WorldWideScience

Sample records for sanitary landfill located

  1. Evaluation of new location of Isfahan′s sanitary landfill site with Oleckno method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Salimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The objective of present study was to evaluate the new location of Isfahan solid waste sanitary landfill using Geographical Information System (GIS based on the Oleckno index method (OIM. Materials and Methods: This study was on the field- and library-based data collection and surveys of relevant data. Assessment parameters included average annual rainfall, soil type and ground water beneath and adjucent to the landfill site. To analyze data, ArcGIS version 9.3 was used. Results: In 2010 the total rainfall in the landfill location was less than 150 mm/year. The soil type was clay loam, and the average distance from the floor of the landfill to the groundwater level was 3-9 meters. As calculated results showed that, the Oleckno index (OI score in the study area was 40. Conclusion: The new Isfahan′s sanitary solid waste landfill site had a good OI and the possibility of contamination of groundwater by leachate production based on this method also was low.

  2. Identifying suitable sanitary landfill locations in the state of Morelos, México, using a Geographic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Luis E.; Torres, Vicente; Bolongaro, Andrea; Reyna, José A.; Pohle, O.; Hernández-Espriú, A.; Chavarría, Jerónimo; García-Barrios, R.; Tabla, Hugo Francisco Parra

    GIS is a powerful tool that may help to better manage natural resources. In this paper, we present a GIS model developed for the state of Morelos as an aid to determine whether a potential site, Loma de Mejia, met the Mexican Federal Guidelines. The Mexican Government has established federal guidelines for sanitary landfill site selection (NOM-083-SERMARNAT-2003). These guidelines were translated into a water-based Geographic Information System and applied to the state of Morelos, Mexico. For these examples, we used the SIGAM® (Sistema de Información Geográfico del Agua en México; a water-based GIS for Mexico) which has at least 60 layers from the National Water Commission (CONAGUA), the national mapping agency (INEGI; Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática), NASA, and academic institutions. Results show that a GIS is a powerful tool that may allow federal, state and municipal policy makers to conduct an initial regional site reconnaissance rapidly. Once potential sites are selected, further characterization must be carried out in order to determine if proposed locations are suitable or not for a sanitary landfill. Based on the SIGAM© software, the Loma de Mejia would not comply with the Mexican Federal Guidelines.

  3. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. Second Quarter 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    1995-08-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during second quarter 1995 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (Appendix A), the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead (Appendix A), or the SRS flagging criteria (Appendix B).

  4. Sanitary Landfill groundwater monitoring report. First quarter 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during first quarter 1993 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit (DWP-087A). The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards (PDWS) or screening levels, established by the US Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standards for lead or the SRS flagging criteria.

  5. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report, Third Quarter 1999

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    Chase, J.

    1999-12-08

    This report contains analytical data for samples taken during Third Quarter 1999 from wells of the LFW series located at the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. The data are submitted in reference to the Sanitary Landfill Operating Permit. The report presents monitoring results that equaled or exceeded the Safe Drinking Water Act final Primary Drinking Water Standards or screening levels, established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the South Carolina final Primary Drinking Water Standard for lead, or the SRS flagging criteria.

  6. Sanitary landfill local-scale flow and transport modeling in support of alternative concentrations limit demonstrations, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, V.A.; Beach, J.A.; Statham, W.H.; Pickens, J.F. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1993-02-19

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Department of Energy (DOE) facility located near Aiken, South Carolina which is currently operated and managed by Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC). The Sanitary Landfill (Sanitary Landfill) at the SRS is located approximately 2,000 feet Northwest of Upper Three Runs Creek (UTRC) on an approximately 70 acre site located south of Road C between the SRS B-Area and UTRC. The Sanitary Landfill has been receiving wastes since 1974 and operates as an unlined trench and fill operation. The original landfill site was 32 acres. This area reached its capacity around 1987 and a Northern Expansion of 16 acres and a Southern Expansion of 22 acres were added in 1987. The Northern Expansion has not been used for waste disposal to date and the Southern Expansion is expected to reach capacity in 1992 or 1993. The waste received at the Sanitary Landfill is predominantly paper, plastics, rubber, wood, metal, cardboard, rags saturated with degreasing solvents, pesticide bags, empty cans, and asbestos in bags. The landfill is not supposed to receive any radioactive wastes. However, tritium has been detected in the groundwater at the site. Gross alpha and gross beta are also evaluated at the landfill. The objectives of this modeling study are twofold: (1) to create a local scale Sanitary Landfill flow model to study hydraulic effects resulting from capping the Sanitary Landfill; and (2) to create a Sanitary Landfill local scale transport model to support ACL Demonstrations for a RCRA Part B Permit Renewal.

  7. Sanitary landfill groundwater quality assessment plan Savannah River Site

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    Wells, D.G.; Cook, J.W.

    1990-06-01

    This assessment monitoring plan has been prepared in accordance with the guidance provided by the SCDHEC in a letter dated December 7, 1989 from Pearson to Wright and a letter dated October 9, 1989 from Keisler to Lindler. The letters are included a Appendix A, for informational purposes. Included in the plan are all of the monitoring data from the landfill monitoring wells for 1989, and a description of the present monitoring well network. The plan proposes thirty-two new wells and an extensive coring project that includes eleven soil borings. Locations of the proposed wells attempt to follow the SCDHEC guidelines and are downgradient, sidegradient and in the heart of suspected contaminant plumes. Also included in the plan is the current Savannah River Site Sampling and Analysis Plan and the well construction records for all of the existing monitoring wells around the sanitary landfill.

  8. Ammonia nitrogen desorption from sanitary landfill leachate in filling towers

    OpenAIRE

    Leite,Valderi D.; Barros,Aldre J. M.; Lopes,Wilton S.; Sousa,José T. de

    2014-01-01

    Sanitary landfill leachates present high concentrations of carbonaceous and nitrogenous materials. The crucial point is that carbonaceous materials are of difficult biodegradation, what compromises the performance of biological treatment processes, while nitrogenous materials, such as ammonia nitrogen, probably preclude the use of biological treatments. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the desorption process of ammonia nitrogen from sanitary landfill leachate in filling towers. De...

  9. Electrochemical treatment of leachates from sanitary landfills

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    ANNABEL FERNANDES

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical treatment of leachate samples from a Portuguese intermunicipal sanitary landfill was carried out using anodic oxidation. The treatment was performed in a pilot plant that possesses an electrochemical cell, with boron-doped diamond electrodes, working in batch mode with recirculation. The influence of the applied current density and the flow rate on the performance of the electrochemical oxidation was investigated. Current density was decreased by steps, during the degradation, in order to study this effect on the efficiency of the process. For the assays run at equal flow rate and initial current intensity, chemical oxygen demand (COD removal seems to depend mainly on the charge passed and the variation of the current density during the anodic oxidation process can reduce the energetic costs. An increase in the recirculation flow rate leads to an increase in the organic load removal rate and a consequent decrease in the energetic costs, but it decreases the nitrogen removal rate. Also, the bias between dissolved organic carbon and COD removals increases with flow rate, indicating that an increase in recirculation flow rate decreases the mineralization index.

  10. International training seminar: high training on sanitary landfills design, Madrid 7-11, April 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The seminar on design of sanitary landfills was articulated in 5 sessions: 1.- Design of sanitary landfills depending on the quality of wastes. 2.- Legal, techniques and administrative aspects of management. 3.- Geotechniques studies 4.- Biogas 5.- Environmental impact of sanitary landfills.

  11. Methods of Sensing Land Pollution from Sanitary Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosanov, Myron Ellis; Bowerman, Frank R.

    1971-01-01

    Major cities are congested and large sites suitable for landfill development are limited. Methane and other gases are produced at most sanitary landfills and dumps. These gases may migrate horizontally and vertically and have caused fatalities. Monitoring these gases provides data bases for design and construction of safe buildings on and adjacent to landfills. Methods of monitoring include: (1) a portable combustible gas indicator; and (2) glass flasks valved to allow simultaneous exhaust of the flask and aspiration of the sample into the flask. Samples are drawn through tubing from probes as deep as twenty-five feet below the surface.

  12. Interim Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report (1998 Annual Report)

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    Wells, D.

    1999-03-18

    The SRS Interim Sanitary Landfill opened in Mid-1992 and operated until 1998 under Domestic Waste Permit No. 025500-1120. Several contaminants have been detected in the groundwater beneath the unit.The well sampling and analyses were conducted in accordance with Procedure 3Q5, Hydrogeologic Data Collection.

  13. Interim Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. 1997 Annual Report

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    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 (formerly dWP-087A) and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  14. US EPA record of decision review for landfills: Sanitary landfill (740-G), Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report presents the results of a review of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Record of Decision System (RODS) database search conducted to identify Superfund landfill sites where a Record of Decision (ROD) has been prepared by EPA, the States or the US Army Corps of Engineers describing the selected remedy at the site. ROD abstracts from the database were reviewed to identify site information including site type, contaminants of concern, components of the selected remedy, and cleanup goals. Only RODs from landfill sites were evaluated so that the results of the analysis can be used to support the remedy selection process for the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS).

  15. Characterization and toxicological evaluation of leachate from closed sanitary landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenike, Chijioke U; Fauziah, Shahul H; Agamuthu, P

    2012-09-01

    Landfilling is a major option in waste management hierarchy in developing nations. It generates leachate, which has the potential of polluting watercourses. This study analysed the physico-chemical components of leachate from a closed sanitary landfill in Malaysia, in relation to evaluating the toxicological impact on fish species namely Pangasius sutchi S., 1878 and Clarias batrachus L., 1758. The leachate samples were taken from Air Hitam Sanitary Landfill (AHSL) and the static method of acute toxicity testing was experimented on both fish species at different leachate concentrations. Each fish had an average of 1.3 ± 0.2 g wet weight and length of 5.0 ± 0.1 cm. Histology of the fishes was examined by analysing the gills of the response (dead) group, using the Harris haemtoxylin and eosin (H&E) method. Finneys' Probit method was utilized as a statistical tool to evaluate the data from the fish test. The physico-chemical analysis of the leachate recorded pH 8.2 ± 0.3, biochemical oxygen demand 3500 ± 125 mg L(-1), COD 10 234 ± 175 mg L(-1), ammonical nitrogen of 880 ± 74 mg L(-1), benzene 0.22 ± 0.1 mg L(-1) and toluene 1.2 ± 0.4 mg L(-1). The 50% lethality concentration (LC(50)) values calculated after 96 h exposure were 3.2% (v/v) and 5.9% (v/v) of raw leachate on P. sutchi and C. batrachus, respectively. The H&E staining showed denaturation of the nucleus and cytoplasm of the gills of the response groups. Leachate from the sanitary landfill was toxic to both fish species. The P. sutchi and C. batrachus may be used as indicator organisms for leachate pollution in water.

  16. MATERIALS FOR THE FINAL COVER OF SANITARY LANDFILLS

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    Davorin Kovačić

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the selection of materials for the sea¬ling layer in the final cover of sanitary landfills. The sealing la¬yer is the most critical component of the final cover. Its role is to minimize percolation of water through the final cover. Ma¬terials used for the construction of the sealing layer are either of mineral origin (compacted clay or geosynthetic (geomem¬brane. They are most often used in combination creating com¬posite liners. Recently alternative materials are also used like paper mill sludge or discarded swelling clay.

  17. Interim sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. 1996 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagwell, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site. These wells are sampled semiannually to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Modified Municipal Solid Waste Permit 025500-1120 and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Trichlorofluoromethane and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were elevated in one sidegradient well and one downgradient well during 1996. Zinc was elevated in three downgradient wells and also was detected in the associated laboratory blanks for two of those wells. Specific conductance was elevated in one background well and one sidegradient well. Barium and copper exceeded standards in one sidegradient well, and dichloromethane (a common laboratory contaminant) was elevated in another sidegradient well. Barium, copper, and dichloromethane were detected in the associated blanks for these wells, also. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Acquifer (Water Table) beneath the Interim Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 210 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 180 ft/yr during third quarter 1996.

  18. Conceptual model elaboration for the safety assessment of phosphogypsum use in sanitary landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cota, Stela D.; Braga, Leticia T.P.; Jacomino, Vanusa F., E-mail: sdsc@cdtn.b, E-mail: letsteixeira@gmail.co, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Phosphogypsum is a by-product of the phosphatic fertilizer production from the beneficiation of phosphate minerals (apatites). Produced in large quantities throughout the world and stored temporally in stacks, the final destination of this product is nowadays a subject of investigation. Due to the presence of radionuclides ({sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K, mainly), possible applications for the phosphogypsum must be verified for radiological safety. The goal of this paper was to elaborate a representative water flow conceptual model of a sanitary landfill for the safety assessment of the impact of using phosphogypsum as a cover material. For this, the ground water flow in variably saturated conditions and solute transport model HYDRUS-2D has been used for simulating the impact in the saturated zone of potential radionuclides leaching. The conceptual model was developed by collecting and analyzing the data from environmental license documentation of municipal sanitary landfills located on the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In order to fulfill the requirements of HDRUS-2D model in terms of the necessary parameters, the physical characteristics and typical configuration of the landfills, as well as the hydrogeological parameters of soils and aquifers related to the local of placement of the landfills, were taken in account for the formulation of the conceptual model. (author)

  19. Children living near a sanitary landfill have increased breath methane and Methanobrevibacter smithii in their intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo Filho, Humberto Bezerra; Carmo-Rodrigues, Mirian Silva; Mello, Carolina Santos; Melli, Lígia Cristina Fonseca Lahoz; Tahan, Soraia; Pignatari, Antonio Carlos Campos; de Morais, Mauro Batista

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the breath CH4 excretion and concentration of M. smithii in intestinal microbiota of schoolchildren from 2 slums. One hundred and eleven children from a slum near a sanitary landfill, 35 children of a slum located away from the sanitary landfill, and 32 children from a high socioeconomic level school were included in the study. Real-time PCR was performed to quantify the M. smithii nifH gene and it was present in the microbiota of all the participating children, with higher (P landfill (3.16 × 10(7) CFU/g of feces), comparing with the children from the slum away from the landfill (2.05 × 10(6) CFU/g of feces) and those from the high socioeconomic level group (3.93 × 10(5) CFU/g of feces). The prevalence of children who present breath methane was 53% in the slum near the landfill, 31% in the slum further away from the landfill and, 22% in the high socioeconomic level group. To live near a landfill is associated with higher concentrations of M. smithii in intestinal microbiota, comparing with those who live away from the landfill, regardless of their socioeconomics conditions.

  20. Application of Grey Situation Decision-Making Theory in Site Selection of a Waste Sanitary Landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Li-wen; CHENG Yun-huan; ZHANG Jing; ZHOU Xiao-zhi; LIAN Cui-xia

    2006-01-01

    An application of an unequal-weighted multi-objective decision making method in site selection of a waste sanitary landfill is discussed. The eight factors, which affected possible options, were: size and capacity of the landfill, permeability of the stratum, the average difference in elevation between the groundwater level and the bottom of the landfill pit, quality and source of clay, the quality grade of the landfill site, the effect of landfill engineering on nearby residents, distance to the water supply and the water source as well as the cost of construction and waste transport. These are determined, given the conditions of the geological environment, the need for environmental protection and landfill site construction and transportation related to the design and operation of a sanitary landfill. The weights of the eight factors were further investigated based on the difference in their relevance. Combined with practical experience from Xuzhou city (Jiangsu province, China), the objectives, effects and weights of grey decision-making were determined and the process and outcome of the landfill site selection are stated in detail. The decision-making results have been proven to be acceptable and correct. As we show, unequal-weighted multi-objective grey situation decision-mak- ing is characterized by easy calculations and good maneuverability when used in landfill site selection. The number of factors (objectives) affecting the outcome and the quantitative method of qualitative indices can be adjusted on the basis of concrete conditions in landfill site selection. Therefore, unequal-weighted multi-objective grey situation decision making is a feasible method in selecting landfill sites which offers a reference method for landfill site selection elsewhere. It is a useful, rational and scientific exploration in the choice of a landfill site.

  1. The Application Of Biofilter System For Reduction Of Methane Emissions From Modern Sanitary Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, K.; Park, S.

    2007-12-01

    Increased atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG) caused by anthropogenic activities has been related to global climate change. Methane, the second most important GHG after CO2, is 21 times more effective at trapping heat than CO2. Therefore, methane emission control is of utmost importance for global warming reduction. To minimize leachate production and protect groundwater resources, modern sanitary landfills are equipped with composite covers and gas collection systems. Methane from modern sanitary landfills is vented directly to the atmosphere, except for some of the largest landfills where it is recovered as energy and burned at the site. However, the efficiency of energy recovery systems in larger landfills is reduced as the amount of CH4 generated from landfill begins to decrease. In this study, the performance of a lab-scale model biofilter system was investigated to treat CH4 gas emitted from modern sanitary landfills by conducting batch and column experiments using landfill cover soil amended with earthworm cast as the filter bed medium. From the batch experiments to measure the influence of moisture content and temperature of the filter medium on CH4 removal capacity of a biofilter system, the optimum moisture content and temperature were found to be 10-15% by weight and 25-35°C, respectively. The column experiment was conducted to measure the influence of inlet CH4 concentration and CH4 loading rate on CH4 removal capacity of a biofilter system. As the inlet CH4 concentration decreased, the percentage of CH4 oxidized increased. Up to a CH4 loading rate of 2785 g CH4 m3 h- 1 (EBRT = 7.7 min), the CH4 removal efficiency of the biofilter was able to reach 100%. Based on the results of the study, the installation of a properly managed biofilter system should be capable of achieving a reduction in atmospheric CH4 emissions from modern sanitary landfills at low CH4 generation stage.

  2. Phyto cover for Sanitary Landfill Sites: A brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavya D. Shah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Landfill gases (LFG are produced due to biodegradation of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW when water comes in contact with buried wastes. The conventional clay cover is still practiced to mitigate the percolation of water in landfills in India. Gas extraction systems in landfill for gas collection are used but are much expensive. Thus, “Phytocapping” technique can be one of the alternatives to mitigate landfill gases and to minimize percolation of water into the landfill. Indian plants with locally available soil and municipal solid waste can be tested for the purpose of methane mitigation, heavy metals remediation from leachate. Methane oxidation due to vegetation can be observed compared to non-vegetated landfill. Root zone methane concentrations can be monitored for the plant species.

  3. Sanitary Landfilling – A Key Component of Waste Management

    OpenAIRE

    Johann Fellner

    2013-01-01

    In many affluent countries waste management is experiencing a fast transition from landfilling to sophisticated recycling and waste to energy plants. Thus, landfilling of waste becomes less important in these countries. The present paper discusses whether a similar development will take place in transition economies, or waste management systems will mainly rely on landfilling in the near future. For this purpose, the current waste management practices and associated environmental impacts as w...

  4. Size-resolved culturable airborne bacteria sampled in rice field, sanitary landfill, and waste incineration sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Yongju; Park, Jiyeon; Lim, Sung-Il; Hur, Hor-Gil; Kim, Daesung; Park, Kihong

    2010-08-01

    Size-resolved bacterial concentrations in atmospheric aerosols sampled by using a six stage viable impactor at rice field, sanitary landfill, and waste incinerator sites were determined. Culture-based and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods were used to identify the airborne bacteria. The culturable bacteria concentration in total suspended particles (TSP) was found to be the highest (848 Colony Forming Unit (CFU)/m(3)) at the sanitary landfill sampling site, while the rice field sampling site has the lowest (125 CFU/m(3)). The closed landfill would be the main source of the observed bacteria concentration at the sanitary landfill. The rice field sampling site was fully covered by rice grain with wetted conditions before harvest and had no significant contribution to the airborne bacteria concentration. This might occur because the dry conditions favor suspension of soil particles and this area had limited personnel and vehicle flow. The respirable fraction calculated by particles less than 3.3 mum was highest (26%) at the sanitary landfill sampling site followed by waste incinerator (19%) and rice field (10%), which showed a lower level of respiratory fraction compared to previous literature values. We identified 58 species in 23 genera of culturable bacteria, and the Microbacterium, Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus were the most abundant genera at the sanitary landfill, waste incinerator, and rice field sites, respectively. An antibiotic resistant test for the above bacteria (Micrococcus sp., Microbacterium sp., and Staphylococcus sp.) showed that the Staphylococcus sp. had the strongest resistance to both antibiotics (25.0% resistance for 32 microg ml(-1) of Chloramphenicol and 62.5% resistance for 4 microg ml(-1) of Gentamicin).

  5. Site selection of sanitary landfills on the small island of Mauritius using the analytical hierarchy process multi-criteria method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjeawon, T; Beerachee, B

    2008-10-01

    This paper focuses on the application of a multi-criteria analysis methodology - the analytical hierarchy process - for the locating of a sanitary landfill on the small island of Mauritius. Four candidate sites were assessed using three main criteria (environmental, technical and socio-economic) and twenty-one sub-criteria. Scores were assigned to each criterion and sub-criterion by stakeholders in the solid waste sector, based on the impact assessment of each site so as to obtain their relative importance. The analytical hierarchy process was then applied, which involved the combination of the weights obtained at the different stages of pair-wise comparisons. The candidate sites were finally ranked to obtain the optimum site. Because of political factors, the second best ranked site was chosen by the authorities for the location of a new landfill on the island. This technique provides a realistic approach for use by small island developing states such as Mauritius for choosing and justifying to all stakeholders the best location for a sanitary landfill site or any other waste management site.

  6. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report - Fourth Quarter 1998 and 1998 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-04-09

    A maximum of fifty-three wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water permit and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  7. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report - Fourth Quarter 1998 and 1998 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    1999-04-09

    A maximum of fifty-three wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water permit and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program.

  8. Life cycle analysis of sanitary landfill and incineration of municipal solid waste

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪晋仁; 韦洪莲; 刘阳生; 赵智杰

    2002-01-01

    Environmental consequences from sanitary landfill as well as incineration with power generation were compared in terms of life cycle analysis (LCA) for Laohukeng Waste-disposal Plant that is under consideration in Shenzhen. A variety of differences will be resulted from the two technologies, from which the primary issue that affects the conclusion is if the compensatory phase in power generation can be properly considered in the boundary definition of LCA. Upon the compensatory phase is taken into account in the landfill system, the negative environmental consequences from the landfill will be more significant than those from the incineration with power generation, although the reversed results can be obtained as the compensatory phase is neglected. In addition, mitigation of environmental impacts through the pollutant treatment in the incineration process will be more effective than in the landfill process.

  9. Final Disposal of Solid Waste in Sanitary Landfills and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Silveira Graudenz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a critical review of scientific literature on waste sanitary landfills and its effects on human health, with an approach to the adverse effects that are most commonly associated to living near waste landfills. The health variables included were low birth weight, congenital abnormalities, some types of neoplasms, allergies, asthma and other respiratory diseases using the MEDLINE, LILACS and CAPES’ thesis post graduation database for systematic review. In spite of the fact that some studies indicate positive asssociation between health risks and living close to landfills, the majority of the studies, mainly the most recent ones, do not demonstrate a significant health risk in this condition. Some common limitations and bias of the work in the field are discussed. The lack of direct quantification of exposure, lack of prospective approach and no comparaison of the different types and quality of management of the residues are common limitations to most studies. So far, there is weak evidence to support significant epidemiological health risks associated to landfills. More interdisciplinary research should improve the knoledge of the health risks related to living in the proximity to sanitary landfills.

  10. Barometric pumping of burial trench soil gases into the atmosphere at the 740-G Sanitary Landfill

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    Wyatt, D.E.; Pirkle, R.J.; Masdea, D.J.

    1992-12-01

    In 1991, a soil gas survey was performed at the Savannah River Site Sanitary Landfill as part of the characterization efforts required under the integrated Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation and Comprehensive Environmental Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation (RFI/RI) program. This report details the findings of this survey, which identified several areas of the landfill that were releasing volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere at levels exceeding regulatory standards. Knowledge of the rates of VOC outgassing is necessary to protect site workers, provide input into the human health and environmental risk assessment documents and provide input into the remedial design scenario.

  11. Preliminary site selection report for the new sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has proposed a new sanitary landfill (NSL) for solid waste. A site selection team, comprised of representatives from Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) evaluated potential landfill sites. The site selection team conducted an initial screening of SRS to eliminate unsuitable areas. The screening was based on criteria that were principally environmental factors; however, the criteria also included avoiding areas with unacceptable features for construction or operation of the facility. This initial screening identified seven candidate sites for further evaluation.

  12. Partial nitrification for nitrogen removal from sanitary landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagni, Alessandro; Psaila, Giuliana; Rizzo, Andrea

    2014-09-19

    Biological nitrogen removal using nitrite as a shortcut has recently been proposed for the treatment of high strength landfill leachate. The aim of this study was to assess the application of the SHARON (Single reactor High activity Ammonium Removal Over Nitrite) process for the partial nitrification of leachate generated in old landfills. Particular attention was given to the start-up phase of the process. This study demonstrated that partial nitrification can be obtained when treating raw leachate after biomass acclimation. Only a fraction (50-70%) of the ammonia present in the leachate can be oxidised due to a limited amount of alkalinity available. Stable nitritation was obtained by applying a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4-5 d, which is higher than the values proposed for the effluent of anaerobic digesters. This higher HRT could probably be allowed by the high concentration of free ammonia present in the leachate, which could severely inhibit the growth of nitrite-oxidising bacteria.

  13. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report. Fourth Quarter 1997 and 1997 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1998-02-01

    A maximum of forty-eight wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Chloroethene (vinyl chloride) and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1997. Lead (total recoverable), 1,4-dichlorobenzene, mercury, benzene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), a common laboratory contaminant, tetrachloroethylene, 1,2-dichloroethane, gross alpha, tritium, and 1.2-dichloropropane also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 139 ft/year during first quarter 1997 and 132 ft/year during fourth quarter.

  14. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report - Third and Fourth Quarters 2000 and 2000 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    2001-03-07

    A maximum of forty wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Quality Assessment Plan. Chloroethene (vinyl chloride) and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituent exceeding the Final Primary Drinking Water Standards during the calendar year 2000. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, benzene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), gross alpha, lead (total recoverable) mercury (total recoverable), thallium (total recoverable), and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill is to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate at this unit was approximately 122.64 ft/year during first quarter 2000 and 132.28 ft/year during fourth quarter 2000.

  15. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report - Third and Fourth Quarters 2000 and 2000 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.A.

    2001-03-07

    A maximum of forty wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Quality Assessment Plan. Chloroethene (vinyl chloride) and trichloroethylene were the most widespread constituent exceeding the Final Primary Drinking Water Standards during the calendar year 2000. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, benzene, dichloromethane (methylene chloride), gross alpha, lead (total recoverable) mercury (total recoverable), thallium (total recoverable), and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill is to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate at this unit was approximately 122.64 ft/year during first quarter 2000 and 132.28 ft/year during fourth quarter 2000.

  16. Study on the Natural Soil Properties Endau Rompin National Park (PETA as Compacted Soil Liner for Sanitary Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkifli Ahmad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper reviews and extends an understanding of a study on potential suitability of the natural soil in Endau Rompin National Park (PETA as a compacted soil liner for sanitary landfill. Since the demand for landfill system becomes obvious so that concerning construction and operation of landfills are increasing. A number of studies have been conducted for the liner system of landfill. Hence, study is required to choose the suitable type of material as liner barrier for the landfill system in term to achieve optimum long term performance. The sanitary landfill plays an important role in the framework of solid waste disposal. The compacted soil liner is a part of a liner structure for landfill to restrict leachate migration from facility into the environment. So that, if the landfill system is not well manage it will contaminate the soil and ground water, thus presenting a risk to human and environmental health. This study, natural soil will be taken from Endau Rompin National Park (PETA, Johor as soil sample for testing. Natural soil is an economy material as a liner system, and it does not decay easily from time to time. So it is an ideal material as a sanitary landfill liner system. In short, the purpose of this study is to compile and organize available information on the use of laboratory testing, as well as providing some guidance on the use of natural soil as barrier layer of landfill and also it suitability of physical and chemical properties natural soil as barrier layer of landfill. Based on the laboratory testing were conducted, found that soil sample taken form Endau Rompin National Park (PETA is suitable as compacted soil liner for sanitary landfill.

  17. Modelization of Biogas production in Sanitary landfills; Modelizacion de la produccion de Biogas en vertederos controlados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Iglesias, J.; Castrillon, L.; Maranon, E.; Sastre, H. [Universidad de Oviedo (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Amongst all the different alternatives for the eliminator or treatment of MSW (Municipal Solid Waste), sanitary landfills is probably the one that is most widely employed to date, due to its economic advantages. With the coming into effect of the Spanish Containers and Packaging Law, alongside that of the Council Directive 1999/31/CE, concerning waste disposal, this situation will be substantially modified. At the same time, the application of said Directive will influence the amount of biogas generated in landfills. The present research work a study of the influence that the aforementioned Directive will have on the production of biogas in a sanitary landfill which currently disposes of around 400.000 Tm/year of MSW, 52% of which is easily biodegradable organic matter. The model proposed by Marticorena was applied and the kinetic parameters, MPO and d, were experimentally obtained by means of a pilot-plant study of MSW anaerobic degradation, the values employed being 173 Nm3 of biogas/Tm of the organic fraction of MSW for MPO, and 3 years for d. The results obtained in the model are compared with those obtained experimentally at the COGERSA landfill, Asturias, Spain. Twenty wells were chosen to analyse the production of biogas, giving an overall average yield of 70%. In 1999, around 4,100 m''3/h of biogas were extracted at the COGERSA landfill. Application of the model gave an estimation for 1999 of an average production of 5,369 m''3/h giving a maximum yield in the extraction of biogas of around 75%. The difference between the two average yields obtained may be due to the fact that the model only takes into account the easily biodegradable organic fraction, whilst in the landfill, given that more time has passed, other substances with a longer period of degradation, such as paper and cardboard, may also be degraded. (Author) 10 refs.

  18. Environmental and Geologic Assessment to Locate a Manual Sanitary Refill in the Mene de Mauroa Church, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Simón E. Morales-Soto; Alina Rodríguez-Infante

    2016-01-01

    The inadequate disposal of urban wastes is nowadays an environmental issue having a negative impact on several communities. The objective of this investigation is to select the most adequate place to locate a manual sanitary landfill to dump the solid wastes from the Mene de Mauroa (Venezuela) church. A total of 19 variables were subjected to a series of evaluations applying the scale and weight method. This method consists of comparing the variables according to their level of priority. The ...

  19. Mathematical numeric models for assessing the groundwater pollution from Sanitary landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Vasil; Stoyanov, Nikolay; Sotinev, Petar

    2014-05-01

    Landfills are among the most common sources of pollution in ground water. Their widespread deployment, prolonged usage and the serious damage they cause to all of the elements of the environment are the reasons, which make the study of the problem particularly relevant. Most dangerous of all are the open dumps used until the middle of the twentieth century, from which large amounts of liquid emissions flowed freely (landfill infiltrate). In recent decades, the problem is solved by the construction of sanitary landfills in which they bury waste or solid residue from waste utilization plants. The bottom and the sides of the sanitary landfills are covered with a protective waterproof screen made of clay and polyethylene and the landfill infiltrate is led outside through a drainage system. This method of disposal severely limits any leakage of gas and liquid emissions into the environment and virtually eliminates the possibility of contamination. The main topic in the conducted hydrogeological study was a quantitative assessment of groundwater pollution and the environmental effects of re-landfilling of an old open dump into a new sanitary landfill, following the example of the municipal landfill of Asenovgrad, Bulgaria. The study includes: 1.A set of drilling, geophysical and hydrogeological field and laboratory studies on: -the definition and designation of the spatial limits of the main hydrogeological units; -identification of filtration parameters and migration characteristics of the main hydrogeological units; -clarifying the conditions for the sustentation and drainage of groundwater; -determininng the structure of the filtration field; -identifying and assessing the size and the extent of groundwater contamination from the old open dump . 2.Mathematical numeric models of migration and entry conditions of contaminants below the bottom of the landfill unit, with which the natural protection of the geological environment, the protective effect of the engineering

  20. Environmental and Geologic Assessment to Locate a Manual Sanitary Refill in the Mene de Mauroa Church, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón E. Morales-Soto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The inadequate disposal of urban wastes is nowadays an environmental issue having a negative impact on several communities. The objective of this investigation is to select the most adequate place to locate a manual sanitary landfill to dump the solid wastes from the Mene de Mauroa (Venezuela church. A total of 19 variables were subjected to a series of evaluations applying the scale and weight method. This method consists of comparing the variables according to their level of priority. The area with the highest score is to be selected as the most adequate area for the sanitary landfill according to a weighting scale of 5 values for the scoring of each variable.

  1. Sanitary landfills. (Latest citations from the EI Compendex*plus database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning refuse disposal in sanitary landfills. Among the topics reviewed are site selection criteria, leachate analysis and treatment, and economic and management aspects. Hydrologic studies pertaining to contaminant transport, and the use of liners and covers are discussed. Considerable attention is given to gas generation and recovery, and specific operations are described. Citations pertaining specifically to hazardous and industrial waste materials are excluded. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  2. Grouting of fly ash in sanitary landfills; Injektering av flygaska i hushaallsavfallsdeponi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockhom (Sweden); Andreas, Lale; Lagerkvist, Anders [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Jannes, Sara; Tham, Gustav [Telge Aatervinning AB, Soedertaelje (Sweden); Sjoeblom, Rolf [Tekedo AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential for stabilization of sanitary landfills by injecting fly ash. The method is supposed to prevent differential settlements in landfills and by that to counteract damages in the final cover. Injecting fly ash may also affect the chemical development in a positive way and prevent metal leaching. Pilot experiments at the Tveta waste recycling center (Tveta Aatervinningsanlaeggning) have been performed in order to estimate if the grouting technology is a suitable method for sanitary landfills. Fly ashes from the combustion of bio fuels were used in these tests. A literature study and laboratory experiments in order to prepare the field experiments were also part of the project. About 100 tons of ash slurry were injected during the pilot experiments. This corresponds to a filling degree of approximately 12-16 % of the available pores in the landfill body. As a result of the pilot test, the following conclusions can be drawn: Ash can be mixed with water to a pumpable slurry which can be injected without hardening inside the equipment. Neither the waste nor the grouting material caused a backpressure during the injection and nothing indicates that the injected ash deforms the landfilled waste. The ash-water-slurry flows through the voids in the waste easily. Thus, the ash may dispread quite far from the injection holes. Using a more powerful equipment backpressure and movements in the waste might occur. It was not possible to estimate the flow required for backpressure in this study. Large variations are possible but for safety reasons the maximal pressure should be limited with regard to the expected stability in the actual area. The grouted ash will harden within the landfill body within a couple of days. It accumulates in hard but brittle lumps, which may result in an increased stability of the landfill. Further studies are necessary in order to evaluate how the stability is affected and what amounts of ash are

  3. Ecotoxicological evaluation of leachate from the Limeira sanitary landfill with a view to identifying acute toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Euclides Stipp Paterniani

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Final disposal of solid waste is still a cause for serious impacts on the environment. In sanitary landfills, waste undergoes physical, chemical, and biological decomposition, generating biogas and leachate. Leachate is a highly toxic liquid with a very high pollution potential. The purpose of this work is to evaluate toxicity of in natura leachate samples collected from Limeira Sanitary Landfill, in Limeira, SP. The ecotoxicological evaluation comprised acute toxicity assays using as test organisms Daphnia Similis, seeds of Eruca sativa (arugula, and Allium cepa roots (onion. Analyses of color, pH, turbidity, conductivity, hardness, nitrogen, total organic carbon (TOC, adsorbable organic halogen (AOX, and metals were also carried out. The main results for Eruca sativa (arugula and Allium cepa (onion indicated that the diluted leachate 50% presented similar toxicity to the phenol solution of 1000 mg.L-1 for arugula and 2000 mg.L-1 for onion. With the solution of Cr+6 concentrations of 3000 mg.L-1 for arugula and 2000 mg.L-1 for onion were found. For analyses with Daphnia Similis the EC50 was 9.3% on average. This way it was possible to observe that biological tests are necessary to evaluate the pollution in the effluents or water bodies. These tests serve to determine the toxic potential of a chemical agent or complex mixture.

  4. Sanitary landfill groundwater monitoring report. Fourth quarter 1996 and 1996 summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    A maximum of eighty-nine wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Waste Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Dichloromethane, a common laboratory contaminant, and chloroethene (vinyl chloride) were the most widespread constituents exceeding standards during 1996. Benzene, trichloroethylene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, lead (total recoverable), gross alpha, mercury (total recoverable), tetrachloroethylene, fluoride, thallium, radium-226, radium-228, and tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill was to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 141 ft/year during first quarter 1996 and 132 ft/year during fourth quarter 1996

  5. Sanitary Landfill Groundwater Monitoring Report, Fourth Quarter 1999 and 1999 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, J.

    2000-03-13

    A maximum of thirty eight-wells of the LFW series monitor groundwater quality in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill Area at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These wells are sampled quarterly to comply with the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control Domestic Water Permit DWP-087A and as part of the SRS Groundwater Monitoring Program. Iron (Total Recoverable), Chloroethene (Vinyl Chloride) and 1,1-Dichloroethane were the most widespread constituents exceeding the Final Primary Drinking Water Standards during 1999. Trichloroethylene, 1,1-Dichloroethylene, 1,2-Dichloroethane, 1,4-Dichlorobenzene, Aluminum (Total Recoverable), Benzene, cis-1,2-Dichloroethylene, Dichlorodifluoromethane, Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride), Gross Alpha, Mercury (Total Recoverable), Nonvolatile Beta, Tetrachloroethylene, Total Organic Halogens, Trichlorofluoromethane, Tritium also exceeded standards in one or more wells. The groundwater flow direction in the Steed Pond Aquifer (Water Table) beneath the Sanitary Landfill is to the southeast (universal transverse Mercator coordinates). The flow rate in this unit was approximately 144.175 ft/year during first quarter 1999 and 145.27 ft/year during fourth quarter 1999.

  6. Sanitary Landfill Leachate Recycle and Environmental Problems at Selected Army Landfills: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    Benson, M. J. Staub , and M. A. Kamlys, Characteristics, Control and Treatment of Leachate at Military Irnstallations, !nterim Report N- 97/ADA097035...D. Smith, R. Pileccia, J. Handy, G. Gerdes, S. Kloster, G. Schanche, _. .1. fJanson, M. J. Staub , and M. A. Kamiya, Characteri.tic.i Control, and...Learned N 1. Do not construct buildings on top of or close to a closed landfill until methane gas production has stopped.... - 2. Note that explosive

  7. Leachates control in sanitary landfills of urban solid wastes in Gipuzkoa; Control de lixiviados en los vertederos de residuos solidos urbanos de Gipuzkoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Martin, M.A.; Antiguedad Auzmendi, I.

    1998-12-01

    The physico-chemical characterization of the leachates from seven sanitary landfills in Gipuzkoa has been studied. Flow rate, temperature and electric conductivity were monitored on line in some cases too. HELP model and other classic methods were applicated to calculate exactly the water balance. The authors conclude suggesting that these studies are essentials to know if the landfills are really sanitary landfills. (Author) 14 refs.

  8. Treatment of leachates of sanitary landfills of urban solid wastes. Tratamiento de lixiviados de vertederos controlados de residuos solidos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iza Lopez, J. (Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y de Medio Ambiente, ETSII, Bilbao (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    The method more used for Urban Solid Wastes is the sanitary landfill. Its management is similar to the industrial process plant. The minimization techniques of wastes are applicated to reduce the environmental impact and to increase the degradation process in order to improve the biogas as alternative energy. This article analyzes the anaerobic digestion, the leachates characterization and treatment of leachates. (Author)

  9. Geotechnological characteristics of a sanitary land-fill:three years monitoring the sanitary landfills at Meruelo. Caracteristicas geotecnologicas de un vertedero controlado: tres aos de observacion de movimientos en el vertedero controlado de Meruelo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Alciturri, J.M.; Palma, J.H.; Sagaseta, M.; Caizal, J. (Universidad de Cantabria. (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    As a part of research program on geotechnical problems involved in waste disposal, a sanitary landfill has been instrumented in Meruelo, in the region of Cantabria, Spain. It is located in a valley, with an initial retaining dyke whose height is increased by the ''upstream'' method up to a final value of 50 m. At present, the records of three years of monitoring are available, and they are analyzed in this paper. They include surface settlements in points with different thickness of waste (up to 16 m.) and horizontal and vertical movements of the front slope for stability assessment. (Author)

  10. Application of Deuterium and Oxygen-18 to Trace Leachate Movement in Bantar Gebang Sanitary Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Pujiindiyati

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Bantar Gebang landfill was constructed in 1986 with total area of 108 ha and approximately 6000 ton/day solid waste is disposed to this landfill. Mostly, the people living surrounding landfill get afraid of impact of the hazardous chemicals produced by waste disposal to their health. The purpose of this investigation was to study the migration of leachate to Cibitung River water and shallow groundwaters near to the river. It is possible to be done because chemical contents and isotopic characteristics of municipal landfill leachate are unique, relative to aqueous media in the most natural environments. Laser absorption method developed by the LGR (Los Gatos Research was used to measure absolute abundances of 2HHO, HH18O and HHO in a number of water samples. In-situ measurements were also conducted as an additional parameter besides their isotopes. The δ2H of the H2O in landfill leachate was significantly enriched, with values of - 22.6 ‰ to + 4.3 ‰. This deuterium enrichment was undoubtedly due to the extensive production of microbial methane within the limited reservoir of the landfill. However, the enriched deuterium value in leachate was not detected in the river which still had depleted values. It was probably caused by the amount of natural water in the river was comparatively large, with respect to limited leachate discarded to the river.The electrical conductivity of the leachate was higher (3200 to 7600 S and the decreasing values were still monitored in the river to approximately 12 km after streaming the landfills. The effect of the high electrical conductivity and enriched deuterium of leachate was not clearly indicated in the groundwater samples which still represented the local precipitation recharge, except a monitoring well located in Bantar Gebang landfill area which has an indication of leachate contamination.

  11. Membrane Fouling in Microfiltration of Sanitary Landfill Leachate for Removals of Colour and Solids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emad S.M.Ameen; Abdullrahim Mohd Yusoff; Mohd Razman Salim; Azmi Aris; Aznah Nor Anuar

    2013-01-01

    In this research,the treatability of solids from sanitary landfill leachate by microfiltration membrane was investigated and the fouling of the membrane was carefully studied.Continuous microfiltration process was carried out for 21 h in experimental system involved coagulation with Moringa oleifera followed by filtration using submerged hollow fibre microfiltration membrane (MFM).Coagulation with M.Oleifera,air diffusers and back flush technique were used for preventing or alleviating fouling of the membrane.The hollow fibre MFM showed high removals of 98%,91% and 99% for turbidity,colour and total suspended solids respectively.It was obtained at the beginning of the filtration.However,quality of the filtrate rapidly declined during the filtration process.Fouling was found to proceed according to the classical cake filtration model.Coagulation with M.Oleifera as well asthe back-flush technique could not fully restore the deterioration occurred to the membrane.

  12. Electrochemical treatment of concentrate from reverse osmosis of sanitary landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labiadh, Lazhar; Fernandes, Annabel; Ciríaco, Lurdes; Pacheco, Maria José; Gadri, Abdellatif; Ammar, Salah; Lopes, Ana

    2016-10-01

    Conventional sanitary landfill leachate treatment has recently been complemented and, in some cases, completely replaced by reverse osmosis technology. Despite the good quality of treated water, the efficiency of the process is low and a large volume of reverse osmosis concentrate has to be either discharged or further treated. In this study, the use of anodic oxidation combined with electro-Fenton processes to treat the concentrate obtained in the reverse osmosis of sanitary landfill leachate was evaluated. The anodic oxidation pretreatment was performed in a pilot plant using an electrochemical cell with boron-doped diamond electrodes. In the electro-Fenton experiments, a boron-doped diamond anode and carbon-felt cathode were used, and the influence of the initial pH and iron concentration were studied. For the experimental conditions, the electro-Fenton assays performed at an initial pH of 3 had higher organic load removal levels, whereas the best nitrogen removal was attained when the electrochemical process was performed at the natural pH of 8.8. The increase in the iron concentration had an adverse impact on treatment under natural pH conditions, but it enhanced the nitrogen removal in the electro-Fenton assays performed at an initial pH of 3. The combined anodic oxidation and electro-Fenton process is useful for treating the reverse osmosis concentrate because it is effective at removing the organic load and nitrogen-containing species. Additionally, this process potentiates the increase in the biodegradability index of the treated effluent.

  13. Nitrogen removal optimization in a sequencing batch reactor treating sanitary landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagni, Alessandro; Lavagnolo, M Cristina; Scarpa, Carlotta; Vendrame, Paola; Rizzo, Andrea; Luccarini, Luca

    2007-05-01

    Biological nitrogen removal via nitrite may represent a promising process for the optimization of nitrogen removal, in particular in the presence of a low biodegradable COD/TKN ratio. In the present study a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was monitored for approximately 2 years to evaluate the use of dissolved oxygen (DO), pH and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) as monitoring parameters in order to optimize nitrogen removal via nitrite from leachate generated in old sanitary landfills. The SBR manifested a nitrification efficiency exceeding 99% whereas, due to the low biodegradability of the organic matter presents in the leachates, COD removal reached approximately 40% and the addition of external COD was required to accomplish denitrification process. Moreover, the results demonstrate that DO, pH and ORP are reliable parameters for use in the monitoring of nitritation and denitritation processes in SBRs treating landfill leachates. Through manual modification of the length of the SBR phases to achieve nitrogen removal via nitrite, the nitritation and denitritation processes were rendered unstable leading to the saving of 20% in addition of external COD, almost half the theoretically achievable value. Furthermore, the low dissolved oxygen concentration applied during the oxic phases in an attempt to increase the nitritation process would appear to cause the settling characteristics of the activated sludge to deteriorate.

  14. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan; Shao, Li-Ming; Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; He, Pin-Jing

    2014-05-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between landfill C&O and the total landfilling technology implies that the contribution of C&O to overall landfill emissions is not negligible. The non-toxic impacts induced by C&O can be attributed mainly to the consumption of diesel used for daily operation, while the toxic impacts are primarily due to the use of mineral materials. To test the influences of different landfill C&O approaches on environmental impacts, six baseline alternatives were assessed through sensitivity analysis. If geomembranes and geonets were utilized to replace daily and intermediate soil covers and gravel drainage systems, respectively, the environmental burdens of C&O could be mitigated by between 2% and 27%. During the LCA of landfill C&O, the research scope or system boundary has to be declared when referring to material consumption values taken from the literature; for example, the misapplication of data could lead to an underestimation of diesel consumption by 60-80%.

  15. Environmental impact assessment on the construction and operation of municipal solid waste sanitary landfills in developing countries: China case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Na; Damgaard, Anders; Lü, Fan

    2014-01-01

    An inventory of material and energy consumption during the construction and operation (C&O) of a typical sanitary landfill site in China was calculated based on Chinese industrial standards for landfill management and design reports. The environmental impacts of landfill C&O were evaluated through...... life cycle assessment (LCA). The amounts of materials and energy used during this type of undertaking in China are comparable to those in developed countries, except that the consumption of concrete and asphalt is significantly higher in China. A comparison of the normalized impact potential between...... of mineral materials. To test the influences of different landfill C&O approaches on environmental impacts, six baseline alternatives were assessed through sensitivity analysis. If geomembranes and geonets were utilized to replace daily and intermediate soil covers and gravel drainage systems, respectively...

  16. 30 CFR 75.1712-8 - Application for waiver of location requirements for underground sanitary facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground sanitary facilities. Applications for waivers of the location requirements of § 75.1712-6 shall be... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application for waiver of location requirements for underground sanitary facilities. 75.1712-8 Section 75.1712-8 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND...

  17. Report: the current situation of sanitary landfills in Brazil and the importance of the application of economic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Raul Oliveira; Petter, Carlos Otávio; Cortina, José Luis

    2009-12-01

    We present the development stage of the sanitary landfills in Brazil in the context of urban solid residue management, demonstrating the necessity and importance of the employment of economic models. In the article, a cost estimate model is proposed as the basis for studies to be applied by sector management, including the city council, companies, consultants and engineers, contributing to the choice of new areas, public bids, municipal consortia and private public partnerships.

  18. Report: the current situation of sanitary landfills in Brazil and the importance of the application of economic models

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Neto, Raúl; Otávio Petter, Carlos; Cortina Pallás, José Luís

    2009-01-01

    We present the development stage of the sanitary landfills in Brazil in the context of urban solid residue management, demonstrating the necessity and importance of the employment of economic models. In the article, a cost estimate model is proposed as the basis for studies to be applied by sector management, including the city council, companies, consultants and engineers, contributing to the choice of new areas, public bids, municipal consortia and private public partnerships. Peer Re...

  19. Methodology for the determination of optimum power of a Thermal Power Plant (TPP) by biogas from sanitary landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tiago Rodrigo; Barros, Regina Mambeli; Tiago Filho, Geraldo Lúcio; Dos Santos, Ivan Felipe Silva

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to determine theoretically, the electrical optimum power of LFG using the maximum net benefit (MNB) methodology, and taking into consideration the economic, demographic, and regional aspects of the Inter municipal Consortium of the Micro-region of the High Sapucaí for Sanitary Landfill (CIMASAS, as acronym in Portuguese), that is located in the southern part of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. To this end, the prognosis for a 20-year period of household solid waste generation in this region was estimated and quantified based on population data, in order to estimate the LFG production and the energy that can be generated. From this point, the optimum power for thermal power plant (TPP) by LFG was determined. The results indicated that the landfill in this region could produce more 66,293,282m(3)CH4 (with maximum power of 997kW in 2036) in twenty years and that there would be no economic viability to generate energy from LFG, because the Net Present Value (NPV) would not be positive. The smallest population to that can achieve a minimum attractiveness rate (MAR) of 15% should be 3,700,000 inhabitants under the conditions studied. Considering the Brazilian National Electric Energy Agency (ANEEL) Resolutions, it would be 339,000 inhabitants with an installed power of 440kW. In addition, the outcome of the CIMASAS case-study demonstrated the applicability of MNB methodology for the determination of TPP optimum power. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Potential production of electricity from biogas generated in a sanitary landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quetzalli Aguilar-Virgen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Energy forms the cornerstone of almost every economic, social and cultural sector in modern societies. Energy is regarded as an irreplaceable ingredient in such societies’ industrial development. The aim of this research was to estimate the generation of biogas in the city of Ensenada’s sanitary landfill to ascertain the amount of energy which could be generated from the solid waste being disposed of. Biogas estimates were conducted in two stages: a waste characterisation study followed by implementing the regulations proposed by SCS Engineers (SCS Engineers, 2009 regarding the Mexican biogas model (version 2.0. The results showed that a large quantity of organic matter (around 70% is a key element in anaerobic degradation of waste. As to energy generation, it is believed that a full 1.90 MW capacity will be reached in 2019. Such energy could increase Ensenada’s current electricity generation capacity by 3.46% and provide 60% of the energy needed for street lighting, thereby leading to USD $1.423 million in savings.

  1. Biogas from sanitary landfills for electricity production; Biogas de rellenos sanitarios para produccion de electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvizu F, Jose L; Huacuz V, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    There are many ways to eliminate the municipal solid wastes, but only a few help to treat them and to dispose of them suitably. Some of the forms to avoid the problems that the trash originate are: not to produce it, recycling it in a 100% or creating a fictitious market where its value is equal to or greater than the product that gave origin to it; in any case, these alternatives are not absolutely practical. The trash can be incinerated, be segregated, be recycled partially or also be arranged in sanitary landfills. Anyway, the trash has always existed and it will continue existing for sure. [Spanish] Existen muchas maneras de eliminar los residuos solidos municipales, pero solo unas pocas ayudan a tratarlos y disponerlos adecuadamente. Algunas de las formas para evitar los problemas que ocasiona la basura son: no produciendola, reciclandola en un 100% o creando un mercado ficticio donde su valor sea igual o mayor al del producto que le dio origen; en cualquier caso, estas alternativas no son del todo practicas. La basura tambien se puede incinerar, segregar, reciclar parcialmente o disponer en rellenos sanitarios. De cualquier manera, la basura siempre ha existido y seguramente seguira existiendo.

  2. The use of tritium content as an indicator of the groundwater contamination by sanitary landfills leachates in the region of Belo Horizonte City, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandeira, J V; Mingote, R M; Baptista, M B; Oliveira, D M; Lima, F P

    2008-01-01

    Tritium content in the leachate of sanitary landfills, in concentrations well above those observed in global precipitation, can be used as a tracer for the evaluation of the contamination of groundwater in piezometers of the landfills and in neighbouring tubular wells. This possibility was first investigated in Brazil for sanitary landfills in the region of Belo Horizonte City. Tritium levels together with the content of metals present in water and the measurement of soil electrical conductivity, proved to be valuable for these studies and also as a tracer for hydrodynamic studies of the surface water in the Ressaca creek.

  3. Heavy Metals Exposure and Hygienic Behaviors of Workers in Sanitary Landfill Areas in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somsiri Decharat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The main objective of this study was to assess the cadmium and lead exposure levels in subject workers that work in sanitary landfill areas in southern Thailand. The study evaluated the blood cadmium and lead levels in terms of their possible role in worker contamination and transfer of cadmium and lead to the body. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 114 subjects. Whole blood samples were collected to determine cadmium and lead levels by graphite furnaces atomic absorption spectrometer chromium analyzer. Results and Discussion. The mean blood cadmium levels and blood lead levels of subjects workers were 2.95±0.58 μg/L (range 1.58–7.03 μg/L and 8.58±2.58 μg/dL (range 1.98–11.12 μg/dL, respectively. Gender, income, smoked cigarettes, work position, duration of work, personal protective equipment (PPE, and personal hygiene were significantly associated with blood cadmium level and blood lead levels (p<0.001 and p<0.001. A multiple regression model was constructed. Significant predictors of blood cadmium levels and blood lead levels included smoked cigarettes, hours worked per day, days worked per week, duration of work (years, work position, use of PPE (mask and gloves, and personal hygiene behavior (ate snacks or drank water at work and washed hands before lunch. Conclusion. The elevated body burden of toxic metals in the solid waste exposure of subject workers is an indication of occupational metal toxicity associated with personal hygiene practices.

  4. 简析生活垃圾卫生填埋场封场设计%Closure Design of Domestic Waste Sanitary Landfill Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴健萍

    2011-01-01

    Functions of closure of domestic waste sanitary landfill sites were sketched. Main contents about closure design were analyzed, including landfill pile shaping, structure determining of closure cover system, collection and drainage of landfill gas, and collection and discharge of rainwater in landfill pile.%简述了生活垃圾卫生填埋场封场的作用,分析了封场设计中堆体整形、封场覆盖系统结构的确定、填埋气体的收集导排、垃圾堆体雨水的收集排放等主要内容.

  5. Application of GIS/AHP in siting sanitary landfill: a case study in Northern Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Can; Doratli, Naciye

    2012-09-01

    The present study utilized a multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) method in a geographical information systems (GIS) environment to evaluate the suitability of potential landfill sites in Northern Cyprus. To determine the most suitable landfill site, one of the MCE techniques, called analytical hierarchy process (AHP), was combined with a GIS to examine 12 criteria: distance from waste generation centres; distance from roads; slope; distance from surface waters; distance from groundwater areas; distance from environmentally sensitive areas; vegetation types; soil productivity; soil permeability; distance from settlements; distance from cultural sites; distance from stone quarries. The relative importance weights of these criteria were estimated using AHP and criteria maps were developed by using GIS spatial analysis. At the final stage two different suitability maps were produced using two different groups of weights. The first group suitability map had 11 052 (ha) with high suitability class, whereas the high suitability areas decreased to 5982 (ha) in the second group. Moreover, the seven potential sites identified within the first group decreased to four in the second suitability map. However, potential sites such as Gungor, Degirmenlik, Kirklar and Cayonu had similarities with higher suitability values and these same locations were regarded as suitable according to the both first and second suitability map results.

  6. Engineering geology and ground water considerations for sanitary landfills in Wisconsin-aged morainal deposits of central Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, T.R.

    1985-01-01

    In the past five years the author has been engaged as an engineering geology consultant concerning a number of existing and proposed landfills, located in the Wisconsin morainal plains of central Indiana. Work has involved the representation of landfill owners in some cases and opposing citizens in others. For each case except one, municipal waste or conventional waste landfills were involved with the other involving hazardous waste disposal. Several major geologic considerations are involved in proper sitting of landfills in this region. These include: (1) Type, nature and stratigraphy of unconsolidated materials; (2) Thickness of unconsolidated material; (3) Type and nature of bedrock below unconsolidated material: (4) Groundwater supplies in vicinity; (5) Topography of site including flood potential; and (6) Groundwater table and water bearing zones involved. Engineering details of landfill construction and monitoring must also be considered in regard to the site geology. Aspects of leachate generation and containment must be addressed as well.

  7. Leachate treatment system using constructed wetlands, Town of Fenton sanitary landfill, Broome County, New York. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    Municipal sanitary landfills generate leachate that New York State regulations require to be collected and treated to avoid contaminating surface water and groundwater. One option for treating leachate is to haul it to municipal wastewater treatment facility. This option may be expensive, may require excessive energy for transportation, and may require pretreatment to protect the receiving facility`s processes. An alternative is on-site treatment and discharge. Personnel from the Town of Fenton, New York; Hawk Engineering, P.C.; Cornell University; and Ithaca College designed, built, and operated a pilot constructed wetland for treating leachate at the Town of Fenton`s municipal landfill. The system, consisting of two overland flow beds and two subsurface flow beds has been effective for 18 months in reducing levels of ammonia (averaging 85% removal by volatilization and denitrification) and total iron (averaging 95% removal by precipitation and sedimentation), two key constituents of the Fenton landfill`s leachate. The system effects these reductions with zero chemical and energy inputs and minimal maintenance. A third key constituent of the leachate, manganese, apparently passes through the beds with minimal removal. Details and wetland considerations are described.

  8. Incorporation of electrochemical advanced oxidation processes in a multistage treatment system for sanitary landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Francisca C; Soler, J; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Boaventura, Rui A R; Brillas, Enric; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-09-15

    The current study has proved the technical feasibility of including electrochemical advanced oxidation processes (EAOPs) in a multistage strategy for the remediation of a sanitary landfill leachate that embraced: (i) first biological treatment to remove the biodegradable organic fraction, oxidize ammonium and reduce alkalinity, (ii) coagulation of the bio-treated leachate to precipitate humic acids and particles, followed by separation of the clarified effluent, and (iii) oxidation of the resulting effluent by an EAOP to degrade the recalcitrant organic matter and increase its biodegradability so that a second biological process for removal of biodegradable organics and nitrogen content could be applied. The influence of current density on an UVA photoelectro-Fenton (PEF) process was firstly assessed. The oxidation ability of various EAOPs such as electro-Fenton (EF) with two distinct initial total dissolved iron concentrations ([TDI]0), PEF and solar PEF (SPEF) was further evaluated and these processes were compared with their analogous chemical ones. A detailed assessment of the two first treatment stages was made and the biodegradability enhancement during the SPEF process was determined by a Zahn-Wellens test to define the ideal organics oxidation state to stop the EAOP and apply the second biological treatment. The best current density was 200 mA cm(-2) for a PEF process using a BDD anode, [TDI]0 of 60 mg L(-1), pH 2.8 and 20 °C. The relative oxidation ability of EAOPs increased in the order EF with 12 mg [TDI]0 L(-1) < EF with 60 mg [TDI]0 L(-1) < PEF with 60 mg [TDI]0 L(-1) ≤ SPEF with 60 mg [TDI]0 L(-1), using the abovementioned conditions. While EF process was much superior to the Fenton one, the superiority of PEF over photo-Fenton was less evident and SPEF attained similar degradation to solar photo-Fenton. To provide a final dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of 163 mg L(-1) to fulfill the discharge limits into the environment after

  9. Research, development and demonstration in the design of sanitary landfill to optimize the generation and capture of compressible gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosanov, M. E.; Teeple, F. E.; Buesch, S. C.

