WorldWideScience

Sample records for sanicula sect sanicoria

  1. Morphophysiological dormancy in seeds of three eastern North American Sanicula species (Apiaceae subf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy S. Hawkins; Carol C. Baskin; Jerry M Baskin

    2010-01-01

    Dormancy breaking and germination requirements were determined for seeds of the eastern North American (eNA) species Sanicula canadensis, Sanicula gregaria and Sanicula trifoliata, and the data compared to those available for the European–Asian (EurA) congener Sanicula europaea. Seeds of the three eNA species had underdeveloped embryos that were physiologically dormant...

  2. Canarium sect. Africanarium nov. sect. (Burseraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, P.W.

    1966-01-01

    In my revision of the genus Canarium (Blumea 9, 1959, p. 275—475), C. schweinfurthii was included in sect. Canarium and within this section in the denticulatum-group (see p. 382). The main arguments for giving it that position were: 1. its general resemblance in several characters with sect.

  3. Studies in Entoloma—7. Entoloma sect. Phlebophora, sect. nov

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordeloos, Machiel E.

    1983-01-01

    A new section is created in Entoloma subgenus Inocephalus Noordel., viz. sect. Phlebophora, characterised by a rimose pileal surface and a pileipellis reminding that of Pluteus sect. Hispidoderma. One new species is described, viz. Entoloma kitsii from the Netherlands; type-studies are given of E.

  4. Sect Culture and Social Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samta P. Pandya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on fieldwork with a branch of the popular Hindu sect, the Swaminarayan, in Gujarat, India. The branch is called the Bochasanwasi Shree Akshar Purushottam Swaminarayan Sanstha (BAPS. It has spread throughout the world. I examine its cultural nuances and its seva, that is, its social service and outreach work. Seva implements the mandate for, and ideology of, social service and entails aspects of volition and institutionalized service. My aim has been to see how the sect culture, which is essentially inward-bonding, undertakes seva within the larger, beneficiary populace. I argue that two aspects of BAPS’s seva are prominent and peculiar to it, namely, perpetuating sect culture and remembrance of the spiritual heads. I propose that seva is a practice of BAPS to enable sect proliferation and create a space for itself in the civil society.

  5. The development of medical sects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R K

    1983-12-01

    There exist a number of studies that demonstrate a parallel between secular and transcendental movements. A useful exercise is to look at the development of medicine and compare the origin and development of medical sects with sects that we would more normally associate with religious development. Thus, the struggle for a dominant ideology in medicine meant that Galenism as the New Systematists gave way to the emergence of a dominant medical orthodoxy. The dilemmas presented by new discoveries in medicine highlight this struggle for dominance. Running alongside medical sectarianism is the phenomenon of medical cults such as phrenology and mesmerism. Osteopathy, naturopathy, homeopathy, and chiropractic are significant examples of modern challenges to the monopoly of medical knowledge exhibited by sects.

  6. Chemical markers in Veronica sect. Hebe II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Palle Jacob; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held; Wagstaff, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    In a continued chemosystematic investigation of the water-soluble compounds in Veronica sect. Hebe, four additional species were investigated. In comparison to other, Northern Hemisphere (NH) species of Veronica, those belonging to the New Zealand species in sect. Hebe are apparently more variable....... hulkeana (syn. Heliohebe hulkeana) only contained compounds common to other species of Veronica. The taxonomic results are discussed and it is concluded that carbohydrate esters are common in sect. Hebe. The data so far obtained indicate that the occurrences of esters of 6-O...

  7. Charismatic religious sects and psychiatry: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanter, M

    1982-12-01

    Phenomena associated with contemporary charismatic religious sects raise questions about the combined impact of group influence and intensely held beliefs on group members' psychological functioning. The author considers the stages of membership in these sects, with emphasis on psychiatric aspects of conversion, long-term membership, and leaving. He discusses options for psychiatric intervention, including psychotherapy, conservatorships, and deprogramming. Systems theory is used to provide a psychological model for the relationship between group influence in these sects and current conceptions of individual psychopathology and normal adaptation.

  8. DySectAPI: Scalable Prescriptive Debugging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nicklas Bo; Karlsson, Sven; Quarfot Nielsen, Niklas

    We present the DySectAPI, a tool that allow users to construct probe trees for automatic, event-driven debugging at scale. The traditional, interactive debugging model, whereby users manually step through and inspect their application, does not scale well even for current supercomputers. While...... lightweight debugging models scale well, they can currently only debug a subset of bug classes. DySectAPI fills the gap between these two approaches with a novel user-guided approach. Using both experimental results and analytical modeling we show how DySectAPI scales and can run with a low overhead...

  9. Chemical markers in Veronica sect. Hebe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Maria; Larsen, Tania Surrow; Mattebjerg, Maria Ahlm

    2007-01-01

    The content of iridoid glucosides and other water soluble compounds of Veronica sect. Hebe, three species and two hybrids were investigated. V. (Hebe) elliptica and V. (Hebe) brachysiphon, both from sect. Apertae were chemically different since the former contained two esters of 6-O......-rhamnopyranosylcatalpol while the latter had a 6-O-catalpol ester, compounds characteristic for most Veronica species. V. (Hebe) odora, from sect. Buxifoliatae as well as two hybrids presumably between this and two different "whipcord" species were also investigated. The parent species contained two 6-O-catalpol esters, one...... and hebridoside as well as 1-O-benzoyl b-rutinose had not previously been described from nature. The results confirm previous studies in that esters of 6-O-rhamnopyranosylcatalpol could be useful chemical markers in Veronica sect. Hebe....

  10. Cortinarius sect. Armillati in northern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskanen, Tuula; Kytövuori, Ilkka; Liimatainen, Kare

    2011-01-01

    Cortinarius sect. Armillati (subgenus Telamonia) was studied extensively based on morphology and molecular data. A total of about 1000 specimens, mostly from Fennoscandia, were revised. The nomenclature of the species was confirmed by sequencing the type material. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred by analyses of ITS, and the results were compared with the morphological and ecological data. Based on macro- and micromorphological characters, as well as molecular data, section Armillati contains only the medium to large species with slightly hygrophanous pileus and ± reddish or in some species yellowish brown to rose brown universal veils. The other red-brown-veiled species, previously included in Armillati, seem to belong to at least seven different sections or clades: sect. Anthracini, sect. Boulderenses, sect. Brunneotincti p.p., sect. Cinnabarini, sect. Fulvescentes, /Fuscoperonatus, and /Praestigiosus. Our study recognized six Armillati species from northern Europe: C. armillatus, C. luteo-ornatus, C. paragaudis, and three species described as new, C. pinigaudis, C. roseoarmillatus, and C. suboenochelis. The former three also occur in North America. Two additional species, C. subarmillatus (Japan) and C. quercoarmillatus (Costa Rica), are known outside the area. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, the species associated with deciduous trees, C. armillatus, C. quercoarmillatus, and C. roseoarmillatus, all with dextrinoid, thick-walled spores, formed a separate group from the mainly conifer-associated species, C. luteo-ornatus, C. paragaudis, C. pinigaudis and C. suboenochelis, all with fairly thin to moderately thick-walled, indextrinoid to moderately dextrinoid spores. Descriptions of the northern European species are provided, the distribution is mapped and their taxonomy, ecology, distribution, and relationships are discussed. A total of 64 new sequences of 12 species are reported including 17 sequences from type material. Our study also suggests that

  11. Chemical markers in Veronica sect. Hebe. III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggi, Agnese; Taskova, Rilka M.; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held

    2009-01-01

    In a continued chemosystematic investigation of the water-soluble compounds in Veronica sect. Hebe, we have investigated two more of the species formerly classified as Parahebe. Both species contained mannitol in considerable amount and in addition some glucosides of iridoid acids. Veronica...

  12. Logistic Modeling of a Religious Sect Features

    CERN Document Server

    Ausloos, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    The financial characteristics of sects are challenging topics. The present paper concerns the Antoinist Cult community (ACC), which has appeared at the end of the 19-th century in Belgium, have had quite an expansion, and is now decaying. The historical perspective is described in an Appendix. Although surely of marginal importance in religious history, the numerical and analytic description of the ACC growth AND decay evolution per se should hopefully permit generalizations toward behaviors of other sects, with either longer life time, i.e. so called religions or churches, or to others with shorter life time. Due to the specific aims and rules of the community, in particular the lack of proselytism, and strict acceptance of only anonymous financial gifts, an indirect measure of their member number evolution can only be studied. This is done here first through the time dependence of new temple inaugurations, between 1910 and 1940. Besides, the community yearly financial reports can be analyzed. They are legal...

  13. SECT STUDIES IN USSR: TERMINOLOGY AND APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Safronov

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main theme of the article is sect studies in USSR. Soviet tradition in the fi eld did not appear from the thin air but was a «dialectic» — in the sense that simultaneously and legitimately can be estimated as continuation and rejection — sequel of pre-Soviet sect-study approach. Soviet tradition per se is based on ambiguous — according to Lenin’s position — understanding of sectarianism as an example of class combat (positive dimension but religiously specific (negative dimension. This negative attitude was expressed in specific ideological and political position towards sectarianism. Stating this position was a priority and that is why the establishing of proper Soviet scientifi c approach was problematic. It began to form only in the 1960-s. The term «sect» for both pre-Soviet and Soviet researches had negative connotation in dogmatic way for the former and in ideological way for the latter. Such a long history of negative understanding of the term makes it very hard to understand it as a neutral in contemporary Russia

  14. Recircumscription of Begonia sect. Baryandra (Begoniaceae): evidence from molecular data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubite, Rosario Rivera; Hughes, Mark; Alejandro, Grecebio Jd; Peng, Ching-I

    2013-12-01

    Begonia sect. Diploclinium is a 'dust-bin' section for species retaining pleisiomorphic characters and lacking novel synapomorphic characters used to delimit other Asian sections in Begonia. Part of this large and polymorphous section is transferred to Begonia sect. Baryandra in a move towards a more natural classification for the genus. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear ribosomal ITS DNA sequences show a strongly supported monophyletic group containing Philippine and Bornean species previously in Begonia sect. Diploclinium, and the type of Begonia sect. Baryandra, B. oxysperma. This clade forms the basis for the now much-expanded Begonia sect. Baryandra, which as defined here contains 49 species and has its centre of diversity in the Philippines. A natural classification for a much expanded Begonia sect. Baryandra has been provided. This paper highlights the feasibility of moving towards a natural classification of Asian Begonia step by step as information comes to light through building upon previous framework phylogenies with denser sampling.

  15. [Chemical and pharmacological research for Sect. Aptera (gentiana)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Zhenqiang; Yu, Yang; Gao, Hao; Jiao, Weihua; Yao, Xinsheng

    2009-08-01

    Sect. Aptera (Gentiana L.) is the plant origin of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) "Qinjiao", which is used to treat rheumatism and pains with a long history. The plants of Sect. Aptera mainly contain iridoids, triterpenes and steroids, and possess anti-inflammatory, analgesia, stomach invigorate and bacteria inhibitory effects, etc. Herein, we reviewed the advances of chemical and pharmacological investigations of Sect. Aptera for further research.

  16. Bulbophyllum sect. Hirtula in eastern Indochina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid V. AVERYANOV

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern taxonomic revision of Bulbophyllum sect Hirtula in the flora of eastern Indochina, including Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam based on all available collections and literature data reports 12 species (Bulbophyllum clipeibulbum, B. dasystachys, B. glabrichelia, B. nigrescens, B. nigripetalum, B. parviflorum, B. penicillium, B. phitamii, B. scaphiforme, B. secundum, B. setilabium, B. spadiciflorum, 2 of which represent new records for the studied flora (B. parviflorum, B. penicillium and 3 (Bulbophyllum glabrichelia, B. phitamii, B. setilabium are described as a new for science. For all accepted taxa the paper provides valid name and main synonyms with appropriate standard taxonomic references, data on type and other authentic materials, description, data on ecology, phenology, expected conservation status, distribution, notes on biology and taxonomy, list of all studied materials, as well as key for identification of species and their line and color illustrations.

  17. Three new species of Barleria Sect. Somalia (Acanthaceae) from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Three new species and one new subspecies are described in Barleria sect. Somalia (Acanthaceae) from western Tanzania and their affinities are discussed. The conservation status of each species is evaluated.

  18. Position of Imam Malik bin Anas on Deviant Sects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allaa Eddin Muhammad Esmail

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to highlight the position of Imam Malik bin Anas on deviant sects which emerged and developed during his time. It discusses the views of Imam Malik on other Muslim sects like Shi’its and its school of thoughts, Qadarites, where he authored a specific book and a chapter in his “Muwatta” in response to their central teachings, Khariji, Murji”it and Mu’tazilites. This paper also discusses the views of Imam Malik and his response to important issues related to those sects such as “al-mutasyabihat” and the creation of Al-Quran. Imam Malik’s ways and methods in dealing with those sects are also highlighted.

  19. An accidental sect: how war made belief in Sierra Leone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, P.

    2006-01-01

    Idealists consider beliefs cause wars. Realists consider wars cause beliefs. The war in Sierra Leone offers some scope to test between these two views. The main rebel faction, the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) was, sociologically speaking, an accidental sect. It lost its original ideologues at an

  20. Iridoid and Phenylethanoid Glucosides from Veronica (sect. Hebe) lavaudiana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskova, Rilka Mladenova; Kokubun, Tetsuo; Ryan, Ken G.

    2011-01-01

    From an extract of Veronica (sect. Hebe) lavaudiana we have identified mannitol and isolated eleven iridoid glucosides, the carbohydrate ester hebitol II, and four esters of phenylethanoid glycosides. Five of the iridoid glycosides are new; of these, lavaudioside A, B, and C (2a, 3a, and 4) are 1...

  1. Las especies de Eryngium Sect. Foetida (Apiaceae en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Martínez

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El género Eryngium Sect. Foetida (incluida Sect. Flaccida está representado en Argentina por 7 especies: E. chubutense, E. coronatum, E. echinatum, E. ekmanii, E. divaricatum, E. dorae y E. nudicaule. Son hierbas de bajo porte caracterizadas por sus hojas pecioladas con venación reticulada, y sus frutos del tipo “isophlyctide”; se distribuyen principalmente en el NE y centro del país, aunque Eryngium chubutense, endémica, alcanza al sur de su área la provincia de Santa Cruz. Eryngium dorae es una especie poco coleccionada y mal conocida hasta el presente, que se destaca por la presencia de flores subpediceladas y frutos equinados, caracteres poco frecuentes en el género. Se analizan en este aporte los caracteres taxonómicos relevantes en la sección; se describen e ilustran las especies y se proporciona una clave para diferenciarlas

  2. Nomenclatural notes on some species of Phoma sect. Plenodomus

    OpenAIRE

    Boerema, G.H.; Kesteren, van, HW

    1981-01-01

    This paper deals with the synonymy of five species of Phoma formerly referred to Plenodomus: Phoma astragalina (Gonz.-Frag.) comb. nov., Phoma petrakii nom. nov., Phoma pezizoides (Ell. & Ev.) comb. nov., Phoma ruttneri (Petr.) comb. nov. and Phoma sclerotioides (Preuss) ex Sacc. (in phytopath. literature well known as Plenodomus meliloti Dearness & Sanford). Further a review is given of the synonymy of previously treated species of Phoma sect. Plenodomus.

  3. Unusual iridoid glycosides in Veronica sects. Hebe and Labiatoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Rosendal

    2008-01-01

    In a chemosystematic investigation of three Southern hemisphere species of Veronica, namely the Australian V. derwentiana Andrews and V. perfoliata R.Br. (formerly Derwentia species), and the New Zealand V. catarractae G. Forster (formerly a species of Parahebe), the water-soluble constituents we......-rhamnopyranosylcatalpol. Esters of the latter compound are previously only known from the more derived species in recent phylogenetic trees of sect. Hebe to which V. catarractae now also belongs, but as a more basal member....

  4. New Evidence for the Darwinian Hypothesis of Heterostyly: Breeding Systems and Pollinators in Narcissus Sect. Apodanthi

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rocio Pérez-Barrales; Pablo Vargas; Juan Arroyo

    2006-01-01

    ... in pollinator proficiency or breeding system variation (Darwinian hypothesis). • We studied pollinators, pollen-transfer efficiency, and incompatibility systems in all seven species of Narcissus sect...

  5. "Moonies" get married: a psychiatric follow-up study of a charismatic religious sect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanter, M

    1986-10-01

    A 3-year follow-up of longtime engaged members of the Unification Church revealed remarkable compliance with the sect's unusual marital commitments. Of 305 subjects, 95% were still active in the church and 85% had been married in the interim to mates designated by their religious leader. Their scores on a measure of psychological well-being remained below those of the general population, and members who deviated from the sect's expectations showed even greater distress. Furthermore, analysis revealed that affiliative ties with the sect apparently counteracted the distress produced by the unusual marital experience and help to explain compliance with the sect's unusual behavioral norms.

  6. Taxonomic study in Centaurea sect. Mesocentron (Cass.) DC. and sect. Hymenocentron (Cass.) DC. (Asteraceae) in the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Devesa Alcaraz, Juan Antonio; López Nieto, Eusebio

    2013-01-01

    Se ha efectuado la revisión taxonómica de Centaurea sect. Mesoncentron (Cass.) DC y Centaurea sect. Hymenocentron (Cass.) DC. en la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares. Se reconocen 6 taxones para la sect. Mesocentron y 1 para la sect. Hymenocentron. Se aporta una clave para la identificación de las especies, así como su descripción morfológica e información sobre la distribución geográfica, apetencias ecológicas, fenología y número cromosómico A taxonomic review of Centaurea...

  7. Taxonomy and phylogeny in Lepiota sect. Stenosporae from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun F

    2016-01-01

    Lepiota sect. Stenosporae (J.E. Lange) Kühner contains species with spurred or truncate basidiospores and pileus covering composed of adnate, ascending or erect long and slender elements. Seven species from southwestern, northeastern and southern China in this section have been identified, described and illustrated. Lepiota mandarina and L. subcastanea are described as new. Lepiota mandarina is characterized by densely orange red to brownish red squamules on pileus and stipe, subtriangular basidiospores with truncate bottom, narrowly clavate cheilocystidia and pileus covering a trichodermial palisade. Lepiota subcastanea has a pileus with yellow-brown to dark brown squamules, non-dextrinoid subtriangular basidiospores with a distinct sac-like spur, narrowly clavate or narrowly utriform cheilocystidia, and pileus covering a trichodermial palisade with short clavate elements. It is hypothesized that this section evolved from sect. Ovisporae subsect. Helveolinae. It also is speculated that subtriangular and spurred basidiospores have evolved from ellipsoidal basidiospores and that a trichodermial pileus covering composing long, erect elements and basal short, clavate elements might have evolved from a cutis or a trichoderm lacking such an under layer of short elements. © 2016 by The Mycological Society of America.

  8. Begonia myanmarica (Begoniaceae), a new species from Myanmar, and molecular phylogenetics of Begonia sect. Monopteron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yu-Hsin; Kim, Young-Dong; Peng, Ching-I; Htwe, Khin Myo; Cho, Seong-Hyun; Kono, Yoshiko; Chung, Kuo-Fang

    2017-12-01

    A new species, Begonia myanmarica, was discovered from Myanmar and herein documented. Characterized by a single developed wing in the ovary/fruit, this species would be assigned to sect. Monopteron (sensu Doorenbos et al. in The sections of Begonia including descriptions, keys and species lists: studies in Begoniaceae VI. Wageningen Agricultural University, Wageningen, 1998) that is known by B. griffithiana and B. nepalensis from the Himalaya. To confirm its sectional assignment, we conducted morphological, phylogenetic and cytological studies. Morphological observations indicated that B. myanmarica was distinguishable from the two known species of sect. Monopteron by the leaf shape and size, 1-locular ovary, parietal placentation and chromosome number. Molecular phylogenetic analysis using nrITS sequences showed that B. myanmarica was not allied with the clade of sect. Monopteron, though both were nested within sect. Platycentrum-sect. Sphenanthera clade. Studies of morphology, molecular phylogenetics and cytology support the recognition of the new species, Begonia myanmarica, which is fully described and illustrated. Our results also indicate that B. myanmarica is not closely related to species previously assigned to sect. Monopteron, suggesting that the fruit morphology of a single developed wing in the ovary/fruit characterizing sect. Monopteron is homoplasious.

  9. Modelling radicalization: how small violent fringe sects develop into large indoctrinated societies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Martin B.; McCalla, Scott G.; D'Orsogna, Maria R.

    2017-08-01

    We model radicalization in a society consisting of two competing religious, ethnic or political groups. Each of the `sects' is divided into moderate and radical factions, with intra-group transitions occurring either spontaneously or through indoctrination. We also include the possibility of one group violently attacking the other. The intra-group transition rates of one group are modelled to explicitly depend on the actions and characteristics of the other, including violent episodes, effectively coupling the dynamics of the two sects. We use a game theoretic framework and assume that radical factions may tune `strategic' parameters to optimize given utility functions aimed at maximizing their ranks while minimizing the damage inflicted by their rivals. Constraints include limited overall resources that must be optimally allocated between indoctrination and external attacks on the other group. Various scenarios are considered, from symmetric sects whose behaviours mirror each other, to totally asymmetric ones where one sect may have a larger population or a superior resource availability. We discuss under what conditions sects preferentially employ indoctrination or violence, and how allowing sects to readjust their strategies allows for small, violent sects to grow into large, indoctrinated communities.

  10. 76 FR 10634 - In the Matter of the Designation of Sect of Revolutionaries also known as SE also known as Sekhta...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... Matter of the Designation of Sect of Revolutionaries also known as SE also known as Sekhta Epanastaton also known as Sekta Epanastaton also known as Secta Epanastaton also known as Revolutionaries Sect also known as Rebel Sect also known as Armed Struggle for Revolutionary Independence Sect of Revolutionaries...

  11. Pollen morphology of the Onobrychis sect. Heliobrychis in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Karamian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen morphology of 20 species belonging to Onobrychis sect. Heliobrychis was studied in Iran. The pollen grains from the herbarium specimens were prepared by acetolysis method and then 8 quantitative characters were studied by light microscopy. Data analysis was carried out by cluster analysis and principal component analysis methods. Pollen grains of the sections were 3-colpate with reticulate ornamentation. Results of the study showed that although the pollen grains in the section were comparatively homogenous, but had a considerable variation in the studied quantitative characters. However among the studied characters, equatorial and polar diameters of pollen grains were the most significant characters. The members of the section can be divided into 3 groups based on these characters.

  12. Medicinal plants used for treatment of diabetes by the marakh sect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal plants used for treatment of diabetes by the marakh sect of the Garo tribe living in Mymensingh district, Bangladesh. M Rahmatullah, NK Azam, Z Khatun, S Seraj, F Islam, A Rahman, S Jahan, S Aziz ...

  13. Combining morphological and phylogenetic analyses to unravel systematics in Geastrum sect. Schmidelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Juan Carlos; de Diego Calonge, Francisco; Martín, María P

    2014-01-01

    Systematics of the recently proposed Geastrum sect. Schmidelia are addressed through statistical analyses of quantitative morphological variables and phylogenetic reconstructions based on a multilocus approach. Emphasis is given to the taxonomic placement of G. schmidelii var. parvisporum. This variety is found to be not phylogenetically close to G. schmidelii var. schmidelii, the type species of G. sect. Schmidelia, and it therefore is excluded from this section, taxonomically raised to species rank (as G. parvisporum) and included as a member of G. sect. Hariotia. A second species in G. sect. Schmidelia is recognized and formally described as G. senoretiae. It is characterized by small basidiomata, non-hygrometric exoperidium, subsessile endoperidium and finely plicate, indistinctly delimited peristome, so far known only from Spain. Photographs and drawings are included, along with a comparison of morphologically close taxa. The presence of sclerified basidia in the mature gleba, previously not reported in the genus, is commented on. © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  14. Networks of Faith: Interpersonal Bonds and Recruitment to Cults and Sects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rodney; Bainbridge, William Sims

    1980-01-01

    Discusses recruitment to religious cults and sects from the point of view of social science research and a more recent approach which argues that interpersonal bonds between members and potential recruits are the essential element. (Author/DB)

  15. Marasmioid and gymnopoid fungi of the Republic of Korea. 2. Marasmius sect. Globulares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonín, V; Ryoo, R; Shin, H-D

    2010-06-01

    Seven species of Marasmius sect. Globulares with smooth pileipellis cells (sect. Globulares s. Singer) have been collected in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) to date, viz. M. aurantioferrugineus, M. brunneospermus, M. maximus, M. nivicola, M. purpureostriatus, M. wynneae and M. fusicystidiosus. Descriptions of their macro- and microscopic features with a discussion of similar taxa are given. Their taxonomic position was confirmed using DNA data. Marasmius fusicystidiosus is described as a new species. A key to aid in their identification is also provided.

  16. [Study on Camellia Sect. Chrysantha Chang species identification by FTIR technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiao-Ling; Shi, Yan-Cai; Li, Cheng-Zhuo; Wei, Xiao; Huang, Rong-Shao; Kong, De-Xin; Huang, Shu-Shi

    2012-10-01

    FTIR spectra from 16 kinds of Camellia Sect. Chrysantha by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) method combined with the system clustering and correlation coefficient method were used to analyze and compare these spectral data. The results, show that: Camellia Sect. Chrysantha of 16 kinds were divided into three groups, the first kind was: C. longzhouensis etc, in all eleven kinds; The second kind was: C. achrysantha, C. limonia, C. pingguoensis and C. chuongtsoensis; The third kind was C. microcarpa, which for a class alone. According to the difference in related anatomy and morphology, this study supported that C. longgangensis and C. ptilosperma should be incorporated into one kind; C. multipetala, C. longgangensis, C. parvipetala, C. tunghinensis and C. limonia, C. achrysantha, C. microcarpa, C. nitidissima, C. terminali and C. pingguoensis should be divided into separate species. FTIR-cluster analysis can be used as a possible means for the identification of Camellia Sect. Chrysantha.

  17. Four new bioluminescent taxa of Mycena sect. Calodontes from Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Audrey L C; Tan, Yee-Shin; Desjardin, Dennis E; Musa, Md Yusoff; Sabaratnam, Vikineswary

    2014-01-01

    Three new species and one new variety of bioluminescent Mycena collected from Peninsular Malaysia are described herein. All new species belong to Mycena sect. Calodontes in what is known as the Mycena pura complex. Comprehensive descriptions, photographs, illustrations and comparisons with phenetically similar species are provided. Molecular sequences data from the nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2, including the 5.8S rRNA) were used to infer relationships within sect. Calodontes. Axenic cultures were obtained to provide data on culture morphology. This is the first published photographic documentation of bioluminescent basidiomes of members of Mycena sect. Calodontes. Also, this addition brings the total known bioluminescent fungi to 77 species. © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  18. Revisión taxonómica de Salvia sect. Siphonantha (Labiatae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Alonso, José Luis

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A taxonomic review was made of Salvia sect. Siphonantha, whose distribution is restricted to northern South America from Colombia to Peru. A new species of Ecuador, Salvia sigchosica, is described and the original descriptions of another four species of the section are reproduced.Se presenta una revisión de las especies de Salvia sect. Siphonantha, cuya distribución se restringe al norte de Sudamérica, desde Colombia hasta el Perú. Se describe una nueva especie de Ecuador, Salvia sigchosica, y se incluye información descriptiva original sobre las otras cuatro especies de la sección.

  19. Aspergillus sect. Aeni sect. nov., a new section of the genus for A.karnatakaensis sp. nov. and some allied fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, János; Frisvad, Jens C; Samson, Robert A

    2010-12-01

    The new species Aspergilluskarnatakaensis sp. nov. is described and illustrated. All three isolates of this species were isolated from Indian soil; two from soil under a coconut palm in a coffee plantation in Karnataka, and one from soil in the Machrar river bed in Bansa district. This species is closely related to, but clearly distinct, from A. aeneus based on β-tubulin or calmodulin sequence data. Sequences of the ITS region of these two species are identical. Aspergillus karnatakaensis produced terrein, gregatins, asteltoxin, karnatakafurans A and B and the unknown metabolite, provisionally named NIDU. Aspergillus karnatakaensis belongs to a well-defined clade within Aspergillus subgenus Nidulantes together with eight other species including A. aeneus, A. crustosus, A. eburneocremeus, A. heyangensis, and the teleomorph producing-species Emericella bicolor, E. discophora, E. spectabilis, and E. foeniculicola. This clade is placed in a new section, Aspergillus sect. Aenei sect. nov. All teleomorph species assigned to this section are able to produce sterigmatocystin.

  20. Carex diaoluoshanica (Carex sect. Lageniformes, Cyperaceae), a new species from Hainan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hubiao; Wang, Qinglong; Bai, Changjun; Li, Xiaoxia; Liu, Guodao

    2014-01-01

    Carex diaoluoshanica, a new species of Carex sect. Lageniformes from Hainan, China, is described and illustrated. The new species is similar to C. breviscapa but differs in having wider leaves with the leaf base gradually narrowed, 5-10 cm long and petiolelike, culms subfiliform, with only two spikes, the lateral female spikes from near the culm base.

  1. Sequence capture using RAD probes clarifies phylogenetic relationships and species boundaries in Primula sect. Auricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, F C; Casazza, G; Szövényi, P; Conti, E

    2016-11-01

    Species-rich evolutionary radiations are a common feature of mountain floras worldwide. However, the frequent lack of phylogenetic resolution in species-rich alpine plant groups hampers progress towards clarifying the causes of diversification in mountains. In this study, we use the largest plant group endemic to the European Alpine system, Primula sect. Auricula, as a model system. We employ a newly developed next-generation-sequencing protocol, involving sequence capture with RAD probes, and map reads to the reference genome of Primula veris to obtain DNA matrices with thousands of SNPs. We use these data-rich matrices to infer phylogenetic relationships in Primula sect. Auricula and examine species delimitations in two taxonomically difficult subgroups: the clades formed by the close relatives of P. auricula and P. pedemontana, respectively. Our molecular dataset enables us to resolve most phylogenetic relationships in the group with strong support, and in particular to infer four well-supported clades within sect. Auricula. Our results support existing species delimitations for P. auricula, P. lutea, and P. subpyrenaica, while they suggest that the group formed by P. pedemontana and close relatives might need taxonomic revision. Finally, we discuss preliminary implications of these findings on the biogeographic history of Primula sect. Auricula. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Estudios en Labiatae de Colombia II. Novedades en Salvia sect. Longipes Epl.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Alonso, José Luis

    1995-01-01

    Se describen e ilustran dos nuevos táxones de Salvia (sect. Longipes): S. codazziana Fernández Alonso y S. erytkrostoma Epl. subsp. isabelina Fernández Alonso. Asimismo, se presenta una nueva localidad de S. erytkrostoma Epl. subsp. erythrostoma, conocida previamente solo por el material tipo.

  3. Studies on Lejeuneaceae subfam. Ptychanthoideae VI. A revision of Schiffneriolejeunea sect. Saccatae from Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradstein, S. Rob; Terken, Lucie

    1981-01-01

    The originally monotypic eastern Malaysian genus Schiffneriolejeunea Verdoorn 1933 has now become a widespread, pantropical group of about fifteen species by the inclusion of species from the genus Ptychocoleus Trev. nom. illeg. Six species are known from Asia, three of which constitute the sect.

  4. Prioritizing Identities: Cross Categorization of Ethnicity and Religious Sects in Turkey Identities: Ethnicity and/or Religion

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    Goklem Tekdemir Yurtdas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate how different ethnic groups (Turkish/Kurdish and religious sects (Alevi/Sunni are perceived in Turkey. These groups have a long history of conflicts. In order to examine the perception of these conflicting group identities, we adopted the theoretical frameworks of simple and cross categorization developed by the Social Identity Theory and the Category Differentiation Model. Both theories converge on the idea of in-group favoritism in the case of simple categorization while they offer different explanations for cross categorization condition. In order to test these differing theoretical propositions, we asked our participants to evaluate simple and cross categorization conditions based on variables of ethnicity and sect.  Our sample consisted of 106 individuals from two ethnic groups (Kurdish/Turkish and two religious sects (Alevi/Sunni. The participants completed a questionnaire based on Zavalloni’s focused introspection technique. Within subjects repeated measures ANOVA analysis were carried out for both simple and cross categorization. The results of the analysis revealed that the participants emphasized in-group similarities and out-group differences both for ethnicity and religious sect in the simple categorization condition. Moreover, in-group similarities based on religious sects rather than ethnicity were prioritized in the cross categorization condition. The results confirmed the Social Identity Theory’s assumptions generally. Results were discussed in terms of relevant literature, and in relation to historical and political issues regarding ethnicity and sects in Turkey.

  5. Begonia wui-senioris (sect. Platycentrum, Begoniaceae), a new species from Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ching-I; Wang, Hong; Kono, Yoshiko; Yang, Hsun-An

    2014-12-01

    The flora of Myanmar is under-collected compared with all other tropical Asian countries. An unknown Begonia was grown from seeds collected from a limestone hill in Central Myanmar, and compared with potentially allied species. The unknown Begonia is rhizomatous, has peltate leaves, 2-locular ovaries, and is evergreen. It is clearly assignable to sect. Platycentrum. Only two other species of Begonia, B. josephii and B. subperfoliata, in Myanmar have peltate leaves, but they are deciduous tuberous plants with 3-locular ovaries and belong to sect. Diploclinium. Thorough studies of literature and herbarium materials support the recognition of a new species, Begonia wui-senioris, which is fully described and illustrated. Begonia wui-senioris has the lowest chromosome number (2n = 14) for the genus.

  6. Leaf epidermal characters of Solanum sect. polytrichum (Solanaceae) as taxonomic evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurit-Silva, Kiriaki; De Fátima Agra, Maria

    2011-12-01

    The morphological similarities among the species of Solanum are remarkable, and are often very difficult one clear distinction between them. This paper presents a comparative anatomical study of the leaf epidermis of five Brazilian species of Solanum sect. Polytrichum, carried out using light and scanning electron microscopy. The leaf epidermis surfaces were investigated to evaluate their taxonomic significance to be used for separation and delimitation of the species of the section. As results, some micro-morphological characters of the leaf epidermis, such as density, distribution and type of stellate trichomes, and the anticlinal walls of epidermal cells, and also the type and distribution of stomata proved to be the most useful and distinctive characters for the separation and delimitation of the species, and also may contribute as an additional support to the interspecific taxonomy and systematic of Solanum sect. Polytrichum. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. [A couple in the sect: between freedom of membership and risks of abuse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grattagliano, I; Tangari, D

    2015-01-01

    Psychological cults are of particular interest to criminologists due to their complex and multi-faceted structures. They may come in the form of organizations, movements, and training centers that make promises to their victims of developing or strengthening their psycho-relational capacities, thus resulting in improvements in their social, professional, and personal lives. Starting from the complex and delicate story of a professional couple who join a cult, the authors describe one case of a organization that are referred to as "psycho-sects", and with a significant number of followers. These cases came to our attention through judicial authorities, and they offer us an opportunity to look at two aspects associated with psycho-sects: The need of individuals to belong to such groups; and the risk of abuse and violence that they face.

