy. 42 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Integrated modeling and up-scaling of landfill processes and heterogeneity using stochastic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bun, A.; Heimovaara, T.J.; Baviskar, S.M.; Van Turnhout, A.G.; Konstantaki, L.A.

    2012-01-01

    Municipal solid waste landfills are a very complex and heterogeneous systems. The waste in a landfill body is a heterogeneous mixture of a wide range of materials containing high levels of organic matter, high amounts of salts and a wide range of different organic and inorganic substances, such as heavy metals and organic solvents. A range of processes of different nature occur within landfills. Bio-geochemical processes in a landfill body lead to the development of landfill gases, a mixture ...

  4. Bacterial community diversity in municipal waste landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liyan; Wang, Yangqing; Tang, Wei; Lei, Yu

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about the bacterial diversity of landfills and how environmental factors impact the diversity. In this study, PCR-based 454 pyrosequencing was used to investigate the bacterial communities of ten landfill leachate samples from five landfill sites in China. A total of 137 K useable sequences from the V3-V6 regions of the 16S rRNA gene were retrieved from 205 K reads. These sequences revealed the presence of a large number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the landfills (709-1599 OTUs per sample). The most predominant bacterial representatives in the landfills investigated, regardless of geographic area, included Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. The phyla Fusobacteria and Tenericutes were also found for the first time to be predominant in the landfills. The phylum Fusobacteria predominated (51.5 and 48.8%) in two semi-arid landfills, and the phylum Tenericutes dominated (30.6%) at one humid, subtropical landfill. Further, a large number of Pseudomonas was detected in most samples, comprising the dominant group and accounting for 40.9 to 92.4% of the total abundance. Principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis based on OTU abundance showed that the abundant taxa separated the bacterial community. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) suggested that precipitation and landfilling age significantly impact on the bacterial community structure. The bacterial community function (e.g., cellulolytic bacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), sulfate-oxidizing bacteria, and xenobiotic organic compound (XOC)-degrading bacteria) was also diverse, but the pattern is unclear.

  5. [Sanitary and epidemiological supply for the Russian Army during the First World War (1914-1918)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    gorelova, L E; Loktev, A E

    2014-02-01

    At the beginning of the First World War the most typical diseases in the Russian Army were typhoid, typhus, diphtheria, cholera, smallpox and other infectious diseases. At the beginning of the First World War the level of infectious morbidity was significantly low, but further increased and pandemic risk arose. Servicemen were mostly ill with typhus, relapsing fever, flux, cholera, smallpox and typhoid. The highest mortality rate was registered in patients with cholera, typhus and typhoid. According the prewar deployment program of the Russian Army anti-epidemiologic facilities were established. By the end of war were established 110 sanitary-and-hygienic and 90 disinfection units. However, organization of anti-epidemiologic security was unsatisfactory. Due to lack of specialists and equipment anti-epidemiologic facilities of units were under strength. Commanders of sanitary units and sanitary service had not enough resources for operational service in the Forces and facilities of rear area.

  6. Sanitary survey af produktionsområder i Løgstør Bredning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Mørk; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Göke, Cordula

    According to the Regulation for food products of animal origin (Europa Parlamentets og Rådets Forordning (EF) Nr. 854), microbiological classification of production areas for live bivalve mollusks etc.3 and the associated sampling plan are required to be based on a so-called ‘sanitary surveys......’. A sanitary survey is an assessment of the interactions between potential sources of microbial pollution, climate conditions and oceanography in the area. The EU Commission guidance for making a sanitary survey formed the basis for this report. However, in certain cases, the Danish practice...... the past 10 years (2007-2016). Within this data set, 99.2 % of a total of 908 samples contain E. coli A level (survey of Løgstør Broads identifies an area that in general is a microbial homogeneous, stable...

  7. Usage of risk management system for improvement of sanitary-epidemiological control and surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Karelin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviewsthe possibility to work out and introduce risk-oriented model for control and surveillance in the field of the sanitary-epidemiological well-being of the population in the Russian Federation. In implementation of risk-oriented approaches, choice of a model is of importance. If the static model is the starting one, then in the future, the dynamic model will be the most promising allowing for assessment of stability of the sanitary-epidemiologic situation in time. Introduction and development of risk-oriented models for control and surveillance is the actual objective at realization of sanitary-epidemiological control (surveillance . It is necessary to work out and harmonize concept, procedural apparatus, and scientific and methodological support of risk-oriented control and surveillance on the base of the best world patterns and standards.