    1982-02-01

    The influences of selected factors on the generation and recovery of methane gas from sanitary landfills were investigated. The factors included encapsulation, shredding, air classifying, moisture, and pH. Facilities consisting of six model sanitary landfill cells, each with a capacity of approximately 450 cubic yards of municipal waste, and auxiliary subsystems were constructed. Municipal waste in each cell is contained in a 30-mil thick polyvinly chloride plastic sheeting forming a virtually gas-tight envelope. Two cells were filled with as-collected urban waste, two with shredded waste, and two with shredded and air classified waste, constituting three pairs of cells. One of each pair is a control cell with the other used as an experimental variable. Systems were provided for adding measured amounts of water, removing and recirculating leachate, and for extracting gas and measuring gas flow. During testing, gas production and internal cell characteristics were measured to determine the effects of mechanical processing, moisture content, and leachate pH.

  10. Sustainable sanitary landfills for neglected small cities in developing countries: The semi-mechanized trench method from Villanueva, Honduras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakley, Stewart M., E-mail: soakley@csuchico.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Chico State University, California State University, Chico, CA 95929 (United States); Jimenez, Ramon, E-mail: rjimenez1958@yahoo.com [Public Works, Municipality of Villanueva, Cortes (Honduras)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Open dumping is the most common form of waste disposal in neglected small cities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Semi-mechanized landfills can be a sustainable option for small cities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present the theory of design and operation of semi-mechanized landfills. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Villanueva, Honduras has operated its semi-mechanized landfill for 15 years. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cost of operation is US$4.60/ton with a land requirement of 0.2m{sup 2}/person-year. - Abstract: Open dumping is the most common practice for the disposal of urban solid wastes in the least developed regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Sanitary landfill design and operation has traditionally focused on large cities, but cities with fewer than 50,000 in population can comprise from 6% to 45% of a given country's total population. These thousands of small cities cannot afford to operate a sanitary landfill in the way it is proposed for large cities, where heavy equipment is used to spread and compact the waste in daily cells, and then to excavate, transport and apply daily cover, and leachate is managed with collection and treatment systems. This paper presents an alternative approach for small cities, known as the semi-mechanized trench method, which was developed in Villanueva, Honduras. In the semi-mechanized trench method a hydraulic excavator is used for 1-3 days to dig a trench that will last at least a month before it is filled with waste. Trucks can easily unload their wastes into the trench, and the wastes compact naturally due to semi-aerobic biodegradation, after which the trenches are refilled and covered. The exposed surface area is minimal since only the top surface of the wastes is exposed, the remainder being covered by the sides and bottom of the trench. The surplus material from trench excavation can be valorized for use as engineering fill onsite or off. The landfill in

  11. Recycling potential of urban solid waste destined for sanitary landfills: the case of Indaiatuba, SP, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Sandro Donnini; Nogueira, Alex Rodrigues; Kagohara, Dennis Akira; Schwartzman, Jonas Age Saide; de Mattos, Tânia

    2007-12-01

    The urban solid waste of the city of Indaiatuba (pop. 175 000), located in the state of São Paulo, was characterized, focusing on the recycling potential. For this purpose, collected waste was subdivided into 27 items, classified by mass and volume. About 90% of this waste was found to be potentially recyclable and only 10% requiring landfilling. The compostable organic matter, in the form of food and garden waste, both with high moisture content (51 and 41%, respectively), represents 54% in mass and 21% in volume. The most common type of plastic in this waste is high density polyethylene, whose estimated disposal is about 5000kgday(-1). A socio-economic analysis of the waste generation indicates that low-income neighbourhoods discard relatively less packaging and more food waste, shoes and construction debris than middle and high income ones, which may be due to low purchasing power and schooling. Our findings indicate that more aluminium and uncoloured polyethylene terephthalate is discarded in the warmest months of the year, probably due to a greater consumption of canned and bottled drinks.

  12. The effect of sanitary landfill leachate aging on the biological treatment and assessment of photoelectrooxidation as a pre-treatment process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, Gabriel Timm [Universidade Estadual do Rio Grande do Sul (UERGS), R. Gal. João Manoel, 50, CEP 90010-030 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Giacobbo, Alexandre [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Setor 4, Prédio 74, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Santos Chiaramonte, Edson Abel dos [Universidade Estadual do Rio Grande do Sul (UERGS), R. Gal. João Manoel, 50, CEP 90010-030 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Rodrigues, Marco Antônio Siqueira [Universidade FEEVALE, ICET, RS 239, 2755, CEP 93352-000 Novo Hamburgo, RS (Brazil); Meneguzzi, Alvaro [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Setor 4, Prédio 74, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Bernardes, Andréa Moura, E-mail: amb@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500, Setor 4, Prédio 74, CEP 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Photoelectrooxidation (PEO) emerges as a new technology for leachate treatment. • Aging of sanitary landfills acts on leachate composition and biodegradability. • PEO is applied as leachate pretreatment before the biological processes. • PEO produced significant changes in the leachate matrix, easing biological process. - Abstract: The sanitary landfill leachate is a dark liquid, of highly variable composition, with recalcitrant features that hamper conventional biological treatment. The physical–chemical characteristics of the leachate along the landfill aging, as well as their effects on the efficiency of the conventional treatment, were evaluated at this paper. The feasibility of photoelectrooxidation process as an alternative technique for treatment of landfill leachates was also determined. Photoelectrooxidation experiments were conducted in a bench-scale reactor. Analysis of the raw leachate revealed many critical parameters demonstrating that the recalcitrance of leachate tends to increase with time, directly influencing the decline in efficiency of the conventional treatment currently employed. The effects of current density and lamp power were investigated. Using a 400 W power lamp and a current density of 31.5 mA cm{sup −2}, 53% and 61% efficiency for the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand were respectively achieved by applying photoelectrooxidation process. With the removal of these pollutants, downstream biological treatment should be improved. These results demonstrate that photoelectrooxidation is a feasible technique for the treatment of sanitary landfill leachate, even considering this effluent’s high resistance to treatment.

  13. Development of the utilization of combustible gas produced in existing sanitary landfills: Effects of corrosion at the Mountain View, California landfill gas-recovery plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    Corrosion of equipment has occurred at the Mountain View, California Landfill Gas Recovery Plant. Corrosion is most severe on compressor valve seats and cages, tubes in the first and second stages of the interstage gas cooler, and first and second stage piping and liquid separators. Corrosion occurs because the raw landfill gas contains water, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. Some corrosion may also result from trace concentrations of organic acids present in the landfill gas. Corrosion of the third stage compressor, cooler, and piping does not occur because the gas is dehydrated immediately prior to the third stage. Controlling corrosion is necessary to maintain the mechanical integrity of the plant and to keep the cost of the gas competitive with natural gas. Attempts to reduce corrosion rates by injecting a chemical inhibitor have proved only partially successful. Recommendations for dealing with corrosion include earlier dehydration of the gas, selection of special alloys in critical locations, chemical inhibition, and regular plant inspections.

  14. Growing trees on completed sanitary landfills. [Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies, Ginkgo biloba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leone, I.A.; Gilman, E.F.; Flower, F.B.

    1983-01-01

    A 10-year old completed landfill in New Jersey consisting of 9 m (depth) of refuse covered with 15-25 cm of soil was cleared of debris and vegetation and covered with 30 cm of subsoil and 15-25 cm of topsoil. Nineteen coniferous and broadleaved species were planted on the landfill and on a control site in 1975, and trees were maintained and growth and condition monitored over 4 years. On the basis of shoot length and stem area increase, the most successful of the surviving trees were Nyssa sylvatica, Picea abies and Ginkgo biloba, in decreasing order of tolerance. Tolerance of landfill conditions appeared to be greatest in those species with low water requirements, a slow growth rate, high acid tolerance and a shallow root system. (Refs. 11).

  15. Sustainable sanitary landfills for neglected small cities in developing countries: the semi-mechanized trench method from Villanueva, Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Stewart M; Jimenez, Ramón

    2012-12-01

    Open dumping is the most common practice for the disposal of urban solid wastes in the least developed regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Sanitary landfill design and operation has traditionally focused on large cities, but cities with fewer than 50,000 in population can comprise from 6% to 45% of a given country's total population. These thousands of small cities cannot afford to operate a sanitary landfill in the way it is proposed for large cities, where heavy equipment is used to spread and compact the waste in daily cells, and then to excavate, transport and apply daily cover, and leachate is managed with collection and treatment systems. This paper presents an alternative approach for small cities, known as the semi-mechanized trench method, which was developed in Villanueva, Honduras. In the semi-mechanized trench method a hydraulic excavator is used for 1-3 days to dig a trench that will last at least a month before it is filled with waste. Trucks can easily unload their wastes into the trench, and the wastes compact naturally due to semi-aerobic biodegradation, after which the trenches are refilled and covered. The exposed surface area is minimal since only the top surface of the wastes is exposed, the remainder being covered by the sides and bottom of the trench. The surplus material from trench excavation can be valorized for use as engineering fill onsite or off. The landfill in Villanueva has operated for 15 years, using a total land area of approximately 11 ha for a population that grew from 23,000 to 48,000, with a land requirement of 0.2m(2)/person year, a cover to waste ratio of 0.2, and an estimated soil surplus of 298,000 m(3) that is valorized and used onsite. The landfill has been operated solely by the municipality with an operational cost in 2010 estimated at US$4.60 per ton. A modified water balance analysis at Villanueva shows negligible leachate generation from covered trenches and 700 m(3)/yr (60 m(3)/ha yr) from the two open

  16. Public concerns about and perceptions of solid waste dump sites and selection of sanitary landfill sites in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Abu Hammad, Ahmad; Sharkas, Othman A; Sato, Chikashi

    2015-04-01

    Palestinian inhabitants have disposed of their solid wastes at open dumpsites over the past 40 years without an adequate solid waste management (SWM) plans. Recently, the Palestinian Authority initiated SWM planning to establish controlled sanitary landfills, based on a participatory approach. The purpose of this study was to assess public concerns about existing solid waste dumpsites and public perceptions of sanitary landfill site selection. The study will also take into consideration the effect of diverse social, economic, and environmental related factors of the inhabitants on sitting suitable landfill sites in three Palestinian districts in the West Bank, namely, "Nablus," "Salfit," and "Ramallah and Al-Bireh." The results of this study showed that 64.9% of the sample population are aware of the problems and potential impacts associated with random dumpsites, and 41.6% think that they are suffering from the dumps. Among the environmental, socioeconomic, and political factors, the environmental factors, air pollution in particular, are thought be the most important consideration in selecting a landfill site. The "fairness in selecting a landfill site" was chosen to be one of the most important socioeconomic factors, possibly as a reaction to the Israeli occupation and subsequent land use restrictions in the West Bank, Palestinian territory.

  17. Applications of geotextiles in sanitary landfills; Aplicacion de geotextiles en vertederos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuenca Lorenzo, J. L.

    2001-07-01

    This article describes the applications of geo textiles in landfills with protection and filter functions. The usual way of design in many projects is revised in this paper and the needed properties to require to the geotextiles are showed too. Finally, a quality control of these properties which should be run to be sure that a good specified project is being fulfilled. (Author) 3 refs.

  18. Optimisation of sanitary landfill leachate treatment in a sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagni, A; Marsili-Libelli, S; Lavagnolo, M C

    2008-01-01

    A bench-scale SBR was operated for almost three years in an attempt to optimise the treatment of leachates generated in old landfill. The results of the first two years were used to design a monitoring and control system based on artificial intelligence concepts. Nitrogen removal was optimized via the nitrite shortcut. Nitrification and N removal were usually higher than 98% and 90%, respectively, whereas COD (of the leachate) removal was approximately 30-40%. The monitoring and control system was demonstrated capable of optimizing process operation, in terms of phase length and external COD addition, to the varying loading conditions. Using the control system developed, a significant improvement of the process was obtained: COD and N load were increased (HRT decrease) and a significant decrease (approximately 34%) of the ratio of COD added to N leachate content was observed.

  19. Effects of ferric ions on the catalytic ozonation process on sanitary landfill leachates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messias Borges Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Leachates exhibiting an unstable ratio of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD of approximately 0.45 are typical of new landfills in the City of Cachoeira Paulista, Brazil. Although the organic matter portion is bio-treatable, the presence of refractory leached organic material requires unconventional effluent-treatment processes. Leachate treatment with ozone oxidation, in the presence of ferric ions, acts as catalyst in the formation of hydroxyl radicals. Ozone was obtained by corona-discharge from high-purity O2 gas. The treatment was performed in natura in a jacketed borosilicate glass reactor containing 900 ml of leachate. The analyzed response variable was expressed as the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC. In order to determine the optimal proportions to produce the greatest degradation rate for organic materials, variations in experimental O2 flow-fed to the generator, the Fe(iii concentration, and the output of the ozonator were conducted over two experimental runs. Experimental models showed a DOC degradation on the order of 81.25%.

  20. Comparison of fuzzy AHP and fuzzy TODIM methods for landfill location selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanine, Mohamed; Boutkhoum, Omar; Tikniouine, Abdessadek; Agouti, Tarik

    2016-01-01

    Landfill location selection is a multi-criteria decision problem and has a strategic importance for many regions. The conventional methods for landfill location selection are insufficient in dealing with the vague or imprecise nature of linguistic assessment. To resolve this problem, fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making methods are proposed. The aim of this paper is to use fuzzy TODIM (the acronym for Interactive and Multi-criteria Decision Making in Portuguese) and the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (AHP) methods for the selection of landfill location. The proposed methods have been applied to a landfill location selection problem in the region of Casablanca, Morocco. After determining the criteria affecting the landfill location decisions, fuzzy TODIM and fuzzy AHP methods are applied to the problem and results are presented. The comparisons of these two methods are also discussed.

  1. An innovative multistage treatment system for sanitary landfill leachate depuration: Studies at pilot-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia F C V; Soares, Petrick A; Manenti, Diego R; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2017-01-15

    In this work, an innovative methodology for the treatment of landfill leachates, after aerobic lagooning, is proposed and adjusted at pilot-scale. This methodology involves an aerobic activated sludge biological pre-oxidation (ASBO), a coagulation/sedimentation step (240mgFe(3+)/L, at pH4.2) and a photo-oxidation through a photo-Fenton (PF) reaction (60mg Fe(2+), at pH2.8) combining solar and artificial light. The ASBO process applied to a leachate after aerobic lagooning, with high organic and nitrogen content (1.1-1.5gC/L; 0.8-3.0gN/L) and low biodegradability (BOD5/COD =0.07-0.13), is capable to oxidise 62-99% of the ammonium nitrogen, consuming only the affluent alkalinity (70-100%). The coagulation/sedimentation stage led to the humic acids precipitation, promoting a marked change in leachate colour, from dark-brown to yellowish-brown (related to fulvic acids), accompanied by a reduction of 60%, 58% and 88% on DOC, COD and TSS, respectively. The PF system promoted the degradation of the recalcitrant organic molecules into more easily biodegradable ones. According to Zahn-Wellens biodegradability test, a leachate with 419mg DOC/L after coagulation, would have to be photo-oxidized until DOC 60%. The PF step cost to treat 100m(3)/day of leachate was 6.41€/m(3), combining 1339m(2) of CPCs with 31 lamps. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Landfills

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This data set defines both current and historic landfills/waste disposal storage sites for the State of Vermont. Historic landfills were identified with the...

  3. Insights into solar photo-Fenton reaction parameters in the oxidation of a sanitary landfill leachate at lab-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia F C V; Ferreira, Rui; Soares, Petrick A; Manenti, Diego R; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2015-12-01

    This work evaluates the effect of the main photo-Fenton (PF) reaction variables on the treatment of a sanitary landfill leachate collected at the outlet of a leachate treatment plant, which includes aerated lagooning followed by aerated activated sludge and a final coagulation-flocculation step. The PF experiments were performed in a lab-scale compound parabolic collector (CPC) photoreactor using artificial solar radiation. The photocatalytic reaction rate was determined while varying the total dissolved iron concentration (20-100 mg Fe(2+)/L), solution pH (2.0-3.6), operating temperature (10-50 °C), type of acid used for acidification (H2SO4, HCl and H2SO4 + HCl) and UV irradiance (22-68 W/m(2)). This work also tries to elucidate the role of ferric hydroxides, ferric sulphate and ferric chloride species, by taking advantage of ferric speciation diagrams, in the efficiency of the PF reaction when applied to leachate oxidation. The molar fraction of the most photoactive ferric species, FeOH(2+), was linearly correlated with the PF pseudo-first order kinetic constants obtained at different solution pH and temperature values. Ferric ion speciation diagrams also showed that the presence of high amounts of chloride ions negatively affected the PF reaction, due to the decrease of ferric ions solubility and scavenging of hydroxyl radicals for chlorine radical formation. The increment of the PF reaction rates with temperature was mainly associated with the increase of the molar fraction of FeOH(2+). The optimal parameters for the photo-Fenton reaction were: pH = 2.8 (acidification agent: H2SO4); T = 30 °C; [Fe(2+)] = 60 mg/L and UV irradiance = 44 WUV/m(2), achieving 72% mineralization after 25 kJUV/L of accumulated UV energy and 149 mM of H2O2 consumed.

  4. Estimate the potential production of electricity: a case study of the sanitary landfill of Santo Andre, Sao Paulo, Brazil; Estimativa do potencial de producao de eletricidade: estudo de caso do aterro sanitario de Santo Andre, Sao Paulo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Elissando Rocha da; Moreira, Joao M. L.; Candiani, Giovano [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Sao Paulo (IFSP), SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The recovery of the biogas generated from sanitary landfills, associated to its energetic use has been widely discussed. Thus, this paper aims to estimate the potential production of electric energy from sanitary landfill Santo Andre-SP. The biogas production was estimated using the rate of deposition of solid wastes in the landfill, using some mathematical models with parameters suggested by two models: LanGEM-USEPA (conventional landfill) and Word Bank. These results indicate that the potential of biogas production will be approximately 11 x 10{sup 6} Kg of methane/year in 2017 and production of electric energy in that year will be approximately 32,000 MWh, considering an of 75% over collection of biogas. (author)

  5. Analysis of the role of the sanitary landfill in waste management strategies based upon a review of lab leaching tests and new tools to evaluate leachate production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Lombardi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the role of sanitary landfills in current and future waste management strategies based upon the principles and the goals established by the European Framework Directive on Waste (2008/98/EC. Specific reference is made to studies of our research group regarding new tools developed to evaluate leachate production, taking into account the different characteristics of municipal solid waste (MSW. Laboratory leaching tests and a methodology proposed to interpret the results are described and discussed, as well as tools developed to estimate landfill leachate production. Residual flows produced by mechanical-biological treatment (MBT plants, mainly Solid Recovered Fuel (SRF and Stabilized Organic Waste (SOW, incineration and composting plants are considered in particular. Experimental results showed that the most suitable end-uses or disposal options for the outputs of waste treatment plants are site-specific and should be defined on the basis of a detailed characterization. The application of the model developed to assess landfill leachate production showed a very good agreement with field data.

  6. Electrical Characters of Sanitary Landfill Border%卫生垃圾填埋场边界的地电特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶腾飞; 董路; 龚育龄; 汤洪志; 刘玉强

    2011-01-01

    研究卫生垃圾填埋场边界的地电特性,界定卫生垃圾填埋场边界有助于场地环境的维护和管理,采用电阻率二维层析成像技术中的3种装置排列(测深、温纳、偶极-偶极)对小型卫生垃圾填埋场模型进行对比测量,通过电阴率二维层析成像技术对填埋场边界的地电特性进行分析研究.研究结果表明,在测深和温纳两种装置排列,不能进行精确定位;而偶极-偶极的反演图象中可以界定垃圾填埋场的侧向和底部边界,其误差小于5%.%To determine the boundary of a sanitary landfill more accurately, this paper introduces a technology, namely 2D electric resistivity tomography (ERT). Thus, a comparative survey was conducted, in which electrical characters of the landfill border were measured with three arrays such as sounding array, Wenner array and dipole-dipole array respectively. Result showed that dipole-dipole array is more accurate with an error lower than 5% in determining the landfill boundary,being useful in defining the landfill's lateral and bottom boundary.

  7. Study of biogas production parameters in the sanitary landfill; Estudio de los parametros que afectan la produccion de biogas en un vertedero controlado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Domenech, G.; Gordillo Bolasell, M. A.; Sanchez Ferrer, A.

    2001-07-01

    The following article contents a study about some of the parameters affecting the evolution of the gas production in a sanitary landfill placed in the province of Barcelona. The work is focused on the quality of biogas produced, measured as the percentage of methane and thus its energy profitability. The parameters included in this paper are: -Situation of the gas extraction station -Age of the wastes. -Reinfiltration of concentrated liquid leachate in the considered cell. Among the previous factors, the situation of the gas station and the age of wastes showed a critical influence on the methane content, whereas the use of leachate reinfiltration did not produce significant differences in the quality of biogas in the short-term applications. (Author) 5 refs.

  8. Bioreactor landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hao; XING Kai; Anthony Adzomani

    2004-01-01

    Following the population expansion, there is a growing threat brought by municipal solid waste (MSW) against environment and human health. Sanitary landfill is the most important method of MSW disposal in China. In contrast to the conventional landfill, this paper introduces a new technique named bioreactor landfill (BL). Mechanisms, operation conditions as well as the advantages and disadvantages of BL are also discussed in this paper.

  9. Development of the utilization of combustible gas produced in existing sanitary landfills: Investigation of effects of air inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The effects of nitrogen and oxygen on landfill gas operations are discussed. A combustible gas mixture composed of methane and carbon dioxide is generated in municipal solid waste landfills. A consequence of the collection of this fuel gas is the inclusion of some air in the collected product. The effects include increased collected and purification costs, reduction in the quality of the fuel gas produced, corrosion, explosion hazards, and interference with odorant systems. The scope of such effects was determined by using landfill data of a gas recovery site as a basis. Useful supplemental fuel gas may be recovered despite the inclusion of air. Recommendations are made for establishing limits for nitrogen and oxygen content and minimizing the costs associated with their presence.

  10. Innovative technologies of liquid media treatment in the system of ecological and sanitary-hygienic control of waste landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevchenko Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the scientific and practical aspects of establishing a comprehensive system of environmental compliance for industrial and household waste landfills, including the system of industrial and environmental monitoring and control, modern innovations in the field of instrumental-analytical control of the state of environmental components, new methods of neutralization of complex industrial pollution. Priority is given to wastewater treatment from toxic compounds coming from the surface and drainage water seepage of landfill sites into surface and underground water sources.

  11. Sensitivity analysis of the leaching rate parameter in assessing the environmental risk of phosphogypsum application in sanitary landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesi, Marcos Vinicius A.; Hama, Naruhiko; Jacomino, Vanusa M.F.; Ladeira, Ana Claudia Q.; Cota, Stela D.S., E-mail: mvmarchesi@hotmail.com, E-mail: sdsc@cdtn.br, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.br, E-mail: ana.ladeira@cdtn.br, E-mail: naruhikohama@hotmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The attack with sulfuric acid to phosphate rock produces both phosphoric acid, basic raw material in the manufacture of fertilizers, as a by-product called phosphogypsum. Phosphogypsum is composed mostly of calcium sulfate dihydrated, but may have high levels of impurities from the phosphate rock matrix as a series of natural radionuclides, and heavy metals (e.g. Cd, Zn) and metalloids (e.g. , As and Se). Although it is used for agricultural purposes and more recently in construction, in Brazil the generation rate estimated at six million tons per year is much higher than the amount spent on existing alternatives, and therefore mostly deposited in piles in the same place production, causing thereby the risk of contamination of soil and water resources of the region and providing risk to human health. Taken into account the need to find alternative arrangements for phosphogypsum and reduce the impact generated by its contaminants, this study aims to analyze the sensitivity of the leaching rate parameter in the environmental risk evaluation of the application of phosphogypsum in landfills through mathematical modeling, where it is evaluated the concentration of heavy metals and radionuclides in the layer of the soil under the clay layer of the landfill.

  12. Determination of the coefficient of uranium and thorium distribution in phosphogypsum for their use in sanitary landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchesi, Marcos Vinicius A.; Hama, Naruhiko; Jacomino, Vanusa M. F.; Ladeira, Ana Claudia Q.; Cota, Stela D. S., E-mail: mvmarchesi@hotmail.com, E-mail: sdsc@cdtn.br, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.br, E-mail: ana.ladeira@cdtn.br, E-mail: naruhikohama@hotmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Nascimento, Marcos Roberto Lopes do; Taddei, Maria Helena, E-mail: pmarcos@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas

    2013-07-01

    Phosphogypsum is a byproduct from the production of phosphoric acid, and contain radionuclides, heavy metals and metalloids from phosphate rock. It represents a risk to the environment if improperly stored. Because it is composed mainly of dihydrated calcium sulphate, phosphogypsum can be used in anaerobic environments such as those found in landfills to accelerate microbial processes of decomposition of municipal solid waste and thus increase the life of these facilities. One of the options of your application being studied is the use of phosphogypsum replacing the covers of soil/clay in landfills. Besides reducing the demand for soil and clay, this application would be an alternative to disposal of the waste, since the alternatives are not sufficient for more than five million tons produced per year in Brazil. To ensure the safety of this application, the potential environmental impact of contaminants in phosphogypsum should be evaluated. The rate of leaching of contaminants are being studied by determining the coefficient of distribution of the contaminants in the phosphogypsum. Batch tests were performed by mixing different proportions of slurry and phosphogypsum. This work presents the results for the chain of uranium and natural thorium.

  13. Physical-chemical and bacteriological aspects of the groundwater in the sanitary landfills in the metropolitan region of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Dall´Antonia

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available A detailed study of the physical-chemical and bacteriological qualities of the subterranean water at sanitary landfills in the Metropolitan Region of Londrina (PR, was carried out. The field of twelve wells that reach the groundwater as well as the emergence of the watertable of the Periquitos River, were also monitored. The results of the analyses of 120 samples of the collected water were compared to the permissible maximum values for human consumption according to the Federal Legislation in Brazil. Total excrements were found around 3,1 NMP/100mL (Well 4 and 120330 NMP/100mL (Periquitos River and fecal matter between 0 and 4100 NMP/100mL (Periquitos River. Such values were associated to the contamination caused by the presence of animals from neighbor properties, feeding themselves in that region. The pH, turbidity, COD and BOD were among the values expected, except for the conductivity that showed to be altered.

  14. Bench scale model studies on sanitary landfill leachate treatment with M. oleifera seed extract and hollow fibre micro-filtration membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Muyibi

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory-based study using a Bench Scale model of four unit operations made up of coagulation (using Moringa oleifera seed extract as a coagulant, flocculation, sedimentation and micro-filtration, have been adopted to treat the leachate from Air Hitman Sanitary Landfill at Puchong in Malaysia. M. oleifera dosages of 150 and 175 mg/L had achieved 43.8% Cadmium removal, 21.2% Total Chromium removal, 66.8% Lead removal and 16% Iron removal. It also removed 55.4% of Total Suspended Solids, 10% of Total Dissolved Solids and 24.2% of Volatile Suspended Solids. Micro-filtration hollow fibre membrane decreased the turbidity, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, volatile suspended solids, and organic matter in the leachate by 98.3%, 96.7%, 20.8%, 36.6% and 21.9% respectively. Overall heavy metals removal after micro-filtration using hollow fibre membrane was 94% for Cadmium, 29.8% for Total Chromium, 73.2% for Lead, and 18.3% for Iron. The results have shown that M. oleifera is a promising natural polymer for removing heavy metals from leachates and may be used as a pre-treatment to eliminate a portion of the toxic heavy metals, which limits the activity of micro organisms in the leachates.

  15. POSTCLOSURE GROUNDWATER REMEDIATION AND MONITORING AT THE SANITARY LANDFILL, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE TRANSITIONING TO MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J; Walt Kubilius, W; Thomas Kmetz, T; D Noffsinger, D; Karen M Adams, K

    2006-11-17

    Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements for hazardous waste facilities include 30 years of post-closure monitoring. The use of an objective-based monitoring strategy allows for a significant reduction in the amount of groundwater monitoring required, as the groundwater remediation transitions from an active biosparging system to monitored natural attenuation. The lifecycle of groundwater activities at the landfill has progressed from detection monitoring and plume characterization, to active groundwater remediation, and now to monitored natural attenuation and postclosure monitoring. Thus, the objectives of the groundwater monitoring have changed accordingly. Characterization monitoring evaluated what biogeochemical natural attenuation processes were occurring and determined that elevated levels of radium were naturally occurring. Process monitoring of the biosparging system required comprehensive sampling network up- and down-gradient of the horizontal wells to verify its effectiveness. Currently, the scope of monitoring and reporting can be significantly reduced as the objective is to demonstrate that the alternate concentration limits (ACL) are being met at the point of compliance wells and the maximum contaminant level (MCL) is being met at the surface water point of exposure. The proposed reduction is estimated to save about $2M over the course of the remaining 25 years of postclosure monitoring.

  16. Estimation of the mass-balance of selected metals in four sanitary landfills in Western Norway, with emphasis on the heavy metal content of the deposited waste and the leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øygard, Joar Karsten; Måge, Amund; Gjengedal, Elin

    2004-07-01

    A worst-case simulation of the mass-balance for metals in the waste deposited during 1 year and the levels of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr) and iron (Fe) in the leachate was calculated for four sanitary landfills in Western Norway. Estimates of the levels of metal content in mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) were found by using recent literature values calculated in a mass-balance study at a Norwegian waste incinerator plant. Leachate from the landfills were sampled and analyzed monthly during 1 year, and from these measurements the total annual discharge of the selected metals through the leachate was determined. The levels of the measured heavy metals in the leachate were low. For Cd less than 0.06%, for Pb less than 0.01% and for Hg less than 0.02% of the estimated year's deposited mass of metals were leached from the landfills during the year of investigation. The high retention of these metals are most likely due to sulfide precipitation, but also due to the immobile condition of the metals in their original deposited solid state (plastics, ceramics, etc.). The percentage of Cr leached was relatively higher, but less than 1.0% per year. The mass balance of Fe suggests that this element is more mobile under the prevailing conditions. The percentage of Fe leached varied and was estimated to be between 1.9% and 18%. The present study clearly supports the theory that MSW only to a small extent will lead to discharge of metals if deposited at well-constructed sanitary landfills with top layers.

  17. Developing a fuzzy decision support system to determine the location of a landfill site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Maria C M; Lima, Beatriz S L P; Evsukoff, Alexandre G; Vieira, Ian N

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents two case studies of municipal solid waste site location using a decision-support system based on fuzzy logic. This problem is very complex, as it requires the evaluation of different criteria, which involve environmental, social and economic data. Such data deal with a wide range of information that presents not only quantitative, but also qualitative knowledge. In order to deal with this characteristic, the developed system employs fuzzy rules due to its ability to treat linguistic variables and the human way of thinking. Conventional approaches tend to be less effective in dealing with the imprecise or vague nature of the linguistic assessment. A case study for selecting the location of a new municipal solid waste landfill for the city of Petropolis in Rio de Janeiro is presented. Testing of the proposed method was carried out using data from the municipal solid waste location for another municipality in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  18. Geophysical technique and groundwater monitoring in the surrounding area of a sanitary landfill, Londrina (PR-Brazil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, D. D.; Silva, S. M. C. P.; Fernandes, F.; Texeira, R. S.; Celligoi, A.; Dall' Antonia, L. H.

    2009-07-01

    The use of non-invasive techniques such as surface geophysics usually allows a preliminary mapping providing information that will guide the use of invasive techniques of soil investigation. surface geophysics also helps the location of unconfined aquifer and monitoring wells (Mondelli 2004). However is necessity to point out that results obtained through surface geophysics are not conclusive, and their combination with data from monitoring wells is indicated in order to identify or confirm the behavior of the underground resistivity, which in turn may change according to some conditions such as: intrinsic porosity of rock and sediment, air and aqueous fluid content and variations of the groundwater chemical composition. (Author)

  19. Experimental Study on Compactness of Clay Liners in Sanitary Landfill%卫生填埋场黏土衬层密实性试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚育龄; 叶腾飞; 董路; 汤洪志

    2011-01-01

    开展卫生填埋场中的黏土衬层密实性试验研究对填埋场的工程设计和后期运营具有现实意义.黏土压实的直接影响之一就是孔隙率的减小,并改变黏土的电阻率,为高密度电阻率法在衬层密实性中的调查研究提供了前提条件和物理基础.文章采用高密度电阻率法三种装置(测深、温纳、偶极-偶极)进行对比测量,通过电阻率成像技术对压实黏土的电性特征进行分析研究,确定了偶极-偶极装置反演精度较高.研究结果表明,渗透系数K为1.0×10-6cm/s的电阻率为40 Ω·m左右;K为1.0×10-6 cm/s的电阻率为30 Ω·m左右;K为1.0×10-7 cm/s的电阻率为20 Ω·m左右.%The study on density of clay liners is helpful for design and post-operation of the sanitary landfill. Resistivity change is one of direct impacts of decreasing porosity in compacted clay. The difference of resistivity would provide preconditions and physical basis for high density resistivity method. Three arrays including sounding array, Wenner array and dipole-dipole array were implemented and compared using electrical resistivity tomography technology. Electrical character of the compacted clay was investigated through the performance of resistivity tomography technology, and the inverse results of dipole-dipole array are more accurate. Results indicate that resistivity is about 40 ft'm at hydraulic conductivity of l.OxlO^cm/s, resistivity is about 30 ft*m at hydraulic conductivity of l.OxlO"6 cm/s and resistivity is about 20 ft*m at hydraulic conductivity of 1.0x10-7 cm/s.

  20. Optimization of first order decay gas generation model parameters for landfills located in cold semi-arid climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Hoang Lan; Ng, Kelvin Tsun Wai; Richter, Amy

    2017-08-17

    Canada has one of the highest waste generation rates in the world. Because of high land availability, land disposal rates in the province of Saskatchewan are high compared to the rest of the country. In this study, landfill gas data was collected at semi-arid landfills in Regina and Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, and curve fitting was carried out to find optimal k and Lo or DOC values using LandGEM, Afvalzorg Simple, and IPCC first order decay models. Model parameters at each landfill were estimated and compared using default k and Lo or DOC values. Methane generation rates were substantially overestimated using default values (with percentage errors from 55 to 135%). The mean percentage errors for the optimized k and Lo or DOC values ranged from 11.60% to 19.93% at the Regina landfill, and 1.65% to 10.83% at the Saskatoon landfill. Finally, the effect of different iterative methods on the curve fitting process was examined. The residual sum of squares for each model and iterative approaches were similar, with the exception of iterative method 1 for the IPCC model. The default values in these models fail to represent landfills located in cold semi-arid climates. The use of site specific data, provided enough information is available regarding waste mass and composition, can greatly help to improve the accuracy of these first order decay models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF LANDFILLING MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Sanitary landfilling is the most important method of municipalsolid waste disposal in China. Landfill sites are always set up in mountain valley, on plain or beside seashore. A complete landfill consists of base system, cover system, and leachate collection and gas extraction system. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art landfilling technology in China and collection discusses research projects for engineers.

  2. The new Waste Law: Challenging opportunity for future landfill operation in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meidiana, Christia; Gamse, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The Waste Law No. 18/2008 Article 22 and 44 require the local governments to run environmentally sound landfill. Due to the widespread poor quality of waste management in Indonesia, this study aimed to identify the current situation by evaluating three selected landfills based on the ideal conditions of landfill practices, which are used to appraise the capability of local governments to adapt to the law. The results indicated that the local governments have problems of insufficient budget, inadequate equipment, uncollected waste and unplanned future landfill locations. All of the selected landfills were partially controlled landfills with open dumping practices predominating. In such inferior conditions the implementation of sanitary landfill is not necessarily appropriate. The controlled landfill is a more appropriate solution as it offers lower investment and operational costs, makes the selection of a new landfill site unnecessary and can operate with a minimum standard of infrastructure and equipment. The sustainability of future landfill capacity can be maintained by utilizing the old landfill as a profit-oriented landfill by implementing a landfill gas management or a clean development mechanism project. A collection fee system using the pay-as-you-throw principle could increase the waste income thereby financing municipal solid waste management.

  3. Sewerage Pumping Stations, City_ssLiftstations, Public and Privately owned sanitary lift stations located in Glynn County and the City of Brunswick., Published in Not Provided, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Glynn County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Sewerage Pumping Stations dataset current as of unknown. City_ssLiftstations, Public and Privately owned sanitary lift stations located in Glynn County and the City...

  4. Landfills, Landfill point locations within Iredell County, NC, Published in 2009, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Iredell County GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Landfills dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2009. It is described as 'Landfill...

  5. LANDFILL LEACHATES PRETREATMENT BY OZONATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Leszczyński

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the application of ozonation processes for stabilized landfill leachate treatment was investigated. The leachate came from a municipal sanitary landfill located nearby Bielsk Podlaski. The average values of its main parameters were: pH 8.23; COD 870 mgO2/dm3; BOD 90 mgO2/dm3; NH4+ 136.2 mgN/dm3; UV254 absorbance 0.312 and turbidity 14 NTU. The ozone dosages used were in the range of 115.5 to 808.5 mgO3/dm3 of the leachate. The maximum COD, color and UV254 absorbance removal wa.5 mgO3/dm3. After oxidation, the ratio of BOD/COD was increased from 0.1 up to 0.23.

  6. Applying of Electrical Imaging Survey (EIS) to Evaluate Leachate Pollution in Underground Area of Informal Landfill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Song; Wang, Di; Mou, Zishen

    2014-01-01

    An informal landfill is an open dump that pollutes the underground environment because it lacks an impervious liner. The leakage of such a landfill is unidirectional and thus difficult to directly test. This study uses electrical imaging survey to evaluate the pollution of the underground...... environment of an informal landfill for municipal solid waste in Beijing. We hypothesize that every location has a specific resistivity resulting from the leachate. We use the membership function of fuzzy mathematics to quantitatively represent the pollution of the underground environment in the sanitary...

  7. Environmental characterization foundry sands used in sanitary landfills; Caracterizacao ambiental de areias descartadas de fundicao utilizadas na cobertura de residuos em aterros sanitarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingues, L.G.F.; Ferreira, G.C.S.; Pires, M.S.G.; Teixeira, I.; Carnin, R.; Sarro, W.S., E-mail: lucienegferrari@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The national solid waste policy recommends reducing solid waste generation and reusing them in different applications. Preliminary studies show that the foundry sand generated from cast metal parts undercut, has excellent applicability in grain size stabilization of soils for geotechnical functions, and therefore, should not be discarded as waste. This study aimed at environmental characterization of two lots of waste foundry sand (WFS), from different industries, to the particle size stabilization of a clayey soil for use in coverage of solid waste in landfills. The methodology included physicochemical characterization tests (grain size, permeability, XRF and heavy metals) and environmental (NBR 10004: 2004, NBR 10005: 2004, NBR 10006: 20004 and acute toxicity with Vibrio fischeri). The results prove the environmental viability of using these lots of WFS as functional material in the composition of landfills. (author)

  8. Landfill is an important atmospheric mercury emission source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Xinbin; TANG Shunlin; LI Zhonggen; WANG Shaofeng; LIANG Lian

    2004-01-01

    Since municipal wastes contain refuses with high mercury contents, incineration of municipal wastes becomes the major anthropogenic atmospheric mercury emission source. In China, landfills are however the main way to dispose of municipal wastes. Total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in landfill gas of Gaoyan sanitary landfill located in suburb of Guiyang City were monitored using a high temporal resolved automated mercury analyzer, and mono-methylmercury (MMHg) and dimethylmercury (DMHg) concentrations in landfill gas were also measured using GC coupled with the cold vapor atomic fluorescence (CVAFS) method. Meanwhile, the TGM exchange fluxes between exposed waste and air and the soil surface of the landfill and air, were measured using low Hg blank quartz flux chamber coupled with high temporal resolved automated mercury analyzer technique. TGM concentrations in landfill gas from half year filling area averaged out at 665.52±291.25 ng/m3, which is comparable with TGM concentrations from flue gas of a small coal combustion boiler in Guiyang. The average MMHg and DMHg concentrations averaged out at 2.06±1.82 ng/m3 and 9.50±5.18 ng/m3, respectively. It is proven that mercury emission is the predominant process at the surfaces of both exposed wastes and soil of landfill. Landfills are not only TGM emission source, but also methylmercury emission source to the ambient air. There are two ways to emit mercury to the air from landfills, one is with the landfill gas through landfill gas duct, and the other through soil/air exchange. The Hg emission processes from landfills are controlled by meteorological parameters.

  9. Coupling ARB-based biological and photochemical (UV/TiO2 and UV/S2O8(2-)) techniques to deal with sanitary landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Muhammad; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Fei; Wu, Dong; Hussain, Asif; Xie, Bing

    2016-09-12

    The aim of this study was to provide an alternative way to remove bio-refractory organics and ammonical-nitrogen from mature municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill leachate by combining biological and photochemical processes. To achieve this objective, the effectiveness of anoxic aged refuse-based bioreactor (ARB) for biological leachate pretreatment followed by Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) by heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO2/UV) and persulfate (S2O8(2-)) oxidation were tested. The results obtained after ARB based pre-treatment demonstrated a mean 72%, 81% and 92% degradation of COD, NH4N and TN, respectively. However, this treated leachate cannot be discharged without another treatment; hence, it was further treated by UV-mediated TiO2 photocatalysis and S2O8(2-) oxidation. An average 82% of COD was abated at optimum condition (1gL(-1) TiO2; pH 5) whereas, using an optimum 1.5gL(-1) persulfate at pH 5, 81% COD reduction occurred. Acidic and alkaline pH favored COD and NH4N removal respectively. The results of this study demonstrated that coupling ARB with AOPs is potentially applicable process to deal with bio-recalcitrant compounds present in mature landfill leachate.

  10. Assessment of groundwater contamination by landfill leachate: a case in México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-López, Jaime A; Ramírez-Hernández, Jorge; Lázaro-Mancilla, Octavio; Carreón-Diazconti, Concepción; Garrido, Miguel Martín-Loeches

    2008-01-01

    In México, uncontrolled landfills or open-dumps are regularly used as "sanitary landfills". Interactions between landfills/open-dumps and shallow unconfined aquifers have been widely documented. Therefore, evidence showing the occurrence of aquifer contamination may encourage Mexican decision makers to enforce environmental regulations. Traditional methods such as chemical analysis of groundwater, hydrological descriptions, and geophysical studies including vertical electrical sounding (VES) and ground penetrating radar (GPR) were used for the identification and delineation of a contaminant plume in a shallow aquifer. The Guadalupe Victoria landfill located in Mexicali is used as a model study site. This landfill has a shallow aquifer of approximately 1m deep and constituted by silty sandy soil that may favor the transport of landfill leachate. Geophysical studies show a landfill leachate contaminant plume that extends for 20 and 40 m from the SE and NW edges of the landfill, respectively. However, the zone of the leachate's influence stretches for approximately 80 m on both sides of the landfill. Geochemical data corroborates the effects of landfill leachate on groundwater.

  11. On optimization design for a flood intercepting trench of solid waste sanitary landfill in Shaanxi province%陕西省某生活垃圾卫生填埋场泄洪沟设计分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丰毅; 张莉平; 曹叶; 文国庆; 袁莹

    2012-01-01

    西北地区山谷形垃圾填埋场一般具有汇水面积大、土质疏松、易发生山体垮塌等特点,因而需进行降水拦截导排。以实际工程设计为基点,结合当地条件进行了基本参数的选取、断面比选、出口形式选择、消力区段设计计算等。针对场区地形高差大、坡度陡实际情况,给出了陡坡段消力设计计算的一般方法。%Valley-shaped solid waste sanitary landfill in northwest has generally the characteristics of large catchment area, loose soil and high incidence of mountain collapse, therefore, it is required to discharge the rainfall humanly. Based on the actual engineering design and combined with the local conditions, the selection of basic parameters, the choice of the section, outlet of the ditches and the calculation of hydraulic drop pipeline are discussed. According to the actual situation of high level difference and slope, general design and calculate method on hydraulic drop pipeline in slope area is given, and as well as a summary.

  12. Utilization of biogas from sanitary landfill for generation of electrical energy in Sao Paulo: a case study; Aproveitamento do biogas proveniente de aterro sanitario para geracao de energia eletrica em Sao Paulo: estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcilasso, Vanessa Pecora; Coelho, Suani Teixeira Coelho [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Velazquez, Silvia Maria Stortini Gonzalez [Universitaria Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Utilization of the biogas proceeding from urban solid residues for electricity generation: case study in Sao Paulo. The biogas, generated from organic matter degradation, is composed by a mixture of gases, the main components being carbon dioxide and methane, which is a greenhouse effect gas with global warming potential around 21 times greater when compared to CO{sub 2}. Biogas production is possible from a great variety of organic residues such as urban solid residues, residues from agricultural and livestock activities, swine livestock, sewage mud, among others. The sanitary landfills may count on techniques of capture of the produced biogas and its later burning in flare, where the methane is transformed in CO{sub 2}, minimizing the environmental impact. Besides the opportunity of reducing the environmental damages, biogas can also be used as fuel for generating electricity, thus adding environmental gain and reduction of costs, due to the diminishing of purchase of the energy consumed in the concessionaire. In this context, this article presents the project of utilization of biogas proceeding from urban solid residues for electricity generation and gas illumination, developed by CENBIO. This project is currently in development and the obtained results will provide technical and economic subsidies for its replication. (author)

  13. 高安屯卫生填埋场刚性调节池除臭新工艺的应用%Application of Deodorant Technology in Regulating Pond of Gao'antun Waste Sanitary Landfill Site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志茹; 彭旭阳; 任丽梅

    2012-01-01

    介绍了北京市朝阳区高安屯填埋场调节池除臭新工艺,即在原有设备基础上增加调节池密闭性,并抽出调节池内部臭气作为火炬助燃空气对调节池臭气进行除臭,实践证明该工艺可有效解决调节池除臭问题,满足GB14554-1993排放要求;且系统运行安全有效、成本较低.%The deodorant technology of regulating pond in Chaoyang District Gao'antun Waste Sanitary Landfill Site of Beijing was introduced. That is to say, the deodorant technology improved the leakproofness of regulating pond based on existing deodorant equipment, and extracted the air inside the regulation pond as combustion air for small torch system to deodorant. The project has been proved that it can effectively solve the deodorant problem for regulation ponds, and meet the emission requirements of GB 14554-1993. The system is safe and effective, and has low costs.

  14. Landfill gas from environment to energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gendebien, A.; Pauwels, M.; Constant, M.; Ledrut-Damanet, M.J.; Nyns, E.J. [Louvain Univ. (Belgium); Fabry, R.; Ferrero, G.L. [Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium); Willumsen, H.C.; Butson, J.

    1992-11-01

    Landfill gas is an alternative source of energy which can be commercially exploited wherever municipal solid wastes are disposed of in sanitary landfills. In this context, it was decided to launch a comprehensive study on the subject of energy valorization of landfill gas. The main topics dealt with in the study, which is supported by a comprehensive literature survey and six detailed case-studies, include; (i) the environmental impact of landfill gas, (ii) the process of landfill gas genesis and the technology of landfill gas control by its exploitation, (iii) the monitoring of landfill gas emissions, (iv) the policies and legal aspects of landfill gas in the European Community and in the world, (v) the estimation of landfill gas potentials and economics of landfill gas control and exploitation, (vi) the status of landfill gas exploitation in the European Community and in the world. (authors). refs., figs., tabs.

  15. Methane emissions from sanitary landfills in Italy. Evaluation and forecasting; Le emissioni di metano dalle discariche di rifiuti in Italia: stima e scenari futuri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombari, F.; De Lauretis, R.; De Stefanis, P.; Gaudioso, D. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-07-01

    The report estimates the methane emissions from landfills by three different methodologies derived from IPCC experiences. A detailed evaluation of solid waste production (MSW) composition is shown in order to update results obtained from old researches. Finally it shows a prediction of MSW production from 1996 to 2011 in different scenarios related to MSW management strategies. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza la stima della quantita' di metano generato dalle discariche di rifiuti utilizzando tre differenti metodologie di calcolo, derivanti dalle conoscenze scientifiche dell'IPCC, dopo aver approfondito la composizione dei rifiuti. Riporta infine per il periodo 1996-2011, la stima della produzione e dello smaltimento dei rifiuti e la predisposizione di diversi scenari futuri di emissione del metano, relativi a differenti scelte all'interno del sistema di gestione dei rifiuti.

  16. Treatment of a sanitary landfill leachate using combined solar photo-Fenton and biological immobilized biomass reactor at a pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Vítor J P; Rocha, Elisangela M R; Mota, Francisco S; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2011-04-01

    A solar photo-Fenton process combined with a biological nitrification and denitrification system is proposed for the decontamination of a landfill leachate in a pilot plant using photocatalytic (4.16 m(2) of Compound Parabolic Collectors - CPCs) and biological systems (immobilized biomass reactor). The optimum iron concentration for the photo-Fenton reaction of the leachate is 60 mg Fe(2+) L(-1). The organic carbon degradation follows a first-order reaction kinetics (k = 0.020 L kJ(UV)(-1), r(0) = 12.5 mg kJ(UV)(-1)) with a H(2)O(2) consumption rate of 3.0 mmol H(2)O(2) kJ(UV)(-1). Complete removal of ammonium, nitrates and nitrites of the photo-pre-treated leachate was achieved by biological denitrification and nitrification, after previous neutralization/sedimentation of iron sludge (40 mL of iron sludge per liter of photo-treated leachate after 3 h of sedimentation). The optimum C/N ratio obtained for the denitrification reaction was 2.8 mg CH(3)OH per mg N-NO(3)(-), consuming 7.9 g/8.2 mL of commercial methanol per liter of leachate. The maximum nitrification rate obtained was 68 mg N-NH(4)(+) per day, consuming 33 mmol (1.3 g) of NaOH per liter during nitrification and 27.5 mmol of H(2)SO(4) per liter during denitrification. The optimal phototreatment energy estimated to reach a biodegradable effluent, considering Zahn-Wellens, respirometry and biological oxidation tests, at pilot plant scale, is 29.2 kJ(UV) L(-1) (3.3 h of photo-Fenton at a constant solar UV power of 30 W m(-2)), consuming 90 mM of H(2)O(2) when used in excess, which means almost 57% mineralization of the leachate, 57% reduction of polyphenols concentration and 86% reduction of aromatic content. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison between controlled landfill reactor and conditioned landfill bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Feng; CHEN Wan-zhi; SONG Fu-zhong; LI Xiao-peng; ZHANG Guo-qing

    2004-01-01

    Bioreactor landfills allow a more active landfill management that recognizes the biological, chemical and physical processes involved in a landfill environment. The results of laboratory-scale simulators of landfill reactors treating municipal solid wastes were studied, the effect of solid waste size, leachate recirculation, nutrient balance, pH value, moisture content and temperature on the rate of municipal solid waste(MSW) biodegradation were determined, and it indicated the optimum pH value, moisture content and temperature can used to decompose MSW. The results of waste biodegradation were compared with that of the simulators of the leachate-recirculated landfill and conservative sanitary landfill. In the control experiment the antitheses of a decreasing trend of the organic load, measured as biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand, was shown, and heavy metals concentration was observed. An obvious enhancement of effective disposal from simulator of conservative sanitary landfill(CSL), to that of leachate-recirculated landfill(LRL) and to that of conditioned bioreactor landfill(CBL) would be noted, through displaying the compared results of solid waste settlement, heavy metal concentration in leachate, methane production rate, biogas composition, BOD and COD as well as their ratio.

  18. Woody plant roots fail to penetrate a clay-lined landfill: Managment implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, George R.; Handel, Steven N.

    1995-01-01

    In many locations, regulatory agencies do not permit tree planting above landfills that are sealed with a capping clay, because roots might penetrate the clay barrier and expose landfill contents to leaching. We find, however, no empirical or theoretical basis for this restriction, and instead hypothesize that plant roots of any kind are incapable of penetrating the dense clays used to seal landfills. As a test, we excavated 30 trees and shrubs, of 12 species, growing over a clay-lined municipal sanitary landfill on Staten Island, New York. The landfill had been closed for seven years, and featured a very shallow (10 to 30-cm) soil layer over a 45-cm layer of compacted grey marl (Woodbury series) clay. The test plants had invaded naturally from nearby forests. All plants examined—including trees as tall as 6 m—had extremely shallow root plates, with deformed tap roots that grew entirely above and parallel to the clay layer. Only occasional stubby feeder roots were found in the top 1 cm of clay, and in clay cracks at depths to 6 cm, indicating that the primary impediment to root growth was physical, although both clay and the overlying soil were highly acidic. These results, if confirmed by experimental research should lead to increased options for the end use of many closed sanitary landfills.

  19. Sustainable Approach for Landfill Management at Final Processing Site Cikundul in Sukabumi City, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Darwati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of landfill management in Indonesia is the difficulty in getting a location for Final Processing Sites (FPS due to limited land and high land prices. Besides, about 95% of existing landfills are uncontrolled dumping sites, which could potentially lead to water, soil and air pollution. Based on data from the Ministry of Environment (2010, The Act of the Republic of Indonesia Number 18 Year 2008 Concerning Solid Waste Management, prohibits open dumping at final processing sites and in ratification, the Local Governments have to convert the open dump sites into controlled or sanitary landfill. The Research Institute for Human Settlements has been conducting multi-year researches related to the rehabilitation of dumpsites toward sustainable landfill. The research methods are literature reviews, experiments, laboratory analysis and field observations. A pilot model of dumpsite rehabilitation was carried out in 2010 at the Final Processing Site at Cikundul in Sukabumi City, consisting of (1 mining landfill (2 construction of landfill cells in a former mining area with a semi aerobic landfill and an anaerobic landfill and (3 landfill operations using decomposed material from landfill mining as a soil cover. The purpose of the study is to develop a sustainable approach for landfill management and rehabilitation through landfill mining and implementation of semi aerobic landfill. Findings in the construction of landfill mining indicate that (1 the construction of landfill mining is constrained by leachate that is trapped in a pile of waste, therefore, the leachate needs to be pumped to leachate treatment installations, (2 the volume of waste excavation is expanding due to the high plastic content of about 26% in landfills (3 the potency of decomposed materials from landfill mining is 40–83% for landfill operations or greening.. The performance of landfill systems shows that leachate quality of semi aerobic landfill tends to be lower

  20. Landfill stabilization focus area: Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Landfills within the DOE Complex as of 1990 are estimated to contain 3 million cubic meters of buried waste. The DOE facilities where the waste is predominantly located are at Hanford, the Savannah River Site (SRS), the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP). Landfills include buried waste, whether on pads or in trenches, sumps, ponds, pits, cribs, heaps and piles, auger holes, caissons, and sanitary landfills. Approximately half of all DOE buried waste was disposed of before 1970. Disposal regulations at that time permitted the commingling of various types of waste (i.e., transuranic, low-level radioactive, hazardous). As a result, much of the buried waste throughout the DOE Complex is presently believed to be contaminated with both hazardous and radioactive materials. DOE buried waste typically includes transuranic-contaminated radioactive waste (TRU), low-level radioactive waste (LLW), hazardous waste per 40 CFR 26 1, greater-than-class-C waste per CFR 61 55 (GTCC), mixed TRU waste, and mixed LLW. The mission of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver safer,more cost-effective and efficient technologies which satisfy DOE site needs for the remediation and management of landfills. The LSFA is structured into five technology areas to meet the landfill remediation and management needs across the DOE complex. These technology areas are: assessment, retrieval, treatment, containment, and stabilization. Technical tasks in each of these areas are reviewed.

  1. Trends in sustainable landfilling in Malaysia, a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauziah, S H; Agamuthu, P

    2012-07-01

    In Malaysia, landfills are being filled up rapidly due to the current daily generation of approximately 30,000 tonnes of municipal solid waste. This situation creates the crucial need for improved landfilling practices, as sustainable landfilling technology is yet to be achieved here. The objective of this paper is to identify and evaluate the development and trends in landfilling practices in Malaysia. In 1970, the disposal sites in Malaysia were small and prevailing waste disposal practices was mere open-dumping. This network of relatively small dumps, typically located close to population centres, was considered acceptable for a relatively low population of 10 million in Malaysia. In the 1980s, a national programme was developed to manage municipal and industrial wastes more systematically and to reduce adverse environmental impacts. The early 1990s saw the privatization of waste management in many parts of Malaysia, and the establishment of the first sanitary landfills for MSW and an engineered landfill (called 'secure landfill' in Malaysia) for hazardous waste. A public uproar in 2007 due to contamination of a drinking water source from improper landfilling practices led to some significant changes in the government's policy regarding the country's waste management strategy. Parliament passed the Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management (SWPCM) Act 2007 in August 2007. Even though the Act is yet to be implemented, the government has taken big steps to improve waste management system further. The future of the waste management in Malaysia seems somewhat brighter with a clear waste management policy in place. There is now a foundation upon which to build a sound and sustainble waste management and disposal system in Malaysia.

  2. Management of Leadchate from Army Sanitary Landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    C0ONTAINNENT X x X X X COLLECTION SYSTEM LEACHATE TREATMENTxx -PROCESSES A GAS CONTROL SYSTEMS x x x GROUNDWATER RENOVATION TECHNOLOGIES x x x x 28 5 LEACHATE...Horace R. Collins Director Ohio Div. of Geol. Survey Servicio Geologico de P.R. Fountain Square, Bldg. B Dept. de Recursos Naturales Columbus, OH

  3. Study of the environmental effects of sanitary landfill in Pinto, Madrid (Spain); Estudio de la influencia del vertedero de residuos solidos urbanos de Pinto (Comunidad de Madrid) y su entorno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorronsoro, J.L.; Carreras, N.; Sanchez, D.M.; Quejido, A.; Sanchez, M.; Herranz, I.; Fernandez, M.E.

    1996-10-01

    Here we report the results obtained in the studies of the environmental affection of a municipal solid waste (MSW) Landfill (Pinto, spain). For this purpose samples of waters, soils, sediments, vegetation and leachates were analyzed during three years (1990-1993). The results do not indicate environmental affection, due to the favourable situation (low permeability and runoff and low population density) of the landfill.