  8. Nigeria and the Boko Haram Sect: Adopting a Better Strategy for Resolving the Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    ed. Thomas A. Imobighe and Agatha N. T. Eguavoen (Ibadan Nigeria: Heinemann Education Books PLC, 2006), 7; Benjamin Maiangwa and Ufo O. Uzodike, “The...sect were lined up and shot in the back. 111 Hakeem Onapajo and Ufo O. Uzodike, “Boko Haram Terrorism in Nigeria: Man, the State, and the...of Management and Technology, 2008. Maiangwa, Benjamin and Ufo O. Uzodike. “The Changing Dynamics of Boko Haram Terrorism.” Aljazeera Centre for

  9. Molecular phylogenetics and evolutionary history of sect. Quinquefoliae (Pinus): implications for Northern Hemisphere biogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhen-Zhen; Liu, Yan-Yan; Nazaire, Mare; Wei, Xiao-Xin; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2015-06-01

    Climatic changes and tectonic events in the Cenozoic have greatly influenced the evolution and geographic distribution of the temperate flora. Such consequences should be most evident in plant groups that are ancient, widespread, and diverse. As one of the most widespread genera of trees, Pinus provides a good model for investigating the history of species diversification and biogeographic disjunction in the Northern Hemisphere. In this study, we reconstructed the phylogeny and investigated the evolutionary and biogeographic history of sect. Quinquefoliae (Pinus), a species-rich lineage disjunctly distributed in Asia, Europe and North America, based on complete taxon sampling and by using nine DNA fragments from chloroplast (cp), mitochondrial (mt) and nuclear genomes. The monophyly of the three subsections, Krempfianae, Gerardianae, and Strobus, is well-supported by cpDNA and nuclear gene phylogenies. However, neither subsect. Gerardianae nor subsect. Strobus forms a monophyletic group in the mtDNA phylogeny, in which sect. Quinquefoliae was divided into two major clades, one consisting of the North American and northeastern Asian species as well as the European P. peuce of subsect. Strobus, and the other comprising the remaining Eurasian species belonging to three subsections. The significant topological incongruence among the gene trees, in conjunction with divergence time estimation and ancestral area reconstruction, indicates that both ancient and relatively recent introgressive hybridization events occurred in the evolution of sect. Quinquefoliae, particularly in northeastern Asia and northwestern North America. In addition, the phylogenetic analysis suggests that the species of subsect. Strobus from subtropical eastern Asia and neighboring areas may have a single origin, although species non-monophyly is very widespread in the nuclear gene trees. Moreover, our study seems to support a Tethyan origin of sect. Quinquefoliae given the distributions and

  10. Microsculpture of cypselae surface of Baccharis sect. Caulopterae (Asteraceae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boldrini, Ilsi Iob

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the microsculpture of the cypselae surface of the Brazilian species of Baccharis L. sect. Caulopterae DC. (Asteraceae, and to compare this data it with the taxonomy of the group. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the cypsela surface of 25 taxa of Baccharis sect. Caulopterae from Brazil. According to the micromorphology of the cypsela surface, the species can be classified into five distinct groups. The cypselae of the species of the Baccharis trimera species complex (B. crispa, B. cylindrica, B. jocheniana, B. myriocephala, and B. trimera share the same micromorphological features.Para examinar la superficie de cipselas de 25 táxones de Baccharis L. sect. Caulopterae DC. de Brasil se ha utilizado la microscopía electrónica de barrido. El objetivo del estudio fue caracterizar la microescultura de la superficie de cipselas de la sección y colaborar con la delimitación taxonómica a nivel específico. Las especies fueron clasificadas en cinco grupos distintos según la micromorfología y asignados a la terminología existente. El complejo Baccharis trimera (B. crispa, B. cylindrica, B. jocheniana, B. myriocephala y B. trimera mostró afinidades micromorfológicas de las cipselas.

  11. New Species of the Fern Genus Lindsaea (Lindsaeaceae) from New Guinea with Notes on the Phylogeny of L. sect. Synaphlebium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shi-Yong; Zuo, Zheng-Yu; Chao, Yi-Shan; Damas, Kipiro; Sule, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    To determine the taxonomic identities and the systematic positions of some collections of Lindsaea sect. Synaphlebium (Lindsaeaceae) from Papua New Guinea, we conducted morphological comparisons and phylogenetic analyses on the whole section. A total of 22 morphological characters were selected and coded for each of all known taxa in L. sect. Synaphlebium, and were analyzed using maximum parsimony. The datasets containing either of or combined two plastid DNA sequences (trnL-trnF spacer and trnH-psbA spacer) of 37 taxa were analyzed using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference. Morphological comparisons revealed two new species which are formally published here as L. subobscura and L. novoguineensis. Lindsaea subobscura is similar to sympatric L. obscura and L. modesta but differs in the obviously reduced upper pinnules and other characters. Lindsaea novoguineensis is most similar to L. pacifica from Melanesia but differs in having rhomboid pinnules with truncate apices and concave soral receptacles. Molecular analyses resolved L. sect. Synaphlebium and allied species into five well-supported clades, namely L. rigida clade, L. obtusa clade, L. pulchella clade, L. multisora clade, and L. cultrata clade. The new species L. novoguineensis is included in L. obtusa clade; L. subobscura is in L. pulchella clade; whereas the majority of L. sect. Synaphlebium is clustered in L. cultrata clade. As the section Synaphlebium sensu Kramer is strongly suggested as polyphyletic, we propose the concept of a monophyletic L. sect. Synaphlebium in a broad sense that comprises five lineages. The morphological circumscription of L. sect. Synaphlebium sensu lato and the divergence in morphology, habit, and distribution between the five lineages are briefly discussed. Further molecular study is needed to test the systematic positions of 16 other species which are supposed to be within L. sect. Synaphlebium sensu lato but have not been included in this and previous

  12. Significance of ecological vicariance and long-distance dispersal in the diversification of Carex sect. Spirostachyae (Cyperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Marcial; Valcárcel, Virginia; Vargas, Pablo; Luceño, Modesto

    2009-11-01

    Plant disjunctions have provided one of the most intriguing distribution patterns historically addressed by biogeographers. Carex sect. Spirostachyae (Cyperaceae) displays an interesting pattern of disjunction to evaluate these scenarios, with species occurring in the main continental landmasses and in oceanic islands of the two hemispheres. Internal transcribed spacer and 5'-trnK intron plastid gene sequences were analyzed to determine (1) the times of diversification using penalized likelihood, and (2) reconstructions of the regions using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches of origin of sect. Spirostachyae and internal main lineages. The times for the diversification of sect. Spirostachyae are dated to between the end of the Eocene and the Oligocene, whereas the two main lineages are dated to between the end of the Oligocene and the beginning of Miocene. The phylogenetic analyses reveal a Mediterranean-Eurasian center of differentiation for sect. Spirostachyae and subsection Spirostachyae, whereas no clear, single ancestral area could be inferred for subsection Elatae. Both long-distance dispersal and ecological vicariance appear to have been involved in the evolutionary history of the disjunct distribution of the main lineages of sect. Spirostachyae. These organisms appear to have a special ability to colonize remote areas (through transoceanic and interhemispherical colonizations), but special long-distance dispersal mechanisms are not evident.

  13. Taxonomic revision of the tropical African group of Carex subsect. Elatae (sect. Spirostachyae, Cyperaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Escudero, Marcial

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The tropical African monophyletic group of Carex subsect. Elatae (sect. Spirostachyae is distributed in continental tropical Africa, Madagascar, the Mascarene archipelago, and Bioko Island (32 km off the coast of West Africa, in the Gulf of Guinea. The first monographic treatment of this Carex group, as well as of the tribe Cariceae, was published by Kükenthal (as sect. Elatae Kük.. Recently, the first molecular (nrDNA, cpDNA phylogeny of Carex sect. Elatae has been published, which also included the species of sect. Spirostachyae. In the resulting consensus trees, most species of sect. Elatae were embedded within core Spirostachyae and so this section was joined with sect. Spirostachyae as subsect. Elatae. Within subsect. Elatae, several groups were described, one of which was termed the “tropical African group”. Here we present a taxonomic revision of this group, based on more than 280 vouchers from 29 herbaria as well as in field trips in Tropical Africa. In the revision, we recognise 12 species (16 taxa within the tropical African group, and so have somewhat modified our previous view, in which 10 species, 12 taxa were listed. One new species from Tanzania is included in this treatment, C. uluguruensis Luceño & M. Escudero. Several combinations are made, C. cyrtosaccus is treated as a synonym of C. vallis-rosetto and, finally, the binomial C. greenwayi has been recognised.Las especies de la subsección Elatae (sección Spirostachyae del género Carex que se distribuyen por África tropical continental, Madagascar, el archipiélago de las Mascareñas y la isla de Bioko (a 32 km del litoral de África occidental, en el golfo de Guinea forman un grupo monofilético. El primer tratamiento taxonómico de este grupo de cárices, así como de la tribu Cariceae en su conjunto, fue elaborado por Kükenthal (sección Elatae Kük.; recientemente, se ha publicado el primer estudio de filogenia molecular (nrDNA, cpDNA de los táxones de este grupo

  14. On the evolutionary and biogeographic history of Saxifraga sect. Trachyphyllum (Gaud. Koch (Saxifragaceae Juss..

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    Eric G DeChaine

    Full Text Available Arctic-alpine plants in the genus Saxifraga L. (Saxifragaceae Juss. provide an excellent system for investigating the process of diversification in northern regions. Yet, sect. Trachyphyllum (Gaud. Koch, which is comprised of about 8 to 26 species, has still not been explored by molecular systematists even though taxonomists concur that the section needs to be thoroughly re-examined. Our goals were to use chloroplast trnL-F and nuclear ITS DNA sequence data to circumscribe the section phylogenetically, test models of geographically-based population divergence, and assess the utility of morphological characters in estimating evolutionary relationships. To do so, we sequenced both genetic markers for 19 taxa within the section. The phylogenetic inferences of sect. Trachyphyllum using maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses showed that the section is polyphyletic, with S. aspera L. and S bryoides L. falling outside the main clade. In addition, the analyses supported several taxonomic re-classifications to prior names. We used two approaches to test biogeographic hypotheses: i a coalescent approach in Mesquite to test the fit of our reconstructed gene trees to geographically-based models of population divergence and ii a maximum likelihood inference in Lagrange. These tests uncovered strong support for an origin of the clade in the Southern Rocky Mountains of North America followed by dispersal and divergence episodes across refugia. Finally we adopted a stochastic character mapping approach in SIMMAP to investigate the utility of morphological characters in estimating evolutionary relationships among taxa. We found that few morphological characters were phylogenetically informative and many were misleading. Our molecular analyses provide a foundation for the diversity and evolutionary relationships within sect. Trachyphyllum and hypotheses for better understanding the patterns and processes of divergence in this section, other saxifrages, and

  15. On the evolutionary and biogeographic history of Saxifraga sect. Trachyphyllum (Gaud.) Koch (Saxifragaceae Juss.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeChaine, Eric G; Anderson, Stacy A; McNew, Jennifer M; Wendling, Barry M

    2013-01-01

    Arctic-alpine plants in the genus Saxifraga L. (Saxifragaceae Juss.) provide an excellent system for investigating the process of diversification in northern regions. Yet, sect. Trachyphyllum (Gaud.) Koch, which is comprised of about 8 to 26 species, has still not been explored by molecular systematists even though taxonomists concur that the section needs to be thoroughly re-examined. Our goals were to use chloroplast trnL-F and nuclear ITS DNA sequence data to circumscribe the section phylogenetically, test models of geographically-based population divergence, and assess the utility of morphological characters in estimating evolutionary relationships. To do so, we sequenced both genetic markers for 19 taxa within the section. The phylogenetic inferences of sect. Trachyphyllum using maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses showed that the section is polyphyletic, with S. aspera L. and S bryoides L. falling outside the main clade. In addition, the analyses supported several taxonomic re-classifications to prior names. We used two approaches to test biogeographic hypotheses: i) a coalescent approach in Mesquite to test the fit of our reconstructed gene trees to geographically-based models of population divergence and ii) a maximum likelihood inference in Lagrange. These tests uncovered strong support for an origin of the clade in the Southern Rocky Mountains of North America followed by dispersal and divergence episodes across refugia. Finally we adopted a stochastic character mapping approach in SIMMAP to investigate the utility of morphological characters in estimating evolutionary relationships among taxa. We found that few morphological characters were phylogenetically informative and many were misleading. Our molecular analyses provide a foundation for the diversity and evolutionary relationships within sect. Trachyphyllum and hypotheses for better understanding the patterns and processes of divergence in this section, other saxifrages, and plants inhabiting

  16. Allozymic Variation and Relationships within Viola sect. Viola (Violaceae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrvarz Shahryar Saeidi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variation and differentiation in taxa of the genus Viola L. sect. Viola, subsections Viola and Rostratae (Kupffer W. Becker, were studied from natural populations occurring in Iran. Two isoenzyme systems, Phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI and Aconitase (ACO, encoding four putative loci, were employed to detect interspecific and intraspecific genetic variation. Considering the patterns of isoenzyme variation in the studied taxa, it is evident that V. caspia (Rupr. Freyn subsp. caspia and V. capia subsp. sylvestroides Marcussen are closely related. The species V. alba Bess. subsp. alba and V. sintenisii W. Becker are isoenzymatically well characterized as distinct genetic entities.

  17. Anthracoidea caricis-meadii is a new North American smut fungus on Carex sect. Paniceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, Kyrylo G; Lutz, Matthias; Piatek, Marcin; Heluta, Vasyl P; Nevo, Eviatar

    2013-01-01

    The morphology and phylogeny of Anthracoidea on Carex meadii (sect. Paniceae) collected in Illinois, Iowa, Wisconsin, USA, were studied by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and LSU rDNA sequence analyses. As a result A. caricis-meadii sp. nov. is described. The fungus differs morphologically from Anthracoidea laxae and A. paniceae, which also occur on sedges from the section Paniceae. Molecular analyses support the placement of the latter species and Anthracoidea caricis-meadii in different phylogenetic lineages. Because of morphological discrepancies in the literature, A. laxae and A. paniceae also are described and illustrated based on re-examination of respective holotype and isotype specimens.

  18. A new tetraploid species of Solanum L. sect. Solanum (Solanaceae) from Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoko, Mkabwa L K; van Weerden, Gerard M; van Berg, Ronald G; Mariani, Celestina

    2012-01-01

    Solanum umalilaense Manoko sp. nov. (Solanaceae) is described from the Umalila area, in the southern highlands of Tanzania. Its novelty is supported with both morphological and AFLP data. Phenetic and phylogenetic analyses place Solanum umalilaense as a unique and well-supported taxon among tetraploid species of Solanum sect. Solanum from Africa. It can be distinguished from other African species by its extremely developed branching, each branch producing many multi-flowered inflorescences, flowers with short calyx lobes and its persistent, small, light yellowish brown fruits.

  19. Serum proteins in endogamous Brahmin sub-sects of Andhra Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Char, K S; Rao, P R

    1983-01-01

    Haptoglobin phenotypes and rare variants of transferrin and albumin are reported in six endogamous Brahmin sub-sects, viz., Niyogi, Madwa, Dravida, Vadahalai, Tengalai and Vaidiki from Andhra Pradesh. Samples were collected from Vaidiki subsect from three different locations to study the genetic variation, if any, resulting from geographic isolation. The Hp1 gene frequency ranged from 0.1124 to 0.2064. A fast heterozygote transferrin variant and three albumin slow variants showing different electrophoretic mobility are reported for the first time in the Brahmin populations of South India.

  20. A comparison between ITS phylogenetic relationships and morphological species recognition within Mycena sect. Calodontes in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Christoffer; Læssøe, Thomas; Kjøller, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    The members of Mycena sect. Calodontes (Tricholomataceae s.l., Basidiomycota) are characterised by a collybioid aspect and more or less purplish to reddish colours and a distinct raphanoid odour. In Europe, nine species have been recognised though some of these based on somewhat dubious morpholog......The members of Mycena sect. Calodontes (Tricholomataceae s.l., Basidiomycota) are characterised by a collybioid aspect and more or less purplish to reddish colours and a distinct raphanoid odour. In Europe, nine species have been recognised though some of these based on somewhat dubious...... from Mycena pura s.l. based largely on differences in colouration, gross macromorphology or other phenetic traits. We developed a large sample of ITS sequences of all species of sect. Calodontes known from Europe for which vouchers exist. Furthermore, partial LSU data were developed and additional...

  1. STUDY ON THE HISTORY AND ARCHITECTURE OF THE RINZAI ZEN SECT BUDDHIST MONASTERIES IN KYÔTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antariksa Antariksa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In the middle of the 14th century, the Five Temples or Five Mountains (Gozan of Rinzai Zen sect were developed rapidly in the city of Kyôto. The ranking system of officially sponsored by Zen Buddhist monasteries were created by the Kamakura and Muromachi government. The Gozan system originally included three monasteries in Kyôto and three in Kamakura, but immediately spread to five monasteries in several cities. While the two great monasteries, are not members of the Gozan group, which belonged to the Rinka group of Rinzai Zen sect temples. The system, which corresponds to a Chinese hierarchical model, was established in Japan during the Kamakura period. The purpose of this study is to attempt to clarify the history and architecture of Rinzai Zen sect Buddhist monastery. The central functioning building of the Zen Buddhist monastery reflects the repetition, consistency, persistence, and order of the monastic ritual.

  2. A new species of Silene sect. Dipterosperma (Caryophyllaceae from Sicily

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    Brullo, Cristian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Silene kemoniana, a new species of the section Dipterosperma from NW Sicily, is described and illustrated. It is a therophyte that occurs in mountains near Palermo, where it grows on Mesozoic limestones in xerophilous garigues. Its relationships with S. colorata and allied species are also examined. A key of the species belonging to sect. Dipterosperma is provided.

    Se describe e ilustra Silene kemoniana, una nueva especie del NW de Sicilia perteneciente a la sección Dipterosperma. Se trata de un terófito que habita en algunas montañas próximas a Palermo, donde crece sobre calizas mesozoicas entre matorrales mediterráneos xerófilos. Se estudian sus relaciones con S. colorata y otras especies próximas. Se ofrece una clave para todas las especies pertenecientes a la sect. Dipterosperma.

  3. Corolla morphology influences diversification rates in bifid toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Mazuecos, Mario; Blanco-Pastor, José Luis; Gómez, José M; Vargas, Pablo

    2013-12-01

    The role of flower specialization in plant speciation and evolution remains controversial. In this study the evolution of flower traits restricting access to pollinators was analysed in the bifid toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores), a monophyletic group of ~30 species and subspecies with highly specialized corollas. A time-calibrated phylogeny based on both nuclear and plastid DNA sequences was obtained using a coalescent-based method, and flower morphology was characterized by means of morphometric analyses. Directional trends in flower shape evolution and trait-dependent diversification rates were jointly analysed using recently developed methods, and morphological shifts were reconstructed along the phylogeny. Pollinator surveys were conducted for a representative sample of species. A restrictive character state (narrow corolla tube) was reconstructed in the most recent common ancestor of Linaria sect. Versicolores. After its early loss in the most species-rich clade, this character state has been convergently reacquired in multiple lineages of this clade in recent times, yet it seems to have exerted a negative influence on diversification rates. Comparative analyses and pollinator surveys suggest that the narrow- and broad-tubed flowers are evolutionary optima representing divergent strategies of pollen placement on nectar-feeding insects. The results confirm that different forms of floral specialization can lead to dissimilar evolutionary success in terms of diversification. It is additionally suggested that opposing individual-level and species-level selection pressures may have driven the evolution of pollinator-restrictive traits in bifid toadflaxes.

  4. Long-distance dispersal and speciation of Australasian and American species of Cortinarius sect. Cortinarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrower, Emma; Bougher, Neale L; Henkel, Terry W; Horak, Egon; Matheny, P Brandon

    2015-01-01

    We present a multigene phylogeny (partial nuc rDNA and RPB2) of Cortinarius sect. Cortinarius (i.e. the C. violaceus group), which reveals eight species distributed in Europe, Australasia, South America, Central America and North America. Relaxed molecular clock analyses suggested that diversification began during the Miocene, thus rejecting more ancient Gondwanan origin scenarios among the taxa currently occurring in the northern and southern hemispheres. There was strong support for an Australasian origin of the C. violaceus group with initial dispersal to the Neotropics, followed by migration into North America and Europe. A dispersal-extinction cladogenesis model that includes a parameter for founder effects was the most highly supported biogeographic model in the program BioGeoBEARS. A maximum likelihood analysis showed the most recent common ancestor of sect. Cortinarius was an angiosperm ectomycorrhizal associate. Ancestral associations at the plant family level, however, were ambiguous. Of eight recovered species-level lineages, C. violaceus is the only one that associates with Pinaceae and the only species to associate with both Pinaceae and angiosperms. This analysis showed that long-distance dispersal and founder event speciation have been important factors during evolution of the C. violaceus group. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  5. Revision of Aspergillus section Flavipedes: seven new species and proposal of section Jani sect. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubka, Vit; Nováková, Alena; Kolařík, Miroslav; Jurjević, Željko; Peterson, Stephen W

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus section Flavipedes contains species found worldwide in soils and rhizospheres, indoor and cave environments, as endophytes, food contaminants and occasionally as human pathogens. They produce many extensively studied bioactive secondary metabolites and biotechnologically relevant enzymes. The taxa were revised based on phylogenetic analysis of sequences from four loci (β-tubulin, calmodulin, RPB2, ITS rDNA), two PCR fingerprinting methods, micro- and macromorphology and physiology. Section Flavipedes includes three known and seven new species: A. ardalensis, A. frequens, A. luppii, A. mangaliensis, A. movilensis, A. polyporicola and A. spelaeus. The name A. neoflavipes was proposed for Fennellia flavipes a distinct species from its supposed asexual state A. flavipes. Aspergillus iizukae, A. frequens and A. mangaliensis are the most common and widely distributed species, whereas A. flavipes s. str. is rare. A dichotomous key based on the combination of morphology and physiology is provided for all recognized species. Aspergillus section Jani is established to contain A. janus and A. brevijanus, species previously classified as members of sect. Versicolores, Terrei or Flavipedes. This new section is strongly supported by phylogenetic data and morphology. Section Jani species produce three types of conidiophores and conidia, and colonies have green and white sectors making them distinctive. Accessory conidia found in pathogenic A. terreus were found in all members of sects. Flavipedes and Jani. Our data indicated that A. frequens is a clinically relevant and produces accessory conidia during infection. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  6. Colonization and diversification of the Euphorbia species (sect. Aphyllis subsect. Macaronesicae) on the Canary Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ye; Li, Yanshu; Vargas-Mendoza, Carlos Fabián; Wang, Faguo; Xing, Fuwu

    2016-09-29

    Diversification between islands and ecological radiation within islands are postulated to have occurred in the Euphorbia species (sect. Aphyllis subsect. Macaronesicae) on the Canary Islands. In this study, the biogeographical pattern of 11 species of subsect. Macaronesicae and the genetic differentiation among five species were investigated to distinguish the potential mode and mechanism of diversification and speciation. The biogeographical patterns and genetic structure were examined using statistical dispersal-vicariance analysis, Bayesian phylogenetic analysis, reduced median-joining haplotype network analysis, and discriminant analysis of principal components. The gene flow between related species was evaluated with an isolation-with-migration model. The ancestral range of the species of subsect. Macaronesicae was inferred to be Tenerife and the Cape Verde Islands, and Tenerife-La Gomera acted as sources of diversity to other islands of the Canary Islands. Inter-island colonization of E. lamarckii among the western islands and a colonization of E. regis-jubae from Gran Canaria to northern Africa were revealed. Both diversification between islands and radiation within islands have been revealed in the Euphorbia species (sect. Aphyllis subsect. Macaronesicae) of the Canary Islands. It was clear that this group began the speciation process in Tenerife-La Gomera, and this process occurred with gene flow between some related species.

  7. Are white evangelical Protestants lower class? A partial test of church-sect theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwadel, Philip

    2014-07-01

    Testing hypotheses derived from church-sect theory and contemporary research about changes in evangelical Protestants' social status, I use repeated cross-sectional survey data spanning almost four decades to examine changes in the social-class hierarchy of American religious traditions. While there is little change in the social-class position of white evangelical Protestants from the early 1970s to 2010, there is considerable change across birth cohorts. Results from hierarchical age-period-cohort models show: (1) robust, across-cohort declines in social-class differences between white evangelical Protestants and liberal Protestants, affiliates of "other" religions, and the unaffiliated, (2) stability in social-class differences between white evangelical Protestants and moderate, Pentecostal, and nondenominational Protestants, (3) moderate across-cohort growth in social-class differences between white evangelical Protestants and Catholics, and (4) these patterns vary across indicators of social class. The findings in this article provide partial support for church-sect theory as well as other theories of social change that emphasize the pivotal role of generations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Three new species of Begonia sect. Baryandra from Panay Island, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ching-I; Rubite, Rosario Rivera; Lin, Che-Wei; Hughes, Mark; Kono, Yoshiko; Chung, Kuo-Fang

    2017-12-01

    The flora of Panay Island is under-collected compared with the other islands of the Philippines. In a joint expedition to the island, botanists from Taiwan and the Philippines found three unknown Begonia species and compared them with potentially allied species. The three species are clearly assignable to Begonia sect. Baryandra which is largely endemic to the Philippines. Studies of literature, herbarium specimens, and living plants support the recognition of the three new species: Begonia culasiensis, B. merrilliana, and B. sykakiengii. Somatic chromosomes at metaphase were determined to be 2n = 30 for B. culasiensis and 2n = 28 for both B. merrilliana and B. sykakiengii, congruent with those of most species in sect. Baryandra. Molecular phylogenetic evidence is consistent with B. culasiensis being a relict from the late Miocene and B. merrilliana and B. sykakiengii being younger species of Pleistocene origin. The continuing discovery of endemic Philippine species means the remaining fragments of both primary and secondary native vegetation in the archipelago are of increasing value in terms of natural capital. A secure future for the species could be realized through ex situ conservation collections and raising awareness with community groups.

  9. [Comparative Study on Morphological Characteristics of Root of Six Species in Sect. Cruciata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-mei; Lin, Li; Wang, Zhen-heng; Ma, Xiao-hui; Zhu, Tian-tian; Jin, Ling

    2015-09-01

    To provide evidences for the identification of Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix by comparing the morphological characteristics of six species of Sect. Cruciata (Gentiana macrophylla, G. crassicaulis, G. straminea, G. dahurica, G. officinalis and G. siphonantha). By microscope, the tissue characteristics with freehand section of the upper, middle and lower of root and the powder characteristics with chloral hydrate were studied. The vascular cylinder of G. crassicaulis was not split. The vascular cylinder of G. macrophylla, G. dahurica and G. officinalis, were only split in the upper part. The root of G. straminea and G. siphonantha wre completely divided into several smaller roots twisting together. There were a lot of thick walled cells in the powder of G. dahurica, G. straminea and G. siphonantha, but their shapes were different. No thick walled cells were found in the other three species. There are obviously differences among the microscopic morphological characteristics of root of six species of Sect. Cruciata, which can provide the basis for identification of Gentianae macrophyllae Radix.

  10. Corolla morphology influences diversification rates in bifid toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Mazuecos, Mario; Blanco-Pastor, José Luis; Gómez, José M.; Vargas, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The role of flower specialization in plant speciation and evolution remains controversial. In this study the evolution of flower traits restricting access to pollinators was analysed in the bifid toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores), a monophyletic group of ∼30 species and subspecies with highly specialized corollas. Methods A time-calibrated phylogeny based on both nuclear and plastid DNA sequences was obtained using a coalescent-based method, and flower morphology was characterized by means of morphometric analyses. Directional trends in flower shape evolution and trait-dependent diversification rates were jointly analysed using recently developed methods, and morphological shifts were reconstructed along the phylogeny. Pollinator surveys were conducted for a representative sample of species. Key Results A restrictive character state (narrow corolla tube) was reconstructed in the most recent common ancestor of Linaria sect. Versicolores. After its early loss in the most species-rich clade, this character state has been convergently reacquired in multiple lineages of this clade in recent times, yet it seems to have exerted a negative influence on diversification rates. Comparative analyses and pollinator surveys suggest that the narrow- and broad-tubed flowers are evolutionary optima representing divergent strategies of pollen placement on nectar-feeding insects. Conclusions The results confirm that different forms of floral specialization can lead to dissimilar evolutionary success in terms of diversification. It is additionally suggested that opposing individual-level and species-level selection pressures may have driven the evolution of pollinator-restrictive traits in bifid toadflaxes. PMID:24142920

  11. Fruit anatomy of species of Solanum sect. Torva (Solanaceae Anatomía del fruto en especies de Solanum sect. Torva (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco E. Chiarini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The mature fruits of 10 South American species of Solanum sect. Torva were studied. Cross and longitudinal microtome sections, stained with astra blue/basic fuchsin, were made for microscopic examination. All species present an epidermis formed by a unistrate layer of small, isodiametric cells, with dense content and cellulosic walls. Immediately below, a hypodermis is always found, consisting of a well-defined layer of lignified cells with a single calcium oxalate crystal occupying the whole lumen of each cell. This is followed by one layer of cellulosic, isodiametric cells with dense cytoplasm and then several collenchymatous layers, sometimes with sclerified cell walls. The mesocarp comprises two zones histologically differentiated: an external one (formed by regular, vacuolated, medium-sized cells with small intercellular spaces, and an internal one, commonly juicy, and developing proliferations among the seeds. The fruits analyzed are alike, and despite some particularities, they can be classified as berries in the conventional sense. All the traits examined agree with the ornithochorous dispersal syndrome. The homogeneity in fruit traits may be due to shared habit, habitat and sexual system.Se estudiaron los frutos maduros de 10 especies sudamericanas de Solanum sect. Torva. Se examinaron en microscopio cortes microtómicos transversales y longitudinales teñidos con azul astral/fucsina básica. Todas las especies presentaron una epidermis unistrata de células pequeñas, isodiamétricas, de contenido denso y paredes celulósicas. Inmediatamente por debajo se encontró siempre una hipodermis, formada por una capa bien definida de células lignificadas con un cristal de oxalato de calcio en el lúmen de cada célula. A continuación se halló otra capa de celulas isodiamétricas, celulósicas, de contenido denso, y luego varias capas de colénquima, en ocasiones con paredes esclerificadas. El mesocarpo presentó dos zonas histologicamente

  12. Gone with the trees: Phylogeography of Rhodiola sect. Trifida (Crassulaceae) reveals multiple refugia on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-Cong; Zhong, Da-Lv; Rao, Guang-Yuan; Wen, Jun; Ren, Yi; Zhang, Jian-Qiang

    2018-04-01

    Quaternary climatic oscillations have had tremendous effects on current distribution of species. Previous studies unraveled multiple microrefugia on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) in two woody plants. Still we know little whether herbs growing in forests responded to climatic oscillations similarly. We herein conducted a phylogeographic study on Rhodiola sect. Trifida, an herbaceous group endemic to the QTP, which mainly growing on the forest floors, using plastid and ITS sequences as well as ecological niche modeling. The origin and divergence of major clades of sect. Trifida were in accordance with the last phase of the QTP uplifts. Mismatch distribution analysis indicated a range expansion dated to ca. 135 thousand years ago. A high frequency and an even distribution of private haplotypes in both plastid and ITS data sets throughout the distribution of sect. Trifida were detected. The ecological niche modeling results showed that there were suitable habitats on the QTP platform during the LGM. Our results found that multiple microrefugia existed on the QTP platform, supporting the hypothesis that species with similar geographic distribution and inhabiting the same community had similar responses to the Quaternary climatic oscillations. Furthermore, species delimitations in sect. Trifida need to be tested based on integrative evidence from morphological, ecological and genetic data. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Miconia bullotricha and M. hirtistyla, two new species of Miconia sect. Lima (Miconieae, Melastomataceae) from eastern Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majure, Lucas C; Bécquer, Eldis R; Judd, Walter S

    2014-01-01

    We describe two new species in Miconia sect. Lima, Miconia bullotricha Bécquer & Majure and Miconia hirtistyla Majure & Judd, from eastern, Cuba. We also provide illustrations and distribution maps for the two species, as well as a key to members of the Lima clade on Cuba.

  14. Whose Children Are They? A Transnational Minority Religious Sect and Schools as Sites of Conflict in Canada, 1890-1922

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneath, Robyn

    2017-01-01

    In 1874, 6000 Old Colony Mennonites, an ethno-religious minority sect, immigrated to the Canadian prairies from Russia, after negotiating a charter of privileges with the federal government. Chief among these freedoms was the right to educate their children without government interference. Between 1890 and 1922, tensions mounted between the…

  15. Miconia bullotricha and M. hirtistyla, two new species of Miconia sect. Lima (Miconieae, Melastomataceae) from eastern Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majure, Lucas C.; Bécquer, Eldis R.; Judd, Walter S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We describe two new species in Miconia sect. Lima, Miconia bullotricha Bécquer & Majure and Miconia hirtistyla Majure & Judd, from eastern, Cuba. We also provide illustrations and distribution maps for the two species, as well as a key to members of the Lima clade on Cuba. PMID:24526849

  16. Studies on the Flora of the Guianas. 1. Croton macradenis (sect. Podostachys, fam. Euphorbiacece), a new species from the Guianas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Görts-van Rijn, A.R.A.; Punt, W.

    1983-01-01

    A new species of Croton, sect. Podostachys (C. macradenis) from French Guiana and Suriname is described. It has remarkable long glands. The distinctive characters of the species are the following: long, tubiform glands at the base of the leaves; male flowers with a hairy receptacle and 5-6 anthers ;

  17. [Polymorphism of KPI-A genes from plants of the subgenus Potatoe (sect. Petota, Estolonifera and Lycopersicum) and subgenus Solanum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinitsyna, A A; Mel'nikova, N V; Belenikin, M S; Poltronieri, P; Santino, A; Kudriavtseva, A V; Savilova, A M; Speranskaia, A S

    2013-01-01

    Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor proteins of group A (KPI-A) are involved in the protection of potato plants from pathogens and pests. Although sequences of large number of the KPI-A genes from different species of cultivated potato (Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) and a few genes from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) are known to date, information about the allelic diversity of these genes in other species of the genus Solanum is lacking. In our work, the consensus sequences of the KPI-A genes were established in two species of subgenus Potatoe sect. Petota (Solanum tuberosum subsp. andigenum--5 genes and Solanum stoloniferum--2 genes) and in the subgenus Solanum (Solanum nigrum--5 genes) by amplification, cloning, sequencing and subsequent analysis. The determined sequences of KPI-A genes were 97-100% identical to known sequences of the cultivated potato of sect. Petota (cultivated potato Solanum tuberosum subsp. tuberosum) and sect. Etuberosum (S. palustre). The interspecific variability of these genes did not exceed the intraspecific variability for all studied species except Solanum lycopersicum. The distribution of highly variable and conserved sequences in the mature protein-encoding regions was uniform for all investigated KPI-A genes. However, our attempts to amplify the homologous genes using the same primers and the genomes of Solanum dulcamarum, Solanum lycopersicum and Mandragora officinarum resulted in no product formation. Phylogenetic analysis of KPI-A diversity showed that the sequences of the S. lycopersicum form independent cluster, whereas KPI-A of S. nigrum and species of sect. Etuberosum and sect. Petota are closely related and do not form species-specific subclasters. Although Solanum nigrum is resistant to all known races of economically one of the most important diseases of solanaceous plants oomycete Phytophthora infestans aminoacid sequences encoding by KPI-A genes from its genome have nearly or absolutely no differences to the same from

  18. Electrophoretic enzyme analysis of North American and eastern Asian populations of Agastache sect. Agastache (Labiatae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelmann, James E.; Gastony, Gerald J.