  8. Use of natural zeolites as a landfill liner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncan, Ahmet; Tuncan, Mustafa; Koyuncu, Hakan; Guney, Yucel

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate certain features of a novel material proposed to serve as an impervious liner in landfills. Various ratios of bentonites and zeolites (B/Z) compacted at optimum water content were tested to determine the strength parameters, permeability, pH, heavy metals and other properties. A B/Z ratio of 0.10 was found to be an ideal landfill liner material regarding its low hydraulic conductivity and high cation exchange capacity. The use of B/Z mixtures as an alternative to clay liners would provide potential to significantly reduce the thickness of base liner for landfills.

  9. Landfill gas as vehicle fuel; Deponigas som fordonsbraensle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjaminsson, Johan; Johansson, Nina; Karlsvaerd, Johan (Grontmij AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-03-15

    The landfill gas extraction in Sweden 2008 was 370 GWh. Mainly because of lack of available technologies for landfill gas upgrading and high assessed upgrading costs, landfill gas has so far only been used for heating and cogenerations plants (CHP). In recent years, interest has been brought to upgrade landfill gas and this study highlights the possibility of using landfill gas as fuel for vehicles. A decision in investment in an upgrading installation requires a forecast of future gas production and landfill gas extraction. From 2005, dispose of organic waste is prohibited, reducing the number of active landfills and the landfill gas production will go down. Factors such as moisture content, design of the final coverage and landfill gas collection system have a major impact on the extraction. It is therefore difficult to make appropriate predictions of the future gas production. Today's landfill gas extraction is approximately 35% of the landfill gas production and in the light of this, extraction can be in a level comparable to today's at least ten years ahead, provided that the extraction system is being expanded and that measurements are taken to so that landfills should not dry out. In comparison with biogas from anaerobic digestion in a dedicated digester, landfill gas has a high percentage of nitrogen and a content of many contaminants such as organic silicon compounds (siloxanes) and halogenated hydrocarbons (hydrocarbons containing the halogens chlorine, fluorine and bromine). This often requires more treatment and a further separation step. A common method for purification of landfill gas is regenerative adsorption on a dedicated adsorption material. Carbon dioxide is separated by conventional techniques like PSA, water scrubber and membranes. The main barrier to use landfill gas as vehicle fuel is a cost-effective separation of nitrogen that does not generate high methane losses. Nitrogen is separated by PSA or distillation technique (cryogenic

  10. Performance of bioreactor landfill with waste mined from a dumpsite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Obuli P; Swati, M; Nagendran, R; Joseph, Kurian

    2007-12-01

    Emissions from landfills via leachate and gas are influenced by state and stability of the organic matter in the solid waste and the environmental conditions within the landfill. This paper describes a modified, ecologically sound waste treatment technique, where municipal solid waste is anaerobically treated in a lysimeter-scale landfill bioreactor with leachate recirculation to enhance organic degradation. The results demonstrate a substantial decrease in organic matter (BOD 99%, COD 88% and TOC 81%) and a clear decrease in nutrient concentrations especially ammonia (85%) over a period of 1 year with leachate recirculation.

  11. Creation of Integrated System of Cosmonauts Sanitary-Hygienic Supply: Researches, Problems and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumilina, I.; Krivobok, S.; Shumilina, G.

    The necessity of Integrated System creation for cosmonauts Sanitary - Hygienic Supply has appeared at realization of joint flights on the International Space Station (ISS). Russian hygiene means manufactured and tested in the long space flights conditions and personal hygiene means of foreign manufacture, which were developed without chamber experiments conditions, are mean to use for Integrated System. The realization of Sanitary - Hygienic Water (SHW) regeneration is supposed for water circulation. The researches directed on equipment creation for clothing washing and clothing drying were carried out for the purposes of goods turnover optimization on ISS The variants of possible realization of water procedures (shower-bath, face washing) are studied. New and essentially date are received for an estimation of efficiency of various ways of cosmonauts Sanitary - Hygienic Supply, including results of tests for new generation regeneration SHW systems with Nanofiltration unit on various kinds real SHW. The improvement of washing-up liquids, individual selection of a complex of personal hygiene means with the man skin condition registration allows to raise of preventive measures use efficiency directed on prevention of adverse skin changes and skin diseases. The analysis of the equipment and methods for clothing washing and clothing drying for conditions of long space flight are carried out. The experimental data on textile materials drying are received. The investigations covered a wide range of issues associated with Sanitary - Hygienic Supply Integrated System including Personal Hygiene complex (items and techniques), ways of Sanitary - Hygienic Supply realization, methods of wastewater regeneration. The results of researches are especially urgent for cosmonauts Sanitary - Hygienic Supply System creation for long space flights, in particular, "Mars" flights at impossibility of updating of water stock, clothing stock etc.