  4. Methodology for environmental diagnosis of sanitary landfills: Data during 2003; Metodologia de diagnostico ambiental de vertederos como herramienta en la planificacion ambiental. Datos obtenidos en el Observatorio sobre Vertederos de residuos de 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uriarte, J.

    2003-07-01

    Lack of data regarding environmental matters in relation to the great majority of MSW landfills throughout Spanish territory makes it difficult to consider them suitable for exploitation or territorial expansion required for different activities demanded by society. The environmental risk of a landfill must be minimised with the help of environmental planning tools. One of these tools is based on the environmental diagnosis and characterisation of the areas affected by the solid waste deposit.. Diagnosis by means of quantifiable environmental indexes helped us in our work to determine the priorities for the environmental control of certain Spanish landfills. This diagnosis was used for creating the Observatory on Solid Waste Landfills, organized by ATEGRUS (Spanish Technical Association for Waste Management) in 2003 and presented at ATEGRUS 30th Annual conference on Controlled Landfills. (Author)

  5. Solid waste management in Croatia in response to the European Landfill Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanic-Maruna, Ira; Fellner, Johann

    2012-08-01

    The European Landfill Directive 99/31/EC represents the most influential piece of waste legislation on the management of municipal solid waste. In addition to technical standards regarding the design and location of landfills, it calls for a decrease in the amount of biodegradable waste landfilled. In order to meet the reduction targets set in the Landfill Directive, national solid waste strategies need to be changed. This article outlines the impact of the Landfill Directive on the Croatian waste management strategy and discusses the key challenges of its implementation. In addition, three scenarios of future waste management (mechanical biological pre-treatment, waste-to-energy and landfilling) have been investigated and evaluated regarding environmental impacts and affordability. The results of the analysis show that Croatia has transposed the said Directive into its own legislation in an exemplary way. The developed national waste management strategy foresees the set up of a separate collection of recyclables, waste pre-treatment of MSW, as well as the upgrading of existing disposal sites to sanitary landfills. However, the practical progress of carrying out provisions implemented on paper is lagging behind. Concerning the investigated scenarios the results of the evaluation indicate that mechanical biological pre-treatment in conjunction with separate collection of recyclables appears to be the most feasible option (in terms of economic and ecologic parameters). This result is in line with the proposed national waste management strategy.

  6. Experiences of closing in sanitary landfills with geosynthetics clay liners and geocomposites drainage products in Spain and Portugal; Experiencias de sellado de vertederos con geocompuestos impermeabilizantes y drenantes en Espana y Portugal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abad, P. L.

    2002-07-01

    Since the EC presents the Directive 1999/31 in reference with waste disposal, most of od landfills are closing and new landfills according with this directive are constructing. For this landfill closures, the best experienced solution, not only technically, even financially, is the use of geo synthetics clay liners and geo composites drainage products. Installation facilities are cheaper and the installation times are reduced, even slope stability are improved with this solution. The experience obtained during last years in Spain and Portugal are the purpose of this article. (Author)

  7. DETERMINATON OF ORGANIC MATTER PRESENT IN URBAN WASTE RESIDUE FROM A SANITARY LANDFILL USING THERMOGRAVIMETRIC CURVES: THE CASE OF SÃO CARLOS = DETERMINAÇÃO POR TERMOGRAVIMETRIA (TG DA MATÉRIA ORGÂNICA PRESENTE EM AMOSTRA DE RESÍDUO SÓLIDO URBANO DE ATERRO SANITÁRIO: O CASO DE SÃO CARLOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Schalch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The excessive amount of household waste produced by the population is generally deposited in sanitary landfills. Most of this waste is composed of organic matter, followed by paper and cardboard, plastic, metal and others. After the waste is covered with soil in the landfill, the organic matter begins to decompose, producing several organic compounds, among them the organic acids and acetates. Thermal analysis and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, which are Analytic Chemistry resources, as well as the dust x-rays method of analysis, were used in this study to identify the amount of organic matter, the kind of residue, and the metals present in a sample from a sanitary landfill. The results of the Thermogravimetric (TG analysis curves generated information about dehydration, thermal stability, thermal decomposition, and the amount of organic matter present in urban solid waste that had been deposited in the landfill for four years. = A quantidade excessiva de resíduo sólido domiciliar gerado pela população é em geral disposta em aterros sanitários. A maior parte desse resíduo é constituída de matéria orgânica seguido de papel e papelão, plástico, metal e outros. Após a cobertura do lixo com terra nos aterros, a matéria orgânica começa a se decompor gerando diversos compostos entre eles os ácidos orgânicos e acetatos. A Análise Térmica e a Espectrometria de Absorção Atômica, que são recursos da Química Analítica, bem como a análise de raios X método de pó foram usadas neste trabalho, visando identificar a quantidade de matéria orgânica, o tipo de resíduo final e a presença de metais em amostra retirada de aterro sanitário. O resultado da análise Termogravimétrica (TG forneceu informações sobre a desidratação, estabilidade térmica, decomposição térmica e a quantidade de matéria orgânica presente no resíduo sólido urbano (RSU, após quatro anos de disposição no aterro sanitário de São Carlos, SP.

  8. Mathematical modelization of physical process of biogas migration in sanitary landfills of urban solid wastes; Modelizacion matematica del proceso fisico de migracion del biogas en vertederos controlados de R.S.U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maranon Maison, E.; Sastre Andres, H.; Martin Gonzalez, S.

    1997-09-01

    An analysis of the laws that govern the biogas movements inside the landfill is carried out. The mathematical equations needed to resolve the problem are studied. Then, a model is defined and used to calculate the biogas movements in several situations. The results obtained are contrasted with data from the bibliography and with tests carried out at the La Zoreda, Landfill (Asturias Spain). (Author) 11 refs.

  9. A framework for assessment and characterisation of municipal solid waste landfill leachate: an application to the Turbhe landfill, Navi Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Harshit; Rathod, Merwan; Karmakar, Subhankar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-06-01

    Rapid industrialisation, growing population and changing lifestyles are the root causes for the generation of huge amounts of solid waste in developing countries. In India, disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) through open dumping is the most common waste disposal method. Unfortunately, leachate generation from landfill is high due to the prolonged and prominent monsoon season in India. As leachate generation rate is high in most of the tropical countries, long-term and extensive monitoring efforts are expected to evaluate actual environmental pollution potential due to leachate contamination. However, the leachate characterisation involves a comprehensive process, which has numerous shortcomings and uncertainties possibly due to the complex nature of landfilling process, heterogeneous waste characteristics, widely varying hydrologic conditions and selection of analytes. In order to develop a sustainable MSW management strategy for protecting the surface and ground water resources, particularly from MSW landfill leachate contamination, assessment and characterisation of leachate are necessary. Numerous studies have been conducted in the past to characterise leachate quality from various municipal landfills; unfortunately, none of these propose a framework or protocol. The present study proposes a generic framework for municipal landfill leachate assessment and characterisation. The proposed framework can be applied to design any type of landfill leachate quality monitoring programme and also to facilitate improved leachate treatment activities. A landfill site located at Turbhe, Navi Mumbai, India, which had not been investigated earlier, has been selected as a case study. The proposed framework has been demonstrated on the Turbhe landfill site which is a comparatively new and the only sanitary landfill in Navi Mumbai.

  10. Otimização dos aterros sanitários Optimization of the location for landfills and noxious facilities in São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Gandelini

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A escolha do local para acomodar resíduos sólidos deve obedecer a várias normas de caráter ambiental, operacional e econômico. No Estado de São Paulo, a análise de uma unidade receptora passa necessariamente pela avaliação da Cetesb - Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental, que tem sinalizado sobre a qualidade e a eficiência dos aterros paulistas através da formulação do IQR (Índice de Qualidade do Aterro. O presente trabalho, com o auxílio de modelos matemáticos de otimização, mais especificamente através da linguagem de otimização GAMS, visa a avaliar os melhores locais para aterros sanitários e os melhores fluxos de resíduos entre algumas cidades do Estado de São Paulo. A partir dos resultados obtidos, infere-se que, se houvesse a conscientização plena ao se aterrar os resíduos, o uso de locais se restringiria àqueles que apresentassem melhores IQRs, acarretando maiores gastos, pois nem todo município possuiria áreas em condições ambientais adequadas para destinar seus restos, tendo de deslocá-los para outros lugares, normalmente muito distantes.The site selection to place solid wastes is subject to several environmental, operational and economical constraints. In São Paulo State, a possible reception unit is usually evaluated by the environmental company Cetesb, which has remarked on the quality and efficiency of a landfill through a quality index namely IQR. This paper, with the help of optimization mathematical models coded in GAMS language, seeks to evaluate the best places for the sanitary landfills and the best flow of wastes between selected cities in São Paulo State. From the results obtained, the optimal solution was regarding sites with best IQRs, but implying higher expenses because not all the cities would have areas with adequate environmental conditions to put their wastes, making them to send the wastes to other remote places.

  11. The use of sewage sludges from waste water treatment plants for re-vegetation of sanitary landfills; Aplicacion de lodos de depuradora procedentes de aguas residuales urbanas en la revegetacion de vertederos de RSU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, F. I.; Camarero, J. G.; Morenilla Martinez, J. J.; Bernacer Bonora, I.; Herrero Chamorro, O.; Amores Blasco, S.; Fernandez, C.; Codoner, M. A.

    1999-08-01

    The use of forest soil for re vegetating sealed urban landfills is a practice leading to economic and environmental problems. Recently, it has been demonstrated a suitable technique for minimizing soil needs in re-vegetation of closed urban landfill in which, the layer of fertile soil usually added for plants to settle and develop in such degraded substrate is replaced by a layer of the degraded soil amended with anaerobic sewage sludge. In this work we expose the phases and the design for the implementation of a pilot project for the re-vegetation with this procedure of a closed landfill of municipal solid wastes managed by GIRSA, in a collaborative research between CIDE (CSIC-UVEG-GV), Entidad Publica de Saneamiento de Aguas Residuales de la Comunidad Valenciana and DAM, S.L. The closed landfill has a surface of 2,6 ha and its re-vegetation will be carried out by introducing native plants (annuals, bush and trees) after incorporation into the degrades soil of the anaerobic sewage sludge at the single dose of 60 tn/ha. Twelve plots of 20 m by 8 m will be employed to a quarterly research of the effects on the soil and on the introduced vegetation of three doses (0,60, 120 tn/ha) of the anaerobic sewage sludge. (Author) 17 refs.

  12. Application of urban waste water sludge in revegetation of sanitary landfills; Aplicacion de lodos de depuradora procedentes de aguas residuales urbanas en la revegetacion de vertederos de RSU (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingelmo Sanchez, F.; Garcia Camarero, J.; Morenilla Martinez, J. J.; Bernacer Bonora, I.; Herrero Chamorro, O.; Amores Blasco, S.

    2000-07-01

    The use of forest soil for re vegetating sealed urban landfills is a practice leading to economic and environmental problems. Recently, it has been demonstrated a suitable technique for minimizing soil needs in the re-vegetation of a closed urban landfill which, the layer of fertile soil usually added for plants to settle and develop in such degraded substrate is replaced by a layer of the degraded soil amended with urban anaerobic sewage sludges. In this work we expose the firsts results of a pilot project for the re-vegetation with this procedure of a closed landfill of municipal solid wastes managed by the company Gestion Integral de Residuos in a collaborative research among the Centro de Investigaciones sobre Desertificacion, the Entidad Publica de Saneamiento de Aguas Residuales de la Comunidad Valenciana and the company Depuracion de Aguas del Mediterraneo. The closed landfill has a surface of 2,6 ha and its re-vegetation will be carried out by introducing native plants (annuals, busch and trees) after incorporation into the degraded soil of the anaerobic sewage sludge at the single dose of 60 tn/ha. (Author) 3 refs.

  13. Landfilling: Hydrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Beaven, R.

    2011-01-01

    Landfill hydrology deals with the presence and movement of water through a landfill. The main objective in landfill hydrology is usually to predict leachate generation, but the presence and movement of water in a landfill also affect the degradation of the waste, the leaching of pollutants...... and the geotechnical stability of the fill. Understanding landfill hydrology is thus important for many aspects of landfill, in particular siting, design and operation. The objective of this chapter is to give a basic understanding of the hydrology of landfills, and to present ways to estimate leachate quantities......-circuiting. In the final section different existing hydrological models for landfills are presented with a special focus on the HELP model. This model is the most widely used tool for the prediction of leachate quantities in landfills, and for the sizing of leachate control and management infrastructure....

  14. Landfilling: Hydrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Beaven, R.

    2011-01-01

    Landfill hydrology deals with the presence and movement of water through a landfill. The main objective in landfill hydrology is usually to predict leachate generation, but the presence and movement of water in a landfill also affect the degradation of the waste, the leaching of pollutants...... and the geotechnical stability of the fill. Understanding landfill hydrology is thus important for many aspects of landfill, in particular siting, design and operation. The objective of this chapter is to give a basic understanding of the hydrology of landfills, and to present ways to estimate leachate quantities......-circuiting. In the final section different existing hydrological models for landfills are presented with a special focus on the HELP model. This model is the most widely used tool for the prediction of leachate quantities in landfills, and for the sizing of leachate control and management infrastructure....

  15. Microbiological indication of municipal solid waste landfill non-stabilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qi-xing; SYLVESTER Runyuzi; YU Ji-yu; ZHANG Qian-ru

    2004-01-01

    Accidental collapse resulted from unstable factors is an important technological problem to be solved in sanitary landfill. Microbiological degradation of organic matters in landfilled solid waste are an important unstable factor. A landfill reactor was thus manufactured and installed to examine quantitative and population dynamics of microorganisms during degradation of landfilled solid waste. It was showed that unstable landfill can be reflected and indicated by microbiological features such as rapidly decreased growth amount of microorganisms, no detection of fungi and actinomyces, and changing the dominant population into methanogenic bacteria and Acinotobacter.

  16. Ammonia release and conversion in bioreactor landfill simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubberding, H.; Valencia, R.; Salazar, R.; Lens, P.

    2009-07-01

    Bioreactor landfills are considered to be an improvements to normal sanitary landfills, because the Municipal Solid Waste is stabilised faster and the biogas is produced in a shorter period of time (Valencia et al 2008a, b). In spite of these advantages, it is still difficult to reach within 30 years a safe status of the landfill due to the elevated NH{sub 4}{sup +} levels (up to 3 g/L) in the leachate. (Author)

  17. Energetic use of biogas from sanitary landfill in Brazil: a technical feasibility study, economic and environmental; Do aproveitamento energetico do biogas em aterros sanitarios no Brasil: um estudo de viabilidade tecnica, economica e ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Fabio Viana de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Power generation through biogas in landfills is a production of clean and renewable energy in order to minimize the global impacts generated by the burning of municipal solid waste. In this article, the operational conditions of biogas are defined, and analyzed the appropriate areas and minimum flow of biogas, in m{sup 3}/h, to enable this type of project. The most significant environmental contribution of this project is to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), by converting the methane into carbon dioxide. According to the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), called developed countries can buy carbon credits from developing countries to meet their environmental goals. This alternative of raising revenue is one of the objects of this study. Are studied energy conversion technologies, with analysis of the best alternative for the conversion of landfill biogas energy. Comparative studies are presented and the results showed that the generating sets, using internal combustion engines (Otto or Diesel cycles) are more viable both technically and economic bias for energy conversion of landfill gas in Brazil through thermoelectric units.

  18. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 5: Landfills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0) includes Record of Technical Change No. 1 (dated 9/17/2002)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IT Corporation, Las Vegas, NV

    2002-05-28

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 5 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 5 consists of eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 05-15-01, Sanitary Landfill; 05-16-01, Landfill; 06-08-01, Landfill; 06-15-02, Sanitary Landfill; 06-15-03, Sanitary Landfill; 12-15-01, Sanitary Landfill; 20-15-01, Landfill; 23-15-03, Disposal Site. Located between Areas 5, 6, 12, 20, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), CAU 5 consists of unlined landfills used in support of disposal operations between 1952 and 1992. Large volumes of solid waste were produced from the projects which used the CAU 5 landfills. Waste disposed in these landfills may be present without appropriate controls (i.e., use restrictions, adequate cover) and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and/or the environment. During the 1992 to 1995 time frame, the NTS was used for various research and development projects including nuclear weapons testing. Instead of managing solid waste at one or two disposal sites, the practice on the NTS was to dispose of solid waste in the vicinity of the project. A review of historical documentation, process knowledge, personal interviews, and inferred activities associated with this CAU identified the following as potential contaminants of concern: volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, petroleum hydrocarbons (diesel- and gasoline-range organics), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Metals, plus nickel and zinc. A two-phase approach has been selected to collect information and generate data to satisfy needed resolution

  19. DEP Reported Sanitary Sewer Overflows

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — Sanitary sewer overflows reported to the Department of Environmental Protection by the Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission or individuals in the County. Update...

  20. The Characteristics of Leachate and Groundwater Pollution at Municipal Solid Waste Landfill of Ibb City, Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail A. Sabahi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Yemen one of the developing country suffering from water pollution. Landfill is one of the source of water pollution. There are several boreholes located close to Ibb landfill used for drinking water. A study of composition of landfill leachate and groundwater pollution was conducted at Ibb landfill, which is located at Al-Sahool area, north of Ibb City, Yemen. Approach: The leachate was sampled at three different locations of the landfill, at the landfill itself and 15 and 20 m downstream of this landfill. Groundwater samples collected from 5 boreholes to study possible impact of leachate percolation into groundwater. Leachate and groundwater samples were collected during dry season only, due to the excessive generation of leachate during this season. Objective of this study was significant to assess degree of groundwater pollution due to Ibb landfill leachate at Al-Sahool area. The leachate and groundwater were physically and chemically characterized by using spectrophotometer HACH, BOD Trak HACH, flame photometer (PFP 7 and Inductively Coupled Plasma of Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES model Vista MPX. Parameters measured were pH, temperature, Electrical Conductivity (EC, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS, Dissolved Oxygen (DO, Fluoride (F, Chloride (Cl, Sulphate (SO4, Nitrites (NO2, Nitrates (NO3, ammonia-N (NH3-N, heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr, Cd, Cu, major cations (Na, Mg, Ca, K, Fe and biological parameters (COD, BOD5 and coliform group bacteria. Results: The results showed that, leachate at landfill most likely in methanogenic phase, based on the alkaline pH value recorded (pH = 8.46. The results also showed that 4 out of 5 boreholes were contaminated, where concentration of physico-chemical parameters are above the standard acceptable levels which required for drinking water adapted by Yemen's ministry of water and environment and by word standard. Conclusion: Therefore, landfill is dangerous for environment so

  1. Intrinsic bioremediation of landfills interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States); Fliermans, C.B.

    1997-07-14

    Intrinsic bioremediation is a risk management option that relies on natural biological and physical processes to contain the spread of contamination from a source. Evidence is presented in this report that intrinsic bioremediation is occurring at the Sanitary Landfill is fundamental to support incorportion into a Corrective Action Plan (CAP).

  2. Desempenho operacional e ambiental de unidades de reciclagem e disposição final de resíduos sólidos domésticos financiadas pelo ICMS Ecológico de Minas Gerais Operational and environmental performance of sanitary landfills and recycling facilities supported by the Ecological ICMS in Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco do Prado Filho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avalia sistemas de reciclagem e de disposição de resíduos sólidos domésticos que possuem incentivos fiscais definidos pela Lei Estadual nº 13.803/2000 de Minas Gerais. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida por análise de documentação de licenciamento ambiental de aterros sanitários e usinas de reciclagem e compostagem de resíduos financiados pela referida Lei e por visitas às unidades sanitárias, sendo usados os instrumentos metodológicos da agência ambiental do Estado de São Paulo (CETESB que avaliam as condições de instalação e operação desses tipos de empreendimentos. Do estudo, constatou-se que o incentivo de Minas Gerais, definido pela Lei do ICMS Ecológico, traz importantes benefícios ambientais aos municípios, embora ainda seja reduzido o número dos contemplados por esse fomento à gestão dos resíduos sólidos urbanos. Conclui-se, também, que algumas das unidades estudadas apresentam problemas de natureza ambiental e operacional.This paper reports a qualitative assessment made at the sanitary landfill, recycling centers and composting units sponsored by the State Law No 13.803/2000, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The analyses of all the documentation used for the environmental licensing process as well as field trips to sanitary landfills and domestic recycle/composting unities were performed. The IQC and IQR indexes from the São Paulo State Environmental Agency (CETESB were used as quality assessment tools. It is concluded that this State Law (Ecological ICMS Law has been promoting substantial environmental benefits to the local communities, despite it is still small the number of cities which have been attended by this regulation for solid waste management. On the other hand, it can be noticed that some operational and environmental issues remain to be addressed in the visited facilities.

  3. Design of Cut-off Ditch at Valley-type Small Waste Sanitary Landfill Site in Southwest China%西南地区山谷型小型垃圾填埋场截洪沟设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹许鑫; 吕燕; 尹滔

    2012-01-01

    对西南地区山谷型小型垃圾填埋场截洪沟设计展开探讨,结合相关规范优选适用于西南地区的截洪沟设计充满度、设计流速、径流系数等关键设计参数,对截洪沟的流量计算、断面选择、沟壁沟底材料及基础设计、出水口及转弯段的设计、整体平面布置等进行讨论,提出三种优化截洪沟断面.通过截洪沟的优化设计可实现清污分流,降低渗滤液产量,减少雨水对垃圾渗滤液收集及处理系统的冲击,降低垃圾渗滤液处理成本,确保垃圾填埋场正常、安全运行.%The design of cut-off ditch at valley-type small landfill site in the southwest China is explored. The design parameters of cut-off ditch applicable to the southwest China, such as design filling degree, design flow, runoff coefficient and other key design parameters are selected according to the related codes. The flow calculation, cross section selection, materials and foundation design for the ditch walls and bottom, design of outlet and curved segment and overall layout are discussed. Three kinds of optimized cross sections of cut-off ditch are proposed. The optimization design of cut-off dilch can achieve the separation of rainwater and sewage, reduce the leachate production, mitigate the impact of rainwater on collection and treatment systems of landfill leachate, thus reducing the treatment cost of landfill leachate and ensuring the normal and safe operation of landfill site.

  4. Managing the leachate at the regional landfill in Kikinda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Sanja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In developed, industrial countries, there is 1.2kg waste per capita, waste being collected and disposed of in regulated, sanitary landfills, which have systems for the protection of groundwater and air from pollutants, in Serbia, the largest number of landfills does not meet even the basic safety criteria for environmental protection. Several municipalities in Serbia began with the organization of the regional waste management system and within that frame, the construction of regional landfills which meet European standards in terms of environmental protection. The paper presents a method of management and use of leachate at the regional waste landfill 'ASA', Kikinda.

  5. The biological degradation as an energy option, determination of the effects of the aerobic phase on the subsequent production of biogas in a sanitary landfill; La degradacion biologica como una opcion energetica, determinacion de los efectos de la fase aerobia sobre la subsecuente produccion de biogas en un relleno sanitario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar Juarez, Oscar [Asesoria de Servicios Ambientales del Bajio (ASSB), (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The present work deals with the energy evaluation of biological processes as energy source and is based on works concerning laboratory, pilot and field research. The objective of the research is to integrate the effect of the aerobic phase during the process of degradation of organic residues (basically the organic fraction of domestic residues), where the last aim is the biogas production. The usefulness of the results is reflected in the suitable estimation of the filling of a sanitary landfill considering the composition of the residues deposited and the effects that this management will have on the run-up time of the same and the velocity of biogas production. Finally, integrates a reflection on the intrinsic energy implications of the process and of the biogas yielding, which is evaluated as well as energy source. [Spanish] El presente trabajo trata sobre la valoracion energetica de procesos biologicos como fuente de energia y se basa en trabajos de investigacion a nivel de laboratorio, piloto y de campo. El objetivo de la investigacion es integrar el efecto de la fase aerobia durante el proceso de degradacion de residuos organicos (basicamente la fraccion organica de residuos domesticos), donde el fin ultimo es la produccion de biogas. La utilidad de los resultados se refleja en la estimacion adecuada del llenado de un relleno sanitario considerando la composicion de los residuos ahi depositados y los efectos que tendra esta gestion sobre el tiempo de estabilizacion de los mismos y la velocidad de produccion de biogas. Finalmente, se integra una reflexion sobre las implicaciones energeticas intrinsecas al proceso y del rendimiento de biogas, el cual a su vez es valorizado como fuente de energia.

  6. Multistage treatment system for raw leachate from sanitary landfill combining biological nitrification-denitrification/solar photo-Fenton/biological processes, at a scale close to industrial--biodegradability enhancement and evolution profile of trace pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tânia F C V; Silva, M Elisabete F; Cunha-Queda, A Cristina; Fonseca, Amélia; Saraiva, Isabel; Sousa, M A; Gonçalves, C; Alpendurada, M F; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P

    2013-10-15

    A multistage treatment system, at a scale close to the industrial, was designed for the treatment of a mature raw landfill leachate, including: a) an activated sludge biological oxidation (ASBO), under aerobic and anoxic conditions; b) a solar photo-Fenton process, enhancing the bio-treated leachate biodegradability, with and without sludge removal after acidification; and c) a final polishing step, with further ASBO. The raw leachate was characterized by a high concentration of humic substances (HS) (1211 mg CHS/L), representing 39% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content, and a high nitrogen content, mainly in the form of ammonium nitrogen (>3.8 g NH4(+)-N/L). In the first biological oxidation step, a 95% removal of total nitrogen and a 39% mineralization in terms of DOC were achieved, remaining only the recalcitrant fraction, mainly attributed to HS (57% of DOC). Under aerobic conditions, the highest nitrification rate obtained was 8.2 mg NH4(+)-N/h/g of volatile suspended solids (VSS), and under anoxic conditions, the maximum denitrification rate obtained was 5.8 mg (NO2(-)-N + NO3(-)-N)/h/g VSS, with a C/N consumption ratio of 2.4 mg CH3OH/mg (NO2(-)-N + NO3(-)-N). The precipitation of humic acids (37% of HS) after acidification of the bio-treated leachate corresponds to a 96% DOC abatement. The amount of UV energy and H2O2 consumption during the photo-Fenton reaction was 30% higher in the experiment without sludge removal and, consequently, the reaction velocity was 30% lower. The phototreatment process led to the depletion of HS >80%, of low-molecular-weight carboxylate anions >70% and other organic micropollutants, thus resulting in a total biodegradability increase of >70%. The second biological oxidation allowed to obtain a final treated leachate in compliance with legal discharge limits regarding water bodies (with the exception of sulfate ions), considering the experiment without sludge. Finally, the high efficiency of the overall treatment

  7. Use of the landfill water pollution index (LWPI) for groundwater quality assessment near the landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talalaj, Izabela A; Biedka, Pawel

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of the paper is to assess the groundwater quality near the landfill sites using landfill water pollution index (LWPI). In order to investigate the scale of groundwater contamination, three landfills (E, H and S) in different stages of their operation were taken into analysis. Samples of groundwater in the vicinity of studied landfills were collected four times each year in the period from 2004 to 2014. A total of over 300 groundwater samples were analysed for pH, EC, PAH, TOC, Cr, Hg, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, as required by the UE legal acts for landfill monitoring system. The calculated values of the LWPI allowed the quantification of the overall water quality near the landfill sites. The obtained results indicated that the most negative impact on groundwater quality is observed near the old Landfill H. Improper location of piezometer at the Landfill S favoured infiltration of run-off from road pavement into the soil-water environment. Deep deposition of the groundwater level at Landfill S area reduced the landfill impact on the water quality. Conducted analyses revealed that the LWPI can be used for evaluation of water pollution near a landfill, for assessment of the variability of water pollution with time and for comparison of water quality from different piezometers, landfills or time periods. The applied WQI (Water Quality Index) can also be an important information tool for landfill policy makers and the public about the groundwater pollution threat from landfill.

  8. Numerical Model Study on Working Performance of Seepproof Liner in Sanitary Landfill%卫生填埋场防渗层工作性能的数值模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘庭发; 张鹏伟; 胡黎明

    2012-01-01

    The anti-seepage and absorption ability of clay layer are main factors influencing landfill liner working performance. A ID convection-dispersion model was proposed to analyze the influence of permeability coefficient, diffusion coefficient, infiltration intensity, and absorption ability on the breakthrough time and leaching quantity. A 2D numerical model considering soil stratification, inhomogeneity, underground water motion and macro-dispersivity was introduced to reflett practical complex conditions, and parameter sensitivity analysis was conducted. The results show that keeping a relatively low leachate head is of great importance to obtaining well anti-seepage performance and durability of clay liner. The permeability coeffisient of clay liner varies within extensive range because of variation in material character and quality control during construction and the breakthrough time decrease sharply when the permeability coefficient increase by one order of magnitude. A nearly linear relation between breakthrough time and retardation factor can be obtained when the permeability keeps constant. Underground water can severely influence the transportation and distribution of pollutant. The results show that pollutant transport occures mainly in vertical direction when the water level is low. The pollutant concentration in lower layer soil and underground water is much lower because of intense absorption in unsaturated soil above the water level.%粘土衬垫的防渗性能和吸附阻滞性能对卫生填埋场防渗系统工作性能有着重要影响.通过建立一维对流-弥散模型,分析了渗透系数、扩散系数、入渗强度、吸附能力对渗漏量及衬垫击穿时间的影响.考虑实际工程的复杂性,建立能反映土体分层、土体非均质性、地下水运动及宏观弥散等复杂因素影响的污染物运移二维分析模型,并对各参数的敏感性进行分析.计算结果表明,保持填埋场在低渗滤液水位下运

  9. Biogas movements in sanitary landdfills; Movimiento de biogas en rellenos sanitarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidales A, Humberto

    1988-12-31

    This paper shows a model to study the physical and kinetic equations that determine the movement and diffusion of the biogas in sanitary landfills. This model for biogas flow was made in function of pressure, temperature, waste porosity and permeability, due to a diffusion coefficient of biogas determination 6 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Landfill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willumsen, H. (Crone and Koch, Viborg (Denmark))

    1990-08-01

    In most landfills, the refuse deposit usually has a high content of organic matter consisting of a mixture of household, industrial and garden waste. Immediately after the refuse has been placed in the landfill, aerobic decomposition of the organic waste begins. Once the oxygen has been exhausted, anaerobic decomposition begins. 'Biogas' is produced which has a methane content of approximately 50% and can be used as a fuel. The exploitation of landfill gas for energy purposes was initiated in the USA around 1975 and later in Europe. A landfill gas plant consists of a recovery system and a production system. A recovery system can consist of vertical perforated pipe wells, horizontal perforated pipes or ditches, or membrane covers to collect the generated gas. Under normal conditions it will not be necessary to process the gas except for the removal of water and other impurities (e.g. solid particles) if the gas is to be used in a boiler or engine. In the USA most often only power is produced, whereas in Europe the waste heat is normally exploited, making the plant function as a combined power and heating plant. It is also possible to upgrade the landfill gas to a methane content of nearly 100, after which it can be distributed with natural gas. There are several such plants in the USA. 8 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. The program for oil filters to improve the controlled sanitary landfills; Un creciente programa de reciclaje de filtros de aceite supone menos petroleo y acero para los vertederos controlados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasuki, N. C.; Von Stetten, R.

    1998-12-31

    Delaware is a small state located near the center of the easter seaboard of the United States. Delaware occupies a land area of 5,133 square kilometers with a population of 706,000. The vehicle population of the state is 577,595 (includes passenger cars arid wagons, and farm arid corrirnercial trucks). Beginning in 1990, DSWA embarked on a voluntary recycling program to capture diverse materials for known recycling markets at low cost. The low-cost program, known as RECYCLE DELAWARE, currently provides 120 recycling drop-off centers to residents. Most Centers are within a five mile radius of homes. (Author)

  12. Biodegradability potential of two experimental landfills in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vazoller Rosana Filomena

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid wastes anaerobic biodegradability, methane production potential and microbiological composition of two experimental sanitary landfills in Brazil, running for one year, were evaluated. The two landfills showed a similar organic matter stabilization during the methane production phase, despite the high heterogeneity of the solid wastes. Both landfills presented the same level of methane (around 91.5 L CH4 / kg Volatile Total Solids and organic acids, mainly acetic and butyric acids, in the leachate. Bacterial isolates belonged to genera Megasphaera, Selenomonas, Methanobacterium, Methanobrevibacter and Methanosarcina.

  13. Leachates treatment in sanitary landfills of urban solid wastes through high load biological processes (BIOMEMBRAT); Depuracion de los lixiviados en vertederos R.S.U. por medio de un proceso biologico de alta carga (BIOMEMBRAT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Sanchez, A.

    1998-04-01

    The problem of waste solids does not end with its storage in controlled dumpsites. The transformation of organic substances together with the rainwater infiltration that dissolves and drugs contaminating elements, generate leachate with a high contamination degree. The BIOMEMBRAT process is a biological trade mark system for leachate and any kind of waters with high organic contamination degree. The process has been developed jointly by Sttutgart University and the German company WERHLE WERK, AG. FELGUERA is the Spanish company which has the licence of this process for Spain, Portugal and Southamerican market. The first plant accomplished in Spain for leachate treatment by mean of this biological high load process has been built by FELGUERA FLUIDOS from BEFESA group. This leachate treatment plant is located in Asturias central dumpsite and the order for this plant was made for the public company COGERSA which nowadays runs the dumpsite. (Author)

  14. [Safety and electromagnetic compatibility in sanitary field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, M; Feroldi, P; Ferri, C; Ignesti, A; Olmi, R; Priori, S; Riminesi, C; Tobia, L

    2012-01-01

    In sanitary field and especially in a hospital, multiple sources of non ionizing radiation are used for diagnostic and therapeutic aims. In sanitary sector both workers and users are present at the same time, and in some cases general population could need higher protection than workers in relationship to the exposition to electromagnetic fields. In order to protect health and safety of patients, general population and workers of hospitals and with the aim to identify, analyze, evaluate and study its level of significance, electrical, magnetic and electromagnetic sources Research Italian project Si.C.E.O. (Safety And Electromagnetic Compatibility In Sanitary Field) was instituted. Target of our research project was to deepen risk of exposition elements with analysis of outdoor (e.g. power lines, transmission cabinets) and indoor (e.g. equipment for physical therapy) sources, located in sanitary structures and to verify the level exposition of workers and common population end the respect of specific regulation, and finally to define technical and organizational measures really useful for protection and reduction of risk.

  15. Ocorrência de bactérias clinicamente relevantes nos resíduos de serviços de saúde em um aterro sanitário brasileiro e perfil de susceptibilidade a antimicrobianos Occurrence of clinically relevant bacteria in health service waste in a Brazilian sanitary landfill and antimicrobial susceptibility profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago César Nascimento

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Os resíduos de serviços de saúde suscitam polêmica quanto a importância para a saúde humana, animal e ambiental. Avaliou-se a ocorrência de bactérias clinicamente relevantes na pilha de resíduos de serviços de saúde em um aterro sanitário e seu perfil de susceptibilidade aos antimicrobianos. Alíquotas de chorume foram processadas para isolamento seletivo de Staphylococcus sp, bastonetes Gram negativos da família Enterobacteriaceae e não fermentadores. Resistência bacteriana a todos os antimicrobianos testados foi observada em todos os grupos microbianos, além de resistência a mais de uma droga. Os resultados permitem sugerir que bactérias viáveis nos resíduos de serviços de saúde representam riscos à saúde humana e animal. Além disso, a ocorrência de linhagens multirresistentes sustenta a hipótese dos resíduos de serviços de saúde atuarem como reservatórios de marcadores de resistência, com impacto ambiental. A falta de legislação regional de segregação, tratamento e destino de resíduos podem expor diferentes populações a riscos de transmissão de doenças infecciosas associadas a microrganismos multirresistentes.Health service waste gives rise to controversy regarding its importance for human, animal and environmental health. Occurrences of clinically relevant bacteria in piles of health service waste in a sanitary landfill and their antimicrobial susceptibility profile were evaluated. Aliquots of leachate were processed for selective isolation of Staphylococcus sp, Gram-negative rods of the Enterobacteriaceae family and non-fermenters. Bacterial resistance to all the antimicrobials tested was observed in all microbial groups, including resistance to more than one drug. The results make it possible to suggest that viable bacteria in health service waste represent risks to human and animal health. Furthermore, occurrences of multiresistant strains support the hypothesis that health service waste acts as a

  16. Avaliação dos níveis de metais pesados em efluente líquido percolado do aterro sanitário de Paranavaí, Estado do Paraná, Brasil = Assessment of heavy metal levels in percolated liquid from sanitary landfill in Paranavaí, Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Akiko Nagashima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O percolado pode conter diversas substâncias químicas com características tóxicas, dentre elas os metais pesados oriundos de vários materiais provenientes de indústrias, atividades agrícolas, laboratórios, hospitais, residências. A contaminação pormetais apresenta amplo espectro de toxicidade que inclui efeitos neurotóxicos, hepatóxicos, nefrotóxicos, teratogênicos, carcinogênicos ou mutagênicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi aavaliação dos níveis de Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb e Zn do percolado gerado no aterro sanitário de Paranavaí - PR. As amostras foram coletadas a partir de setembro de 2006 a julho de 2007, em quatro pontos distintos nas lagoas de tratamento. Para detecção dosmetais utilizou-se o espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica com chama. Os resultados foram comparados com os limites máximos de concentração de metais em efluentes líquidos estabelecidos pela Resolução 397/2008 - Conama (BRASIL, 2008. Verificou-se que os níveis dos metais analisados, com exceção do Pb, estão dentro dos limites permissíveispela legislação ambiental.Percolated liquid may contain several chemical substances with toxic characteristics, among them heavy metals from industrial sources, agricultural activities, laboratories, hospitals and residences. Metal contamination presents a wide array of toxicities, such as neurotoxic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, teratogenic, carcinogenic or mutagenic effects. The objective of this work was to assess the levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in percolated liquid produced at the sanitary landfill in Paranavaí. The samples were collected from September of 2006 to July of 2007, at fourdistinct places of the treatment lake. An atomic absorption spectrophotometer with a burner was used to detect the metals. The results were compared with the maximum allowed values for metal concentration present in Resolution 397/2008 – Conama (BRAZIL, 2008.It was verified that the level of analyzed

  17. [The urgency of the application of the medical sanitary passport in the system for chemical safety in the areas of location of high-risk chemical facilities in the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kombarova, M Iu; Radilov, A S; Dulov, S A

    2012-01-01

    The main provisions concerning the need for a creation of medical and sanitary passport for territories in the protective measures zones (PMZ) of storage facilities and facilities for the destruction of chemical weapons (FDCW) are presented in the article. The assessment of results of certification of the territory of PMZ and FDCW in "Maradykovsky" in the Kirov region has been done.

  18. Sanitary costs of osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Franceschini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Muscoloskeletal disorders are the first cause of disability and the second cause of permanent disablement in Italy. Osteoarthritis is the most frequent rheumatic disease and affects about 4 million Italians. In spite of that, data concerning social costs are lacking. On account of this lack we measured sanitary costs of 314 patients suffering from osteoarthritis. A retrospective, prevalence- based multicentric study was performed using a bottom-up approach. The study period was 12 months and referred to 1999. Eight percent of patients didn’t take any drug for the treatment of osteoarthritis; NSAIDs were prescribed to 86.9% of patients, analgesics to 29.9%, chondroprotective drugs to 7.6%, and gastroprotective drugs to 36.9%. Total sanitary costs came to 455 € / patient / year: 122 € were spent on diagnostics, 293 € on therapy and 40 € on management of drug-related gastropathy. Since the costs of anti-inflammatory drugs came to 30 € we calculated iatrogenic cost factor of 2.3. Moreover, the study supplied interesting informations about prescriptive habits, which differ in Italy from international guidelines for the medical treatment of OA, about patient management, because of hospitalization, which by itself absorbs 1/3 of resources, and about physiotherapy, which costs twice as much as pharmacological therapy. At last, data analysis gave the cue for suggestions on changing patients’ management.

  19. SITE SELECTION OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS USING ANALYTICAL HIERARCHY PROCESS METHOD IN A GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ENVIRONMENT IN GIROFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Javaheri, T. Nasrabadi, M. H. Jafarian, G. R. Rowshan, H. Khoshnam

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste generation is among the most significant sources which threaten the global environmental health. As an ideal selection depends on considering several independent factors concerning land use, socio economy and hydrogeology, the use of a multi criteria evaluation method seems inevitable. Taking benefit of geographic information system as a tool in combination with geographical information technology, equips the spatial decision support systems in appropriate site selection of sanitary landfills. The present study involves a kind of multi criteria evaluation method under the name of weighted linear combination by using geographical information technology as a practical instrument to evaluate the suitability of the vicinity of Giroft city in Kerman province of Iran for landfill. Water permeability, slope, distance from rivers, depth of underground watertable, distance from residential areas, distance from generation centers, general environmental criterion and distance from roads are the criteria which have been taken in to consideration in the process of analyzing. Superposing all of the raster type layers including geomorphologic, hydrologic, humanistic and land use criteria in land suitability, the final zoning of appropriate, fairly appropriate and inappropriate districts have been identified. Considering relative priority of all criteria in comparison with others, a specific weight is designated to each criterion according to their total influence on the whole process of decision making. The results from the application of the presented methodology are zones for landfill with varying zonal land suitability. Finally the zones will be ranked in descending order to indicate the priority of different options in front of the eyes of decision makers. The results achieved by this study may help policy makers of Giroft city by a variety of options for being considered as sanitary landfill locations.

  20. Characterisation of landfills using a multidisciplinary approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paap, B.F.; Bakker, M.A.J.; Hoekstra, N.K.; Oonk, H.

    2011-01-01

    The Netherlands has about 3800 abandoned landfills with a total surface of about 9000 ha. As they are often located near urban areas and their influence extends into their surrounding environment they put pressure on available space. Most abandoned landfills were in use until the 1960s and 1970s. Th

  1. Nitrogen Removal from Landfill Leachate by Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio F. L. Pereira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Landfill leachates result from the degradation of solid residues in sanitary landfills, thus presenting a high variability in terms of composition. Normally, these effluents are characterized by high ammoniacal-nitrogen (N–NH4+ concentrations, high chemical oxygen demands and low phosphorus concentrations. The development of effective treatment strategies becomes difficult, posing a serious problem to the environment. Phycoremediation appears to be a suitable alternative for the treatment of landfill leachates. In this study, the potential of Chlorella vulgaris for biomass production and nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus removal from different compositions of a landfill leachate was evaluated. Since microalgae also require phosphorus for their growth, different loads of this nutrient were evaluated, giving the following N:P ratios: 12:1, 23:1 and 35:1. The results have shown that C. vulgaris was able to grow in the different leachate compositions assessed. However, microalgal growth was higher in the cultures presenting the lowest N–NH4+ concentration. In terms of nutrients uptake, an effective removal of N–NH4+ and phosphorus was observed in all the experiments, especially in those supplied with phosphorus. Nevertheless, N–NO3− removal was considered almost negligible. These promising results constitute important findings in the development of a bioremediation technology for the treatment of landfill leachates.

  2. Nitrogen Removal from Landfill Leachate by Microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sérgio F. L.; Gonçalves, Ana L.; Moreira, Francisca C.; Silva, Tânia F. C. V.; Vilar, Vítor J. P.; Pires, José C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Landfill leachates result from the degradation of solid residues in sanitary landfills, thus presenting a high variability in terms of composition. Normally, these effluents are characterized by high ammoniacal-nitrogen (N–NH4+) concentrations, high chemical oxygen demands and low phosphorus concentrations. The development of effective treatment strategies becomes difficult, posing a serious problem to the environment. Phycoremediation appears to be a suitable alternative for the treatment of landfill leachates. In this study, the potential of Chlorella vulgaris for biomass production and nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus) removal from different compositions of a landfill leachate was evaluated. Since microalgae also require phosphorus for their growth, different loads of this nutrient were evaluated, giving the following N:P ratios: 12:1, 23:1 and 35:1. The results have shown that C. vulgaris was able to grow in the different leachate compositions assessed. However, microalgal growth was higher in the cultures presenting the lowest N–NH4+ concentration. In terms of nutrients uptake, an effective removal of N–NH4+ and phosphorus was observed in all the experiments, especially in those supplied with phosphorus. Nevertheless, N–NO3− removal was considered almost negligible. These promising results constitute important findings in the development of a bioremediation technology for the treatment of landfill leachates. PMID:27869676

  3. Nitrogen Removal from Landfill Leachate by Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sérgio F L; Gonçalves, Ana L; Moreira, Francisca C; Silva, Tânia F C V; Vilar, Vítor J P; Pires, José C M

    2016-11-17

    Landfill leachates result from the degradation of solid residues in sanitary landfills, thus presenting a high variability in terms of composition. Normally, these effluents are characterized by high ammoniacal-nitrogen (N-NH₄⁺) concentrations, high chemical oxygen demands and low phosphorus concentrations. The development of effective treatment strategies becomes difficult, posing a serious problem to the environment. Phycoremediation appears to be a suitable alternative for the treatment of landfill leachates. In this study, the potential of Chlorella vulgaris for biomass production and nutrients (mainly nitrogen and phosphorus) removal from different compositions of a landfill leachate was evaluated. Since microalgae also require phosphorus for their growth, different loads of this nutrient were evaluated, giving the following N:P ratios: 12:1, 23:1 and 35:1. The results have shown that C. vulgaris was able to grow in the different leachate compositions assessed. However, microalgal growth was higher in the cultures presenting the lowest N-NH₄⁺ concentration. In terms of nutrients uptake, an effective removal of N-NH₄⁺ and phosphorus was observed in all the experiments, especially in those supplied with phosphorus. Nevertheless, N-NO₃(-) removal was considered almost negligible. These promising results constitute important findings in the development of a bioremediation technology for the treatment of landfill leachates.

  4. Landfills, Landfills, Published in 2003, Taylor County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Landfills dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2003. It is described as 'Landfills'. Data by this publisher are...

  5. Landfilling: Environmental Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Manfredi, Simone; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    to air, soil and water caused by the processes stabilizing the waste in the landfill. The main factors controlling the actual environmental impacts from the landfilling are: the nature and amount of the waste landfilled, the geological and hydrological setting of the landfill, the landfill technology......, the extent and quality of the technical environmental protection measures introduced, the daily operation and the timescale. This chapter describes the main potential environmental impacts from landfills. The modern landfill is able to avoid most of these impacts. However, in the planning and design...... of landfills it is important to understand the potential environmental impacts, which must be avoided. The emissions of landfill gas and leachate causing most of the environmental risks are described in detail in the chapters addressing specific landfill types: Chapter 10.5 (mineral waste landfill), Chapter 10...

  6. Integrated multi-criteria decision making techniques AHP with Geographic Information System for Modelling of suitable Landfill location: a case study in Keraniganj of Dhaka city, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M.

    2015-12-01

    This study is approaches a GIS based multi-criteria decision making technique to select potential land fill in Keraniganj of Dhaka city in Bangladesh. Site selection of landfill for Municipal solid waste is an important concern for the urban government in whole world. Dhaka city is highly dense populated city in Bangladesh and municipal solid waste generation rate is increase rapidly day by day. These large amount of generated municipal waste needs appropriate landfill considering environmental, geological, social and technical aspect of the region. The traditional process of site selection process is much difficult, time consuming and costly and needs to replace by a new approaches. An integration of Geographical Information System (GIS) and Multi-criteria Evaluation (MCE) method is best combination to solve complex decision and used to select suitable site. Analytical Hierarchy process (AHP) is world widely most popular decision making MCE technique. In this study AHP used as a multi-criteria decision making to compare five suitability attributes with each other and evaluate weight according to attributes potentiality. Various type raster map layer created using GIS tool for this study. Five suitability raster was assigned with the AHP calculated weight value. A combined weighted spatial layer obtained name as suitability map which is overlapped with a restriction raster map, as result a final suitable map was obtained. The result shows that 12.2% of the area is suitable for constructing landfill site where 4.9% is very high suitable, 2.6% is moderate suitable and 4.7% is low suitable. The final site is constructed after detail field investigation, other technical investigation, land ownership status and public acceptancy. Suitable site selection for non-hazardous landfill is not easy and its needs to consider many environmental factor at time. GIS tool combining with many decision making tool such as multi-criteria evaluation can solve this problem. A combining

  7. Congenital anomalies and proximity to landfill sites.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, E

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence of congenital anomalies in proximity to municipal landfill sites in the Eastern Region (counties Dublin, Kildare, Wicklow) was examined by small area (district electoral division), distance and clustering tendancies in relation to 83 landfills, five of which were major sites. The study included 2136 cases of congenital anomaly, 37,487 births and 1423 controls between 1986 and 1990. For the more populous areas of the region 50% of the population lived within 2-3 km of a landfill and within 4-5 km for more rural areas. In the area-level analysis, the standardised prevalence ratios, empirical and full Bayesian modelling, and Kulldorff\\'s spatial scan statistic found no association between the residential area of cases and location of landfills. In the case control analysis, the mean distance of cases and controls from the nearest landfill was similar. The odds ratios of cases compared to controls for increasing distances from all landfills and major landfills showed no significant difference from the baseline value of 1. The kernel and K methods showed no tendency of cases to cluster in relationship to landfills. In conclusion, congenital anomalies were not found to occur more commonly in proximity to municipal landfills.

  8. 填埋场渗漏检测高压直流电法两种模型的比较%Comparison of two theoretical models for electric leak location at landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨萍; 能昌信; 杨公训; 董路; 王琪; 王彦文

    2007-01-01

    To solve the disability of conventional model used in electrical leak location when measurement electrodes were buried under the liner,a new model of high voltage DC leak detection is developed.For single-liner landfill,the waste material layer,the geomembrane liner and the soil under the liner are simulated with infinite horizontal layers.The leak is regarded as two parts,one being negative current source at the entrance,and the other positive current source of the same size at the exit.Comparisons between the new theoretical model and conventional model show that conventional model is efficient in locating leaks in geomembane liner associating the dipole scanning above the liner but is ineffective when the measurement electrodes were buried under the liner.The new theoretical model data are in excellent agreement with experimental data not only above the liner but also under the finer.

  9. Landfills in the Western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Locations of landfills and waste transfer stations in 11 western states. Data was obtained from state and federal agencies in GIS, tabular, and map format.

  10. Closure Alternatives for Municipal Waste Landfills.Study Case: Municipal Waste Landfill Medias,Sibiu County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHĂIESCU R.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, the environmental impact produced by municipal solid wastes has received specialattention. All new EU countries are involved in the process of implementation of the European Council Directive31/99/EC on the landfill of waste in the European Union. As consequence National legislation, adapted to fit the EUrequirements, focuses on integrated waste management and environmental control of municipal solid waste landfills,from start-up to closure and assimilation into the environment. In Romania, by Government decision, HG 349/2005,was established the obligatoriness of closing unconform waste landfills located in urban areas starting at July 2009. Asconsequence the owner of municipal waste landfill Medias started the proceedings of closure for the landfill. The aim ofthis study is to compare, from an environmental point of view, different alternatives for the closure of the municipalsolid waste landfill Somard-Medias (Romania.

  11. The estimation of methane emissions from landfills with different cover systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S.; Lee, K.; Sung, K.

    2006-12-01

    Methane is a very potent greenhouse gas, second only to CO2 as an anthropogenic contributor to global warming. Landfills are important anthropogenic source in the CH4 emissions. Microbially mediated CH4 oxidation in landfills with conventional soil covers can serve as an efficient biological sink. Methane from modern sanitary landfills equipped with composite covers and gas collection system is vented directly to the atmosphere, except for some of the largest landfills at which it is collected and burned. However, previous laboratory research has shown that biofilters have the potential to reduce CH4 emissions from landfills with modern composite covers. In this study a CH4 emission model was developed. The model used the calculated CH4 oxidation rates to estimate CH4 emissions from landfills constructed with conventional soil covers, modern composite covers, and modern composite covers plus biofilters. According to the CH4 emission rates predicted by CH4 emission model, it was estimated that 90% of the generated CH4 was emitted to the atmosphere for landfills with modern composite cover. For landfills with modern composite cover plus biofilters, an average of only 9% of the generated CH4 was estimated to be emitted. For landfills with conventional covers, an average of 83% of the generated CH4 was estimated to be emitted. By comparing the CH4 emission rates from three different landfill types, the use of a properly managed biofilter should be an effective technique to reduce CH4 emissions from landfills.

  12. Intertemporal and spatial location of disposal facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Andre, F.J.; Velasco, F; Gonzalez, L.

    2009-01-01

    The optimal capacity and location of a sequence of landfills are studied, and the interactions between both decisions are pointed out. Deciding the capacity of a landfill has some spatial implications, because it effects the feasible region for the rest of the landfills, and some temporal implications because the capacity determines the lifetime of the landfill and hence the instant of time where the next landfills will need to be constructed. Some general mathematical properties of the solut...

  13. 21 CFR 110.37 - Sanitary facilities and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE IN MANUFACTURING, PACKING, OR HOLDING HUMAN FOOD Buildings and Facilities § 110.37 Sanitary facilities and controls. Each plant shall be... water to required locations throughout the plant. (2) Properly convey sewage and liquid disposable waste...

  14. Estudo de compostos orgânicos em lixiviado de aterros sanitários por EFS e CG/EM Study of organic compounds in landfill leachate by SPE and GC/MSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irajá do Nascimento Filho

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this work was the qualitative study of organic compounds in landfill leachate. The samples were collected from a sanitary landfill located at Gravataí, a southern Brazilian city, that receive both, industrial and domestic refuse. The samples were submitted to solid phase extraction (SPE with XAD-4 resin as the stationary phase. The instrumental analysis was performed by Gas Chromatography with a Mass Spectrometry Detector (GC/MSD. The compounds achieved in the SPE extracts were tentatively identified by the GC/MS library. It was found several oxygen and nitrogen compounds like carboxylic acids, ketones, amines and amides. Sulfur compounds and phthalate esters are also identified.

  15. [Topical problems of sanitary and epidemiologic examination concerning projects of sanitary protection zones in airports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isayeva, A M; Zibaryov, E V

    2015-01-01

    The article covers data on major errors in sanitary protection zones specification for civil airports, revealed through sanitary epidemiologic examination. The authors focus attention on necessity to develop unified methodic approach to evaluation of aviation noise effects, when justifying sanitary protection zone of airports and examining sanitary and epidemiologic project documents.

  16. Landfilling: Environmental Issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Manfredi, Simone; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Waste disposed of in a landfill is by its nature different from the material found in the surroundings of the landfill and thereby the landfill may potentially affect the surrounding environment. This may be in terms of attracting or repelling flora and fauna from the area and through the emissio...

  17. Landfill leachate treatment in assisted landfill bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Pin-jing; QU Xian; SHAO Li-ming; LEE Duu-jong

    2006-01-01

    Landfill is the major disposal route of municipal solid waste(MSW) in most Asian countries. Leachate from landfill presents a strong wastewater that needs intensive treatment before discharge. Direct recycling was proposed as an effective alternative for leachate treatment by taking the landfill as a bioreactor. This process was proved not only considerably reducing the pollution potential of leachate, but also enhancing organic degradation in the landfill. However, as this paper shows, although direct leachate recycling was effective in landfilled MSW with low food waste fraction (3.5%, w/w), it failed in MSW containing 54% food waste, as normally noted in Asian countries. The initial acid stuck would inhibit methanogenesis to build up, hence strong leachate was yielded from landfill to threaten the quality of receiving water body. We demonstrated the feasibility to use an assisted bioreactor landfill, with a well-decomposed refuse layer as ex-situ anaerobic digester to reducing COD loading in leachate. By doing so, the refuse in simulated landfill column (2.3 m high) could be stabilized in 30 weeks while the COD in leachate reduced by 95%(61000 mg/L to 3000 mg/L). Meanwhile, the biogas production was considerably enhanced, signaling by the much greater amount and much higher methane content in the biogas.

  18. Designing systems for landfill gas migration control in Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cannon, J. [Camp, Dresser & McKee, Inc., St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Camp, Dresser & McKee (CDM) has designed or is in the process of designing several landfill gas migration control systems in Minnesota. The systems are for both active and closed municipal solid waste landfills. The sites have a variety of covers, including geomembranes, clay caps, and non-engineered soil covers. The control system types include small perimeter systems, full-site systems and phased systems for active sites. Figure 1 shows the locations of the systems CDM is working on in Minnesota. This paper focuses on four sites: Oak Grove Landfill, Hopkins Landfill, Washington County Landfill, and Elk River Landfill. Table 1 provides an outline of the individual site characteristics. The first three sites are closed landfills. The Oak Grove Landfill system was designed and constructed for a group of industries responsible for closure and remedial action. The Hopkins and Washington County landfills are under the control of the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA). The MPCA enacted a remedial action program at closed landfills, taking over responsibility for long-term liability under the terms of legally binding agreements negotiated with the site owners. The Elk River Landfill is an active, privately-owned facility. The migration problems and solutions developed for these four landfills are generally descriptive of all the landfills CDM is working on in Minnesota. All landfills have unique characteristics requiring site-specific solutions. CDM, after designing a number of migration control systems in Minnesota, is able to provide a generalized description of design options for specific types of sites. This paper discussions design options used to address different cover types, aesthetic needs, and waste depths, and includes a discussion of design needs for cold climates. A brief case history of the Oak Grove Landfill is included.

  19. Landfilling: Concepts and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Scharff, H.; Hjelmar, O.

    2011-01-01

    Landfilling of waste historically has been the main management route for waste, and in many parts of the world it still is. Landfills have developed from open polluting dumps to modern highly engineered facilities with sophisticated control measures and monitoring routines. However, in spite of all...... new approaches and technological advancement the landfill still is a long lasting accumulation of waste in the environment. Much of current landfill design and technology has been introduced as a reaction to problems encountered at actual landfills. The solution was in many cases sought in isolation...... to understand the concepts, the processes and the long-term aspects of landfilling. This chapter describes the main conceptual aspects of landfilling. The historical development is presented and key issues of time frames, mass balances and technical approaches are discussed. The environmental issues...

  20. Microbial activity in the landfill soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzezinska, M Swiontek; Burkowska, A; Walczak, M

    2012-01-01

    The research objective was to determine the activity of microorganisms in the soil exposed to direct influence of a landfill, as well as in the soil beyond its influence. Fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolytic activity and respiration in the soil were determined. The highest number of cultivated bacteria was recorded at the site located within the zone of direct influence exerted by the landfill, whereas the least amount was found at a distance of 1000 metres from the landfill. In contrast, the largest numbers of molds were observed in the soil at a distance of 1000 m from the headquarters of the landfill. The highest FDA hydrolytic activity and biological oxygen demand (BOD5) were recorded in the soil by the headquarters of the landfill, and the least parameters were revealed at a distance of 1000 m from the landfill. It was found a high correlation between the number of bacteria and FDA hydrolytic activity of soil and BOD5 in the north-eastern of the landfill. However, in the same place, there is a low correlation between the number of molds, and FDA hydrolytic activity of soil and BOD5.