    1987-01-01

    Genetic relationships among the seven species of Agastache sect. Agastache common in North America and the one found in eastern Asia were assessed using starch-gel electrophoresis of twelve enzymatic proteins. Nei's (1976) genetic distance and identity values, calculated among the 32 populations used in this study, partitioned the Agastache section into four discrete groups: (1) A. nepetoides (eastern North America), (2) A. scrophulariifolia and A. foeniculum (eastern and central North America), (3) the four species of the western U.S. (A. urticifolia, A. occidentalis, A. parvifolia, and A. cusickii), and (4) A. rugosa (eastern Asia). The Asian Agastache, separated from its American congeners for over 12 million years, differed from American populations at only two (the IDH-1 and LAP-1 alleles) of the fifteen loci surveyed; these alleles were not found in any of the North American plants. Nei's genetic distances between the Asian and North American populations ranged from 0.2877 to 0.6734.

  19. Systematic study of simple-leaved group of Astragalus sect. Incani DC. in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoud Ranjbar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, morphological pollen characteristics of different populations of 5 species belonging to simple-leaved group of Astragalus sect. Incani DC. in Iran were studied. Results showed that all studied taxa formed two groups. In addition, chromosome number and meiotic behavior were studied in 3 populations belonging to two species of this group. All taxa were diploid and had the basic chromosome number of 2n = 2x = 16. Although the taxa represented regular meiosis, but some abnormalities such as laggard and fragmented chromosomes in anaphase/telophase I and II and diakinesis/methaphase I, cytomixis in anaphase/telophase I and II, multipolar cells in telophase II, binucleouli cells in prophase I and bridges in anaphase I and telophase II were obseved.

  20. Development and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers for Central American Begonia sect. Gireoudia (Begoniaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex D. Twyford

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Transcriptome sequence data were used to design microsatellite primers for two widespread Central American Begonia species, B. heracleifolia and B. nelumbiifolia, to investigate population structure and hybridization. Methods and Results: The transcriptome from vegetative meristem tissue from the related B. plebeja was mined for microsatellite loci, and 31 primer pairs amplified in the target species. Fifteen primer pairs were combined in two multiplex PCR reactions, which amplified an average of four alleles per locus. Conclusions: The markers developed will be a valuable genetic resource for medium-throughput genotyping of Central American species of Begonia sect. Gireoudia. A subset of these markers have perfect sequence matches to Asian B. venusta, and are promising for studies in other Begonia sections.

  1. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for Central American Begonia sect. Gireoudia (Begoniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyford, Alex D; Ennos, Richard A; Kidner, Catherine A

    2013-05-01

    Transcriptome sequence data were used to design microsatellite primers for two widespread Central American Begonia species, B. heracleifolia and B. nelumbiifolia, to investigate population structure and hybridization. • The transcriptome from vegetative meristem tissue from the related B. plebeja was mined for microsatellite loci, and 31 primer pairs amplified in the target species. Fifteen primer pairs were combined in two multiplex PCR reactions, which amplified an average of four alleles per locus. • The markers developed will be a valuable genetic resource for medium-throughput genotyping of Central American species of Begonia sect. Gireoudia. A subset of these markers have perfect sequence matches to Asian B. venusta, and are promising for studies in other Begonia sections.

  2. Multilocus sequence analysis of Aspergillus Sect. Nigri in dried vine fruits of worldwide origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susca, Antonia; Perrone, Giancarlo; Cozzi, Giuseppe; Stea, Gaetano; Logrieco, Antonio F; Mulè, Giuseppina

    2013-07-15

    Dried vine fruits may be heavily colonized by Aspergillus species. The molecular biodiversity of an Aspergillus population (234 strains) isolated from dried vine fruit samples of worldwide origin were analyzed by investigating four housekeeping gene loci (calmodulin, β-tubulin, elongation factor 1-α, RPB2). Aspergillus Sect. Nigri was dominant and the strains were identified as A. tubingensis (138), A. awamori (38), A. carbonarius (27), A. uvarum (16) and A. niger (11). Four Aspergillus flavus strains were also identified from Chilean raisins. Two clusters closely related to the A. tubingensis species with a significant bootstrap (60% and 99%) were identified as distinct populations. Among the four loci, RPB2 showed the highest genetic variability. This is the first complete study on the worldwide distribution of black Aspergilli occurring on dried vine fruits identified by a molecular approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Microsatellite markers for hoop-petticoat daffodils (Narcissus sect. Bulbocodii; Amaryllidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könyves, Kálmán; David, John C; Culham, Alastair

    2016-04-01

    Microsatellite markers were developed using hoop-petticoat daffodils (Narcissus sect. Bulbocodii; Amaryllidaceae) to aid in the taxonomic revision of the section, and to further evaluate their broad applicability for daffodil cultivar identification. Three hundred fifty-one primer pairs were developed using a commercial service. Nineteen polymorphic and repeatable markers were developed by screening 67 of these primer pairs. Of these, 11 chosen markers were used to screen 317 samples; the number of alleles per locus ranged from four to 21, and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.101 to 0.297. There were null genotypes in some samples for six of the markers. All the microsatellites were transferable to other Narcissus sections. The results indicate that these new markers have sufficient potential variation to be used for taxonomic revision of the genus and to distinguish many commercial daffodil cultivars.

  4. Carex jianfengensis (Carex sect. Rhomboidales, Cyperaceae, a New Species from Hainan, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubiao Yang

    Full Text Available A new species of Carex sect. Rhomboidales, C. jianfengensis, is described and illustrated from Hainan, China. The new species is similar to C. zunyiensis but differs in having involucral bracts sparsely hispid and with ca.1 cm long sheaths; inflorescence with 4 spikes, terminal spike ca. 2.5 cm long, lateral spikes 2-3.5 × 0.7-1 cm; staminate glumes narrowly ovate, ca. 5 mm; pistillate glumes triangular-lanceolate, 5-7 mm; perigynia 6-8 × 3 mm and pubescent on veins; nutlet 4-5 mm long, rhombic-ovoid, trigonous, base with shortly stipitate, apex abruptly contracted into a erect short beak, and not expanding into an annulate orifice.

  5. Carex jianfengensis (Carex sect. Rhomboidales, Cyperaceae), a New Species from Hainan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hubiao; Li, Xiaoxia; Wang, Wenqiang; Bai, Changjun; Liu, Guodao

    2015-01-01

    A new species of Carex sect. Rhomboidales, C. jianfengensis, is described and illustrated from Hainan, China. The new species is similar to C. zunyiensis but differs in having involucral bracts sparsely hispid and with ca.1 cm long sheaths; inflorescence with 4 spikes, terminal spike ca. 2.5 cm long, lateral spikes 2-3.5 × 0.7-1 cm; staminate glumes narrowly ovate, ca. 5 mm; pistillate glumes triangular-lanceolate, 5-7 mm; perigynia 6-8 × 3 mm and pubescent on veins; nutlet 4-5 mm long, rhombic-ovoid, trigonous, base with shortly stipitate, apex abruptly contracted into a erect short beak, and not expanding into an annulate orifice.

  6. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for Central American Begonia sect. Gireoudia (Begoniaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twyford, Alex D.; Ennos, Richard A.; Kidner, Catherine A.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Transcriptome sequence data were used to design microsatellite primers for two widespread Central American Begonia species, B. heracleifolia and B. nelumbiifolia, to investigate population structure and hybridization. • Methods and Results: The transcriptome from vegetative meristem tissue from the related B. plebeja was mined for microsatellite loci, and 31 primer pairs amplified in the target species. Fifteen primer pairs were combined in two multiplex PCR reactions, which amplified an average of four alleles per locus. • Conclusions: The markers developed will be a valuable genetic resource for medium-throughput genotyping of Central American species of Begonia sect. Gireoudia. A subset of these markers have perfect sequence matches to Asian B. venusta, and are promising for studies in other Begonia sections. PMID:25202548

  7. Microsatellite markers for hoop-petticoat daffodils (Narcissus sect. Bulbocodii; Amaryllidaceae)1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könyves, Kálmán; David, John C.; Culham, Alastair

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were developed using hoop-petticoat daffodils (Narcissus sect. Bulbocodii; Amaryllidaceae) to aid in the taxonomic revision of the section, and to further evaluate their broad applicability for daffodil cultivar identification. Methods and Results: Three hundred fifty-one primer pairs were developed using a commercial service. Nineteen polymorphic and repeatable markers were developed by screening 67 of these primer pairs. Of these, 11 chosen markers were used to screen 317 samples; the number of alleles per locus ranged from four to 21, and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.101 to 0.297. There were null genotypes in some samples for six of the markers. All the microsatellites were transferable to other Narcissus sections. Conclusions: The results indicate that these new markers have sufficient potential variation to be used for taxonomic revision of the genus and to distinguish many commercial daffodil cultivars. PMID:27144108

  8. Volatile compounds in Thymus sect. Teucrioides (Lamiaceae): intraspecific and interspecific diversity, chemotaxonomic significance and exploitation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitarokili, Danae; Constantinidis, Theophanis; Saitanis, Costas; Tzakou, Olga

    2014-04-01

    Thymus sect. Teucrioides comprises three species, namely, T. hartvigii, T. leucospermus, and T. teucrioides, distributed in Greece and Albania. The volatile constituents of all species of the section were obtained by hydrodistillation and investigated by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. Twenty populations were sampled and a total of 103 compounds were identified, representing 98.0-99.9% of the oil compositions. The oils were mainly characterized by high contents of monoterpene hydrocarbons (42.7-92.4%), with the exception of three oils for which oxygenated monoterpenes were the dominating constituents, viz., that of T. hartvigii ssp. macrocalyx, with linalool as main compound (89.2±0.5%), and those of T. hartvigii ssp. hartvigii and of one population of T. teucrioides ssp. candilicus, containing thymol as major component (46.4±3.1 and 38.2±3.9%, resp.). The most common compound in the oils of the 20 populations of the section was p-cymene. Considerable variation was detected within and among populations, and seven chemotypes were distinguished, i.e., p-cymene, linalool, p-cymene/thymol, p-cymene/γ-terpinene, p-cymene/borneol, p-cymene/γ-terpinene/borneol, and p-cymene/linalool chemotypes. Different chemotypes may exist in the same population. Multivariate statistical analyses enabled the segregation of the oils within Thymus sect. Teucrioides into two groups, one consisting of the three subspecies of T. teucrioides and the second comprising the species T. hartvigii and T. leucospermus. A linalool-rich chemotype, unique within the section, distinguished the oil of T. hartvigii ssp. macrocalyx from all other oils. The high oil content of p-cymene and the preference for serpentine substrates render T. teucrioides species promising for future exploitation. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  9. The Miocene to Pleistocene colonization of the Philippine archipelago by Begonia sect. Baryandra (Begoniaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Mark; Rubite, Rosario Rivera; Blanc, Patrick; Chung, Kuo-Fang; Peng, Ching-I

    2015-05-01

    One third of the species-rich Philippine flora is endemic, and most of the islands in the archipelago have never been connected to a continental region. We currently lack any well-sampled angiosperm phylogenies that span the archipelago, prohibiting the formation of informed hypotheses as to the evolution of this rich and highly endemic flora. We produced time-calibrated phylogenetic trees from both nuclear (ITS) and chloroplast (ndhA intron, ndhF-rpl32 spacer, rpl32-trnL spacer, trnC-trnD spacer) regions of 41 species of Begonia sect. Baryandra, all except one endemic to the Philippines. Historical biogeography was reconstructed across the chloroplast phylogeny using a Bayesian binary method of character optimization. Comparison of phylogenies from the two genomes permitted insight into the prevalence of hybridization in the group. The Philippine archipelago was colonized by Begonia sect. Baryandra in the late Miocene, via long-distance dispersal from western Malesia and a point of entry likely to be in the northwestern region of the archipelago. Palawan, Luzon, and Panay all bear early-branching lineages from this initial colonization. There have been Plio-Pleistocene dispersals from these islands into Borneo and Mindanao. Hybridization was common between species as evidenced by haplotype sharing and phylogenetic incongruence. The phylogenies show a high degree of geographic structure, which millions of years of exposure to typhoons have not blurred, showing long-term species and population stability. The recent dispersals to Mindanao are congruent with the geologically recent arrival of the island at its current latitude in the southern Philippines. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  10. Population structure and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus Sect. Flavi from maize in Nigeria and Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Haidukowski, Miriam; Stea, Gaetano; Epifani, Filomena; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Leslie, John F; Logrieco, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    Aflatoxins are highly toxic carcinogens that contaminate crops worldwide. Previous studies conducted in Nigeria and Ghana found high concentrations of aflatoxins in pre- and post-harvest maize. However, little information is available on the population structure of Aspergillus Sect. Flavi in West Africa. We determined the incidence of Aspergillus Sect. Flavi and the level of aflatoxin contamination in 91 maize samples from farms and markets in Nigeria and Ghana. Aspergillus spp. were recovered from 61/91 maize samples and aflatoxins B1 and/or B2 occurred in 36/91 samples. Three samples from the farms also contained aflatoxin G1 and/or G2. Farm samples were more highly contaminated than were samples from the market, in terms of both the percentage of the samples contaminated and the level of mycotoxin contamination. One-hundred-and-thirty-five strains representative of the 1163 strains collected were identified by using a multilocus sequence analysis of portions of the genes encoding calmodulin, β-tubulin and actin, and evaluated for aflatoxin production. Of the 135 strains, there were 110 - Aspergillus flavus, 20 - Aspergillus tamarii, 2 - Aspergillus wentii, 2 - Aspergillus flavofurcatus, and 1 - Aspergillus parvisclerotigenus. Twenty-five of the A. flavus strains and the A. parvisclerotigenus strain were the only strains that produced aflatoxins. The higher contamination of the farm than the market samples suggests that the aflatoxin exposure of rural farmers is even higher than previously estimated based on reported contamination of market samples. The relative infrequency of the A. flavus SBG strains, producing small sclerotia and high levels of both aflatoxins (B and G), suggests that long-term chronic exposure to this mycotoxin are a much higher health risk in West Africa than is the acute toxicity due to very highly contaminated maize in east Africa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Systematics of the southern African genus Ixia (Iridaceae: Crocoideae: 4. Revision of sect. Dichone

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    P. Goldblatt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The southern African genus Ixia L. comprises ± 90 species from the winter-rainfall zone of the subcontinent. Ixia sect. Dichone (Salisb. ex Baker Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, one of four sections in the genus and currently including 10 species and three varieties, is distinguished by the following floral characters: lower part of the perianth tube filiform and tightly clasping the style; filaments not decurrent; upper part of the perianth tube short to vestigial; style branches involute-tubular and stigmatic only at the tips; and so-called subdidymous anthers. We review the taxonomy of the section, providing complete descriptions and distribution maps, and a key to the species. I. amethystina Manning & Goldblatt is recognized to be a later synonym of I. brevituba G.J.Lewis. Most collections currently included under that name represent another species, here described as I. rigida. We recognize five additional species in the section: early summer-blooming I. altissima from the Cedarberg; I. bifolia from the Caledon District; I. flagellaris, a stoloniferous species from the Cedarberg; I. simulans from the western Langeberg; and I. tenuis from the Piketberg. We also raise to species rank I. micrandra var. confusa and var. minor, as I. confusa and I. minor respectively. Foliar and associated floral variation in the widespread I. scillaris has led us to recognize two new subspecies among its northern populations, broad leaved subsp. latifolia and the dwarfed, smaller flowered subsp. toximontana; subsp. scillaris is restricted to the immediate southwestern Cape, from Darling to Somerset West. Sect. Dichone now has 17 species and two subspecies.

  12. Large group influence for decreased drug use: findings from two contemporary religious sects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanter, M; Buckley, P; Deutsch, A; Rabkin, R; Rabkin, J

    1980-01-01

    This paper reports on studies designed to clarify the role of large cohesive groups in effecting diminished drug use among their members. Subjects were drawn from two contemporary religious sects and data were obtained by administering self-report questionnaires under controlled conditions, in cooperation with the sects' leadership. Data which bear directly on changes in drug use are reported here. Members of the Divine Light Mission (DLM), many of whom had been involved in the "counterculture" of the early 1970s, reported incidence of drug use prior to joining which was much above that of a nonmember comparison group. Reported levels were considerably lower after joining, and the decline was maintained over an average membership of 2 years. Unification Church (UC) members showed a similar pattern but their drug use began at a somewhat lower level and declined further still; this reflects a stricter stance toward illicit intoxicants in the UC, and relatively less openness to transcendental altered consciousness, which is an integral part of DLM meditation. Data from persons registered for UC recruitment workshops corroborated retrospective reports of the long-standing members. Changes in the consumption of tranquilizers were also considered. Data on caffeine consumption reflected less strict commitment to controls over this agent. The decline in drug use was considered in relation to feelings of social cohesiveness toward fellow group members, which was a significant predictor of change in drug use in multiple regression analysis. The findings are examined in relation to the interplay between behavioral norms in a close-knit subculture and the role of its beliefs and values in determining levels of drug use.

  13. Juncus quartinianus (Juncaceae, sect. Ozophyllum): A Neglected Species from the Horn of Africa and Its Re-Description Based on Morphological SEM Studies.

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    Faltyn, Anna; Jakubska-Busse, Anna; Jarzembowski, Paweł; Proćków, Jarosław

    2017-01-01

    Juncus quartinianus (Juncaceae sect. Ozophyllum) was described by Richard in 1851 from Ethiopia. Some authors have treated this species as a synonym of J. fontanesii and others as a synonym of J. oxycarpus. Based on morphological analyses of flowers, fruit and seeds, we propose to restore J. quartinianus as a distinct species from both these taxa. Its detailed re-description and an identification key to the morphologically similar species of Juncus sect. Ozophyllum are provided.

  14. [Growth rings in roots of seven Sect. Paeonia species and its application on identification of Paeoniae Radix Rubra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shan-Shan; Zha, Liang-Ping; Duan, Hai-Yan; Xu, Tao; Peng, Hua-Sheng

    2017-10-01

    The growth years of medicinal materials are closely related to their quality, and "Herb-chronology" has been used to determine the growth years of perennial dicotyledonous plants in recent years. On the basis of conventional paraffin section and freehand section, the anatomical study on roots of seven Sect. Paeonia species and main roots of cultivated Paeonia lactiflora was conducted in this paper. The results showed that, there existed some differences in microstructure of the seven species such as P. lactiflora, P. obovata, P. veitchii, P. mairei, P. anomala, P. sinjiangensis and P. anomala var. intermedia, and this could be used to distinguish different species. In the roots of seven Sect. Paeonia species, distinct growth rings were formed because that the different diameters or density of xylem vessels in the secondary xylem formed clusters and arranged interrupted rings in tangential direction. There were growth rings in the main roots of P. lactiflora cultivated 1-4 years in Siping, Jilin, which were all consistent with their growth years. Due to the similar growth characteristics between wild Sect. Paeonia species and cultivated P. lactiflora, the growth rings can provide a basis for the age identification and lay the foundation for the quality evaluation of Paeoniae Radix Rubra. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  15. Utilizing RADseq data for phylogenetic analysis of challenging taxonomic groups: A case study in Carex sect. Racemosae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massatti, Rob; Reznicek, Anton A; Knowles, L Lacey

    2016-02-01

    Relationships among closely related and recently diverged taxa can be especially difficult to resolve. Here we use both Sanger sequencing and next-generation RADseq data sets to estimate phylogenetic relationships among species of Carex section Racemosae (Cyperaceae), a clade largely restricted to high latitudes and elevations. Interest in relationships among these taxa derives from questions about the species' biogeographic histories and possible links between diversification and Pleistocene glaciations. A combination of approaches and molecular markers were used to estimate relationships among Carex species within sect. Racemosae and taxa from closely related sections. Nuclear and chloroplast loci generated by Sanger sequencing were analyzed with *BEAST, and SNP data from RADseq loci were analyzed as a concatenated data set using maximum likelihood and as independent loci using SVDquartets. Sanger sequencing data sets resolved relationships among taxa at intermediate phylogenetic depths (albeit with low levels of support). Only the RADseq data resolved relationships with strong support at all phylogenetic depths. Moreover, different methods and data partitions of the RADseq data resulted in nearly identical topologies. Carex sect. Racemosae is a strongly supported clade, although a handful of species were found to group with closely related sections. Herbarium specimens up to 35 yr old successfully produced informative RADseq data. Despite the short read lengths of RADseq data, they nevertheless resolved relationships that Sanger sequencing data did not. Resolution of the phylogenetic relationships among recently and rapidly diversifying taxa within sect. Racemosae clades suggest a role for the Pleistocene glaciations in clade diversification. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  16. Pollen morphology of Pedicularis sect. Cyathophora, a group endemic to the Eastern Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wen-Bin; Wang, Hong

    2008-02-01

    Pedicularis sect. Cyathophora is a distinctive group endemic to the eastern Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains region. It was regarded as a 'grex' or section and included all four general corolla types of Pedicularis. A unique feature of it is that the leaf and bract bases are fused together to form a cup-like structure around the stem at each node. Pollen morphology of seven species in sect. Cyathophora was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy (LM). Two different pollen apertures could be distinguished (i.e. trisyncolpate and bisyncolpate) using LM, while examination with SEM made it possible to recognize three types of exine ornamentation (i.e. microscabrate, microfoveolate and microreticulate). The microfoveolate exine ornamentation was found in trisyncolpate pollen grains for the first time. Possible relationships between pollen data and the corolla types were discussed. Comparisons of floral and phyllotaxy characters of the genus Pedicularis, together with the pollen characters of sect. Cyathophora, could help us to better understand the evolutionary trends in Pedicularis.

  17. Begonia wuzhishanensis (sect. Diploclinium, Begoniaceae), a new species from Hainan Island, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ching-I; Jin, Xiao-Hua; Ku, Shin-Ming; Kono, Yoshiko; Huang, Han-Yau; Yang, Hsun-An

    2014-12-01

    Hainan is the largest island of the Indo-Burma Biodiversity Hotspot and has the best preserved and most extensive tropical forests in China. A recent study on distribution of endangered species in China identifies southern Hainan as one of eight hotspots for plant conservation in the country. In continuation of our studies of Asian Begonia, we report the discovery of an attractive undescribed species, B. wuzhishanensis C.-I Peng, X.H. Jin & S.M. Ku, from Hainan Island. Living plant of the new species, Begonia wuzhishanensis, was collected in 2009 and cultivated in the experimental greenhouse for morphological and cytological studies. It flowered consecutively in 2012 and 2013 in the experimental greenhouse, Academia Sinica. It was assigned to the large, heterogeneous sect. Diploclinium. The chromosome number of this new species was determined to be 2n = 26. A careful study of literature, herbarium specimens and living plants, both in the wild and in cultivation, support the recognition of the new species Begonia wuzhishanensis, which is described in this paper. Begonia wuzhishanensis is currently known only from Fanyang, Wuzhishan Mountain in the center of the island. A line drawing, color plate, and a distribution map are provided to aid in identification.

  18. Multilocus coalescent species delimitation to evaluate traditionally defined morphotypes in Hydrangea sect. Asperae (Hydrangeaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, Yannick; De Clerck, Olivier; Uemachi, Tatsuya; Granados Mendoza, Carolina; Wanke, Stefan; Goetghebeur, Paul; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie

    2017-09-01

    The number of species recognized in section Asperae of the flowering plant genus Hydrangea differs widely between subsequent revisions. This variation is largely centered around the H. aspera species complex, with numbers of recognized species varying from one to nearly a dozen. Despite indications of molecular variation in this complex, no sequence-based species delimitation methods have been employed to evaluate the primarily morphology-based species boundaries. In the present study, a multi-locus coalescent-based approach to species delimitation is employed in order to identify separate evolutionary lines within H. sect. Asperae, using four chloroplast and four nuclear molecular markers. Eight lineages were recovered within the focal group, of which five correspond with named morphotypes. The other three lineages illustrate types of conflict between molecular species delimitation and traditional morphology-based taxonomy. One molecular lineage comprises two named morphotypes, which possibly diverged recently enough to not have developed sufficient molecular divergence. A second conflict is found in H. strigosa. This morphotype is recovered as a separate lineage when occurring in geographic isolation, but when occurring in sympatry with two other morphotypes (H. aspera and H. robusta), the coalescent species delimitation lumps these taxa into a single putative species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Marginal likelihood estimate comparisons to obtain optimal species delimitations in Silene sect. Cryptoneurae (Caryophyllaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Zeynep; Marcussen, Thomas; Ertekin, Alaattin Selcuk; Oxelman, Bengt

    2014-01-01

    Coalescent-based inference of phylogenetic relationships among species takes into account gene tree incongruence due to incomplete lineage sorting, but for such methods to make sense species have to be correctly delimited. Because alternative assignments of individuals to species result in different parametric models, model selection methods can be applied to optimise model of species classification. In a Bayesian framework, Bayes factors (BF), based on marginal likelihood estimates, can be used to test a range of possible classifications for the group under study. Here, we explore BF and the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) to discriminate between different species classifications in the flowering plant lineage Silene sect. Cryptoneurae (Caryophyllaceae). We estimated marginal likelihoods for different species classification models via the Path Sampling (PS), Stepping Stone sampling (SS), and Harmonic Mean Estimator (HME) methods implemented in BEAST. To select among alternative species classification models a posterior simulation-based analog of the AIC through Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis (AICM) was also performed. The results are compared to outcomes from the software BP&P. Our results agree with another recent study that marginal likelihood estimates from PS and SS methods are useful for comparing different species classifications, and strongly support the recognition of the newly described species S. ertekinii.

  20. A phylogenetic revision of Penicillium sect. Exilicaulis, including nine new species from fynbos in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visagie, Cobus M; Seifert, Keith A; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A; Jacobs, Karin

    2016-06-01

    A survey of the fynbos biome in South Africa resulted in the isolation of 61 Penicillium species from Protea repens infructescences, air, and soil samples. Fourteen of these belong to Penicillium sect. Exilicaulis and therefore we considered it an opportunity to re-evaluate the taxonomy of the section. Phylogenetic comparisons of the ITS, β-tubulin, calmodulin and RPB2 gene regions of the 76 section Exilicaulis species, revealed 52 distinct species, including nine new species from fynbos. Morphological comparisons confirmed the novelty for most of these, however, new species closely related to P. rubefaciens did not show significant or consistent morphological differences and we thus placed a bias on phylogenetic data applying the Genealogical Concordance Phylogenetic Species Recognition (GCPSR) concept. In this paper we describe the nine new species and update the accepted species list and resolve synonyms in the section. Importantly, we reveal that P. citreosulfuratum is the correct name for the clade previously considered to represent P. toxicarium fide Serra et al. (2008). The nine new species are: Penicillium atrolazulinum, P. consobrinum, P. cravenianum, P. hemitrachum, P. pagulum, P. repensicola, P. momoii, P. subturcoseum, and P. xanthomelinii spp. nov.

  1. Revision of theLimaclade (Miconia sect. Lima, Miconieae, Melastomataceae) of the Greater Antilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majure, Lucas C; Bécquer, Eldis R; Judd, Walter S

    2016-01-01

    Miconia sect. Lima is an entirely Greater Antillean clade that consists of 19 known species of shrubs and small trees, which were previously recognized under the polyphyletic genera Leandra and Ossaea . The highest species richness in the clade is represented on Cuba (10 species), followed by Hispaniola (8 species) and then Jamaica (1 species). Here we present a taxonomic revision of the clade based on the study of species in the field, herbarium specimens, as well as a DNA-based phylogeny reconstruction. The Lima clade most likely originated on Cuba and then spread to Jamaica once and Hispaniola multiple times. Species of this clade can be recognized by the well developed bulla-based hairs of the adaxial leaf surface, as well as the clavate-dendritic hairs produced along the primary, secondary and tertiary veins of the adaxial leaf surface, mostly towards the leaf base, terminal inflorescences, acute petal apices, slightly bulla-based hairs produced subapically along the petal abaxial surface, and anthers with a dorso-basal appendage and a single, dorsally oriented pore. Descriptions, synonymies, along with distribution maps and illustrations/figures, are given for each species. Miconia pagnolensis sp. nov. is newly described in this revision.

  2. Blue pigment in Hypocrea caerulescens sp. nov. and two additional new species in sect. Trichoderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaklitsch, Walter M; Stadler, Marc; Voglmayr, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    Three new species of Hypocrea/Trichoderma sect. Trichoderma (Hypocreaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota, Fungi) are described from recent collections in southern Europe and the Canary Islands. They have been characterized by morphological and molecular methods, including microscopic examination of the teleomorph in thin sections, the anamorph, growth rate experiments and phylogenetic analyses based on a part of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha encoding gene (tef1) containing the two last introns and a part of the rpb2 gene, encoding the second largest RNA polymerase subunit. Analyses involving tef1 did not unequivocally resolve the sister clade relationship of Hypocrea caerulescens relative to the Koningii and Viride clades, while analyses based on rpb2 clearly suggest a close relationship with the former, although the phenotype of H. caerulescens is similar to H. viridescens, particularly by its warted conidia and a coconut-like odor in CMD culture. Hypocrea hispanica and T. samuelsii however are clearly related to the Viride clade by both phylogenetic markers, despite their morphological similarity to H. koningii and its relatives. An apparently specific blue pigment is formed in CMD cultures by Hypocrea caerulescens but could not be obtained by extraction with organic solvents.

  3. Novelties in Begonia sect. Coelocentrum: B. longgangensis and B. ferox from limestone areas in Guangxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ching-I; Yang, Hsun-An; Kono, Yoshiko; Chung, Kuo-Fang; Huang, Yu-Song; Wu, Wang-Hui; Liu, Yan

    2013-12-01

    The spectacular karst limestone landscape in Guangxi harbors high-level diversity and endemism of Begonia species, especially those of sect. Coelocentrum. In continuation of our studies in this area, we report the discovery of two attractive new species from southwestern Guangxi: Begonia longgangensis and B. ferox. Begonia longgangensis resembles B. liuyanii, also from Longgang Nature Reserve, in the broadly ovate to suborbicular leaf blade, differing by the much smaller leaves, subglabrous leaf surface, pink flowers, dichasial cymes and the remarkably long stolons sent out from rhizomes. Unexpectedly, both diploid (2n = 30) and triploid counts (2n = 45) were observed in plants collected from the type locality. Begonia ferox probably has the most prominent bullate leaves for the genus. In this aspect, it is similar to B. nahangensis reported from northern Vietnam recently, but is readily distinguishable by the ovate, chartaceous leaves with an acuminate apex; tomentose peduncle not exceeding petioles; and the much larger stature in vegetative parts. A diploid count of 2n = 30 was determined for this unique new species. All available data support the recognition of the two new species. Begonia longgangensis has remarkably long stolons and B. ferox is characterized by the prominent bullate leaves. Line drawings, color plates and comparisons are provided to aid in identification of the novelties.

  4. New evidence for the Darwinian hypothesis of heterostyly: breeding systems and pollinators in Narcissus sect. Apodanthi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Barrales, Rocio; Vargas, Pablo; Arroyo, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Here we analysed the role played by breeding systems and pollinators in the evolution of heterostyly by testing whether evolution towards heterostyly is associated with style polymorphism and changes in pollinator proficiency or breeding system variation (Darwinian hypothesis). We studied pollinators, pollen-transfer efficiency, and incompatibility systems in all seven species of Narcissus sect. Apodanthi for which we also obtained chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences from three spacers to infer phylogenetic relationships. Five species are self-incompatible and within-morph cross-compatible. Heterostylous (Narcissus albimarginatus) and style-dimorphic (Narcissus cuatrecasasii) species that have a high degree of reciprocity in stigma and anther height are primarily pollinated by solitary bees. The style-monomorphic species (Narcissus watieri) and the style-dimorphic species with the least stigma-anther reciprocity (Narcissus rupicola) are both self-compatible and pollinated by butterflies, moths and hover flies. Phylogenetic reconstruction of character transitions indicates that the shift from style dimorphism to distyly is associated with a shift to bee pollination. Pollination by lepidopterans and flies is associated with stable style dimorphism and monomorphism. Evolution and maintenance of style polymorphisms in this group of species are independent of incompatibility systems. Taken together, our results strongly support the pollinator-based model for evolution of heterostyly and style length polymorphisms in general.

  5. Phylogeny of the 'orchid-like' bladderworts (gen. Utricularia sect. Orchidioides and Iperua: Lentibulariaceae) with remarks on the stolon-tuber system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Rodrigues, Fernanda; Franco Marulanda, Néstor; Silva, Saura R; Plachno, Bartosz J; Adamec, Lubomír; Miranda, Vitor F O

    2017-11-10

    The 'orchid-like' bladderworts ( Utricularia ) comprise 15 species separated into two sections: Orchidioides and Iperua . These robust and mostly epiphytic species were originally grouped within the section Orchidioides by the first taxonomical systems. These species were later split into two sections when sect. Iperua was proposed. Due to the lack of strong evidence based on a robust phylogenetic perspective, this study presents a phylogenetic proposal based on four different DNA sequences (plastid and nuclear) and morphology to test the monophyly of the two sections. In comparison with all previous phylogenetic studies, the largest number of species across the sections was covered: 11 species from sections Orchidioides and Iperua with 14 species as an external group. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences were applied to DNA sequences of rps16 , trnL-F , matK , the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and three morphological characters: (1) the crest of the corolla; (2) the primary organs in the embryo; and (3) tubers. Additionally, a histochemical analysis of the stolons and tubers is presented from an evolutionary perspective. The analyses showed the paraphyly of sect. Iperua , since Utricularia humboldtii is more related to the clade of sect. Orchidioides . Utricularia cornigera is grouped in the sect. Iperua clade based on chloroplast DNA sequences, but it is nested to sect. Orchidioides according to ITS dataset. Morphological characters do not support the breaking up of the 'orchid-like' species into two sections, either. Moreover, the stolon-tuber systems of both sections serve exclusively for water storage, according to histological analyses. This study provides strong evidence, based on DNA sequences from two genomic compartments (plastid and nucleus) and morphology to group the Utricularia sect. Orchidioides into the sect. Iperua . The tubers are important adaptations for water storage and have been derived from stolons at least twice in the

  6. Morfologia dos tricomas em Tibouchina sect. Pleroma (D. Don cogn. (melastomataceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Fernandes Guimarães

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Melastomataceae é a família que apresenta a maior diversidade de tricomas. Dr. Wurdack em seu "Atlas of hairs" reconheceu 46 tipos de tricomas para as Melastomataceae neotropicais com o uso de MEV, e referiu 17 destes para o gênero Tibouchina. Em Melastomataceae a morfologia dos tricomas tem sido extensivamente usada na delimitação dos táxons, assim como em estudos que antecederam ao trabalho de Cogniaux, a monografia das Melastomataceae brasileiras publicada em 1885. Em Tibouchina sect. Pleroma a morfologia dos tricomas foi substancial para a circunscrição de várias espécies. O uso da MEV permitiu uma caracterização dos 15 tipos diferentes de tricomas observados nas 41 espécies examinadas. Os diferentes tipos são descritos com base no aspecto morfológico tanto em MO como em MEV e ilustrados através de eletromicrografias de varredura e fotomicrografias.The Melastomataceae display greater trichome diversity. Dr. Wurdack, in his Atlas of hairs, recognized 46 types of trichomes for the Neotropical Melastomataceae through the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, and referred 17 of them to the genus Tibouchina. The trichome morphology has been extensively used in the delimitation of the taxa in Melastomataceae, as well as in previous studies by Cogniaux, the monograph of Brazilian Melastomataceae published in 1885. The morphology of the trichomes was essential for the delimitation of several species in Tibouchina section Pleroma. The use of SEM provided the best characterization of the 15 different types of trichomes recognized among the 41 species examined. These were described based on the morphological appearance, both optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and illustrated by scanning electron micrographs and photomicrographs.