  12. Impact assessment of intermediate soil cover on landfill stabilization by characterizing landfilled municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Guangxia; Yue, Dongbei; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Rui; Shi, Xiaochong; He, Liang; Guo, Jingting; Miao, Haomei; Nie, Yongfeng

    2013-10-15

    Waste samples at different depths of a covered municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill in Beijing, China, were excavated and characterized to investigate the impact of intermediate soil cover on waste stabilization. A comparatively high amount of unstable organic matter with 83.3 g kg(-1) dry weight (dw) total organic carbon was detected in the 6-year-old MSW, where toxic inorganic elements containing As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn of 10.1, 0.98, 85.49, 259.7, 530.4, 30.5, 84.0, and 981.7 mg kg(-1) dw, respectively, largely accumulated because of the barrier effect of intermediate soil cover. This accumulation resulted in decreased microbial activities. The intermediate soil cover also caused significant reduction in moisture in MSW under the soil layer, which was as low as 25.9%, and led to inefficient biodegradation of 8- and 10-year-old MSW. Therefore, intermediate soil cover with low permeability seems to act as a barrier that divides a landfill into two landfill cells with different degradation processes by restraining water flow and hazardous matter.

  13. Far-Infrared Spectroscopy of Syn-Vinyl Alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raston, Paul; Bunn, Hayley

    2016-06-01

    Vinyl alcohol has been extensively studied in both the microwave and mid-IR spectral regions, where 9 out of 15 vibrational modes have been identified. Here we present the first far-IR spectrum of vinyl alcohol, collected below 700 wn at the Australian Synchrotron. The high resolution (0.001 wn) spectrum reveals the νb{11} and νb{15} fundamentals of syn-vinyl alcohol at 489 wn and 407 wn, in addition to two hot bands of the νb{15} mode at 369 wn and 323 wn. High J transitions in the R-branch of the νb{15} band were found to be perturbed by an a-axis Coriolis interaction with the nearby νb{11} state. The νb{15} torsional mode of syn-vinyl alcohol was fit using a Watson's A-reduced Hamiltonian to yield rotational, centrifugal distortion, and Coriolis coupling parameters. S. Saito, Chem. Phys. Lett. 42, 3 (1976) M. Rodler et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 106, 4029 (1948) Y. Koga et al., J. Mol. Spec. 145, 315 (1991) D-L. Joo et al., J. Mol. Spec. 197, 68 (1999)

  14. A Kinetic Study of the Emulsion Polymerization of Vinyl Acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, N.; Nyhagen, L.

    1973-01-01

    The emulsion polymerization of vinyl acetate was studied at 50°C. It was found that the rate of polymerization was proportional to the 0.5 power of the initiator concentration and the 0.25 power of the number of particles. The number of particles was proportional to the power 0.5 ± 0.05 of the em...

  15. The Vinyl Chloride Problem: Several Routes to One Compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nechvatal, A.; And Others

    This unit is one of a group of units written to fit the Certificate of Sixth Year Studies (CSYS) chemistry course, but it could be used in most Sixth Form courses. These materials are designed for use in a group decision-making format with each of three groups representing a different manufacturing process which produces vinyl chloride. The unit…

  16. Aerobic Oxidation of Methyl Vinyl Ketone in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG,Xiao-Yue(欧阳小月); JIANG,Huan-Feng(江焕峰); CHENG,Jin-Sheng(程金生); ZHANG,Qun-Jian(张群健)

    2002-01-01

    Aerobic oxidation of methyl vinyl ketone to acetal in supercritical carbon dioxide are achieved in high conversion and high selectivity when oxygen pressure reaches 0.5MPa. The effects of cocatalysts,additive, pressure and temperature of the reaction are studied in detail.

  17. APPLICATION OF TRITON X-100 COATED POLY VINYL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ... of Cu(II), Fe(II) and Zn(II) ions based on the uptake of their complexes with ... Poly vinyl chloride high molecular weight was purchased from Fluka .... 7.0 and then the charge intensity of the functional groups of solid materials played a crucial.

  18. Landfills, Landfills - only two in County, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Board Of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Landfills dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2008. It is described as 'Landfills -...