  1. Landfill site selection using combination of GIS and fuzzy AHP, a case study: Iranshahr, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi-Kaveh, M; Babazadeh, R; Mohammadi, S D; Zaresefat, M

    2016-03-09

    One of the most important recent challenges in solid waste management throughout the world is site selection of sanitary landfill. Commonly, because of simultaneous effects of social, environmental, and technical parameters on suitability of a landfill site, landfill site selection is a complex process and depends on several criteria and regulations. This study develops a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) process, which combines geographic information system (GIS) analysis with a fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP), to determine suitable sites for landfill construction in Iranshahr County, Iran. The GIS was used to calculate and classify selected criteria and FAHP was used to assess the criteria weights based on their effectiveness on selection of potential landfill sites. Finally, a suitability map was prepared by overlay analyses and suitable areas were identified. Four suitability classes within the study area were separated, including high, medium, low, and very low suitability areas, which represented 18%, 15%, 55%, and 12% of the study area, respectively.

  2. Landfill mining: Resource potential of Austrian landfills--Evaluation and quality assessment of recovered municipal solid waste by chemical analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfsberger, Tanja; Aldrian, Alexia; Sarc, Renato; Hermann, Robert; Höllen, Daniel; Budischowsky, Andreas; Zöscher, Andreas; Ragoßnig, Arne; Pomberger, Roland

    2015-11-01

    Since the need for raw materials in countries undergoing industrialisation (like China) is rising, the availability of metal and fossil fuel energy resources (like ores or coal) has changed in recent years. Landfill sites can contain considerable amounts of recyclables and energy-recoverable materials, therefore, landfill mining is an option for exploiting dumped secondary raw materials, saving primary sources. For the purposes of this article, two sanitary landfill sites have been chosen for obtaining actual data to determine the resource potential of Austrian landfills. To evaluate how pretreating waste before disposal affects the resource potential of landfills, the first landfill site has been selected because it has received untreated waste, whereas mechanically-biologically treated waste was dumped in the second. The scope of this investigation comprised: (1) waste characterisation by sorting analyses of recovered waste; and (2) chemical analyses of specific waste fractions for quality assessment regarding potential energy recovery by using it as solid recovered fuels. The content of eight heavy metals and the net calorific values were determined for the chemical characterisation tests. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Minimizing N2O fluxes from full-scale municipal solid waste landfill with properly selected cover soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Municipal solid waste landfills emit nitrous oxide (N2O) gas. Assuming that the soil cover is the primary N2O source from landfills,this study tested, during a four-year project, the hypothesis that the proper use of chosen soils with fine texture minimizes N2O emissions. A full-scale sanitary landfill, a full-scale bioreactor landfill and a cell planted with Nerium indicum or Festuca arundinacea Schreb, at the Hangzhou Tianziling landfill in Hangzhou City were the test sites. The N2O emission rates from all test sites were considerably lower than those reported in the published reports. Specifically, the N2O emission rate was dependent on soil water content and nitrate concentrations in the cover soil. The effects of leachate recirculation and irrigation were minimal. Properly chosen cover soils applied to the landfills reduced N2O flux.

  4. Avaliação dos níveis de metais pesados em efluente líquido percolado do aterro sanitário de Paranavaí, Estado do Paraná, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i1.1154 Assessment of heavy metal levels in percolated liquid from sanitary landfill in Paranavaí, Paraná State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v31i1.1154

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Algayer da Silva

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available O percolado pode conter diversas substâncias químicas com características tóxicas, dentre elas os metais pesados oriundos de vários materiais provenientes de indústrias, atividades agrícolas, laboratórios, hospitais, residências. A contaminação por metais apresenta amplo espectro de toxicidade que inclui efeitos neurotóxicos, hepatóxicos, nefrotóxicos, teratogênicos, carcinogênicos ou mutagênicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi a avaliação dos níveis de Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb e Zn do percolado gerado no aterro sanitário de Paranavaí - PR. As amostras foram coletadas a partir de setembro de 2006 a julho de 2007, em quatro pontos distintos nas lagoas de tratamento. Para detecção dos metais utilizou-se o espectrofotômetro de absorção atômica com chama. Os resultados foram comparados com os limites máximos de concentração de metais em efluentes líquidos estabelecidos pela Resolução 397/2008 - Conama (BRASIL, 2008. Verificou-se que os níveis dos metais analisados, com exceção do Pb, estão dentro dos limites permissíveis pela legislação ambiental.Percolated liquid may contain several chemical substances with toxic characteristics, among them heavy metals from industrial sources, agricultural activities, laboratories, hospitals and residences. Metal contamination presents a wide array of toxicities, such as neurotoxic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, teratogenic, carcinogenic or mutagenic effects. The objective of this work was to assess the levels of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in percolated liquid produced at the sanitary landfill in Paranavaí. The samples were collected from September of 2006 to July of 2007, at four distinct places of the treatment lake. An atomic absorption spectrophotometer with a burner was used to detect the metals. The results were compared with the maximum allowed values for metal concentration present in Resolution 397/2008 – Conama (BRAZIL, 2008. It was verified that the level of

  5. Soil chemistry and pollution study of a closed landfill site at Ampar Tenang, Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Adnan, Siti Nur Syahirah Binti; Yusoff, Sumiani; Piaw, Chua Yan

    2013-06-01

    A total of 20 landfills are located in State of Selangor, Malaysia. This includes the Ampar Tenang landfill site, which was closed on 26 January 2010. It was reported that the landfill has been upgraded to a level I type of sanitary classification. However, the dumpsite area is not being covered according to the classification. In addition, municipal solid waste was dumped directly on top of the unlined natural alluvium formation. This does not only contaminate surface and subsurface soils, but also initiates the potential risk of groundwater pollution. Based on previous studies, the Ampar Tenang soil has been proven to no longer be capable of preventing pollution migration. In this study, metal concentrations of soil samples up to 30 m depth were analyzed based on statistical analysis. It is very significant because research of this type has not been carried out before. The subsurface soils were significantly polluted by arsenic (As), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and aluminium (Al). As and Pb exceeded the safe limit values of 5.90 mg/kg and 31.00 mg/kg, respectively, based on Provincial Sediment Quality Guidelines for Metals and the Interim Sediment Quality Values. Furthermore, only Cu concentrations showed a significantly decreasing trend with increasing depth. Most metals were found on clay-type soils based on the cluster analysis method. Moreover, the analysis also differentiates two clusters: cluster I-Pb, As, zinc, Cu, manganese, calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium and Fe; cluster II-Al. Different clustering may suggest a different contamination source of metals.

  6. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    the landfill section has been filled or several years later depending on the settlement patterns. Significant differential settlements may disturb the functioning of the top cover. The specific design of the cover system depends on the type of waste landfilled (municipal, hazardous, or inert waste...... such as lowpermeability clay soils and geomembranes are required. The avoidance of water input to organic waste may impede the microbial stabilization processes including gas generation. Therefore watertight top covers may be in conflict with the purposes of reactor landfills (see Chapter 10.6). At some sites covers...... sometimes are made to include components for recirculation of landfill leachate (see Section 10.9.2 for more details). The top cover is an important factor in the water management of landfills. Details about water infiltration through top covers and its influence on the hydrology of the landfill is covered...

  7. Landfill Top Covers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    is landscaped in order to fit into the surrounding area/environment or meet specific plans for the final use of the landfill. To fulfill the above listed requirements landfill covers are often multicomponent systems which are placed directly on top of the waste. The top cover may be placed immediately after...... the landfill section has been filled or several years later depending on the settlement patterns. Significant differential settlements may disturb the functioning of the top cover. The specific design of the cover system depends on the type of waste landfilled (municipal, hazardous, or inert waste...... however, top covers may be the only environmental protection measure. In some landfill regulations (for instance the Subtitle D landfills receiving municipal solid waste in the USA) it is required to minimize infiltration into the waste layers. Therefore top covers containing liner components...

  8. Aerobic landfill bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgins, Mark P; Bessette, Bernard J; March, John; McComb, Scott T.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention includes a method of decomposing municipal solid waste (MSW) within a landfill by converting the landfill to aerobic degradation in the following manner: (1) injecting air via the landfill leachate collection system (2) injecting air via vertical air injection wells installed within the waste mass; (3) applying leachate to the waste mass using a pressurized drip irrigation system; (4) allowing landfill gases to vent; and (5) adjusting air injection and recirculated leachate to achieve a 40% to 60% moisture level and a temperature between 120.degree. F. and 140.degree. F. in steady state.

  9. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    1998-08-31

    This corrective action plan provides the closure implementation methods for the Area 3 Landfill Complex, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 424, located at the Tonopah Test Range. The Area 3 Landfill Complex consists of 8 landfill sites, each designated as a separate corrective action site.

  10. Photovoltaics on Landfills in Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salasovich, J.; Mosey, G.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in accordance with the RE-Powering America's Land initiative, selected the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico for a feasibility study of m0treAlables on several brownfield sites. The EPA defines a brownfield as 'a property, the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of which may be complicated by the presence or potential presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant.' All of the brownfields in this study are landfill sites. Citizens of Puerto Rico, city planners, and site managers are interested in redevelopment uses for landfills in Puerto Rico, which are particularly well suited for solar photovoltaic (PV) installation. The purpose of this report is to assess the landfills with the highest potential for possible solar PV installation and estimate cost, performance, and site impacts of three different PV options: crystalline silicon (fixed-tilt), crystalline silicon (single-axis tracking), and thin film (fixed-tilt). Each option represents a standalone system that can be sized to use an entire available site area. In addition, the report outlines financing options that could assist in the implementation of a system. The feasibility of PV systems installed on landfills is highly impacted by the available area for an array, solar resource, operating status, landfill cap status, distance to transmission lines, and distance to major roads. All of the landfills in Puerto Rico were screened according to these criteria in order to determine the sites with the greatest potential. Eight landfills were chosen for site visits based on the screening criteria and location. Because of time constraints and the fact that Puerto Rico is a relatively large island, the eight landfills for this visit were all located in the eastern half of the island. The findings from this report can be applied to landfills in the western half of the island. The economics of a potential PV system on landfills in Puerto Rico depend

  11. Landfill Site Selection by AHP Based Multi-criteria Decision Making Tool: A Case Study in Kolkata, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Ankush; Hazra, Tumpa; Dutta, Amit

    2017-07-01

    This work presents a Multi-criteria Decision Making (MCDM) tool to select a landfill site from three candidate sites proposed for Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) area that complies with accessibility, receptor, environment, public acceptability, geological and economic criteria. Analytical Hierarchy Process has been used to solve the MCDM problem. Suitability of the three sites (viz. Natagachi, Gangajoara and Kharamba) as landfills as proposed by KMC has been checked by Landfill Site Sensitivity Index (LSSI) as well as Economic Viability Index (EVI). Land area availability for disposing huge quantity of Municipal Solid Waste for the design period has been checked. Analysis of the studied sites show that they are moderately suitable for landfill facility construction as both LSSI and EVI scores lay between 300 and 750. The proposed approach represents an effective MCDM tool for siting sanitary landfill in growing metropolitan cities of developing countries like India.

  12. LEACHATE CLOGGING ASSESSMENT OF GEOTEXTILE AND SOIL LANDFILL FILTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The liquids management strategy for any municipal or hazardous waste landfill requires a knowledgeable design strategy for the leachate collection system located at the base of the waste mass. Such leachate collection systems generally consist of sumps, perforated pipes, drainag...

  13. Landfill to Learning Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venner, Laura

    2008-05-01

    Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in scientific exploration and discovery is the main goal of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will bring hands-on scientific experiences to the 25,000 students and 3,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Our programs adhere to the New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards and are modified for accessibility for the underserved communities that visit us, specifically those individuals that have mobility, sensory, and/or cognitive ability differences. The programs are conducted in a classroom setting and are designed to nourish the individual's inquisitive nature and provide an opportunity to function as a scientist by, making observations, performing experiments and recording data. We have an $850,000, three year NSF grant that targets adults with disabilities and older adults with age related limitations in vision, hearing, cognition and/or mobility. From dip netting in the marsh to astronomical investigation of the cosmos, the MEC/CESE remains committed to reaching the largest audience possible and leaving them with a truly exceptional scientific experience that serves to educate and inspire.

  14. Use of the Geographic Information System and Analytic Hierarchy Process for Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Site Selection: A Case Study of Najafabad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Afzali

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Following technological advancements and integrated municipal solid waste management in recent decades, various methods such as recycling, biotreatment, thermal treatment, and sanitary landfills have been developed and employed. Creating sanitary landfills is a major strategy in the integrated solid waste management hierarchy. It is cheaper and thus more common than other disposal methods. Selecting a suitable solid waste landfill site can prevent adverse ecological and socioeconomic effects. Landfill site selection requires the analysis of spatial data, regulations, and accepted criteria. The present study aimed to use the geographic information system and the analytic hierarchy process to identify an appropriate landfill site for municipal solid wastes in Najafabad (Isfahan, Iran. Environmental and socioeconomic criteria were evaluated through different information layers in the Boolean and fuzzy logics. The analytical hierarchy process was applied for weighing the fuzzy information layers. Subsequently, two suitable sites were identified by superimposing the maps from the Boolean and fuzzy logics and considering the minimum required landfill area for 20 years. However, proximity of these two sites to Tiran (a nearby city made them undesirable landfill sites for Najafabad. Therefore, due to the existing restrictions in Najafabad, the possibility of creating landfill sites in common with adjacent cities should be further investigated.

  15. Astronomy on a Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venner, Laura

    2008-09-01

    Engaging "K-to-Gray” audiences (children, families, and older adults) in astronomical activities is one of the main goals of the NJMC Center for Environmental and Scientific Education and the William D. McDowell Observatory located in Lyndhurst, NJ. Perched atop a closed and reclaimed municipal solid waste landfill, our new LEED - certified building (certification pending) and William D. McDowell observatory will assist in bringing the goals of IYA 2009 to the approximately 25,000 students and 15,000 adults that visit our site from the NY/NJ region each year. Diversifying our traditional environmental science offerings, we have incorporated astronomy into our repertoire with "The Sun Through Time” module, which includes storytelling, cultural astronomy, telescope anatomy, and other activities that are based on the electromagnetic spectrum and our current knowledge of the sun. These lessons have also been modified to bring astronomy to underserved communities, specifically those individuals that have dexterity or cognitive ability differences. The program is conducted in a classroom setting and is designed to meet New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards. With the installation of our new 20” telescope, students and amateur astronomers will be given the opportunity to perform rudimentary research. In addition, a program is in development that will allow individuals to measure local sky brightness and understand the effects of light pollution on astronomical viewing. Teaching astronomy in an urban setting presents many challenges. All individuals, regardless of ability level or location, should be given the opportunity to be exposed to the wonders of the universe and the MEC/CESE has been successful in providing those opportunities.

  16. IJER@2014 Page 57 Disposal Criteria of Bhanpur Solid Waste Landfill Site: Investigation and Suggestions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapas Dasgpta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The solid waste management and design assist waste management officials in developing and encouraging environmentally sound methods for the disposal of "nonhazardous" solid waste. Promulgated under the authority of municipal act, the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWLF regulation act establish a framework for planning and implementing municipal solid waste landfill programs at the state and local levels. This framework sets minimum standards for protecting human health and the environment, while allowing states to develop more flexible MSWLF criteria. Intension to mitigate or expeditiously remediate potential adverse environmental impacts resulting from municipal landfills. However, other regulations existed prior to the revised MSWLF standards discussed in this module. The promulgation Criteria for Classification of Solid Waste Disposal Facilities and Practices. The established regulatory standards to satisfy the minimum national performance criteria for sanitary landfills governs only those solid waste disposal facilities and practices that do not meet the definition of a MSWLF. Such facilities include waste piles, industrial nonhazardous waste landfills, surface impoundments, and land application units. Environmental Protect Authority (EPA modified address the fact that these non-municipal non-hazardous wastes landfills may receive Conditionally Exempt Small Quantity Generator (CESQG hazardous waste, further clarify that construction and demolition landfills may receive residential lead-based paint waste as Solid Waste Disposal Facilities without for MSWLFs as long as all conditions are met.

  17. Sanitary survey rapport 2: Nissum Bredning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Mørk; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik; Göke, Cordula

    .3and the associated sampling plan are required to be based on so-called ‘sanitary surveys’. A sanitary survey is an assessment of the interactions between potential sources of microbial pollution, climate conditions and oceanography in the area. The EU Commission guidance for making a sanitary...... survey formed the basis for this report. However, in certain cases, the Danish practice for microbiological sampling frequency and classification made previously on the basis of this, as described in ‘muslingebekendtgørelsen’ is summarized in Appendix 13. The report covers production areas P1, P2, P3...... is determined in samples of mussels, etc. taken at different sampling points within each area. The report points to the most precautionary fixed sampling points for future monitoring In summary, the sanitary survey of Nissum Broads identifies an area that in general is a microbial homogeneous, stable...

  18. INVESTIGATION OF HOLOCENE FAULTING PROPOSED C-746-U LANDFILL EXPANSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lettis, William [William Lettis & Associates, Inc.

    2006-07-01

    This report presents the findings of a fault hazard investigation for the C-746-U landfill's proposed expansion located at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), in Paducah, Kentucky. The planned expansion is located directly north of the present-day C-746-U landfill. Previous geophysical studies within the PGDP site vicinity interpret possible northeast-striking faults beneath the proposed landfill expansion, although prior to this investigation the existence, locations, and ages of these inferred faults have not been confirmed through independent subsurface exploration. The purpose of this investigation is to assess whether or not Holocene-active fault displacement is present beneath the footprint of the proposed landfill expansion.

  19. Analysis of the generation of electric energy through the use of biogas obtained from sanitary fillings in Mexico; Analisis de la generacion de energia electrica a traves de biogas procedente de rellenos sanitarios en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerda Sauvage, Tania Kalinka [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    Through this work a theoretical analysis conducted for the use of biogas obtained from sanitary landfills for the generation of electrical energy is presented, as well as the evaluation of the main elements that limit or favor the development of this technology in our country. In the introductory part of this work are presented some causes considered have favored the development of technologies as the one proposed here. In the first part it is exposed what the biogas is and what conditions are necessary for its production, which explains the production of biogas in the sanitary landfills, in addition, describes the distribution of the solid residues that give raise to the present situation of the sanitary landfills and the biogas production process in these. The work continues with a description of the electrical energy generation process through the gas originated in sanitary landfills, indicating the necessary conditions in order that the filling complies with its basic functions; following our process until obtaining the final item, electrical energy. For the description of the process and to analyze some factors that take part, it is advisable to include the main aspects of a plant located in Monterrey that occupies this technology. This project shows project shows off in a tangible form the barriers that this technology faces, as well as its main advantages and disadvantages. Are exposed the limiting factors of this technology in technological, economic, political and social aspects, the barriers that can and must overcome as well as the reasons that justify the effort to overcome them. Finally are presented the conclusions it arrives, as well as the commentaries and suggestions in respect to the subject. [Spanish] A traves de este trabajo se expone un analisis teorico efectuado al uso de biogas extraido de rellenos sanitarios para la generacion de energia electrica, asi como evaluar los principales elementos que limitan o favorecen el desarrollo de esta

  20. Influence of Landfill Operation and Tropical Seasonal Variation on Leachate Characteristics: Results from Lysimeter Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam M. Rafizul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates the influence of lysimeter operational condition and tropical seasonal variation of leachate characteristics generated from municipal solid waste (MSW deposited in landfill lysimeter at KUET campus, Bangladesh. Three different situations of landfill were considered here as well as both the open dump lysimeter-A having a base liner and sanitary landfill lysimeter-B and C at two different types of cap liner were simulated. The leachate characteristics, leachate generation and climatic influence parameter had been continually monitored, from June 2008 to May 2010. This period covers both dry and rainy season. The leachate generation followed the rainfall pattern and the open dump lysimeter-A without top cover was recorded to have the highest leachate generation. Moreover, the open dump lysimeter-A had lower concentration and load of total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N and dissolved organic carbon (DOC, while chemical oxygen demand (COD and biological oxygen demand (BOD5 concentration were higher compared with sanitary lysimeter-B and C. On the other hand, sanitary lysimeter-B, not only had lowest leachate generation, but also produced reasonably low COD and BOD5 concentration compared with open dump lysimeter-A. Based on evaluated results, it was also concluded that metal concentrations which were comparatively higher in leachate of open dump lysimeter were Ca and K, however, the heavy metal concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn and Mn, and those apparently lower were metals of Na, Mg and Fe as well as heavy metals of Cr, Pb and Ni. However, significant release of heavy metals under open dump lysimeter was observed compared to sanitary lysimeter. Moreover, meaningful correlation between DOC and leaching of Cu and Pb was observed. Result reveals that lysimeter operational mode had direct effect on leachate quality. Finally, it can be concluded that the knowledge of leachate quality will be useful in planning and

  1. Location, location, location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, S.P.; Goeree, J.K.; Ramer, R.

    1997-01-01

    We analyze the canonical location-then-price duopoly game with general log- concave consumer densities. A unique pure-strategy equilibrium to the two-stage game exists if the density is not "too asymmetric" and not "too concave." These criteria are satisfied by many commonly used densities. Equilibr

  2. Turkey Run Landfill Emissions Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — landfill emissions measurements for the Turkey run landfill in Georgia. This dataset is associated with the following publication: De la Cruz, F., R. Green, G....

  3. Landfill Mining of Shredder Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jette Bjerre; Hyks, Jiri; Shabeer Ahmed, Nassera

    In Denmark, shredder residues (SR) are classified as hazardous waste and until January 2012 the all SR were landfilled. It is estimated that more than 1.8 million tons of SR have been landfilled in mono cells. This paper describes investigations conducted at two Danish landfills. SR were excavated...

  4. Analysis of the contaminants released from municipal solid waste landfill site: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadder, S R; Prabhakar, R; Khan, D; Kishan, D; Chauhan, M S

    2017-02-15

    Release and transport of leachate from municipal solid waste landfills pose a potential hazard to both surrounding ecosystems and human populations. In the present study, soil, groundwater, and surface water samples were collected from the periphery of a municipal solid waste landfill (located at Ranital of Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India) for laboratory analysis to understand the release of contaminants. The landfill does not receive any solid wastes for dumping now as the same is under a landfill closure plan. Groundwater and soil samples were collected from the bore holes of 15m deep drilled along the periphery of the landfill and the surface water samples were collected from the existing surface water courses near the landfill. The landfill had neither any bottom liner nor any leachate collection and treatment system. Thus the leachate generated from the landfills finds paths into the groundwater and surrounding surface water courses. Concentrations of various physico-chemical parameters including some toxic metals (in collected groundwater, soil, and surface water samples) and microbiological parameters (in surface water samples) were determined. The analyzed data were integrated into ArcGIS environment and the spatial distribution of the metals and other physic- chemical parameter across the landfill was extrapolated to observe the distribution. The statistical analysis and spatial variations indicated the leaching of metals from the landfill to the groundwater aquifer system. The study will help the readers and the municipal engineers to understand the release of contaminants from landfills for better management of municipal solid wastes.

  5. Production and the application of anaerobic granular sludge produced by landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Sludge granulation is considered to be the most critical parameter governing successful operation of an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket and expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors. Pre-granulated seeding sludge could greatly reduce the required start-up time. Two lab-scale and a pilot-scale EGSB reactors were operated to treat Shaoxing Wastewater Treatment Plant containing wastewater from real engineering printing and dyeing with high pH and sulfate concentration. The microbiological structure and the particle size distribution in aerobic excess sludge, sanitary landfill sludge digested for one year, and the granular sludge of EGSB reactor after 400 d of operation were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and sieves. The lab-scale EGSB reactor seeded with anaerobic sludge after digestion for one year in landfill showed obviously better total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) removal efficiency than one seeded with aerobic excess sludge after cation polyacrylamide flocculation-concentration and dehydration. The TCOD removed was 470.8 mg/L in pilot scale EGSB reactor at short hydraulic retention time of 15 h. SEM of sludge granules showed that the microbiological structure of the sludge from different sources showed some differences. SEM demonstrated that Methanobacterium sp. was present in the granules of pilot-scale EGSB and the granular sludge produced by landfill contained a mixture of anaerobic/anoxic organisms in abundance. The particle size distribution in EGSB demonstrated that using anaerobic granular sludge produced by sanitary landfill as the seeding granular sludge was feasible.

  6. The impact of daily covers on sidewall leakage in landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welker, A. L. [Villanova Univ., Dept. of Civil Engineering, PA (United States)

    2000-09-01

    Typically, sanitary landfills are covered by 15 cm of locally available soil on a daily basis. This practice is intended to limit short term negative effects of the waste material on the above-ground environment such as odor, fire, or vermin attraction. Daily placement of compacted soil creates low hydraulic conductivity stratifying layers within the landfill which, in due course, may result in side-slope seepage, decreased stability and decreased efficiency of methane gas venting. The expense of soil acquisitions and the the diminishing availability of landfill space increases the need for alternative materials to replace the daily cover. This paper examines the the threat of sidewall landfill leakage for a hypothetical landfill with traditional soil cover and an alternative daily cover, to demonstrate that the threat of sidewall leakage is real and can be decreased with the use of alternative material as the daily cover such as crushed glass, sludge from waste-water treatment plants, industrial waste, foams and various geosynthetics. At the same time, results of the modelling study showed that with proper drainage sidewall seepage will not occur even with a daily cover that has a hydraulic conductivity two orders of magnitude smaller than the waste, despite positive pressure building up on top of the daily cover. These results imply that the threat of sidewall leakage is minimal, and while alternative daily cover material would help to reduce it even further, their use is most likely to be the result of economic, not technical, considerations. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  7. Groundwater geochemistry of a municipal landfill in Araras, SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frederico de Castro Alves 1

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A contaminated area associated with a residential unlined landfill, located in Araras, was investigated. The aim of this work was to develop a hydrogeological and geochemical conceptual model in order to identify the redox zones related to the landfill and to explain the main processes resulting from the impact of leachates on the local groundwaters and soil. The work consisted of a surface geological mapping, geophysical survey with electric tomography, logging of subsoil boreholes, an installation of monitoring wells and soil, gas, leachate and groundwater samples analyses. The results show that the Araras landfill is in the methanogenic phase and promotes alterations in local groundwater quality. The main parameters of environmental interest identified in the leachate were total dissolved solids, biochemical oxygen demand, ammonium, methane, Na, Cl, Fe, Mn, Ba, B, Co and Cd. According to criteria specifically developed for this landfill, the following redox zones were identified in the groundwater: (i aerobic, located upgradient from the landfill; (ii methanogenic, downgradient from the landfill; (iii iron and/or manganese reduction, located between the methanogenic zone and the Araras river. Bypassing the iron and/or manganese redox zone, the existence of a denitrification zone was inferred. Besides the redox reactions in these zones, other processes that mitigate the impact of leachate into groundwater were also discovered: dilution, degradation by the action of surface microorganisms, dispersion, ionic exchange, formation of organic and inorganic complexes, dissolution and precipitation.

  8. Characterization of an old municipal landfill (Grindsted, Denmark) as a groundwater pollution source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Grundtvig, Aase; Winther, Pia

    1998-01-01

    Investigations into the pollution of groundwater from old landfill have, in most cases, focused on delineating the pollution plume rather than on the landfill as a source of groundwater pollution. Landfills often cover large areas and spatial variations in leachate composition within the landfill...... variations in leachate composition are very important for locating the main source of the groundwater pollution and for selection of cost-effective remedial action activities....... may have great impact on the location of the main pollution plume in the downstream aquifer. The history of the Grindsted Landfill in Denmark was investigated using aerial photographs and interviews. On the basis of the aerial photographs, waste volume and age of the different areas of the landfill...

  9. Addendum to the remedial investigation work plan for Bear Creek Valley Operable Unit 1 (S-3 ponds, boneyard/burnyard, oil landfarm, sanitary landfill I, and the burial grounds, including oil retention ponds 1 and 2) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1. main text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The BCV OU 1 location poses two problems that Data Quality Objectives will address: (1) whether the wastes and soil contamination pose a risk to human health or the environment now or in the future and (2) if the wastes and contamination do pose a risk, what feasible alternatives exist for reducing the risk to acceptable levels?

  10. Proposed Expansion of Acme Landfill Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    decays, it produces bacteria that release gases. Methane develops in phases. Initially, during a phase which can last several days to months, a...90 and 95°F. Another factor which affects landfill gas production is pH. Methanogenic bacteria need a pH near 7.0 to produce optimal amounts of...Los Osos-Millsholm-Los Gatos soil association while the other four sites were located in the Altamont-Diablo-Fontana association. A standard slope

  11. An overview of the Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, C.V.; Burford, T.D.; Betsill, J.D.

    1994-07-01

    The Mixed Waste Landfill Integrated Demonstration (MWLID) focuses on ``in-situ`` characterization, monitoring, remediation, and containment of landfills in and environments that contain hazardous and mixed waste. The MWLID mission is to assess, demonstrate, and transfer technologies and systems that lead to faster, better, cheaper, and safer cleanup. Most important, the demonstrated technologies will be evaluated against the baseline of conventional technologies. Key goals of the MWLID are routine use of these technologies by Environmental Restoration Groups throughout the DOE complex and commercialization of these technologies to the private sector. The MWLID is demonstrating technologies at hazardous waste landfills located at Sandia National Laboratories and on Kirtland Air Force Base. These landfills have been selected because they are representative of many sites throughout the Southwest and in other and climates.

  12. 21 CFR 1210.14 - Sanitary inspection of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of plants. 1210.14 Section... FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.14 Sanitary inspection of plants. The sanitary conditions of any plant handling milk or cream any part of which is to be shipped or transported into...

  13. 21 CFR 1210.11 - Sanitary inspection of dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. 1210.11... UNDER THE FEDERAL IMPORT MILK ACT Inspection and Testing § 1210.11 Sanitary inspection of dairy farms. The sanitary conditions of any dairy farm producing milk or cream to be shipped or transported...

  14. Sanitary technology. Special issue; Sanitairtechniek. Themanummer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodder, H. [Deerns Raadgevende Ingenieurs, Rijswijk (Netherlands); De Veer, T. [PWN Waterleidingbedrijf Noord-Holland, Velserbroek (Netherlands); Korstanje, H.; De Gids, Ph. K. [LegioFreeWaterSystems, Wijk bij Duurstede (Netherlands); Lansbergen, A. [Itho, Schiedam (Netherlands); Scheffer, W.J.H. [UNETO-VNI, Zoetermeer (Netherlands); Van Wolferen, H. [TNO Milieu en Energie, Apeldoorn (Netherlands); Donker, H. [Kemper Nederland, Groenlo (Netherlands); Engelenburg, M. [ATECA, Den Haag (Netherlands); Wolters, J. [Tour en Andersson, Alphen aan den Rijn (Netherlands); Doldersum, R.H. [De Melker Sanitairtechniek, Veenendaal (Netherlands)

    2007-09-15

    In 11 articles attention is paid to several aspects of sanitary technology, in particular the prevention and control of legionella in heating systems and water supply installations. [Dutch] In 11 artikelen wordt aandacht besteed aan verschillende aspecten m.b.t. sanitaire techniek, in het bijzonder legionella preventie en beheer in verwarmingssystemen en leidingwaterinstallaties.

  15. 21 CFR 110.35 - Sanitary operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., when cleaning is necessary to protect against the introduction of microorganisms into food, all food... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanitary operations. 110.35 Section 110.35 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  16. [Sanitary-hygienic assessment of microbial biofertilizer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipchenko, N A; Akhtemava, G A; Lebedeva, T V; Voronina, A A; Makhan'kova, T I; Pavlova, M M; Shteĭntsaĭg, T A

    1991-10-01

    Biological treatment of sewage from pig-breeding complexes allowed to produce microbial biomass and primary sediments. The mixture of these components (1:1) after rendering harmless and drying out become the high effective biofertilizer. The results of chronic experiment on sanitary status of soil (microbial and helminthological indexes) under this biofertilizer usage are discussed, and the harmlessness of it is demonstrated.

  17. Assessment of methane emission and oxidation at Air Hitam Landfill site cover soil in wet tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abushammala, Mohammed F M; Basri, Noor Ezlin Ahmad; Elfithri, Rahmah

    2013-12-01

    Methane (CH₄) emissions and oxidation were measured at the Air Hitam sanitary landfill in Malaysia and were modeled using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change waste model to estimate the CH₄ generation rate constant, k. The emissions were measured at several locations using a fabricated static flux chamber. A combination of gas concentrations in soil profiles and surface CH₄ and carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions at four monitoring locations were used to estimate the CH₄ oxidation capacity. The temporal variations in CH₄ and CO₂ emissions were also investigated in this study. Geospatial means using point kriging and inverse distance weight (IDW), as well as arithmetic and geometric means, were used to estimate total CH₄ emissions. The point kriging, IDW, and arithmetic means were almost identical and were two times higher than the geometric mean. The CH₄ emission geospatial means estimated using the kriging and IDW methods were 30.81 and 30.49 gm(−2) day(−1), respectively. The total CH₄ emissions from the studied area were 53.8 kg day(−1). The mean of the CH₄ oxidation capacity was 27.5 %. The estimated value of k is 0.138 year(−1). Special consideration must be given to the CH₄ oxidation in the wet tropical climate for enhancing CH₄ emission reduction.

  18. Yolo County controlled landfill project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augenstein, D. [IEM, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Yazdani, R.; Dahl, K.; Mansoub, A.; Moore, R. [Yolo County Department of Public Works, Davis, CA (United States); Pacey, J. [Emcon, San Mateo, CA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    A new landfill management approach controlled landfilling is being demonstrated by the Yolo County, California Department of Public Works at the Yolo County Central Landfill (YCCL) near Davis. Overall objectives are to obtain earlier and greater methane energy recovery from landfilled waste and to reduce landfill greenhouse gas emissions to near-negligible levels. Methane generation and waste stabilization were accelerated by improving biological conditions within a test cell through carefully controlled additions of water and leachate. A control cell was operated in parallel. Landfill gas capture was maximized, with emissions reduced to minimal levels, by a combination of surface membrane containment, a permeable layer conducting gas to collection points, and operation at slight vacuum. Cells are highly instrumented to determine performance. To date, normalized methane recovery is the highest seen from such a large waste mass, anywhere - about ten times that from conventional landfall practice. The rationale and details of this project, and first three years' results, are summarized. (author)

  19. Estimation of Methane Emissions from Municipal Solid Waste Landfills in China Based on Point Emission Sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Bo-Feng; LIU Jian-Guo; GAO Qing-Xian; NIE Xiao-Qin; CAO Dong; LIU Lan-Cui; ZHOU Ying; ZHANG Zhan-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    The methane (CH4) emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills in China in 2007 were estimated based on database of the three-dimensional emission factors matrix and point sources, by an IPCC recommended FOD (first-order decay) model. The location, capacity and age of landfills constitute the three dimensions of the emission factors matrix, which were obtained by laboratory analysis and in situ investigation. Key parameters such as waste composition, degradable organic carbon ratio, CH4 correction factor, oxidation factor and recovery rate, were carefully analyzed in terms of these three dimensions. The point sources database consists of 2,107 MSW landfills in cities and towns of China in 2007. The results show that the CH4 emissions from MSW landfills were 1.186 Mt in 2007. Compared with the CH4 emissions of 2.20 Mt in 2005, the significant discrepancy mainly comes from statistical data of landfills, e.g., number of landfills and amount of waste disposed in landfills. CH4 emissions were lower than 700 t for most of the landfills, whereas there were 279 landfills with emissions larger than 1,000 t, and only 10 landfills with emissions larger than 10,000 t. Jiangsu province ranks the largest emitter with 98,700 t while Tibet is the smallest emitter with 2,100 t. In general, the emissions from eastern provinces, such as Jiangsu, Guangdong and Zhejiang, were larger than those from western provinces, such as Ningxia, Tibet and Qinghai.

  20. Methane elimination methods on landfills

    OpenAIRE

    Ponikvar, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Increase in substance and energy exploitation from waste which reduces the greenhouse gas emissions are one of the main goals of environmental protection. Slovenian legislation defines that in case captured landfill gas cannot be used for energy acquisition, incineration on the landfill itself or some other equivalent procedure must be used to prevent gas emissions into the air. The graduation thesis is based on existing municipal landfill Volče where suitable gas elimination is yet to be arr...

  1. Landfill monitoring using remote sensing: a case study of Glina, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacoboaea, Cristina; Petrescu, Florian

    2013-10-01

    Landfill monitoring is one of the most important components of waste management. This article presents a case study on landfill monitoring using remote sensing technology. The study area was the Glina landfill, one of the largest municipal waste disposal sites in Romania. The methodology consisted of monitoring the differences of temperature computed for several distinct waste disposal zones with respect to a ground reference area, all of them located within the landfill site. The remote sensing data used were Landsat satellite multi-temporal data. The differences of temperature were computed using Landsat thermal infrared data. The study confirmed the use of multi-temporal Landsat imagery as a complementary data source.

  2. Hazardous waste site assessment: Inactive landfill, Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of an inactive landfill (Pit 6) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300. The primary objectives were to: collect and review background information pertaining to past waste disposal practices and previous environmental characterization studies; conduct a geophysical survey of the landfill area to locate the buried wastes; conduct a hydrogeologic investigation to provide additional data on the rate and direction of groundwater flow, the extent of any groundwater contamination, and to investigate the connection, if any, of the shallow groundwater beneath the landfill with the local drinking water supply; conduct a risk assessment to identify the degree of threat posed by the landfill to the public health and environment; compile a preliminary list of feasible long-term remedial action alternatives for the landfill; and develop a list of recommendations for any interim measures necessary at the landfill should the long-term remedial action plan be needed.

  3. The impact of municipal solid waste landfills in Suceava County on air quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru MIHĂILĂ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The location of municipal solid waste (MSW landfills in inappropriate places is a serious risk to the quality of all environmental factors. These waste disposal sites can become major sources of air quality deterioration through emissions of toxic gas resulted from anaerobic decomposition of organic waste. The paper discusses in detail the qualitative and quantitative effects of municipal waste landfills of the main urban settlements in Suceava County (Suceava City municipal landfill and Gura Humorului, Rădăuţi, Siret, Câmpulung Moldovenesc, Fălticeni and Vatra Dornei urban waste landfills on air quality. The dispersion of methane emitted from the largest MSW landfill in the county, the Suceava municipal landfill respectively, is also presented, taking into account seasonal, daytime and nighttime meteorological parameters

  4. The Importance of Landfill Gas Policy Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify and examine global policies, measures, and incentives that appear to be stimulating LFG use. As certain countries have made great advances in LFGE development through effective policies, the intention of this report is to use information from the IEA's Global Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Measures and Policies Databases to identify and discuss policies. By consolidating this information and categorising it according to policy type, the attributes that are most appealing or applicable to the circumstances of a particular country or area -- technology demonstration, financial incentives, awareness campaigns, etc. -- are more easily identified. The report begins with background information on LFG and sanitary landfill practices, including a discussion of regional disparities, followed by a description of LFG mitigation technologies. Barriers to LFGE projects are then outlined. An explanation of the importance and effectiveness of policy measures leads into a discussion of types and examples of measures that are being used to overcome these barriers and encourage LFGE development. The report concludes with lessons learned, recommendations for further study, and resources where more information can be found.

  5. Limiting Factors for Microbial Fe(III)-Reduction In a Landfill Leachate Polluted Aquifer (Vejen, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Heron, Gorm; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1995-01-01

    Aquifer sediment samples from two locations within the anaerobic leachate plume of a municipal landfill were compared with respect to microbiology (especially Fe(III)-reduction) and geochemistry. The samples close to the landfill were characterized by low contents of Fe(III), whereas samples from...

  6. 40 CFR 258.16 - Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Closure of existing municipal solid waste landfill units. 258.16 Section 258.16 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Location Restrictions § 258.16...

  7. Effect of nano-ZnO on biogas generation from simulated landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temizel, İlknur; Emadian, S Mehdi; Di Addario, Martina; Onay, Turgut T; Demirel, Burak; Copty, Nadim K; Karanfil, Tanju

    2017-05-01

    Extensive use of nanomaterials in commercial consumer products and industrial applications eventually leads to their release to the waste streams and the environment. Nano-ZnO is one of the most widely-used nanomaterials (NMs) due to its unique properties. It is also known to impact biological processes adversely. In this study, the effect of nano-ZnO on biogas generation from sanitary landfills was investigated. Two conventional and two bioreactor landfills were operated using real MSW samples at mesophilic temperature (35°C) for a period of about 1year. 100mg nano-ZnO/kg of dry waste was added to the simulated landfill reactors. Daily gas production, gas composition and leachate Zn concentrations were regularly monitored. A model describing the fate of the nano-ZnO was also developed. The results obtained indicated that as much as 99% of the nano-ZnO was retained within the waste matrix for both reactor operation modes. Waste stabilization was faster in simulated landfill bioreactors with and without the addition of nano-ZnO. Moreover, the presence of the nano-ZnO within the waste led to a decrease in biogas production of about 15%, suggesting that the nano-ZnO might have some inhibitory effects on waste stabilization. This reduction can have potentially significant implications on waste stabilization and the use of biogas from landfills as a renewable energy source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Alternative landfill cover technology demonstration at Kaneohe Marine Corps Base Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karr, L.A.; Harre, B. [Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, CA (United States); Hakonson, T.E. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Surface covers to control water infiltration to waste buried in landfills will be the remediation alternative of choice for most hazardous and sanitary landfills operated by the Department of Defense. Although surface covers are the least expensive method of remediation for landfills, they can still be expensive solutions. Conventional wisdom suggests that landfill capping technology is well developed as evidenced by the availability of EPA guidance for designing and constructing what has become known as the {open_quotes}RCRA Cap{close_quotes}. In practice, however, very little testing of the RCRA cap, or any other design, has been done to evaluate how effective these designs are in limiting infiltration of water into waste. This paper describes a low cost alternative to the {open_quotes}RCRA Cap{close_quotes} that is being evaluated at Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) Kaneohe Bay. This study uses an innovative, simple and inexpensive concept to manipulate the fate of water falling on a landfill. The infiltration of water through the cap will be controlled by combining the evaporative forces of vegetation to remove soil water, with engineered structures that limit infiltration of precipitation into the soil. This approach relies on diverting enough of the annual precipitation to runoff, so that the water that does infiltrate into the soil can easily be removed by evapotranspiration.

  9. Achieving "Final Storage Quality" of municipal solid waste in pilot scale bioreactor landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, R; van der Zon, W; Woelders, H; Lubberding, H J; Gijzen, H J

    2009-01-01

    Entombed waste in current sanitary landfills will generate biogas and leachate when physical barriers fail in the future, allowing the intrusion of moisture into the waste mass contradicting the precepts of the sustainability concept. Bioreactor landfills are suggested as a sustainable option to achieve Final Storage Quality (FSQ) status of waste residues; however, it is not clear what characteristics the residues should have in order to stop operation and after-care monitoring schemes. An experiment was conducted to determine the feasibility to achieve FSQ status (Waste Acceptance Criteria of the European Landfill Directive) of residues in a pilot scale bioreactor landfill. The results of the leaching test were very encouraging due to their proximity to achieve the proposed stringent FSQ criterion after 2 years of operation. Furthermore, residues have the same characteristics of alternative waste stabilisation parameters (low BMP, BOD/COD ratio, VS content, SO4(2-)/Cl- ratio) established by other researchers. Mass balances showed that the bioreactor landfill simulator was capable of practically achieving biological stabilisation after 2 years of operation, while releasing approximately 45% of the total available (organic and inorganic) carbon and nitrogen into the liquid and gas phases.

  10. Estimation of future methane production from Hellenic landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsatsarelis, T.; Karagiannidis, A. [Aristotle Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece). Lab. of Heat Transfer and Environmental Engineering

    2009-07-15

    Organic waste decomposition leads to the production of Landfill Gas (LFG). LFG mainly consists of methane (CH{sub 4}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). It is common understanding now that LFG should be considered either as a significant source of pollution and risk (if migrating uncontrollably to the air and ground), or as a significant source of renewable energy (if extracted and processed accordingly). There are two possible solutions for dealing with LFG emissions. In the case of low methane ratios, LFG should be extracted and flared or oxidized in biofilters. On the other hand, in the case of high methane content, LFG becomes an evidently valuable energy resource, as it is then able to sustain the fuelling of engines producing electricity and thermal energy. More specifically, it can be used as a supplementary or primary fuel to increase the production of electric power, as a pipeline quality gas and vehicle fuel, or even as a supply of heat and carbon dioxide for greenhouses and various industrial processes. Technologies that utilize LFG include internal combustion engines, gas turbines, fuel cells and boiler systems. The main objective of this research was to predict expected methane generation in Hellenic sanitary landfills, in order to evaluate its potential for energy production and to ensure health and safety in and around these sites on the long term. The study was performed for the period 2008--2028 with the use of a multi-phase model and included a sensitivity analysis in order to determine the impact of certain waste parameters. In this context, two 'extreme' reference scenarios were formulated and assessed, one anticipating fulfillment of the EU landfill directive (which sets limits to the amount of biodegradable and packaging materials to be deposited in sanitary landfills) whereas a second (do-nothing scenario) assuming no such timely compliance. The model used here for methane estimation is a multi-phase model developed by the Norwegian

  11. Landfill Construction and Capacity Expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andre, F.J.; Cerda, E.

    2003-01-01

    We study the optimal capacity and lifetime of landfills taking into account their sequential nature.Such an optimal capacity is characterized by the so-called Optimal Capacity Condition.Particular versions of this condition are obtained for two alternative settings: first, if all the landfills are t

  12. Stabilizing Waste Materials for Landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The test procedures used to evaluate the suitability of landfilled materials of varying stability and to determine the leachate from such materials are reviewed. A process for stabilizing a mixture of sulfur dioxide sludge, fly ash, and bottom ash with lime and other additives for deposition in landfills is detailed. (BT)

  13. The seasonal distribution of bioaerosols in municipal landfill sites: a 3-yr study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chu-Yun; Lee, Ching-Chang; Li, Fang-Chun; Ma, Yu-Pei; Su, Huey-Jen Jenny

    Landfill is the most common way to dispose waste in many countries, and most landfill sites after closure are often considered for public recreation purposes. It is important that the pollutant levels of closed landfill areas are free of adverse health concerns. However, only limited studies have investigated the airborne biological contamination in closed landfill sites. The objective of this study was to document the bioaerosol levels in a closed landfill site while the temporal, seasonal, and meteorological effects were also taken into accounts. Study site was at one sanitary landfill, taking mostly municipal wastes, in southern Taiwan. Airborne bacteria and fungi were collected on tryptic soy agar (Difco) and malt extract agar (Difco) by a Burkard impactor (Burkard Manufacturing Co. Ltd.) operating at about 10 l m -3 for 30 s. Air samples were collected sequentially in winter, spring, summer and fall in 1998, winter, spring, summer in 1999, as well as summer and fall in 2000. In addition, sampling was conducted in the morning, at noon, in the evening and the following morning during each field assessment. Levels of airborne bacteria and fungi were all far above 10 3 CFU m -3. The concentrations of culturable bacteria and fungi were higher in winter than in other seasons. The difference of bioaerosol level and fungal percentages between the undergoing-closure and closed areas was obvious, and the concentrations were higher in closed area. We therefore recommend that before any complete investigation can be conducted to assure the safety, the closed area of landfill site is probably not ready for immediate public use.

  14. Landfill site suitability assessment by means of geographic information system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, M.; Monavari, S. M.; Omrani, G. A.; Shariat, M.; Hosseini, S. M.

    2015-07-01

    Open dumping is the common procedure for final disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Iran. Several environmental pollution and soil degradation problems were found as a consequence of poor planning of landfills. So recognition of the MSW landfill state is required to prevent environmental problems. The objective of this research was to study the suitability of existing municipal landfill sites using geographic information system methods. Tonekabon city in the west area of Mazandaran province, northern Iran, along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, was chosen as a case study. In order to carry out this evaluation, two guidelines were used: Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA) and regional screening guidelines. The results indicate that the landfills were not located in suitable sites and also that there are few suitable locations to install the landfills.

  15. Hydrogeology and water-quality conditions at the City of Olathe Landfill, east-central Kansas, 1990-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, P.P.; Shockley, J.C.; Hargadine, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Water quality at the City of Olathe Landfill in east-central Kansas was examined in relation to hydrogeologic conditions to help determine the effects of the landfill on shallow ground water. This study focused on the Wyandotte and Plattsburg Limestones underlying the landfill. The Wyandotte Limestone underlies the entire landfill, whereas the overlying Plattsburg Limestone crops out within the landffll boundaries. Little Cedar Creek, an unnamed tributary, and a pond are located in the landfill. Water samples from seven monitoring wells and five surface-water sites in the vicinity of the City of Olathe Landfill were collected for analysis of inorganic and organic constituents. The inorganic constituents in the ground water that are most affected in the vicinity of the landfill are calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, ammonia, barium, iron, and manganese. The dissolved- organic-carbon concentration at a seep flowing from the Plattsburg Limestone was 1,400 milligrams per liter, indicating that the landfill is affecting the water quality near the seep. Benzene was detected in all of the water samples, and the largest concentration was in a sample collected upgradient of the landfill. The benzene concentration exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Contaminant Level (0.005 milligram per liter) for drinking-water supplies. Six of the eight specific organic compounds detected were found in a water sample collected from the Plattsburg Limestone immediately downgradient of the landfill. No organic compoands, except benzene, were detected in samples collected from the Wyandotte Limestone downgradient of the landfill.

  16. Permeability test and slope stability analysis of municipal solid waste in Jiangcungou Landfill, Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rong; Xu, Zengguang; Chai, Junrui; Qin, Yuan; Li, Yanlong

    2016-07-01

    With the rapid increase of city waste, landfills have become a major method to deals with municipal solid waste. Thus, the safety of landfills has become a valuable research topic. In this paper, Jiangcungou Landfill, located in Shaanxi, China, was investigated and its slope stability was analyzed. Laboratory tests were used to obtain permeability coefficients of municipal solid waste. Based on the results, the distribution of leachate and stability in the landfill was computed and analyzed. These results showed: the range of permeability coefficient was from 1.0 × 10(-7) cm sec(-1) to 6.0 × 10(-3) cm sec(-1) on basis of laboratory test and some parameters of similar landfills. Owing to the existence of intermediate cover layers in the landfill, the perched water level appeared in the landfill with heavy rain. Moreover, the waste was filled with leachate in the top layer, and the range of leachate level was from 2 m to 5 m in depth under the waste surface in other layers. The closer it gets to the surface of landfill, the higher the perched water level of leachate. It is indicated that the minimum safety factors were 1.516 and 0.958 for winter and summer, respectively. Additionally, the slope failure may occur in summer. The research of seepage and stability in landfills may provide a less costly way to reduce accidents. Landslides often occur in the Jiangcungou Landfill because of the high leachate level. Some measures should be implemented to reduce the leachate level. This paper investigated seepage and slope stability of landfills by numerical methods. These results may provide the basis for increasing stability of landfills.

  17. Aeration of the teuftal landfill: Field scale concept and lab scale simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzkowski, Marco; Walker, Beat; Kuchta, Kerstin; Raga, Roberto; Stegmann, Rainer

    2016-09-01

    Long lasting post-closure care (PCC) is often the major financial burden for operators of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. Beside costs for the installation and maintenance of technical equipment and barriers, in particular long term treatment of leachate and landfill gas has to be paid from capital surplus. Estimations based on laboratory experiments project time periods of many decades until leachate quality allows for direct discharge (i.e. no need for further purification). Projections based on leachate samples derived from the last 37years for 35 German landfills confirm these assumption. Moreover, the data illustrate that in particular ammonium nitrogen concentrations are likely to fall below limit values only after a period of 300years. In order to avoid long lasting PCC the operator of Teuftal landfill, located in the Swiss canton Bern, decided to biologically stabilize the landfill by means of a combined in situ aeration and moisturization approach. In December 2014 the aeration started at a landfill section containing approximately 30% of the total landfill volume. From summer 2016 onwards the remaining part of the landfill will be aerated. Landfill aeration through horizontal gas and leachate drains is carried out for the first time in field scale in Europe. The technical concept is described in the paper. Parallel to field scale aeration, investigations for the carbon and nitrogen turnover are carried out by means of both simulated aerated landfills and simulated anaerobic landfills. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that aeration is capable to enhance, both carbon mobilization and discharge via the gas phase. This effect comes along with a significant increase in bio-stabilization of the waste organic fraction, which positively affects the landfill emission behavior in the long run. In terms of leachate pollution reduction it could be demonstrated that the organic load decrease fast and widely independent of the adjusted aeration

  18. [Modern problems of the application of sanitary regulations concerning sanitary protection zones and sanitary classification of enterprises, buildings and other facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomtev, A Iu; Eremin, G B; Mozzhukhina, N A; Kombarova, M Iu; Mel'tser, A V; Giul'mamedov, É Iu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper there was performed an analysis of the application of sanitary norms and rules concerning sanitary protective zones and sanitary classification of enterprises, buildings and other facilities, including requirements for the sufficiency and accuracy of information in the performance of projects in sanitary protection zone (SPZ). There is presented an analysis of regulations that set requirements for implementation of mapping works in drafting the SPZ. The design of the SPZ was shown to be, on the one hand, the element of territorial planning subjects of the Russian Federation, on the other hand, the object of capital construction. The substantiations of requirements for graphic and text content, structure, and composition of data, sources of their obtaining, methods of data convergence are reported. There are revealed inconsistencies in Sanitary Regulations and Norms (SanPins) and in their relationship with the Town Planning and Land Code and other laws, and regulations adopted in their development.

  19. Final Environmental Assessment for Sanitary Landfill Expansion on the Tonopah Test Range, NYE County, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Palma Bureau of Land Management Las Vegas Field Office 4701 N Torrey Pines Dr Las Vegas, NV 89130-2301 Mr. Robert Williams, State Supervisor U.S...Fish and Wildlife Service Nevada Ecological Field Office 1340 Financial Blvd, Ste 234 Reno, NV 89502 Ms. Cynthia Martinez US Fish and

  20. Environmental Assessment for Sanitary Landfill Expansion on the Tonopah Test Range, Nye County, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Administration 209 E Musser St, Room 200 Carson City, NV 89701-4298 Electronic format Mr. Juan Palma Bureau of Land Management Las Vegas... Ecological Field Office 1340 Financial Blvd, Ste 234 Reno, NV 89502 Ms. Cynthia Martinez US Fish and Wildlife Service Southern Nevada Field Office

  1. Life Cycle Comparison of Waste-to-Energy to Sanitary Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) can be used to evaluate the environmental footprint of products, processes, and services. An LCA allows decision makers to compare products and processes through systematic evaluation of supply chains. Also known as a “cradle-to-grave” approach, LCA ev...

  2. The applications of geotextiles in the sanitary landfills; Aplicaciones de los geotextiles en los vertederos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morera, J.; Marin, J.

    1999-11-01

    The spillways controlled of Solid Urban Residuals, Industrial Residuals and Industrial Special Residuals should be waterproofed. The waterproofing should be assured, to avoid the possibility of contamination of the aquifer for the filtration of leachates coming from the garbage and rain waters eventually polluted for their contact with the mass of deposited waste already.

  3. Appendices for Fort George G. Meade Active Sanitary Landfill and Clean Fill Dump Remedial Investigation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    FOR THE SPECIFIC TEST bA."E EXCEPT FOR THE FOLLOWING TEST NAMES: PH, COND, TEMP, OILGR, BOD, COD, TOC, HARD, ASBEST , TSS -LAB DOES NOT REQUIRE...ACENAPHTHYLENE. AI4ELNT *ANION ELUENT ANIL ANILINE AI4TRC ANTHRACENE ANTRCN 9-ANTHRACENECARBONITRILE ANTRQO ATHRAQUINONE / 9,10 -ANTHRACENED ONE AS ARSENIC ASBEST ...ANION ELUENT ANTRC ANTHRACENE ACHE ANTICHOLINESTERASE SB ANTIMONY AS ARSENIC ASEXT -ARSENIC, EXTRACTABLE ASTOT *AR.SENIC, TOTAL ASBEST ASBESTOS’ ANTROTJ

  4. Fort George G. Meade Active Sanitary Landfill and Clean Fill Dump, Remedial Investigation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    acceptable. However, the RME exposure yielded an unacceptable cancer risk. Clean Fill Dump A two-phase study was conducted at this site concurrently with...Indian hemp FACU Asclepias syriaca Pink milkweed UP* Aster spp. Asters UNK Cardamine hirsuta Hairy bitter cress FACU Centaurea maculata Batchelor’s...bound excess cancer risk associated with lifetime exposure to 1 mg/kg.day of a compound. There is a 95 percent chance that the actual risk value is

  5. Closed landfills to solar energy power plants: Estimating the solar potential of closed landfills in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsell, Devon R.

    Solar radiation is a promising source of renewable energy because it is abundant and the technologies to harvest it are quickly improving. An ongoing challenge is to find suitable and effective areas to implement solar energy technologies without causing ecological harm. In this regard, one type of land use that has been largely overlooked for siting solar technologies is closed or soon to be closed landfills. Utilizing Geographic Information System (GIS) based solar modeling; this study makes an inventory of solar generation potential for such sites in the state of California. The study takes account of various site characteristics in relation to the siting needs of photovoltaic (PV) geomembrane and dish-Stirling technologies (e.g., size, topography, closing date, solar insolation, presence of landfill gas recovery projects, and proximity to transmission grids and roads). This study reaches the three principal conclusions. First, with an estimated annual solar electricity generation potential of 3.7 million megawatt hours (MWh), closed or soon to be closed landfill sites could provide an amount of power significantly larger than California's current solar electric generation. Secondly, the possibility of combining PV geomembrane, dish-Stirling, and landfill gas (LFG) to energy technologies at particular sites deserves further investigation. Lastly, there are many assumptions, challenges, and limitations in conducting inventory studies of solar potential for specific sites, including the difficulty in finding accurate data regarding the location and attributes of potential landfills to be analyzed in the study. Furthermore, solar modeling necessarily simplifies a complex phenomenon, namely incoming solar radiation. Additionally, site visits, while necessary for finding details of the site, are largely impractical for a large scale study.

  6. Sanitary effects of fossil fuels; Effets sanitaires des combustibles fossiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nifenecker, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (IN2P3/CNRS), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2006-07-01

    In this compilation are studied the sanitary effects of fossil fuels, behavioral and environmental sanitary risks. The risks in connection with the production, the transport and the distribution(casting) are also approached for the oil(petroleum), the gas and the coal. Accidents in the home are evoked. The risks due to the atmospheric pollution are seen through the components of the atmospheric pollution as well as the sanitary effects of this pollution. (N.C.)

  7. 40 CFR 761.75 - Chemical waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 761.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES..., 25-year storm. (5) Topography. The landfill site shall be located in an area of low to moderate... procedures, monitoring wells, environmental emergency contingency plans, and security measures to protect...