  7. Inducing triploids and tetraploids with high temperatures in Populus sect. Tacamahaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liqin; Xu, Wenting; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Jinfeng; Wei, Zunzheng

    2017-02-01

    This study is the first to report that triploids and tetraploids have been successfully produced through embryo sac and zygotic embryo chromosome doubling with high temperatures in P. simonii Carr. and its hybrid. A new synthetic polyploid induced by hybridization with unreduced gametes and heterozygotic embryo chromosome doubling can effectively combine polyploidy and heterosis, which can provide two major breeding advantages. In Populus, successfully creating and cultivating new polyploid varieties have economic and ecological production value. This was the first successful study in which embryo sac and zygotic embryo chromosome doubling was induced using high temperatures to produce triploids and tetraploids in Populus simonii Carr. and its hybrid, P. simonii × P. nigra var. Italica, of Populus sect. Tacamahaca. The relationship between flower bud morphological characteristics (time after pollination) and female meiotic stage (embryo sac and zygotic embryo development) was established to guide the induction treatment period. In the resulting progeny, 37 triploids and 12 tetraploids were obtained and identified using flow cytometry. The optimal temperatures for embryo sac and zygotic embryo chromosome doubling were 38 and 41 °C, respectively. Cytogenetic analysis revealed that 66-72 h after pollination (HAP), a period characterized by a high proportion of one-nucleate and two-nucleate embryo sacs, was the optimal period for embryo sac chromosome doubling. For zygotic embryo chromosome doubling, 168 HAP was the optimal induction period, as there was a high proportion of two-cell and four-cell proembryos. The results indicate that inducing embryo sac and zygotic embryo chromosome doubling is an ideal method for producing polyploids. The methods for inducing polyploids and for evaluating ploidy and offspring with different ploidies and heterozygosity in this study will be useful for genetic research and Populus breeding programmes.

  8. Mobile DNA distributions refine the phylogeny of "matsutake" mushrooms, Tricholoma sect. Caligata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Hitoshi; Ota, Yuko; Yamaguchi, Muneyoshi; Yamada, Akiyoshi; Katahata, Shinichiro; Otsuka, Yuichiro; Babasaki, Katsuhiko; Neda, Hitoshi

    2013-08-01

    "Matsutake" mushrooms are formed by several species of Tricholoma sect. Caligata distributed across the northern hemisphere. A phylogenetic analysis of matsutake based on virtually neutral mutations in DNA sequences resolved robust relationships among Tricholoma anatolicum, Tricholoma bakamatsutake, Tricholoma magnivelare, Tricholoma matsutake, and Tricholoma sp. from Mexico (=Tricholoma sp. Mex). However, relationships among these matsutake and other species, such as Tricholoma caligatum and Tricholoma fulvocastaneum, were ambiguous. We, therefore, analyzed genomic copy numbers of σ marY1 , marY1, and marY2N retrotransposons by comparing them with the single-copy mobile DNA megB1 using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to clarify matsutake phylogeny. We also examined types of megB1-associated domains, composed of a number of poly (A) and poly (T) reminiscent of RNA-derived DNA elements among these species. Both datasets resolved two distinct groups, one composed of T. bakamatsutake, T. fulvocastaneum, and T. caligatum that could have diverged earlier and the other comprising T. magnivelare, Tricholoma sp. Mex, T. anatolicum, and T. matsutake that could have evolved later. In the first group, T. caligatum was the closest to the second group, followed by T. fulvocastaneum and T. bakamatsutake. Within the second group, T. magnivelare was clearly differentiated from the other species. The data suggest that matsutake underwent substantial evolution between the first group, mostly composed of Fagaceae symbionts, and the second group, comprised only of Pinaceae symbionts, but diverged little within each groups. Mobile DNA markers could be useful in resolving difficult phylogenies due to, for example, closely spaced speciation events.

  9. As espécies de Croton L. sect. Cyclostigma Griseb. e Croton L. sect. Luntia (Raf. G. L. Webster subsect. Matourenses G. L. Webster (Euphorbiaceae s.s. ocorrentes na Amazônia brasileira Species of Croton L. sect. Cyclostigma Griseb. and Croton L. sect. Luntia (Raf. G. L. Webster subsect. Matourenses G. L. Webster (Euphorbiaceae s.s. occuring within Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alberto Cavalcante Guimarães

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Como parte de uma revisão taxonômica das espécies de Croton L. na Amazônia brasileira, estudou-se as seguintes espécies de Croton sect. Cyclostigma Griseb. e Croton sect. Luntia (Raf. G. L. Webster subsect. Matourenses G. L. Webster: Croton urucurana Baill., C. draconoides Müll. Arg., C. trombetensis R. Secco, P. E. Berry & N.A. Rosa, C. sampatik Müll. Arg., C. palanostigma Kl., C. pullei Lanj. e C. matourensis Aubl. O estudo foi baseado em trabalho de campo realizado nos Estados do Pará e Maranhão, e em material depositado nos herbários IAN, INPA, MG e RB, incluindo tipos. Algumas dessas espécies, como C. urucurana, C. draconoides, C. palanostigma e C. sampatik , são frequentemente encontradas nos herbários com identificações equivocadas. São discutidas a posição taxonômica das espécies nas seções e suas afinidades, e uma chave dicotômica e ilustrações foram elaboradas para um melhor entendimento dos táxons.As part of a taxonomic revision of Brazilian Amazonia species of Croton L., the following species of Croton sect. Cyclostigma Griseb. and Croton sect. Luntia (Raf. G. L. Webster subsect. Matourenses G. L. Webster were studied: Croton urucurana Baill., C. draconoides Müll. Arg., C. trombetensis R. Secco, P. E. Berry & N.A. Rosa, C. sampatik Müll. Arg., C. palanostigma Kl., C. pullei Lanj. and C. matourensis Aubl. This study was based on field work in the States of Pará and Maranhão, and material deposited in herbaria IAN, INPA, MG e RB, including the types. Some of the species, such as C. urucurana, C. draconoides, C. palanostigma, and C. sampatik , are frequently found with misidentification in herbaria. The taxonomic position of the species within sections and their affinities are discussed, and a dychotomic key and illustrations were elaborated for a better understanding of the taxa.

  10. Historical isolation versus recent long-distance connections between Europe and Africa in bifid toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Mazuecos, Mario; Vargas, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Due to its complex, dynamic and well-known paleogeography, the Mediterranean region provides an ideal framework to study the colonization history of plant lineages. The genus Linaria has its diversity centre in the Mediterranean region, both in Europe and Africa. The last land connection between both continental plates occurred during the Messinian Salinity Crisis, in the late Miocene (5.96 to 5.33 Ma). We analyzed the colonization history of Linaria sect. Versicolores (bifid toadflaxes), which includes c. 22 species distributed across the Mediterranean, including Europe and Africa. Two cpDNA regions (rpl32-trnL(UAG) and trnK-matK) were sequenced from 66 samples of Linaria. We conducted phylogenetic, dating, biogeographic and phylogeographic analyses to reconstruct colonization patterns in space and time. Four major clades were found: two of them exclusively contain Iberian samples, while the other two include northern African samples together with some European samples. The bifid toadflaxes have been split in African and European clades since the late Miocene, and most lineage and speciation differentiation occurred during the Pliocene and Quaternary. We have strongly inferred four events of post-Messinian colonization following long-distance dispersal from northern Africa to the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and Greece. The current distribution of Linaria sect. Versicolores lineages is explained by both ancient isolation between African and European populations and recent events of long-distance dispersal over sea barriers. This result provides new evidence for the biogeographic complexity of the Mediterranean region.

  11. Two new species of Begonia sect. Coelocentrum, B. guixiensis and B. longa, from Sino-Vietnamese limestone karsts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ching-I; Ku, Shin-Ming; Yang, Hsun-An; Leong, Wai-Chao; Liu, Yan; Nguyen, Tien Hiep; Kono, Yoshiko; Chung, Kuo-Fang

    2014-12-01

    In our recent molecular phylogenetic study of Asian Begonia, two undescribed species, B. guixiensis sp. ined. (S. Guangxi, China) and B. longa sp. ined. (Vietnam), were sampled and placed within the strongly supported clade composed of Begonia sect. Coelocentrum and other co-distributed rhizomatous species in the Sino-Vietnamese limestone karsts. While Begonia sect. Coelocentrum has been recircumscribed based on the phylogenetic relationships, B. guixiensis sp. ined. and B. longa sp. ined. remain illegitimate names. In continuation of our studies in Asian Begonia, these two new species are described and illustrated. Begonia guixiensis resembles B. cylindrica in the peltate, subcoriaceous leaves, differing by the shape of ovary/fruit and the type of placentation. In aspect, B. longa bears a superficial resemblance to B. brevipedunculata in leaf shape in particular, differing by many other features such as the long internodes, shorter petioles and smaller leaves, longer peduncles and 3-locular ovary. The chromosome number of both new species is determined as 2n = 30. A careful study of the literature, herbarium specimens and living plants, both in the wild and in cultivation in the experimental greenhouse, support the recognition of the two new species, which are described and illustrated herein.

  12. Geographical isolation caused the diversification of the Mediterranean thorny cushion-like Astragalus L. sect. Tragacantha DC. (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardion, Laurent; Dumas, Pierre-Jean; Abdel-Samad, Farah; Bou Dagher Kharrat, Magda; Surina, Bostjan; Affre, Laurence; Médail, Frédéric; Bacchetta, Gianluigi; Baumel, Alex

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the origin and evolution of Mediterranean vascular flora within the long-term context of climate change requires a continuous study of historical biogeography supported by molecular phylogenetic approaches. Here we provide new insights into the fascinating but often overlooked diversification of Mediterranean xerophytic plants. Growing in some of the most stressing Mediterranean environments, i.e. coastal and mountainous opened habitats, the circum-Mediterranean Astragalus L. sect. Tragacantha DC. (Fabaceae) gathers several thorny cushion-like taxa. These have been the subjects of recent taxonomical studies, but they have not yet been investigated within a comprehensive molecular framework. Bayesian phylogenetics applied to rDNA ITS sequences reveal that the diversification of A. sect. Tragacantha has roots dating back to the Pliocene, and the same data also indicate an eastern-western split giving rise to the five main lineages that exist today. In addition, AFLP fingerprinting supports an old east-west pattern of vicariance that completely rules out the possibility of a recent eastern origin for western taxa. The observed network of genetic relationships implies that contrary to what is widely claimed in the taxonomic literature, it is range fragmentation, as opposed to a coastal-to-mountain ecological shift, that is likely the main driver of diversification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. DESCRIPTION OF TWO NEW MONOECIOUS SPECIES OF VOLVOX SECT. VOLVOX (VOLVOCACEAE, CHLOROPHYCEAE), BASED ON COMPARATIVE MORPHOLOGY AND MOLECULAR PHYLOGENY OF CULTURED MATERIAL(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaka, Nanako; Kawai-Toyooka, Hiroko; Matsuzaki, Ryo; Nakada, Takashi; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2012-06-01

    Species of Volvox sect. Volvox (Volvocaceae, Chlorophyceae) are unique because they have thick cytoplasmic bridges between somatic cells and spiny-walled zygotes. This section is taxonomically important because the genus Volvox is polyphyletic. However, taxonomic studies of species in Volvox sect. Volvox have not been carried out on cultured material. Here, we performed a taxonomic study of monoecious species of Volvox sect. Volvox based on the comparative morphology and molecular phylogeny of chloroplast genes and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nuclear rDNA using various strains originating from Japan and two preserved strains from the USA. The strains were clearly divided into four species, V. globator L., V. barberi W. Shaw, V. kirkiorum sp. nov., and V. ferrisii sp. nov., on the basis of differences in numbers of zygotes (eggs) in the sexual spheroids, form of zygote wall, and somatic cell shape. Sequences for ITS of nuclear rDNA resolved that the two new species have phylogenetic positions separated from V. globator, V. barberi, V. capensis F. Rich et Pocock, and V. rousseletii G. S. West UTEX 1862 within Volvox sect. Volvox. © 2012 Phycological Society of America.

  14. Le livre décisif sur les religions et les sectes d'Ibn Hazm : entre l'histoire du texte et la critique textuelle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaddouri, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Ibn Hazm, an Andalusian polygraph (XI century), is the author of an important critical history of religions and sects called al-Fasl. In the first chapter, the author draws a critical review of modern research on this item. In the second chapter, he establishes a biography of Ibn Hazm studying the

  15. Labellar anatomy and secretion in Bulbophyllum Thouars (Orchidaceae: Bulbophyllinae) sect. Racemosae Benth. & Hook. f.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kevin L; Stpiczyńska, Malgorzata

    2014-10-01

    Floral secretions are common in Bulbophyllum Thouars, and the labella of a number of Asian species are said to produce secretions rich in lipids that act as food rewards for insect pollinators. Although some of these reports are based on simple histochemical tests, a much greater number are anecdotal and, hitherto, neither the ultrastructure of the labellum nor the secretory process has been investigated in detail. Furthermore, sophisticated histochemical approaches have generally not been applied. Here, both the labellar structure and the secretory process are investigated for four species of Asian Bulbophyllum sect. Racemosae Benth. & Hook. f., namely Bulbophyllum careyanum (Hook.) Spreng., B. morphologorum Kraenzl., B. orientale Seidenf. and B. wangkaense Seidenf., and compared with those of unequivocal lipid-secreting orchids. Labellar, secretory tissue was investigated using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and histochemistry. The adaxial median longitudinal groove of the labellum contained secretory tissue comprising palisade-like epidermal cells, similar to those of certain lipid-secreting Oncidiinae Benth. However, these cells and their secretions gave positive results mainly for protein and mucilage, and their organelle complement was consistent with that of cells involved in protein and mucilage synthesis. Sub-cuticular accumulation of secretion resulted in cuticular distension and blistering. The sub-epidermal layer of isodiametric parenchyma contained starch and, like the epidermal cells, ultrastructure consistent with mucilage synthesis. Lipids were mainly confined to the cuticle, and hardly any intracellular lipid droplets were observed. It is proposed that mucilage is produced by dictyosomes present in the palisade-like epidermal cells. Mucilage precursors may also be produced by these same organelles in sub-epidermal cells and are thought to pass along the symplast via plasmodesmata into the adjoining

  16. MO-FG-CAMPUS-JeP1-04: Evaluating DECT Vs SECT Range Differences in Proton Therapy Using Clinical Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudobivnik, N; Dedes, G; Parodi, K; Landry, G [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Schwarz, F; Johnson, T; Thieke, C; Belka, C; Sommer, W [LMU Munich, Munich (Germany); Tessonnier, T [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Verhaegen, F [Maastro Clinic, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Range uncertainty from X-ray CT number conversion to stopping power ratio (SPR) is one of the key factors limiting the potential of proton therapy. The large margins required for deep seated tumors degrade the organ sparing achievable with the technology. Of interest is the application of dual energy CT (DECT) to SPR estimation. In this planning study proton range differences between SECT and DECT have been quantified for brain cases. Methods: A last generation dual source DECT scanner was used to acquire SECT (150 kVp with Sn filtration) and DECT (additionally 90 kVp) scans of phantoms and 5 head trauma patients, acting as surrogate cancer patients. Phantom materials were characterized in terms of SPR in a particle beam to obtain reference values. IMPT treatment plans were generated on the basis of SECT and DECT SPR images for hypothetical brain tumors using a short and a long beam path. Range differences between SECT and DECT from plan recalculations were evaluated in beam-eye-view (BEV) by comparing the 80% isodose. Results: For the 18 phantom materials the SECT RMS SPR errors were 2.6% compared to 1.1% for DECT. Group median relative range differences between SECT and DECT plans were −1.0% for the short beam path over the 5 patients investigated in this study. For the long beam path the median difference was −1.4%. These relative range differences corresponded to −0.5 mm and −1.4 mm shifts respectively. Conclusion: This is the first study performing proton therapy treatment planning on DECT patient images. Important range differences of more than 1 mm were observed between SECT and DECT treatment plans, and DECT SPR accuracy was found superior on the basis of phantom measurements. While the patients investigated in this study did not have brain tumors, the findings we observed should apply to cancer patients. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (MAP); Bundesministerium fur Bildung und Forschung (01IB13001)

  17. The evolutionary history of Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx (Myrtaceae) corroborates historically stable areas in the southern Atlantic forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Bünger, Mariana; Fernanda Mazine, Fiorella; Forest, Félix; Leandro Bueno, Marcelo; Renato Stehmann, João; Lucas, Eve J

    2016-12-01

    Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx Nied. includes 14 species endemic to the Neotropics, mostly distributed in the Atlantic coastal forests of Brazil. Here the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this group is presented, and this phylogeny is used as the basis to evaluate the recent infrageneric classification in Eugenia sensu lato (s.l.) to test the history of the evolution of traits in the group and test hypotheses associated with the history of this clade. A total of 42 taxa were sampled, of which 14 were Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx for one nuclear (ribosomal internal transcribed spacer) and four plastid markers (psbA-trnH, rpl16, trnL-rpl32 and trnQ-rps16). The relationships were reconstructed based on Bayesian analysis and maximum likelihood. Additionally, ancestral area analysis and modelling methods were used to estimate species dispersal, comparing historically climatic stable (refuges) and unstable areas. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inferences indicate that Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx is paraphyletic and the two clades recovered are characterized by combinations of morphological characters. Phylogenetic relationships support a link between Cerrado and south-eastern species and a difference in the composition of species from north-eastern and south-eastern Atlantic forest. Refugia and stable areas identified within unstable areas suggest that these areas were important to maintain diversity in the Atlantic forest biodiversity hotspot. This study provides a robust phylogenetic framework to address important historical questions for Eugenia s.l. within an evolutionary context, supporting the need for better taxonomic study of one of the largest genera in the Neotropics. Furthermore, valuable insight is offered into diversification and biome shifts of plant species in the highly environmentally impacted Atlantic forest of South America. Evidence is presented that climate stability in the south-eastern Atlantic forest during the Quaternary contributed to the

  18. Research on the filter properties of the one-dimensional three sects photonic crystal with symmetrical structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-quan; Tian, Xiu-xian; Wang, Hui-bo; Zhang, Tong

    2008-03-01

    To Construct the one-dimensional three sects photonic crystal with symmetrical structure in the form of (AB) N1 (BA) N2, a numerical calculation is conducted using the transfer matrix method of photonic crystal. It is found that in the main prohibitive bands of transmission spectrum there are extremely narrow single transmission peaks. The changing laws of the transmission peak position λ with the changes of the period quantities N i (i=1,2), the refractive rate n j (j=1,2,3) and the thickness a, b and c are analyzed. It is concluded that they can be approximately considered as linear in a small range and N I = N II = 7 is the optimal period quantities in theory. Based on these characteristics, through the adjustment of the parameters, the light needed is distilled in the mixing light in the range of 2280~2396 nm. The result is satisfactory.

  19. Article 74 sect. 1 no. 24 (air pollution control) as a competent fundament for Renewable Energy Resources Act and thermal energy law; Art. 74 Abs. Nr. 24 GG (Luftreinhaltung) als Kompetenzgrundlage fuer EEG und EEWaermeG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soesemann, F. [Kammergericht, Berlin (Germany); Humboldt-Univ. Berlin (Germany); Ecologic gGmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-08-15

    Since the reform of federalism, no examination of requirement is necessary in accordance with article 72 sect. 2 Basic Law in order to support federal laws on article 74 sect. 1 no. 24 Basic Law. It is in the interest of the federal law giver to legislate the climate protection such as Renewable Energy Resources Act and thermal energy law alone on the basis of the authority standard in order to avoid the examination of requirement. In the sense of the article 74 sect. 1 no. 24 Basic Law, the climate protection is considered as air pollution control and serves to the reduction of greenhouse gases.

  20. Historical isolation versus recent long-distance connections between Europe and Africa in bifid toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Fernández-Mazuecos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to its complex, dynamic and well-known paleogeography, the Mediterranean region provides an ideal framework to study the colonization history of plant lineages. The genus Linaria has its diversity centre in the Mediterranean region, both in Europe and Africa. The last land connection between both continental plates occurred during the Messinian Salinity Crisis, in the late Miocene (5.96 to 5.33 Ma. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed the colonization history of Linaria sect. Versicolores (bifid toadflaxes, which includes c. 22 species distributed across the Mediterranean, including Europe and Africa. Two cpDNA regions (rpl32-trnL(UAG and trnK-matK were sequenced from 66 samples of Linaria. We conducted phylogenetic, dating, biogeographic and phylogeographic analyses to reconstruct colonization patterns in space and time. Four major clades were found: two of them exclusively contain Iberian samples, while the other two include northern African samples together with some European samples. The bifid toadflaxes have been split in African and European clades since the late Miocene, and most lineage and speciation differentiation occurred during the Pliocene and Quaternary. We have strongly inferred four events of post-Messinian colonization following long-distance dispersal from northern Africa to the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and Greece. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The current distribution of Linaria sect. Versicolores lineages is explained by both ancient isolation between African and European populations and recent events of long-distance dispersal over sea barriers. This result provides new evidence for the biogeographic complexity of the Mediterranean region.

  1. Medicinal plants used for treatment of diabetes by the Marakh sect of the Garo tribe living in Mymensingh district, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Azam, Md Nur Kabidul; Khatun, Zubaida; Seraj, Syeda; Islam, Farhana; Rahman, Md Atiqur; Jahan, Sharmin; Aziz, Md Shah

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is an endocrinological disorder arising from insulin deficiency or due to ineffectiveness of the insulin produced by the body. This results in high blood glucose and with time, to neurological, cardiovascular, retinal and renal complications. It is a debilitating disease and affects the population of every country of the world. Around 200 million people of the world suffer from this disease and this figure is projected to rise to 300 million in the coming years. The disease cannot be cured with allopathic medicine as the drugs used do not restore normal glucose homeostasis and moreover have side-effects. On the other hand, traditional medicinal practitioners of various countries claim to cure diabetes or at least alleviate the major symptoms and progression of this disease through administration of medicinal plants. The Garos are an indigenous community of Bangladesh, who still follow their traditional medicinal practices. Their traditional medicinal formulations contain a number of plants, which they claim to be active antidiabetic agents. Since observation of indigenous practices have led to discovery of many modern drugs, it was the objective of the present study to conduct a survey among the Marakh sect of the Garos residing in Mymensingh district of Bangladesh to find out the medicinal plants that they use for treatment of diabetes. It was found that the tribal practitioners of the Marakh sect of the Garos use twelve medicinal plants for treatment of diabetes. These plants were Lannea coromandelica, Alstonia scholaris, Catharanthus roseus, Enhydra fluctuans, Terminalia chebula, Coccinia grandis, Momordica charantia, Cuscuta reflexa, Phyllanthus emblica, Syzygium aqueum, Drynaria quercifolia, and Clerodendrum viscosum. A review of the scientific literature demonstrated that almost all the plants used by the Garo tribal practitioners have reported antidiabetic and/or antioxidant properties and have enormous potential for possible development of

  2. Phylogenetic analyses of Begonia sect. Coelocentrum and allied limestone species of China shed light on the evolution of Sino-Vietnamese karst flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kuo-Fang; Leong, Wai-Chao; Rubite, Rosario Rivera; Repin, Rimi; Kiew, Ruth; Liu, Yan; Peng, Ching-I

    2014-12-01

    The picturesque limestone karsts across the Sino-Vietnamese border are renowned biodiversity hotspot, distinguished for extremely high endemism of calciphilous plants restricted to caves and cave-like microhabitats that have functioned as biological refugia on the otherwise harsh habitats. To understand evolutionary mechanisms underlying the splendid limestone flora, dated phylogeny is reconstructed for Asian Begonia, a species-rich genus on limestone substrates represented by no less than 60 species in southern China, using DNA sequences of nrITS and chloroplast rpL16 intron. The sampling includes 94 Begonia species encompassing most major Asian clades with a special emphasized on Chinese species. Except for two tuberous deciduous species and a species with upright stems, a majority of Sino-Vietnamese limestone Begonia (SVLB), including sect. Coelocentrum (19 species sampled) and five species of sect. Diploclinium, Leprosae, and Petermannia, are rhizomatous and grouped in a strongly supported and yet internally poorly resolved clade (Clade SVLB), suggesting a single evolutionary origin of the adaptation to limestone substrates by rhizomatous species, subsequent species radiation, and a strong tendency to retain their ancestral niche. Divergence-time estimates indicate a late Miocene diversification of Clade SVLB, coinciding with the onset of the East Asian monsoon and the period of extensive karstification in the area. Based on our phylogenetic study, Begonia sect. Coelocentrum is recircumscribed and expanded to include other members of the Clade SVLB (sect. Diploclinium: B. cavaleriei, B. pulvinifera, and B. wangii; sect. Leprosae: B. cylindrica and B. leprosa; sect. Petermannia: B. sinofloribunda). Because species of Clade SVLB have strong niche conservatism to retain in their ancestral habitats in cave-like microhabitats and Begonia are generally poor dispersers prone to diversify allopatrically, we propose that extensive and continuous karstification of the

  3. Report from AmSECT's International Consortium for Evidence-Based Perfusion: American Society of Extracorporeal Technology Standards and Guidelines for Perfusion Practice: 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Robert A; Bronson, Shahna L; Dickinson, Timothy A; Fitzgerald, David C; Likosky, Donald S; Mellas, Nicholas B; Shann, Kenneth G

    2013-09-01

    One of the roles of a professional society is to develop standards and guidelines of practice as an instrument to guide safe and effective patient care. The American Society of Extracorporeal Technology (AmSECT) first published its Essentials for Perfusion Practice, Clinical Function: Conduct of Extracorporeal Circulation in 1993. The International Consortium for Evidence-Based Perfusion (ICEBP), a committee within AmSECT, was tasked with updating this document in 2010. The aim of this report is to describe the method of development and content of AmSECT's new professional standards and guidelines. The ICEBP committee independently evaluated and provided input regarding the current "Essentials and Guidelines." Structural changes were made to the entire document, and a draft document was developed, presented, and circulated to the AmSECT Board of Directors and broader membership for comment. Informed by these reviews, a revised document was then presented to the Society for a membership vote. The final document consists of 15 areas of practice covered by 50 Standards and 38 Guidelines (see Appendix 1) with the first standard focusing on the development of institutional protocols to support their implementation and use. A majority of the membership voted to accept the document (81.2% of the voting membership accepting, 18.8% rejecting). After an audit of the balloting process by AmSECT's Ethics Committee, the results were reported to the membership and the document was officially adopted on July 24, 2013. The Standards and Guidelines will serve as a useful guide for cardiac surgical teams that wish to develop institution-specific standards and guidelines to improve the reliability, safety, and effectiveness of adult cardiopulmonary bypass. The ICEBP recognizes that the development of a Standards and Guidelines statement alone will not change care. Safe, reliable, and effective care will be best served through the development and implementation of institutional

  4. InternationaL cross-sectIonAl and longItudinal assessment on aSthma cONtrol in European adult patients--the LIAISON study protocol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Braido, Fulvio; Brusselle, Guy; Ingrassia, Eleonora; Nicolini, Gabriele; Price, David; Roche, Nicolas; Soriano, Joan B; Worth, Heinrich

    2013-01-01

    .... The 'InternationaL cross-sectIonAl and longItudinal assessment on aSthma cONtrol (LIAISON)' observational study has been designed to evaluate asthma control and its determinants, including components of asthma management...

  5. Estudio taxonómico de Centaurea Sect. Acrocentron (Cass.) DC. (Asteraceae) en la Península Ibérica y Baleares

    OpenAIRE

    López, Eusebio; Devesa Alcaraz, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Se ha efectuado la revisión taxonómica de Centaurea sect. Acrocentron (Cass.) DC. en la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares. Se reconocen 24 taxones repartidos en 2 subsecciones: Lopholomoides y Chamaecyanus. Se aporta una clave para la identificación de los taxones, así como su descripción morfológica e información sobre la distribución geográfica, apetencias ecológicas, fenología y número cromosómico A taxonomic review of Centaurea sect. Acrocentron (Cass.) DC. in the Iberian Peninsula an...

  6. Estudio taxonómico de Centaurea sect. Acrocentron (Cass.) DC. (Asteraceae) en la Península Ibérica y Baleares

    OpenAIRE

    López, E.; Devesa Alcaraz, Juan Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Se ha efectuado la revisión taxonómica de Centaurea sect. Acrocentron (Cass.) DC. en la Península Ibérica e Islas Baleares. Se reconocen 24 taxones reparti¬dos en 2 subsecciones: Lopholomoides y Chamaecyanus. Se aporta una clave para la identificación de los taxones, así como su descripción morfológica e información sobre la distribución geográfica, apetencias ecológicas, fenología y número cromosómico. Taxonomic study in Centaurea Sect. Acrocentron (Cass.) DC. (Asteraceae) in the Iberian ...

  7. Un nuevo híbrido para el género Teucrium L. (sect. Polium, Lamiaceae en la Comunidad Valenciana

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    Peris, J. B.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A new hybrid is described for the genus Teucrium L. [sect. Polium (Mill. Schreb., Lamiaceae], Teucrium ×guarae-requenae [T. gnaphalodes L’Hér. × T. homotrichum (Font Quer Rivas Mart.] from Fontanars dels Alforins (Valencia Province, Spain. Morphological description and illustrations of the new hybrid are provided.Se describe un nuevo híbrido para el género Teucrium L. [sect. Polium (Mill. Schreb., Lamiaceae], Teucrium ×guaraerequenae [T. gnaphalodes L’Hér. × T. homotrichum (Font Quer Rivas Mart.] procedente de Fontanars dels Alforins (Valencia, España. Se aporta una descripción morfológica detallada así como ilustraciones para esta nueva planta.

  8. Taxonomic delimitation and drivers of speciation in the Ibero-North African Carex sect. Phacocystis river-shore group (Cyperaceae).

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    Jiménez-Mejías, Pedro; Escudero, Marcial; Guerra-Cárdenas, Samuel; Lye, Kåre A; Luceño, Modesto

    2011-11-01

    The Ibero-North African Carex sect. Phacocystis river-shore group is a set of perennial helophytic species with poorly defined taxonomic boundaries. In the present study, we delimited the different taxonomic units, addressed the phylogeographic history, and evaluated the drivers of differentiation that have promoted diversification of these plants. We analyzed molecular data using statistical parsimony for plastid sequences (26 samples from 26 populations) and principal coordinate analysis, neighbor joining, and Bayesian analysis of population structure for AFLPs (186 samples from 26 populations). Chromosome numbers from 14 samples (9 populations) are newly reported. Three species can be distinguished (C. acuta, C. elata, and C. reuteriana). Unexpectedly for rhizome-growing helophytes, the vegetative reproduction detected was incidental. The widespread C. elata was found to be a genetically poorly differentiated taxon, whereas the local C. reuteriana displayed geographical structuring. Geographical factors seem to be the main driver of differentiation for both taxa. Despite apparent morphological and ecological similarities, C. elata and C. reuteriana have disparate genetic structures and evolutionary histories, which may have originated from small ecological differences. Carex elata is broadly distributed throughout Europe, and its northern populations were recently founded, probably after the last glacial maximum. In contrast, C. reuteriana is an Ibero-North African endemic, with long-standing populations affected by isolation and limited gene flow. It is likely that high-density blocking effects and different gene-flow barriers act together to delimit its distribution and promote its relatively high population differentiation.

  9. Taxonomy of Atlantic Central African orchids 5. A new species of Angraecum sect. Conchoglossum (Orchidaceae, Angraecinae) from Gabon and Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ječmenica, Vladimir; Droissart, Vincent; Noret, Nausicaa; Stévart, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Recent field inventories and taxonomic research in Central Africa have resulted in the discovery of many new orchid species. Five specimens of an apparently new Angraecum species were collected in Gabon and Cameroon. They stand out for their hanging habit and short zig-zag stem. Morphology of leaves and habit is somewhat comparable to Angraecum cultriforme and Angraecum stolzii, two species from East Africa. Flowers of the novelty share the general morphology of Angraecum pyriforme from which the new species is distinguished by being smaller and with a different lip-spur ratio. Here we show that these five specimens represent a new species, described here as Angraecum lanceolatum. The distinguishing traits include thin lanceolate leaves, convolute distally, with a rhombic lip shape. Dichotomous key to four Central African species of sect. Conchoglossum and a table of the diagnostic characters of the seven related Continental African Angraecum taxa are included here. A preliminary assessment of the conservation status of Angraecum lanceolatum is provided, using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria.

  10. Quantitative genetic analysis indicates natural selection on leaf phenotypes across wild tomato species (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon; Solanaceae).

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    Muir, Christopher D; Pease, James B; Moyle, Leonie C

    2014-12-01

    Adaptive evolution requires both raw genetic material and an accessible path of high fitness from one fitness peak to another. In this study, we used an introgression line (IL) population to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for leaf traits thought to be associated with adaptation to precipitation in wild tomatoes (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon; Solanaceae). A QTL sign test showed that several traits likely evolved under directional natural selection. Leaf traits correlated across species do not share a common genetic basis, consistent with a scenario in which selection maintains trait covariation unconstrained by pleiotropy or linkage disequilibrium. Two large effect QTL for stomatal distribution colocalized with key genes in the stomatal development pathway, suggesting promising candidates for the molecular bases of adaptation in these species. Furthermore, macroevolutionary transitions between vastly different stomatal distributions may not be constrained when such large-effect mutations are available. Finally, genetic correlations between stomatal traits measured in this study and data on carbon isotope discrimination from the same ILs support a functional hypothesis that the distribution of stomata affects the resistance to CO2 diffusion inside the leaf, a trait implicated in climatic adaptation in wild tomatoes. Along with evidence from previous comparative and experimental studies, this analysis indicates that leaf traits are an important component of climatic niche adaptation in wild tomatoes and demonstrates that some trait transitions between species could have involved few, large-effect genetic changes, allowing rapid responses to new environmental conditions. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  11. Application of UV/VIS spectrophotometry and multivariate analysis to characterization of the species of Solanum sect. Erythrotrichum CHILD.