  19. Landfills, Landfill point locations within Iredell County, NC, Published in 2009, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Iredell County GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Landfills dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2009. It is described as 'Landfill...

  20. Are closed landfills free of CH_{4} emissions? A case study of Arico's landfill, Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrancos, José; Cook, Jenny; Phillips, Victoria; Asensio-Ramos, María; Melián, Gladys; Hernández, Pedro A.; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2016-04-01

    Landfills are authentic chemical and biological reactors that introduce in the environment a wide amount of gas pollutants (CO2, CH4, volatile organic compounds, etc.) and leachates. Even after years of being closed, a significant amount of landfill gas could be released to the atmosphere through the surface in a diffuse form, also known as non-controlled emission. The study of the spatial-temporal distribution of diffuse emissions provides information of how a landfill degassing takes place. The main objective of this study was to estimate the diffuse uncontrolled emission of CH4 into the atmosphere from the closed Arico's landfill (0.3 km2) in Tenerife Island, Spain. To do so, a non-controlled biogenic gas emission survey of nearly 450 sampling sites was carried out during August 2015. Surface gas sampling and surface landfill CO2 efflux measurements were carried out at each sampling site by means of a portable non-dispersive infrared spectrophotometer (NDIR) model LICOR Li800 following the accumulation chamber method. Landfill gases, CO2 and CH4, were analyzed using a double channel VARIAN 4900 micro-GC. The CH4 efflux was computed combining CO2 efflux and CH4/CO2 ratio in the landfill's surface gas. To quantify the total CH4 emission, CH4 efflux contour map was constructed using sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) as interpolation method. The total diffuse CH4 emission was estimated in 2.2 t d-1, with CH4 efflux values ranging from 0-922 mg m-2 d-1. This type of studies provides knowledge of how a landfill degasses and serves to public and private entities to establish effective systems for extraction of biogas. This aims not only to achieve higher levels of controlled gas release from landfills resulting in a higher level of energy production but also will contribute to minimize air pollution caused by them.

  1. [Actual sanitary, epidemiological and hygienic aspects of a dietitian's activities in stationary medical institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, B P; Kerimoval, M G; Elizarova, E V; Petrenko, A S

    2015-01-01

    The article shows the relevance of the main areas of dietitians' training to sanitary and epidemiological and hygienic issues of organization of clinical nutrition in stationary medical institutions (MIs) at training and refresher courses on dietetics. The attention is focused on the new legislative, policy and regulatory instruments, sanitary and epidemiological and hygienic requirements, providing high quality, safety and efficacy of nutritional therapy in MIs. The role of dietitian in the organization of clinical nutrition is highlighted. There were set out rights and responsibilities of a dietitian as a representative of MI under inspections by Rospotrebnadzor bodies; the demands, put forward by these bodies to the tested object, and actions, taken by them.

  2. Estimation of emissions of nonmethane organic compounds from a closed landfill site using a landfill gas emission model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Nwachukwu, A. W. Diya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonmethane organic compounds (NMOC emissions from landfills often constitute significant risks both to human health and the general environment. To date very little work has been done on tracking the emissions of NMOC from landfills. To this end, a concerted effort was made to investigate the total annual mass emission rate of NMOC from a closed landfill site in South Manchester, United Kingdom. This was done by using field estimates of NMOC concentration and the landfill parameters into the Landfill Gas Emission Model embedded in ACTS and RISK software. Two results were obtained: (i a deterministic outcome of 1.7218 x 10-7 kg/year, which was calculated from mean values of the field estimates of NMOC concentration and the landfill parameters, and (ii a probabilistic outcome of 1.66 x 10-7 - 1.78 x 10-7 kg/year, which is a range of value obtained after Monte Carlo simulation of the uncertain parameters of the landfill including NMOC concentration. A comparison between these two results suggests that the probabilistic outcome is a more representative and reliable estimate of the total annual mass emission of NMOC especially given the variability of the parameters of the model. Moreover, a comparison of the model result and the safety standard of 5.0 x 10-5 kg/year indicate that the mass emission of NMOC from the studied landfill is significantly less than previously thought. However, given that this can accumulate to a dangerous level over a long period of time (such as the age of this landfill site; it may have started affecting the health of the people living within the vicinity of the landfill. A case is therefore made for more studies to be carried out on the emissions of other gases such as CH4 and CO2 from the studied landfill site, as this would help to understand the synergistic effect of the various gases being emitted from the landfill.