  8. Sanitary hot water; Eau chaude sanitaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Cegibat, the information-recommendation agency of Gaz de France for building engineering professionals, has organized this conference meeting on sanitary hot water to present the solutions proposed by Gaz de France to meet its clients requirements in terms of water quality, comfort, energy conservation and respect of the environment: quantitative aspects of the hot water needs, qualitative aspects, presentation of the Dolce Vita offer for residential buildings, gas water heaters and boilers, combined solar-thermal/natural gas solutions, key-specifications of hot water distribution systems, testimony: implementation of a gas hot water reservoir and two accumulation boilers in an apartment building for young workers. (J.S.)

  9. Landfill aeration for emission control before and during landfill mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello; Heerenklage, Joern; Pivato, Alberto; Ritzkowski, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The landfill of Modena, in northern Italy, is now crossed by the new high velocity railway line connecting Milan and Bologna. Waste was completely removed from a part of the landfill and a trench for the train line was built. With the aim of facilitating excavation and further disposal of the material extracted, suitable measures were defined. In order to prevent undesired emissions into the excavation area, the aerobic in situ stabilisation by means of the Airflow technology took place before and during the Landfill Mining. Specific project features involved the pneumatic leachate extraction from the aeration wells (to keep the leachate table low inside the landfill and increase the volume of waste available for air migration) and the controlled moisture addition into a limited zone, for a preliminary evaluation of the effects on process enhancement. Waste and leachate were periodically sampled in the landfill during the aeration before the excavation, for quality assessment over time; the evolution of biogas composition in the landfill body and in the extraction system for different plant set-ups during the project was monitored, with specific focus on uncontrolled migration into the excavation area. Waste biological stability significantly increased during the aeration (waste respiration index dropped to 33% of the initial value after six months). Leachate head decreased from 4 to 1.5m; leachate recirculation tests proved the beneficial effects of moisture addition on temperature control, without hampering waste aerobization. Proper management of the aeration plant enabled the minimization of uncontrolled biogas emissions into the excavation area.

  10. Groundwater Pollution Source Characterization of an Old Landfill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter

    1993-01-01

    Only a few landfill investigations have focused on both the quantity and the quality of leachate as a source of groundwater pollution. The investigation of Vejen Landfill in Denmark included an introductionary historical survey (old maps, aerial photographs, interviews, etc.), leachate quality...... analysis, potential mapping of the groundwater surface below the landfill and leachate flow to surface waters and groundwater. The historical investigation showed that the original soil surface beneath the waste was a relatively heterogeneous mixture of boggy ground and sand soil areas. This indicated...... groundwater divides were located. These measurements indicated that approximately 50% of the leachate from the mixed waste discharged to the drainage ditch. This was supported by directly measuring the flux of leachate (as kilograms chloride per year) carried out by continuous gauging of water flow...

  11. Landfill gas management facilities design guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    In British Columbia, municipal solid waste landfills generate over 1000 tonnes of methane per year; landfill gas management facilities are required to improve the environmental performance of solid waste landfills. The aim of this document, developed by the British Columbia Ministry of the Environment, is to provide guidance for the design, installation, and operation of landfill gas management facilities to address odor and pollutant emissions issues and also address health and safety issues. A review of technical experience and best practices in landfill gas management facilities was carried out, as was as a review of existing regulations related to landfill gas management all over the world. This paper provides useful information to landfill owners, operators, and other professionals for the design of landfill gas management facilities which meet the requirements of landfill gas management regulations.

  12. Quantification of landfill methane using modified Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's waste model and error function analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindan, Siva Shangari; Agamuthu, P

    2014-10-01

    Waste management can be regarded as a cross-cutting environmental 'mega-issue'. Sound waste management practices support the provision of basic needs for general health, such as clean air, clean water and safe supply of food. In addition, climate change mitigation efforts can be achieved through reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from waste management operations, such as landfills. Landfills generate landfill gas, especially methane, as a result of anaerobic degradation of the degradable components of municipal solid waste. Evaluating the mode of generation and collection of landfill gas has posted a challenge over time. Scientifically, landfill gas generation rates are presently estimated using numerical models. In this study the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Waste Model is used to estimate the methane generated from a Malaysian sanitary landfill. Key parameters of the model, which are the decay rate and degradable organic carbon, are analysed in two different approaches; the bulk waste approach and waste composition approach. The model is later validated using error function analysis and optimum decay rate, and degradable organic carbon for both approaches were also obtained. The best fitting values for the bulk waste approach are a decay rate of 0.08 y(-1) and degradable organic carbon value of 0.12; and for the waste composition approach the decay rate was found to be 0.09 y(-1) and degradable organic carbon value of 0.08. From this validation exercise, the estimated error was reduced by 81% and 69% for the bulk waste and waste composition approach, respectively. In conclusion, this type of modelling could constitute a sensible starting point for landfills to introduce careful planning for efficient gas recovery in individual landfills.

  13. PRACTICE REVIEW OF FIVE BIOREACTOR/RECIRCULATION LANDFILLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six bioreactor landfills were analyzed to provide a perspective of current practice and technical issues that differentiate bioreactor landfills from conventional landfills. Five of the bioreactor landfills were anaerobic and one was aerated. In one case, nearly identical cells e...

  14. [Sanitary-and-epidemiologic examination of the food-products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, V B; Kerimova, M G; Elizarova, E V

    2011-01-01

    Some aspects of sanitary and epidemiologic examination of food products are considered. The examination is an important part of sanitary and epidemiologic control and surveillance in the sphere of food safety and quality, consumer rights protection, consumer market and human welfare.

  15. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F3 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-047

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-04-26

    The 1607-F3 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that supported the 182-F Pump Station, the 183-F Water Treatment Plant, and the 151-F Substation. The sanitary sewer system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline, all in use between 1944 and 1965. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  16. Mining the Midden: A Facility for Dynamic Waste Harvesting at the Cedar Hills Regional Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Aaron

    Mining the Midden intends to re-frame the sanitary landfill as a new typology of public land containing an embodied energy of cultural and material value. By reconnecting the public with the landfill and seriously exposing its layers of history and then digesting both mined and new waste within an industrial facility of materials recovery and plasma gasification technology waste-to-energy plant. The sequence of experience for a public visitor begins where the waste is transformed to energy and flows in the opposite direction of the trash through the facility and then into the active landfill mining operation which is the large site component of the project. The mine is flanked by the visitor path, which is suspended from the soldier piles of the excavation system and allows the visitor to interpret along the 1/3 mile path their personal connection to the waste stream and the consumption patterns which drive our waste. Interpretation results from multi-sensory experience of the open mine and its connection to the processing structure as one hovers above, through moments of seeing through structural glass lagging directly into the sectional cut of the landfill, and through cultural artifacts harvested by landfill archaeologists which are displayed in rhythm with the structure and lagging. The culmination of the prescribed path is a narrow cut which frames the view of Mt. Rainier in the distance and opens up a visual connection with the remaining majority of the landfill which have up to this point been blocked by the small mountain of trash which they just walked up and through. This thesis intends that by confronting people with the juxtapositions of 2 potentially destructive mounds or mountains, and how we as a culture value and protect land while we simultaneously dump our rubbish on other lands, this experience will make the visitor more conscious of ones personal contribution to our culture of disposable commodities.

  17. Impact of landfill leachate on the groundwater quality: A case study in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda M. Abd El-Salam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Alexandria Governorate contracted an international company in the field of municipal solid waste management for the collection, transport and disposal of municipal solid waste. Construction and operation of the sanitary landfill sites were also included in the contract for the safe final disposal of solid waste. To evaluate the environmental impacts associated with solid waste landfilling, leachate and groundwater quality near the landfills were analyzed. The results of physico-chemical analyses of leachate confirmed that its characteristics were highly variable with severe contamination of organics, salts and heavy metals. The BOD5/COD ratio (0.69 indicated that the leachate was biodegradable and un-stabilized. It was also found that groundwater in the vicinity of the landfills did not have severe contamination, although certain parameters exceeded the WHO and EPA limits. These parameters included conductivity, total dissolved solids, chlorides, sulfates, Mn and Fe. The results suggested the need for adjusting factors enhancing anaerobic biodegradation that lead to leachate stabilization in addition to continuous monitoring of the groundwater and leachate treatment processes.

  18. From phytoaccumulation to post-harvest use of water fern for landfill management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Uhram; Kim, Dae Won; Waldman, Bruce; Lee, Eun Ju

    2016-11-01

    We examined the potential of Azolla japonica as a remediating plant for leachate channels and post-accumulation use as fertilizer for landfill slope. The harvested biomass of Azolla after one month grown in leachate was 254% that of the initial biomass and the predicted annual harvestable biomass of Azolla using a growth model was 32 times that of the initial biomass. Na, Fe, Mn, Mg, and P were accumulated in Azolla at very high concentrations. Such rapid increase of biomass and high accumulation rates suggest that this plant could be an excellent remediating plant. The post-harvest use of Azolla as compost was studied for the management and use of phytoaccumulating Azolla. Metal contents of Azolla compost were below permissible limits for co-composting material. Nitrogen, organic matter, P, and Mg content of the Azolla compost improved the soil condition of the landfill and enhanced ecophysiological responses of the plants. The application of Azolla compost can improve management of sanitary landfills, including the restoration of vegetation. Considering its ease of harvesting, high accumulation rates, harvestable biomass and suitability for composting, Azolla can provide a suitable solution for sustainable management of leachate channels and landfill slopes.

  19. Analysis of a landfill gas to energy system at the municipal solid waste landfill in Gaziantep, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercan, Safak Hengirmen; Cabalar, Ali Firat; Yaman, Gokhan

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the electricity generation from municipal solid waste (MSW), via landfill gas valorization technology, at the landfill of Gaziantep City, Turkey. Rapid increase in population, and industrial developments, throughout the world including Turkey results in larger amount of waste materials generated, increased need for energy, and adverse affects on the environment and human health. Turkey plans to produce 1/3 of its electricity demand using renewable energy sources by the year of 2023. It is recommended to use each year around 25 million tonnes of the MSW generated nationwide for a renewable energy supply. In this study, a concise summary of current status of electricity generation from a MSW landfill gas plant (via biogas harnessing) located in Gaziantep City was analyzed as a case study.

  20. Yolo County's Accelerated Anaerobic and Aerobic Composting (Full-Scale Controlled Landfill Bioreactor) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, R.; Kieffer, J.; Akau, H.; Augenstein, D.

    2002-12-01

    Sanitary landfilling is the dominant method of solid waste disposal in the United States, accounting for about 217 million tons of waste annually (U.S. EPA, 1997) and has more than doubled since 1960. In spite of increasing rates of reuse and recycling, population and economic growth will continue to render landfilling as an important and necessary component of solid waste management. Yolo County Department of Planning and Public Works, Division of Integrated Waste Management is demonstrating a new landfill technology called Bioreactor Landfill to better manage solid waste. In a Bioreactor Landfill, controlled quantities of liquid (leachate, groundwater, gray-water, etc.) are added and recirculated to increase the moisture content of the waste and improve waste decomposition. As demonstrated in a small-scale demonstration project at the Yolo County Central Landfill in 1995, this process significantly increases the biodegradation rate of waste and thus decreases the waste stabilization and composting time (5 to 10 years) relative to what would occur within a conventional landfill (30 to 50 years or more). When waste decomposes anaerobically (in absence of oxygen), it produces landfill gas (biogas). Biogas is primarily a mixture of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC's) which can be recovered for electricity or other uses. Other benefits of a bioreactor landfill composting operation include increased landfill waste settlement which increases in landfill capacity and life, improved leachate chemistry, possible reduction of landfill post-closure management time, opportunity to explore decomposed waste for landfill mining, and abatement of greenhouse gases through highly efficient methane capture over a much shorter period of time than is typical of waste management through conventional landfilling. This project also investigates the aerobic decomposition of waste of 13,000 tons of waste (2.5 acre) for

  1. Detection of contaminant plumes released from landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenigül, N. B.; Hendsbergen, A. T.; Elfeki, A. M. M.; Dekking, F. M.

    2006-06-01

    Contaminant leaks released from landfills are a significant threat to groundwater quality. The groundwater detection monitoring systems installed in the vicinity of such facilities are vital. In this study the detection probability of a contaminant plume released from a landfill has been investigated by means of both a simulation and an analytical model for both homogeneous and heterogeneous aquifer conditions. The results of the two models are compared for homogeneous aquifer conditions to illustrate the errors that might be encountered with the simulation model. For heterogeneous aquifer conditions contaminant transport is modelled by an analytical model using effective (macro) dispersivities. The results of the analysis show that the simulation model gives the concentration values correctly over most of the plume length for homogeneous aquifer conditions, and that the detection probability of a contaminant plume at given monitoring well locations match quite well. For heterogeneous aquifer conditions the approximating analytical model based on effective (macro) dispersivities yields the average concentration distribution satisfactorily. However, it is insufficient in monitoring system design since the discrepancy between the detection probabilities of contaminant plumes at given monitoring well locations computed by the two models is significant, particularly with high dispersivity and heterogeneity.

  2. Enhanced Landfill Mining case study: Innovative separation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuyvers, Lars; Moerenhout, Tim; Helsen, Stefan; Van de Wiele, Katrien; Behets, Tom; Umans, Luk; Wille, Eddy

    2014-05-01

    In 2011, a corporate vision on Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM)1 was approved by the OVAM Board of directors, which resulted in an operational programme over the period 2011-2015. OVAM (Public Waste Agency of Flanders) is the competent authority in charge of waste, Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) and contaminated soil management in Flanders. The introduction of the ELFM concept needs to be related with the concept of SMM and the broader shift to a circular economy. Within the concept of ELFM, landfills are no longer considered to be a final and static situation, but a dynamic part of the materials cycle. The main goal of this research programme is to develop a comprehensive policy on resource management to deal with the issue of former landfills. In order to investigate the opportunities of ELFM, the OVAM is applying a three step approach including mapping, surveying and mining of these former landfills. As a result of the mapping part over 2,000 landfill sites, that will need to be dealt with, were revealed. The valorisation potential of ELFM could be assigned to different goals, according to the R³P-concept : Recycling of Materials, Recovery of Energy, Reclamation of Land and Protection of drinking water supply. . On behalf of the OVAM, ECOREM was assigned to follow-up a pilot case executed on a former landfill, located in Zuienkerke, Flanders. Within this case study some technical tests were carried out on the excavated waste material to investigate the possibilities for a waste to resource conversion. The performance of both on site and off site techniques were evaluated. These testings also contribute to the mapping part of OVAM's research programme on ELFM and reveal more information on the composition of former landfills dating from different era's. In order to recover as many materials as possible, five contractors were assigned to perform separation tests on the bulk material from the Zuienkerke landfill. All used techniques were described

  3. Evaluation Of Landfill Gas Decay Constant For Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Operated As Bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prediction of the rate of gas production from bioreactor landfills is important to optimize energy recovery and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions. Landfill gas (LFG) composition and flow rate were monitored for four years for a conventional and two bioreactor landfill landfil...

  4. Temporal and spatial pore water pressure distribution surrounding a vertical landfill leachate recirculation well.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadambala, Ravi; Townsend, Timothy G; Jain, Pradeep; Singh, Karamjit

    2011-05-01

    Addition of liquids into landfilled waste can result in an increase in pore water pressure, and this in turn may increase concerns with respect to geotechnical stability of the landfilled waste mass. While the impact of vertical well leachate recirculation on landfill pore water pressures has been mathematically modeled, measurements of these systems in operating landfills have not been reported. Pressure readings from vibrating wire piezometers placed in the waste surrounding a liquids addition well at a full-scale operating landfill in Florida were recorded over a 2-year period. Prior to the addition of liquids, measured pore pressures were found to increase with landfill depth, an indication of gas pressure increase and decreasing waste permeability with depth. When liquid addition commenced, piezometers located closer to either the leachate injection well or the landfill surface responded more rapidly to leachate addition relative to those far from the well and those at deeper locations. After liquid addition stopped, measured pore pressures did not immediately drop, but slowly decreased with time. Despite the large pressures present at the bottom of the liquid addition well, much smaller pressures were measured in the surrounding waste. The spatial variation of the pressures recorded in this study suggests that waste permeability is anisotropic and decreases with depth.

  5. The impact of Mpererwe landfill in Kampala Uganda, on the surrounding environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwiganga, M.; Kansiime, F.

    Mpererwe landfill site receives solid wastes from the city of Kampala, Uganda. This study was carried out to assess and evaluate the appropriateness of the location and operation of this landfill, to determine the composition of the solid waste dumped at the landfill and the extent of contamination of landfill leachate to the neighbouring environment (water, soil and plants). Field observations and laboratory measurements were carried out to determine the concentration of nutrients, metals and numbers of bacteriological indicators in the landfill leachate. The landfill is not well located as it is close to a residential area (waste by scavenger birds, flies and vermin. Industrial and hospital wastes are disposed of at the landfill without pre-treatment. The concentration of variables (nutrients, bacteriological indicators, BOD and heavy metals) in the leachate were higher than those recommended in the National Environment Standards for Discharge of Effluent into Water and on Land. A composite sample that was taken 1500 m down stream indicated that the wetland considerably reduced the concentration of the parameters that were measured except for sulfides. Despite the fact that there was accumulation of metals in the sediments, the concentration has not reached toxic levels to humans. Soil and plant analyses indicated deficiencies of zinc and copper. The concentration of these elements was lowest in the leachate canal.

  6. Residential landfill remedial action construction case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creamer, P.D.; Martin, K.E. [RMT, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Fahrney, J.S. [City of Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The City of Madison - Mineral Point Park is located on Madison`s west side within a well-established neighborhood on approximately 11 acres of open green space, which was formerly the Mineral Point Landfill. In 1994, a comprehensive remedial action construction project was implemented to more effectively extract methane gas and control gas migration, to minimize potential groundwater contamination, and to improve surface water run-off controls. This was accomplished by installing two new gas extraction systems, constructing a 4-foot-thick composite final cover with a geosynthetic subsurface drainage system, and adding 12 feet of relief and a storm sewer system to promote positive surface water drainage. While these features alone are not uncommon to many other landfills, the challenging aspect of this project was to install them in extreme proximity to homes, condominiums, and a school that were quickly developed shortly after the landfill closed. Some of the issues unique to this project due to the residential setting included strict noise, dust, and odor controls, easement negotiations, limited hours of operation, limited material storage areas, utility relocations and crossings, continuous operation of the existing gas extraction system, limited construction access, and increased health and safety concerns for the general public. The need to keep the neighboring residents informed, as well as to address their concerns and requests, was also a critical requirement in both the design and construction phases. This paper will review the design of the remedial action plan and present the construction process, highlighting the constructability issues encountered and the innovative means to overcome them. The program for communication with the neighbors throughout the design and construction phases will also be addressed.

  7. THE MICROBIOLOGICAL AND SANITARY STATE OF SAND IN THE MUNICIPAL BATHING BEACH IN SZCZECIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Zatoń

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Artificial beaches, i.e. places in the public sphere, are usually intended for recreation, located at water reservoirs, rivers, and their surface is naturally occurring or applied sand. The urban bathing beach located in Szczecin by the Deep lake has sand purchased and distributed on the beach by the Municipal Services Office in Szczecin (a few hundred ton. The beach is divided into sectors, a volleyball court is in one part, in the next section catering and sanitary facilities are located, and the remaining area is a place intended for sunbathing and playing games. The aim of the experiment was to assess the effects of different ways of using the beach on changes of microbiological properties of the sand. The tests were taken from the beach sand in May 2013 (first term examinations, and in September, after several months of use (the second term of examinations. The sand was collected near catering and sanitary sector (the first object and from the area of the volleyball court (the second object, as well as the playground for children (the third object. The facilities were distanced from the shoreline of the lake by approx. 8 metres. The comparison included the number of heterotrophic bacteria, fungi and the detected presence of coliform bacteria, including Escherichia coli, bacteria of the genus Salmonella and eggs of intestinal parasites. In any of the objects, or the periods of time, eggs of intestinal parasites and bacteria of the genus Salmonella were detected. The presence of coliform bacteria including E. coli was found in the sand collected from a catering-sanitary zone, there was also the biggest number of bacteria and fungi. The number of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi was similar in samples of sand taken from the volleyball court and from the playground, in this sand there was no bacteria belonging to the E. coli species, although in several samples from the playground other bacteria belonging to the coliform genus were detected. To

  8. A review of landfill microbiology research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, D.; Reynolds, P.; Blakey, N.C.

    1995-05-01

    In May 1994 the DTI through ETSU commissioned WRc to undertake a comprehensive review of the landfill microbiology programme to date. The review has attempted to identify remaining gaps in knowledge which are most likely to find application in controlling the production of gas from landfills, and concludes with a list of recommendations for specific landfill process research which is likely to facilitate and optimise energy recovery from landfill. (UK)

  9. A facility location model for socio-environmentally responsible decision-making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ansbro, Dominic; Wang, Qing

    2013-01-01

    .... The model presented considers a network of suppliers, manufacturing facilities, customers, scrap recyclers, general recycling facilities and landfill sites and makes facility location and allocation...

  10. Landfill gas control facility with automatic wobbe-correction for Gas-Otto-Engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, K.; Pauli, H.

    1986-01-01

    In open sanitary landfills large amounts of energy-rich landfillgas is generated. Without a purposeful collection, this gas would escape into the covering layers and into the air and thus burden the environment. In the sanitary landfill of 'Gummersloch' near Berne, the gas is systematically collected and piped to the Senior and Nursing Home of Kuehlewil where it is utilised in a thermal power-coupling facility (heating power station) of the Bernese Power Plants (BKW) to produce power and heat. This plant, with additional equipment for the automatic wobbe-correction, has been in operation for about 2 years and has proved its worth in practical use. By way of the automatic wobbe-correction through the disturbance-variable feed-forward system, the uncontrolled occuring fluctuations of the gas quality are being, up to 40%, so levelled out, that a faultless operation is guaranteed. Actual experiences have confirmed that the adaption to changing gas qualities by means of the constant extended wobbe-index is ideally suited to the use of gas engines.

  11. LANDFILL BIOREACTOR PERFORMANCE, SECOND INTERIM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

  12. LANDFILL BIOREACTOR PERFORMANCE, SECOND INTERIM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bioreactor landfill is a landfill that is operated in a manner that is expected to increase the rate and extent of waste decomposition, gas generation, and settlement compared to a traditional landfill. This Second Interim Report was prepared to provide an interpretation of fie...

  13. Corrective action investigation plan for CAU No. 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 3 Landfill Complex, CAU No. 424, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, nevada. The CAU 424 is comprised of eight individual landfill sites that are located around and within the perimeter of the Area 3 Compound. Due to the unregulated disposal activities commonly associated with early landfill operations, an investigation will be conducted at each CAS to complete the following tasks: identify the presence and nature of possible contaminant migration from the landfills; determine the vertical and lateral extent of possible contaminant migration; ascertain the potential impact to human health and the environment; and provide sufficient information and data to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective action strategies for each CAS.

  14. Design concept for the solid waste landfill site:a case study of Chuzhou City,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Wentao

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces landfill site of Chuzhou domestic waste, to which the improved anaerobic hygienic burying technology is applied. Chuzhou City, situated between Yangtze River and Huai River, is a window city in the east of Anhui Province. A landfill site with a capacity of 400 ton per day is to be constructed according to the city development plan and the garbage amount. This paper summarizes the landfill location, landform, groundwater; surface water,landfill stratal configuration, dominant wind, and the major machinery equipment. The projects of anti-percolation,seepage collection, seepage disposal, rainwater discharge, biogas diversion are deeply studied. The advanced design principle of the landfills is summarized, which is environment-friendly, science-oriented and economy-based. Environ ment-friendly principle is implemented in the selection of landfill location, construction of all projects, sealing up project and perfecting environment monitoring system; science-oriented principle prescribes that the design, construction, and management should be science-oriented; the selection of landfill location, design, plan optimization, resource-saving measures and comprehensive utilization should be economy-based. Chuzhou domestic waste landfill site is qualified as a golden model in this paper.

  15. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...... of the ashes. Leaching test, however, must be selected carefully to provide information relevant for the actual disposal scenario and for evaluating the benefits of pre-treating the residues prior to landfilling. This paper describes research at the Technical University of Denmark addressing some...... of these issues focusing on pH-development in landfilled residues, effects of leaching test conditions on Cr leaching and effects of pre-treatment with FeSO4....

  16. Sustainable treatment of landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Mohamad Anuar; Yusoff, Mohd. Suffian; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Hung, Yung-Tse

    2015-06-01

    Landfill leachate is a complex liquid that contains excessive concentrations of biodegradable and non-biodegradable products including organic matter, phenols, ammonia nitrogen, phosphate, heavy metals, and sulfide. If not properly treated and safely disposed, landfill leachate could be an impending source to surface and ground water contamination as it may percolate throughout soils and subsoils, causing adverse impacts to receiving waters. Lately, various types of treatment methods have been proposed to alleviate the risks of untreated leachate. However, some of the available techniques remain complicated, expensive and generally require definite adaptation during process. In this article, a review of literature reported from 2008 to 2012 on sustainable landfill leachate treatment technologies is discussed which includes biological and physical-chemical techniques, respectively.

  17. Airborne monitoring of landfills CH_{4} emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarra, Daniele; Gioli, Beniamino; Carlucci, Pantaleone; Magliulo, Vincenzo; Toscano, Piero; Zaldei, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    The disposal and treatment of waste produces emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs), which contribute to global climate change. In particular, large quantities of Methane are released in the breakdown of organic matter in landfills. In this work we present a new payload of the Sky Arrow ERA aircraft and an original methodology to compute methane emissions, based on the atmospheric mass budget approach. The payload is presently being used for intensive measurements in the area known as "Terra dei fuochi". In this area, located between the provinces of Naples and Caserta (Southern Italy), urban waste combined with industrial toxic waste has been illegally dumped in old quarries or buried in the nearby countryside for decades. This led to patchy sources of methane, with several hot spots spread over a heterogeneous land. In this context, the use of aircraft allows for the investigation at the landscape as well as at the regional scale, taking into account all sources, including those of small dimensions. The Sky Arrow ERA is equipped with the Mobile Flux Platform, capable of deriving the 3D wind vector at 50 Hz, while CO2 and water vapor densities are measured by an infrared gas analyzer (Licor 7500). A new configuration of the Licor 7700 open path fast methane gas analyzer was developed, based on enclosing the sensor within a cylinder exposed to the external air in-flow. This set-up allows for fast response measurements, while avoiding external modifications, subjected to restrictions. Ambient methane mixing ratios in excess of 7 ppm were measured during landfills overpasses; performing grid flight plans at different heights, to describe a virtual box enclosing the study area, and applying interpolation procedures, it was possible to reconstruct wind components and scalar concentrations in a 5x5 kilometers domain containing 6 different landfills, with a resolution of 50 m horizontal and 20 m vertical. For each flight the methane mass flows along and across the wind

  18. Climate co-benefits of energy recovery from landfill gas in developing Asian cities: a case study in Bangkok.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menikpura, S N M; Sang-Arun, Janya; Bengtsson, Magnus

    2013-10-01

    Landfilling is the most common and cost-effective waste disposal method, and it is widely applied throughout the world. In developing countries in Asia there is currently a trend towards constructing sanitary landfills with gas recovery systems, not only as a solution to the waste problem and the associated local environmental pollution, but also to generate revenues through carbon markets and from the sale of electricity. This article presents a quantitative assessment of climate co-benefits from landfill gas (LFG) to energy projects, based on the case of Bangkok Metropolitan Administration, Thailand. Life cycle assessment was used for estimating net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, considering the whole lifespan of the landfill. The assessment found that the total GHG mitigation of the Bangkok project would be 471,763 tonnes (t) of carbon dioxide (CO(2))-equivalents (eq) over its 10-year LFG recovery period.This amount is equivalent to only 12% of the methane (CH(4)) generated over the whole lifespan of the landfill. An alternative scenario was devised to analyse possible improvement options for GHG mitigation through LFG-to-energy recovery projects. This scenario assumes that LFG recovery would commence in the second year of landfill operation and gas extraction continues throughout the 20-year peak production period. In this scenario, GHG mitigation potential amounted to 1,639,450 tCO(2)-eq during the 20-year project period, which is equivalent to 43% of the CH(4) generated throughout the life cycle. The results indicate that with careful planning, there is a high potential for improving the efficiency of existing LFG recovery projects which would enhance climate co-benefits, as well as economic benefits. However, the study also shows that even improved gas recovery systems have fairly low recovery rates and, in consequence, that emissions of GHG from such landfills sites are still considerable.

  19. Landfilling of waste incineration residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Cai, Zuansi

    2002-01-01

    Residues from waste incineration are bottom ashes and air-pollution-control (APC) residues including fly ashes. The leaching of heavy metals and salts from the ashes is substantial and a wide spectrum of leaching tests and corresponding criteria have been introduced to regulate the landfilling...... of the ashes. Leaching test, however, must be selected carefully to provide information relevant for the actual disposal scenario and for evaluating the benefits of pre-treating the residues prior to landfilling. This paper describes research at the Technical University of Denmark addressing some...

  20. Evaluation of methane emissions from Palermo municipal landfill: Comparison between field measurements and models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bella, Gaetano; Di Trapani, Daniele; Viviani, Gaspare

    2011-08-01

    Methane (CH(4)) diffuse emissions from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills represent one of the most important anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gas. CH(4) is produced by anaerobic biodegradation of organic matter in landfilled MSW and constitutes a major component of landfill gas (LFG). Gas recovery is a suitable method to effectively control CH(4) emissions from landfill sites and the quantification of CH(4) emissions represents a good tool to evaluate the effectiveness of a gas recovery system in reducing LFG emissions. In particular, LFG emissions can indirectly be evaluated from mass balance equations between LFG production, recovery and oxidation in the landfill, as well as by a direct approach based on LFG emission measurements from the landfill surface. However, up to now few direct measurements of landfill CH(4) diffuse emissions have been reported in the technical literature. In the present study, both modeling and direct emission measuring methodologies have been applied to the case study of Bellolampo landfill located in Palermo, Italy. The main aim of the present study was to evaluate CH(4) diffuse emissions, based on direct measurements carried out with the flux accumulation chamber (static, non-stationary) method, as well as to obtain the CH(4) contoured flux map of the landfill. Such emissions were compared with the estimate achieved by means of CH(4) mass balance equations. The results showed that the emissions obtained by applying the flux chamber method are in good agreement with the ones derived by the application of the mass balance equation, and that the evaluated contoured flux maps represent a reliable tool to locate areas with abnormal emissions in order to optimize the gas recovery system efficiency.

  1. Sustainable Approach for Landfill Management at Final Processing Site Cikundul in Sukabumi City, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The main problem of landfill management in Indonesia is the difficulty in getting a location for Final Processing Sites (FPS) due to limited land and high land prices. Besides, about 95% of existing landfills are uncontrolled dumping sites, which could potentially lead to water, soil and air pollution. Based on data from the Ministry of Environment (2010), The Act of the Republic of Indonesia Number 18 Year 2008 Concerning Solid Waste Management, prohibits open dumping at final processing sit...

  2. Ground-water monitoring compliance plan for the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruland, R.M.

    1986-10-01

    Washington state regulations required that solid waste landfill facilities have ground-water monitoring programs in place by May 27, 1987. This document describes the well locations, installation, characterization studies and sampling and analysis plan to be followed in implementing the ground-water monitoring program at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). It is based on Washington Administrative Code WAC 173-304-490. 11 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Alejandra Labud

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collected using an entomological net, and larvae and puparia were obtained from the composting material and incubated to obtain adults. Richness, abundance and sex ratio were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 9 taxa of Diptera were identified: Sarconesia chlorogaster, Phaenicia sericata, Calliphora vicina, Cochliomya macellaria, Ophyra sp, Muscina stabulans, Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp and Fannia sp. Specimens of Anthomyiidae, Acaliptratae and one larva of Eristalis tenax were also found. Ophyra sp. was the most abundant taxa. All the captured Diptera belonged to introduced taxa. Most of them are considered to be eusynanthropic and/or hemisynanthropic and have sanitary importance as they may cause myiasis and pseudomyiasis. The high number of females registered and the finding of immature stages indicated that flies can develop their complete life cycle on biosolid composting windrows. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of flies obtained in this study may be useful for defining locations of urban or semi-urban composting facilities. It also highlights the importance of sanitary precautions at such plants.

  4. Indoor Environmental Conditions and Sanitary Practices in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Sustainable Development ... Rapidly urbanizing cities are witnessing an increase in Day care centres (DCCs) whose ... Keywords: Day Care Centres, sanitary practices, indoor air quality, children, urban communities ...

  5. Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures in NAFTA: The Canada Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Terry Norman

    2005-01-01

    Canada's Experience in Implementing the Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) provisions of the North American free trade agreement (NAFTA). The NAFTA has been a major success story for Canada since its entry into force on January 1, 1994.

  6. Charles Dickens and the movement for sanitary reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litsios, Socrates

    2003-01-01

    Charles Dickens's adult life parallels the period when the movement for sanitary reform took root in England. Although he was not one of its leaders, he became in time one of its most outspoken advocates. This essay describes Dickens's growing involvement in the sanitary movement and looks at one of the most important ways he supported it--articles published in his weekly journal Household Words

  7. Quantifying capital goods for waste landfilling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Stentsøe, Steen; Willumsen, Hans Christian

    2013-01-01

    Materials and energy used for construction of a hill-type landfill of 4 million m3 were quantified in detail. The landfill is engineered with a liner and leachate collections system, as well as a gas collection and control system. Gravel and clay were the most common materials used, amounting...... to approximately 260 kg per tonne of waste landfilled. The environmental burdens from the extraction and manufacturing of the materials used in the landfill, as well as from the construction of the landfill, were modelled as potential environmental impacts. For example, the potential impact on global warming was 2.......5 kg carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents or 0.32 milli person equivalents per tonne of waste. The potential impacts from the use of materials and construction of the landfill are low-to-insignificant compared with data reported in the literature on impact potentials of landfills in operation...

  8. Geophysical study in waste landfill localized above fractured rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariveltom Cosme da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical survey is an important method for investigation of contaminated areas used in the characterization of contrasting physical properties in the presence of pollutants. This work applied the geophysical methods of Electrical Resistivity and Self Potential in waste landfill, located in Caçapava do Sul city, RS. The landfill is located over fractured metamorphic rocks. Eight lines of electrical profiling with 288 measures of self potential were done. In addition, 83 measurements of direction and dip of fractures were taken. The application of spontaneous potential method permitted to detect the direction of groundwater flow. The electrical resistivity measurements allowed the identification of low-intensity anomalies associated with the presence of leachate. There is a relationship between anomalous zones and the directions of fractures.

  9. Paper waste - Recycling, incineration or landfilling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    . Such message has implications for current policy formulation on material recycling and disposal in the EU. Secondly, to identify key methodological issues of paper waste management LCAs, and enlighten the influence of such issues on the conclusions of the LCA studies. Thirdly, in light of the analysis made...... comparisons of different management options for waste paper. Despite claims of inconsistency, the LCAs reviewed illustrate the environmental benefits in recycling over incineration or landfill options, for paper and cardboard waste. This broad consensus was found despite differences in geographic location......A review of existing life cycle assessments (LCAs) on paper and cardboard waste has been undertaken. The objectives of the review were threefold. Firstly, to see whether a consistent message comes out of published LCA literature on optimum disposal or recycling solutions for this waste type...

  10. Emission Control and Utilization of Landfill Gas in Ningbo Waste Landfill Site%宁波市垃圾填埋场填埋气体排放控制及利用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌

    2013-01-01

    Taking Ningbo city as an example,the treatment measures of unorganized emission of odor landfill gas from domestic waste sanitary landfill site were discussed,for instance,ordered collection and incineration-power generation.It could treat greenhouse gases such as CH4 effectively to make the pollutions control,and use waste heat to produce electricity.Thus it would achieve energy-saving and emission-reduction.%以宁波市为例,探讨了生活垃圾卫生填埋场产生的无组织排放的异味填埋气体有序收集及焚烧发电的处理措施,既有效处理了CH4等温室气体,使污染排放得到有效控制,又利用余热发电,实现节能减排.

  11. Imaging and characterization of heterogeneous landfills using geophysical methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantaki, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays many countries use landfilling for the management of their waste or for treating old landfills. Emissions from landfills can be harmful to the environment and to human health, making the stabilization of landfills a priority for the landfill communities. Estimation of the emission potential

  12. Imaging and characterization of heterogeneous landfills using geophysical methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantaki, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays many countries use landfilling for the management of their waste or for treating old landfills. Emissions from landfills can be harmful to the environment and to human health, making the stabilization of landfills a priority for the landfill communities. Estimation of the emission potential

  13. The decay of wood in landfills in contrasting climates in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ximenes, Fabiano; Björdal, Charlotte; Cowie, Annette; Barlaz, Morton

    2015-07-01

    Wood products in landfill are commonly assumed to decay within several decades, returning the carbon contained therein to the atmosphere, with about half the carbon released as methane. However, the rate and extent of decay is not well known, as very few studies have examined the decay of wood products in landfills. This study reports on the findings from landfill excavations conducted in the Australian cities of Sydney and Cairns located in temperate and tropical environments, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine whether burial of the wood in warmer, more tropical conditions in Cairns would result in greater levels of decay than occurs in the temperate environment of Sydney. Wood samples recovered after 16-44years in landfill were examined through physical, chemical and microscopic analyses, and compared with control samples to determine the carbon loss. There was typically little or no decay in the wood samples analysed from the landfill in Sydney. Although there was significant decay in rainforest wood species excavated from Cairns, decay levels for wood types that were common to both Cairns and Sydney landfills were similar. The current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2006) default decay factor for organic materials in landfills is 50%. In contrast, the carbon loss determined for Pinus radiata recovered from Sydney and Cairns landfills was 7.9% and 4.4%, respectively, and 0% for Agathis sp. This suggests that climate did not influence decay, and that the more extensive levels of decay observed for some wood samples from Cairns indicates that those wood types were more susceptible to biodegradation. Microscopic analyses revealed that most decay patterns observed in samples analysed from Sydney were consistent with aerobic fungal decay. Only a minor portion of the microbial decay was due to erosion bacteria active in anaerobic/near anaerobic environments. The findings of this study strongly suggest that models that adopt

  14. Indirect measurements of field-scale hydraulic conductivity of waste from two landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, I R

    2011-12-01

    Management and prediction of the movement and distribution of fluids in large landfills is important for various reasons. Bioreactor landfill technology shows promise, but in arid or semi-arid regions, the natural content of landfilled waste may be low, thus requiring addition of significant volumes of water. In more humid locations, landfills can become saturated, flooding gas collection systems and causing sideslope leachate seeps or other undesirable occurrences. This paper compares results from two different approaches to monitoring water in waste. At the Brock West Landfill in eastern Canada, positive pore pressures were measured at various depths in saturated waste. The downward seepage flux through the waste is known, thus the vertical saturated hydraulic conductivity of the waste at this landfill was determined to be 3 × 10(-7)cm/s. By comparison, the Spadina Landfill in western Canada is predominantly unsaturated. The infiltration of moisture into the waste was measured using moisture sensors installed in boreholes which determined arrival time for moisture fronts resulting from major precipitation events as well as longer-term change in moisture content resulting from unsaturated drainage during winter when frozen ground prevented infiltration. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity calculated from these data ranged from approximately 10(-6)cm/s for the slow winter drainage in the absence of significant recharge to 10(-2)cm/s or higher for shallow waste subject to high infiltration through apparent preferential pathways. These two very different approaches to field-scale measurements of vertical hydraulic conductivity provide insight into the nature of fluid movement in saturated and unsaturated waste masses. It is suggested that the principles of unsaturated seepage apply reasonably well for landfilled waste and that the hydraulic behavior of waste is profoundly influenced by the nature and size of voids and by the degree of saturation prevailing in the

  15. 30 CFR 75.1712-2 - Location of surface facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Location of surface facilities. 75.1712-2... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1712-2 Location of surface facilities. Bathhouses, change rooms, and sanitary toilet facilities shall be in a location...

  16. 30 CFR 71.401 - Location of facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Location of facilities. 71.401 Section 71.401... Location of facilities. Bathhouses, change rooms, and sanitary flush toilet facilities shall be in a location convenient for the use of the miners. Where these facilities are designed to serve more than one...

  17. Landfill reduction experience in The Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharff, Heijo, E-mail: h.scharff@afvalzorg.nl

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • ‘Zero waste’ initiatives never consider risks, side effects or experience of achieved low levels of landfill. • This paper provides insight into what works and what not. • Where strong gradients in regulations and tax occur between countries, waste will find its way to landfills across borders. • Strong landfill reduction can create a fierce competition over the remaining waste to be landfilled resulting in losses. • At some point a public organisation should take responsibility for the operation of a ‘safety net’ in waste management. - Abstract: Modern waste legislation aims at resource efficiency and landfill reduction. This paper analyses more than 20 years of landfill reduction in the Netherlands. The combination of landfill regulations, landfill tax and landfill bans resulted in the desired landfill reduction, but also had negative effects. A fierce competition developed over the remaining waste to be landfilled. In 2013 the Dutch landfill industry generated €40 million of annual revenue, had €58 million annual costs and therefore incurred an annual loss of €18 million. It is not an attractive option to prematurely end business. There is a risk that Dutch landfill operators will not be able to fulfil the financial obligations for closure and aftercare. Contrary to the polluter pays principle the burden may end up with society. EU regulations prohibiting export of waste for disposal are in place. Strong differentials in landfill tax rate between nations have nevertheless resulted in transboundary shipment of waste and in non-compliance with the self-sufficiency and proximity principles. During the transformation from a disposal society to a recycling society, it is important to carefully plan required capacity and to guide the reorganisation of the landfill sector. At some point, it is no longer profitable to provide landfill services. It may be necessary for public organisations or the state to take responsibility for the

  18. Monitoring fugitive CH4 and CO2 emissions from a closed landfill at Tenerife, Canary Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio-Ramos, María; Tompkins, Mitchell R. K.; Turtle, Lara A. K.; García-Merino, Marta; Amonte, Cecilia; Rodrígez, Fátima; Padrón, Eleazar; Melián, Gladys V.; Padilla, Germán; Barrancos, José; Pérez, Nemesio M.

    2017-04-01

    Solid waste must be managed systematically to ensure environmental best practices. One of the ways to manage this huge problem is to systematic dispose waste materials in locations such as landfills. However, landfills could face possible threats to the environment such as groundwater pollution and the release of landfill gases (CH4, volatile organic compounds, etc.) to the atmosphere. These structures should be carefully filled, monitored and maintained while they are active and for up to 30 years after they are closed. Even after years of being closed, a systematically amount of landfill gas could be released to the atmosphere through its surface in a diffuse and fugitive form. During the period 1999-2016, we have studied the spatial-temporal distribution of the surface fugitive emission of CO2 and CH4 into the atmosphere in a cell in the Arico's municipal landfill (0.3 km2) at Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain. This cell was operative until 2004, when it was filled and closed. Monitoring these diffuse landfill emissions provides information of how the closed landfill is degassing. To do so, we have performed 9 gas emission surveys during the period 1999-2016. Surface landfill CO2 efflux measurements were carried out at around 450 sampling site by means of a portable non-dispersive infrared spectrophotometer (NDIR) model LICOR Li800 following the accumulation chamber method. Landfill gases taken in the chamber were analyzed using a double channel VARIAN 4900 micro-GC. CH4 efflux measurements were computed combining CO2 efflux measurements and CH4/CO2 ratio in the landfill's surface gas. To quantify the total CH4 emission, CH4 efflux contour map was constructed using sequential Gaussian simulation (sGs) as interpolation method. In general, a decrease in the CO2 emission is observed since the cell was closed (2004) to the present. The total CO2 and CH4 diffuse emissions estimated in the 2016 survey were 4.54 ± 0.14 t d-1 and 268.65 ± 17.99 t d-1, respectively

  19. Removal and transformation of recalcitrant organic matter from stabilized saline landfill leachates by coagulation-ozonation coupling processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje-Ramirez, I; Orta de Velásquez, M T

    2004-05-01

    The Bordo Poniente sanitary landfill in Mexico City currently receives 11,500 ton/day of solid wastes. The landfill has been in operation since 1985, in what was formerly Texcoco Lake, now a dried-up lakebed. The physico-chemical characteristics of the leachate generated by this particular landfill are altered by the incorporation of freatic saline water present in the area. This paper reports the results from a study evaluating coagulation and ozonation as alternative processes for removing and transforming recalcitrant organic matter from stabilized saline landfill leachate. Coagulation with ferric sulfate was found to remove up to 67% of COD and 96% of leachate color. The remaining 33% COD was removed with ozone. Recalcitrant organic matter removal by ozonation is limited by the reaction kinetic due mainly to ozone's low reactivity with the organic compounds present in the leachates (amines, amides, alcohols, aliphatic compounds, and carboxylic acids). However, ozone contributes greatly to changing the recalcitrant characteristics of organic matter. Leachate biodegradability was found to be significantly enhanced through ozonation: BOD(5) values reach 265%, and the BOD(5)/COD ratio increases from 0.003 to 0.015. Infrared analysis of ozonated leachates shows that the main by-products of recalcitrant organic matter ozonation are an increase in the hydroxyl and carboxylic groups, and the presence of aldehydes groups.

  20. Bioleach: a mathematical model for the joint evaluation of leachate and biogas production in urban solid waste landfills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo-Clavero, Maria-Elena; Rodrigo-Ilarri, Javier

    2017-04-01

    One of the most serious environmental problems in modern societies is the management and disposal of urban solid waste (MSW). Despite the efforts of the administration to promote recycling and reuse policies and energy recovery technologies, nowadays the majority of MSW still is disposed in sanitary landfills. During the phases of operation and post-closure maintenance of any solid waste disposal site, two of the most relevant problems are the production of leachate and the generation of biogas. The leachate and biogas production formation processes occur simultaneously over time and are coupled together through the consumption and/or production of water. However, no mathematical models have been easily identified that allow to the evaluation of the joint production of leachate and biogas, during the operational and the post-closure phase of an urban waste landfill. This paper introduces BIOLEACH, a new mathematical model programmed on a monthly scale, that evaluates the joint production of leachate and biogas applying water balance techniques and considers the management of the landfill as a bioreactor. The application of such a model on real landfills allows to perform an environmentally sustainable management that minimizes the environmental impacts produced being also economically more profitable.

  1. A 3D FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF INCOMPRESSIBLE FLUID FLOW AND CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT THROUGH A POROUS LANDFILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADEGUN, I. K.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigated the flow of incompressible fluid and contaminant transport through a Porous Landfill using a numerical technique. A threedimensional finite element analysis technique was adopted for the solution. The problem was based on the Darcy’s Law and the Advection-Dispersion equation. The solutions of the Darcy’s and Advection-Dispersion equations were generated using Finite Element Analysis Software known as COMSOL Multiphysics. This simulation tool tracked the contaminant transport in the Landfill for 360 days at 10 days interval. It first modeled steady-state fluid flow by employing the Darcy’s Law Application Mode and then followed up with a transient solute-transport simulation by employing the Solute-Transport Application Mode from the Earth Science Module of COMSOL. The solution results obtained from this model were found to be in close agreement with reallife data obtained at the 130- million ton Bukit Tagar Mega Sanitary Landfill site, Selangor near Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. This showed that the model can effectively predict the trends in the distributions of pollutants from a Municipal Solid Waste Landfill into nearby land and water sources. The model is thus applicable to the issues of environmental protection and safety of groundwater.

  2. Quantification of methane emissions from danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Mønster, Jacob; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Whole-landfill methane emission was quantified using a tracer technique that combines controlled tracer gas release from the landfill with time-resolved concentration measurements downwind of the landfill using a mobile high-resolution analytical instrument. Methane emissions from 13 Danish...... landfills varied between 2.6 and 60.8 kg CH4 h–1. The highest methane emission was measured at the largest (in terms of disposed waste amounts) of the 13 landfills, whereas the lowest methane emissions (2.6-6.1 kgCH4 h–1) were measured at the older and smaller landfills. At two of the sites, which had gas...... collection, emission measurements showed that the gas collection systems only collected between 30-50% of the methane produced (assuming that the produced methane equalled the sum of the emitted methane and the collected methane). Significant methane emissions were observed from disposed shredder waste...

  3. Landfilling: Bottom Lining and Leachate Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Manfredi, Simone; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    from entering the groundwater or surface water. The bottom lining system should cover the full footprint area of the landfill, including both the relatively flat bottom and the sideslopes in the case of an excavated configuration. This prevents the lateral migration of leachate from within the landfill...... triple) liners, are extremely effective in preventing leachate from entering into the environment. In addition, the risk of polluting the groundwater at a landfill by any leakage of leachate depends on several factors related to siting of the landfill: distance to the water table, distance to surface...... water bodies, and the properties of the soil beneath the landfill. In addition to the lining and drainage systems described in this chapter, the siting and hydrogeology of the landfill site (Chapter 10.12) and the top cover (Chapter 10.9) are also part of the barrier system, contributing to reducing...

  4. Landfill Barrier-Overview and Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Liange; Zhao Yongsheng

    2000-01-01

    Landfill is the primary method of waste disposal. The increasing attention focused on the effect of landfill on environment prompts the development of environmental sound landfill system. As the key parts of landfill, the barrier system can provide impermeabilization of leachate and prevent biogas from escaping intotheenvironment. In recent years, the technology pertaining the barrier system developed rapidly. In this paper, new materials used in liners and new concept of barrier construction are reviewed; the mechanisms of leachate through clay liner and geomembrane, the calculation of leaks through liner and the effect of freezing/thaw on liner are discussed.

  5. Landfills - LANDFILL_BOUNDARIES_IDEM_IN: Waste Site Boundaries in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Polygon Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — LANDFILL_BOUNDARIES_IDEM_IN.SHP is a polygon shapefile that contains boundaries for open dump sites, approved landfills, and permitted landfills in Indiana, provided...

  6. Contamination of Ground Water Due To Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. S. Raju

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present site under investigation at Ajitsingh Nagar in Vijayawada of Andhra Pradesh is initially a low lying area and used for disposing the urban solid waste for the last few years, through open dumping with out taking any measures to protect the Ground water against pollution. The present study has been taken up to measure the degree of pollution of ground water due to leachate produced in the landfill site. Bore holes were made at eight random locations to measure the depth and characteristics of solid waste. Four sampling wells were made for the collection of ground water samples and they were analyzed for various parameters. All parameters were measured based on Standard methods. It is found that the ground water is contaminated due leachates of Landfill to the large extent and is not suitable for Drinking, Domestic and Irrigation purposes.

  7. [Sanitary regulation in Mexico and the Free Trade Treaty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-López, M

    1994-01-01

    In this paper are discussed essential issues about the concept, characteristics and general functions of sanitary regulation, as well as the principles and main lines of action contained in the Program of Modernization of the Sanitary Regulation, which is being implemented by the Ministry of Health of Mexico. In addition, some considerations are offered regarding the supporting role of such a program, in the context of the free trade era that Mexico is undergoing. After 40 years of an outdated sanitary regulation based in a non-functional licensing concept, the new and improved scheme relies on several ammendments to the General Health Law. Thus, the present approach, focuses on a set of flexible, simple and efficient rules, strengthened by proven scientific and technical procedures.

  8. Attenuation of Landfill Leachate In Unsaturated Sandstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, A. P.; Brook, C.; Godley, A.; Lewin, K.; Young, C. P.

    Landfill leachate emanating from old "dilute and disperse" sites represents a potential (and in many cases actual) threat to the integrity of groundwater. Indeed, this concern has been included in EU legislation (80/86/EEC), where key contaminants (e.g. ammonia, various toxic organic compounds and heavy metals) are explicitly highlighted in terms of their impact on groundwater. In the UK, whilst there are a substantial number of unlined landfills sited on major aquifers, many of these are in locations where there is a substantial unsaturated zone. Thus, there exists the opportunity for the modification and attenuation of contaminants prior to it encountering the water table. An understanding of likely changes in leachate content and concentrations at such sites will enable a more comprehensive assessment of the potential risks and liabilities posed by such sites to be evaluated. The Burntstump landfill, situated 8 km north of Nottingham (UK), is sited on an outcrop of Sherwood sandstone. The fine friable sand has been quarried since the 1960s and the excavated volume used to store municipal waste. Filling at the site commenced in the mid 1970s and originally was unlined. In 1978 the first of what was to become a series of boreholes was installed within an area of roughly 5 m radius over one of the original waste cells. Cores of the waste and underlying sandstone were extracted and analysed for a range of physical and chemical parameters. The most recent set of analyses were obtained in 2000. The series of investigations therefore provide an important record of leachate migration and modification through the unsaturated zone for over twenty years. The progression of the leachate front is clearly delineated by the chloride concentration profile with an average velocity of around 1.6 m.yr-1. Combining this value with an average (and reasonably uniform) measured moisture content of about 7% gives a mean inter-granular specific discharge of 110 mm.yr-1. An interesting

  9. Estimation of the environmental risk posed by landfills using chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological testing of leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejczyk, Marek; Płaza, Grażyna A; Nałęcz-Jawecki, Grzegorz; Ulfig, Krzysztof; Markowska-Szczupak, Agata

    2011-02-01

    The leachates from 22 municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill sites in Southern Poland were characterized by evaluation of chemical, microbiological and ecotoxicological parameters. Chemical analyses were mainly focused on the identification of the priority hazardous substances according to Directive on Priority Substances, 2008/105/EC (a daughter directive of the WFD) in leachates. As showed, only five substances (Cd, Hg, hexachlorobutadiene, pentachlorobenzene and PAHs) were detected in the leachates. The compounds tested were absent or present at very low concentrations. Among them, only PAHs were found in all samples in the range from 0.057 to 77.2 μg L⁻¹. The leachates were contaminated with bacteria, including aerobic, psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria, coliform and fecal coliforms, and spore-forming-bacteria, including Clostridium perfringens, and with filamentous fungi. From the analysis of specific microorganism groups (indicators of environmental pollution by pathogenic or opportunistic pathogenic organisms) it can be concluded that the landfill leachates showed sanitary and epidemiological hazard. In the ecotoxicological study, a battery of tests comprised of 5 bioassays, i.e. Microtox(®), Spirotox, Rotoxkit F™, Thamnotoxkit F™ and Daphtoxkit F™ magna was applied. The leachate samples were classified as toxic in 13.6%, highly toxic in 54.6% and very highly toxic in 31.8%. The Spirotox test was the most sensitive bioassay used. The percentage of class weight score was very high - above 60%; these samples could definitely be considered seriously hazardous and acutely toxic to the fauna and microflora. No correlations were found between the toxicity values and chemical parameters. The toxicity of leachate samples cannot be explained by low levels of the priority pollutants. It seems that other kinds of xenobiotics present in the samples at subacute levels gave the high aggregate toxic effect. The chemical, ecotoxicological and microbiological

  10. Application of close-range aerial infrared thermography to detect landfill gas emissions: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanda, G.; Migliazzi, M.; Chiarabini, V.; Cinquetti, P.

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring waste disposal sites is important to check that the produced biogas, potentially explosive, is properly collected by the biogas extraction system of the landfill site and to evaluate the residual biogas flow escaping from upper surface of the landfill. As the biogas migrates to the surface, the soil through which it flows is expected to reach a higher temperature than the surrounding environment; thus, measuring the thermal footprint of the landfill soil surface could allow the detection of biogas leakages and spots suitable for the gas extraction. Close-range aerial infrared thermography is an innovative approach able to identify thermal anomalies with a good resolution over a large region of the landfill surface. A simple procedure to deduce the biogas flow rate emerging from the soil into the atmosphere, based on infrared thermography measurements, is presented. The approach has been applied to a case study concerning a large landfill located in Genoa (Italy). Aerial infrared photographs taken during different days and seasons showed the presence of thermal anomalies over regions along the peripheral boundary of the landfill still not interested in biogas extraction.

  11. A novel risk assessment method for landfill slope failure: Case study application for Bhalswa Dumpsite, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanfar, Ali; Amirmojahedi, Mohsen; Gharabaghi, Bahram; Dubey, Brajesh; McBean, Edward; Kumar, Dinesh

    2017-03-01

    Rapid population growth of major urban centres in many developing countries has created massive landfills with extraordinary heights and steep side-slopes, which are frequently surrounded by illegal low-income residential settlements developed too close to landfills. These extraordinary landfills are facing high risks of catastrophic failure with potentially large numbers of fatalities. This study presents a novel method for risk assessment of landfill slope failure, using probabilistic analysis of potential failure scenarios and associated fatalities. The conceptual framework of the method includes selecting appropriate statistical distributions for the municipal solid waste (MSW) material shear strength and rheological properties for potential failure scenario analysis. The MSW material properties for a given scenario is then used to analyse the probability of slope failure and the resulting run-out length to calculate the potential risk of fatalities. In comparison with existing methods, which are solely based on the probability of slope failure, this method provides a more accurate estimate of the risk of fatalities associated with a given landfill slope failure. The application of the new risk assessment method is demonstrated with a case study for a landfill located within a heavily populated area of New Delhi, India.

  12. A framework for landfill site selection using geographic information systems and multi criteria decision making technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat, Nur Azriati; Benjamin, Aida Mauziah; Abdul-Rahman, Syariza; Wibowo, Antoni

    2016-10-01

    The solid waste disposal is one of the facilities which can cause harm to human health and also contribute to severe environmental pollution if it is not properly managed. Therefore, an effective decision on a landfill site selection in order to identify the most suitable area as a new landfill is very important. Since 25 years ago, the integration of geographic information systems (GIS) and multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA) has drawn significant interest among researchers. This integrated technique is commonly used for land use planning and selecting a new landfill site is one of the plan. This paper proposes a framework of landfill site selection with a consideration of resource requirement. This framework is developed by using the integration of GIS and MCDA to identify an appropriate location for landfill siting. A list of selection criteria obtained from the literature considered in selecting the best landfill site is also presented. The results of this study could later be used to help the waste management team in developing an efficient solid waste management system.

  13. Differentiation of naturally-occurring vs. artificial hydrocarbons in a landfill groundwater investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaver, J.L.; Hartness, J.A.; Breeding, L.B.; Buchanan, D.M. [Law Environmental, Inc., Kennesaw, GA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Interpretation of groundwater sampling data at a large municipal/industrial landfill indicates contamination by both artificial and naturally-occurring hydrocarbons. Site hydrogeology consists of three different water bearing zones. The uppermost (shallow) aquifer is an unconfined unit consisting of silt, clay, and sand deposits. An intermediate depth semiconfined aquifer underlies the unconfined unit, and consists of a chert rubble zone and the upper portion of a fractured and solution-enhanced limestone formation. A regionally-extensive organic-rich shale underlies the semiconfined aquifer and separates it from the deep confined aquifer, which also consists of limestone. Groundwater investigations at the landfill have detected chlorinated and non-chlorinated hydrocarbons in the different aquifer intervals. Chlorinated hydrocarbons detected include tetrachloroethene, dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride and occur almost exclusively in the shallow aquifer. Aromatic hydrocarbons detected include benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) and-occur in the intermediate and deep aquifers. The landfill was originally interpreted as the source of the contaminants. The observation of free-phase liquid hydrocarbons in the intermediate aquifer at the site, and high dissolved BTEX levels in the deep and intermediate aquifers upgradient of the landfill suggest that the aromatics were derived from a source other than the landfill. A potential source of BTEX contamination may be abandoned (pre-1930) natural gas wells located near the landfill. An additional BTEX source may be the organic-rich shale formation (a documented petroleum source rock).