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    Basílio, Ionaldo José L D; Moura, Renata K P; Bhattacharyya, Jnanabrata; de Fátima Agra, Maria

    2012-06-01

    The UV/VIS spectral characteristics of the standardized extracts of the leaves of 22 Solanum species of the Leptostemonum clade were investigated in the presence of shift reagents with the aid of multivariate analysis, to obtain data in support of the interspecific and subsectional delimitation proposed for Solanum sect. Erythrotrichum. Of these species, 20 belong to the section Erythrotrichum, S. paniculatum is assigned to the section Torva, and S. robustum is not attributed to a defined section. The results indicated characteristic λ(max) (absorbance maxima) for each species as well as the presence of phenolic compounds like flavonoids such as 5-hydroxy flavonols. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of the data obtained by UV/VIS analysis of the extracts or the extracts with the added shift reagents AlCl₃ and HCl showed a cophenetic correlation coefficient above 0.92 and the classification of the data into three groups. The principal-component analysis (PCA) revealed that the first three principal components accounted for over 98% of the total variance and showed results similar to those obtained by HCA. The present results supported the current proposal for interspecific delimitation of the studied species and partially supported the division of the section into two subsections. The UV/VIS spectral characteristics along with multivariate analysis appear to be a useful approach for distinguishing among species of the genus Solanum. Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  12. Illumina-based analysis of endophytic bacterial diversity of tree peony (Paeonia Sect. Moutan) roots and leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruixian; Liu, Ping; Ye, Wenyu

    Diverse communities of bacteria inhabit plant tissues and those bacteria play a crucial role for plant health and growth. Tree peony (Paeonia Sect. Moutan) is known for its excellent ornamental and medicinal values as Chinese traditional plant, but little is known about its associated bacterial community under natural conditions. To examine how endophytic bacteria in tree peony vary across tissues and cultivars, PCR-based Illumina was applied to reveal the diversity of endophytic bacteria in tree peony. A total of 149,842 sequences and 21,463 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained. The OTU abundance of roots was higher than leaves across other three cultivars except for 'Kinkaku' and 'Luoyanghong'. The community was composed of five dominant groups (Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria) in all samples. Endophytic bacteria community structures had changed in leaves and roots. Sequences of Pseudomonas and Enterobacteriaceae were prevalent in root samples, whereas Succinivibrio and Acinetobacter were the dominant genus in leaf samples. Otherwise, the distribution of each dominant genus among the 5 cultivars was either varied. These findings suggested that both plant genotype and tissues contribute to the shaping of the bacterial communities associated with tree peony. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Asymmetric introgression in the horticultural living fossil cycas sect. Asiorientales using a genome-wide scanning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Yu-Chung; Huang, Bing-Hong; Chang, Chun-Wen; Wan, Yu-Ting; Lai, Shih-Jie; Huang, Shong; Liao, Pei-Chun

    2013-04-15

    The Asian cycads are mostly allopatric, distributed in small population sizes. Hybridization between allopatric species provides clues in determining the mechanism of species divergence. Horticultural introduction provides the chance of interspecific gene flow between allopatric species. Two allopatrically eastern Asian Cycas sect. Asiorientales species, C. revoluta and C. taitungensis, which are widely distributed in Ryukyus and Fujian Province and endemic to Taiwan, respectively, were planted in eastern Taiwan for horticultural reason. Higher degrees of genetic admixture in cultivated samples than wild populations in both cycad species were detected based on multilocus scans by neutral AFLP markers. Furthermore, bidirectional but asymmetric introgression by horticultural introduction of C. revoluta is evidenced by the reanalyses of species associated loci, which are assumed to be diverged after species divergence. Partial loci introgressed from native cycad to the invaders were also detected at the loci of strong species association. Consistent results tested by all neutral loci, and the species-associated loci, specify the recent introgression from the paradox of sharing of ancestral polymorphisms. Phenomenon of introgression of cultivated cycads implies niche conservation among two geographic-isolated cycads, even though the habitats of the extant wild populations of two species are distinct.

  14. An assessment of the risk of element contamination of urban and industrial areas using Taraxacum sect. Ruderalia as a bioindicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlichová, Alena; Száková, Jiřina; Najmanová, Jana; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2018-02-19

    Central Bohemia (Czech Republic) has highly developed industry and a dense rail network. Here, we aimed to determine the content of risk elements in dandelion plants (Taraxacum sect. Ruderalia) growing near train stations, industrial enterprises, and in the city parks of 16 cities in the Central Bohemian region. The highest element contents in the soils were found in industrial areas affected by the historical mining and smelting activities; contemporary industry showed no substantial effect on the soil element contents. The median values of element contents (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) at the railway station sites were the highest among the monitored sites, where the differences between park and station sites were significant for Be, Co, and Zn. Although the intensity of the traffic at the individual stations differed, we found that long-term regular traffic enhanced the element contents in the soils and, subsequently, in the plants. For Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, V, and Zn, the highest median element contents were found in plant roots, regardless of the sampling site. For Cd and Zn, the contents in leaves were higher than in the inflorescences, and the opposite pattern was recorded for Co and Cu. As and Be were distributed equally among the plant parts. Among the sampling sites, the As, Be, Cd, Zn, and Pb contents in the plant roots tended to have higher median values at the station sites, confirming the results of our soil analyses. We detected a fairly good correlation between soil and plant content for cadmium, regardless of the sampling site, soil element content, or analyzed part of the plant. Thus, we propose that dandelion is a suitable bioindicator of cadmium pollution of soil.

  15. Multiple and asymmetrical origin of polyploid dog rose hybrids (Rosa L. sect. Caninae (DC.) Ser.) involving unreduced gametes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herklotz, V; Ritz, C M

    2017-08-01

    Polyploidy and hybridization are important factors for generating diversity in plants. The species-rich dog roses ( Rosa sect. Caninae ) originated by allopolyploidy and are characterized by unbalanced meiosis producing polyploid egg cells (usually 4 x ) and haploid sperm cells (1 x ). In extant natural stands species hybridize spontaneously, but the extent of natural hybridization is unknown. The aim of the study was to document the frequency of reciprocal hybridization between the subsections Rubigineae and Caninae with special reference to the contribution of unreduced egg cells (5 x ) producing 6 x offspring after fertilization with reduced (1 x ) sperm cells. We tested whether hybrids arose by independent multiple events or via a single or few incidences followed by a subsequent spread of hybrids. Population genetics of 45 mixed stands of dog roses across central and south-eastern Europe were analysed using microsatellite markers and flow cytometry. Hybrids were recognized by the presence of diagnostic alleles and multivariate statistics were used to display the relationships between parental species and hybrids. Among plants classified to subsect. Rubigineae , 32 % hybridogenic individuals were detected but only 8 % hybrids were found in plants assigned to subsect. Caninae . This bias between reciprocal crossings was accompanied by a higher ploidy level in Rubigineae hybrids, which originated more frequently by unreduced egg cells. Genetic patterns of hybrids were strongly geographically structured, supporting their independent origin. The biased crossing barriers between subsections are explained by the facilitated production of unreduced gametes in subsect. Rubigineae . Unreduced egg cells probably provide the highly homologous chromosome sets required for correct chromosome pairing in hybrids. Furthermore, the higher frequency of Rubigineae hybrids is probably influenced by abundance effects because the plants of subsect. Caninae are much more abundant

  16. Phylogeny and biogeography of Primula sect. Armerina: implications for plant evolution under climate change and the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Guangpeng; Conti, Elena; Salamin, Nicolas

    2015-08-16

    The historical orogenesis and associated climatic changes of mountain areas have been suggested to partly account for the occurrence of high levels of biodiversity and endemism. However, their effects on dispersal, differentiation and evolution of many groups of plants are still unknown. In this study, we examined the detailed diversification history of Primula sect. Armerina, and used biogeographic analysis and macro-evolutionary modeling to investigate a series of different questions concerning the evolution of the geographical and ecological distribution of the species in this section. We sequenced five chloroplast and one nuclear genes for species of Primula sect. Armerina. Neither chloroplast nor nuclear trees support the monophyly of the section. The major incongruences between the two trees occur among closely related species and may be explained by hybridization. Our dating analyses based on the chloroplast dataset suggest that this section began to diverge from its relatives around 3.55 million years ago, largely coinciding with the last major uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). Biogeographic analysis supports the origin of the section in the Himalayan Mountains and dispersal from the Himalayas to Northeastern QTP, Western QTP and Hengduan Mountains. Furthermore, evolutionary models of ecological niches show that the two P. fasciculata clades have significantly different climatic niche optima and rates of niche evolution, indicating niche evolution under climatic changes and further providing evidence for explaining their biogeographic patterns. Our results support the hypothesis that geologic and climatic events play important roles in driving biological diversification of organisms in the QTP area. The Pliocene uplift of the QTP and following climatic changes most likely promoted both the inter- and intraspecific divergence of Primula sect. Armerina. This study also illustrates how niche evolution under climatic changes influences biogeographic

  17. Patterns of rapid diversification in heteroploid Knautia sect. Trichera (Caprifoliaceae, Dipsacoideae), one of the most intricate taxa of the European flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frajman, Božo; Rešetnik, Ivana; Niketić, Marjan; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich; Schönswetter, Peter

    2016-10-10

    Polyploidy is one of the most important evolutionary pathways in flowering plants and has significantly contributed to their diversification and radiation. Due to the prevalence of reticulate evolution spanning three ploidy levels, Knautia is considered one of the taxonomically most intricate groups in the European flora. On the basis of ITS and plastid DNA sequences as well as AFLP fingerprints obtained from 381 populations of almost all species of the genus we asked the following questions. (1) Where and when did the initial diversification in Knautia take place, and how did it proceed further? (2) Did Knautia undergo a similarly recent (Pliocene/Pleistocene) rapid radiation as other genera with similar ecology and overlapping distribution? (3) Did polyploids evolve within the previously recognised diploid groups or rather from hybridisation between groups? The diversification of Knautia was centred in the Eastern Mediterranean. According to our genetic data, the genus originated in the Early Miocene and started to diversify in the Middle Miocene, whereas the onset of radiation of sect. Trichera was in central parts of the Balkan Peninsula, roughly 4 Ma. Extensive spread out of the Balkans started in the Pleistocene about 1.5 Ma. Diversification of sect. Trichera was strongly fostered by polyploidisation, which occurred independently many times. Tetraploids are observed in almost all evolutionary lineages whereas hexaploids are rarer and restricted to a few phylogenetic groups. Whether polyploids originated via autopolyploidy or allopolyploidy is unclear due to the weak genetic separation among species. In spite of the complexity of sect. Trichera, we present nine AFLP-characterised informal species groups, which coincide only partly with former traditional groups. Knautia sect. Trichera is a prime example for rapid diversification, mostly taking place during Pliocene and Pleistocene. Numerous cycles of habitat fragmentation and subsequent reconnections likely

  18. Phylogenetic relationships of the silver saxifrages (Saxifraga, sect. Ligulatae haworth): implications for the evolution of substrate specificity, life histories, and biogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, E; Soltis, D E; Hardig, T M; Schneider, J

    1999-12-01

    The silver saxifrages (Saxifraga sect. Ligulatae Haworth; Saxifragaceae) exhibit remarkable variation of substrate specialization, with strictly calcicole to calcifuge species, as well as life histories which range from semelparity to iteroparity. They occur almost exclusively in the European mountain ranges and display high levels of endemism. Sequences from chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal DNA were obtained to resolve phylogenetic relationships among the silver saxifrages and related taxa and to gain insight into the evolution of substrate specificity, life history, and biogeography. The resulting phylogenies suggested that (1) Saxifraga sect. Ligulatae, as traditionally defined, does not constitute a monophyletic group; (2) lime-secreting hydathodes in calcifuge species apparently represent a secondary nonaptation; (3) semelparity evolved independently two or three times in the silver saxifrages and allied sections, possibly in response to climatic changes that occured during the Pleistocene; and (4) narrow endemics, for example S. cochlearis, likely evolved from the fragmentation of the widespread S. paniculata into refugial populations that became isolated during the glacial maxima of the Pleistocene. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  19. Sobre el complejo taxonómico de Teucrium gnaphalodes l’Hér. (sect. Polium, Lamiaceae y algunos de los híbridos en los que interviene [Taxonomic complex of Teucrium gnaphalodes L’Hér. (Sect. Polium, Lamiaceae and some involved hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio LAGUNA LUMBRERAS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Se comenta la variabilidad morfológica de Teucrium gnaphalodes L’Hér. (Sect. Polium, Lamiaceae, a partir del estudio de poblaciones repartidas por toda el área de distribución del taxon. Se concluye la necesidad de diferenciar la subsp. jaennense (Lacaita Rivas-Mart. y también dentro de la subespecie tipo la variedad illerdense Sennen para discriminar ciertos patrones morfológicos con entidad taxonómica propia y reparto geográfico concreto. Se comentan algunos aspectos relacionados con la sistemática y nomenclatura del complejo T. gnaphalodes, al tiempo que se realizan tres lectotipificaciones. Se describe el nuevo híbrido T. × conquense nothosubsp. stuebingii, producto del cruce natural entre T. capitatum subsp. gracillimum y T. gnaphalodes subsp. jaennense. ABSTRACT: Taxonomic complex of Teucrium gnaphalodes L’Hér. (Sect. Polium, Lamiaceae and some involved hybrids. The morphological variability of Teucrium gnaphalodes L’Hér. (Sect. Polium, Lamiaceae are commented, from the study of populations distributed throughout the range of the taxon. We concluded the need to differentiate the subsp. jaennense (Lacaita Rivas-Mart. and the var. illerdense Sennen within the subspecies type, to discriminate certain morphological patterns with own entity taxonomic and specific geographical distribution. Some aspects of systematic and nomenclature of T. gnaphalodes complex are discussed. Three lectotypes are designated. The new hybrid: T. × conquense nothosubsp. stuebingii, a product of natural cross between T. capitatum subsp. gracillimum and T. gnaphalodes subsp. jaennense is described.

  20. Clarifying the butter Boletes: a new genus, Butyriboletus, is established to accommodate Boletus sect. Appendiculati, and six new species are described.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, David; Frank, Jonathan L

    2014-01-01

    The butter boletes (Boletus s.l. sect. Appendiculati) are an economically important group of ectomycorrhizal fungi whose basidiocarps have a yellow tube layer that often bruises blue, yellow reticulate stipe, mild flavor and firm yellow-tinged flesh that may or may not turn blue when exposed. Morphological characters and molecular data (ITS and LSU) place this group in a separate phylogenetic clade from Boletus sensu stricto. Here we establish a new genus, Butyriboletus, to accommodate 14 species of butter boletes that range from Asia to Europe, north Africa and North America. We recombine eight previously described butter bolete species and we describe six new species: four from western USA (Bu. persolidus, Bu. primiregius, Bu. autumnigius, Bu. querciregius) and two from Yunnan, China (Bu. yicibus, Bu. sanicibus). © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  1. [Evaluation of external quality assurance in accordance with sect. 137 SGB V at the Carl Gustav Carus university hospital in Dresden].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Thomas; Steinwitz, Adrienne; Schmitt, Jochen; Eberlein-Gonska, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Obligatory external quality assurance is an established method used to ensure the quality of inpatient care in Germany. The comprehensive approach is unique in international comparison. In addition to the statutory requirement, the health insurance funds require this form of external quality control in order to foster quality-based competition between hospitals. Ever since its introduction, healthcare providers have scrutinised the effects of the mandatory use of this survey. The study was based on all patients in the University Hospital Dresden, for whom a quality assurance sheet (n = 45,639) had to be recorded between 2003 and 2011. The documentation of these sheets was carried out by specially trained personnel. For each performance area, the duration of the documentation quality sheets was assessed, and a descriptive analysis of all quality assurance sheets was conducted. In the presence of statistical significance the so-called "Structured Dialogues" were analysed. Over the whole period, 167 statistically noticeable problems occurred. Nine of these have been rated as noticeable problems in medical quality by the specialised working groups of the project office quality assurance (PGSQS) at the Saxon State Medical Association (SLÄK). The remaining 158 statistical anomalies included 25 documentation errors; 96 were classified as statistically significant, and only 37 were marked to indicate that re-observation by the PGSQS was required. The total effort estimate for the documentation of quality assurance sheets was approximately 1,420 working days in the observation period. As far as the quality of patient care is concerned, the results can be considered positive because only a small number of quality indicators indicate noticeable qualitative problems. This statement is based primarily on the comparison of the groups of Saxony and Germany, which are included in the quality report of external quality assurance in accordance with sect. 137 SGB V. The majority of

  2. Genomic in situ hybridization reveals both auto- and allopolyploid origins of different North and Central American hexaploid potato (Solanum sect. Petota) species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendinen, Galina; Spooner, David M; Jiang, Jiming; Gavrilenko, Tatjana

    2012-06-01

    Wild potato ( Solanum L. sect. Petota Dumort.) species contain diploids (2n = 2x = 24) to hexaploids (2n = 6x = 72). J.G. Hawkes classified all hexaploid Mexican species in series Demissa Bukasov and, according to a classic five-genome hypothesis of M. Matsubayashi in 1991, all members of series Demissa are allopolyploids. We investigated the genome composition of members of Hawkes's series Demissa with genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), using labeled DNA of their putative progenitors having diploid AA, BB, or PP genome species or with DNA of tetraploid species having AABB or AAA(a)A(a) genomes. GISH analyses support S. hougasii Correll as an allopolyploid with one AA component genome and another BB component genome. Our results also indicate that the third genome of S. hougasii is more closely related to P or a P genome-related species. Solanum demissum Lindl., in contrast, has all three chromosome sets related to the basic A genome, similar to the GISH results of polyploid species of series Acaulia Juz. Our results support a more recent taxonomic division of the Mexican hexaploid species into two groups: the allopolyploid Iopetala group containing S. hougasii, and an autopolyploid Acaulia group containing S. demissum with South American species S. acaule Bitter and S. albicans (Ochoa) Ochoa.

  3. Sorting through the chaff, nDNA gene trees for phylogenetic inference and hybrid identification of annual sunflowers (Helianthus sect. Helianthus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Michael L; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2012-07-01

    The annual sunflowers (Helianthus sect. Helianthus) present a formidable challenge for phylogenetic inference because of ancient hybrid speciation, recent introgression, and suspected issues with deep coalescence. Here we analyze sequence data from 11 nuclear DNA (nDNA) genes for multiple genotypes of species within the section to (1) reconstruct the phylogeny of this group, (2) explore the utility of nDNA gene trees for detecting hybrid speciation and introgression; and (3) test an empirical method of hybrid identification based on the phylogenetic congruence of nDNA gene trees from tightly linked genes. We uncovered considerable topological heterogeneity among gene trees with or without three previously identified hybrid species included in the analyses, as well as a general lack of reciprocal monophyly of species. Nonetheless, partitioned Bayesian analyses provided strong support for the reciprocal monophyly of all species except H. annuus (0.89 PP), the most widespread and abundant annual sunflower. Previous hypotheses of relationships among taxa were generally strongly supported (1.0 PP), except among taxa typically associated with H. annuus, apparently due to the paraphyly of the latter in all gene trees. While the individual nDNA gene trees provided a useful means for detecting recent hybridization, identification of ancient hybridization was problematic for all ancient hybrid species, even when linkage was considered. We discuss biological factors that affect the efficacy of phylogenetic methods for hybrid identification.

  4. Contrasting evolutionary processes during Quaternary climatic changes and historical orogenies: a case study of the Japanese endemic primroses Primula sect. Reinii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masaya; Ohtani, Masato; Kurata, Kaoruko; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2017-11-28

    Recent biogeographic studies have illustrated that Quaternary climatic changes and historical orogenies have driven the development of high levels of biodiversity. In this context, phylogenetic niche conservatism may play a role as a major precursor of allopatric speciation. However, the effects of niche evolution on the diversification patterns of plant species under rapid habitat changes are still unknown. Here, Primula section Reinii, one of the few primroses endemic to the Japanese Archipelago, was investigated. This study aimed to clarify the phylogenetic position and relationships of section Reinii, interpret the biogeographic and diversification patterns of this group and gain a better understanding of the role of climatic niche evolution in the Japanese endemic primroses. Dated phylogeny for Primula section Reinii is presented based on the sequences of six chloroplast genes and one nuclear gene. Biogeographic history was reconstructed using statistical dispersal-vicariance analysis. Macro-evolutionary modelling of the climatic niche was combined with biogeographic inferences. Section Reinii was shown to be monophyletic based on chloroplast and nuclear sequences. Fossil-calibrated dating analysis estimated that this section diverged from its sister taxon, sect. Cortusoides, around 1.82 million years ago, and intraspecific diversification occurred within the last million years. This time frame was characterized by Quaternary climatic oscillations and uplift of high mountains in Japan. Biogeographic inference suggested that this section originated at the northern end of the Japanese Archipelago and then dispersed southward to other islands. Models of climatic niche evolution indicated that the closely related species P. reinii and P. tosanensis have contrasting niche optima and rates of niche evolution. Our results highlight that spatiotemporal heterogeneity in the Japanese islands may play a significant role in the biogeographic history of Japanese endemic

  5. The First High-Density Genetic Map Construction in Tree Peony (Paeonia Sect. Moutan) using Genotyping by Specific-Locus Amplified Fragment Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Changfu; Cheng, Fang-Yun; Wu, Jing; Zhong, Yuan; Liu, Gaixiu

    2015-01-01

    Genetic linkage maps, permitting the elucidation of genome structure, are one of most powerful genomic tools to accelerate marker-assisted breeding. However, due to a lack of sufficient user-friendly molecular markers, no genetic linkage map has been developed for tree peonies (Paeonia Sect. Moutan), a group of important horticultural plants worldwide. Specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq) is a recent molecular marker development technology that enable the large-scale discovery and genotyping of sequence-based marker in genome-wide. In this study, we performed SLAF sequencing of an F1 population, derived from the cross P. ostti 'FenDanBai' × P. × suffruticosa 'HongQiao', to identify sufficient high-quality markers for the construction of high-density genetic linkage map in tree peonies. After SLAF sequencing, a total of 78 Gb sequencing data and 285,403,225 pair-end reads were generated. We detected 309,198 high-quality SLAFs from these data, of which 85,124 (27.5%) were polymorphic. Subsequently, 3518 of the polymorphic markers, which were successfully encoded in to Mendelian segregation types, and were in conformity with the criteria of high-quality markers, were defined as effective markers and used for genetic linkage mapping. Finally, we constructed an integrated genetic map, which comprised 1189 markers on the five linkage groups, and spanned 920.699 centiMorgans (cM) with an average inter-marker distance of 0.774 cM. There were 1115 'SNP-only' markers, 18 'InDel-only' markers, and 56 'SNP&InDel' markers on the map. Among these markers, 450 (37.85%) showed significant segregation distortion (P < 0.05). In conclusion, this investigation reported the first large-scale marker development and high-density linkage map construction for tree peony. The results of this study will serve as a solid foundation not only for marker-assisted breeding, but also for genome sequence assembly for tree peony.

  6. When Should Sects be Tolerated?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvithamar, Annika

    2009-01-01

    Jehovas vidners kontroverser med majoritetssamfundet gør dem til et godt test-case for tolerance. I artiklen bruges udviklingen af bevægelsens syn på blodstransfusioner til at diskutere, hvordan institutionaliseringen af en minoritetsbevægelse får kontroversernes styrke til at mindskes, men også ...

  7. Taxonomy of Wild Tomatoes and their Relatives(Solanum sect. Lycopersicoides, sect. Juglandifolia, sect. Lycopersicon; Solanaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild tomatoes are tremendous sources of useful traits in tomato breeding, to improve disease resistances, environmental tolerances, and improved agronomic traits such as increased soluble solids. This chapter includes historical and updated information on the phylogenetic relationships of wild tomat...

  8. Galen. On the sects for beginners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Afonasin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A short polemical treatise of Galen, dedicated to the nature of medical knowledge, is now translated from the Greek into Russian for the first time. Galen outlines the position of two opposing camps in the Hellenistic medicine, the Rationalists and the Empiricists. The dispute culminates with the appearance of the third camp, the so-called Methodists, who claim to have found a position immune to criticism from the both sides. The majority of counterarguments of Galen are directed against this school. The translation is supplemented with an introduction, notes, and bibliography.

  9. A revision of Boletellus sect. Ixocephali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy E. Halling; Beatriz Ortiz-Santana

    2009-01-01

    Taxa included in Boletellus section Ixocephali sensu Singer are re-evaluated and species limits are clarified in a morphological context. In this revision, we recognize four distinct morphological species: B. jalapensis, B. elatus, B. longicollis, and B. singerii. Among these, we have...

  10. Le logement, une secte ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Jezewski-Bec

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La politique du logement est décidément au cœur de bien des controverses, des plus basses… aux plus nobles. Dans cette dernière veine, deux parutions de L'Harmattan offrent en duel une émulation savante entre deux chercheurs en sciences-politiques. Le premier, Philippe Zittoun, se livre à une autopsie du désengagement de l'État à propos d'une politique publique controversée dont il examine en médecin légiste l'extinction annoncée et l'entrée en économie. ...

  11. 78 FR 27065 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Control Techniques Guidelines...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ...: 0 i. Adding the entries for ``Sect .0929,'' ``Sect .0961,'' ``Sect .0962,'' ``Sect .0963,'' ``Sect .0964,'' ``Sect .0965,'' ``Sect .0966,'' ``Sect .0967'' and ``Sect .0968;'' and 0 ii. Revising the entries for ``Sect .0901,'' ``Sect .0902,'' ``Sect .0909,'' ``Sect .0912,'' ``Sect .0913,'' ``Sect .0914...

  12. Four Newly Recorded Amanita Species in Korea: Amanita sect. Amanita and sect. Vaginatae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Sun; Jo, Jong Won; Kwag, Young-Nam; Oh, Junsang; Shrestha, Bhushan; Sung, Gi-Ho; Han, Sang-Kuk

    2013-09-01

    We collected nearly 70 specimens of Amanita species during a diversity study of Korean mushrooms conducted in 2012. In this study, we primarily investigated 23 Amanita specimens belonging to sections Amanita and Vaginatae. Based on sequence data of the internal transcribed spacers and partial large subunit of ribosomal RNA and morphological characteristics, we identified the following 15 phylogenetic species: A. alboflavescens, A. ceciliae, A. farinosa, A. fulva, A. griseofolia, A. ibotengutake, A. melleiceps, A. orientifulva, A. pantherina, A. rubrovolvata, A. sinensis, A. subglobosa, A. vaginata, A. cf. vaginata f. alba, and an undescribed Amanita species. In this study, four of the identified Amanita species (A. griseofolia, A. ibotengutake, A. orientifulva, and A. sinensis) were reported for the first time in Korea.

  13. Novidades taxonômicas em Croton sect. Argyroglossum Baill. e C. sect. Lasiogyne Klotzsch (Crotonoideae-Euphorbiaceae Taxonomic novelties in Croton L. sect. Argyroglossum Baill. and sect. Lasiogyne Klotzsch (Crotonoideae-Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula de Souza Gomes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nove novos sinônimos, um neótipo e três lectotipificações de espécies de Croton são propostos. Além disso, C.schomburgkianus A. P. S. Gomes & M. F. Sales é designada como um novo nome para C. nervosus Klotzsch. Na seção Argyroglossum Baill., Croton argyroglossus Baill. e C. micans var. argyroglossus Baill. são sinonimizadas sob C. argyrophyllus Kunth; C. alagoensis Müll. Arg. e C. floribundus var. piauhiensis Rizzini sinonimizadas sob C. blanchetianus; C. micans var. pubescens Müll. Arg., Croton argyrophyllus var. pubescens (Klotzsch Müll. Arg., e C. argyrophyllus var. villosus Müll. Arg. são sinonimizadas sob C. schomburgkianus e C. argyrophylloides Müll. Arg. sinonimizada sob C. tricolor Klotzsch ex Baill. Croton sonderianus Müll. Arg. é sinonimizada sob C. jacobinensis Baill. na seção Lasiogyne Klotzsch.Ninenew synonyms, one neotype and three lectotypifications in Croton are proposed. Croton schomburgkianus A. P. S. Gomes & M. F. Sales is assigned as a new name for C. nervosus Klotzsch. In section Argyroglossum Baill., Croton argyroglossus Baill. and C. micans var. argyroglossus Baill. are synonymized under C. argyrophyllus Kunth, C. alagoensis Müll. Arg. and C. floribundus var. piauhiensis Rizzini are synonymized under C. blanchetianus, C. micans var. pubescens Müll. Arg., Croton argyrophyllus var. pubescens (Klotzsch Müll. Arg., and C. argyrophyllus var. villosus Müll. Arg. are synonymized under C. schomburgkianus and, C. argyrophylloides Müll. Arg. is synonymized under C. tricolor Klotzsch ex Baill. Finally, C. sonderianus Müll. Arg. is synonymized under C. jacobinensis Baill. in section Lasiogyne Klotzsch.

  14. MOVEMENTS, SECTS AND LETTING GO OF SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neil McLaughlin

    2017-01-01

    ... as a rich tradition they draw on and are rooted in, without feeling the need to be part of a "pure" tradition, set off in some major way, from either mainstream American sociology or the various...

  15. Two new species of Anthurium sect. Urospadix (Araceae) for Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Temponi,Lívia Godinho; Coelho,Marcus A. Nadruz

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Anthurium are described for Brazil, Anthurium cipoense Temponi endemic of the Serra do Cipó National Park, Minas Gerais and Anthurium polynervium Temponi & Nadruz, endemic to municipality of Santa Maria Madalena, Rio de Janeiro state. Both have restricted distributions and studies on their conservation are needed. Descriptions, illustrations and commentaries on geographic distribution, ecology, phenology and conservation status are provided for both species.

  16. combined with caesarean sectIon Low spinal anaesthesia local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-01-01

    Jan 1, 1983 ... injection she was laid flat at 15° left lateral tilt with a pillow under her head. The abdomen was then prepared and draped, and the level of analgesia assessed. Local abdominal anaesthesia was then employed using 0,75% lignocaine with adrenaline. (1:200000) to extend the level of anaesthesia as ...

  17. Nomenclatural notes on some species of Phoma sect. Plenodomus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerema, G.H.; Kesteren, van H.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper deals with the synonymy of five species of Phoma formerly referred to Plenodomus: Phoma astragalina (Gonz.-Frag.) comb. nov., Phoma petrakii nom. nov., Phoma pezizoides (Ell. & Ev.) comb. nov., Phoma ruttneri (Petr.) comb. nov. and Phoma sclerotioides (Preuss) ex Sacc. (in phytopath.

  18. Mycena sect. Hygrocyboideae in the mountains of the Dominican Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Jean Lodge; B.A. Perry; D.E. Desjardin

    2004-01-01

    A collection of Mycena epipterygia from montane cloud forest in the Dominican Republic was found to have one-fourth to one-half monosporous basidia mixed with bisporous basidia. It is described as a new variety, M. epipterygia var. domingensis Lodge, differing from M. epipterygia var. epipterygioides and other two-spored varieties in having smaller dimensions of spores...

  19. New Porcini (Boletus sect. Boletus) from Australia and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling, Roy E; Desjardin, Dennis E; Fechner, Nigel; Arora, David; Soytong, Kasem; Dentinger, Bryn T M

    2014-01-01

    Boletus albobrunnescens and B. austroedulis are described as new species in section Boletus from Thailand and Australia respectively. The former is easily characterized by the pure white basidiomata that stain brown. Boletus austroedulis has a gray-brown, slightly rugulose pileus with hymeniform pileipellis producing pileocystidia, and the stipe is only apically reticulate if at all. These new species represent ancient lineages inferred from prior molecular phylogenetic analyses. © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  20. The Problem of the Influence of Religious Sects on Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budov, A. I.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses how children in the Soviet Union are influenced by their families' religious beliefs and their religious congregations. Presents guidelines for educators to follow as they supplant religious philosophy of children from sectarian families with understanding of the socialist system of social relations. (Author/DB)

  1. The Hippocratic thorn in bioethics' hide: cults, sects, and strangeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Tom

    2014-02-01

    Bioethicists have typically disdained where they did not simply ignore the Hippocratic tradition in medicine. Its exclusivity--an oath of and for physicians--seemed contrary to the perspective that bioethicists have attempted to invoke. Robert M. Veatch recently articulated this rejection of the Hippocratic tradition, and of a professional ethic of medicine in general, in a volume based on his Gifford lectures. Here that argument is critiqued. The strengths of the Hippocratic tradition as a flexible and ethical social doctrine are offered in its stead.

  2. Relationship between locomotory habits and enzyme concentration in sects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KITTO, G B; BRIGGS, M H

    1962-03-16

    The activity of alpha-glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase has been measured in muscles from four insect species. In flying insects the enzyme activity is much greater per unit weight for flight muscles than for leg muscles. The results indicate a direct relationship between muscle levels of the enzyme and habitual mode of locomotion.

  3. MOVEMENTS, SECTS AND LETTING GO OF SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neil McLaughlin

    2017-01-01

    ... and interesting story of the "rise and fall" of the symbolic interactionist (SI) tradition in Canada. It is not really a fall, of course, and Helmes-Hayes and Milne argue that symbolic interactionism in Canada has de-institutionalized, as it moved from a smaller and coherent theory group to a more diffuse and looser social structure, while retaining a broa...

  4. Borreria sect. Pseudodiodia (Rubiaceae taxonomic and palynological contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa L. Cabral

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomy and palynology of the genus Borreria G. Mey. section Pseudodiodia Hassl. are updated. Four species are added to the section, three of them are described and illustrated, raising to ten the number of taxa included in it. Two of them live in Galapagos (B. suberecta Hook. f. and B. dispersa Hook. f. and the other (B. decipiens K. Schum. and B. tocantinsiana E. L. Cabral & Bacigalupo grow in Brazil. Pollen grains of these species were examined with light and scanning electron microscopy. The continental species present the typical pollen characteristics of Pseudodiodia (long colpi and tectatespinulate exine, whereas pollen produced by species living in Galapagos have variations in the exine.

  5. combined with caesarean sectIon Low spinal anaesthesia local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-01-01

    Jan 1, 1983 ... and loeal anaesthetic abdominal wall infiltration for ... tent intravenous ketamine 0,25 - 0,5 mg/kg as necessary. The .... in Table IV. Significantly more ketamine was required by the study group. Factors influencing this are the following: (i) the longer duration ofthe operations in this group (Table V) - this.

  6. Morphological and anatomical determinants of mesophyll conductance in wild relatives of tomato (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon, sect. Lycopersicoides; Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Christopher D; Hangarter, Roger P; Moyle, Leonie C; Davis, Phillip A

    2014-06-01

    Natural selection on photosynthetic performance is a primary factor determining leaf phenotypes. The complex CO2 diffusion path from substomatal cavities to the chloroplasts - the mesophyll conductance (g(m)) - limits photosynthetic rate in many species and hence shapes variation in leaf morphology and anatomy. Among sclerophyllous and succulent taxa, structural investment in leaves, measured as the leaf dry mass per area (LMA), has been implicated in decreased gm . However, in herbaceous taxa with high g(m), it is less certain how LMA impacts CO2 diffusion and whether it significantly affects photosynthetic performance. We addressed these questions in the context of understanding the ecophysiological significance of leaf trait variation in wild tomatoes, a closely related group of herbaceous perennials. Although g(m) was high in wild tomatoes, variation in g(m) significantly affected photosynthesis. Even in these tender-leaved herbaceous species, greater LMA led to reduced g(m). This relationship between g(m) and LMA is partially mediated by cell packing and leaf thickness, although amphistomy (equal distribution of stomata on both sides of the leaf) mitigates the effect of leaf thickness. Understanding the costs of increased LMA will inform future work on the adaptive significance of leaf trait variation across ecological gradients in wild tomatoes and other systems. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Comparison of starches from five plants of Sect. Stenophora Uline and Sect. Lasiophyton Uline of Dioscorea grown in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qian-Qian; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Shi, Yan-Peng; Li, Xia; Wang, Hai-Yang

    2015-03-15

    Dioscorea resources with vital medicinal and functional values are abundant in south-west regions of China, especially in Sichuan Province. However, the resource in this region has received less attention compared with that of the north. D. zingiberensis, D. collettii, D. kamoonensis cv. Emei and Jinfo, and D. melanophyma from Sichuan Province and Chongqing City were studied with regard to the most abundant carbohydrate (starch) to search for new medicinal and food resources. The starches were small round granules or small oval granules and large elongated granules, except D. zingiberensis starch granules, which were disc-like in shape. D. zingiberensis and D. collettii starches showed higher values in total starch content, water-binding capacity and infrared ratio of absorbance bands at 1047/1035 and 1047/1022 cm⁻¹. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis demonstrated a higher gelatinisation temperature required more energy during the gelatinisation process. D. zingiberensis and D. collettii starches showed higher resistant starch content of 724.0 and 693.2 g kg⁻¹, respectively, with lower hydrolysis index and estimation of glycaemic index. All the starches exhibited an A-type pattern except D. melanophyma starch, which showed a C-type pattern evaluated by X-ray diffraction. These results showed that the starches with their low hydrolysis index values possessed potential values as healthy food. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Section 7 of the Atomic Energy Law; Sect. 4 of AtVfV; Sect. 46 of VwVfG NW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The preclusion provided in Section 7b of the Atomic Energy Law precludes the advancing of concrete situations but not the advancing of a theoretical course of events, independent of the prompting incident (only guiding principle). Any substantial modification of a nuclear power plant is subject to authorization under the Atomic Energy Law. It makes no difference whether the modification has a positive or negative effect on the safety level. The involvement of the public in licensing procedures as laid down in the Atomic Energy Law is the result of an effective protection of basic rights provided in Article 2 (2) of the Basic Law. A party affected has the right to claim the annulment of a licence that was granted with an offence being committed against these rights to be involved. The issue of material licensing capacity does not matter in this respect (following the decision on Muelheim-Kaerlich taken by the Federal Constitutional Court on December 20, 1979). A party affected may only reprove successfully the omitted involvement of the public if the essential modification might affect its rights negatively. Arnsberg Administrative Court, Decision of Jan. 27, 1981 - 7 K 74/79 - (not final).