  3. Paper waste - Recycling, incineration or landfilling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    . Such message has implications for current policy formulation on material recycling and disposal in the EU. Secondly, to identify key methodological issues of paper waste management LCAs, and enlighten the influence of such issues on the conclusions of the LCA studies. Thirdly, in light of the analysis made...... comparisons of different management options for waste paper. Despite claims of inconsistency, the LCAs reviewed illustrate the environmental benefits in recycling over incineration or landfill options, for paper and cardboard waste. This broad consensus was found despite differences in geographic location......A review of existing life cycle assessments (LCAs) on paper and cardboard waste has been undertaken. The objectives of the review were threefold. Firstly, to see whether a consistent message comes out of published LCA literature on optimum disposal or recycling solutions for this waste type...

  4. Laser Spectroscopy of Vinyl Alcohol Embedded in Helium Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Hayley; Raston, Paul; Douberly, Gary E.

    2017-06-01

    Vinyl alcohol has two rotameric forms, known as syn- and anti-vinyl alcohol, where syn is the most stable. While both have been investigated by microwave and far-infrared spectroscopy, only the syn rotamer has been investigated by mid-infrared spectroscopy. This is due to the low anti rotamer population (15%) at room temperature, in addition to the closeness in proximity of the mid-infrared bands between the rotamers; this results in overlapping bands that are dominated by syn-vinyl alcohol absorptions. In this investigation we increase the anti-vinyl alcohol population to 40% by using a high temperature "pyrolysis" source, and eliminate the spectral overlap by recording the spectra at low temperature in helium nanodroplets. We observe a number of bands of both rotamers in the OH, CH, and CO stretching regions that display rotational substructure. A highlight of this work is the observation of a Fermi dyad in the OH stretching region of anti-vinyl alcohol. Anharmonic frequency calculations suggest that this is due to a near degeneracy of the OH stretching state (νb{1}) with a triple combination involving νb{7}, νb{8}, and νb{9}. M. Rodler, J. Mol. Spec. 114, 23 (1985);S. Saito, Chem. Phys. Lett. 42, 3 (1976) H. Bunn, R. Hudson, A. S. Gentleman, and P. L. Raston, ACS Earth Space Chem. DOI: 10.1021/acsearthspacechem.6b00008 (2017) D-L Joo, A. J. Merer, D. J. Clouthier, J. Mol. Spec. 197, 68 (1999)

  5. Supercritical water oxidation of landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuzhong; Guo, Yang; Chen, Chongming; Zhang, Jie; Gong, Yanmeng; Wang, Yuzhen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, ammonia as an important ingredient in landfill leachate was mainly studied. Based on Peng-Robinson formulations and Gibbs free energy minimization method, the estimation of equilibrium composition and thermodynamic analysis for supercritical water oxidation of ammonia (SCWO) was made. As equilibrium is reached, ammonia could be totally oxidized in SCW. N(2) is the main product, and the formation of NO(2) and NO could be neglected. The investigation on SCWO of landfill leachate was conducted in a batch reactor at temperature of 380-500 °C, reaction time of 50-300s and pressure of 25 MPa. The effect of reaction parameters such as oxidant equivalent ratio, reaction time and temperature were investigated. The results showed that COD and NH(3) conversion improved as temperature, reaction time and oxygen excess increased. Compared to organics, NH(3) is a refractory compound in supercritical water. The conversion of COD and NH(3) were higher in the presence of MnO(2) than that without catalyst. The interaction between reaction temperature and time was analyzed by using response surface method (RSM) and the results showed that its influence on the NH(3) conversion was relatively insignificant in the case without catalyst. A global power-law rate expression was regressed from experimental data to estimate the reaction rate of NH(3). The activation energy with and without catalyst for NH(3) oxidation were 107.07 ± 8.57 kJ/mol and 83.22 ± 15.62 kJ/mol, respectively.

  6. Attenuation of Landfill Leachate In Unsaturated Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, A. P.; Brook, C.; Godley, A.; Lewin, K.; Young, C. P.