  14. PROPOSAL OF SANITARY MANAGEMENT OF EDIBLE ECHINODERMS IN SARDINIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Terrosu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus is an edible echinoderm very common in the Mediterranean sea. In the Sardinian gastronomic tradition it represents a product very used in some periods of the year, but in practice the sanitary controls by the competent authorities are very difficult. The Reg. (EC n. 853/2004 provides that, as regards as the control on production, echinoderms are assimilable to live bivalve molluscs, with the exception of the provisions on purification. In this work a proposal for the sanitary management of the phases of gathering, transport and selling of the sea urchins has been studied.

  15. Sanitary Transportation of Human and Animal Food. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-06

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is issuing a final rule to establish requirements for shippers, loaders, carriers by motor vehicle and rail vehicle, and receivers engaged in the transportation of food, including food for animals, to use sanitary transportation practices to ensure the safety of the food they transport. This action is part of our larger effort to focus on prevention of food safety problems throughout the food chain and is part of our implementation of the Sanitary Food Transportation Act of 2005 (2005 SFTA) and the Food Safety Modernization Act of 2011 (FSMA).

  16. The decay of wood in landfills in contrasting climates in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ximenes, Fabiano, E-mail: fabiano.ximenes@dpi.nsw.gov.au [Forest Science, Agriculture NSW, New South Wales Department of Primary Industries, Level 12, 10 Valentine Ave, Parramatta, NSW 2150 (Australia); Björdal, Charlotte [Department of Conservation, Gothenburg University, Guldhedsgatan 5A, Box 130, SE-405 30 Göteborg (Sweden); Cowie, Annette [NSW Department of Primary Industries, Beef Industry Centre, Trevenna Rd., University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351 (Australia); Barlaz, Morton [Dept. of Civil, Construction, & Environmental Eng., North Carolina State University, Box 7908, Raleigh, NC 27695-7908 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • We examine decay in wood from landfills in contrasting environments in Australia. • Analysis is based on changes in chemical composition and microscopy. • Climate did not influence levels of decay observed. • Microscopy of retrieved samples revealed most of the decay was aerobic in nature. • Current default factors for wood decay in landfills overestimate methane emissions. - Abstract: Wood products in landfill are commonly assumed to decay within several decades, returning the carbon contained therein to the atmosphere, with about half the carbon released as methane. However, the rate and extent of decay is not well known, as very few studies have examined the decay of wood products in landfills. This study reports on the findings from landfill excavations conducted in the Australian cities of Sydney and Cairns located in temperate and tropical environments, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine whether burial of the wood in warmer, more tropical conditions in Cairns would result in greater levels of decay than occurs in the temperate environment of Sydney. Wood samples recovered after 16–44 years in landfill were examined through physical, chemical and microscopic analyses, and compared with control samples to determine the carbon loss. There was typically little or no decay in the wood samples analysed from the landfill in Sydney. Although there was significant decay in rainforest wood species excavated from Cairns, decay levels for wood types that were common to both Cairns and Sydney landfills were similar. The current Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2006) default decay factor for organic materials in landfills is 50%. In contrast, the carbon loss determined for Pinus radiata recovered from Sydney and Cairns landfills was 7.9% and 4.4%, respectively, and 0% for Agathis sp. This suggests that climate did not influence decay, and that the more extensive levels of decay observed for some wood samples

  17. LANDFILL GAS PRETREATMENT FOR FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the U.S. EPA's program, underway at International Fuel Cells Corporation, to demonstrate landfill methane control and the fuel cell energy recovery concept. In this program, two critical issues are being addressed: (1) a landfill gas cleanup method that would ...

  18. MONITORING APPROACHES FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS - Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 30CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppor...

  19. MONITORING APPROACHES FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS - Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experimental bioreactor landfill operations at operating Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills can be approved under the research development and demonstration (RD&D) provisions of 30CFR 258.4. To provide a basis for consistent data collection for future decision-making in suppor...

  20. Imaging scatterers in landfills using seismic interferometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantaki, L.A.; Dragnov, D.S.; Heimovaara, T.J.; Ghose, R.

    2013-01-01

    A significant problem with landfills is their aftercare period. A landfill is considered to be safe for the environment only after a relatively long period of time. Until it reaches such a condition, it has to be periodically treated. Not only are treatments very expensive, but they could be dangero

  1. Quantifying capital goods for waste landfilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogaard, Line K; Stentsøe, Steen; Willumsen, Hans Christian; Christensen, Thomas H

    2013-06-01

    Materials and energy used for construction of a hill-type landfill of 4 million m(3) were quantified in detail. The landfill is engineered with a liner and leachate collections system, as well as a gas collection and control system. Gravel and clay were the most common materials used, amounting to approximately 260 kg per tonne of waste landfilled. The environmental burdens from the extraction and manufacturing of the materials used in the landfill, as well as from the construction of the landfill, were modelled as potential environmental impacts. For example, the potential impact on global warming was 2.5 kg carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalents or 0.32 milli person equivalents per tonne of waste. The potential impacts from the use of materials and construction of the landfill are low-to-insignificant compared with data reported in the literature on impact potentials of landfills in operation. The construction of the landfill is only a significant contributor to the impact of resource depletion owing to the high use of gravel and steel.

  2. Qualitative Research and Evaluation of Landfill Leachate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Kačinskaja

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, depositing municipal waste in landfills is the dominating method in Lithuania. A large amount of landfill leachate is the main environmental problem. Municipal waste landfill leachate is characterized by high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD containing a number of heavy metals and concentration of organic compounds. The colmatation of landfill leachate collection systems is another burning problem that occurs due to certain characteristics of leachate such as suspended solids, an increase in calcium and magnesium concentrations and vital activity of microorganisms. Therefore, it is necessary to examine conditions affecting these parameters. The paper presents and analyses the characteristics of experimental data, assesses the factors having the greatest influence on recent development and introduces the measures that should be taken into account so that to the ensure optimal operation of the systems for collecting municipal waste landfill leachate.Article in Lithuanian

  3. GEOTECHNICAL DESIGN OF SOLID WASTE LANDFILL SITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suat AKBULUT

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste landfills are important engineering structures for protection of wastes, decrease of environmental pollution, and especially prevention of soil and water pollution. Solid wastes should conveniently be maintained in landfill areas to control environmental pollution caused by waste disposals. Until the middle of this century clay liners were used for maintenance of waste disposal, but it was observed that these liner systems were insufficient. Today thinner and less permeable liner systems are constructed by using synthetic materials. In this study, by evaluating the waste landfills, site assessment of landfills and construction of natural and synthetic liner systems were summarized respectively, and especially the design properties of these systems were examined intensively. Also, leachate collection and removal facilities, landfill gas collection unites, and final cover unites were evaluated in a detailed way.

  4. Environmental impact of an urban landfill on a coastal aquifer (El Jadida, Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chofqi, Amina; Younsi, Abedelkader; Lhadi, El Kbir; Mania, Jacky; Mudry, Jacques; Veron, Alain

    2004-06-01

    The El Jadida landfill is one among many uncontrolled dumping sites in Morocco with no bottom liner. About 150 tons/day of solid wastes from mixed urban and industrial origins are placed directly on the ground. At the site of this landfill, the groundwaters circulate deeply (10-15 m) in the Cenomanian rock (calcareous-marl), which is characterised by an important permeability from cracks. The soil is sand-clay characterized by a weak coefficient of retention. The phreatic water ascends to the bottom of three quarries, which are located within the landfill. These circumstances, along with the lack of a leachate collection system, worsen the risks for a potential deterioration of the aquifer. To evaluate groundwater pollution due to this urban landfill, piezometric level and geochemical analyses have been monitored since 1999 on 60 wells. The landfill leachate has been collected from the three quarries that are located within the landfill. The average results of geochemical analyses show an important polluant charge vehiculed by landfill leachate (chloride = 5680 mg l -1, chemical oxygen demand = 1000 mg l -1, iron = 23 000 μg l -1). They show also an important qualitative degradation of the groundwater, especially in the parts situated in the down gradient area and in direct proximity to the landfill. In these polluted zones, we have observed the following values: higher than 4.5 mS cm -1 in electric conductivity, 1620 and 1000 mg l -1 respectively in chlorides and sulfate ( SO42-), 15-25 μg l -1 in cadmium, and 60-100 μg l -1 in chromium. These concentrations widely exceed the standard values for potable water. Several determining factors in the evolution of groundwater contamination have been highlighted, such as (1) depth of the water table, (2) permeability of soil and unsaturated zone, (3) effective infiltration, (4) humidity and (5) absence of a system for leachate drainage. So, to reduce the pollution risks of the groundwater, it is necessary to set a

  5. Biogeochemistry of landfill leachate plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Kjeldsen, Peter; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2001-01-01

    is on dissolved organic matter, xenobiotic organic compounds, inorganic macrocomponents as anions and cations, and heavy metals. Laboratory as well as field investigations are included. This review is an up-date of an earlier comprehensive review. The review shows that most leachate contamination plumes...... the behavior of the contaminants in the plume as the leachate migrates away from the landfill. Diverse microbial communities have been identified in leachate plumes and are believed to be responsible for the redox processes. Dissolved organic C in the leachate, although it appears to be only slowly degradable...

  6. Landfill site selection for municipal solid wastes in mountainous areas with landslide susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, Mahnaz; Homaee, Mehdi; Falamaki, Amin

    2016-06-01

    Several cities across the world are located in mountainous and landslide prone areas. Any landfill siting without considering landslide susceptibility in such regions may impose additional environmental adversity. This study was aimed to propose a practical method for selecting waste disposal site that accounts for landslide exposure. The proposed method was applied to a city which is highly proneness to landslide due to its geology, morphology, and climatic conditions. First, information on the previously occurred landslides of the region was collected. Based on this information, proper landslide causative factors were selected and their thematic maps were prepared. Factors' classes were then standardized in 0-1 domain, and thematic layers were weighted by using analytical hierarchy process (AHP). The landslide susceptibility map was prepared afterwards. Unsuitable areas for landfill location were masked in GIS environment by Boolean method, retaining sufficient areas for further evaluation. Nine remaining alternatives were selected through comprehensive field visits and were ranked by using AHP. Consequently, 17 factors in three environmental, economical, and social perspectives were employed. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the stability of the alternatives ranking with respect to variations in criterion weights. Based on the obtained landslide susceptible map, nearly 36 % of the entire region is proneness to landslide. The prepared Boolean map indicates that potential areas for landfill construction cover 11 % of the whole region. The results further indicated that if landslide susceptible areas are not considered in landfill site selection, the potential landfill sites would become more than twice. It can be concluded that if any of these landslide prone sites are selected for landfilling, further environmental disaster would be terminated in the future. It can be further concluded that the proposed method could reasonably well be adjusted to

  7. The Efficiency of an Integrated Program Using Falconry to Deter Gulls from Landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericka Thiériot

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gulls are commonly attracted to landfills, and managers are often required to implement cost-effective and socially accepted deterrence programs. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive program that integrated the use of trained birds of prey, pyrotechnics, and playback of gull distress calls at a landfill located close to a large ring-billed gull (Larus delawarensis colony near Montreal, Quebec, Canada. We used long-term survey data on bird use of the landfill, conducted behavioral observations of gulls during one season and tracked birds fitted with GPS data loggers. We also carried out observations at another landfill located farther from the colony, where less refuse was brought and where a limited culling program was conducted. The integrated program based on falconry resulted in a 98% decrease in the annual total number of gulls counted each day between 1995 and 2014. A separate study indicated that the local breeding population of ring-billed gulls increased and then declined during this period but remained relatively large. In 2010, there was an average (±SE of 59 ± 15 gulls/day using the site with falconry and only 0.4% ± 0.2% of these birds were feeding. At the other site, there was an average of 347 ± 55 gulls/day and 13% ± 3% were feeding. Twenty-two gulls tracked from the colony made 41 trips towards the landfills: twenty-five percent of the trips that passed by the site with falconry resulted in a stopover that lasted 22 ± 7 min compared to 85% at the other landfill lasting 63 ± 15 min. We concluded that the integrated program using falconry, which we consider more socially acceptable than selective culling, was effective in reducing the number of gulls at the landfill.

  8. Conducting Sanitary Surveys of Water Supply Systems. Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976

    This workbook is utilized in connection with a 40-hour course on sanitary surveys of water supply systems for biologists, chemists, and engineers with experience as a water supply evaluator. Practical training is provided in each of the 21 self-contained modules. Each module outlines the purpose, objectives and content for that section. The course…

  9. 30 CFR 75.1712-10 - Underground sanitary facilities; maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... a clean and sanitary condition. Holding tanks shall be serviced and cleaned when full and in no case... recharging. Transfer tanks and transfer equipment used underground shall be equipped with suitable fittings to permit complete drainage of holding tanks without spillage and allow for the...

  10. [Ways of urban sanitary and epidemiological well-being management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreĭmer, M A

    2010-01-01

    The scientific rationale for preventive measures based on sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance on environmental objects is considered. The sizes of functional zones and space for various types of communal services and amenities and leisure are regulated to ensure good urban vital activities. Multistorey housing causes an increase in the number of negative factors per area units and in their impact on health. A proposal has been made for the standardization of the ranges of urban population upsurge and size, by using the sanitary-and-hygienic rules and norms rather than climatic parameters. A criterion system for assessing the data of statistical observations has been substantiated and 5 levels of analysis and managerial decision-making have been proposed. Cause-and-effect relations may be determined for the parameters of the second level; models of program-oriented studies for the third level, only sanitary-and-epidemiological surveillance is possible for the fourth and fifth levels. The space planning scheme must provide for water supply reserves, generation areas for pure air coming into the town, and waste disposal areas. The general layout may use statistical observation parameters characterizing the second level of occurrence of negative phenomena. The statistical observation parameters characterizing the third and fourth levels of occurrence of negative phenomena may be used for municipal improvements and sanitary maintenance. These characterizing the fourth and fifth level may be used for prevention in therapeutic-and-prophylactic institutions.

  11. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-F4 Sanitary Sewer System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-12-03

    The 1607-F4 waste site is the former location of the sanitary sewer system that serviced the former 115-F Gas Recirculation Building. The system included a septic tank, drain field, and associated pipeline that were in use from 1944 to 1965. The 1607-F4 waste site received unknown amounts of sanitary sewage from the 115-F Gas Recirculation Building and may have potentially contained hazardous and radioactive contamination. In accordance with this evaluation, the verification sampling results support a reclassification of this site to Interim Closed Out. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  12. A GIS-BASED MULTI-CRITERIA EVALUATION SYSTEM FOR SELECTION OF LANDFILL SITES: a case study from Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Issa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Landfill sites receive 92% of total annual solid waste produced by municipalities in the emirate of Abu Dhabi. In this study, candidate sites for an appropriate landfill location for the Abu Dhabi municipal area are determined by integrating geographic information systems (GIS and multi-criteria evaluation (MCE analysis. To identify appropriate landfill sites, eight input map layers including proximity to urban areas, proximity to wells and water table depth, geology and topography, proximity to touristic and archeological sites, distance from roads network, distance from drainage networks, and land slope are used in constraint mapping. A final map was generated which identified potential areas showing suitability for the location of the landfill site. Results revealed that 30% of the study area was identified as highly suitable, 25% as suitable, and 45% as unsuitable. The selection of the final landfill site, however, requires further field research.

  13. Onsite survey on the mechanism of passive aeration and air flow path in a semi-aerobic landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuto, Toshihiko; Zhang, Xin; Matsuo, Takayuki; Yamada, Shuhei

    2015-02-01

    The semi-aerobic landfill is a widely accepted landfill concept in Japan because it promotes stabilization of leachates and waste via passive aeration without using any type of mechanical equipment. Ambient air is thought to be supplied to the landfill through a perforated pipe network made of leachate collection pipe laid along the bottom and a vertically erected gas vent. However, its underlying air flow path and driving forces are unclear because empirical data from real-world landfills is inadequate. The objective of this study is to establish scientific evidence about the aeration mechanisms and air flow path by an on-site survey of a full-scale, semi-aerobic landfill. First, all passive vents located in the landfill were monitored with respect to temperature level and gas velocity in different seasons. We found a linear correlation between the outflow rate and gas temperature, suggesting that air flow is driven by a buoyancy force caused by the temperature difference between waste in the landfill and the ambient temperature. Some vents located near the landfill bottom acted as air inflow vents. Second, we conducted a tracer test to determine the air flow path between two vents, by injecting tracer gas from an air sucking vent. The resulting slowly increasing gas concentration at the neighboring vent suggested that fresh air flow passes through the waste layer toward the gas vents from leachate collection pipes, as well as directly flowing through the pipe network. Third, we monitored the temperature of gas flowing out of a vent at night. Since the temperature drop of the gas was much smaller than that of the environment, the air collected at the gas vents was estimated to flow mostly through the waste layer, i.e., the semi-aerobic landfill has considerable aeration ability under the appropriate conditions.

  14. Methane emission quantification from landfills using a double tracer approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Samuelsson, J.; Fredenslund, Anders Michael

    2007-01-01

    in the October respectively February measurement. The CH4 emission from the compost area was 0.5 kg CH4 h-1, whereas the carbon dioxide (CO2) flux and nitrous oxide (N2O) was quantified to be in the order of 332 kg CO2 h-1 and 0.06 kg N2O h-1 respectively. The sludge pit located west of the compost material......A tracer method was successfully used for quantification of the whole methane (CH4) emission from Fakse landfill. By using two different tracers the emission from different sections of the landfill could be quantified. Furthermore, is was possible to determine the emissions from local on site...... sources; a composting facility and a sewage sludge storage unit by scaling the tracer method down. Two field campaigns were performed; during October 11-12, 2006 and February 19-20, 2007. At both field campaigns an overall leak search showed that the CH4 emission from the old landfill section...

  15. Planning solutions of sanitary facilities in modern residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the short historical review on the design of sanitary rooms and their configurations is given. The main errors of the recent years, which led to the decrease in accommodation convenience because of the wrong approach from both the architect and engineers, are given. It is possible to use a small useful area for sanitary facilities, but it is connected with the lack of possibility of connecting washing and dishwashers. The author considers the options of engineering equipment placement in sanitary rooms taking into account the convenience of use, safety, and also resource-saving aspect. Various solutions on the organization of heating and ventilation are provided. The possible technical solutions allowing solving a flooding problem of the first floors in elite housing estates in case of accident are offered with the help of full waterproofing of sanitary rooms, and also the whole area of the apartment. The main attention was focused on the improvements of sanitary rooms for one-room and two-room apartments, which are the most demanded in the modern market of real estate. Layout solutions of the reduced bathrooms on the placement of the necessary equipment with choice justification are provided. The attention is paid to the layout solution for modern kitchens on order to increase their comfort by the use of special two-section sinks, and also a grinder of food waste in order to allow to lower the load of the systems of rubbish disposal of a building, by dumping the crushed garbage in an internal sewer network. Various options of evolutionary development of sanitary rooms for increasing the comfort degree are given. First of all, the development should happen in the direction of not only sanitation and hygiene, but also of the maintenance of the physical health of the people living in the building. It can be carried out by increase in a useful area of sanitary rooms, installation of exercise machines, medical bathtubs and a Jacuzzi

  16. Soil contamination by heavy metals in landfills: measurements from an unlined leachate storage basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzayani, Fethi; Aydi, Abdelwaheb; Abichou, Tarek

    2014-08-01

    Landfills are sources of groundwater and soil pollution due to the production of leachate and its migration through refuse. This study was conducted in order to determine the extent of soil pollution within and around the Jebel Chakir landfill, located in the Tunis City, Tunisia. The main objective was to characterize soil samples of an unlined storage basin in relation to heavy metal concentrations in the Jebel Chakir landfill to the southwest of Tunis, Northern Tunisia. Twenty-four soil samples taken from different locations around the storage basin were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry for Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn investigation. Our results indicated high concentrations of Cr (54.4-129.9 mg/kg of DM), Zn (4.1-81.8 mg/kg of DM), Ni (15.1-43.9 mg/kg of DM), Pb (5.6-16.1 mg/kg of DM), and Cu (0.2-1.84 mg/kg of DM). These results suggested that contaminant migration is controlled by an active clay layer acting as an insulating material in the landfill. It is therefore necessary to set a treatment system for the landfill leachates and place a liner under the storage basin to reduce the pollution threat.

  17. Evaluation of the Oedometer Tests of Municipal Landfill Waste Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Emőke

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the ongoing research is (i to develop a new biodegradation landfill technique so that the landfill gas production could be controlled and the utilisation of the landfill gas could economically be optimized, (ii to plan the energy utilisation of the landfill including individual and combined solutions (solar, wind, geothermal energy, energy storage using methanol etc.. [1, 2, 3

  18. Municipal landfill sites as sources of microorganisms potentially pathogenic to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalwasińska, Agnieszka; Burkowska, Aleksandra

    2013-05-01

    The present research was aimed at assessing the quality of air and soil on the premises and in the vicinity of the municipal landfill sites in Toruń with regard to the presence of pathogenic bacteria, potentially dangerous to humans. Air samples (the impaction method using a MAS-100 impactor) and soil samples were collected from seven sampling sites including the operating and closed landfill cells, sampling sites located near leachate ponds, and sampling sites located outside the above premises. The research also involved assessing microbial air contamination in three indoor spaces on the premises of the landfill sites. Microbial tests involved the determination of the number of culturable mesophilic, mannitol-positive, and α- and β-hemolytic bacteria in the air, determination of the number of coliform bacteria, spore-forming Clostridium perfringens in soil, and the presence of Salmonella in soil. The results indicate that bioaerosol emitted by this municipal facility is the source of hemolytic bacteria (≤ 300 CFU m(-3) of air), as well as of pathogenic bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis). The highest risk of exposure to biological agents was determined in the sorting facility. Over sixty percent of air samples in this sampling site presented high pollution degree with mesophilic bacteria (500-2000 CFU m(-3) of air) and over one fourth of air samples presented very high pollution degree (>2000 CFU m(-3) of air). Indoor air in other rooms was considered highly/moderately contaminated (100-2000 CFU m(-3) of air). The highest risk related to the presence of Salmonella, Clostridium perfringens, and coliform bacteria in soil was determined at the operating landfill cell and near the leachate pond of the closed landfill cell. At the operating landfill cell the total coli ranged from 4-1226 MPN g(-1) of dry mass of soil and Clostridium perfringens ranged from landfill sites in densely populated areas, and emphasize the need for regular monitoring

  19. Performance evaluation of the bioreactor landfill in treatment and stabilisation of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmikanthan, P; Sivakumar Babu, G L

    2017-03-01

    The potential of bioreactor landfills to treat mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste is analysed in this study. Developing countries like India and China have begun to investigate bioreactor landfills for municipal solid waste management. This article describes the impacts of leachate recirculation on waste stabilisation, landfill gas generation, leachate characteristics and long-term waste settlement. A small-scale and large-scale anaerobic cell were filled with mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste collected from a landfill site at the outskirts of Bangalore, India. Leachate collected from the same landfill site was recirculated at the rate of 2-5 times a month on a regular basis for 370 days. The total quantity of gas generated was around 416 L in the large-scale reactor and 21 L in the small-scale reactor, respectively. Differential settlements ranging from 20%-26% were observed at two different locations in the large reactor, whereas 30% of settlement was observed in the small reactor. The biological oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand (COD) ratio indicated that the waste in the large reactor was stabilised at the end of 1 year. The performance of the bioreactor with respect to the reactor size, temperature, landfill gas and leachate quality was analysed and it was found that the bioreactor landfill is efficient in the treatment and stabilising of mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste.

  20. Measuring organic carbon, nutrients and heavy metals in rivers receiving leachate from controlled and uncontrolled municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, N; Haraguchi, A; Hassan, M A; Othman, M R; Wakisaka, M; Shirai, Y

    2009-10-01

    Since landfilling is the common method of waste disposal in Malaysia, river water is greatly exposed to the risk of contamination from leachate unless proper leachate management is carried out. In this study, leachates from three different types of landfills, namely active uncontrolled, active controlled and closed controlled, were characterized, and their relationships with river water chemistry were examined monthly for a year. The influence of leachate on river water chemistry from each type of landfill depended on many factors, including the presence of a leachate control mechanism, leachate characteristics, precipitation, surface runoff and the applied treatment. The impact of leachate from an active uncontrolled landfill was the highest, as the organic content, NH(4)(+)-N, Cd and Mn levels appeared high in the river. At the same time, influences of leachate were also observed from both types of controlled landfills in the form of inorganic nitrogen (NH(4)(+)-N, NO(3)(-)-N and NO(2)(-)-N) and heavy metals (Fe, Cr, Ni and Mn). Improper treatment practice led to high levels of some contaminants in the stream near the closed controlled landfill. Meanwhile, the active controlled landfill, which was located near the coastline, was exposed to the risk of contamination resulting from the pyrite oxidation of the surrounding area.

  1. Assessing sanitary mixtures in East African cities

    OpenAIRE

    Letema, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The urbanisation of poverty and informality in East African cities poses a threat to environmental health, perpetuates social exclusion and inequalities, and creates service gaps (UN-Habitat, 2008). This makes conventional sanitation provision untenable citywide, giving rise to the emergence of sanitation mixtures. Sanitation mixtures have different scales, institutional arrangements, user groups, and rationalities for their establishment, location, and management. For assessing the performan...

  2. Controlled landfill project, Yolo County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augenstein, D.C.; Benemann, J.R. [Inst. for Environmental Management Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Yazdani, R.; Kieffer, J.; Akau, H. [Yolo County Dept. of Public Works, Woodland, CA (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Controlled bioreactor landfill tests were conducted at the Central Landfill in Yolo County, California to determine how to maximize methane recovery for energy use while minimizing methane emissions to the atmosphere. Landfill gas has the potential to contribute 1 per cent to the total electricity supplies in the United States. The failure to use methane to its potential is due to unpredictability, variability and slow rates of production and low recovery factors of landfill methane. The main challenge lies in accelerating the biological decomposition and treatment of the municipal solid waste (MSW). The breakdown rate of MWS can be increased through the use of basic landfill biochemical engineering methods. This study demonstrated the influence of adding supplemental water and leachate to the MSW. Moisture, temperature and gas pressures were recorded throughout the waste mass. This study also focused on eliminating volatile organic compounds, reducing the costs for post-closure landfill care, improving the economics of scale for energy use, improving leachate quality and reducing the costs for off-site disposal of landfill leachate. It was shown that methane capture was maximized when a surface membrane was placed over a permeable layer and when the bioreactor was operated at a slight vacuum. Accelerated methane production and waste reduction were noted in the enhanced test cell. The first order rate constant for methanogenesis was about 0.45 per year. The control cell stopped producing gas after one year. 12 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Physical and sanitary quality of soybean seeds produced in the state of Santa Catarina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volmir Frandoloso

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Soybean production accounts for approximately 43% of Brazil’s grain produce, worth over 81 million tons for the 2012- 2013 cropping season. The use of quality seeds is essential for a high-yield agriculture, since low quality seeds compromise plant standing and increase production costs due to reseeding. This will in turn reduce yields through delays on the establishment dates. Seed quality is affected by relative humidity levels, mechanical damage during harvest and processing, thermal damage during the drying process and the environmental conditions during storage that could foster insect and fungi damage. The climate in the state of Santa Catarina favors soybean seed production, and seed companies in general work with high levels of technology. This work is aimed at characterizing the physical and sanitary quality of soybean seeds produced by different companies at different locations throughout the state of Santa Catarina (municipalities of Xanxerê, Abelardo Luz, Campos Novos and Canoinhas. The physical purity, moisture level, sanitary quality and mechanical damage of soybean seeds were studied at three stages, i.e. reception at the seed processing unit, at the end of the processing process and before being marketed. Results pointed out at mechanical injury and cultivar mixture as the main issues concerning seed lot quality, and that soybean seeds produced in Santa Catarina show pathogen contamination, which emphasizes the need for seed treatment.

  4. Ampelographic Description and Sanitary Analysis of Four Istrian Grapevine Varieties (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djordano Persuric

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Istrian Peninsula, one of the five districts within viticultural region of Coastal Croatia, provides great geological-reliefal and climatic diversity and various production conditions. This research studied the autochthonous varieties and their sanitary status in old vineyards. Considering the age of vineyard, ten locations were chosen where four autochthonous varieties ‘Malvasia istarska’, ‘Teran’, ‘Borgonja’, and ‘Pergola velika’ were identified using ampelographic description according to OIV descriptors. Morphological characteristics of chosen varieties were described using OIV parameters and must was chemically analysed (pH value, sugar content, titratable acidity. High intra cultivar variability was found for weight of a single bunch especially for ‘Teran’. There were also differences in sugar content of must particularly for ‘Pergola velika’. Must pH was low for all varieties with predominantly low acidity value. Sanitary status of vines was determined by testing the plant samples for the presence of three grapevine viruses (GLRaV-1, GLRaV-3 and GFLV using DAS-ELISA. The percentage of infection for GFLV was 55.6% while for GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3 it was 61.1%. Results showed that some morphological characteristics differ from characteristics described in literature. With purpose of preserving the biodiversity of autochthonous varieties and for future researches, healthy propagation material will be collected and planted in collection field of autochthonous varieties at the Institute of Agriculture and Tourism, Poreč.

  5. Problems of placement of industrial wastes in landfills in the industrial city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STEPANOV Evgeniy Georgievich,

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that the anthropogenic transformation of the environment increases when production wastes and consumption are placed in landfills. Hygienic condition of the areas with high population density and developed industry is determined by the increased amount of household and industrial waste, mainly deposited in the numerous landfills. This situation is studied on the example of landfills used for industrial wastes produced by the enterprises JSC «Gazprom Neftekhim Salavat», JSC «Salavatsteklo», located in the city of Salavat of the Republic of Bashkortostan. The sources of industrial pollution in Salavat have been analyzed. One should note that the city-forming enterprise is the JSC «Gazprom Neftekhim Salavat» which share of the total amount of wastes generated in the city per year is 80%. Another company which contributes significantly to this process is the JSC «Salavatsteklo». To study the possible migration of contaminants to the aquifer an observation well has been made at the landfill site. The research of the water obtained from the observation well at the polygon identified maximum allowable concentrations for chemical oxygen demand (COD, phenol and oil products. The groundwater occurrence modes have been studied. The migration of the chemicals contained in the body of the landfill, to groundwater, has been revealed. That leads to contamination of surface water. Laboratory studies of water objects in the zone of influence of industrial waste landfill in Romodanovskomu career have been performed. It was determined that excess of maximum permissible concentration of benzene, and the presence of toluene, lead, phenol indicates the pollution of groundwater by substances stored in landfills Romanovskogo career, both by infiltration and subsequent migration to groundwater of adjacent aquifers and through surface runoff and infiltration from snowmelt and rainwater.

  6. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of solid waste management strategies in Tehran: landfill and composting plus landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduli, M A; Naghib, Abolghasem; Yonesi, Mansoor; Akbari, Ali

    2011-07-01

    As circumstances of operating and maintenance activities for landfilling and composting in Tehran metropolis differ from those of cities in developed countries, it was concluded to have an environmental impact comparison between the current solid waste management (MSW) strategies: (1) landfill, and (2) composting plus landfill. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare these scenarios for MSW in Tehran, Iran. The Eco-Indicator 99 is applied as an impact assessment method considering surplus energy, climate change, acidification, respiratory effect, carcinogenesis, ecotoxicity and ozone layer depletion points of aspects. One ton of municipal solid waste of Tehran was selected as the functional unit. According to the comparisons, the composting plus landfill scenario causes less damage to human health in comparison to landfill scenario. However, its damages to both mineral and fossil resources as well as ecosystem quality are higher than the landfill scenario. Thus, the composting plus landfill scenario had a higher environmental impact than landfill scenario. However, an integrated waste management will ultimately be the most efficient approach in terms of both environmental and economic benefits. In this paper, a cost evaluation shows that the unit cost per ton of waste for the scenarios is 15.28 and 26.40 US$, respectively. Results show landfill scenario as the preferable option both in environmental and economic aspects for Tehran in the current situation.

  7. Comments on Environmental and Sanitary Aspects of the Scorpionism by Tityus trivittatus in Buenos Aires City, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Rafael de Roodt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Deaths by venomous animals are medical emergencies that can lead to death and thus constitute sanitary problems in some regions of the world. In the South of America, the accidents by these animals are a common sanitary problem especially in warm, tropical or subtropical regions, related with rural work in several countries. Argentina is located in the extreme South of South America and a minor part of the continental surface is in tropical or subtropical regions, where most of the accidents by venomous animals happen. However, in the big cities in the center and South of the country, with no relation to rural work, scorpionism, mostly due to the synanthropic and facultative parthenogenetic scorpion Tityus trivittatus, has become a sanitary problem in the last few decades. This scorpion is present in the biggest cities of Argentina and in the last decades has killed over 20 children in provinces of the center and north of the country, mostly in big cities. In addition, it seems that this species is growing and spreading in new regions of the cities. In this revision, some characteristics of this scorpion regarding its habitat, spreading in Buenos Aires city, combat measures and available treatments are discussed.

  8. INPP Landfill[Disposal of very low level radioactive waste at Ignalina NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlberg, Jan; Bergstroem, Ulla

    2004-06-15

    The objective of this report is to propose the basic design for final disposal of Very Low Level Radioactive Waste (VLLW) produced at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant and at other small waste producers in Lithuania. Considering the safety for the environment, as well as the construction costs, it has been decided that the repository will be of a landfill type based on the same design principles as similar authorised facilities in other countries. It has also been decided that the location of the landfill shall be in the vicinity of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP)

  9. Characterization of a soil used as sanitary landfill liner at an experimental cell of municipal solid waste

    OpenAIRE

    Mariane Alves de Godoy Leme

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: A geração dos resíduos sólidos urbanos (RSU) é uma ocorrência diária que deve ser gerenciada. Os aterros sanitários são os empreendimentos para disposição adequada desses resíduos. Dentre os constituintes estruturais dos aterros sanitários, há as barreiras impermeabilizantes de base, que podem ser de vários tipos, sendo as constituídas por solo argiloso compactado amplamente utilizadas. Este trabalho objetivou-se caracterizar o solo utilizado como camada mineral compactada no sistema ...

  10. Leachates treatment with oxygen in Sanitary landfills of urban solid waste; Depuracion de lixiviados con oxigeno en vertederos de RSU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, P.

    1999-11-01

    The leachate of spillways of solid waste is a product of the rain and of the humidity contributed by the residuals that is deposited in it. When water is filtered through the residuals in decompositions, biological materials and chemical compounds are dragged and dilute, being many of them very polluting. For their treatment, one must keep in mind that the composition chemistry of the leachates varies a lot according to the technique of exploitation and the antiquity of the spillway. (Author)

  11. American Canyon Sanitary Landfill Operation Regulatory Permit Application, Napa County, California, Public Notice 9297-29R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    of an excessive ultimate estuary load. 9. In essence Alternative #2R may be considered "conditioned" in that it incorporates the proposed project as...average daily trips (ADT). Eucalyptus Drive, the main access road to the site, is currently at 15 percent of this capacity. The most likely point of

  12. Consortia of microalgae and bacteria in the performance of a stabilization pond system treating landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, R H R; Martins, C L; Fernandes, H; Velho, V F

    2014-01-01

    This study treated sanitary landfill leachate and was conducted in a pilot-scale system composed of three serial ponds (P1, P2 and P3), followed by a rock filter, in order to evaluate the microbial consortium influence on system performance and to investigate microorganism dynamics in the process. The system was broken into three stages, with a continuous flow rate (Q = 200 L d⁻¹) for 43 weeks. The stages were as follows: conventional operation (stage I), 12 h aeration in P2 (stage II), and 18 h aeration in P2 (stage III). The results showed the possibilities for treating landfill leachate, presenting an average efficiency of 75% for both filtered biochemical oxygen demand and ammonium. At the end of stage III, the ammonium concentration was 6 mg L⁻¹, which is lower than that established by Brazilian regulations for wastewater discharge (CONAMA 430/2011). The aeration applied in P2 led to a change in the microbial consortia during the second and third stage, which influenced the quality of the final effluent. The best performance was seen in stage III, where the system showed high microbial diversity, including the presence of nitrifying bacteria.

  13. Modelling the Potential Biogas Productivity Range from a MSW Landfill for Its Sustainable Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cristina Rada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A model of biogas generation was modified and applied to the case of a sanitary landfill in Italy. The modifications considered the role of the temperature field normally established within each layer of waste. It must be pointed out the temperature affects the anaerobic biodegradation kinetics. In order to assess the effect of moisture on the waste biodegradation rate, on the bacteria process and then on the methane production, the model was compared with the LandGEM one. Information on the initial water content came from data concerning waste composition. No additional information about the hydrological balance was available. Thus, nine sets of kinetic constants, derived by literature, were adopted for the simulations. Results showed a significant variability of the maximal hourly biogas flows on a yearly basis, with consequences for the collectable amount during the operating period of a hypothetical engine. The approach is a useful tool to assess the lowest and highest biogas productivity in order to analyze the viability of biogas exploitation for energy purposes. This is useful also in countries that must plan for biogas exploitation from old and new landfills, as a consequence of developments in the waste sector.

  14. A combined treatment of landfill leachate using calcium oxide, ferric chloride and clinoptilolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orescanin, Visnja; Ruk, Damir; Kollar, Robert; Mikelic, Ivanka Lovrencic; Nad, Karlo; Mikulic, Nenad

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was development of appropriate procedure for treatment of landfill leachate taken from old sanitary landfill Piskornica (Koprivnica, Croatia). Due to complex nature of the effluent a combined treatment approach was applied. Samples were treated with calcium oxide followed by ferric chloride and finally with clinoptilolite. The optimum amount of treating agents and contact time were determined. Application of calcium oxide (25 g/L, 20 min. contact time) resulted in the reduction of color, turbidity, suspended solids and ammonia for 94.50%, 96.55%, 95.66% and 21.60%, respectively, while the removal efficiency of Cr (VI), Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb was 75.00%, 95.34%, 56.52%, 78.72%, 73.02% and 100.00%, respectively. After addition of ferric chloride (570 mg Fe(3+)/L, 20 min. contact time) removal efficiency of color, turbidity, suspended solids and ammonia increased to 96.04%, 99.27%, 98.61%, and 43.20%, respectively. Removal of ammonia (81.60%) increased significantly after final adsorption onto clinoptilolite (25 g/L, 4 h contact time). Removal of COD after successive treatment with calcium oxide, ferric chloride and clinoptilolite was 64.70%, 77.40% and 81.00%, respectively.

  15. Performance of landfill leachate treatment system with disc-tube reverse osmosis units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanping LIU; Xiujin LI; Baozhen WANG; Shuo LIU

    2008-01-01

    Reverse osmosis system with the disc-tube module (DT-RO) was applied to treat landfill leachate on full scale at the Changshengqiao Sanitary Landfill, Chongqing City, China. In the first six-mouth operation phase, the treatment performance of DT-RO system had been excel-lent and stable. The removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), electrical con-ductivity (EC), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) reached 99.2-99.7%, 99.2%, 99.6%, and over 98%, respectively. The rejection of Ca2+,Ba2+, and Mg2+ was over 99.9%, respectively. Suspended solid (SS) was not detected in prod-uct water. Effective methods had been adopted to control membrane fouling, of which chemical cleaning is of utmost importance to guarantee the long smooth operation of the DT-RO system. The DT-RO system is cleaned in turns with Cleaner A and Cleaner C. At present, the 1st stage cleaning cycle by Cleaner A and Cleaner C is conducted every 100 and 500 h, respectively, depending on raw the water quality.

  16. Removal of hydrogen sulfide gas and landfill leachate treatment using coal bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C Y; Hesu, P H; Yang, D H

    2001-06-01

    Coal bottom ashes produced from three thermal power plants were used in column and batch experiments to investigate the adsorption capacity of the coal ash. Hydrogen sulfide and leachates collected from three sanitary landfill sites were used as adsorbate gas and solutions, respectively. Experimental results showed that coal bottom ash could remove H2S from waste gas or reduce the concentrations of various pollutants in the leachate. Each gram of bottom ash could remove up to 10.5 mg of H2S. In treating the landfill leachate, increasing ash dosage increased the removal efficiency but decreased the adsorption amount per unit mass of ash. For these tested ashes, the removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH3-N, total Kjeldhal nitrogen (TKN), P, Fe3+, Mn2+, and Zn2+ were 36.4-50, 24.2-39.4, 27.0-31.1, 82.2-92.9, 93.8-96.5, 93.7-95.4, and 80.5-82.2%, respectively; the highest adsorption capacities for those parameters were 3.5-5.6, 0.22-0.63, 0.36-0.45, 0.027-0.034, 0.050-0.053, 0.029-0.032, and 0.006 mg/g of bottom ash, respectively. The adsorption of pollutants in the leachate conformed to Freundlich's adsorption model.

  17. International Sanitary Conferences from the Ottoman perspective (1851–1938

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Ersoy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for international measures to prevent and control epidemics of cholera, the plague, yellow fever, malaria and typhus which ravaged the world throughout the 19th century, led to a series of International Sanitary Conferences and Conventions under the leadership of European states. Between 1851 and 1938 fourteen conferences - Paris (1851, Paris (1859, Istanbul (1866, Vienna (1874, Washington D.C. (1881, Rome (1885, Venice (1892, Dresden (1893, Paris (1894, Venice (1897, Paris (1903, (1911, (1926 and (1938 - and eight conventions - 1892, 1893, 1894, 1897, 1903, 1912, 1926, 1938 were held. Both conferences and conventions shaped social life, health policies, politics, laws, and transportation, economic, commercial rules of the European, Asian and also American countries. In this study we reviewed the reasons, process and the results of each international sanitary conference from the Ottoman social and health perspective.

  18. Integrated characterisation of aquifer heterogeneity and landfill leachate plume migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, L.; Lefebvre, R.; Gloaguen, E.; Paradis, D.

    2009-05-01

    sampling with packers; 4) borehole geophysical logging; 5) high resolution hydraulic tests. The different types of data were integrated with multivariate geostatistical analysis and the results showed complex aquifer conditions. The aquifer base exhibits large topographic variations and semi-confined conditions seem to be present in certain locations. These conditions have a significant influence on groundwater flow and leachate migration. The geostatistical interpretation of multilevel geochemical parameters, combined with CPT data, provides a definition of groundwater geochemical spatial variability and indicates the likely extent of landfill leachate. This detailed knowledge of the aquifer serves as a base for the initial development of a numerical model considering heterogeneity and guides further characterization of the aquifer and plume. Keywords: characterization, heterogeneity, direct push, surface geophysics, numerical model, landfill leachate, natural attenuation.

  19. Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The program models rainfall, runoff, infiltration, and other water pathways to estimate how much water builds up above each landfill liner. It can incorporate data on vegetation, soil types, geosynthetic materials, initial moisture conditions, slopes, etc.

  20. Operating a fuel cell using landfill gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trippel, C.E.; Preston, J.L. Jr.; Trocciola, J.; Spiegel, R.

    1996-12-31

    An ONSI PC25{trademark}, 200 kW (nominal capacity) phosphoric acid fuel cell operating on landfill gas is installed at the Town of Groton Flanders Road landfill in Groton, Connecticut. This joint project by the Connecticut Light & Power Company (CL&P) which is an operating company of Northeast Utilities, the Town of Groton, International Fuel Cells (IFC), and the US EPA is intended to demonstrate the viability of installing, operating and maintaining a fuel cell operating on landfill gas at a landfill site. The goals of the project are to evaluate the fuel cell and gas pretreatment unit operation, test modifications to simplify the GPU design and demonstrate reliability of the entire system.

  1. Marketing Specialization in the Sanitary-Veterinary Field

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Cornelia Prejmerean

    2006-01-01

    Public health and food safety are main consumer rights in the European Union. Sanitary standards related to animal health, animal welfare, food production are developed and standardizEditura The objective is to detect, diagnose and control animal diseases and to have a safe food chain. Although the input of the animal health industry is low in the agricultural production, it allows European farmers to produce high quality meat and dairy products, minimise environmental impact. Romania as a fu...

  2. [The sanitary question in the modernity-postmodernity debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriart, C; Spinelli, H

    1994-12-01

    This work analyzes the sanitary question in the modernity-postmodernity debate. Such analyses are performed form a philosophical position that states the crisis of Modernity and questions the ideological twist that to itself propitiates postmodernity, shutting out questioning views or visions. It propitiates an alternative view of politics, thinking of it from the potency plane and giving a role to the subject in the decision of producing transformations.

  3. Slope stability and bearing capacity of landfills and simple on-site test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, Atsushi; Doi, Yoichi; Omine, Kiyoshi

    2017-07-01

    This study discusses strength characteristics (slope stability, bearing capacity, etc.) of waste landfills through on-site tests that were carried out at 29 locations in 19 sites in Japan and three other countries, and proposes simple methods to test and assess the mechanical strength of landfills on site. Also, the possibility of using a landfill site was investigated by a full-scale eccentric loading test. As a result of this, landfills containing more than about 10 cm long plastics or other fibrous materials were found to be resilient and hard to yield. An on-site full scale test proved that no differential settlement occurs. The repose angle test proposed as a simple on-site test method has been confirmed to be a good indicator for slope stability assessment. The repose angle test suggested that landfills which have high, near-saturation water content have considerably poorer slope stability. The results of our repose angle test and the impact acceleration test were related to the internal friction angle and the cohesion, respectively. In addition to this, it was found that the air pore volume ratio measured by an on-site air pore volume ratio test is likely to be related to various strength parameters.

  4. Life in a landfill slum, children's health, and the Millennium Development Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Tomoyuki; Wilson, James L; Watson, Lindsey M; Nikitin, Ivan V; Ansariadi; La Ane, Ruslan; Maidin, Alimin

    2015-12-01

    People living in slums can be considered left behind with regard to national successes in achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The objective of this study was to evaluate the living and working conditions of waste pickers and their children in a landfill slum located in the largest city in eastern Indonesia. A total of 113 people from the landfill slum and 1184 people from the general population participated in face-to-face interviews. Municipal solid waste (MSW) was analyzed for metals, metalloids and fecal indicator bacteria. Ambient air quality including particulate matter was measured in the landfill. Households in the landfill slum were 5.73 (p=0.04) times more likely to be below the international poverty line (MDG 1: Poverty) and 15.6 times (plandfill slum were 2.87 times (p=0.02) more likely to develop diarrhea than their general population counterparts. Other survey results and environmental measurements suggest that landfill slum children have additional adverse health effects (e.g. infections and poisoning). Poverty underlies several MDG issues that directly or indirectly affect child health. Therefore, eradicating extreme poverty will continue to be the most critical challenge for the MDGs beyond 2015.

  5. Geophysical characterization in solid waste landfill for evaluation of geotechnical instability conditioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Del Roveri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The disposal of solid waste can create environmental problems, in addition to the potential risk of instability even in planned geotechnical works, such as provisions in stacks or high ends of the landfill, because they represent mere adjustments in civil engineering works. The Leme city, SP, generates about 35 t/day of municipal waste, that are deposited in a landfill located in the Barro Preto neighborhood. This work conducted a geophysical survey, based on geotechnical instability evidence in area, for analysis of the conditioners that cause on the sides leachate resurgence landfill and its relationship to mass movements and ravines installation in cover soil, with consequent waste exposure. The results indicate horizons of low resistivity connected with resurgence points generated by the organic matter decomposition contained in the waste. Such horizons result in leachate concentration in some places, which, in turn, may lead to loss of cohesion of the materials constituting the residues mass. The results are areas with mass flow by rotational movements, which, together with the surface flow of rainwater, evolves into ravines and exposed residues, preferably at the resurgence point. The leachate flow on the surface affects areas beyond the limits at landfill with direct impact on local agriculture and risk to pedestrians using the highway bordered by the landfill beyond the soil and the local aquifer.

  6. Microbial community structure and diversity in a municipal solid waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaolin; Cao, Aixin; Zhao, Guozhu; Zhou, Chuanbin; Xu, Rui

    2017-08-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills are the most prevalent waste disposal method and constitute one of the largest sources of anthropogenic methane emissions in the world. Microbial activities in disposed waste play a crucial role in greenhouse gas emissions; however, only a few studies have examined metagenomic microbial profiles in landfills. Here, the MiSeq high-throughput sequencing method was applied for the first time to examine microbial diversity of the cover soil and stored waste located at different depths (0-150cm) in a typical MSW landfill in Yangzhou City, East China. The abundance of microorganisms in the cover soil (0-30cm) was the lowest among all samples, whereas that in stored waste decreased from the top to the middle layer (30-90cm) and then increased from the middle to the bottom layer (90-150cm). In total, 14 phyla and 18 genera were found in the landfill. A microbial diversity analysis showed that Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla, whereas Halanaerobium, Methylohalobius, Syntrophomonas, Fastidiosipila, and Spirochaeta were the dominant genera. Methylohalobius (methanotrophs) was more abundant in the cover layers of soil than in stored waste, whereas Syntrophomonas and Fastidiosipila, which affect methane production, were more abundant in the middle to bottom layers (90-150cm) in stored waste. A canonical correlation analysis showed that microbial diversity in the landfill was most strongly correlated with the conductivity, organic matter, and moisture content of the stored waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of air pollutant emissions from the Akrotiri landfill site (Chania, Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalvatzaki, E; Lazaridis, M

    2010-09-01

    Air pollutants emitted from landfills affect air quality, contribute to the greenhouse effect and may cause serious problems to human health under certain circumstances. The current study was focused on the determination of air emissions from the Akrotiri landfill site which is located in the Akrotiri area (Chania, Greece). The landfill consists of two phases, phase A (first phase) which is currently closed (operational between 2003 and 2007) and phase B (second phase, operation between 2007 and (foreseen) 2013). Three different emission models (the EPA LandGEM model, the triangular model and the stoichiometric model) were used for the quantification of emissions. The LandGEM 3.02 software was further adopted and used in conjunction with the long-term dispersion model ISC3-LT for the evaluation of the dispersion of gaseous chemical components from the landfill. The emission and meteorological conditions under which the models were applied were based on the worst-case emission scenario. Furthermore, the concentration of hydrogen sulfide, vinyl chloride and benzene were determined in and around the landfill site. The concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and benzene were calculated to be far below the limit value proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO) for human health safety. However, the vinyl chloride concentrations were above the WHO reference lifetime exposure health criteria for the phase B area.

  8. GIS modelling for new landfill sites: critical review of employed criteria and methods of selection criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abujayyab, Sohaib K. M.; Ahamad, Mohd Sanusi S.; Shukri Yahya, Ahmad; Bashir, Mohammed J. K.; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2016-06-01

    Policy makers and the public are increasingly concerned with the determination of landfill-siting input criteria (DLSIC) in landfill modelling procedures as an area of research. Thus, its procedures are complicated and decision makers are increasingly pressured. These procedures can be considerably develop in order to reduce the negative effect of landfill locations on the environment, economy, and society. In this review article, literature related to the developments of 64 models and their procedures in the past 18 years (from 1997 to 2014) were comprehensively survey. DLSIC are determined through a conventional method. The frequency of criterion usage reflects the limitation of Conventional method for DLSIC. Moreover, some of these studies utilize unrelated criteria that are time-consuming, costly, arduous, and fruitless. Potential improvement in Geographic information systems GIS modelling parameter for landfill sites via utilizing multivariate analysis (MVA) instead of Conventional method (CM) through for DLSIC (e.g., Input variables, Accuracy, objectivity, reliability of criteria, time consumption, cost and comprehensiveness) were emphasize. It can be conclude that expenses can be reduce by implementing MVA in DLSIC for landfill modelling using geographic information systems (GIS) based on the corresponding significant level. Moreover, the determined criteria can be accurate, satisfying, sufficient, and free of bias from experts and human error.

  9. Health risks in areas close to urban solid waste landfill sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Nelson; Prado, Rogerio Ruscitto do

    2010-10-01

    To evaluate the association between living close to solid waste landfill sites and occurrences of cancer and congenital malformations among populations in their vicinity. Deaths among people living in the municipality of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2002 were selected and geocoded, according to selected causes. Over the period evaluated, there were 351 deaths due to liver cancer, 160 due to bladder cancer and 224 due to leukemia, among adults, 25 due to childhood leukemia and 299 due to congenital malformation, in areas close to landfill sites. Buffer zones of radius 2 km around the 15 sites delimited the areas exposed. Standardized mortality ratios for each outcome were analyzed in Bayesian spatial models. In a general manner, the highest values for the standardized mortality ratios were found in more central areas of the municipality, while the landfill sites were located in more peripheral areas. The standardized mortality ratios did not indicate any excess risk for people living in areas close to solid waste landfill sites in the municipality of São Paulo. For landfill sites in operation, there was a greater risk of bladder and liver cancer, and death due to congenital malformation, but without statistical significance. No increase in the risk of cancer or congenital malformations was found in areas in the vicinity of urban waste dumps in the municipality of São Paulo. The weak associations and the imprecision of the estimates obtained did not allow any causal relationship to be established.

  10. Landfill mining: Developing a comprehensive assessment method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Robert; Wolfsberger, Tanja; Pomberger, Roland; Sarc, Renato

    2016-11-01

    In Austria, the first basic technological and economic examinations of mass-waste landfills with the purpose to recover secondary raw materials have been carried out by the 'LAMIS - Landfill Mining Österreich' pilot project. A main focus of its research, and the subject of this article, is the first conceptual design of a comprehensive assessment method for landfill mining plans, including not only monetary factors (like costs and proceeds) but also non-monetary ones, such as the concerns of adjoining owners or the environmental impact. Detailed reviews of references, the identification of influences and system boundaries to be included in planning landfill mining, several expert workshops and talks with landfill operators have been performed followed by a division of the whole assessment method into preliminary and main assessment. Preliminary assessment is carried out with a questionnaire to rate juridical feasibility, the risk and the expenditure of a landfill mining project. The results of this questionnaire are compiled in a portfolio chart that is used to recommend, or not, further assessment. If a detailed main assessment is recommended, defined economic criteria are rated by net present value calculations, while ecological and socio-economic criteria are examined in a utility analysis and then transferred into a utility-net present value chart. If this chart does not support making a definite statement on the feasibility of the project, the results must be further examined in a cost-effectiveness analysis. Here, the benefit of the particular landfill mining project per capital unit (utility-net present value ratio) is determined to make a final distinct statement on the general benefit of a landfill mining project.

  11. [Construction of the Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance System: arguments to debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Seta, Marismary Horsth; Dain, Sulamis

    2010-11-01

    This paper analyzes the Brazilian Sanitary Surveillance System as an arrangement aimed at regulating and reducing health risks associated with consumption of products, use of health services and the environment. Historical, political and tax aspects were considered and their development compared with the National Health Surveillance System, which has received strong international cooperation. The comparison was based on the trajectory of their national systems and related federal agencies, as well as on criteria adopted for decentralization. The central category of analysis is federative coordination and was based on the framework of federalism and intergovernmental relations. The institutional context of health and sanitary surveillance presents strong political competition, instability in the project and probable reduction of the ability of federal coordination after the Pact for Health. The National Sanitary Surveillance System due to its nature of public good and high externality in its field of action requires federal coordination for increasing the regional and local cooperation, also because of the structural heterogeneity of Brazilian municipalities.

  12. Temporal dynamics of biogeochemical processes at the Norman Landfill site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Bhavna; Mohanty, Binayak P.; McGuire, Jennifer T.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2013-01-01

    The temporal variability observed in redox sensitive species in groundwater can be attributed to coupled hydrological, geochemical, and microbial processes. These controlling processes are typically nonstationary, and distributed across various time scales. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to investigate biogeochemical data sets from a municipal landfill site to identify the dominant modes of variation and determine the physical controls that become significant at different time scales. Data on hydraulic head, specific conductance, δ2H, chloride, sulfate, nitrate, and nonvolatile dissolved organic carbon were collected between 1998 and 2000 at three wells at the Norman Landfill site in Norman, OK. Wavelet analysis on this geochemical data set indicates that variations in concentrations of reactive and conservative solutes are strongly coupled to hydrologic variability (water table elevation and precipitation) at 8 month scales, and to individual eco-hydrogeologic framework (such as seasonality of vegetation, surface-groundwater dynamics) at 16 month scales. Apart from hydrologic variations, temporal variability in sulfate concentrations can be associated with different sources (FeS cycling, recharge events) and sinks (uptake by vegetation) depending on the well location and proximity to the leachate plume. Results suggest that nitrate concentrations show multiscale behavior across temporal scales for different well locations, and dominant variability in dissolved organic carbon for a closed municipal landfill can be larger than 2 years due to its decomposition and changing content. A conceptual framework that explains the variability in chemical concentrations at different time scales as a function of hydrologic processes, site-specific interactions, and/or coupled biogeochemical effects is also presented.

  13. Comparison of Diffrent Coagulants Efficiency for Treatment of Hamedan Landfills Leachate Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hasanvand

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives:In Iran , indicated that the municipal landfill leachate has been one of the major problem for environment. In the operations, leachate treatment is a very difficult and expensive process. Although, young leachate can be treated easily by biological treatment, COD removal efficiency are usually low due to high ammonium ion content and the presence of toxic compounds such as metal ions. Treatment of leachate is necessary.The aim of this study is reduction of Chemical Oxygen Demond (COD and Total Suspended Solids (TSS from hamedan city sanitary landfill leachate by three coagulants: alum, PAC and ferrous sulfate."nMaterials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted to investigate the effect of treatment of landfill leachate by a coagulation-flocculation process. The effects of different amounts of coagulant and different pH values on the coagulation processes were compared."nResults:Result shown the high efficiency for reduction of CODby PAC in pH=12 and concentration of 2500(mg/l (62.66%, and by alum in pH=12 and concentration of 1000 (mg/l (60% , by ferrous sulfate in pH=2 and concentration of 1000 (mg/l (70.62%. Also result shown the high efficiency for TSS removal by PAC in pH=12 and 2500(mg/l concentration of PAC was 58.37%, with alum in pH=2 and 1500 (mg/l concentration of alum was39.14% , by ferrous sulfate in pH=7 and 2500(mg/l concentration of ferrous sulfate was 35.58%."nConclusion:The best coagulant for COD removal is ferrous sulfate.The physico-chemical process may be used as a useful pretreatment step, especially for fresh leachates, prior to post-treatment (polishing step for partially stabilized leachates.