  9. Refuge Begonias : taxonomy, phylogeny and historical biogeography of Begonia sect. Loasibegonia and sect. Scutobegonia in relation to glacial rain forest refuges in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sosef, M.S.M.

    1994-01-01

    Begonia is a genus of + 1000 species and is represented in all tropical areas. In Wageningen, under the guidance of dr J.J.F.E. de Wilde, the continental African begonias are being studied. Continental Africa has some 120

  10. Estudos taxonômicos e filogenéticos em Miconia sect. Discolor (Melastomataceae, Miconieae)

    OpenAIRE

    Mayara Krasinski Caddah

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Miconia é um é um dos maiores gêneros de angiospermas. Tradicionalmente, tem sido considerado complexo e mal circumscrito, assim como outros gêneros aparentados. Estudos filogenéticos recentes, baseados em marcadores moleculares, têm atestado a natureza polifilética de Miconia e suas onze seções. Neste trabalho, é apresentado um estudo filogenético-molecular aprofundado de um dos grupos naturais encontrados em estudos anteriores, o "subclado Miconia discolor", do "clado Miconia IV". P...

  11. Borreria sect. Pseudodiodia (Rubiaceae) taxonomic and palynological contributions

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral, Elsa L.; Eliana Mari; Stella Maris Pire

    2006-01-01

    Taxonomy and palynology of the genus Borreria G. Mey. section Pseudodiodia Hassl. are updated. Four species are added to the section, three of them are described and illustrated, raising to ten the number of taxa included in it. Two of them live in Galapagos (B. suberecta Hook. f. and B. dispersa Hook. f.) and the other (B. decipiens K. Schum. and B. tocantinsiana E. L. Cabral & Bacigalupo) grow in Brazil. Pollen grains of these species we...

  12. La sect. Lonchocarpus del genero Lonchocarpus : nuevas especies y subespecie para Mexico y Mesoamerica

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sousa S., Mario

    2011-01-01

    ...) para Mexico y Mesoamerica. De las 19 especies reconocidas en esta seccion, ocho son nuevas para la ciencia: L. brenesii, L. isthmensis, L. latimarginatus, L. michoacanicus, L. pedunculatus, L. plicatus, L...

  13. Unique genomic configuration revealed by microsatellite DNA in polyploid dogroses, Rosa sect.Caninae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nybom, H.; Esselink, G.D.; Werlemarkt, G.; Leus, I.E.; Vosman, B.J.

    2006-01-01

    An allopolyploid complex with high genomic integrity has been studied. Dogroses transmit only seven chromosomes (from seven bivalents) through the pollen, whereas 21, 28 or 35 chromosomes (from seven bivalents and 14, 21 or 28 univalents) come from the egg cells. Seedlings derived from two

  14. [Analysis of ISSR Amplification Results of Six Species in Sect. Cruciata Gaudin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-ping; Zhang, Hui-juan; Wang, Ya-fei; Wang, Zhe-zhi; Cao, Xiao-yan

    2015-07-01

    To identify and analyze the genetic relationship of four species of Gentiana (G. macrophylla, G. straminea, G. dahurica and G. crassicaulis) recorded as Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, and two other Gentiana species (G. officinalis and G. siphonantha) often used as substitutes by ISSR, in order to estimate the reasonability of G. officinalis and G. siphonantha used as substitutes from the DNA level. Eight primers ivere screened to amplify all the samples and agarose gel electrophoresis were analyzed. NTSYSpc-2. 10E software was used to calculate similarity coefficient and draw dendrogram. Results: Nine characteristic bands were found in different species on the ISSR fingerprints and which could be used to identify five species except G. dahurica. The substitute G. officinalis firstly clustered with G. dahurica and G. siphonantha showed closer genetic relationship with G. straminea and G. dahurica. G. crassicaulis showed a far genetic relationship with the other five species. The dendrogram based on the ISSR data supports that G. officinalis and G. siphonantha can be used as substitutes of Gentianae Macrophyllae Radix.

  15. The timing of molecular and morphological changes underlying reproductive transitions in wild tomatoes (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosters, S L; Jewell, C P; Sherman, N A; Einterz, F; Blackman, B K; Moyle, L C

    2014-04-01

    Molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from genetic self-incompatibility to self-compatibility are well documented, but the evolution of other reproductive trait changes that accompany shifts in reproductive strategy (mating system) remains comparatively under-investigated. A notable exception is the transition from exserted styles to styles with recessed positions relative to the anthers in wild tomatoes (Solanum Section Lycopersicon). This phenotypic change has been previously attributed to a specific mutation in the promoter of a gene that influences style length (style2.1); however, whether this specific regulatory mutation arose concurrently with the transition from long to short styles, and whether it is causally responsible for this phenotypic transition, has been poorly investigated across this group. To address this gap, we assessed 74 accessions (populations) from 13 species for quantitative genetic variation in floral and reproductive traits as well as the presence/absence of deletions at two different locations (StyleD1 and StyleD2) within the regulatory region upstream of style2.1. We confirmed that the putatively causal deletion variant (a 450-bp deletion at StyleD1) arose within self-compatible lineages. However, the variation and history of both StyleD1 and StyleD2 was more complex than previously inferred. In particular, although StyleD1 was statistically associated with differences in style length and stigma exsertion across all species, we found no evidence for this association within two species polymorphic for the StyleD1 mutation. We conclude that the previous association detected between phenotypic and molecular differences is most likely due to a phylogenetic association rather than a causal mechanistic relationship. Phenotypic variation in style length must therefore be due to other unexamined linked variants in the style2.1 regulatory region. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Constraint around Quarter-Power Allometric Scaling in Wild Tomatoes (Solanum sect. Lycopersicon; Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Christopher D; Thomas-Huebner, Meret

    2015-09-01

    The West-Brown-Enquist (WBE) metabolic scaling theory posits that many organismal features scale predictably with body size because of selection to minimize transport costs in resource distribution networks. Many scaling exponents are quarter-powers, as predicted by WBE, but there are also biologically significant deviations that could reflect adaptation to different environments. A central but untested prediction of the WBE model is that wide deviation from optimal scaling is penalized, leading to a pattern of constraint on scaling exponents. Here, we demonstrate, using phylogenetic comparative methods, that variation in allometric scaling between mass and leaf area across 17 wild tomato taxa is constrained around a value indistinguishable from that predicted by WBE but significantly greater than 2/3 (geometric-similarity model). The allometric-scaling exponent was highly correlated with fecundity, water use, and drought response, suggesting that it is functionally significant and therefore could be under selective constraints. However, scaling was not strictly log-log linear but rather declined during ontogeny in all species, as has been observed in many plant species. We caution that although our results supported one prediction of the WBE model, it did not strongly test the model in other important respects. Nevertheless, phylogenetic comparative methods such as those used here are powerful but underutilized tools for metabolic ecology that complement existing methods to adjudicate between models.

  17. SECT Clinical practice guideline on the management of patients with spontaneous pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguinagalde, Borja; Aranda, José Luis; Busca, Pablo; Martínez, Ivan; Royo, Iñigo; Zabaleta, Jon

    2018-01-01

    This clinical practice guideline (CPG) emerges as an initiative of the scientific committee of the Spanish Society of Thoracic Surgery. We formulated PICO (patient, intervention, comparison, and outcome) questions on various aspects of spontaneous pneumothorax. For the evaluation of the quality of evidence and preparation of recommendations we followed the guidelines of the Grading of recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) working group. Copyright © 2017 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Marked hybridization and introgression in Ophrys sect. Pseudophrys in the western Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrim, Helena; Monteiro, Filipa; Sousa, Eva; Pinto, Manuel J; Fay, Michael F

    2016-04-01

    Orchids in the genus Ophrys represent extraordinary cases of tight coevolution between plants and their pollinators, and as a result, they present opportunities for studying hybridization, or a lack thereof, during speciation. However, few studies assess the real effect of hybridization in diversification. The three most representative species of section Pseudophrys in the western Iberian Peninsula-O. dyris, O. fusca, and O. lutea-were chosen to study evolutionary relationships and examine speciation. Using eight specific nuclear microsatellite loci, 357 individuals from 28 locations were studied; 142 of these samples were also studied with four plastid microsatellite loci. Data were analyzed using Bayesian cluster analysis, a median-joint network, and multivariate analysis. Many O. dyris and O. fusca specimens had three or four alleles and were therefore treated as tetraploid. Ophrys dyris is poorly genetically separated from O. fusca, and pure populations are rare. Ophrys fusca and O. lutea are distinct, but hybrids/introgressed individuals were detected in most of the populations and supported by plastid haplotypes. Ophrys fusca is subdivided into three well-delimited genetic lineages with a strict geographic correspondence confirmed by plastid haplotypes. Because postzygotic barriers are weak, leakage in this highly specialized orchid-pollinator system contributes to hybridization and introgression. These leakages may have occurred during periods of past climate change, promoting homogenization and the potential for generations of new biodiversity via production of novel genotypes/phenotypes interacting with pollinators. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  19. A NEW SPECIES OF VOLVOX SECT. MERRILLOSPHAERA (VOLVOCACEAE, CHLOROPHYCEAE) FROM TEXAS1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Hisayoshi; Coleman, Annette W

    2011-06-01

    Smith (1944) divided the familiar genus Volvox L. into four sections, placing seven species that lacked cytoplasmic bridges between adult cells in the section Merrillosphaera. Herein, we describe a new member of the section Merrillosphaera originating from Texas (USA): Volvox ovalis Pocock ex Nozaki et A. W. Coleman sp. nov. Asexual spheroids of V. ovalis are ovoid or elliptical, with a monolayer of 1,000-2,000 somatic cells that are not linked by cytoplasmic bridges, an expanded anterior region, and 8-12 gonidia in the posterior region. Visibly asymmetric cleavage divisions do not occur in V. ovalis embryos as they do Volvox carteri F. Stein, Volvox obversus (W. Shaw) Printz, and Volvox africanus G. S. West, so the gonidia of the next generation are not yet recognizable in V. ovalis embryos prior to inversion. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the five chloroplast genes and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of nuclear rDNA indicated that V. ovalis is closely related to Volvox spermatosphaera Powers (Powers 1908, as "spermatosphara") and/or Volvox tertius Art. Mey.; however, V. ovalis can be distinguished from V. spermatosphaera by its larger gonidia, and from V. tertius by visible differences in gonidial chloroplast morphology. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  20. Asarum pubitessellatum, sp. nov. (sect. Heterotropa, Aristolochiaceae) from Taiwan based on morphological and palynological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chang-Tse; Chiou, Wen-Liang; Wang, Jenn-Che

    2013-12-01

    Recently, we discovered an unknown Asarum from Taiwan which is closely related to A. crassisepalum S.F. Huang, T.H. Hsieh and T.C. Huang and A. taipingshanianum S.F. Huang, T.H. Hsieh and T.C. Huang by sharing a thick leaf blade, spreading perianth-lobes and a conical to cylindrical perianth-tube. We compared it with other related species and identified this plant as a new species. This new species differs distinctly from the above two related species by having larger plant body, shortened rhizomes and an inner surface of the perianth-tube that is covered with numerous simple trichomes (vs. glandular trichomes). The pollen tectum in this new species is perforate, which differs from the incomplete reticulate with small supratectate granules in A. crassisepalum and the compact rugulate with small supratectate granules in A. taipingshanianum. Furthermore, these three species are geographically separated from one another. Asarum pubitessellatum C.T. Lu & J.C. Wang, a new species is described and illustrated. The trichomes on the inner surface of the perianth-tube and pollen micromorphology were the valuable characters in the low-level classification of Heterotropa species in Taiwan.

  1. Begonia yapenensis (sect. Symbegonia, Begoniaceae, a new species from Papua, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Hughes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Begonia yapenensis M.Hughes, in Begonia section Symbegonia (Begoniaceae is described and diagnosed against Begonia sympapuana. The new species is endemic to Yapen Island, Papua, Indonesia, and is currently known from a single collection.

  2. Studies in Mycenas—15. A tentative subdivision of the genus Mycena in the northern Hemisphere

    OpenAIRE

    Maas Geesteranus, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The genus Mycena is subdivided into 23 sections, three of which are further subdivided into subsections. A number of these sections are described as new or proposed as new combinations, as follows. Mycena sect. Luculentae (with the subsections Elegantes, Rosellae, and Pterigenae), M. sect. Polyadelphia, M. sect. Monticola, M. sect. Cinerellae, M. sect. Intermediae, M. sect. Pudicae, M. sect. Rubromarginatae, subsections Purae and Violacellae (of sect. Calodontes), subsections Hiemales and Omp...

  3. The Conception of Anthropological Complementarism. An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Hoche, Prof. em. Dr. Hans-Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    The aims of 'Anthropological Complementarism' in a nutshell(sect. 1). Against a watered-down conception of psychophysical complementarity (sect. 2). Linguistic and logical problems of identity and non-identity (sect. 3). A 'noematic' approach to consciousness (sect. 4). A plea for a pure noematics (sect. 5). My own consciousness as experienced by myself is not a part of nature (sect. 6). The major ontological tenets of mine (sect. 7). Complementarism proper (sect. 8). Suitable and unsuitable ...

  4. Antibacterial activity of some plants from family Apiaceae in relation to selected phytopathogenic bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Brković, Duško L.; Čomić, Ljiljana; Solujić-Sukdolak, Slavica

    2006-01-01

    Water, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of 12 plants from the family Apiaceae were screened for antibacterial activities against selected phytopathogenic bacteria. Following plants were tested: Aegopodium podagraria, Angelica silvestris, Chaerophyllum bulbosum, Daucus carota subsp. carota, Foeniculum vulgare, Heracleum sphondylium, Pastinaca sativa Peucedanum cerevaria, Peucedanum oreoselinum, Pimpinella saxifraga, Sanicula europea, Torilis anthriscus. The antibacterial activities were test...

  5. Stanley Milgram e a interpretação sectária nos textos de Qumran

    OpenAIRE

    Sidney Matos da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho de pesquisa visa a verificar quais fatores psicossociais presentes em determinado ambiente favorecem ou determinam a fixação de uma nova interpretação de um texto ou situação. Tomou-se como base o experimento de Stanley Milgram realizado para determinação dos fatores que impõem um determinado comportamento. A pesquisa comprova a hipótese de que os fatores que impõem comportamentos também estão presentes na imposição de uma determinada interpretação. Para tanto, no primeiro capít...

  6. Antimicrobial Activity and Essential Oil Composition of Five Sideritis taxa of Empedoclia and Hesiodia Sect. from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Koutsaviti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dried aerial parts of five taxa of Greek Sideritis were subjected to hydrodistillation and the oils obtained were analyzed by using GC and GC-MS. A total of 82 compounds were identified and the analysis showed important differences between the samples not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. The microbial growth inhibitory properties of the essential oils were determined using the broth microdilution method against eight laboratory strains of bacteria - Gram positive: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Micrococcus luteus, Еnterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis and Gram negative: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a nd two strains of the yeast Candida albicans. The tested essential oils exhibited considerable activity against certain strains of the microorganisms tested, with S. lanata oil presenting MIC values to S. aureus and M. luteus comparable to those of the reference antibiotics. .

  7. Nitrate Reductase Phylogeny of Potato (Solanum sect. Petota) Genomes with Emphasis on the Origins of the Polyploid Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanum section Petota is taxonomically difficult, partly because of interspecific hybridization at both the diploid and polyploid levels. There is much disagreement regarding species boundaries and affiliation of species to series. Elucidating the phylogenetic relationships within the polyploids is...

  8. Borreria sect. Pseudodiodia (Rubiaceae) taxonomic and palynological contributions BORRERIA SECC. PSEUDODIODIA (RUBIACEAE), APORTES TAXONÓMICOS Y PALINOLÓGICOS

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral, Elsa L.; Eliana Mari; Stella Maris Pire

    2010-01-01

    Taxonomy and palynology of the genus Borreria G. Mey. section Pseudodiodia Hassl. are
    updated. Four species are added to the section, three of them are described and
    illustrated, raising to ten the number of taxa included in it. Two of them live in Galapagos
    (B. suberecta Hook. f. and B. dispersa Hook. f.) and the other (B. decipiens K. Schum. and
    B. tocantinsiana E.L. Cabral & Bacigalup...

  9. Phylogeographic patterns in Leccinum sect. Scabra and the status of the arctic/alpine species L. rotundifoliae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, den H.C.; Zuccarello, G.C.; Kuyper, T.W.; Noordeloos, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated inter- and intraspecific phylogenetic relationships in the ectomycorrhizal fungal genus Leccinum section Scabra. Species of this section are exclusively associated with Betula and occur throughout the Northern Hemisphere. We compared the phylogenetic relationships of arctic, alpine,

  10. A revision of Taraxacum sect. Atrata, a dandelion group centred in the Middle Asia, and the problem of Taraxacum brevirostre

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kirschner, Jan; Štěpánek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 305, č. 4 (2017), s. 225-261 ISSN 1179-3155 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13368S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Taraxacum * taxonomy * Middle Asia Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.240, year: 2016

  11. Sharp at any Age: Moho boundary thickness estimates along a trans-sect through 2 Ga of tectonic history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servali, A.; Levin, V. L.; VanTongeren, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we evaluate crustal thickness and Moho sharpness beneath seismic stations in three different tectonic units of the North American continent: the Archean Superior Province, the Proterozoic Grenville Province, and the Paleozoic Appalachian Orogen. Our analysis involves two steps. First, for each site, we produce P-to-S receiver functions (RFs) organized by backazimuth and epicentral distance, and use them to identify the phase most likely representing a conversion from the Moho. Second, we construct averaged RFs for groups of telesismic events located in a similar geographic region, which we employ to examine shapes of Moho P-to-S converted phases in time series with maximum frequencies increasing from 0.25Hz to 2-3 Hz. At some sites we observe a progressive narrowing of a simple Moho converted phase with an increase in frequency, typical of a vertically instantaneous boundary, while at others the converted phase becomes progressively more complex, typical of a diffuse Moho. Thus, we adopt this difference in converted wave shape dependence on increasing frequency as a measure of Moho thickness. Our estimates of Moho thickness range from less than 300 m to over 2 km, with some locations showing evidence for multiple converting boundaries in the 35-50 km depth range. In this study we define "sharp" Moho at those sites where its vertical thickness is less than 1 km. Our results show that sharp Moho is universal in the Archean terranes regardless of surface lithology, likely due to higher Moho temperatures facilitating wide-spread delamination of dense lower crustal rocks. While a sharp Moho is not unique to the Superior Province, all Grenville and Appalachians sites where we find sharp Moho are in regions of granitic plutonism, suggesting a possible general association with reworking and density sorting of the crustal material (e.g. volcanic arc).

  12. Reticulate evolution in the apogamous Dryopteris varia complex (Dryopteridaceae, subg. Erythrovariae, sect. Variae) and its related sexual species in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Kiyotaka; Tono, Akitaka; Fujimoto, Kazuto; Kato, Juntaro; Ebihara, Atsushi; Watano, Yasuyuki; Murakami, Noriaki

    2014-11-01

    Apogamous fern species are often difficult to distinguish from related species because of their continuous morphological variations. To clarify the genetic relationships among the members of the Dryopteris varia complex, we analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the plastid gene rbcL and the nuclear gene PgiC. We also analyzed the diploid sexual species D. caudipinna and D. chinensis, which have not been included in the complex, but were recently shown to be closely related to the complex in a molecular phylogenetic study. The PgiC sequences of the diploid sexual species, D. varia, D. saxifraga, D. sp. 'protobissetiana' (undescribed diploid sexual species), D. caudipinna, and D. chinensis, were well differentiated and hence designated A, B, C, D, and E, respectively. Thus, the PgiC constitution of apogamous species in the complex was as follows: D. bissetiana, B + C; D. kobayashii, B + C + E); D. pacifica, A + C, A + B + C, or A + C + D; D. sacrosancta, A + C + E; and D. saxifragivaria, B + C. These results suggest that these apogamous species are formed by hybridizations of species including not only the three diploid sexual species of the D. varia complex (A, B, and C) but also the two diploid sexual species D. caudipinna (D) and D. chinensis (E), which do not belong to the complex.

  13. Chemical composition of the essential oil of the local endemics Centaurea davidovii and C. parilica (Asteraceae, sect. Lepteranthus) from Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Antonella; Riccobono, Luana; Bancheva, Svetlana; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Felice

    2014-09-01

    In the present study the chemical compositions of the essential oils from aerial parts of Centaurea davidovii Urum. and C. parilica Stoj. & Stef., both endemic to Bulgaria, were evaluated by GC and GC-MS. The main components of C. davidovii were β-eudesmol (13.9%), spathulenol (13.3%), caryophyllene oxide (10.1%) and (Z)-phytol (5.4%). The main components of Cparilica were hexadecanoic acid (39.2%), (Z,Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (11.9%), caryophyllene oxide (6.8%) and spathulenol (6.6%). In order to compare the essential oils composition of these taxa and of related species a PCA analysis was carried out.

  14. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of some species of Anthemis sect. Anthemis (Asteraceae) from Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccobono, Luana; Maggio, Antonella; Bruno, Maurizio; Spadaro, Vivienne; Raimondo, Francesco Maria

    2017-12-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils isolated from the aerial parts of Anthemis arvensis L. subsp. arvensis, Anthemis cretica subsp. messanensis (Brullo) Giardina & Raimondo and from flowers and leaves of Anthemis cretica subsp. columnae (Ten.) Frezén were determinated by GC-FID and GC-MS analyses. Torreyol (85.4%) was recognised as the main constituent of the Anthemis arvensis subsp. arvensis essential oil, while in the essential oils of Anthemis cretica subsp. messanensis, collected on the rock and cultivated in Hortus Botanicus Panormitanus, (E)-chrysanthenyl acetate (28.8 and 24.2% resp.), 14-hydroxy-α-humulene (8.1 and 5.3% resp.), santolina triene (8 and 5.8% resp.) and α-pinene (6.7 and 5.4% resp.) prevailed. 18-cineole (13.3 and 12.2% resp.), was the main component of both flower and leaf oils of Anthemis cretica subsp. columnae together with δ-cadinene (9.0 and 8.2% resp.) and (E)-caryophyllene (8.3 and 5.6% resp.).

  15. Cupreoboletus (Boletaceae, Boletineae), a new monotypic genus segregated from Boletus sect. Luridi to reassign the Mediterranean species B. poikilochromus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelardi, Matteo; Simonini, Giampaolo; Ercole, Enrico; Davoli, Paolo; Vizzini, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Cupreoboletus is erected as a new monospecific genus of Boletaceae to accommodate the thermophilic southern European species Boletus poikilochromus, characterized by discoloration toward copper-red tints overall, hymenophore forming tiny crystals on drying, a pervasive and long lasting sweet odor and presence of pseudocystidia. Macro- and microscopic descriptions of the species based on re-examination of the type material and recent Italian collections including additional topotypical samples are provided and accompanied by photos and line drawings of the main anatomical structures. In addition, an epitype specimen is selected. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred from multigene molecular analysis based on partial sequences of the nuc rDNA 28S D1/D2 (28S) and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and genes for ribosomal RNA polymerase II subunits 1 (rpb1) and 2 (rpb2) and translation-elongation factor 1-α (tef1α). Ecological context, geographical range and delimitation from closely allied taxa also were elucidated. B. martaluciae is treated as a synonym of C. poikilochromus according to the morphological and molecular comparative study. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  16. Development of Molecular Markers for Determining Continental Origin of Wood from White Oaks (Quercus L. sect. Quercus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Hilke; Cronn, Richard; Yanbaev, Yulai; Jennings, Tara; Mader, Malte; Degen, Bernd; Kersten, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    To detect and avoid illegal logging of valuable tree species, identification methods for the origin of timber are necessary. We used next-generation sequencing to identify chloroplast genome regions that differentiate the origin of white oaks from the three continents; Asia, Europe, and North America. By using the chloroplast genome of Asian Q. mongolica as a reference, we identified 861 variant sites (672 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs); 189 insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphism) from representative species of three continents (Q. mongolica from Asia; Q. petraea and Q. robur from Europe; Q. alba from North America), and we identified additional chloroplast polymorphisms in pools of 20 individuals each from Q. mongolica (789 variant sites) and Q. robur (346 variant sites). Genome sequences were screened for indels to develop markers that identify continental origin of oak species, and that can be easily evaluated using a variety of detection methods. We identified five indels and one SNP that reliably identify continent-of-origin, based on evaluations of up to 1078 individuals representing 13 white oak species and three continents. Due to the size of length polymorphisms revealed, this marker set can be visualized using capillary electrophoresis or high resolution gel (acrylamide or agarose) electrophoresis. With these markers, we provide the wood trading market with an instrument to comply with the U.S. and European laws that require timber companies to avoid the trade of illegally harvested timber.

  17. Development of molecular markers for determining continental origin of wood from White Oaks (Quercus L. sect. Quercus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilke Schroeder; Richard Cronn; Yulai Yanbaev; Tara Jennings; Malte Mader; Bernd Degen; Birgit Kersten; Dusan Gomory

    2016-01-01

    To detect and avoid illegal logging of valuable tree species, identification methods for the origin of timber are necessary. We used next-generation sequencing to identify chloroplast genome regions that differentiate the origin of white oaks from the three continents; Asia, Europe, and North America. By using the chloroplast genome of Asian Q. mongolica...

  18. Genome re-assignment of Arachis trinitensis (Sect. Arachis, Leguminosae and its implications for the genetic origin of cultivated peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Robledo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The karyotype structure of Arachis trinitensis was studied by conventional Feulgen staining, CMA/DAPI banding and rDNA loci detection by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH in order to establish its genome status and test the hypothesis that this species is a genome donor of cultivated peanut. Conventional staining revealed that the karyotype lacked the small "A chromosomes" characteristic of the A genome. In agreement with this, chromosomal banding showed that none of the chromosomes had the large centromeric bands expected for A chromosomes. FISH revealed one pair each of 5S and 45S rDNA loci, located in different medium-sized metacentric chromosomes. Collectively, these results suggest that A. trinitensis should be removed from the A genome and be considered as a B or non-A genome species. The pattern of heterochromatic bands and rDNA loci of A. trinitensis differ markedly from any of the complements of A. hypogaea, suggesting that the former species is unlikely to be one of the wild diploid progenitors of the latter.

  19. Leaf anatomy and histochemistry of three species of Ficus sect. Americanae supported by light and electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Nathalia Diniz; Coelho, Victor Peçanha M; Ventrella, Marília Contin; Agra, Maria de Fátima

    2014-02-01

    In this work the leaf anatomy of three species of Ficus section Americanae (Miq.) Miq. from Brazil, whose leaves and latex are used in folk medicine is reported. The work was carried out using light and scanning electron microscopy in order to characterize these species and to evaluate their taxonomic significance, and also contribute to the quality control of their ethnodrugs. The three species (Ficus cyclophylla, Ficus elliotiana, and Ficus caatingae) showed hypostomatic leaves, anomocytic stomata, straight epidermal cell outlines, and a dorsiventral mesophyll. Some micro-morphological characters such as density and distribution of epicuticular waxes, glandular trichomes, the length and width of stomata, as well as the palisade of mesophyll and petiole outlines proved to be the most useful and distinctive characters for the separation of species. These may contribute as additional support for the taxonomy of the section and for the quality control of their ethnodrugs.

  20. Review of cancer among 4 religious sects: evidence that life-styles are distinctive sets of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, H

    1988-01-01

    The occurrence of various types of cancer have been reviewed and evaluated in 4 religious groups. These patterns have been critically assessed in light of the distinctive life-style features of these groups. All 4 religious groups considered in this paper have reduced overall rates of cancer, suggesting that the life-styles of all 4 groups have merit in terms of reducing the overall risk of cancer. The rate of smoking among these groups is nearly nil, and the lung cancer rate in all 4 of these religious groups is strikingly low. Cancer of the oral structures, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus is also generally quite low. Amish and Hutterites have unusually high rates of breast cancer and juvenile leukemia. Reproductive factors frequently mentioned as risk factors for breast cancer cannot explain the excess breast cancer in the Amish and Hutterite women because they should have had the effect of reducing the rate. None of the numerous risk factors, normally suggested for leukemia, are consistent with this observation. The observations on ovarian cancer tend to confirm low parity and late age at first birth as risk factors, although the evidence is not entirely consistent. Also, contrary to common observations, the pattern of ovarian cancer contrasts greatly with the breast cancer pattern, suggesting dissimilar risk factors. Their low rate of cervical cancer is consistent with promiscuity being a strong risk factor, but other frequently suggested risk factors were generally inconsistent with the observations. Cancers of the stomach, colon, rectum, urinary bladder and prostate, in these 4 religious groups, are not readily explained by the risk factors commonly implicated in cancer of these sites. The patterns of a few types of cancers were consistent with the prevailing opinions of risk factors, but some cancers were poorly explained and, in some cases, the cancer patterns contradicted commonly held opinions concerning risk factors. Religions that provide strong directives for the personal lives of adherents result in distinctive life-style, reflecting multiple disease related factors (risk factors and protective factors). Disease related factors are related to each other in simple or more complex ways (e.g. additive, multiplicative or even more complex). Therefore, when dealing with distinctive life-styles, it may be unwarranted to attempt to isolate individual risk factors.

  1. How to Measure Heat Capacity at Low Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Guglielmo; Perfetti, Mauro

    This chapter is devoted to the description of calorimetric techniques used to measure heat capacity of solids: pulse heat calorimetry (Sect. 2.3), relaxation calorimetry (Sect. 2.4), dual slope calorimetry (Sect. 2.5), a.c. calorimetry (Sect. 2.6), differential scanning calorimetry (Sect. 2.7). Examples of measurements of heat capacity are reported in Sects. 2.3 and 2.4.

  2. To be or not to be the odd one out - Allele-specific transcription in pentaploid dogroses (Rosa L. sect. Caninae (DC. Ser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theißen Günter

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple hybridization events gave rise to pentaploid dogroses which can reproduce sexually despite their uneven ploidy level by the unique canina meiosis. Two homologous chromosome sets are involved in bivalent formation and are transmitted by the haploid pollen grains and the tetraploid egg cells. In addition the egg cells contain three sets of univalent chromosomes which are excluded from recombination. In this study we investigated whether differential behavior of chromosomes as bivalents or univalents is reflected by sequence divergence or transcription intensity between homeologous alleles of two single copy genes (LEAFY, cGAPDH and one ribosomal DNA locus (nrITS. Results We detected a maximum number of four different alleles of all investigated loci in pentaploid dogroses and identified the respective allele with two copies, which is presumably located on bivalent forming chromosomes. For the alleles of the ribosomal DNA locus and cGAPDH only slight, if any, differential transcription was determined, whereas the LEAFY alleles with one copy were found to be significantly stronger expressed than the LEAFY allele with two copies. Moreover, we found for the three marker genes that all alleles have been under similar regimes of purifying selection. Conclusions Analyses of both molecular sequence evolution and expression patterns did not support the hypothesis that unique alleles probably located on non-recombining chromosomes are less functional than duplicate alleles presumably located on recombining chromosomes.

  3. The fate of ribosomal RNA genes in spontaneous polyploid dogrose hybrids (Rosa L. sect. Caninae (DC.) Ser.) exhibiting non-symmetrical meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herklotz, Veit; Kovařík, Aleš; Lunerová, Jana; Lippitsch, Susan; Groth, Marco; Ritz, Christiane M

    2018-01-31

    Dogroses represent an exceptional system for studying the effects of genome doubling and hybridization: their asymmetrical meiosis enables recombination in bi-parentally inherited chromosomes but prevents it in maternally inherited ones. We employed fluorescent in situ hybridization, genome skimming, amplicon sequencing of genomic and cDNA as well as conventional cloning of nuclear ribosomal DNA in two phylogenetically distinct pentaploid (2n = 5x = 35) species, Rosa canina and R. inodora, and their naturally occurring reciprocal hybrids, R. dumalis (5x) and R. agrestis (5x, 6x). Both progenitor species differed in composition, meiotic behaviour and expression of rDNA loci: R. canina (five 18S and 5-8 5S loci) was dominated by the Canina ribotypes but R. inodora (four 18S loci and 7-8 5S loci) by the Rubiginosa ribotype. The co-localised 5S/18S loci occurred on either bivalent-forming (R. canina) or univalent-forming (R. inodora) chromosomes. Ribosomal DNA loci were additively inherited, however, the Canina ribotypes were dominantly expressed, even in genotypes with relatively low copy number of these genes. Moreover, we observed rDNA homogenization towards the paternally transmitted Canina ribotype in 6x R. agrestis. The here observed variation in arrangement and composition of rDNA types between R. canina and R. inodora suggests involvement of different genomes in bivalent formation. We hypothesize that the asymmetrical meiosis arose at least twice by independent ancient hybridization events. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Morphological versus genetic diversity of Viola reichenbachiana and V. riviniana (sect. Viola, Violaceae) from soils differing in heavy metal content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuta, E; Jędrzejczyk-Korycińska, M; Cieślak, E; Rostański, A; Szczepaniak, M; Migdałek, G; Wąsowicz, P; Suda, J; Combik, M; Słomka, A

    2014-09-01

    Morphological characters, AFLP markers and flow cytometry were used to investigate the morphological and genetic variability and differentiation of Viola reichenbachiana and V. riviniana in non-metallicolous (NM) and metallicolous (M) populations. The aims were to clarify the taxonomic status of plants occurring in ore-bearing areas, to determine any relationship in V. reichenbachiana and V. riviniana from sites not polluted with heavy metals, and to examine the genetic variability and differentiation of M and NM populations of both species. Multivariate analyses based on morphological characters showed significant differences between V. reichenbachiana and V. riviniana from non-polluted sites, high levels of intra- and inter-population variability, and the occurrence of inter-specific hybrids. Plants from M populations showed hybrid characters but also fell within the range of V. riviniana or V. reichenbachiana. There were no significant differences in relative genome size between plants from polluted areas and V. riviniana from NM populations. Bayesian analysis of population genetic structure based on AFLP markers distinguished two main groups: V. reichenbachiana and V. riviniana together with the M populations. That analysis also revealed the occurrence of populations of inter-specific hybrids from non-polluted areas. Further Bayesian analysis of V. riviniana including NM and M populations separated all the studied M populations from NM populations. We conclude that plants forming the M populations are well adapted to a metal-polluted environment, and could be considered as stabilised introgressive forms resulting from unidirectional (asymmetric) introgression toward V. riviniana. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  5. No evidence of contemporary interploidy gene flow between the closely related European woodland violets Viola reichenbachiana and V. riviniana (sect. Viola, Violaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdałek, G; Nowak, J; Saługa, M; Cieślak, E; Szczepaniak, M; Ronikier, M; Marcussen, T; Słomka, A; Kuta, E

    2017-07-01

    Viola reichenbachiana (2n = 4x = 20) and V. riviniana (2n = 8x = 40) are closely related species widely distributed in Europe, often sharing the same habitat throughout their overlapping ranges. It has been suggested in numerous studies that their high intraspecific morphological variability and plasticity might have been further increased by interspecific hybridisation in contact zones, given the sympatry of the species and the incomplete sterility of their hybrid. The aims of this study were to: (i) confirm that V. reichenbachiana and V. riviniana have one 4x genome in common, and (ii) determine the impact of hybridisation and introgression on genetic variation of these two species in selected European populations. For our study, we used 31 Viola populations from four European countries, which were analysed using AFLP and sequencing of a variable plastid intergenic spacer, trnH-psbA. Our analysis revealed that V. reichenbachiana exhibited larger haplotype diversity, having three species-specific haplotypes versus one in V. riviniana. The relationships among haplotypes suggest transfer of common haplotypes into V. riviniana from both V. reichenbachiana and hypothetically the other, now extinct, parental species. AFLP analysis showed low overall genetic diversity of both species, with V. riviniana showing higher among-population diversity. None of the morphologically designated hybrid populations had additive AFLP polymorphisms that would have indicated recent hybridisation. Also, kinship coefficients between both species did not indicate gene flow. V. riviniana showed significant population subdivision and significant isolation by distance, in contrast to V. reichenbachiana. The results indicate lack of gene flow between species, high influence of selfing on genetic variability, as well as probably only localised introgression toward V. riviniana. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. Rapid touch-stimulated movement in the androgynophore of Passiflora flowers (subgen. Decaloba; Sect. Xerogona): an adaptation to enhance cross-pollination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Livia C T; Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier

    2014-01-01

    Plant touch-sensitive organs have been described since Darwin's observations and are related to a quick response to environment stimuli. Sensitive flower organs have been associated to an increase in the chances of cross pollination but there are few studies regarding this topic. Here we describe for the first time the kinetic of the androgynophore movement of 4 Passiflora species (P. sanguinolenta, P. citrina, P. capsularis, and P. rubra). For that, we collected flowers and recorded the movement after mechano-stimulating the androgynophore. From the recordings, we described the movement regarding its response and sensibility to mechanical stimulus and calculated the duration, speed, and the angle formed by the androgynophore before and after the movement. From our data we were able to propose a link to the pollination habit of these species. The movement of the androgynophore in these Passiflora is a noteworthy floral feature that might lead us to another astonishing example of a mechanism that evolved among angiosperms to assure sexual reproduction.