    Landfill leachate emanating from old "dilute and disperse" sites represents a potential (and in many cases actual) threat to the integrity of groundwater. Indeed, this concern has been included in EU legislation (80/86/EEC), where key contaminants (e.g. ammonia, various toxic organic compounds and heavy metals) are explicitly highlighted in terms of their impact on groundwater. In the UK, whilst there are a substantial number of unlined landfills sited on major aquifers, many of these are in locations where there is a substantial unsaturated zone. Thus, there exists the opportunity for the modification and attenuation of contaminants prior to it encountering the water table. An understanding of likely changes in leachate content and concentrations at such sites will enable a more comprehensive assessment of the potential risks and liabilities posed by such sites to be evaluated. The Burntstump landfill, situated 8 km north of Nottingham (UK), is sited on an outcrop of Sherwood sandstone. The fine friable sand has been quarried since the 1960s and the excavated volume used to store municipal waste. Filling at the site commenced in the mid 1970s and originally was unlined. In 1978 the first of what was to become a series of boreholes was installed within an area of roughly 5 m radius over one of the original waste cells. Cores of the waste and underlying sandstone were extracted and analysed for a range of physical and chemical parameters. The most recent set of analyses were obtained in 2000. The series of investigations therefore provide an important record of leachate migration and modification through the unsaturated zone for over twenty years. The progression of the leachate front is clearly delineated by the chloride concentration profile with an average velocity of around 1.6 m.yr-1. Combining this value with an average (and reasonably uniform) measured moisture content of about 7% gives a mean inter-granular specific discharge of 110 mm.yr-1. An interesting

  7. Fuel Flexibility: Landfill Gas Contaminant Mitigation for Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storey, John Morse [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Kass, Michael D [ORNL; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL; Lewis, Samuel [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Kaul, Brian C [ORNL; Besmann, Theodore M [ORNL; Thomas, John F [ORNL; Rogers, Hiram [ORNL; Sepaniak, Michael [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2014-04-01

    This research project focused on the mitigation of silica damage to engine-based renewable landfill gas energy systems. Characterization of the landfill gas siloxane contamination, combined with characterization of the silica deposits in engines, led to development of two new mitigation strategies. The first involved a novel method for removing the siloxanes and other heavy contaminants from the landfill gas prior to use by the engines. The second strategy sought to interrupt the formation of hard silica deposits in the engine itself, based on inspection of failed landfill gas engine parts. In addition to mitigation, the project had a third task to develop a robust sensor for siloxanes that could be used to control existing and/or future removal processes.

  8. LEACHATE CLOGGING ASSESSMENT OF GEOTEXTILE AND SOIL LANDFILL FILTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The liquids management strategy for any municipal or hazardous waste landfill requires a knowledgeable design strategy for the leachate collection system located at the base of the waste mass. Such leachate collection systems generally consist of sumps, perforated pipes, drainag...

  9. Field survey of enteric viruses in solid waste landfill leachates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sobsey, M D

    1978-01-01

    Because municipal solid waste may contain fecal material from a variety of sources, there is concern that the leachate discharged from some solid waste landfills may contain enteric pathogens, including enteric viruses...

  10. Detection and quantification of methane leakage from landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljungberg, Sven-Aake; Maartensson, Stig-Goeran (Univ. of Gaevle, Gaevle (Sweden)); Meijer, Jan-Erik; Rosqvist, Haakan (NSR AB, Helsingborg (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this project was to detect gas leakage and to measure and quantify methane emission from landfills using modern remote sensing techniques. In this project, a handheld laser instrument and an IR camera were used. The overall objective was to develop cost-effective methods for detecting and quantifying methane emissions from landfills. There are many methods available for measuring the methane concentration in air, both from close-up and from long distances. Combined with the use of a tracer gas, the methane emission from entire landfills can be measured relatively accurately. A number of methods are used to detect leakage from parts of landfill surfaces, but there are few methods for quantifying leakage from sub-zones. Field measurements with the laser instrument and the IR camera were carried out at seven Swedish landfills and two landfills in France. The investigated surfaces at the Swedish landfills were divided into different zones, such as top surface, slope, crest and toe of slope. The field measurements in France were taken over entire landfills. The methane emission varied between the different landfills in the project, and also between the different landfill zones. The results from repeated field measurements indicated that a landfill with a final cap and a successful gas recovery system produces barely measurable emissions. The weak points at a landfill are generally slopes, including crests and toes of slopes. Where the covering of the waste is inadequate, leakage often occurs at lift joints and in areas where waste protrudes through the cover. Other weak points are deficiencies in the gas recovery system. Leachate systems can lead landfill gas and thereby cause methane leakage. Along with wind velocity and variations in atmospheric pressure, moisture content in the ground is an important factor that affects methane emissions from landfill surfaces. Results from field measurements of the same feature/surface at different points in time and

  11. A biological assessment of Wildcat Landfill Superfund Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document was prepared as part of the Wildcat Landfill Remedial Investigation (RI) Report; the report was financed through a grant and authority of CERCLA as...