  14. [Risk assessment of work related stress: examination and operative difficulties in sanitary field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofano, G; Piscina, G; Fantasia, D; Bologna, I; Murri, G; Tobia, L; Paoletti, A

    2012-01-01

    Work related stress can highly negatively affect not only company's productivity but also other aspects causing increased costs for absenteeism, increased number of work accident and near miss, higher turnover, reduced quality of products and services, reduced capability of renewal, and so on. In agreement with the Italian legislative decree 81/08 we evaluated stress level of workers of three different sanitary structures located in the middle of Italy. 305 workers (physicians, nurses, technicians, auxiliary nurse, white collars) were submitted to a questionnaire designed by our team of work. The sector reporting higher stress level was represented by nurses, the sector with lower stress level was made of technicians. We proposed a set of measures aiming to reduce the load of stress based on the assumption that in this sector is fundamental to develop strategies of intervention both at organizational and individual level.

  15. Social life and sanitary risks: evolutionary and current ecological conditions determine waste management in leaf-cutting ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farji-Brener, Alejandro G.; Elizalde, Luciana; Amador-Vargas, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    Adequate waste management is vital for the success of social life, because waste accumulation increases sanitary risks in dense societies. We explored why different leaf-cutting ants (LCA) species locate their waste in internal nest chambers or external piles, including ecological context and accounting for phylogenetic relations. We propose that waste location depends on whether the environmental conditions enhance or reduce the risk of infection. We obtained the geographical range, habitat and refuse location of LCA from published literature, and experimentally determined whether pathogens on ant waste survived to the high soil temperatures typical of xeric habitats. The habitat of the LCA determined waste location after phylogenetic correction: species with external waste piles mainly occur in xeric environments, whereas those with internal waste chambers mainly inhabit more humid habitats. The ancestral reconstruction suggests that dumping waste externally is less derived than digging waste nest chambers. Empirical results showed that high soil surface temperatures reduce pathogen prevalence from LCA waste. We proposed that LCA living in environments unfavourable for pathogens (i.e. xeric habitats) avoid digging costs by dumping the refuse above ground. Conversely, in environments suitable for pathogens, LCA species prevent the spread of diseases by storing waste underground, presumably, a behaviour that contributed to the colonization of humid habitats. These results highlight the adaptation of organisms to the hygienic challenges of social living, and illustrate how sanitary behaviours can result from a combination of evolutionary history and current environmental conditions. PMID:27226469

  16. Gaseous methyl- and inorganic mercury in landfill gas from landfills in Florida, Minnesota, Delaware, and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, S. E.; Southworth, G.; Prestbo, E. M.; Wallschläger, D.; Bogle, M. A.; Price, J.

    2005-01-01

    Municipal waste landfills contain numerous sources of mercury which could be emitted to the atmosphere. Their generation of methane by anaerobic bacteria suggests that landfills may act as bioreactors for methylated mercury compounds. Since our previous study at a single Florida landfill, gaseous inorganic and methylated mercury species have now been identified and quantified in landfill gas at nine additional municipal landfills in several regions of the US. Total gaseous mercury occurs at concentrations in the μg m-3 range, while methylated compounds occur at concentrations in the ng m-3 range at all but one of the landfill sites. Dimethylmercury is the predominant methylated species, at concentrations up to 100 ng m-3, while monomethyl mercury was generally lower. Limited measurements near sites where waste is exposed for processing (e.g. working face, transfer areas) suggest that dimethylmercury is released during these activities as well. Although increasing amounts of landfill gas generated in the US are flared (which should thermally decompose the organic mercury to inorganic mercury), unflared landfill gas is a potentially important anthropogenic source of methylated mercury emissions to the atmosphere.

  17. Evolution on qualities of leachate and landfill gas in the semi-aerobic landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qifei; YANG Yufei; PANG Xiangrui; WANG Qi

    2008-01-01

    To study the characteristics of stabilization in semi-aerobic landfill, large-scale simulated landfill was constructed based on the semi-aerobic landfill theory. Consequently, the concentrations of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen, and nitrite nitrogen, and the pH value in leachate, as well as the component contents of landfill gas composition (methane, carbon dioxide, and oxygen) in landfill were regularly monitored for 52 weeks. The results showed that COD and ammonia concentrations declined rapidly and did not show the accumulating rule like anaerobic landfill, and remained at about 300 and 100 mg/L, respectively, after 48 weeks. Meanwhile, the descending rate reached 98.9% and 96.9%, respectively. Nitrate concentration increased rapidly after 24 weeks and fluctuated between 220-280 mg/L after 43 weeks. The pH values were below 7 during the first 8 weeks and after that leachates appeared to be alkaline. Carbon dioxide was the main composition in landfill gas and its concentration remained at a high level through the whole stabilization process. The average contents of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and methane varied between 19 vol.%-28 vol.%, 2 vol.%-8 vol.%, and 5 vol.%-13 vol.%, respectively. A relative equilibrium was reached after 48 weeks. The highest temperature in the landfill chamber could amount to 75.8 degrees centigrade.

  18. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Augenstein

    1999-01-11

    ''Conventional'' waste landfills emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in quantities such that landfill methane is a major factor in global climate change. Controlled landfilling is a novel approach to manage landfills for rapid completion of total gas generation, maximizing gas capture and minimizing emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated and brought to much earlier completion by improving conditions for biological processes (principally moisture levels) in the landfill. Gas recovery efficiency approaches 100% through use of surface membrane cover over porous gas recovery layers operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project's results at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California are, to date, highly encouraging. Two major controlled landfilling benefits would be the reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions.

  19. Landfill leachate treatment by solar-driven AOPs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Elisangela M.R. [Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Centro de Tecnologia, Departamento de Engenharia Hidraulica e Ambiental, Laboratorio de Saneamento (LABOSAN), Avenida da Universidade, 2853 - Benfica, 60020-181 Fortaleza (Brazil); Vilar, Vitor J.P.; Boaventura, Rui A.R. [LSRE - Laboratory of Separation and Reaction Engineering, Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Fonseca, Amelia; Saraiva, Isabel [Efacec Ambiente, SA, Rua Eng. Frederico Ulrich - Guardeiras, Apartado 3003, 4471-907 Moreira da Maia (Portugal)

    2011-01-15

    Sanitary landfill leachate resulting from the rainwater percolation through the landfill layers and waste material decomposition is a complex mixture of high-strength organic and inorganic compounds which constitutes serious environmental problems. In this study, different heterogeneous (TiO{sub 2}/UV, TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) and homogenous (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV, Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) photocatalytic processes were investigated as an alternative for the treatment of a mature landfill leachate. The addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} to TiO{sub 2}/UV system increased the reduction of the aromatic compounds from 15% to 61%, although mineralization was almost the same. The DOC and aromatic content abatement is similar for the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV and TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV processes, although the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} consumption is three times higher in the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV system. The low efficiency of TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV system is presumably due to the alkaline leachate solution, for which the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} becomes highly unstable and self-decomposition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} occurs. The efficiency of the TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV system increased 10 times after a preliminary pH correction to 4. The photo-Fenton process is much more efficient than heterogeneous (TiO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) or homogeneous (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) photocatalysis, showing an initial reaction rate more than 20 times higher, and leading to almost complete mineralization of the wastewater. However, when compared with TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV with acidification, the photo-Fenton reaction is only two times faster. The optimal initial iron dose for the photo-Fenton treatment of the leachate is 60 mg Fe{sup 2+} L{sup -1}, which is in agreement with path length of 5 cm in the photoreactor. The kinetic behaviour of the process (60 mg Fe{sup 2+} L{sup -1}) comprises a slow initial reaction, followed by a first-order kinetics (k = 0.020 LkJ{sub UV

  20. Application of portable gas detector in point and scanning method to estimate spatial distribution of methane emission in landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lando, Asiyanthi Tabran; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Shimaoka, Takayuki

    2017-01-01

    Methane from landfills contributes to global warming and can pose an explosion hazard. To minimize these effects emissions must be monitored. This study proposed application of portable gas detector (PGD) in point and scanning measurements to estimate spatial distribution of methane emissions in landfills. The aims of this study were to discover the advantages and disadvantages of point and scanning methods in measuring methane concentrations, discover spatial distribution of methane emissions, cognize the correlation between ambient methane concentration and methane flux, and estimate methane flux and emissions in landfills. This study was carried out in Tamangapa landfill, Makassar city-Indonesia. Measurement areas were divided into basic and expanded area. In the point method, PGD was held one meter above the landfill surface, whereas scanning method used a PGD with a data logger mounted on a wire drawn between two poles. Point method was efficient in time, only needed one person and eight minutes in measuring 400m(2) areas, whereas scanning method could capture a lot of hot spots location and needed 20min. The results from basic area showed that ambient methane concentration and flux had a significant (pmethane emissions in the expanded area by using Kriging method. The average of estimated flux from scanning method was 71.2gm(-2)d(-1) higher than 38.3gm(-2)d(-1) from point method. Further, scanning method could capture the lower and higher value, which could be useful to evaluate and estimate the possible effects of the uncontrolled emissions in landfill.

  1. MOLECULAR AND CULTURAL METHODOLOGIES FOR ENUMERATING BACTERIA IN LANDFILL LEACHATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landfill bioreactor technology has been under investigation in the field for its potential economic and waste treatment benefits over conventional landfill systems. A better understanding of biological influences on the stabilization process is needed for incorporation into the e...

  2. Landfills and the waste act implementation - what has changed?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oelofse, Suzanna HH

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of landfill permits by Section 20 of the Environment Conservation Act, 1989, resulted in the development of the Minimum Requirements series of documents to guide waste disposal to landfill. The promulgation of the National...

  3. Feasibility analysis of remedial scheme of Qilongcun landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Yun-ju; LIU Dong-yan; LIU Xin-rong; LI Xiu-lan

    2006-01-01

    Based on hydro-geological of Qilongcun landfill, the transportation mathematical model of leachat was established. The boundaries conditions and replenishment of model were determined. The leachate COD density and the water level were simulated, and the model was identified, and then the right model was defined. The right model was used to simulate leachate COD density in the interior, exterior, and peripheral of landfill. The results show that the COD densities are not high. The pollution is slight in the interior of landfill and is little in the exterior of landfill. They are proving the overburden on top of landfill and drain around the landfill is right. The max. density on the south of landfill shows it is scientific that the cisterns are building on the south of landfill. The paper shows the remediation scheme is feasible.

  4. EVALUATION OF COLLIER COUNTY, FLORIDA LANDFILL MINING DEMONSTRATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the landfill mining process as demonstrated under the U.S. EPA, Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory's Municipal Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program by the Collier County (Florida) Solid Waste Management Department. Landfill mining is the ...

  5. Landfills as a biorefinery to produce biomass and capture biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolan, N S; Thangarajan, R; Seshadri, B; Jena, U; Das, K C; Wang, H; Naidu, R

    2013-05-01

    While landfilling provides a simple and economic means of waste disposal, it causes environmental impacts including leachate generation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. With the introduction of gas recovery systems, landfills provide a potential source of methane (CH4) as a fuel source. Increasingly revegetation is practiced on traditionally managed landfill sites to mitigate environmental degradation, which also provides a source of biomass for energy production. Combustion of landfill gas for energy production contributes to GHG emission reduction mainly by preventing the release of CH4 into the atmosphere. Biomass from landfill sites can be converted to bioenergy through various processes including pyrolysis, liquefaction and gasification. This review provides a comprehensive overview on the role of landfills as a biorefinery site by focusing on the potential volumes of CH4 and biomass produced from landfills, the various methods of biomass energy conversion, and the opportunities and limitations of energy capture from landfills.

  6. Artificial sweeteners as potential tracers of municipal landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, James W; Van Stempvoort, Dale R; Bickerton, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Artificial sweeteners are gaining acceptance as tracers of human wastewater in the environment. The 3 artificial sweeteners analyzed in this study were detected in leachate or leachate-impacted groundwater at levels comparable to those of untreated wastewater at 14 of 15 municipal landfill sites tested, including several closed for >50 years. Saccharin was the dominant sweetener in old (pre-1990) landfills, while newer landfills were dominated by saccharin and acesulfame (introduced 2 decades ago; dominant in wastewater). Cyclamate was also detected, but less frequently. A case study at one site illustrates the use of artificial sweeteners to identify a landfill-impacted groundwater plume discharging to a stream. The study results suggest that artificial sweeteners can be useful tracers for current and legacy landfill contamination, with relative abundances of the sweeteners potentially providing diagnostic ability to distinguish different landfills or landfill cells, including crude age-dating, and to distinguish landfill and wastewater sources.

  7. Adaptation of EVIAVE methodology for monitoring and follow-up when evaluating the environmental impact of landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrieta, Gabriela, E-mail: tonina1903@hotmail.com [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada (Spain); Requena, Ignacio, E-mail: requena@decsai.ugr.es [Department of Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, University of Granada (Spain); Toro, Javier, E-mail: jjtoroca@unal.edu.co [Universidad Nacional de Colombia — Sede Bogotá, Instituto de Estudios Ambientales (Colombia); Zamorano, Montserrat, E-mail: zamorano@ugr.es [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    Treatment and final disposal of Municipal Solid Waste can have a significant role in the generation of negative environmental impacts. As a prevention strategy, such activities are subjected to the process of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Still, the follow-up of Environmental Management Plans or mitigation measures is limited, for one due to a lack of methodological approaches. In searching for possibilities, the University of Granada (Spain) developed a diagnostic methodology named EVIAVE, which allows one to quantify, by means of indexes, the environmental impact of landfills in view of their location and the conditions of exploitation. EVIAVE is applicable within the legal framework of the European Union and can be adapted to the environmental and legal conditions of other countries. This study entails its adaptation in Colombia, for the follow-up and control of the EIA process for landfills. Modifications involved inclusion of the environmental elements flora and fauna, and the evaluation of the environmental descriptors in agreement with the concept of vulnerability. The application of the modified EVIAVE in Colombian landfills allowed us to identify the elements affected by the operating conditions and maintenance. It may be concluded that this methodology is viable and effective for the follow-up and environmental control of EIA processes for landfills, and to analyze the associated risks, as it takes into account related environmental threats and vulnerabilities. - Highlights: • A modified methodology is used to monitor and follow-up environmental impacts in landfills. • The improved methodology includes the Vulnerability of Flora and Fauna to evaluate environmental impact of landfills. • The methodology serves to identify and evaluate the sources of risk generated in the construction and siting of landfills. • Environmental vulnerability indicators improve effectiveness of the control and follow-up phases of landfill management. • The

  8. Protective effect of overlying geosynthetic on geomembrane liner observed from landfill field tests and inclined board laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Moonkyung; Seo, Min Woo; Kim, Kang Suk; Park, Jun Boum

    2006-06-01

    Geosynthetic liner systems are generally installed in landfill sites to prevent toxic leachate from escaping into the adjoining environment by utilizing their impervious characteristics. Therefore, it is important to protect the geomembrane from being damaged or destroyed during all phases of landfilling, namely landfill construction, waste tipping and landfill closure. This paper presents firstly the observed performance of a geomembrane liner from a landfill site where the geomembrane liner was installed on the slopes of a Korean landfill; and secondly the results of an inclined board laboratory test. Two types of experiments were conducted to identify the protecting effect of the overlaying geosynthetic on the geomembrane liners. At a testing landfill site, the slope consisted of three different sub-inclines and two 2-m-wide intermediate levels. The sub-inclines were each 8 m in vertical height and their angle of inclination was 1: 1.5 (vertical: horizontal). The reported observations were made for a time period of approximately 1 year, until the landfill was filled with wastes to the top of the uppermost slope. In addition, inclined board laboratory tests were carried out. During the inclined board test, a base table is inclined slowly and steadily until the block located on the base table starts to slide, when the tension and displacements of two geosynthetics, namely the geomembrane liner and protecting geotextile, are measured. In conclusion, test results showed that the down-drag force generated by waste accumulation and sliding of upper material was to a large extent dissipated through the elongation of the protecting geosynthetic overlying the geomembrane and thus was not transferred to the geomembrane. Unless the protecting geosynthetic undergoes structural failure, this stress relaxation phenomenon continues to occur so that the magnitude of tensile force to be applied on the geomembrane remains marginal.

  9. Ecotoxicological diagnosis of a sealed municipal landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, A J; Bartolomé, C; Pérez-Leblic, M I; Rodríguez, J; Alvarez, J; Pastor, J

    2012-03-01

    Assessing the environmental impact of a soil-topped landfill requires an accurate ecotoxicological diagnosis. This paper describes various diagnostic protocols for this purpose and their application to a real case: the urban solid waste (USW) municipal landfill of Getafe (Madrid, Spain). After their initial sealing with soil from the surroundings about 20 years ago, most USW landfills in the autonomous community of Madrid have continued to receive waste. This has hindered precise assessment of their impact on their environment and affected ecosystems. The procedure proposed here overcomes this problem by assessing the situation in edaphic, aquatic and ecological terms. The present study focused on the most influential soil variables (viz. salinity due largely to the presence of anions, and heavy metals and organic compounds). These variables were also determined in surface waters of the wetland most strongly affected by leachates running down landfill slopes. Determinations included the characterization of plant communities and microbial biodiversity. The study was supplemented with a bioassay under controlled conditions in pots containing soil contaminated with variable concentrations of Zn (as ZnCl(2)) intended to assess ecochemical actions in a population of Bromus rubens, which grows profusely in the landfill. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Engineering geology of landfill gas migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingley, A.C.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis is divided into five chapters: Part one is an introduction to landfill gas, and why it is considered to be a problem. The subject of the migration of the gas is taken further with an examination of the state of art with respect to theories of gas transport mechanisms. A description of work which has previously been carried out upon real soils and landfill sites is included. In part two the technique developed in this research to enable a laboratory examination of real soils is discussed. Experiments are then described which form part of the landfill gas monitoring programme in the field. The whole group of data, collected at a variety of sites, included measurements of meteorological conditions, ground pressures on and off the landfill, and ground gas concentrations. The observations were used to construct a model of ground gas interchange between the landfill and surrounding land. Field pumping trials have been used to confirm these findings. The third part of the thesis is an examination of case histories, presented in order of detail available for each; results of a survey carried out between other county councils in England, and then the results of a survey in the county of Kent. Finally there is a presentation of the detailed histories of the waste disposal sites which have been examined for the purposes of this research. (Author).

  11. Impact of vent pipe diameter on characteristics of waste degradation in semi-aerobic bioreactor landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Guobin; Liu, Dan; Chen, Weiming; Ye, Zhicheng; Liu, Hong; Li, Qibin

    2017-08-01

    The evolution mechanism of a vent pipe diameter on a waste-stabilization process in semi-aerobic bioreactor landfills was analyzed from the organic-matter concentration, biodegradability, spectral characteristics of dissolved organic matter, correlations and principal-component analysis. Waste samples were collected at different distances from the vent pipe and from different landfill layers in semi-aerobic bioreactor landfills with different vent pipe diameters. An increase in vent pipe diameter favored waste degradation. Waste degradation in landfills can be promoted slightly when the vent pipe diameter increases from 25 to 50 mm. It could be promoted significantly when the vent pipe diameter was increased to 75 mm. The vent pipe diameter is important in waste degradation in the middle layer of landfills. The dissolved organic matter in the waste is composed mainly of long-wave humus (humin), short-wave humus (fulvic acid) and tryptophan. The humification levels of the waste that was located at the center of vent pipes with 25-, 50- and 75-mm diameters were 2.2682, 4.0520 and 7.6419 Raman units, respectively. The appropriate vent pipe diameter for semi-aerobic bioreactor landfills with an 800-mm diameter was 75 mm. The effect of different vent pipe diameters on the degree of waste stabilization is reflected by two main components. Component 1 is related mainly to the content of fulvic acid, biologically degradable material and organic matter. Component 2 is related mainly to the content of tryptophan and humin from the higher vascular plants.

  12. Elements in cottonwood trees as an indicator of ground water contaminated by landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdman, James A.; Christenson, Scott

    2000-01-01

    Ground water at the Norman Landfill Research Site is contaminated by a leachate plume emanating from a closed, unlined landfill formerly operated by the city of Norman, Oklahoma, Ground water contaminated by the leachate plume is known to be elevated in the concentration of many, organic and inorganic constituents. Specific conductance, alkalinity, chloride, dissolved organic carbon, boron, sodium, strontium, and deuterium in ground water are considered to be indicators of the leachate plume at this site. Leaf samples of broad-leafed cottonwood, Populus deltoides, were collected from 57 sites around the closed landfill. Cottonwood, a phreatophyte or “well plant,” functions as a & surrogate well and serves as a ground water quality sampler. The leaf samples were combusted to ash and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation for 35 elements and by prompt-gamma instrumental neutron activation, for boron. A monitoring well was located within a few meters of a sampled cottonwood tree at 15 of the 57 sites, and ground water samples were collected from these monitoring wells simultaneously with a leaf sample. The chemical analyses of the ground water and leaf samples from these 15 sites indicated that boron, bromine, sodium, and strontium concentrations in leaves were significantly correlated with leachate indicator constituents in ground water. A point-plot map of selected percentiles indicated high concentrations of boron, bromine, and sodium in leaf ash from sites downgradient of the most recent landfill and from older landfills nearby. Data from leaf analysis greatly extended the known areal extent of the leachate plume previously determined from a network of monitoring wells and geophysical surveys. This phytosgeochemical study provided a cost-effective method for assessing the extent of a leachate plume from an old landfill. Such a method may be useful as a preliminary sampling tool to guide the design of hydrogeochemical and geophysical studies.

  13. Evaluation of Landfill Cover Design Options for Waste Disposal Sites in the Coastal Regions of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodwo Beedu Keelson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled leachate generation from operational and closed waste disposal sites is a major environmental concern in the coastal regions of Ghana which have abundant surface water and groundwater resources. The Ghana Landfill Guidelines requires the provision of a final cover or capping system as part of a final closure plan for waste disposal sites in the country as a means of minimizing the harmful environmental effects of these emissions. However, this technical manual does not provide explicit guidance on the material types or configuration for landfill covers that would be suitable for the different climatic conditions in the country. Four landfill cover options which are based on the USEPA RCRA-type and evapotranspirative landfill cover design specifications were evaluated with the aid of the HELP computer program to determine their suitability for waste disposal sites located in the Western, Central and Greater Accra regions. The RCRA Subtitle C cover which yielded flux rates of less than 0.001 mm/yr was found to be suitable for the specific climatic conditions. The RCRA Subtitle D cover was determined to be unsuitable due to the production of very large flux rates in excess of 200 mm/yr. The results for the anisotropic barrier and capillary barrier covers were inconclusive. Recommendations for further study include a longer simulation period as well the study of the combined effects of different topsoil vegetative conditions and evaporative zone depths on the landfill water balance. The use of other water balance models such as EPIC, HYDRUS-2D and UNSAT-H for the evaluation of the evapotranspirative landfill cover design options should also be considered.

  14. The application of irradiation to phyto sanitary problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, R.T. [USDA/APHIS/PPQ. Department of Agriculture, Room 1630 Soagribg, 1400 Independence Ave. Sw. Mail Code Stop 3438, 20250 Washington D.C. (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The first formally adopted regulatory policy for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States was issued in 1989 and was based on Title 7 of the Code of Federal Regulations. These regulations authorized irradiation as a quarantine treatment for papayas intended for movement from the State of Hawaii to the continental United States (U.S.), Guam, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. This authorization was specific for commodity, place of origin, and program, but was designed for a complex of three fruit flies rather than a single pest. Routine commercial shipments were never realized under this regulation due to the lack of a treatment facility in Hawaii. However, the authorization has proven useful from the standpoint of beginning to establish policies for irradiation as a phyto sanitary treatment in the United States. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) remains dedicated to using the most up-to-date, appropriate and least intrusive technology to provide quarantine security. The need for alternative treatments for pests mitigation systems is greater than ever. Global trade pressures and the possible loss of methyl bromide make it imperative that all practical treatment options be explored. Since 1989 irradiation treatment concepts have matured significantly. Technological advances, greater experience, and an increasingly larger body of research indicate that irradiation has important potential as a treatment for quarantine pest problems. It is in this light that PPQ is expanding its regulatory framework, is addressing irradiation treatment options, and is developing comprehensive policy statements intended to facilitate the development and formalization of new treatments for phyto sanitary applications. (Author)

  15. Removal of high concentrated ammonia nitrogen from landfill leachate by landfilled waste layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Hui-dong; HE Pin-jing; SHAO Li-ming; LI Guo-jian

    2004-01-01

    The landfill of municipal solid waste(MSW) could be regarded as denitrification reactor and used in ammonia nitrogen biological removal process. In this research, the process was applied to municipal solid waste(MSW) collected in Shanghai, China, which was characterized with high food waste content. The NH4+ removal efficiency in the system of SBR nitrifying reactor followed by fresh and matured landfilled waste layer in series was studied. In the nitrifying reactor, above 90% of NH4+ in leachate was oxidized to NO2- and NO3-. Then high concentrated NO2- and NO3- was removed in the way of denitrification process in fresh landfilled waste layer. At the same time, degradation of fresh landfilled waste was accelerated. Up to the day 120, 136.5 gC/(kg dry waste) and 17.9 gN/(kg dry waste) were produced from waste layer. It accounted for 50.15% and 86.89% of the total carbon and nitrogen content of preliminary fresh waste, which was 4.42 times and 5.17 times higher than that of reference column respectively. After filtering through matured landfilled waste, BOD5 concentration in leachate dropped to below 100 mg/L, which would not affect following nitrification adversely. Because the matured landfilled waste acted as a well methanogenic reactor, 23% of carbon produced accumulatively from fresh landfilled waste degradation was converted into CH4.

  16. Sanitary-hygienic and ecological aspects of beryllium production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvinskykh, E.M.; Savchuk, V.V.; Sidorov, V.L.; Slobodin, D.B.; Tuzov, Y.V. [Ulba Metallurgical Plant, Ust-Kamenogorsk (Kazakhstan)

    1998-01-01

    The Report describes An organization of sanitary-hygienic and ecological control of beryllium production at Ulba metallurgical plant. It involves: (1) the consideration of main methods for protection of beryllium production personnel from unhealthy effect of beryllium, (2) main kinds of filters, used in gas purification systems at different process areas, (3) data on beryllium monitoring in water, soil, on equipment. This Report also outlines problems connected with designing devices for a rapid analysis of beryllium in air as well as problems of beryllium production on ecological situation in the town. (author)

  17. [Sanitary and chemical protection during the Great Patriotic War].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imangulov, R G; Grebeniuk, A N; Rybalko, V M; Nosov, A V

    2011-05-01

    During the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945) there was a real danger of use by German armies of the chemical weapon against staff of Red Army. However German command didn't risked to go on conducting large-scale chemical war against the USSR that rescued from painful death millions person. A principal cause of this decision was well organized and technically provided system of antigas protection in Red Army, including precisely organized actions of sanitary-chemical protection, qualitative preparation of military doctors on these questions and presence at them effective antidotes and other means of treatment of injuries by fighting poison gases.

  18. Redox zones of a landfill leachate pollution plume (Vejen, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngkilde, John; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1992-01-01

    Downgradient from an old municipal landfill allowing leachate, rich in dissolved organic carbon, to enter a shallow sandy aerobic aquifer, a sequence of redoxe zones is identified from groundwater chemical analysis. Below the landfill, methanogenic conditions prevail, followed by sulfidogenic...... the fate of reactive pollutants leached from the landfill....

  19. Quantifying landfill biogas production potential in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study presents an overview of the biogas (biomethane) availability in U.S. landfills, calculated from EPA estimates of landfill capacities. This survey concludes that the volume of landfill-derived methane in the U.S. is 466 billion cubic feet per year, of which 66 percent is collected and onl...

  20. Landfill site selection using geographic information system and analytical hierarchy process: A case study Al-Hillah Qadhaa, Babylon, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabuk, Ali; Al-Ansari, Nadhir; Hussain, Hussain Musa; Knutsson, Sven; Pusch, Roland

    2016-05-01

    Al-Hillah Qadhaa is located in the central part of Iraq. It covers an area of 908 km(2) with a total population of 856,804 inhabitants. This Qadhaa is the capital of Babylon Governorate. Presently, no landfill site exists in that area based on scientific site selection criteria. For this reason, an attempt has been carried out to find the best locations for landfills. A total of 15 variables were considered in this process (groundwater depth, rivers, soil types, agricultural land use, land use, elevation, slope, gas pipelines, oil pipelines, power lines, roads, railways, urban centres, villages and archaeological sites) using a geographic information system. In addition, an analytical hierarchy process was used to identify the weight for each variable. Two suitable candidate landfill sites were determined that fulfil the requirements with an area of 9.153 km(2) and 8.204 km(2) These sites can accommodate solid waste till 2030.

  1. Electrocoagulation and decolorization of landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussa, Zainab Haider; Othman, Mohamed Rozali; Abdullah, Md Pauzi

    2013-11-01

    In this study, several operating conditions such as electrode material, treatment time, applied voltage, Cl□ concentration and PH of solution were tested on treatability of landfill leachate by using electrocoagulation (EC) method. According to the results, EC method can be used efficiently for the treatment of landfill leachate by using proper operating conditions. The best removal rats were obtained when C (rod) electrode as anode, operating time is 120 min, voltage applied is 10 V, NaCl concentration is 5.85 g/L and the raw PH, for these conditions, 70% color removal was obtained.

  2. Biogeochemistry and isotope geochemistry of a landfill leachate plume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breukelen, Boris M; Röling, Wilfred F M; Groen, Jacobus; Griffioen, Jasper; van Verseveld, Henk W

    2003-09-01

    The biogeochemical processes were identified which improved the leachate composition in the flow direction of a landfill leachate plume (Banisveld, The Netherlands). Groundwater observation wells were placed at specific locations after delineating the leachate plume using geophysical tests to map subsurface conductivity. Redox processes were determined using the distribution of solid and soluble redox species, hydrogen concentrations, concentration of dissolved gases (N(2), Ar, and CH(4)), and stable isotopes (delta15N-NO(3), delta34S-SO(4), delta13C-CH(4), delta2H-CH(4), and delta13C of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (DOC and DIC, respectively)). The combined application of these techniques improved the redox interpretation considerably. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) decreased downstream in association with increasing delta13C-DOC values confirming the occurrence of degradation. Degradation of DOC was coupled to iron reduction inside the plume, while denitrification could be an important redox process at the top fringe of the plume. Stable carbon and hydrogen isotope signatures of methane indicated that methane was formed inside the landfill and not in the plume. Total gas pressure exceeded hydrostatic pressure in the plume, and methane seems subject to degassing. Quantitative proof for DOC degradation under iron-reducing conditions could only be obtained if the geochemical processes cation exchange and precipitation of carbonate minerals (siderite and calcite) were considered and incorporated in an inverse geochemical model of the plume. Simulation of delta13C-DIC confirmed that precipitation of carbonate minerals happened.

  3. Municipal Landfilling Practice And Its Impact On Groundwater Resources In And Around Urban Toronto, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, K. W. F.; Eyles, N.; Livingstone, S.

    1996-01-01

    The hazardous contents of municipal landfills are rarely documented and problems are usually not recognised until landfill leachate pollutes a well or surface-water body. By this time, the groundwater is often extensively contaminated with little opportunity for redress. Recent studies in southern Ontario have adopted a pro-active stance to this issue. The location, size, design and geologic setting of almost 1,200 active and inactive landfills have been documented; in addition, a contaminant-source audit has been performed for a representative region of urban Toronto, where 82 landfills sites are contained in an area of 700 km2. Groundwater flow modeling reveals that at half the sites groundwater travel time to major urban streams and Lake Ontario is less than 10 years, suggesting that chemically conservative chemicals released at these sites would have a rapid impact on surface-water quality. The sites are as large as 99 ha, and waste thickness normally ranges from 3-30 m. In the audited area, the sites contain an estimated 4.6×107 tons of material, consisting primarily of domestic waste, incinerator ashes, and construction and commercial debris; some sites are believed, however, to have received liquid waste from industrial sources. The chemical audit indicates that more than 1.3 million tons, or approximately 2.9 percent of the landfill waste, will enter the landfill leachate. About 99 percent of the leachable mass is composed of calcium, magnesium, sodium, nitrogen (as ammonia, nitrate, and nitrite), chloride, sulphate, and bicarbonate. However, the real potential damage must be measured by the degree of environmental degradation that would ensue if the leachate is released to the subsurface. Ignoring the possible effects of chemical biodegradation and volatilization within the aquifer, calculations indicate that 17 of the 39 leachate components investigated are individually capable of contaminating at least 2×1012 liters of water in excess of Provincial

  4. Methane Gas Utilization Project from Landfill at Ellery (NY)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantelis K. Panteli

    2012-01-10

    Landfill Gas to Electric Energy Generation and Transmission at Chautauqua County Landfill, Town of Ellery, New York. The goal of this project was to create a practical method with which the energy, of the landfill gas produced by the decomposing waste at the Chautauqua County Landfill, could be utilized. This goal was accomplished with the construction of a landfill gas to electric energy plant (originally 6.4MW and now 9.6MW) and the construction of an inter-connection power-line, from the power-plant to the nearest (5.5 miles) power-grid point.

  5. Influence of landfill structures on stabilization of fully recycled leachate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The experiment was conducted to treat the leachate from two simulating columns by recycling to the columns themselves without being discharged into the enviroment. The columns were employed to simulate anaerobic and semi-aerobic landfills separately. The influence of landfill structure on stabilization of fully recycled leachate was studied. The results show that semi-aerobic landfill structure accelerates the stabilization of leachate recycled. The full recycle of leachate in semi-aerobic landfill is a very feasible and effective technology for leachate treatment with low cost and energy saving especially in arid and rare rainfall regions. Meanwhile, the environmental impact of landfill can be greatly minimized.

  6. [Scientific and practical substantiation of the methodology for sanitary-epidemiological auditing procedure for educational institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonkina, S G; Ivanenko, A V; Kuchma, B R

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of sanitary and epidemiological auditing - a promising trend in the sanitary-epidemiological well-being of the population including children. Thus, it provides pupils' rights on the safety conditions of educational activities for their life and health without toughening of administrative influence.

  7. LANDFILLS AS BIOREACTORS: RESEARH AT THE OUTER LOOP LANDFILL, LOUISVILLE, KENTUCKY; FIRST INTERIM REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interim report resulting from a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) between US EP A's Officeof Research and Development - National Risk Management Research Laboratory and a n ongoing field demonstrationof municipal waste landfills being operated as bioreact...

  8. Comparison Of Four Landfill Gas Models Using Data From Four Danish Landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster, Jacob G.; Mou, Zishen; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    , and to compare the four Danish landfill sites. The results show that three of the models generally give similar methane generation output. Only the LandGem model seems to give a much higher methane generation for Danish waste data, most likely due to a low organic fraction. Interpretation of the waste data......Data about type and quantity of waste disposed in four Danish landfills was collected and used on four different landfill gas generation models. This was done to compare the output data in order to evaluate the performance of the four landfill gas models when used on Danish waste types...... and the categorization of the waste play an important role in the methane prediction and combining the model predictions with whole site methane measurements would therefore be advised....

  9. Back-Analyses of Landfill Instability Induced by High Water Level: Case Study of Shenzhen Landfill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In June 2008, the Shenzhen landfill slope failed. This case is used as an example to study the deformation characteristics and failure mode of a slope induced by high water levels. An integrated monitoring system, including water level gauges, electronic total stations, and inclinometers, was used to monitor the slope failure process. The field measurements suggest that the landfill landslide was caused by a deep slip along the weak interface of the composite liner system at the base of the landfill. The high water level is considered to be the main factor that caused this failure. To calculate the relative interface shear displacements in the geosynthetic multilayer liner system, a series of numerical direct shear tests were carried out. Based on the numerical results, the composite lining system simplified and the centrifuge modeling technique was used to quantitatively evaluate the effect of water levels on landfill instability.

  10. Measurement of representative landfill gas migration samples at landfill perimeters: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kiernan, Breda M.; Beirne, Stephen; Fay, Cormac; Diamond, Dermot

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a fully integrated autonomous system based on existing infrared sensing technology capable of monitoring landfill gas migration (specifically carbon dioxide and methane) at landfill sites. Sampling using the described system was validated against the industry standard, GA2000 Plus hand held device, manufactured by Geotechnical Instruments Inc. As a consequence of repeated sampling during validation experiments, fluctuations in the gas mixtures became ap...

  11. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    For the inventory analysis of environmental impacts associated with products in LCA there is a great need for estimates of emissions from waste products disposed at municipal solid waste landfills (product specific emissions). Since product specific emissions can not be calculated or measured...... directly at the landfills, they must be estimated by modelling of landfill processes. This paper presents a landfill model based on a large number of assumptions and approximations concerning landfill properties, waste product properties and characteristics of various kinds of environmental protection...... systems (e.g. landfill gas combustion units and leachate treatment units). The model is useful for estimation of emissions from waste products disposed in landfills and it has been made operational in the computer tool LCA-LAND presented in a following paper. In the model, waste products are subdivided...

  12. Product specific emissions from municipal solid waste landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Henning; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    1998-01-01

    directly at the landfills, they must be estimated by modelling of landfill processes. This paper presents a landfill model based on a large number of assumptions and approximations concerning landfill properties, waste product properties and characteristics of various kinds of environmental protection...... systems (e.g. landfill gas combustion units and leachate treatment units). The model is useful for estimation of emissions from waste products disposed in landfills and it has been made operational in the computer tool LCA-LAND presented in a following paper. In the model, waste products are subdivided......For the inventory analysis of environmental impacts associated with products in LCA there is a great need for estimates of emissions from waste products disposed at municipal solid waste landfills (product specific emissions). Since product specific emissions can not be calculated or measured...

  13. Spatio-temporal evolution of biogeochemical processes at a landfill site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, B.; Mohanty, B. P.; McGuire, J. T.

    2011-12-01

    Predictions of fate and transport of contaminants are strongly dependent on spatio-temporal variability of soil hydraulic and geochemical properties. This study focuses on time-series signatures of hydrological and geochemical properties at different locations within the Norman landfill site. Norman Landfill is a closed municipal landfill site with prevalent organic contamination. Monthly data at the site include specific conductance, δ18O, δ2H, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and anions (chloride, sulfate, nitrate) from 1998-2006. Column scale data on chemical concentrations, redox gradients, and flow parameters are also available on daily and hydrological event (infiltration, drainage, etc.) scales. Since high-resolution datasets of contaminant concentrations are usually unavailable, Wavelet and Fourier analyses were used to infer the dominance of different biogeochemical processes at different spatio-temporal scales and to extract linkages between transport and reaction processes. Results indicate that time variability controls the progression of reactions affecting biodegradation of contaminants. Wavelet analysis suggests that iron-sulfide reduction reactions had high seasonal variability at the site, while fermentation processes dominated at the annual time scale. Findings also suggest the dominance of small spatial features such as layered interfaces and clay lenses in driving biogeochemical reactions at both column and landfill scales. A conceptual model that caters to increased understanding and remediating structurally heterogeneous variably-saturated media is developed from the study.

  14. Location Privacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiaofeng; Chen, Jidong

    With rapid development of sensor and wireless mobile devices, it is easy to access mobile users' location information anytime and anywhere. On one hand, LBS is becoming more and more valuable and important. On the other hand, location privacy issues raised by such applications have also gained more attention. However, due to the specificity of location information, traditional privacy-preserving techniques in data publishing cannot be used. In this chapter, we will introduce location privacy, and analyze the challenges of location privacy-preserving, and give a survey of existing work including the system architecture, location anonymity and query processing.

  15. Assessing the market opportunities of landfill mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.; Achterkamp, M.C.; de Visser, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    Long-term estimates make clear that the amount of solid waste to be processed at landfills in the Netherlands will sharply decline in coming years. Major reasons can be found in the availability of improved technologies for waste recycling and government regulations aiming at waste reduction. Conseq

  16. Assessing the opportunities of landfill mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, D.J. van der; Achterkamp, M.C.; Visser, B.J. de

    2003-01-01

    Long-term estimates make clear that the amount of solid waste to be processed at landfills in the Netherlands will sharply decline in coming years. Major reasons can be found in the availability of improved technologies for waste recycling and government regulations aiming at waste reduction. Conseq

  17. FUEL CELL ENERGY RECOVERY FROM LANDFILL GAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Fuel Cells Corporation is conducting a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sponsored program to demonstrate energy recovery from landfill gas using a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. The US EPA is interested in fuel cells for this application b...

  18. Assessing the market opportunities of landfill mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, D.J.; Achterkamp, M.C.; de Visser, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    Long-term estimates make clear that the amount of solid waste to be processed at landfills in the Netherlands will sharply decline in coming years. Major reasons can be found in the availability of improved technologies for waste recycling and government regulations aiming at waste reduction.

  19. Industrial Waste Landfill IV upgrade package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-14

    This document consists of page replacements for the Y-12 industrial waste landfill. The cover page is to replace the old page, and a new set of text pages are to replace the old ones. A replacement design drawing is also included.

  20. Assessing the opportunities of landfill mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, D.J. van der; Achterkamp, M.C.; Visser, B.J. de

    2003-01-01

    Long-term estimates make clear that the amount of solid waste to be processed at landfills in the Netherlands will sharply decline in coming years. Major reasons can be found in the availability of improved technologies for waste recycling and government regulations aiming at waste reduction.

  1. BIOREACTOR DESIGN - OUTER LOOP LANDFILL, LOUISVILLE, KY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioreactor field demonstration projects are underway at the Outer Loop Landfill in Louisville, KY, USA. The research effort is a cooperative research effort between US EPA and Waste Management Inc. Two primary kinds of municipal waste bioreactors are under study at this site. ...

  2. Assessment of soil-gas and groundwater contamination at the Gibson Road landfill, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Guimaraes, Wladmir G.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Soil-gas and groundwater assessments were conducted at the Gibson Road landfill in 201 to provide screening-level environmental contamination data to supplement the data collected during previous environmental studies at the landfill. Passive samplers were used in both assessments to detect volatile and semivolatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil gas and groundwater. A total of 56 passive samplers were deployed in the soil in late July and early August for the soil-gas assessment. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) were detected at masses greater than the method detection level of 0.02 microgram in all samplers and masses greater than 2.0 micrograms in 13 samplers. Three samplers located between the landfill and a nearby wetland had TPH masses greater than 20 micrograms. Diesel was detected in 28 of the 56 soil-gas samplers. Undecane, tridecane, and pentadecane were detected, but undecane was the most common diesel compound with 23 detections. Only five detections exceeded a combined diesel mass of 0.10 microgram, including the highest mass of 0.27 microgram near the wetland. Toluene was detected in only five passive samplers, including masses of 0.65 microgram near the wetland and 0.85 microgram on the southwestern side of the landfill. The only other gasoline-related compound detected was octane in two samplers. Naphthalene was detected in two samplers in the gully near the landfill and two samplers along the southwestern side of the landfill, but had masses less than or equal to 0.02 microgram. Six samplers located southeast of the landfill had detections of chlorinated compounds, including one perchloroethene detections (0.04 microgram) and five chloroform detections (0.05 to0.08 microgram). Passive samplers were deployed and recovered on August 8, 2011, in nine monitoring wells along the southwestern, southeastern and northeastern sides of the landfill and down gradient from the eastern corner of the landfill. Six of the nine

  3. Physical characterization and sanitary conditions of cheese type cabacinha market places in three municipalities of the Jequitinhonha Valley, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adair da Silva Santos Filho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cheese type cabacinha from Vale do Jequitinhonha is obtained by curd heating in a similar process made to Mozzarella, but the raw milk is unpasteurized and the final product is stored unpackaged and at room temperature. This milk derivative may contribute to the increase the income of the local population, especially the residents of the edges of roads, due to the flow of vehicles and possible buyers. The purpose of this work was to identify the physical and sanitary conditions of cheese type cabacinha market places present in three municipalities of the Vale do Jequitinhonha, MG, Brazil. Previously the investigation was detected the number of marketplaces that sell these cheese in the Medina, Cachoeira de Pajeú and Pedra Azul, municipalities of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, located on the surrounding area of the highways BR 251 and BR 116. Afterward as developed a physical and sanitary checklist and it were filled in loco. It was observed that most market places were not provided of masonry walls, piped water or toilet and sink. It is also common to the presence of possible contamination vectors in surroundings, such as dogs and insects. It is verified that most of these cheese is exposed in pairs held by string and unpackaged. This study demonstrated the precariousness of the physical structures and consequently the lack of adequate sanitary conditions in the cheese type cabacinha market places. Because it is an artisanal product from family farming, which generates income and employment in the field deserve more attention of competent state and municipal authorities.

  4. An integrated surface-geophysical investigation of the University of Connecticut landfill, Storrs, Connecticut, 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carole D.; Dawson, C.B.; Belaval, Marcel; Lane, Jr., John W.

    2002-01-01

    A surface-geophysical investigation to characterize the hydrogeology and contaminant distribution of the former landfill area at the University of Connecticut in Storrs, Connecticut, was conducted in 2000 to supplement the preliminary hydrogeologic assessment of the contamination of soil, surface water, and ground water at the site. A geophysical-toolbox approach was used to characterize the hydrogeology and contaminant distribution of the former landfill. Two-dimensional direct-current resistivity, inductive terrain-conductivity, and seismic-refraction surface-geophysical data were collected and interpreted in an iterative manner with exploratory drilling, borehole geophysics, and hydraulic testing. In this investigation, a geophysical-toolbox approach was used to 1) further define previously identified conductive anomalies and leachate plumes; 2) identify additional leachate plumes, possible fracture zones, and (or) conductive lithologic layers in the bedrock; and 3) delineate bedrock-surface topography in the drainage valleys north and south of the landfill. Resistivity and terrain-conductivity surveys were used to further delineate previously identified geophysical anomalies to the north and southwest of the landfill. A conductive anomaly identified in the terrain-conductivity survey to the north of the landfill in 2000 had a similar location and magnitude as an anomaly identified in terrain-conductivity surveys conducted in 1998 and 1999. Collectively, these surveys indicated that the magnitude of the conductive anomaly decreased with depth and with distance from the landfill. These anomalies indicated landfill leachate in the overburden and shallow bedrock. Results of previous surface-geophysical investigations southwest of the landfill indicated a shallow conductive anomaly in the overburden that extended into the fractured-bedrock aquifer. This conductive anomaly had a sheet-like geometry that had a north-south strike, dipped to the west, and terminated

  5. [Sanitary quality of water supply for human consumption in Campeche].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac-Márquez, A P; Lezama-Dávila, C M; Ku-Pech, P P; Tamay-Segovia, P

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents data of a study undertaken to know the sanitary features of water supply (deep pools) for human consumption in the city of Campeche, Mexico. Levels of intestinal bacteria (total and fecal coliforms) were monitored, as well as heterotrophic plate counts and the surroundings of each deep pool were inspected. Each water supply was monitored three times from January to July, 1993 and presented unacceptable levels of heterotrophic plate counts and coliforms which is a strong evidence of fecal contamination of animal or human origin. These findings are a clear indication of unacceptable contamination of water supply for human consumption which requires an improvement and systematic inspection in order to provide good quality water to the population of Campeche.

  6. [Sanitary and nutritional control of the Catania school catering service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, Elena; Allegra, Antonio Dino; Cannizzaro, Virginia; Fardella, Maristella; La Carrubba, Rosanna

    2005-01-01

    Sanitary and nutritional control of meals distributed by school catering services is one of the institutional duties of the Food Hygiene and Nutrition Services (Servizi Igiene Alimenti e Nutrizione - SIAN) of the Local Health Units. In order to carry out this activity properly it is necessary to ask oneself beforehand what the main outcome of control activities should be. The answer to this question can only be that "proper nutrition is essential for healthy growth". Starting from this assumption, control activities performed along the entire chain of the scholastic catering service, starting from the final dish served at school up to the primary producer, were reviewed. The review was carried out by a team of multiprofessionals which included a physician, a prevention technician, a dietician, a biologist, an agronomist and a veterinarian. Preliminary results are extremely positive and show that the multidisciplinary integration of roles entrusted to the coordinators of SIAN is crucial to obtaining the best results.

  7. Sanitary Sewage Treatment with Jet Inner-loop Bioreactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Qin-xue; Chen Zhi-qiang; Lu Bing-nan; Wen Yan

    2004-01-01

    A jet inncr-loop bioreactor (JIBR) was used to treat synthetic sanitary sewage with low, medium and high COD load. The experimental resuhs show that it could meet discharge standard at 20-30 min of HRT (hydraulic retention time) for low COD concentration and 60-120 min of HRT for medium and high COD concentration. The maximal COD volume loading and COD sludye loading of 27kg·m-3·d-1 and 5 kg/d per kg MLSS were achieved respectively, that were 10-20 times higher than those of traditional wastewater treatment processes. The BOD5 removal efficiency was more than 90 % and NH1-N more than 85 %. The study on the activity showed that the oxygen consumption rate of the activated times higher than that of the SBR(Sequencing Batch Reactor)and thc dominant bacteria in jet inner-loop bioreactor was Pseudomonas species.

  8. Influence of the physico-chemical process as previous treatment to the electrocoagulation. Study with leachate of a landfill; Influencia del proceso fisicoquimico como tratamiento previo a la electrocoagulacion. Estudio con lixiviados de un relleno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado Martinez, I. D.; Reyes Avila, D.

    2007-07-01

    This article has as purpose to show the influence of the method physico-chemical as previous process to the novel technique of electrocoagulation, presenting as a new alternative to depurate wastewaters. to obtain it, was done tests measuring the very parameters to leachates so much affluent as effluent from treatment plant of the Sanitary Landfill La Esmeralda, situated near to the Manizales city(Colombia), and so much before as later to apply this electrochemical technology, looking for this way to compare the obtained removals. (Author)

  9. Combining AHP with GIS for landfill site selection: a case study in the Lake Beyşehir catchment area (Konya, Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Sehnaz; Sener, Erhan; Nas, Bilgehan; Karagüzel, Remzi

    2010-11-01

    Landfills are the most common method for the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Turkey. However, determining the location of landfill sites is a difficult and complex process because it must combine social, environmental and technical parameters. Additionally, it depends on several criteria and regulations. The main objective of this study was to select of a landfill site for the Lake Beyşehir catchment area. The Beyşehir Lake is the largest freshwater lake and drinking water reservoir in Turkey, but there is no controlled landfill site in the region. Therefore, the landfill site should be determined such that the lake is protected. To determine the most suitable landfill site, an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was combined with a geographic information system (GIS) to examine several criteria, such as geology/hydrogeology, land use, slope, height, aspect and distance from settlements, surface waters, roads, and protected areas (ecologic, scientific or historic). Each criterion was evaluated with the aid of AHP and mapped by GIS. Data were assorted into four suitability classes within the study area, i.e., high, moderate, low and very low suitability areas, which represented 3.24%, 7.55%, 12.70% and 2.81%, of the study area, respectively. Additionally, 73.70% was determined to be completely unsuitable for a landfill site. As a result, two candidate landfill sites are suggested and discussed. The final decision for landfill site selection will require more detailed field studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A hybrid method for quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis in a municipal solid waste landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, L; Batlle, F

    2011-12-01

    Limited space for accommodating the ever increasing mounds of municipal solid waste (MSW) demands the capacity of MSW landfill be maximized by building landfills to greater heights with steeper slopes. This situation has raised concerns regarding the stability of high MSW landfills. A hybrid method for quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis based on the finite element stress analysis was applied in a case study at a MSW landfill in north-east Spain. Potential slides can be assumed to be located within the waste mass due to the lack of weak foundation soils and geosynthetic membranes at the landfill base. The only triggering factor of deep-seated slope failure is the higher leachate level and the relatively high and steep slope in the front. The valley-shaped geometry and layered construction procedure at the site make three-dimensional slope stability analyses necessary for this landfill. In the finite element stress analysis, variations of leachate level during construction and continuous settlement of the landfill were taken into account. The "equivalent" three-dimensional factor of safety (FoS) was computed from the individual result of the two-dimensional analysis for a series of evenly spaced cross sections within the potential sliding body. Results indicate that the hybrid method for quasi-three-dimensional slope stability analysis adopted in this paper is capable of locating roughly the spatial position of the potential sliding mass. This easy to manipulate method can serve as an engineering tool in the preliminary estimate of the FoS as well as the approximate position and extent of the potential sliding mass. The result that FoS obtained from three-dimensional analysis increases as much as 50% compared to that from two-dimensional analysis implies the significance of the three-dimensional effect for this study-case. Influences of shear parameters, time elapse after landfill closure, leachate level as well as unit weight of waste on FoS were also

  11. Characterization and treatment of Denizli landfill leachate using anaerobic hybrid/aerobic CSTR systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ağdağ, Osman Nuri

    2011-01-01

    Leachate generated in municipal solid waste landfill contains large amounts of organic and inorganic contaminants. In the scope of the study, characterization and anaerobic/aerobic treatability of leachate from Denizli (Turkey) Sanitary Landfill were investigated. Time-based fluctuations in characteristics of leachate were monitored during a one-year period. In characterization study; chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, alkalinity, volatile fatty acids, total nitrogen, NH4-N, BOD5/COD ratio, suspended solid, inert COD, anaerobic toxicity assay and heavy metals concentrations in leachate were monitored. Average COD, BOD and NH4-N concentration in leachate were measured as 18034 mg/l, 11504 mg/l and 454 mg/l, respectively. Generally, pollution parameters in leachate were higher in summer and relatively lower in winter due to dilution by precipitation. For treatment of leachate, two different reactors, namely anaerobic hybrid and aerobic completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) having effective volumes of 17.7 and 10.5 litres, respectively, were used. After 41 days of start-up period, leachate was loaded to hybrid reactor at 10 different organic loading rates (OLRs). OLR was increased by increasing COD concentrations. COD removal efficiency of hybrid reactor was carried out at a maximum of 91%. A percentage of 96% of residual COD was removed in the aerobic reactor. NH4-N removal rate in CSTR was quite high. In addition, high methane content was obtained as 64% in the hybrid reactor. At the end of the study, after 170 operation days, it can be said that the hybrid reactor and CSTR were very effective for leachate treatment.

  12. Enhancing filterability of activated sludge from landfill leachate treatment plant by applying electrical field ineffective on bacterial life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya, Gulizar Kurtoglu; Sekman, Elif; Top, Selin; Sagir, Ece; Bilgili, Mehmet Sinan; Guvenc, Senem Yazici

    2017-03-09

    The aim of this study is to investigate filterability enhancement of activated sludge supplied form a full-scale leachate treatment plant by applying DC electric field while keeping the biological operational conditions in desirable range. The activated sludge samples were received from the nitrification tank in the leachate treatment plant of Istanbul's Odayeri Sanitary Landfill Site. Experimental sets were conducted as laboratory-scale batch studies and were duplicated for 1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, and 5A of electrical currents and 2, 5, 10, 15, and 30 min of exposure times under continuous aeration. Physicochemical parameters such as temperature, pH, and oxidation reduction potential in the mixture right after each experimental set and biochemical parameters such as chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus, and ammonia nitrogen in supernatant were analyzed to define the sets that remain in the range of ideal biological operational conditions. Later on, sludge filterability properties such as capillary suction time, specific resistance to filtration, zeta potential, and particle size were measured for remaining harmless sets. Additionally, cost analyses were conducted in respect to energy and electrode consumptions. Application of 2A DC electric field and 15-min exposure time was found to be the most favorable conditions to enhance filterability of the landfill leachate-activated sludge.

  13. Estimation of cost reduction and increase for the final disposal associated with the categorization of inert waste landfills in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Hirofumi; Tsuchida, Daisuke; Shimaoka, Takayuki

    2012-02-01

    This study estimates the overall cost savings that have been realized due to disposal of inert wastes in Japan because this material has been deposited in inert waste landfills (IWLs) that are designed exclusively for this purpose, instead of being co-dipsosed with organic wastes in more costly in sanitary landfills (SLs). The total realized cost savings were based on the disposed volume of inert waste and the actual disposal fees for IWLs and SLs for the period 1977-2006. The estimated reduction in expense is 4748 billion JPY for the period. On the other hand, if organic wastes had been deposited in IWLs along with inert wastes, costs would be incurred to clean up the sites because the surrounding environment may be polluted by the decomposition of the non-inert wastes and considerable efforts probably would be required to restore the polluted environment to its normal condition (this is because IWLs typically do not have a barrier system.) The potential cleanup cost was estimated to be 616 to 1226 billion JPY. These estimated costs were compared and it was found that the net reduction in expense was 3522 billion to 4122 billion JPY. Although the expense was reduced substantially, it was noted that a considerable cleanup cost would be generated. In particular, it was found that the increase in cleanup costs becomes most significant after the late 1990s.

  14. State of the art design: A closure system for the largest hazardous waste landfill at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, S.F.; Serrato, M.G.; McMullin, S.R.

    1992-12-31

    This paper discusses the cover system proposed for a 55-acre, hazardous waste closure of the sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed cover system has been designed to accommodate a significant amount of post-closure settlement while maintaining a permeability of 1 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} cm/s or less throughout its 30-year, regulatory lifetime. A composite cover consisting of a geomembrane (GM) underlain by a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) was selected because of its extremely low permeability, ability to elongate without tearing, and capacity to ``self-heal`` if punctured. These characteristics will enable the cover system to accommodate differential settlement without cracking or tearing, this providing long-term protection with minimal maintenance. Also, to improve the ability of the cover system to span voids that may develop in the underlying waste, a geogrid has been included in the foundation layer. A gas vent layer has been included to allow for the safe collection and venting of landfill gases.

  15. State of the art design: A closure system for the largest hazardous waste landfill at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, S.F.; Serrato, M.G.; McMullin, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the cover system proposed for a 55-acre, hazardous waste closure of the sanitary landfill at the Savannah River Site, near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed cover system has been designed to accommodate a significant amount of post-closure settlement while maintaining a permeability of 1 [times] 10[sup [minus]7] cm/s or less throughout its 30-year, regulatory lifetime. A composite cover consisting of a geomembrane (GM) underlain by a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) was selected because of its extremely low permeability, ability to elongate without tearing, and capacity to self-heal'' if punctured. These characteristics will enable the cover system to accommodate differential settlement without cracking or tearing, this providing long-term protection with minimal maintenance. Also, to improve the ability of the cover system to span voids that may develop in the underlying waste, a geogrid has been included in the foundation layer. A gas vent layer has been included to allow for the safe collection and venting of landfill gases.