  7. Lack of correlation between pollen aperture number and environmental factors in pansies (Viola L., sect. Melanium Ging.) - pollen heteromorphism re-examined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słomka, A; Żabicka, J; Shuka, L; Bohdanowicz, J; Kuta, E

    2018-01-13

    The development of different pollen morphs by one specimen - pollen heteromorphism - occurs in ca. one-third species of the genus Viola. Melanium section species (pansies) stand out in producing the widest range of apertures among Viola species. Aperture number decreases with elevation increase, and faster germination of five-aperturate pollen as compared with three-aperturate has previously been postulated. We re-examined pollen heteromorphism in the context of its viability, and made correlations with elevation (>1500 m a.s.l. versus <1500 m a.s.l.), soil type (metalliferous versus non-metalliferous; MET versus NMET) and chromosome number based on selected study criteria of ca. 20% karyologically and morphologically strongly differentiated but genetically closely related pansies. A total of 79% of analysed species were heteromorphic, forming three- to six-colp or ate pollen per individual flower. Mean aperture number and pollen viability were not affected by soil type (MET versus NMET). Mean aperture number was also not influenced by elevation or species chromosome number. Positive correlations were established between aperture number and pollen viability, negative between pollen viability and elevation (increasing altitude of 100 m decreased pollen viability by 0.4%) and lack of correlation between chromosome number and pollen viability. The varied frequencies of different pollen morphs among species are not under the general pressure of ecological conditions, as previously postulated for the species of Melanium section. Rather, this trait in pansies, similar to other floral characters (e.g. long, curved nectar spur, 'landing platform', posterior petals with nectar guides), is adaptive but dependent on the breeding system (inbreeding versus outbreeding) of the individual species. © 2018 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. Análise de terpenóides de espécies de Croton sect. Lamprocroton (Mull. Arg.) Pax (Euphorbiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Amaral de Feliu

    2011-01-01

    Croton é um gênero gigante de Euphorbiaceae com cerca de 1.300 espécies distribuídas em regiões tropicais e subtropicais da América, África, Ásia e Austrália. O Brasil é um importante centro de diversificação da espécie, com mais de 350 espécies descritas, sendo muitas endêmicas. Muitas espécies são utilizadas como plantas medicinais pelas populações locais, para o tratamento de diversos males, como câncer, diabetes, febre, hipercolesterolemia, hipertensão, entre outros. Mesmo assim, a maiori...

  9. The privilege of producing the own electricity according to paragraph 37 sect. 3 EEG 2012; Das Eigenstromerzeugerprivileg nach paragraph 37 Abs. 3 EEG 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilgers, Hans Anton [Deutscher Bundestag, Berlin (Germany). Bundestagsverwaltung

    2012-02-15

    With the use of the new privilege of private power gegeneration according to paragraph 37 section 3, No. 2b EEG 2012, it is not important who is the owner of the power plant or a power generation plant. However, it is absolutely necessary that the company that uses the electric current, also produces this electric current. For this purpose useful criteria have been developed. In this case, the end consuming juridical person is regarded as a power generator. Furthermore, it is absolutely necessary that the generation of own power takes place in the spatial context of the consumption of own electricity by non-public networks by the same legal person. In particular, contracting models are likely to fail in this.

  10. New species of the genus Bulbophyllum (Orchidaceae) from Sumatra, Borneo, and Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Nineteen new species of the genus Bulbophyllum Thouars (Orchidaceae) are described. They originate from Sumatra (including the Riau Archipelago), Borneo, and Papua New Guinea. Five species belong to sect. Hirtula Ridl., four to sect. Leptopus Schltr., three to sect. Hybochilus Schltr., two to sect.

  11. Sectional rearrangement of arborescent clades of Croton (Euphorbiaceae) in South America : evolution of arillate seeds and a new species, Croton domatifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricarda Riina; Benjamin van Ee; Alex C. Wiedenhoeft; Alfonso Cardozo; Paul E. Berry

    2010-01-01

    Most of the arborescent Croton species in the New World were treated by Webster as belonging either to C. sect. Cyclostigma Griseb. or C. sect. Luntia (Neck. ex Raf.) G.L. Webster. The circumscription of C. sect. Cyclostigma has been treated recently. In this paper we focus on C. sect. Luntia, which was subdivided by Webster into two subsections, C. subsect....

  12. Phylogeny of xerophilic aspergilli (subgenus Aspergillus and taxonomic revision of section Restricti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sklenář

    2017-09-01

    The vast majority of species in sect. Restricti produce asperglaucide, asperphenamate or both in contrast to species in sect. Aspergillus. Mycophenolic acid was detected for the first time in at least six members of the section. The ascomata of A. halophilicus do not contain auroglaucin, epiheveadride or flavoglaucin which are common in sect. Aspergillus, but shares the echinulins with sect. Aspergillus.

  13. New species of Streblus and Ficus (Moraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corner, E.J.H.

    1970-01-01

    New Taxa. — Streblus Lour. sect. Protostreblus, sect. nov., with the single species S. ascendens sp. nov. (Solomon Isl.); S. sclerophyllus sp. nou. (sect. Paratrophis, New Caledonia). Ficus cristobalensis var. malaitana var. nov. (subgen. Pharmacosycea, Solomon Isl.); F. hesperia sp. nov. (sect.

  14. 78 FR 53646 - Shared Responsibility Payment for Not Maintaining Minimum Essential Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    .... Members of Recognized Religious Sects or Divisions Consistent with section 5000A(d)(2)(A), the proposed regulations provide that individuals who are members of a recognized religious sect or division of the sect described in section 1402(g)(1) and who are adherents of the established tenets or teachings of the sect or...

  15. 32 CFR 1645.1 - Purpose; definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... in the creed or principles of such church, sect, or organization. (2) The term regular minister of... embodied in the creed or principles of his church, sect, or organization. (4) The term vocation denotes one...

  16. New species of Podochilus and Trichoglottis (Orchidaceae) from Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiteman, A.

    1998-01-01

    The new species Podochilus marsupialis Schuit. and Trichoglottis tinekeae Schuit., both from Borneo, are described and illustrated. The new name Podochilus sect. Sarganella is proposed to replace the illegitimate Podochilus sect. Eu-Podochilus Schltr.

  17. 77 FR 41874 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... groups meet the qualifications exempting certain members and sects from payment of Self-Employment... religious groups or sects. Type of Request: Revision of an OMB-approved information collection. Average...

  18. 77 FR 27264 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... certain members and sects from payment of Self-Employment Contribution Act taxes under the Internal... for exemption. The respondents are spokespersons for religious groups or sects. Type of Request...

  19. New species of the genus Bulbophyllum (Orchidaceae) from Sumatra, Borneo, and Papua New Guinea

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeulen, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Nineteen new species of the genus Bulbophyllum Thouars (Orchidaceae) are described. They originate from Sumatra (including the Riau Archipelago), Borneo, and Papua New Guinea. Five species belong to sect. Hirtula Ridl., four to sect. Leptopus Schltr., three to sect. Hybochilus Schltr., two to sect. Sestochilus (Breda) Benth. & Hook.f., and one to the sections Cirrhopetalum (Lindl.) Rchb.f., Epicrianthes (Blume) Benth. & Hook, f., and Monilibulbus J.J. Sm. each. Two more species cannot be assi...

  20. Gabor Analysis for Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Feichtinger, Hans G.; Paukner, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    in Hilbert spaces, e.g., the pseudo-inverse of a bounded operator and the central facts from frame theory. In Sect. 3, we introduce several operators that play important roles in Gabor analysis. Gabor frames on L2(Rd) are introduced in Sect. 4, and their discrete counterpart are treated in Sect. 5. Finally......, the application of Gabor expansions to image representation is considered in Sect. 6....

  1. The genus Capparis (Capparaceae) from the Indus to the Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.

    1964-01-01

    This is a taxonomic revision of the genus Capparis in South and Southeast Asia, Malesia, Australia, and the Pacific. In this area, four sections are distinguished: 1. sect. Capparis, monotypic with C. spinosa, 2. sect. Sodada, monotypic with C. decidua, 3. sect. Monostichocalyx in a new

  2. Habits, Priming and the Explanation of Mindless Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2017-01-01

    then argue that this evidence challenges traditional belief-desire-based approaches in the philosophy of action (Sects. 1, 2). I further discuss a recently proposed solution to this challenge, Gendler’s Alief, finding it unsatisfactory (Sect. 3). I conclude by sketching my own alternative solution, based...... on the old story of Buridan’s ass (Sect. 4)....

  3. Molecular phylogeny of Edraianthus (Grassy Bells; Campanulaceae) based on non-coding plastid DNA sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanovic, Sasa; Lakusic, Dmitar; Kuzmina, Maria

    2008-01-01

    divided into three sections: E. sect. Edraianthus, E. sect. Uniflori, and E. sect. Spathulati. We present here the first phylogenetic study of Edraianthus based on multiple plastid DNA sequences (trnL-F region and rbcL-atpB spacer) derived from a wide taxonomic sampling and geographic range. While...

  4. 78 FR 7348 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Exchange Functions: Eligibility for Exemptions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... month if he or she is a member of a recognized religious sect or division described in section 1402(g)(1) of the Code, and an adherent of established tenets or teachings of such sect or division for such... issue of the Federal Register. We note that the statute prescribes the religious sects and divisions...

  5. Evaluation of the quality of picture in studies of sect brain acquired with various collimators; Evaluacion de la calidad de imagen en estudios de spect cerebral adquiridos con distintos colimadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moran Velasco, V.; Prieto Azcarete, E.; Barbes Fernandez, B.; Sancho rodriguez, L.; Ribelles Segura, M. J.; Richter echevarria, J. A.; Arbizu Lostao, J.; Marti-Climent, J. M.

    2015-07-01

    On the practice clinic , the performance of the systems SPECT depends on in large measurement of the quality of image. The goal of East study was evaluate how affect the parameters of reconstruction of studies SPECT of perfusion brain acquired with a collimator of holes parallel (LEHR) and other of holes in fan (Fan-Beam). (Author)

  6. Chemical composition of the essential oils of three endemic species of Anthemis Sect. Hiorthia (DC.) R.Fern. growing wild in Sicily and chemotaxonomic volatile markers of the genus Anthemis L.: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Antonella; Riccobono, Luana; Spadaro, Vivienne; Scialabba, Anna; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Felice

    2014-04-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils isolated from the aerial parts of Anthemis pignattiorum Guarino, Raimondo & Domina and A. ismelia Lojac. and the aerial parts and flowers of Anthemis cupaniana Tod. ex Nyman, three endemic Sicilian species belonging to the section Hiorthia, was determined by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. (Z)-Muurola-4(14),5-diene (27.3%) was recognized as the main constituent of the A. pignattiorum essential oil, together with isospathulenol (10.6%), sabinene (7.7%), and artemisyl acetate (6.8%), while in the oil obtained from the aerial parts of A. ismelia, geranyl propionate (8.8%), bornyl acetate (7.9%), β-thujone (7.8%), neryl propionate (6.5%), and τ-muurolol (6.5%) prevailed. α-Pinene was the main compound of both the aerial part and flower oils of A. cupaniana (18.4 and 13.2%, resp.). Also noteworthy are the considerable amounts of artemisyl acetate (12.7%) and β-thujone (11.8%) found in the oil from the aerial parts and those of tricosane (9.8%) and sabinene (7.6%) evidenced in the flower oil. Furthermore, an update on the main compounds identified in the essential oils of all the Anthemis taxa studied so far was presented, and cluster analyses were carried out, to compare the essential oils of these taxa. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  7. Pemikiran Epistemologi Barat: dari Plato Sampai Gonseth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunu Burhanuddin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper riviewing the Western epistemology thought. The theme focuses on Plato to Gonseth. The Epistemology that referred in this article, is to think about "how humans acquire knowledge?". From this then appear four types of sect modern western epistemology thought, namely: sect of empiricism, rationalism sect, kantinian sect, sect of positivism. Furthermore, the social positivism sciences developed by Comte leaves serious problems associated with the loss of the role of the subject. This problem being the background of epistemology philosophy appears that by Emund Husserl developed through the phenomenology, Habermas through hermeneutics, and Ferdinand Gonseth through critical theory.

  8. Inclusive fitness arguments in genetic models of behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, P D

    1996-01-01

    My purpose here is to provide a coherent account of inclusive fitness techniques, accessible to a mathematically literate graduate student in evolutionary biology, and to relate these to standard one-locus genetic models. I begin in Sect. 2 with a general formulation of evolutionary stability; in Sect. 3 and Sect. 4 I interpret the basic stability conditions within genetic and inclusive fitness models. In Sect. 5 I extend these concepts to the case of a class-structured population, and in Sect. 6 I illustrate these notions with a sex ratio example. In Sect. 7 I give a proof of the result that under additive gene action and weak selection, an inclusive fitness argument is able to verify an important stability condition (2.5) for one-locus genetic models. Most of these results have been published.

  9. Stellar Structure and Evolution: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, C. Simon

    The synthesis of new elements takes place inside stars. How do stars evolve and distribute this creation to the universe at large? This article starts with the observables that the theory of stellar evolution aims to reproduce, and gives a quick overview of what that theory predicts (Sects. 2-3). It presents the equations governing stellar structure and evolution (Sects. 4-6) and the physics of stellar interiors (Sects. 7-9). Approximate and numerical methods for their solution are outlined (Sects. 10-11) and the general results of stellar structure and evolution are discussed (Sects. 12-13). The structure and evolution of horizontal-branch stars, hydrogen-deficient stars and other stellar remnants are also considered (Sects. 14-15).

  10. Theoretical Interpretation of Current Neutrino Oscillation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogli, Gianluigi; Lisi, Eligio

    We discuss the theoretical interpretation of neutrino oscillation data in terms of 3v and 4v mixing. Two-neutrino oscillations, often used to describe experimental results in a first approximation, are briefly recalled (Sect. 5.1). The main focus of our review is 3v mixing (Sect. 5.2), which accommodates both the negative results of oscillation searches at reactors (Sect. 5.3) and the evidence for flavor transitions obtained from atmospheric and solar neutrino data (Sects. 5.4 and 5.5). The status and problems of 4v scenarios embedding the additional LSND signal are also discussed (Sect. 5.7). Finally, we outline the impact of the very latest data (Sect. 5.8). Standard electroweak neutrino interactions are assumed in all cases; scenarios with nonstandard dynamics are beyond the scope of this review.

  11. Basics of Semiconductor and Spin Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyakonov, M. I.

    This introductory chapter is mainly addressed to readers new to the field. In Sect. 1.1 a brief review of the historical roots of the current research is given. Section 1.2 describes various spin interactions. Section 1.3 is a mini textbook on semiconductor physics designed for beginners. A short overview of spin phenomena in semiconductors is given in Sect. 1.4. Finally, Sect. 1.5 presents the topics discussed in the chapters to follow.

  12. Supramolecular structures constructed from three novel rare earth ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    14. Chu Z L 2009 Acta Crystallogr., Sect. E 65 85. 15. Hu D H 2010 Acta Crystallogr., Sect. E 66 709. 16. Chu Z L and Dong H Z 2010 Asian J. Chem. 22 629. 17. Dong H Z, Chu Z L and Hu N L 2009 Acta Cryst. Sect. E 65 m358. 18. Simens, SAINT Version 4 Software Reference Manual. (Siemens Analytical X-ray Systems, ...

  13. Domain Endurants: An Analysis and Description Process Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Dines

    2014-01-01

    We present a summary, Sect. 2, of a structure of domain analysis and description concepts: techniques and tools. And we link, in Sect. 3, these concepts, embodied in domain analysis prompts and domain description prompts, in a model of how a diligent domain analyser cum describer would use them. We...... claim that both sections, Sects. 2–3, contribute to a methodology of software engineering....

  14. Stochastic Models of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezruchko, Boris P.; Smirnov, Dmitry A.

    To continue the discussion of randomness given in Sect. 2.2.1, we briefly touch on stochastic models of temporal evolution (random processes). They can be specified either via explicit definition of their statistical properties (probability density functions, correlation functions, etc., Sects. 4.1, 4.2 and 4.3) or via stochastic difference or differential equations. Some of the most widely known equations, their properties and applications are discussed in Sects. 4.4 and 4.5.

  15. Continuum dynamics and the electromagnetic field in the scalar ether theory of gravitation

    OpenAIRE

    Arminjon Mayeul

    2016-01-01

    32 pages. V4: Introduction largely rewritten and expanded (new Refs.); some information added at beginning of Sect. 2 and in Sect. 5; some redactional improvements in Sects. 4 and 7.; An alternative, scalar theory of gravitation has been proposed, based on a mechanism/interpretation of gravity as being a pressure force: Archimedes' thrust. In it, the gravitational field affects the physical standards of space and time, but motion is governed by an extension of the relativistic form of Newton'...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1770 - Identification of plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Air and Radiation Docket and Information Center, Air Docket (Mail Code 6102T), 1200 Pennsylvania..., 55 FR 9125 Sect .0405 Ozone 05/01/99 10/22/02, 67 FR 64989 Sect .0407 Nitrogen Dioxide 10/01/89 03/12... Nitrogen Dioxide and Nitrogen Oxides 1/1/05 8/22/08, 73 FR 49613 Sect .0520 Control and Prohibition of Open...

  17. Neutrino Sources and Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Vissani, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    In this lecture, prepared for PhD students, basic considerations on neutrino interactions, properties and sites of production are overviewed. The detailed content is as follows: Sect. 1, Weak interactions and neutrinos: Fermi coupling; definition of neutrinos; global numbers. Sect. 2, A list of neutrino sources: Explanatory note and examples (solar pp- and supernova-neutrinos). Sect. 3, Neutrinos oscillations: Basic formalism (Pontecorvo); matter effect (Mikheev, Smirnov, Wolfenstein); status...

  18. Molecular systematics of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae, Dendrobieae) from mainland Asia based on plastid and nuclear sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xiao-Guo; Schuiteman, André; Li, De-Zhu; Huang, Wei-Chang; Chung, Shih-Wen; Li, Jian-Wu; Zhou, Hai-Lang; Jin, Wei-Tao; Lai, Yang-Jun; Li, Zhen-Yu; Jin, Xiao-Hua

    2013-12-01

    Dendrobium is one of the three largest genera and presents some of the most intricate taxonomic problems in the family Orchidaceae. Based on five DNA markers and a broad sampling of Dendrobium and its relatives from mainland Asia (109 species), our results indicate that mainland Asia Dendrobium is divided into eight clades (with two unplaced species) that form polytomies along the spine of the cladogram. Both Dendrobium and Epigeneium are well supported as monophyletic, whereas sect. Dendrobium, sect. Densiflora, sect. Breviflores, sect. Holochrysa, are paraphyletic/polyphyletic. Many ignored phylogenetic relationships, such as the one of major clades formed by D. jenkinsii and D. lindleyi (two members of sect. Densiflora), the Aphyllum group, the Devonianum group, the Catenatum group, the Crepidatum group, and the Dendrobium moniliforme complex are well supported by both molecular and morphological evidence. Based on our data, we propose to broaden sect. Dendrobium to include sect. Stuposa, sect. Breviflores, and sect. Holochrysa and to establish a new section to accommodate D. jenkinsii and D. lindleyi. Our results indicated that it is preferable to use a broad generic concept of Dendrobium and to pursue an improved infrageneric classification at sectional level, taking into account both morphology and current molecular findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. ALIRAN SESAT DALAM PERSPEKTIF HUKUM PIDANA ISLAM DAN HUKUM PIDANA NASIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulkarnain Harahab

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The disseminator and participant of deviant’s sects can be accused as an “apostate” or “murtad”. They have committed “hudud crime” or “jarimah hudud” and can be punished by death sentence or subsidiary sanction. Nevertheless, the sanctions cannot be implemented because Indonesia is not Islamic state. There is no law enforcement towards the participant of deviant sects. But, they are only requested to be mass repented. The argumentation is that the participants of deviant’s sects are only a victim, so the process of law enforcement must be adjusted to the leader or disseminator of deviant sects.

  20. The physics of polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    This course is intended to give a description of the basic physical concepts which underlie the study and the interpretation of polarization phenomena. Apart from a brief historical introduction (Sect. 1), the course is organized in three parts. A first part (Sects. 2 - 6) covers the most relevant facts about the polarization phenomena that are typically encountered in laboratory applications and in everyday life. In Sect. 2, the modern description of polarization in terms of the Stokes parameters is recalled, whereas Sect. 3 is devoted to introduce the basic tools of laboratory polarimetry, such as the Jones calculus and the Mueller matrices. The polarization phenomena which are met in the reflection and refraction of a beam of radiation at the separation surface between two dielectrics, or between a dielectric and a metal, are recalled in Sect. 4. Finally, Sect. 5 gives an introduction to the phenomena of dichroism and of anomalous dispersion and Sect. 6 summarizes the polarization phenomena that are commonly encountered in everyday life. The second part of this course (Sects. 7-14) deals with the description, within the formalism of classical physics, of the spectro-polarimetric properties of the radiation emitted by accelerated charges. Such properties are derived by taking as starting point the Liénard and Wiechert equations that are recalled and discussed in Sect. 7 both in the general case and in the non-relativistic approximation. The results are developed to find the percentage polarization, the radiation diagram, the cross-section and the spectral characteristics of the radiation emitted in different phenomena particularly relevant from the astrophysical point of view. The emission of a linear antenna is derived in Sect. 8. The other Sections are devoted to Thomson scattering (Sect. 9), Rayleigh scattering (Sect. 10), Mie scattering (Sect. 11), bremsstrahlung radiation (Sect. 12), cyclotron radiation (Sect. 13), and synchrotron radiation (Sect. 14

  1. Using a multilocus phylogeny to test morphology-based classifications of Polystichum (Dryopteridaceae), one of the largest fern genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Péchon, Timothée; He, Hai; Zhang, Liang; Zhou, Xin-Mao; Gao, Xin-Fen; Zhang, Li-Bing

    2016-02-29

    Polystichum (Dryopteridaceae) is probably the third largest fern genus in the world and contains ca. 500 species. Species of Polystichum occur on all continents except Antarctica, but its highest diversity is found in East Asia, especially Southwest China and adjacent regions. Previous studies typically had sparse taxon sampling and used limited DNA sequence data. Consequently, the majority of morphological hypotheses/classifications have never been tested using molecular data. In this study, DNA sequences of five plastid loci of 177 accessions representing ca. 140 species of Polystichum and 13 species of the closely related genera were used to infer a phylogeny using maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference, and maximum parsimony. Our analyses show that (1) Polystichum is monophyletic, this being supported by not only molecular data but also morphological features and distribution information; (2) Polystichum is resolved into two strongly supported monophyletic clades, corresponding to the two subgenera, P. subg. Polystichum and P. subg. Haplopolystichum; (3) Accessions of P. subg. Polystichum are resolved into three major clades: clade K (P. sect. Xiphophyllum), clade L (P. sect. Polystichum), and the HYMASO superclade dominated by accessions of P. sect. Hypopeltis, P. sect. Macropolystichum, and P. sect. Sorolepidium, while those of P. subg. Haplopolystichum are resolved into eight major clades; and (4) The monophyly of the Afra clade (weakly supported), the Australasian clade (weakly supported), and the North American clade (strongly supported) is confirmed. Of the 23 sections of Polystichum recognized in a recent classification of the genus, four (P. sect. Hypopeltis, P. sect. Neopolystichum, P. sect. Sorolepidium, P. sect. Sphaenopolystichum) are resolved as non-monophyletic, 16 are recovered as monophyletic, and three are monospecific. Of the 16 monophyletic sections, two (P. sect. Adenolepia, P. sect. Cyrtogonellum) are weakly supported and 14 are strongly

  2. Validation of proton stopping power ratio estimation based on dual energy CT using fresh tissue samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taasti, Vicki Trier; Michalak, Gregory James; Hansen, David C

    2017-01-01

    ) for extracting the electron density and the effective atomic number. SECT images were also acquired and SECT-based SPR estimations were performed using a clinical Hounsfield look-up table (HLUT). The mean and standard deviation of the SPR over large volume-of-interests (VOIs) were calculated. For the six...

  3. Studies in Entoloma—10—13

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordeloos, Machiel E.

    1984-01-01

    Some nomenclatural corrections are given as a consequence of the 1983-edition of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. The new combinations Entoloma sect. Candida (Romagn.) Noordel. and E. subgen. Pouzarella (Mazz.) Noordel. are made. Two new species are described in sect. Griseorubida,

  4. Orientation/Disorientation Training of Flying Personnel: A Working Group Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-11-01

    Subject at or close to axis of rotation i Turntable, manually operated e.g. Ba.any chair FAA converted kitchen stool. ii Turntable, electrically ...accord with the specifications given (Sect. 7e). (p. 23) Sect. 8. GROUND BASED MOTION DBVICES TO MODIFY PERCEPTUAL- MOTO -, RESPONSES TO

  5. Contributions towards a monograph of Phoma (Coelomycetes) VI — 2. Section Phyllostictoides: Outline of its taxa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruyter, de J.; Boerema, G.H.; Aa, van der H.A.

    2002-01-01

    Thirty taxa in Phoma sect. Phyllostictoides, characterised by secondary septation of a variable number of conidia, are described in vitro. Two Phyllostictoides-like species are (re)classified in sect. Sclerophomella on account of certain pycnidial characteristics. Short notes on the ecology and

  6. Two new species of Metrosideros (Myrtaceae) from New Caledonia: dual characterisation with morphology and nrDNA sequence variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dawson, John W.; Whitaker, Anthony H.; Whitaker, Vivienne A.; Gardner, Richard C.; Wright, Shane D.

    2000-01-01

    We have identified two new species of Metrosideros subg. Mearnsia (Myrtaceae) growing on, and apparently endemic to, the massif known as the Roches d’Ouaïème in New Caledonia. Of these two species, we include M. whitakeri in sect. Mearnsia and M. rotundifolia in sect. Calyptropelala. Both

  7. Some new species of Coprinus from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uljé, C.B.; Bas, C.

    1993-01-01

    Four new species of Coprinus are illustrated and described as C. calosporus and C. ochraceolanatus in sect. Coprinus subsect. Lanatuli (Fr.) Sing. and C. goudensis and C. piepenbroekii in sect. Coprinus subsect. Alachuani Sing. (= Impexi s. Kühn. & Rom., 1953).

  8. The rediscovery of Astragalus autranii (Fabaceae) on Mt Tomor, south central Albania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Shuka, Lulezim; Gjeta, Ermelinda

    2015-01-01

    Astragalus autranii (Fabaceae) placed by Sytin & Podlech in a section of its own (A. sect. Baldaccia) was described from a single specimen in the Barbey-Boissier Herbarium at Geneva. Our observations show that its placement in A. sect. Hololeuce would also be appropriate. The species was first...

  9. Advanced Stellar Compass - Proposal for the SMART-1 Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif; Betto, Maurizio; Kilsgaard, Søren

    1998-01-01

    like manufacturing, transportation and storage, in section 10 the requirements imposed by the ASC on the system are given and to conclude we address the financial issues (sect. 11) and we review the ASC specifications against the SMART-1 requirements and provide the compliance matrices (sect. 12)....

  10. NOTES ON MALESIAN FERNS—I On the genus Lemmaphylluin Presl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. DONK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available 1. The genera Lepidogrammitis Ching and Weatherbya Copel. are merged inLemmaphyllum. Presl. The inconstancy of the characters on which these genera havebeen separated in discussed.2. The following new combinations are proposed: Lemmaphyllum accedens (Bl.Donk (basinym, Polypodium accedens Bl. and Lemmaphyllum sect. Phlebodiopsis(Moore Donk (basinym, Pleopeltis sect. Phlebodiopsis Moore.

  11. Studies in Mycenas—15. A tentative subdivision of the genus Mycena in the northern Hemisphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas Geesteranus, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The genus Mycena is subdivided into 23 sections, three of which are further subdivided into subsections. A number of these sections are described as new or proposed as new combinations, as follows. Mycena sect. Luculentae (with the subsections Elegantes, Rosellae, and Pterigenae), M. sect.

  12. Boko Haram and Renascent Clogs in Muslim-Christian Relations in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The paper identified the Boko Haram Islamic sect's ideology and onslaught on the Nigerian state and Christians in particular as set back on the fragile relationship between Muslims and Christians. The sect regenerate clogs of fundamental division, intolerance and fanaticism. Consequently, the Nigerian religious ...

  13. PTC

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ruqaiya Hussain

    2013-07-25

    Jul 25, 2013 ... They belong to two major sects: Sunnis and Shias, each sect has different endogamous groups, grouped under Ashraf and Ajlaf [4]. The former is comprised of higher rank Muslims like Syeds, Sheikhs, Pathans and. Mughals while the latter is comprised of Ansaris, Qureshis and Saifis. A large number of the ...

  14. RELIGIOUS REVITALIZATION IN MALA WI: THE AFRICAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I:.1etimes to distinguish between the different sets of movements in this category. The Catholic Archbishop of Blantyre, the most Reverend Jam es Chiona, in a circular to the Catholic Christians in his Archdiocese, writes;. As you all know, a sect called Makolo has been introduced over here. This sect follows pagan practices.

  15. Mario Bunge's Scientific Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents and comments on Mario Bunge's scientific realism. After a brief introduction in Sects. 1 and 2 outlines Bunge's conception of realism. Focusing on the case of quantum mechanics, Sect. 3 explores how his approach plays out for problematic theories. Section 4 comments on Bunge's project against the background of the current…

  16. Intra- and inter-observer agreement and reliability of bone mineral density measurements around acetabular cup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo Redder; Overgaard, Soren; Torfing, Trine

    2017-01-01

    with single-energy CT (SECT) and DECT in cemented and cementless cups.Material and Methods: Twenty-four acetabular cups inserted in porcine hip specimens were scanned with SECT and DECT. Bone density was measured in a three-dimensional volume adjacent to the cup. Double measurements were performed.......Results: BMD derived from SECT was approximately four times higher than that of DECT. In both scan modes, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was >0.90 with no differences between repeated measurements, except for uncemented cups where a statistically significant difference of 11 mg/cm3 was found...... with DECT. DECT showed narrower limits of agreement than SECT. Inter-observer analysis showed small differences.Conclusion: BMD can be estimated with high intra- and inter-observer reliability with SECT and DECT around acetabular cups using custom software. The intra- and inter-observer agreement of DECT...

  17. Single- and dual-energy quantitative CT adjacent to acetabular prosthetic components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo Redder; Andersen, Poul Erik; Torfing, Trine

    2017-01-01

    and to compare BMD measurements in single and dual energy CT (SECT and DECT). Methods and Materials: 10 male patients with uncemented hip prosthetics were scanned and rescanned using 120 kVp SECT and DECT with virtual monochromatic images reconstructed at 130 keV. Hemispherical ROIs were defined slice......-by-slice and bone mineral density was calculated using a calibration phantom. Median time between ROI drawings was 6 days. Results: The mean BMD for repeated SECT scans was 430 mg/ccm with a between scan difference of 18 mg/ccm, p=0.001. ICC was 0.98 (95%CI: 0.73 to 1). For DECT the mean BMD was 162 mg....../ccm with a difference of 11 mg/ccm, pSECT and -30 to 7 in DECT. Repeatability coefficients were 33 and 18 mg/ccm for SECT and DECT respectively. The difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The intraobserver...

  18. Sitnikov cyclic configuration of N+1-body problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbaz Ullah, M.; Hassan, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    This manuscript deals with the generalisation of all previous works on series solutions and linear stability of equilibrium points of the Sitnikov problem. Following Giacaglia (1967), in Sect. 2 we have derived the equation of motion of the infinitesimal mass moving along the z-axis about which the plane of motion is rotating with unit angular velocity. In Sects. 3, 4 and 5 the series solutions of the Sitnikov problem have been developed by the method of MacMillan, Lindstedt-Poincaré and iteration of Green's function respectively. In Sect. 6 the three series solutions have been compared graphically by putting N=2, 3, 4. In Sect. 7 the coordinates of equilibrium points have been calculated. In Sect. 8 the linear stability of equilibrium points has been examined by the method of Murray and Dermott (Solar System Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1999) and it was found that the equilibrium points are stable in Sitnikov problem.

  19. Electrical and Thermal Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Guglielmo; Perfetti, Mauro

    After a Sect. 1.1 devoted to electrical conductivity and a section that deals with magnetic and dielectric losses ( 1.2 ), this chapter explores the theory of thermal conduction in solids. The examined categories of solids are: metals Sect. 1.3.2 , Dielectrics Sects. 1.3.3 and 1.3.4 and Nanocomposites Sect. 1.3.5 . In Sect. 1.3.6 the problem of thermal and electrical contact between materials is considered because contact resistance occurring at conductor joints in magnets or other high power applications can lead to undesirable electrical losses. At low temperature, thermal contact is also critical in the mounting of temperature sensors, where bad contacts can lead to erroneous results, in particular when superconductivity phenomena are involved.