  12. An overview of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C.V.; Burford, T.D.; Betsill, J.D.

    1994-07-01

    The Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) focuses on ``in-situ`` characterization, monitoring, remediation, and containment of landfills in and environments that contain hazardous and mixed waste. The MWLID mission is to assess, demonstrate, and transfer technologies and systems that lead to faster, better, cheaper, and safer cleanup. Most important, the demonstrated technologies will be evaluated against the baseline of conventional technologies. Key goals of the MWLID are routine use of these technologies by Environmental Restoration Groups throughout the DOE complex and commercialization of these technologies to the private sector. The MWLID is demonstrating technologies at hazardous waste landfills located at Sandia National Laboratories and on Kirtland Air Force Base. These landfills have been selected because they are representative of many sites throughout the Southwest and in other and climates.

  13. INVESTIGATION OF HOLOCENE FAULTING PROPOSED C-746-U LANDFILL EXPANSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lettis, William [William Lettis & Associates, Inc.

    2006-07-01

    This report presents the findings of a fault hazard investigation for the C-746-U landfill's proposed expansion located at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), in Paducah, Kentucky. The planned expansion is located directly north of the present-day C-746-U landfill. Previous geophysical studies within the PGDP site vicinity interpret possible northeast-striking faults beneath the proposed landfill expansion, although prior to this investigation the existence, locations, and ages of these inferred faults have not been confirmed through independent subsurface exploration. The purpose of this investigation is to assess whether or not Holocene-active fault displacement is present beneath the footprint of the proposed landfill expansion.

  14. A pluridisciplinary model to predict municipal landfill life

    OpenAIRE

    Hiligsmann, Serge; Rodriguez, C.; Lardinois, M.; Radu, Jean-Pol; Charlier, Robert; Destain, Jacqueline; Drion, R.; Thonart, Philippe

    2001-01-01

    Most degradation processes that occur within municipal wastes landfills result from different microbial activities interacting all along the landfill lifetime and that are influenced by several non-biological factors. These complex biological and chemical processes require a multidisciplinary pattern in order to assess and control their environmental impact. Thanks to Walloon Region support, we have developed a pattern or model combining the evolution of different key parameters. Such paramet...

  15. [Community Structure and Succession of Methanogens in Beishenshu Landfill, Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li-na; Wang, Lei; Xia, Meng-jing; Su, Yue; Li, Zhen-shan

    2015-09-01

    Methanogens are the key microorganisms for landfill stabilization. RT-PCR and qPCR detecting system were employed to determine the types and abundance of methanogens in 2-15 year-old solid wastes that sampled from Beishenshu Landfill, Beijing. The organic components were almost stable and the pH values were in alkaline range, which indicated that the landfill was in the methanogenic process. Methanobacterials, Methanosaeta, and Methanosarcina were detected, among which Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina are acetoclastic, and Methanobacterials are hydrogenotrophic. As landfill processing, within this time range, although the bacterial abundance was significantly decreased, the amount of methanogens was first increased and then decreased, and finally became stable after being landfilled for 9 years. Methanosarcina was the dominate taxa. Significant correlations were found between the methanogens and the volatile fatty acids, but the correlations between methanogens and larger molecular organic matters were relatively weak or even absent. Taken together, our study revealed that the amount of methanogens were affected by substrates, but hardly influenced by the conversion of large molecules in these wastes landfilled for more than 2 years.

  16. Occurrence and prevalence of antibiotic resistance in landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yangqing; Tang, Wei; Qiao, Jing; Song, Liyan

    2015-08-01

    Antibiotic resistance (AR) is extensively present in various environments, posing emerging threat to public and environmental health. Landfill receives unused and unwanted antibiotics through household waste and AR within waste (e.g., activated sludge and illegal clinical waste) and is supposed to serve as an important AR reservoir. In this study, we used culture-dependent methods and quantitative molecular techniques to detect and quantify antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in 12 landfill leachate samples from six geographic different landfills, China. Five tested ARGs (tetO, tetW, bla(TEM), sulI, and sulII) and seven kinds of antibiotic-resistant heterotrophic ARB were extensively detected in all samples, demonstrating their occurrence in landfill. The detected high ratio (10(-2) to 10(-5)) of ARGs to 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene copies implied that ARGs are prevalent in landfill. Correlation analysis showed that ARGs (tetO, tetW, sulI, and sulII) significantly correlated to ambient bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies, suggesting that the abundance of bacteria in landfill leachate may play an important role in the horizontal spread of ARGs.