  16. Material flow-based economic assessment of landfill mining processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieckhäfer, Karsten; Breitenstein, Anna; Spengler, Thomas S

    2017-02-01

    This paper provides an economic assessment of alternative processes for landfill mining compared to landfill aftercare with the goal of assisting landfill operators with the decision to choose between the two alternatives. A material flow-based assessment approach is developed and applied to a landfill in Germany. In addition to landfill aftercare, six alternative landfill mining processes are considered. These range from simple approaches where most of the material is incinerated or landfilled again to sophisticated technology combinations that allow for recovering highly differentiated products such as metals, plastics, glass, recycling sand, and gravel. For the alternatives, the net present value of all relevant cash flows associated with plant installation and operation, supply, recycling, and disposal of material flows, recovery of land and landfill airspace, as well as landfill closure and aftercare is computed with an extensive sensitivity analyses. The economic performance of landfill mining processes is found to be significantly influenced by the prices of thermal treatment (waste incineration as well as refuse-derived fuels incineration plant) and recovered land or airspace. The results indicate that the simple process alternatives have the highest economic potential, which contradicts the aim of recovering most of the resources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Sanitary regulation as part of health policy in Brazil: gaps and challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Christiane; Guilhem, Dirce

    2016-05-01

    Objective To outline and discuss the main challenges for sanitary regulation contained in the federal-level Brazilian health policy. Methods For the present qualitative study, based on the analysis of public policies, information was collected from documents and interviews. Document analysis provided a historical overview of the insertion of sanitary regulation into the Brazilian health policy between 1999 and 2009 (first decade of existence of the national health surveillance agency, Anvisa). In addition, 13 interviews were carried out with actors selected for their historical, technical, or academic role in the field. Content analysis was used to define themes emerging from the materials analyzed with a focus on the "content" category, which refers to strategic and operational guidelines of policy programs, projects, initiatives, and normative framework. Results Content analysis revealed five themes that reflect the challenges to sanitary regulation in Brazil: 1) objects under regulation treated as isolated cases; 2) a Brazilian-specific model of sanitary regulation that is different from other international models; 3) ignorance regarding the role of sanitary surveillance in health care; 4) absence of an information system; and 5) absence of performance indicators and assessment tools. Conclusions Sanitary surveillance must have a mission that is disentangled from inspection tasks to become an effective instrument of health protection. For that, an information system that brings the National Sanitary Surveillance System together toward major objectives is essential. The adoption of tools for assessment of action is also required, with the establishment of adequate indicators.

  18. Application of a contaminant mass balance method at an old landfill to assess the impact on water resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Nanna Isbak; Milosevic, Nemanja; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    2012-01-01

    linking soil and groundwater contamination to surface water pollution are required. This paper presents a method which provides an estimate of the contaminant mass discharge, using a combination of a historical investigation and contaminant mass balance approach. The method works at the screening level...... and could be part of a risk assessment. The study site was Risby Landfill, an old unlined landfill located in a clay till setting on central Zealand, Denmark. The contaminant mass discharge was determined for three common leachate indicators: chloride, dissolved organic carbon and ammonium. For instance...... of chloride to the small Risby Stream down gradient of the landfill was approximately 31kg/year. The contaminant mass balance method worked well for chloride and dissolved organic carbon, but the uncertainties were elevated for ammonium due to substantial spatial variability in the source composition...

  19. Relation between hydraulic properties and plant coverage of the closed-landfill soils in Piacenza (Po Valley, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinari, C.; Manfredi, P.; Giupponi, L.; Trevisan, M.; Piccini, C.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper the results of a study of soil hydraulic properties and plant coverage of a landfill located in Piacenza (Po Valley, Italy) are presented, together with the attempt to put the hydraulic properties in relation with plant coverage. The measured soil water retention curve was first compared with the output of some pedotransfer functions taken from the literature and then with the output of the same pedotransfer functions applied to a reference soil. The landfill plant coverage was also studied. The relation between soil hydraulic properties and plant coverage showed that the landfill soils have a low water content available for plants and this fact, together with their lack of depth and compacted structure, justifies the presence of a nitrophilous, disturbed-soil vegetation type, dominated by ephemeral annual species (therophytes).

  20. Relationship between hydraulic properties and plant coverage of the closed-landfill soils in Piacenza (Po Valley, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassinari, C.; Manfredi, P.; Giupponi, L.; Trevisan, M.; Piccini, C.

    2015-07-01

    In this paper the results of a study of soil hydraulic properties and plant coverage of a landfill located in Piacenza (Po Valley, Italy) are presented, together with the attempt to relate the hydraulic properties in relation with plant coverage. The measured soil water retention curve was first compared with the output of pedotransfer functions taken from the literature and then compared with the output of the same pedotransfer functions applied to a reference soil. The landfill plant coverage was also studied. The relationship between soil hydraulic properties and plant coverage showed that the landfill soils have a low water content available for plants. The soils' low water content, together with a lack of depth and a compacted structure, justifies the presence of a nitrophilous, disturbed-soil vegetation type, dominated by ephemeral annual species (therophytes).

  1. GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process for Regional Landfill Site Selection in Transitional Countries: A Case Study From Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenović Vasiljević, Tamara; Srdjević, Zorica; Bajčetić, Ratko; Vojinović Miloradov, Mirjana

    2012-02-01

    The Serbian National Waste Management Strategy for the Period 2010-2019, harmonized with the European Union Directives, mandates new and very strict requirements for landfill sites. To enable analysis of a number of required qualitative and quantitative factors for landfill site selection, the traditional method of site selection must be replaced with a new approach. The combination of GIS and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) was selected to solve this complex problem. The Srem region in northern Serbia, being one of the most environmentally sensitive areas, was chosen as a case study. Seventeen factors selected as criteria/sub-criteria were recognized as most important, divided into geo-natural, environmental, social and techno-economic factors, and were evaluated by experts from different fields using an AHP extension in Arc GIS. Weighted spatial layers were combined into a landfill suitability map which was then overlapped with four restriction maps, resulting in a final suitability map. According to the results, 82.65% of the territory of Srem is unsuitable for regional landfill siting. The most suitable areas cover 9.14%, suitable areas 5.24%, while areas with low and very low suitability cover 2.21 and 0.76% of the territory, respectively. Based on these findings, five sites close to two large urban agglomerations were suggested as possible locations for a regional landfill site in Srem. However, the final decision will require further field investigation, a public acceptance survey, and consideration of ownership status and price of the land.

  2. Effects of leachate accumulation on landfill stability in humid regions of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianguo, Jiang; Yong, Yang; Shihui, Yang; Bin, Ye; Chang, Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Leachate levels are important to landfill stability and safety. High leachate or water levels often lead to landfill instability, which can cause accidents. Here a case study of a landfill located in a humid region of southern China is presented. Leachate distribution and quality were systematically analyzed, and the effect of leachate level on waste-mass stability was assessed. Boreholes were drilled in the field, samples were analyzed in the laboratory, and a simulation was performed. In addition, the safety and stability of the landfill was evaluated. The leachate level in the landfill was 9-19m, which was higher than the top of the dam crest (8-20m). Leachate accounted for more than 1/4 of the total landfill storage capacity. The contaminant concentration of the leachate samples collected directly from the waste body was very high, with large variation among the samples. The mean concentrations of NH(3)-N, BOD, and COD from the waste body were 5404, 14,136, and 22,691mg/L, nearly 2.7, 2.4, and 1.8 times the mean concentrations in the leachate pond, respectively. Three series of shear strength parameters were used in a slope stability analysis, and a limit equilibrium method was used to calculate the factor of safety (Fs). The analysis showed that Fs could be affected by potential anisotropy in the shear strength of the waste. The minimum values of Fs corresponding to series I were 1.84 and 1.17 for units capital I, Ukrainian and II, respectively. The Fs value of unit II was significantly lower than the safe design value (1.25). In addition, Fs decreased with increase in the normalized height of the leachate level, h/H, where h is the height of the leachate mound and H is the maximum thickness of the landfill. If the h/H values of units I and II are kept below 50% and 40%, respectively, a safe design value of 1.25 for Fs can be guaranteed. Therefore, some measures to prevent risk should be considered. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Life in a landfill slum, children's health, and the Millennium Development Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Tomoyuki, E-mail: tshibata@niu.edu [Public Health Program, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL (United States); Institute of the Study for Environment, Sustainability, and Energy, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL (United States); Faculty of Public Health, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, South Sulawesi (Indonesia); Wilson, James L. [Institute of the Study for Environment, Sustainability, and Energy, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL (United States); Department of Geography, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL (United States); Watson, Lindsey M.; Nikitin, Ivan V. [Public Health Program, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL (United States); Ansariadi; La Ane, Ruslan; Maidin, Alimin [Faculty of Public Health, Hasanuddin University, Makassar, South Sulawesi (Indonesia)

    2015-12-01

    People living in slums can be considered left behind with regard to national successes in achieving Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The objective of this study was to evaluate the living and working conditions of waste pickers and their children in a landfill slum located in the largest city in eastern Indonesia. A total of 113 people from the landfill slum and 1184 people from the general population participated in face-to-face interviews. Municipal solid waste (MSW) was analyzed for metals, metalloids and fecal indicator bacteria. Ambient air quality including particulate matter was measured in the landfill. Households in the landfill slum were 5.73 (p = 0.04) times more likely to be below the international poverty line (MDG 1: Poverty) and 15.6 times (p < 0.01) more likely to have no one in the household possessing a primary education (MDG 2: Universal Education), and 107 times (p < 0.01) more likely not to have improved sanitation facilities (MDG 7: Environmental Sustainability) when compared to the general population. Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of death in children under five in Indonesia. Young children living in the landfill slum were 2.87 times (p = 0.02) more likely to develop diarrhea than their general population counterparts. Other survey results and environmental measurements suggest that landfill slum children have additional adverse health effects (e.g. infections and poisoning). Poverty underlies several MDG issues that directly or indirectly affect child health. Therefore, eradicating extreme poverty will continue to be the most critical challenge for the MDGs beyond 2015. - Highlights: • Waste-pickers and the health and well-being of their children are examined • Landfill slum (LS) residents do not have a share in improving economies • LSs illustrate the interrelationship of Millennium Development Goals • LS mothers and children are exposed to toxic chemicals and pathogens • MDGs directly and indirectly addresses issues

  4. Gas Production Potential in the Landfill of Tehran by Landfill Methane Outreach Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pazoki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Landfilling is the most common way of municipal solid waste (MSW disposal in Iran. Many countries have targeted landfill methane recovery among greenhouse gas mitigation strategies, since methane is the second most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Major questions remain with respect to actual methane production rates in field settings as well as the relative mass of methane that is recovered, emitted, oxidized by methanotrophic bacteria, laterally migrated, or temporarily stored within the landfill volume. Landfill gas (LFG consists of 50% - 60 vol% methane and 30% - 40 vol% carbon dioxide as well as trace amounts of numerous chemical compounds such as aromatics, chlorinated organic compounds and sulfur compounds. Landfill methane outreach program (LMOP is a voluntary assistance program which helps reduce methane emissions from landfills by encouraging the recovery and the beneficial use of LFG as an energy resource. Objectives In this study, the volume of LFG of Tehran by landfill methane outreach program (LMOP software was calculated. In addition, the relationship between the time of gas collection system operation and the volume of LFG production was evaluated. Materials and Methods The LMOP software was used. The available information and some presumptions were used to operate the software. The composition of the solid waste collected from the landfill of Tehran had specific details. A large amount of it was organic materials, which was about 67.8%. These materials have a good potential to produce gas. In addition, LMOP Colombia model uses the first-order equations in all the analytical equations. Furthermore, it is assumed that the landfill operation time is 30 years and the process is considered in two conditions; first, the gas was recovered in 2000, and second, the process started in 2015. Results The modeling results showed that for the gas recovery starting in 2000 and 2015, the power generation would be 2

  5. Narratives of Public Health in Dickens's Journalism: The Trouble with Sanitary Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ralph F

    2015-01-01

    Although Dickens is still known as having been a highly visible supporter of England's well-known nineteenth-century sanitary movement, he became, in fact, deeply troubled by many of this movement's fundamental tenets, as evidenced by journal narratives on fever that he edited and wrote in the mid-nineteenth century. Rather than water and sewer engineering works and a sanitary regime policed by government agencies as envisaged by Edwin Chadwick and other sanitary reformers, Dickens's view by 1855 was that only a massive erasure of the existing social and political systems and their replacement by an utterly new infrastructure would suffice.

  6. Library Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh locations including address, coordinates, phone number, square footage, and standard operating hours.

  7. Validation of the methane emission reduction on the Nauerna landfill; Validatie van de methaan-emissie-reductie op stortplaats Nauerna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensen, A.

    1998-06-01

    Methane emission measurements were performed at a landfill site located approximately 20 km west of Amsterdam, Netherlands. These measurements aimed to determine the emission level of the 60 ha landfill site after the implementation of a gas extraction unit. In order to assess the emission, the concentration levels in the plume downwind of the site were determined using a Tuneable Diode Laser Atomic Spectrometer mounted in a small truck. This measurement system combines a high selectivity for methane (or nitrous oxide) with a high time resolution (up to 20 Hz is possible). The position of the truck was determined using a differential global positioning system (DGPS) that uses up to 8 satellites to retrieve the position. Meteorological measurements were obtained using an ultrasonic anemometer located on top of the landfill. The concentrations measured on transects through the plume that run about 780 m downwind of the centre of the landfill were compared with modeled concentrations. The model divides the landfill area into 100 point sources and calculates a gaussian plume for each point. The source strength is estimated by making a match between the measured and modelled concentrations in the plume. A validation of the model was done by releasing a tracer (nitrous oxide) from a known location on the landfill. The TDLAS is capable of measuring N2O simultaneous with CH4. A total number of 14 transects have been obtained. For 11 transects plumes were found. The emissions that were estimated ranged from 19 gCH{sub 4}.s{sup -1} to 40 gCH{sub 4}.s{sup -1} with one extreme value of 65 gCH{sub 4}.s{sup -1}. The best guess for the average emission was estimated to be 31 {+-} 13 gCH{sub 4}.s{sup -1}. In 1997 the same kind of measurements was performed to evaluate the emission level before implementation of this extraction system. In that campaign 8 plume measurements were obtained, which resulted in a best guess for the landfill emission of 62 {+-}12 gCH{sub 4}.s{sup -1}. The

  8. Releasing behavior of copper in recirculated bioreactor landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yu-Yang; Hu, Li-Fang; Jiang, Chen-Jing; Fang, Cheng-Ran; Wang, Feng-Ping; Shen, Dong-Sheng

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the releasing behavior of copper in municipal solid waste (MSW) in landfill with respect to refuse and leachate as an inseparable system. Two simulated bioreactor landfills, one with leachate recirculation and the other without, were operated in room temperature for 320 days. Copper in refuse showed behaviors of staggered migration and retention, which corresponded with the degradation process of landfill obviously. The significant different amounts of Cu2+ leached out from refuse into leachate of two landfills were 24.74 mg and 118.53 mg after 320 days' operation, respectively. It also reflected the releasing behavior of copper in landfill refuse at different stage accordingly. The results confirmed that the refuse in landfill had high potential of secondary pollution after closure.

  9. Characterization and Energy Generation of Sharda Landfill at Agra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail Ayub

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the global municipal solid waste is dumped in non regulated landfills and the generated methane is emitted to the atmosphere which has global warming potential. Some of the modern regulated landfills attempt to capture and utilize landfill gas. An attempt has been made in this study for the recovery of energy potential of Shadra site. This includes different methodologies to determine the feasibility of recovery project. The laboratory results show that the percentage by volume of methane is 51%. The landfill gas (LFG generation is very low (i.e. low-range recovery scenario and it is un-economical to recover such low flow gases produced in landfill. So, this reveals that flaring is only the option to reduce the global warming potential (GWP and also the problems of odour in the vicinity of landfill.

  10. Detection and quantification of methane leakage from landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljungberg, Sven-Aake; Maartensson, Stig-Goeran (Univ. of Gaevle, Gaevle (Sweden)); Meijer, Jan-Erik; Rosqvist, Haakan (NSR AB, Helsingborg (Sweden))

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this project was to detect gas leakage and to measure and quantify methane emission from landfills using modern remote sensing techniques. In this project, a handheld laser instrument and an IR camera were used. The overall objective was to develop cost-effective methods for detecting and quantifying methane emissions from landfills. There are many methods available for measuring the methane concentration in air, both from close-up and from long distances. Combined with the use of a tracer gas, the methane emission from entire landfills can be measured relatively accurately. A number of methods are used to detect leakage from parts of landfill surfaces, but there are few methods for quantifying leakage from sub-zones. Field measurements with the laser instrument and the IR camera were carried out at seven Swedish landfills and two landfills in France. The investigated surfaces at the Swedish landfills were divided into different zones, such as top surface, slope, crest and toe of slope. The field measurements in France were taken over entire landfills. The methane emission varied between the different landfills in the project, and also between the different landfill zones. The results from repeated field measurements indicated that a landfill with a final cap and a successful gas recovery system produces barely measurable emissions. The weak points at a landfill are generally slopes, including crests and toes of slopes. Where the covering of the waste is inadequate, leakage often occurs at lift joints and in areas where waste protrudes through the cover. Other weak points are deficiencies in the gas recovery system. Leachate systems can lead landfill gas and thereby cause methane leakage. Along with wind velocity and variations in atmospheric pressure, moisture content in the ground is an important factor that affects methane emissions from landfill surfaces. Results from field measurements of the same feature/surface at different points in time and

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions through cap barriers of landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourc, J.P.; Staub, M.; Simonin, R. [Grenoble Univ. (France). LTHE

    2009-07-01

    A study was conducted to examine the environmental impacts of landfill cap covers used to produce biogas. The sensitivity of the environmental performance of landfills on biogas collection and recovery systems as well as on cap cover characteristics was investigated. The study examined both soil and geosynthetic landfill cap covers used to maintain impermeability at landfill sites as well as to enable biogas recovery. Two types of cap cover were discussed: (1) a cover that enabled passive wetting of the landfill wastes through rainfall; and (2) an impermeable cap used to control leachate recirculation. The environmental impacts of both caps were discussed. The study showed that landfill cap covers are a significant means of sequestering greenhouse gases (GHGs).

  12. Baghdad Municipal Solid Waste Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-19

    After PCO was established, the functions of SPMO were shifted to the respective PCO sector, i.e., Sector Project & Contracting Office ( SPOC ). 6...located in an area that has seen recurrent violence during the course of construction. The contractor reported that since the beginning of...width, with V-shaped drainage ditches along both sides of the roadway with a cross section consisting of a base (surface) course of crushed stone (0.3 m

  13. Research on Health Risk-Based Radioactive Acceptance Criteria of Municipal Solid Waste Landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The article focuses on the topics of Health Risk-Based Radioactive Acceptance Criteria of Municipal Solid Waste Landfill (MSWL, including municipal refuse landfills or industrial solid waste landfills, MSWL). At first, health risk assessment

  14. Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge : Potential impacts from Dare County Landfills

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Surface runoff or leachate from two landfills (East Lake Landfill and the Dare County Construction and Demolition Debris Landfill) have the potential to impact fish...

  15. Landfill liners from dam reservoir sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koś Karolina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Landfill liners from dam reservoir sediments. Every municipal solid waste landfill has to be properly secured to protect the natural environment from possible leachate. Most often an artificial sealing is used, which is based on a soil liner from cohesive soils (clays, silts. Usability evaluation of bottom sediments from Rzeszowski Reservoir for building these liners was presented in the paper. Sediments from dam reservoirs, gathered as a result of the siltation process, can be a valuable material for earthworks purposes. Determination of their possible ways of usage is important, especially before the planned dredging, because thanks to that this material will not be put on a heap. Based on the analysis of the geotechnical parameters of these sediments it was stated that this material can be preliminary allowed for using in liners.

  16. Performance of geotextiles in landfills covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitz, L.J.; Holtz, R.D.

    1997-11-01

    As part of the research into the performance of geotextiles in landfill covers, 14 test pits were excavated in five landfill covers constructed between 1988 and 1992 in Washington State. Materials used in the drainage system were examined and documented. Specimens of geotextiles (all 8 oz/yd{sup 2}, needle punched nonwovens) as well as samples of the vegetative and sand drainage soils, were obtained for laboratory analyses. Laboratory tests indicated that the geotextiles satisfactorily performed their intended filtration function. No apparent migration of fines into the drainage layer was detected. The degree of clogging was evaluated by performing permittivity tests on specimens of the exhumed geotextiles, as retrieved and after washing. Washing typically resulted in permittivity increases on the order of 30 to 90 percent.

  17. Quantification of long term emission potential from landfills

    OpenAIRE

    Heimovaara, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Novel approaches for the after-care of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills are based on technological measures to reduce the long term emission potential in a short time period. Biological degradation in landfills is a means to significantly reduce the long term emission potential. Leachate emission to the groundwater is considered to be one of the largest long-term impacts related to landfilling. Currently we are starting up a research program, partly subsidized by the Dutch Technology fou...

  18. Suggested guidelines for gas emission monitoring at danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Landfill gas is produced on waste disposal sites receiving organic waste resulting in emission of methane. Regulation requires that the landfill gas is managed in order to reduce emissions, but very few suggestions exist to how the landfill gas management activities are monitored, what requirements...... measures to determine the efficiency of the performed emission mitigation is defined. Finally, several principles are presented for how criteria can be developed for when a monitoring program can be terminated....

  19. Behavior of engineered nanoparticles in landfill leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolyard, Stephanie C; Reinhart, Debra R; Santra, Swadeshmukul

    2013-08-01

    This research sought to understand the behavior of engineered nanoparticles in landfill leachate by examining the interactions between nanoparticles and leachate components. The primary foci of this paper are the effects of ZnO, TiO2, and Ag nanoparticles on biological landfill processes and the form of Zn, Ti, and Ag in leachate following the addition of nanoparticles. Insight into the behavior of nanoparticles in landfill leachate was gained from the observed increase in the aqueous concentrations over background for Zn, Ti, and Ag in some tested leachates attributed to leachate components interacting with the nanoparticle coatings resulting in dispersion, dissolution/dissociation, and/or agglomeration. Coated nanoparticles did not affect biological processes when added to leachate; five-day biochemical oxygen demand and biochemical methane potential results were not statistically different when exposed to nanoparticles, presumably due to the low concentration of dissolved free ionic forms of the associated metals resulting from the interaction with leachate components. Chemical speciation modeling predicted that dissolved Zn in leachate was primarily associated with dissolved organic matter, Ti with hydroxide, and Ag with hydrogen sulfide and ammonia; less than 1% of dissolved Zn and Ag was in the free ionic form, and free ionic Ti and Ag concentrations were negligible.

  20. Methane production in simulated hybrid bioreactor landfill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiyong; Jin, Xiao; Ma, Zeyu; Tao, Huchun; Ko, Jae Hac

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this work was to study a hybrid bioreactor landfill technology for landfill methane production from municipal solid waste. Two laboratory-scale columns were operated for about ten months to simulate an anaerobic and a hybrid landfill bioreactor, respectively. Leachate was recirculated into each column but aeration was conducted in the hybrid bioreactor during the first stage. Results showed that leachate pH in the anaerobic bioreactor maintained below 6.5, while in the hybrid bioreactor quickly increased from 5.6 to 7.0 due to the aeration. The temporary aeration resulted in lowering COD and BOD5 in the leachate. The volume of methane collected from the hybrid bioreactor was 400 times greater than that of the anaerobic bioreactor. Also, the methane production rate of the hybrid bioreactor was improved within a short period of time. After about 10 months' operation, the total methane production in the hybrid bioreactor was 212 L (16 L/kgwaste).

  1. Degradation of Refuse in Hybrid Bioreactor Landfill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN LONG; Yu-YANG LONG; HAI-CHUN LIU; DONG-SHENG SHEN

    2009-01-01

    Objectivess To explore the process of refuse decomposition in hybrid bioreactor landfill. Methods The bioreactor landfill was operated in sequencing of facultative-anaerobic and aerobic conditions with leachate recireulation, pH, COD, and ammonia in the leachate and pH, biodegradable organic matter (BDM), and cation exchange capacity (CEC) in refuse were detected. Results CEC increased gradually with the degradation of refuse, which was negatively correlad, With BDM. COD and ammonia in the leachate was declined to 399.2 mg L-1 and 20.6 mg N L-1, respectively, during the 357-day operation. The respective concentrations of ammonia and COD were below the second and the third levels of current discharge standards in China. Conclusion The refuse is relatively stable at the end of hybrid bioreactor landfill operation. Most of the readily biodegradable organic matter is mineralized in the initial phase of refuse degradation, whereas the hard-biodegradable organic matter is mainly humidified in the maturity phase of refuse degradation.

  2. Hydrologic environments and water-quality characteristics at four landfills in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, 1980-86

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinell, A.P.; Barnes, C.R.; Eddins, W.H.; Coble, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    ground-water samples analyzed for volatile organic compounds. Landfills affected the water quality of several smaller streams but did not noticeably affect larger ones. Apparent effects on water quality were greatest at the oldest landfill, located on Statesville Road, where waste is in cells that are partly below the water table.

  3. Case study: City of Industry landfill gas recovery operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-11-01

    Development of civic, recreation, and conservation facilities throughout a 150-acre site which had been used for waste disposal from 1951 to 1970 is described. The history of the landfill site, the geology of the site, and a test well program to assess the feasibility of recoverying landfill gas economically from the site are discussed. Based on results of the test well program, the City of Industry authorized the design and installation of a full-scale landfill gas recovery system. Design, construction, and operation of the system are described. The landfill gas system provides fuel for use in boilers to meet space heating and hot water demands for site development (MCW)

  4. Proposal Of Landfill Site Model In The Particular Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stopka Ondrej

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, waste logistics is a relevant element within the worldwide logistics system. This paper is focused on the proposal of the appropriate model of landfill site for disposal of municipal waste. This issue refers to waste logistics in urban areas. In this regard, three different alternative models of landfill sites are considered. Landfill site model can significantly influence the waste management productivity and effectiveness of the enterprise. In the paper, one of the decision-making problem methods is utilized. This particular method enables to assess each model of landfill site in relation to each of the specified criterion and order the models according to the achieved results.

  5. Generating CO(2)-credits through landfill in situ aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzkowski, M; Stegmann, R

    2010-04-01

    Landfills are some of the major anthropogenic sources of methane emissions worldwide. The installation and operation of gas extraction systems for many landfills in Europe and the US, often including technical installations for energy recovery, significantly reduced these emissions during the last decades. Residual landfill gas, however, is still continuously produced after the energy recovery became economically unattractive, thus resulting in ongoing methane emissions for many years. By landfill in situ aeration these methane emissions can be widely avoided both, during the aeration process as well as in the subsequent aftercare period. Based on model calculations and online monitoring data the amount of avoided CO(2-eq). can be determined. For an in situ aerated landfill in northern Germany, acting as a case study, 83-95% (depending on the kind and quality of top cover) of the greenhouse gas emission potential could be reduced under strictly controlled conditions. Recently the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) has approved a new methodology on the "Avoidance of landfill gas emissions by in situ aeration of landfills" (UNFCCC, 2009). Based on this methodology landfill aeration projects might be considered for generation of Certified Emission Reductions (CERs) in the course of CDM projects. This paper contributes towards an evaluation of the potential of landfill aeration for methane emissions reduction. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Landfills as critical infrastructures: analysis of observational datasets after 12 years of non-invasive monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scozzari, Andrea; Raco, Brunella; Battaglini, Raffaele

    2016-04-01

    This work presents the results of more than ten years of observations, performed on a regular basis, on a municipal solid waste disposal located in Italy. Observational data are generated by the combination of non-invasive techniques, involving the direct measurement of biogas release to the atmosphere and thermal infrared imaging. In fact, part of the generated biogas tends to escape from the landfill surface even when collecting systems are installed and properly working. Thus, methodologies for estimating the behaviour of a landfill system by means of direct and/or indirect measurement systems have been developed in the last decades. It is nowadays known that these infrastructures produce more than 20% of the total anthropogenic methane released to the atmosphere, justifying the need for a systematic and efficient monitoring of such infrastructures. During the last 12 years, observational data regarding a solid waste disposal site located in Tuscany (Italy) have been collected on a regular basis. The collected datasets consist in direct measurements of gas flux with the accumulation chamber method, combined with the detection of thermal anomalies by infrared radiometry. This work discusses the evolution of the estimated performance of the landfill system, its trends, the benefits and the critical aspects of such relatively long-term monitoring activity.

  7. Structure and function of methanotrophic communities in a landfill-cover soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberger, Ruth; Lüke, Claudia; Mosberger, Lona; Schroth, Martin H

    2012-07-01

    In landfill-cover soils, aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) convert CH(4) to CO(2), mitigating emissions of the greenhouse gas CH(4) to the atmosphere. We investigated overall MOB community structure and assessed spatial differences in MOB diversity, abundance and activity in a Swiss landfill-cover soil. Molecular cloning, terminal restriction-fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and quantitative PCR of pmoA genes were applied to soil collected from 16 locations at three different depths to study MOB community structure, diversity and abundance; MOB activity was measured in the field using gas push-pull tests. The MOB community was highly diverse but dominated by Type Ia MOB, with novel pmoA sequences present. Type II MOB were detected mainly in deeper soil with lower nutrient and higher CH(4) concentrations. Substantial differences in MOB community structure were observed between one high- and one low-activity location. MOB abundance was highly variable across the site [4.0 × 10(4) to 1.1 × 10(7) (g soil dry weight)(-1)]. Potential CH(4) oxidation rates were high [1.8-58.2 mmol CH(4) (L soil air)(-1) day(-1) ] but showed significant lateral variation and were positively correlated with mean CH(4) concentrations (P structure are driving factors in CH(4) oxidation at this landfill.

  8. Water Hardness as Basic Indicator the Presence Fouling in Domestic Sanitary Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián–Soto F

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of the water quality was done in the central valleys of Oaxaca state, finding very high concentrations of calcium, magnesium and carbonate in the waters from of deep wells that are located in the periphery of the river Atoyac, unlike the water that comes from the high parts of Etla valley, where there are maximum hardnesses of 140ppm, so for the distribution of both effluent to the city of Oaxaca and neighboring municipalities, suggesting a further dilution of the water treatment plant in "Fortin" in the city of Oaxaca, that after determining the Langelier index and other, with software found in the universal bibliography. The results indicate that water from the river Atoyac, have corrosive properties. In laboratory doing tests, the best dilution was 60 to 40% by volume, of water from Etla Valley and the periphery of the river respectively. Langelier index was converted to a negative, indicating saturation with respect to calcium carbonate (CaCO3 and will tend to dissolve, avoiding the deterioration of the sanitary units.

  9. Multiculturalità, “diritti” e differenziazioni giuridiche: il caso dei trattamenti sanitari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Anello

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Contributo sottoposto a valutazione SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Multiculturalità, “diritti” e trattamenti sanitari - 3. Alcune problematiche del cd. testamento biologico in una prospettiva interculturale - 4. Conclusioni.

  10. Research and development of intelligent controller for high-grade sanitary ware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Kongjun; Shen, Qingping

    2013-03-01

    With the social and economic development and people's living standards improve, more and more emphasis on modern society, people improve the quality of family life, the use of intelligent controller applications in high-grade sanitary ware physiotherapy students. Analysis of high-grade sanitary ware physiotherapy common functions pointed out in the production and use of the possible risks, proposed implementation of the system hardware and matching, given the system software implementation process. High-grade sanitary ware physiotherapy intelligent controller not only to achieve elegant and beautiful, simple, physical therapy, water power, deodorant, multi-function, intelligent control, to meet the consumers, the high-end sanitary ware market, strong demand, Accelerate the enterprise product Upgrade and improve the competitiveness of enterprises.

  11. Title I conceptual design for Pit 6 landfill closure at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacDonnell, B.A.; Obenauf, K.S. [Golder Associates, Inc., Alameda, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this design project is to evaluate and prepare design and construction documents for a closure cover cap for the Pit 6 Landfill located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300. This submittal constitutes the Title I Design (Conceptual Design) for the closure cover of the Pit 6 Landfill. A Title I Design is generally 30 percent of the design effort. Title H Design takes the design to 100 percent complete. Comments and edits to this Title I Design will be addressed in the Title II design submittal. Contents of this report are as follows: project background; design issues and engineering approach; design drawings; calculation packages; construction specifications outline; and construction quality assurance plan outline.

  12. Estimation of emissions of nonmethane organic compounds from a closed landfill site using a landfill gas emission model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwachukwu, A.N. [Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Sciences, School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Science, University of Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Diya, A.W. [Health Sciences Research Group, School of Medicine, University of Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Nonmethane organic compounds (NMOC) emissions from landfills often constitute significant risks both to human health and the general environment. To date very little work has been done on tracking the emissions of NMOC from landfills. To this end, a concerted effort was made to investigate the total annual mass emission rate of NMOC from a closed landfill site in South Manchester, United Kingdom. This was done by using field estimates of NMOC concentration and the landfill parameters into the Landfill Gas Emission Model embedded in ACTS and RISK software. Two results were obtained: (i) a deterministic outcome of 1.7218 x 10-7 kg/year, which was calculated from mean values of the field estimates of NMOC concentration and the landfill parameters, and (ii) a probabilistic outcome of 1.66 x 10-7 - 1.78 x 10-7 kg/year, which is a range of value obtained after Monte Carlo simulation of the uncertain parameters of the landfill including NMOC concentration. A comparison between these two results suggests that the probabilistic outcome is a more representative and reliable estimate of the total annual mass emission of NMOC especially given the variability of the parameters of the model. Moreover, a comparison of the model result and the safety standard of 5.0 x 10-5 kg/year indicate that the mass emission of NMOC from the studied landfill is significantly less than previously thought. However, given that this can accumulate to a dangerous level over a long period of time (such as the age of this landfill site); it may have started affecting the health of the people living within the vicinity of the landfill. A case is therefore made for more studies to be carried out on the emissions of other gases such as CH4 and CO2 from the studied landfill site, as this would help to understand the synergistic effect of the various gases being emitted from the landfill.

  13. Chromium in soil layers and plants on closed landfill site after landfill leachate application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Marija; Justin, Maja Zupancic; Bukovec, Peter; Selih, Vid Simon

    2009-06-01

    Landfill leachate (LL) usually contains low concentrations of heavy metals due to the anaerobic conditions in the methanogenic landfill body after degradation of easily degradable organic matter and the neutral pH of LL, which prevents mobilization and leaching of metals. Low average concentrations of metals were also confirmed in our extensive study on the rehabilitation of an old landfill site with vegetative landfill cover and LL recirculation after its treatment in constructed wetland. The only exception was chromium (Cr). Its concentrations in LL ranged between 0.10 and 2.75 mg/L, and were higher than the concentrations usually found in the literature. The objectives of the study were: (1) to understand why Cr is high in LL and (2) to understand the fate and transport of Cr in soil and vegetation of landfill cover due to known Cr toxicity to plants. The total concentration of Cr in LL, total and exchangeable concentrations of Cr in landfill soil cover and Cr content in the plant material were extensively monitored from May 2004 to September 2006. By obtained data on Cr concentration in different landfill constituents, supported with the data on the amount of loaded leachate, amount of precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (ETP) during the performance of the research, a detailed picture of time distribution and co-dependency of Cr is provided in this research. A highly positive correlation was found between concentrations of Cr and dissolved organic carbon (r=0.875) in LL, which indicates the co-transport of Cr and dissolved organic carbon through the system. Monitoring results showed that the substrate used in the experiment did not contribute to Cr accumulation in the landfill soil cover, resulting in percolation of a high proportion of Cr back into the waste layers and its circulation in the system. No negative effects on plant growth appeared during the monitoring period. Due to low uptake of Cr by plants (0.10-0.15 mg/kg in leaves and 0.05-0.07 mg

  14. The SWOT Analysis of a Romanian Post-Sanitary Institution in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Iorga

    2016-01-01

    Starting from a comprehensive research (literature review, the paper proposes the realization of aSWOT analysis within a post-sanitary school, which aims at emphasizing the main advantages of apost-secondary schools perceived by students and discovering major development opportunities forthe quality of services offered by it, as a premise of the improvement of the sanitary schools, andthus, the health system in Romania.

  15. Benjarong Sanitary Ware: Design and development for commerce in Samut Sakhon Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanchai Sama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This investigation has three primary aims: 1 to study the traditional knowledge of Benjarong in Samut Sakhon Province; 2 to study designs and the production process of Benjarong sanitary ware in Samut Sakhon Province; 3 to develop Benjarong sanitary ware for commerce in Samut Sakhon Province. The research area for this investigation was purposively selected as Samut Sakhon Province. Data was gathered by document study, survey, participant and non-participant observation, structured and non-structured interview, focus group discussion and workshop. Results show that Benjarong sanitary products have been inherited from generation to generation in Samut Sakhon Province and continue to provide local jobs. Benjarong sanitary ware production uses a high budget because of the high price of colour inks, gold and electricity, so there are problems securing adequate funding. There are also problems with the management process and a lack of expert craftsmen to write and design modern patterns in harmony with contemporary art and Thai social identity. Moreover, many Thai people do not realize the value of cultural heritage and Benjarong inheritance is at risk. Benjarong sanitary ware can reflect local knowledge and traditional handicrafts. The researchers propose patterns for three types of Benjarong sanitary ware: washbasins, wall tiles and soap ledges. Development of these products will increase functionality and aesthetics, whilst maintaining Thai heritage.

  16. Unpleasantness and physiological responses in using sanitary napkins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi-Kyong; Watanuki, Shigeki

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the physiological and psychological effects of sanitary napkins (SN) on women in hemorrhage treatment during the menstrual phase. Mesh and non-woven napkins were employed, and the effects were studied during the follicular and menstrual phases; mesh SN presented a higher textural surface-roughness. In both phases, the increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly dependent on the application intervals. The low-frequency component of systolic blood pressure variability significantly increased, while the salivary secretion rate decreased with the use of mesh SN during the follicular phase compared with non-woven SN. In addition, the heart rate during the menstrual phase significantly increased in subjects after the replacement of mesh SN compared with non-woven SN. In cases of wearing the unpleasant mesh SN, electroencephalography (EEG) manifested bilateral enhancements in beta and alpha2 waves in the frontal areas increased arousal level during both phases. From the above findings, napkin use increased physiological loading and wearing napkins with higher textural surface-roughness tended to increase activities of the autonomic nervous system and brain arousal level.

  17. Vertical profiles of community abundance and diversity of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and bacteria in a simple waste landfill in north China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Ding, Linjie; Wang, Xu; Chi, Zifang; Lei, Jiansen

    2015-03-01

    Anaerobic methane oxidation (AMO) is considered to be an important sink of CH4 in habitats as marine sediments. But, few studies focused on AMO in landfills which may be an important sink of CH4 derived from waste fermentation. To show evidence of AMO and to uncover function anaerobic methanotroph (ANME) community in landfill, different age waste samples were collected in Jinqianpu landfill located in north China. Through high-throughput sequencing, Methanomicrobiales and Methanosarcinales archaea associated with ANME and reverse methanogenic archaea of Methanosarcina and Methanobacterium were detected. Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) (Desulfobulbus and Desulfococcus) which could couple with ANME-conducting AMO were also found. But, the community structure of ANME had no significant difference with depths. From the results of investigation, we can come to a conclusion that sulfate-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (SR-DAMO) would be the dominant AMO process in the landfill, while iron-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (M/IR-DAMO) process was weak though concentration of ferric iron was large in the landfill. Denitrification-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation (NR-DAMO) was negative because of lack of nitrate and relevant function microorganisms in the landfill. Results also indicate that CH4 mitigation would have higher potential by increasing electron acceptor contents and promoting the growth of relevant function microorganisms.

  18. Using landfill gas as the primary fuel for a 200 WTPD thermal dryer[Held jointly with the 4. Canadian organic residuals and biosolids managment conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shulmister, D. [Manattee County, Manatee, FL (United States). Wastewater Division; Monroe, A. [McKim and Creed, Cary, NC (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Although there is no evidence of health problems, there is a growing opposition to class B land application of biosolids in many localities in the United States, resulting in less sites available to dispose of class B biosolids. Manatee County, located on the West Coast of Florida, decided to implement thermal drying of its biosolids. This produced a class A pellet that could be used without restriction as a fertilizer or soil amendment. The dryer will be located at the county's southeast water reclamation facility, adjacent to the county's Lena Road landfill. The methane gas from the landfill will be used as the primary fuel for the dryer. This paper presented how Manatee County, Florida decided to meet its long term biosolids handling and disposal needs. The paper provided background information on Manatee County, Florida. It discussed the reasons for the dryer technology selection, location of the dryer, sizing criteria as well as listing the components of the dryer. The paper also discussed dryer procurement. Other topics that were presented included fuel requirements and an analysis of landfill gas. The County expects to save approximately two million dollars per year by selecting landfill gas from its Lena Road landfill as the primary fuel for the dryer. 5 tabs.

  19. Impact assessment of concentrate recirculation on the landfill gas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džolev Nikola M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of concentrate recirculation, as a product of leachate treated by reverse osmosis plant, on the production of landfill gas at the real-scale landfill for municipal solid waste. In an effort to come up with results experimental measurements were carried out at the landfill in Bijeljina. All measurements performed, were divided into 3 groups. The aims of two groups of measurement were to determine landfill gas and methane yield from concentrate and leachate in laboratory conditions (1st group and to find out concentrations of oxidizing matters (COD and BOD5 present in leachate and concentrate at different points of treatment as well as its variability over the time (2nd group which could be used to calculate the potential of landfill gas and methane generation from concentrate by recirculation, theoretically. 3rd group of measurements, carried out in parallel, have goal to determine the quality and quantity of the collected landfill gas at wells throughout the landfill. The results of analysis carried out in this experimental research show the clear evidence of concentrate recirculation impact on methane production by increasing the landfill gas flow, as well as its concentration within the landfill gas composition, at the nearby well. Although results indicated relatively high impact of concentrate recirculation on landfill gas production, comparing to its theoretical potential, the influence on the landfill at whole, is negligible, due to relatively low volumes in recirculation with respect to its size and objectively low potential given by organic matter present in concentrate.

  20. Risk assessment of an old landfill regarding the potential of gaseous emissions--a case study based on bioindication, FT-IR spectroscopy and thermal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tintner, Johannes; Smidt, Ena; Böhm, Katharina; Matiasch, Lydia

    2012-12-01

    Risk assessment of two sections (I and II) of an old landfill (ALH) in Styria (Austria) in terms of reactivity of waste organic matter and the related potential of gaseous emissions was performed using conventional parameters and innovative tools to verify their effectiveness in practice. The ecological survey of the established vegetation at the landfill surface (plant sociological relevés) indicated no relevant emissions over a longer period of time. Statistical evaluation of conventional parameters reveals that dissolved organic carbon (DOC), respiration activity (RA(4)), loss of ignition (LOI) and total inorganic carbon (TIC) mostly influence the variability of the gas generation sum (GS(21)). According to Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectral data and the results of the classification model the reactivity potential of the investigated sections is very low which is in accordance with the results of plant sociological relevés and biological tests. The interpretation of specific regions in the FT-IR spectra was changed and adapted to material characteristics. Contrary to mechanically-biologically treated (MBT) materials, where strong aliphatic methylene bands indicate reactivity, they are rather assigned to the C-H vibrations of plastics in old landfill materials. This assumption was confirmed by thermal analysis and the characteristic heat flow profile of plastics containing landfill samples. Therefore organic carbon contents are relatively high compared to other stable landfills as shown by a prediction model for TOC contents based on heat flow profiles and partial least squares regression (PLS-R). The stability of the landfill samples, expressed by the relation of CO(2) release and enthalpies, was compared to unreactive landfills, archeological samples, earthlike materials and hardly degradable organic matter. Due to the material composition and the aging process the landfill samples are located between hardly degradable, but easily combustible

  1. Evaluation of surface water and groundwater contamination in a MSW landfill area using hydrochemical analysis and electrical resistivity tomography: a case study in Sichuan province, Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Chengpeng; Zhang, Qiang

    2017-04-01

    As a primary disposal mean of municipal solid waste in China, the landfill has been recognized as one of the major threats to the surrounding surface water and groundwater environment due to the emission of leachate. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of leachate on the surface water and groundwater environment of the region of the Chang'an landfill, which is located in Sichuan province, China. The surface water and groundwater were sampled for hydrochemical analysis. Three electrical resistivity tomography profiles were conducted to evaluate the impact of leachate on the groundwater environment, and several laboratory tests were carried out to build the relationship between the soil bulk resistivity and the void fluid resistivity. The results showed that a seasonal creek named Longfeng creek, which crosses the landfill site, was contaminated by the leachate. The concentrations of COD, BOD5, and chlorides (Cl) of surface water samples increased by 12.3-105.7 times. The groundwater quality in the surface loose sediments along the valley deteriorated obviously from the landfill to 500 m downstream area. The laboratory tests of soil samples indicated that the resistivity value of 13 Ωm is a critical value whether the groundwater in the loose sediments is polluted. The groundwater at the site adjacent to the spillway in the landfill was partially contaminated by the emission of leachate. The groundwater contamination zones at 580 m downstream of the landfill were recognized at the shallow zones from 60 m left bank to 30 m right bank of Longfeng creek. The improved understanding of groundwater contamination around the landfill is beneficial for the landfill operation and groundwater environment remediation.

  2. In-Situ Quantification of Methanotrophic Activity in a Landfill Cover Soil Using Gas Push-Pull Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, K. E.; Gonzalez-Gil, G.; Schroth, M. H.; Zeyer, J.

    2007-12-01

    Landfills are both a major anthropogenic source and a sink for the greenhouse gas CH4. Methanogenic bacteria produce CH4 during the anaerobic digestion of landfill waste, whereas, methanotrophic bacteria consume CH4 as it is transported through a landfill cover soil. Methanotrophs are thought to be ubiquitous in soils, but typically exist in large numbers at oxic/anoxic interfaces, close to anaerobic methane sources but exposed to oxygen required for metabolism. Accurate in-situ quantification of the sink strength of methanotrophs in landfill cover soils is needed for global carbon balances and for local emissions mitigation strategies. We measured in-situ CH4 concentrations at 30, 60, and 100 cm depth at 18 evenly spaced locations across a landfill cover soil. Furthermore, we performed Gas Push-Pull Tests (GPPTs) to estimate in-situ rates of methanotrophic activity in the cover soil. The GPPT is a gas-tracer test in which a gas mixture containing CH4, O2, and non-reactive tracer gases is injected (pushed) into the soil followed by extraction (pull) from the same location. Quantification of CH4 oxidation rates is based upon comparison of the breakthrough curves of CH4 and tracer gases. We present the results of a series of GPPTs conducted at two locations in the cover soil to assess the feasibility and reproducibility of this technique to quantify methanotrophic activity. Additional GPPTs were performed with a methanotrophic inhibitor in the injection gas mixture to confirm the appropriate choice of tracers to quantify CH4 oxidation. Estimated CH4 oxidation rate constants indicate that the cover soil contains a highly active methanotrophic community.

  3. STATE OF THE PRACTICE FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS - SUMMARY OF USEPA WORKSHOP ON BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS: SUMMARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a summary of the Workshop on Landfill Bioreactors, held 9/6-7/2000 in Arlington, VA. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum to EPA, state and local governments, solid waste industry, and academic research representatives to exchange information and ideas on b...

  4. STATE OF THE PRACTICE FOR BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS - SUMMARY OF USEPA WORKSHOP ON BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS: SUMMARY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a summary of the Workshop on Landfill Bioreactors, held 9/6-7/2000 in Arlington, VA. The purpose of the workshop was to provide a forum to EPA, state and local governments, solid waste industry, and academic research representatives to exchange information and ideas on b...

  5. Quantification of long term emission potential from landfills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimovaara, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Novel approaches for the after-care of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) landfills are based on technological measures to reduce the long term emission potential in a short time period. Biological degradation in landfills is a means to significantly reduce the long term emission potential. Leachate emissi

  6. COMMERCIAL-SCALE AEROBIC-ANAEROBIC BIOREACTOR LANDFILL OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sequential aerobic-anaerobic treatment system has been applied at a commercial scale (3,000 ton per day) municipal solid waste landfill in Kentucky, USA since 2001. In this system, the uppermost layer of landfilled waste is aerated and liquid waste including leachate, surface w...

  7. COMMERCIAL-SCALE AEROBIC-ANAEROBIC BIOREACTOR LANDFILL OPERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A sequential aerobic-anaerobic treatment system has been applied at a commercial scale (3,000 ton per day) municipal solid waste landfill in Kentucky, USA since 2001. In this system, the uppermost layer of landfilled waste is aerated and liquid waste including leachate, surface w...

  8. Composition of leachate from old landfills in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Christophersen, Mette

    2001-01-01

    smaller landfills by a comprehensive review of the investigations carried out by the counties. In total 106 landfills were selected by criteria avoiding dilution effects. A database was constructed using a standard program. Statistical evaluations showed that the leachate concentrations in general...

  9. Methane emissions from a Californian landfill, determined from airborne remote sensing and in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautwurst, Sven; Gerilowski, Konstantin; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Thompson, David R.; Kolyer, Richard W.; Iraci, Laura T.; Thorpe, Andrew K.; Horstjann, Markus; Eastwood, Michael; Leifer, Ira; Vigil, Samuel A.; Krings, Thomas; Borchardt, Jakob; Buchwitz, Michael; Fladeland, Matthew M.; Burrows, John P.; Bovensmann, Heinrich

    2017-09-01

    with related uncertainties in the range of 14 to 45 %. The comparison of the remote sensing and in situ based CH4 emission rate estimates reveals good agreement within the error bars with an average of the absolute differences of around 2.4 kt CH4 yr-1 (±2. 8 kt CH4 yr-1). The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reported inventory value is 11.5 kt CH4 yr-1 for 2014, on average 2.8 kt CH4 yr-1 (±1. 6 kt CH4 yr-1) lower than our estimates acquired in the afternoon in late summer 2014. This difference may in part be explained by a possible leak located on the southwestern slope of the landfill, which we identified in the observations of the Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer - Next Generation (AVIRIS-NG) instrument, flown contemporaneously aboard a second aircraft on 1 day.

  10. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don Augenstein; Ramin Yazdani; Rick Moore; Michelle Byars; Jeff Kieffer; Professor Morton Barlaz; Rinav Mehta

    2000-02-26

    Controlled landfilling is an approach to manage solid waste landfills, so as to rapidly complete methane generation, while maximizing gas capture and minimizing the usual emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated to more rapid and earlier completion to full potential by improving conditions (principally moisture, but also temperature) to optimize biological processes occurring within the landfill. Gas is contained through use of surface membrane cover. Gas is captured via porous layers, under the cover, operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project has been ongoing under NETL sponsorship for the past several years near Davis, CA. Results have been extremely encouraging. Two major benefits of the technology are reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times, more predictably, than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role both in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions and in US renewable energy. The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with

  11. Landfill energy complex based on the renewable energy installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmanshin, Iskander; Kashapov, Nail; Gilmanshina, Suriya; Galeeva, Asiya

    2016-06-01

    The article presents the analysis of standard approaches to degassing of landfills. The need of comprehensive work on the degassing of the landfill body is identified. The author's task decomposition of the landfill degassing is formulated. The analysis of existing methods of work on degassing of landfills is presented. The author's approach is including implements of series of parallel studies in the framework of achieving a common goal to reduce the anthropogenic pressure on the ecosystem of the region due to the need for disposal of solid waste. An action plan for the development of the target problem-oriented management techniques of the landfill with the following development of the effective energy complex is formulated.

  12. Ultrasound assisted biogas production from landfill leachate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oz, Nilgün Ayman, E-mail: nilgunayman@comu.edu.tr; Yarimtepe, Canan Can

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Effect of low frequency ultrasound pretreatment on leachate was investigated. • Three different ultrasound energy inputs (200, 400 and 600 W/l) was applied. • Low-frequency ultrasound treatment increased soluble COD in landfill leachate. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased biogas production about 40%. • Application of ultrasound to leachate increased total methane production rate about 20%. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to increase biogas production and methane yield from landfill leachate in anaerobic batch reactors by using low frequency ultrasound as a pretreatment step. In the first part of the study, optimum conditions for solubilization of organic matter in leachate samples were investigated using various sonication durations at an ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz. The level of organic matter solubilization during ultrasonic pretreatment experiments was determined by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) to total chemical oxygen demand (tCOD). The sCOD/tCOD ratio was increased from 47% in raw leachate to 63% after 45 min sonication at 600 W/l. Non-parametric Friedman’s test indicated that ultrasonic pretreatment has a significant effect on sCOD parameter for leachate (p < 0.05). In the second part of the study, anaerobic batch reactors were operated for both ultrasonically pretreated and untreated landfill leachate samples in order to assess the effect of sonication on biogas and methane production rate. In anaerobic batch reactor feed with ultrasonically pretreated leachate, 40% more biogas was obtained compared to the control reactor. For statistical analysis, Mann–Whitney U test was performed to compare biogas and methane production rates for raw and pretreated leachate samples and it has been found that ultrasonic pretreatment significantly enhanced biogas and methane production rates from leachate (p < 0.05) in anaerobic batch reactors. The overall results showed that low frequency

  13. Characterization and treatment of municipal landfill leachates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welander, Ulrika

    1998-03-01

    The efficiency of different leachate treatment methods for the removal of refractory organic compounds and ammonium-nitrogen was investigated. The methods evaluated were nitrification, denitrification, adsorption onto activated carbon, precipitation by ferric chloride or aluminum sulphate and oxidation by ozone or Fenton`s reagent. Furthermore, analyses were performed on leachates from municipal landfills of different kinds (a biocell deposit, a conventional mixed landfill containing household and industrial waste, and an ash deposit) in order to study the leachate composition in regard to various hydrophobic organic compounds as a function of the type of waste deposited. The results suggested that, in order to achieve a satisfactory removal of both ammonium-nitrogen and organic substances, the treatment of methanogenic leachates should be performed through a process combining biological and physical or chemical stages. When the biological treatment was not combined with a physical or a chemical process a COD removal of only 20-30% was achieved, whereas the toxicity of the leachate was significantly reduced. In contrast, a combination of nitrification and either adsorption onto activated carbon or oxidation using Fenton`s reagent resulted in a COD removal of about 80%, although certain specific organic compounds, such as phthalates, were unaffected by the treatment. A combination of nitrification, precipitation by ferric chloride and adsorption onto activated carbon removed 96% of the TOC. The analyses of leachates from municipal landfills of different types showed the leachate from the ash deposit to contain more C4-substituted phenols than the other leachates and to likewise contain alkanes, which the others did not 154 refs, 12 figs, 4 tabs

  14. [Design of software and hardware complex of automated systems for the management of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nichenko, P I; Muzychenko, F V; Malinovskiĭ, A A; Leont'ev, L Iu; Ustiukhin, N V

    2005-05-01

    A new information system (IS) - the software and hardware complex for controlling the state sanitary-and-epidemiological inspection (SSEI) was created. The system represents the aggregate of automated working places of RF MD chief state sanitary physician arid specialists from the department of state sanitary-and-epidemiological inspection of the Main Military Medical Headquarters. They interact through communications with working places of specialists from SSEI Main Center, chief state sanitary physicians from the Armed Forces, military districts (fleets) and RFAF CSSEI. The special software provides automation of the following technological processes: operative sanitary-and epidemiological and epidemiological monitoring; the epidemiological analysis of infectious diseases; the evaluation of quality and efficiency of sanitary-and epidemiological work. At present the complex works in the regime of experimental exploitation when the adjustment of communications and special software is performed.

  15. Methane recovery from landfill in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaolai, L.

    1996-12-31

    GEF has approved a special project for a demonstration project for Methane Recovery from the Urban Refuse Land Fill. This paper will introduce the possibility of GHG reduction from the landfill in China, describe the activities of the GEF project, and the priorities for international cooperation in this field. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) approved the project, China Promoting Methane Recovery and Unlization from Mixed Municipal Refuse, at its Council meeting in last April. This project is the first one supported by international organization in this field.

  16. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistarol, Giovana O.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E. M.; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A. B.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26635734

  17. Riduzione del tabagismo nei futuri operatori sanitari: alcune proposte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Aporti

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: valutazione della prevalenza di fumatori negli studenti di medicina e di infermieristica al fine di migliorarne le competenze e i comportamenti in tema di tabagismo, in vista anche del loro futuro ruolo nelle Aziende Sanitarie1.

    Materiali e metodi: nell’ambito della Facoltà di Medicina dell’Università di Bologna è stato condotto uno studio sugli aspetti motivazionali e comportamentali delle abitudini al fumo nei giovani iscritti al primo anno di Medicina e di Infermieristica negli AA 1999-2000 e 2002-2003. L’indagine è stata svolta somministrando questionari anonimi agli studenti in aula. Si è ottenuta così una percentuale di rispondenti pari all’ 87 e al 90% della popolazione studentesca iscritta. Risultati: la prevalenza di fumatori cronici o occasionali è andata incrementandosi negli ultimi due anni del 7% tra gli studenti di infermieristica e dell’8,8% tra quelli di medicina, sino a raggiungere rispettivamente il 42,4% e il 25,7%. Nel 2002 il 13,5% dei fumatori ha dichiarato di contemplare la possibilità di smettere entro la fine del corso di studi. Nonostante la giovane età, il 10% di loro erano recidivi da tentativi di disassuefazione falliti.

    Conclusioni: evidente il trend di aumento dell’abitudine al fumo nelle categorie considerate e la difficoltà, a volte notevole, di evitare ricadute nel tabagismo in assenza di adeguato sostegno. Da questi dati è emersa la necessità di impegnarsi per garantire agli studenti sia una più specifica preparazione (si è previsto nel curriculum studi un modulo elective sul tabagismo che una possibilità di disassuefazione precoce, grazie a un canale preferenziale presso il centro per la Disassuefazione dal Fumo di Tabacco dell’ Azienda S. Orsola Malpighi (ove operano docenti del modulo.

  18. Environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana De Oliveira Fistarol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g. virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms, or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g. vibrios. Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift towards flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro.

  19. Quantitative assessment of historical coastal landfill contamination using in-situ field portable XRF (FPXRF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Francis; Spencer, Kate; Brasington, James

    2014-05-01

    in the field to determine the presence, location and extent of the sub-surface contaminant plume. Although XRF analysis has gained acceptance in the study of in-situ metal contamination (Kalnicky and Singhvi 2001; Martin Peinado et al. 2010) field moisture content and sample heterogeneity can suppress X-ray signals. Therefore, sediment samples were also collected and returned to the laboratory and analysed by ICP OES for comparison. Both wet and dry certified reference materials were also analysed in the laboratory using XRF and ICP OES to observe the impact of moisture content and to produce a correction factor allowing quantitative data to be collected in the field. In-situ raw XRF data identified the location of contamination plumes in the field in agreement with ICP data, although the data were systematically suppressed compared to ICP data, under-estimating the levels of contamination. Applying a correction factor for moisture content provided accurate measurements of concentration. The use of field portable XRF with the application of a moisture content correction factor enables the rapid screening of sediment fronting coastal landfill sites, goes some way towards providing a national baseline dataset and can contribute to the development of risk assessments.

  20. Construction quality assurance for Pit 6 landfill closure, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-30

    Golder Construction Services, Inc. (GCS), under contract to the Regents of the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), provided the construction quality assurance (CQA) observation and testing during the construction of the Site 300, Pit 6 landfill closure cover. The cap construction was performed as a CERCLA non-time-critical removal action from June 2 to August 29, 1997. the project site is located 18 miles east of Livermore on Tesla Road and approximately 10 miles southwest of Tracy on Corral Hollow Road in San Joaquin County, California. This report certifies that the LLNL, Site 300, Pit 6, Landfill Closure was constructed in accordance with the construction specifications and design drawings. This report documents construction activities and CQA monitoring and testing for construction of the Pit 6 Landfill Closure. Golder Associates, Inc. of Oakland, California was the design engineering firm responsible for preparation of the drawings and specifications. CQA services were provided by GCS, of Roseville, California, under supervision of a California registered civil Engineer.