  17. Health effects of living in the vicinity of the landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Lar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Landfill sites are the easiest, the cheapest and the most common way of waste management and disposal. In the face of the increasing amount of waste, the dynamics of globalization and urbanization process, waste management is an important issue of ecological policy in highly developed countries. Landfill sites intensify environmental threats for the neighborhood and give rise to toxic substances which impair human health being released from the landfills. These are persistent organic pollutants (POPs, heavy metals and also biological gas, bioaerosols, bacteria and viruses. Scientists have conducted a lot of research to evaluate the impact of landfill sites on human health living in their vicinity. They found increased occurrence of congenital anomalies, increased risk of certain cancers and low birth weight of infants. The results of the studies didn’t deliver absolute proof of relation between the impact of landfill sites on the induction of cancer and other diseases. There is a necessity to conduct further research to evaluate the impact of landfill sites on people health living in the vicinity

  18. Seismic stability and permanent displacement of landfill along liners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The three-part wedge limit equilibrium method for seismic stability analysis of the landfill along liners is presented. The approximate solutions of the factor of safety and the yield acceleration coefficient are obtained. Parametric studies show that the interface strength of liners, the shear strength of waste and the height of retaining wall can influence the seismic stability of landfill along liners. The density and the shear wave velocity of the field waste are obtained by the borehole investigation and the spectral analysis of surface wave (SASW), respectively. The strain-dependent shear modulus and damping ratio of the artifical waste are obtained by the moderate-scale dynamic triaxial tests. The onedimensional (1D) equivalent linear dynamic response analysis is used to calculate the horizontal equivalent seismic coefficient-time history of the sliding landfill during earthquake. The seismic permanent displacement of the landfill along liners with different site conditons and heights is evaluated by the Newmark method. The catculated results show that ratio of ky /kmax, site conditions, the amplitude and frequency content of the bedrock motion can affect the seismic permanent displacement of the landfill along liners in some degree. Finally, the seismic stability and permanent displacements of three expanded configurations of a certain landfill case are analyzed.

  19. Seismic stability and permanent displacement of landfill along liners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN YunMin; GAO Deng; ZHU Bin; CHEN RenPeng

    2008-01-01

    The three-part wedge limit equilibrium method for seismic stability analysis of the landfill along liners is presented. The approximate solutions of the factor of safety and the yield acceleration coefficient are obtained. Parametric studies show that the interface strength of liners, the shear strength of waste and the height of retaining wall can influence the seismic stability of landfill along liners. The density and the shear wave velocity of the field waste are obtained by the borehole investigation and the spectral analysis of surface wave (SASW), respectively. The strain-dependent shear modulus and damping ratio of the artifical waste are obtained by the moderate-scale dynamic triaxial tests. The one- dimensional (1D) equivalent linear dynamic response analysis is used to calculate the horizontal equivalent seismic coefficient-time history of the sliding landfill during earthquake. The seismic permanent displacement of the landfill along liners with different site conditons and heights is evaluated by the Newmark method. The catculated results show that ratio of ky/kmax, site conditions, the amplitude and frequency content of the bedrock motion can affect the seismic permanent displacement of the landfill along liners in some degree. Finally, the seismic stability and permanent displacements of three expanded configurations of a certain landfill case are analyzed.

  20. Permitting of Landfill Bioreactor Operations: Ten Years after ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to promulgation of the Rule, there were approximately 20 full-scale bioreactor projects in North America, including one in Canada. Of these, six were permitted by EPA (four Project XL sites and two projects listed separately under a cooperative research agreement at the Outer Loop Landfill in Kentucky). In March 2014, there were about 40 bioreactor projects reported, including 30 active RD&D projects in 11 approved states and one project on tribal lands. Wisconsin features the largest number of projects at 13, due primarily to the fact that landfill owners in the state must either eliminate landfill disposal of biodegradable materials or to achieve the complete stabilization of deposited organic waste at MSW landfills within 40 years after closure. Most landfill operators have selected a bioreactor approach to attempt to achieve the latter goal. In summary, only 16 of 50 (32%) states have currently adopted the Rule, meaning that development of RD&D permitting procedures that are consistent with EPA’s requirements has generally not occurred. The predominant single reason cited for not adopting the Rule was lack of interest amongst landfill facilities in the state. Subtitle D and its state derivatives already allow leachate recirculation over prescriptive (i.e., minimum technology) liner systems, which is often the primary goal of site operators seeking to control leachate treatment costs. Other reasons related to concerns over increased time, cost