  20. Phylogeny and intraspecific variability of holoparasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) inferred from plastid rbcL sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manen, Jean-François; Habashi, Christine; Jeanmonod, Daniel; Park, Jeong-Mi; Schneeweiss, Gerald M

    2004-11-01

    The rbcL sequences of 106 specimens representing 28 species of the four recognized sections of Orobanche were analyzed and compared. Most sequences represent pseudogenes with premature stop codons. This study confirms that the American lineage (sects. Gymnocaulis and Myzorrhiza) contains potentially functional rbcL-copies with intact open reading frames and low rates of non-synonymous substitutions. For the first time, this is also shown for a member of the Eurasian lineage, O. coerulescens of sect. Orobanche, while all other investigated species of sects. Orobanche and Trionychon contain pseudogenes with distorted reading frames and significantly higher rates of non-synonymous substitutions. Phylogenetic analyses of the rbcL sequences give equivocal results concerning the monophyly of Orobanche, and the American lineage might be more closely related to Boschniakia and Cistanche than to the other sections of Orobanche. Additionally, species of sect. Trionychon phylogenetically nest in sect. Orobanche. This is in concordance with results from other plastid markers (rps2 and matK), but in disagreement with other molecular (nuclear ITS), morphological, and karyological data. This might indicate that the ancestor of sect. Trionychon has captured the plastid genome, or parts of it, of a member of sect. Orobanche. Apart from the phylogenetically problematic position of sect. Trionychon, the phylogenetic relationships within sect. Orobanche are similar to those inferred from nuclear ITS data and are close to the traditional groupings traditionally recognized based on morphology. The intraspecific variation of rbcL is low and is neither correlated with intraspecific morphological variability nor with host range. Ancestral character reconstruction using parsimony suggests that the ancestor of O. sect. Orobanche had a narrow host range.

  1. New technical aspects for operators of photovoltaic power plants {<=} 30 kWp according to paragraph 6 sect. 2 No. 2 EEG. A critical evaluation; Neue technische Vorgaben fuer Betreiber von PV-Anlagen {<=} 30 kWp gem. paragraph 6 Abs. 2 Nr. 2 EEG. Eine kritische Betrachtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmelzer, Knut [Jena Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiewirtschaftsrecht; Schneidewindt, Holger [Verbraucherzentrale NRW (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    It is narrow in some German powerdistribution networks, especially in the southern Germany, where the sun appears frequently and extensively. And it gets even more closely. With the expansion of the technical requirements in paragraph 6, paragraph 2, No. 2 EEG (Renewable Energy Law) as a prerequisite for ensuring the network stability, since 1st January, 2012, the legislature responds to the plant growths of the recent years. Not always with a sense of proportion and under acceptance of a great legal uncertainty.

  2. Chromosome numbers and karyotype evolution in holoparasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeweiss, G.M.; Palomeque, T.; Colwell, A.E.; Weiss-Schneeweiss, H.

    2004-01-01

    Chromosome numbers and karyotypes of species of Orobanche, Cistanche, and Diphelypaea (Orobanchaceae) were investigated, and 108 chromosome counts of 53 taxa, 19 counted for the first time, are presented with a thorough compilation of previously published data. Additionally, karyotypes of representatives of these genera, including Orobanche sects. Orobanche and Trionychon, are reported. Cistanche (x = 20) has large meta- to submetacentric chromosomes, while those of Diphelypaea (x = 19) are medium-sized submeta-to acrocentrics. Within three analyzed sections of Orobanche, sects. Myzorrhiza (x = 24) and Trionychon (x = 12) possess medium-sized submeta- to acrocentrics, while sect. Orobanche (x = 19) has small, mostly meta- to submetacentric, chromosomes. Polyploidy is unevenly distributed in Orobanche and restricted to a few lineages, e.g., O. sect. Myzorrhiza or Orobanche gracilis and its relatives (sect. Orobanche). The distribution of basic chromosome numbers supports the groups found by molecular phylogenetic analyses: Cistanche has x = 20, the Orobanche-group (Orobanche sect. Orobanche, Diphelypaea) has x = 19, and the Phelipanche-group (Orobanche sects. Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Trionychon) has x = 12, 24. A model of chromosome number evolution in Orobanche and related genera is presented: from two ancestral base numbers, xh = 5 and xh = 6, independent polyploidizations led to x = 20 (Cistanche) and (after dysploidization) x = 19 (Orobanche-group) and to x = 12 and x = 24 (Phelipanche-group), respectively.

  3. A revision of the Dulcamaroid Clade of Solanum L. (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Knapp

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Dulcamaroid clade of Solanum contains 45 species of mostly vining or weakly scandent species, including the common circumboreal weed Solanum dulcamara L. The group comprises members of the previously recognised infrageneric groupings sect. Andropedas Rusby, sect. Californisolanum A. Child, sect. Dulcamara (Moench Dumort., sect. Holophylla (G.Don Walp., sect. Jasminosolanum (Bitter Seithe, sect. Lysiphellos (Bitter Seithe, subsect. Nitidum A.Child and sect. Subdulcamara Dunal. These infrageneric groups are not monophyletic as traditionally recognised, and the complex history of the classification of the dulcamaroid solanums is reviewed. Many of the species in the clade are quite variable morphologically; plants are shrubs, herbaceous vines or woody canopy lianas, and habits can vary between these states in a single locality. Variation in leaf shape and pubescence density and type is also extreme and has lead to the description of many minor morphological variants as distinct species. The flowers of members of the group are generally very showy, and several species (e.g., S. crispum Ruiz & Pav., S. laxum Spreng., S. seaforthianum Andrews are popular ornamental plants that have occasionally escaped from cultivation and become naturalised. The clade is here divided into five morphologically and geographically delimited species groups to facilitate further study. One new species from southern Ecuador, Solanum agnoston S.Knapp sp. nov., is described here. Full descriptions and synonymies (including designations of lectotypes or neotypes, preliminary conservation assessments, illustrations, distribution maps, and an extensive list of localities are provided for all species.

  4. Gravitational wave astronomy: the current status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, ChunNong; Wen, LinQing; Chu, Qi; Fang, Qi; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Reitze, David H.; Arai, Koji; Zhang, Fan; Flaminio, Raffaele; Zhu, XingJiang; Hobbs, George; Manchester, Richard N.; Shannon, Ryan M.; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Gao, Wei; Xu, Peng; Bian, Xing; Cao, ZhouJian; Chang, ZiJing; Dong, Peng; Gong, XueFei; Huang, ShuangLin; Ju, Peng; Luo, ZiRen; Qiang, Li'E.; Tang, WenLin; Wan, XiaoYun; Wang, Yue; Xu, ShengNian; Zang, YunLong; Zhang, HaiPeng; Lau, Yun-Kau; Ni, Wei-Tou

    2015-12-01

    In the centenary year of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, this paper reviews the current status of gravitational wave astronomy across a spectrum which stretches from attohertz to kilohertz frequencies. Sect. 1 of this paper reviews the historical development of gravitational wave astronomy from Einstein's first prediction to our current understanding the spectrum. It is shown that detection of signals in the audio frequency spectrum can be expected very soon, and that a north-south pair of next generation detectors would provide large scientific benefits. Sect. 2 reviews the theory of gravitational waves and the principles of detection using laser interferometry. The state of the art Advanced LIGO detectors are then described. These detectors have a high chance of detecting the first events in the near future. Sect. 3 reviews the KAGRA detector currently under development in Japan, which will be the first laser interferometer detector to use cryogenic test masses. Sect. 4 of this paper reviews gravitational wave detection in the nanohertz frequency band using the technique of pulsar timing. Sect. 5 reviews the status of gravitational wave detection in the attohertz frequency band, detectable in the polarisation of the cosmic microwave background, and discusses the prospects for detection of primordial waves from the big bang. The techniques described in sects. 1-5 have already placed significant limits on the strength of gravitational wave sources. Sects. 6 and 7 review ambitious plans for future space based gravitational wave detectors in the millihertz frequency band. Sect. 6 presents a roadmap for development of space based gravitational wave detectors by China while sect. 7 discusses a key enabling technology for space interferometry known as time delay interferometry.

  5. Hieracium sinoaestivum (Asteraceae, a new species from North China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Sennikov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hieracium sinoaestivum Sennikov sp. nov. is described as new to science and illustrated. This presumably apomictic species is solely known from two old collections made in a single locality in the Shanxi Province of China. It belongs to the hybridogenous group H. sect. Aestiva (H. sect. Prenanthoidea × H. sect. Umbellata and is most similar to H. veresczaginii from southern Siberia. The new species occurs at low altitudes in the forest belt of Lülian Mts. and belongs to taiga forest elements.

  6. Circumscription and synopsis of Eugenia section Speciosae Bünger & Mazine (Myrtaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Bünger, Mariana; Mazine, Fiorella Fernanda; Lucas, Eve J.; Stehmann, João Renato

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new section of Eugenia (Myrtaceae) is described, segregate from Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx. Phylogenetic studies suggest that Eugenia sect. Phyllocalyx as traditionally delimited is paraphyletic. To maintain the monophyly of each of the sections in Eugenia s.l., we herein opt to circumscribe a new section and recognize six taxa in sect. Speciosae, which has a distribution mostly in southeastern Brazil and northern South America. Nomenclatural notes are made and a taxonomic key is provided for the species of the section. PMID:27081351

  7. The nordic perspective on early childhood education and care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broström, Stig; Einarsdóttir, Johanna; Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid

    2018-01-01

    reflects the positive view of society with regard to ECEC. Then in Sect. 45.5, basic educational ideas are introduced, and for each country, there is an account of how early childhood services and education have progressed during recent decades. In continuation of this, Sect. 45.6 presents details from...... the development of curricula in each Nordic country during the last two decades. Subsequently, in Sect. 45.7, we focus on some current as also as upcoming tasks and problems related to children’s learning and development, which are also related to the question of ECEC Didaktik....

  8. Taxonomic re-evaluation of species in Talaromyces section Islandici, using a polyphasic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yilmaz, N.; Visagie, C. M.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomy of Talaromyces rugulosus, T. wortmannii and closely related species, classified in Talaromyces sect. Islandici, is reviewed in this paper. The species of Talaromyces sect. Islandici have restricted growth on MEA and CYA, generally have yellow mycelia and produce rugulosin and/or skyrin....... They are important in biotechnology (e.g. T. rugulosus, T. wortmannii) and in medicine (e.g. T. piceus, T. radicus). The taxonomy of sect. Islandici was resolved using a combination of morphological, extrolite and phylogenetic data, using the Genealogical Concordance Phylogenetic Species Recognition (GCPSR) concept...

  9. Hegel's phenomenology of rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huggler, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    , although the various materials that he considers are not linked in a simple, compelling logical way. The paper discusses what Hegel aimed at and the methods he used to reach his goal (sect. 1). These considerations are then used to cast an eye on the development of the contents of the book (sect. 2). Last......, the paper presents a metaphysical interpretation of the course of experiences and discusses why Hegel's sceptical method is adequate to the metaphysics of spirit with which the book concludes (sect. 3)....

  10. A Scalable Prescriptive Parallel Debugging Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nicklas Bo; Quarfot Nielsen, Niklas; Lee, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    and test their debugging intuition in a way that helps to reduce the error space. Based on this debugging model we introduce a prototype implementation embodying this model, the DySectAPI, allowing programmers to construct probe trees for automatic, event-driven debugging at scale. In this paper we...... introduce the concepts behind DySectAPI and, using both experimental results and analytical modelling, we show that the DySectAPI implementation can run with a low overhead on current systems. We achieve a logarithmic scaling of the prototype and show predictions that even for a large system the overhead...

  11. Moment Maps, Scalar Curvature and Quantization of Kähler Manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arezzo, Claudio; Loi, Andrea

    Building on Donaldson's work on constant scalar curvature metrics, we study the space of regular Kähler metrics Eω, i.e. those for which deformation quantization has been defined by Cahen, Gutt and Rawnsley. After giving, in Sects. 2 and 3 a review of Donaldson's moment map approach, we study the ``essential'' uniqueness of balanced basis (i.e. of coherent states) in a more general setting (Theorem 2.5). We then study the space Eω in Sect.4 and we show in Sect.5 how all the tools needed can be defined also in the case of non-compact manifolds.

  12. Les amas de galaxies : une sonde pour l'évolution des galaxies et la cosmologie

    OpenAIRE

    Martinet, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents some recent results concerning galaxy evolution and cosmology,based on the observation of galaxy clusters at optical wavelengths. We first introduce the main properties of galaxy clusters (Sect. 1.1) and how they can be used for cosmology within the standard cosmological model (Sect. 1.2). A large fraction of the presented results comes from the study of the DAFT/FADA galaxy cluster survey at redshifts 0.4 < z < 0.9 (Sect. 1.3). We divide our study in two parts according ...

  13. Swainsonine biosynthesis genes in diverse symbiotic and pathogenic fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swainsonine, a cytotoxic fungal alkaloid and a potential cancer therapy drug, is produced by the insect pathogen and plant symbiont, Metarhizium robertsii, the clover pathogen Slafractonia leguminicola, locoweed symbionts belonging to Alternaria sect. Undifilum, and a recently discovered morning glo...

  14. Fine structure of endogenous stages of Eimeria turcicus developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-05-06

    ANDERSEN, A.,. HUTCHINSON, W.M. & SlIM, J. Chr. 1977b. Ultrastructural studies on the endogenous development of. Eimeria brunetti IV. Formation and structure of the oocyst wall. Acta path. microbiol. scand. Sect. B 85: 201-211.

  15. The built environment, neighborhood safety, and physical activity among low-income children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that environmental factors are related to physical activity and active modes of transportation. There is a separate body of research that links neighborhood safety to physical activity. This study used a cross sect...

  16. 77 FR 35379 - Notice of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ...-Hold for Ethyl 1- Citrus. naphthaleneacetate. 010088-00086 Flying Insect d-trans-Chrysanthemum Killer... Chem-Tech Dy-Sect d-trans-Chrysanthemum Spray. monocarboxylic ester of dl-2-allyl-4- hydroxy-3-methyl-2...

  17. 77 FR 56202 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ...-trans-Chrysanthemum Killer. monocarboxylic ester of dl-2-allyl-4-hydroxy-3- methyl-2-cyclopenten-1- one... o)-1,2-ethanediyl dichloride). 047000-00085 Chem-Tech Dy-Sect d-trans-Chrysanthemum Spray...

  18. Data mining the Kansas traffic-crash database : summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Traffic crashes results from the interaction of different parameters which includes highway geometrics, traffic : characteristics and human factors. Geometric variables include number of lanes, lane width, median width, shoulder : width, roadway sect...

  19. SNAKEBITE MANAGEMENT: Experiences From Gulu Regional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and is a medical emergency'-5. Poisonous ... delayed, inadequate or no treatment and religious sects who handle ... and immediate transport to a medical facility where supportive .... Intensive Care Unit (ICU) where there are resuscitation.

  20. Diversity and movement of indoor Alternaria alternata across the mainland USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Merwe, Van Der N.A.; Jurjevic, Z.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    Alternaria spp. from sect. Alternaria are frequently associated with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asthma and allergic fungal rhinitis and sinusitis. Since Alternaria is omnipresent in the outdoor environment, it is thought that the indoor spore concentration is mainly influenced by the outdoor

  1. Contributions towards a monograph of Phoma (Coelomycetes) III — Supplement. Additional species of section Plenodomus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerema, G.H.; Gruyter, de J.

    1999-01-01

    This supplement deals with the diagnostic characteristics and literature data of three species of Phoma sect. Plenodomus: Phoma korfii spec. nov. (synanamorph Sclerotium orobanches Schwein.: Fr.), Phoma pimpinellae spec. nov. (teleomorph Leptosphaeria pimpinellae Lowen & Sivan.) and Phoma etheridgei

  2. Hedysarum L. (Fabaceae: Hedysareae) Is Not Monophyletic - Evidence from Phylogenetic Analyses Based on Five Nuclear and Five Plastid Sequences

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pei-Liang Liu; Jun Wen; Lei Duan; Emine Arslan; Kuddisi Ertugrul; Zhao-Yang Chang

    2017-01-01

    .... Previous phylogenetic studies of the genus Hedysarum L. (Fabaceae: Hedysareae) showed that the nuclear and the plastid topologies might be incongruent, and the systematic position of the Hedysarum sect...

  3. Regional Combatant Commanders and the Center of Gravity of Radical Islamic Terrorism

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ridings, Sr, Charles O

    2005-01-01

    ... his theater objectives in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT). The author begins with a brief history of Islam and selected sects, shedding insight as to the origin of the radical Islamic terrorist ideology...

  4. Erratum: Correction to: Representation of light pressure resultant force and moment as a tensor series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerovny, Nikolay; Zimin, Vladimir; Fedorchuk, Sergey; Golubev, Evgeny

    2017-12-01

    In the paper Nerovny et al. (2017), the commentaries about a convergence of series which represent the absolute value function and corresponding equations contain several mistakes (Sect. 2, from Eqs. (4) to (6)).

  5. Noticias Botanicas Colombianas, VI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugand Armando

    1946-04-01

    Full Text Available Piptadenia (Sect. Niopa peregrina / Amaria petiolata / Crotalaria maypurensis HBK / Fagara Dugandii / Schmardaea Recordiana / Billia columbiana / Talisia stricta / Merremia maypurensis / Phryganocydia uliginosa / Phryganocydia corymbosa / Adenocalymma magdalenense / Bayonia helicocalyx / Bayonia fissa.

  6. A reappraisal of Aspergillus section Nidulantes with descriptions of two new sterigmatocystin-producing species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubka, Vit; Nováková, Alena; Peterson, Stephen W.

    2016-01-01

    . DNA sequences were obtained from up to four loci to conduct phylogenetic analysis of sect. Nidulantes and other species in subgenus Nidulantes. Comparisons of phenetic characters were made. Our goal was to recognize monophyletic taxa for section Nidulantes as well as the other taxa in the subgenus....... Phylogenetic analysis indicated that sections Versicolores and Aenei formed subclades in the larger clade containing the type species of section Nidulantes. In order to maintain monophyly in section Nidulantes, we synonymized sects. Versicolores and Aenei with sect. Nidulantes. In place of sections, we have...... identified six subclades in sect. Nidulantes that also have shared phenetic character sets that allow for easier morphological identification of species. Earlier reports showed that standard β-tubulin primers can occasionally amplify the tubC gene rather than the benA gene they were designed for. We show...

  7. Alternaria section Alternaria: Species, formae speciales or pathotypes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Seidl, M.F.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Vries, de M.; Stielow, J.B.; Thomma, B.; Crous, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    The cosmopolitan fungal genus Alternaria consists of multiple saprophytic and pathogenic species. Based on phylogenetic and morphological studies, the genus is currently divided into 26 sections. Alternaria sect. Alternaria contains most of the small-spored Alternaria species with concatenated

  8. Alternaria section Alternaria: Species, formae speciales or pathotypes'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Seidl, M.F.; Groenewald, J.Z.; de Vries, M .; Stielow, B.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Crous, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    The cosmopolitan fungal genus Alternaria consists of multiple saprophytic and pathogenic species. Based on phylogenetic and morphological studies, the genus is currently divided into 26 sections. Alternaria sect. Alternaria contains most of the small-spored Alternaria species with concatenated

  9. Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    projective only when so is . These claims extend results of such a kind obtained by Benabdallah, Eisenstadt, Irwin and Poluianov, Acta Math. Acad. Sci. Hungaricae (1970) and Khan, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. Sect. A (1978). pp 235-251.

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of Penicillium subgenus Penicillium using partial P-tubulin sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, R.A.; Seifert, K.A.; Kuijpers, A.F.A.

    2004-01-01

    with the classification into sections and series proposed in the accompanying monograph. There was good strict consensus support for much of the gene tree, and good bootstrap support for some parts. The phylogenetic analyses suggested that sect. Viridicata, the largest section in the subgenus, is divided into three...... the paraphyletic P. nordicum. The phylogeny for sect. Roqueforti (100%) was robust, with excellent bootstrap support for all included species, i.e. P. roqueforti (100%), P. carneum (94%) and P. paneum (100%). In sect. Penicillium, Series Expansa was paraphyletic, with the monophyletic ser. Italica derived within...... it. The synnematous species in ser. Claviformia were a paraphyletic group with the species of ser. Urticicolae., including P. griseofulvum (99%), derived within. Section Digitata, ser. Digitata comprised a single well-supported species, P. digitatum (100%). The phylogenetic structure of sect...

  11. Remarks on the quasistatic problem of viscoelasticity: Existence, uniqueness and homogenization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenfeld, Stefan

    This article is devoted to the problem (1.1) of quasistatic viscoelasticity. It turns out that (1.1) can be rewritten as an initial value problem of the form (1.2). In Sect. 2 we consider the general initial value problem (1.3). We prove existence and uniqueness of solutions, and stability with respect to the data. In Sects. 3 and 4 we apply our results to the viscoelastic problem (1.1). In Sect. 3 we prove existence and uniqueness of solutions to the n-dimensional problem. In Sect. 4 we develop a stochastic homogenization theory for the 1-dimensional problem. Finally, we close our discussion with some remarks on the homogenization of the n-dimensional problem.

  12. Series solutions of the Sitnikov restricted N+1-body problem: elliptic case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbaz Ullah, M.; Majda, B.; Ullah, M. Zafar; Shahnawaz Ullah, M.

    2015-06-01

    Following Giacaglia (1967), in Sect. 2 we have developed equation of motion of the Sitnikov restricted N+1-body problem in elliptic case. We assumed that the primaries are at the vertices of a regular N-gon so the distances of the primaries from center of mass are time depending. In Sect. 3 we have linearized the equation of motion to obtain the Hill's type equation and then find the approximate solution. In Sects. 4 and 5 the series solutions of the Sitnikov restricted N+1-body problem have been developed by the method of Lindstedt-Poincaré and iteration of Green's function respectively. In Sect. 6 the two series solutions have been compared graphically by putting N=2, 3 and 4 for different eccentricity.

  13. The attitude of Iranian nurses about do not resuscitate orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Mogadasian

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Iranian nurses, regardless of their religious sects, reported negative attitude towards many aspects of DNR orders. It may be possible to change the attitude of Iranian nurses towards DNR through education.

  14. Pertautan Teologi dan Politik: Kajian terhadap Aliran Religio-Politik Syi’ah dan Khawarij

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustain Mustain

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of emergence of sects of Islamic theology can not be separated from political issues as shown in the history of Shiite, Khawarij, Murjiah, Jabariyah, Qadariyah, Mu'tazilite, and Ash'arite. This paper tries to assess such linkage, particularly in the case of Shiite and Khawarij. The emergence of both sects was backed by sharp tribal political competition among the supporters of Ali ibn Abi Talib; both sects then showed their characteristics more as political stream (religio-political rather than sects of theology. Although both, especially Khawarij, have important contributions in the debate concerning major sins commit which then lead to debate about broader and in-depth issues of divinity, but their political activities are more dominant than their theological thoughts. While the Shiite was preoccupied by searching for the ideal figure of priest (imam, Khawarij flow into a political insubordination movement to the government that they consider infidels.

  15. Florae Malseianae Precursores XXV. Notes on Malaysian and some S.E. Asian Cyperaceae VIII

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, J.H.

    1960-01-01

    1. Fimbristylis savannicola Kern, spec. nov. — Sect. Fuscae Ohwi. — Fig. 1. Herba perennis, rhizomate lignoso brevissimo vaginis brunneis parce dissolutis circumdato. Culmi caespitosi, erecti, graciles sed firmuli, compressi, sulcati, dense puncticulati, glabri laevesque vel praesertim basin versus

  16. 32 CFR 1645.4 - Exclusion from Class 4-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., religious sect or organization, but who does not regularly as his bona fide vocation, teach and preach the... regularly, as his bona fide vocation, teach and preach the principles of religion; or (d) He is not...

  17. Helping Residents Protect Water Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Building on the successful early engagement of the Plain Sect agricultural community, the Eastern Lancaster County Source Water Protection Collaborative is expanding its efforts to involve local residents in the work of protecting drinking water sources.

  18. Anther wall formation, sporogenesis and gametogenesis of Tripterospermum chinense (Gentianaceae), with emphasis on uniformity of characters in Tripterospermum and its systematic values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ao, C.

    2012-01-01

    Tripterospermum sensu T.N.Ho comprises two sections that are readily discriminated morphologically. In the present paper, embryological characters in anther wall formation, sporogenesis and gametogenesis of Tripterospermum chinense, a member of sect. Platyspermum, are reported. Comparisons based on

  19. Analysis of the gut microbiota in the old order Amish and its relation to the metabolic syndrome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zupancic, Margaret L; Cantarel, Brandi L; Liu, Zhenqiu; Drabek, Elliott F; Ryan, Kathleen A; Cirimotich, Shana; Jones, Cheron; Knight, Rob; Walters, William A; Knights, Daniel; Mongodin, Emmanuel F; Horenstein, Richard B; Mitchell, Braxton D; Steinle, Nanette; Snitker, Soren; Shuldiner, Alan R; Fraser, Claire M

    2012-01-01

    .... To explore the possible dysbiosis of gut microbiota in obesity and its metabolic complications, we studied men and women over a range of body mass indices from the Old Order Amish sect, a culturally...

  20. Linguistics, cognitive psychology, and the Now-or-Never bottleneck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endress, Ansgar D; Katzir, Roni

    2016-01-01

    Christiansen & Chater (C&C)'s key premise is that "if linguistic information is not processed rapidly, that information is lost for good" (sect. 1, para. 1). From this "Now-or-Never bottleneck" (NNB), C&C derive "wide-reaching and fundamental implications for language processing, acquisition and change as well as for the structure of language itself" (sect. 2, para. 10). We question both the premise and the consequentiality of its purported implications.

  1. Minimizing Losses in a Space Laser Power Beaming System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    analysis outlined in Sect. 4.2-Sect. 4.4, MATHCAD 14TM, and Phoenix Integrations Model Center 8.0TM, where required. Model Center was used to vary...the inputs to the equations in the MATHCAD model and graph the output as outlined below. Furthermore Model Center allowed the results of the...60 watts from the sun and 6 watts from the laser combined with the more efficient EPS under daylight conditions. 92 Appendix D: MATHCAD Code

  2. Revision of the genus Bromheadia (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kruizinga, J.; Scheindelen, van, H.J.; Vogel, de, E.F.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is a taxonomic revision of the genus Bromheadia. In Bromheadia sect. Bromheadia seven species and two varieties are recognized. One species, B. pendek, and one variety, B. borneensis var. longiflora, are described as new. Bromheadia philippinensis Ames & Quisumb. is here reduced to synonymy. Bromheadia sect. Aporodes has 19 species; 12 species (B. cecieliae, B. coomansii, B. devogelii, B. gracilis, B. graminea, B. grandiflora, B. humilis, B. latifolia, B. lohaniensis, B. longifolia...

  3. Alternaria section Alternaria: Species, formae speciales or pathotypes?

    OpenAIRE

    Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Seidl, M.F.; Groenewald, J.Z.; de Vries, M.; Stielow, J.B.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Crous, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    The cosmopolitan fungal genus Alternaria consists of multiple saprophytic and pathogenic species. Based on phylogenetic and morphological studies, the genus is currently divided into 26 sections. Alternaria sect. Alternaria contains most of the small-spored Alternaria species with concatenated conidia, including important plant, human and postharvest pathogens. Species within sect. Alternaria have been mostly described based on morphology and / or host-specificity, yet molecular variation bet...

  4. Systematics of the southern African genus Ixia (Iridaceae. 3. Sections Hyalis and Morphixia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A revised classification is presented for Ixia L., a southern African genus restricted to the winter rainfall zone of the western part of the subcontinent, in which the four sections Dichone (Salisb. ex Baker Goldblatt & J.C.Manning, Hyalis (Baker Diels, Ixia, and Morphixia (Ker Gawl. Pax are recognized and diagnosed. The circumscription of sect. Hyalis is emended to include both short- and long-tubed species, mostly with four or more leaves with the uppermost not sharply differentiated from the lower. This contrast with sect. Morphixia, also with short- and long-tubed species, in which the entirely sheathing uppermost leaf (rarely upper two leaves is distinct from the lower two or rarely three leaves, which have well-developed blades. We revise these two sections, recognizing 18 species in sect. Hyalis, including the two new species, I. linderi and I. recondita, and recognizing 31 species in sect. Morphixia, including the 11 new species, I. alata, I. cedarmontana, I. dolichosiphon, I. ecklonii, I. linearifolia, I. monticola (previously included in I. latifolia var. angustifolia, I. pavonia, I. parva and I. ramulosa (raised from varietal rank as var. parviflora and var. ramulosa respectively of I. latifolia, I. saundersiana and I. stenophylla (previously I. fucata var. filifolia. We also provide a new name, I. mollis for the illegitimate homonym I. flaccida. Lastly, we transfer I. purpureorosea from sect. Ixia to sect. Hyalis. We recognize eight informal series, three in sect. Hyalis and five in sect. Morphixia. With these changes and additions the genus Ixia now comprises 78 species.

  5. Genista L. nothosect. Spades formula nova

    OpenAIRE

    Llamas García, Félix

    1986-01-01

    Ante la publicación de la nothoespecie Genista x rivasgodayana Andrés & Llamas, Lagascalia 13 (2): 187-191 (1985) y teniendo en cuenta lo señalado en el Código Internacional de Nomenclatura Botánica (1983) para las categorías supraespecíficas, validamos la nothosect. Spades formula nova = Genista sect. Erinacoides Spach x sect. Spartioides Spach, que de momento incluye sólo la nothoespecie antes citada.

  6. Karakter Kelompok Aliran Islam Dalam Merespons Islamic Social Networking Di Kabupaten Banyumas

    OpenAIRE

    Rohman, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    : This study aims to describe (1) the perception and conception of the Islamic sects towards the values of tolerance, moderation and brotherhood; and (2) the character of the Islamic sects in response to the existence of information technology (IT), especially to the social media of Islamic Social Networking used as the center for functioning the media of "Joint Consultation Forum". The method used in this research was descriptive qualitative with an interactive analysis technique. The subjec...

  7. The Influence of Mutazilah Theology upon Karaite Theology

    OpenAIRE

    ghorban Elmi; Maryam Sajedi Nasab

    2010-01-01

      Abstract:   Excessive sanctity of the oral tradition (Talmud) among Rabbinic Judaism, sometimes, which marginalized the Holy Scriptures among Jews, caused appearance of a sect that rejected the oral tradition. It was the Karaites sect that appeared in 8th century the century of Messiah movements of the eastern Jewish society. Among the causes of these Messiah movements are the appearance of Islam, and reestablishment of the traditional style of leadership of the Jewi...

  8. Astragalus friederikeanus Kit Tan & Zeitlinger (Fabaceae), a new species from south Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Zeitlinger, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    A new species from south Anatolia, Turkey, Astragalus friederikeanus Kit Tan & Zeitlinger (Fabaceae), is described and illustrated. The diagnostic morphological characters separating it from other members of sect. Onobrychium Boiss. are listed.......A new species from south Anatolia, Turkey, Astragalus friederikeanus Kit Tan & Zeitlinger (Fabaceae), is described and illustrated. The diagnostic morphological characters separating it from other members of sect. Onobrychium Boiss. are listed....

  9. The next detectors for gravitational wave astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, David; Ju, Li; Zhao, ChunNong; Wen, LinQing; Miao, HaiXing; Cai, RongGen; Gao, JiangRui; Lin, XueChun; Liu, Dong; Wu, Ling-An; Zhu, ZongHong; Hammond, Giles; Paik, Ho Jung; Fafone, Viviana; Rocchi, Alessio; Blair, Carl; Ma, YiQiu; Qin, JiaYi; Page, Michael

    2015-12-01

    This paper focuses on the next detectors for gravitational wave astronomy which will be required after the current ground based detectors have completed their initial observations, and probably achieved the first direct detection of gravitational waves. The next detectors will need to have greater sensitivity, while also enabling the world array of detectors to have improved angular resolution to allow localisation of signal sources. Sect. 1 of this paper begins by reviewing proposals for the next ground based detectors, and presents an analysis of the sensitivity of an 8 km armlength detector, which is proposed as a safe and cost-effective means to attain a 4-fold improvement in sensitivity. The scientific benefits of creating a pair of such detectors in China and Australia is emphasised. Sect. 2 of this paper discusses the high performance suspension systems for test masses that will be an essential component for future detectors, while sect. 3 discusses solutions to the problem of Newtonian noise which arise from fluctuations in gravity gradient forces acting on test masses. Such gravitational perturbations cannot be shielded, and set limits to low frequency sensitivity unless measured and suppressed. Sects. 4 and 5 address critical operational technologies that will be ongoing issues in future detectors. Sect. 4 addresses the design of thermal compensation systems needed in all high optical power interferometers operating at room temperature. Parametric instability control is addressed in sect. 5. Only recently proven to occur in Advanced LIGO, parametric instability phenomenon brings both risks and opportunities for future detectors. The path to future enhancements of detectors will come from quantum measurement technologies. Sect. 6 focuses on the use of optomechanical devices for obtaining enhanced sensitivity, while sect. 7 reviews a range of quantum measurement options.

  10. [A new taxonomic system of the genus Murraya (Rutaceae) based on integration of morphology-based taxonomy and chemotaxonomy; and a philological survey on M. exotica in view of the relationship between Okinawa and China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    This review concerns the taxonomic status of the genus Murraya in tribe Clausenae, subfamily Aurantioideae, family Rutaceae, and presents a new system integrating both morphology-based taxonomy and chemotaxonomy. This genus has been morphologically divided into the sects Murraya and Bergera. This dichotomy is justified by the noticeable difference of secondary metabolites with 3-prenylindoles in Murraya and carbazoles in Bergera. As for other metabolites of genus Murraya, coumarins are found in both sects, but differ clearly in types; 8-prenylcoumarins occur throughout the sect Murraya whereas geranylated furocoumarins are known from some species of the sect Bergera. As far as chemical properties are concerned, sect Bergera is much closer to genus Clausena than sect Murraya, suggesting the dichotomy of genus Murraya to be generic rather than sectional. 8-Prenylcoumarins characterizing sect Murraya play a decisive role in the distinction of M. exotica from M. paniculata that occurs most widely in subtropical and tropical Asia and is well known for morphologic as well as chemical diversity. Though the morphological difference between the two species is slight only in leaves and leaflets, the distinction is well substantiated by the following chemical feature: 7-OMe-8-prenylcoumarins occur in M. exotica whereas 5,7-di-OMe-8-prenylcoumarins in M. paniculata. Sect Murraya has a very close relation to genus Merrillia that is chemically characterized by similar types of 8-prenylcoumarins, and is also related to a certain extent to genus Micromelum. M. exotica is philologically surveyed in view of the delicate relationships between Okinawa, the only habitat of this plant in Japan, and China in order to clarify its historical background.

  11. Taxonomical and nomenclatural notes on Centaurea: A proposal of classification, a description of new sections and subsections, and a species list of the redefined section Centaurea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilpold, A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we summarize the results of our long-date research on the genus Centaurea. The first part of the paper deals with the overall classification of the genus, which we propose to divide into three subgenera: subgenus Centaurea, subgenus Cyanus and subgenus Lopholoma. The second part of this publication gives a recopilation of the species of the redefined section Centaurea, a group that includes former sections Acrolophus (sect. Centaurea s. str., Phalolepis and Willkommia, together with taxonomical, geographical, ecological and karyological considerations. Finally, new descriptions or nomenclatural combinations are proposed to correlate nomenclature to the new classification: a new combination (sect. Acrocentron subsect. Chamaecyanus is proposed in subgenus Lopholoma; three new sections (sects. Akamantis, Cnicus, and Hyerapolitanae are described in subgenus Centaurea; two subsections (subsects. Phalolepis and Willkommia in sect. Centaurea; and three subsections (subsects. Exarata, Jacea, and Subtilis in sect. Phrygia.En este trabajo presentamos los resultados de nuestras investigaciones de larga fecha en el género Centaurea. La primera parte del trabajo trata de la clasificación del género, que proponemos dividir en tres subgéneros: subgénero Centaurea, subgénero Cyanus y subgénero Lopholoma. La segunda parte es una recopilación de las especies de la redefinida sección Centaurea, que incluye las antiguas secciones Acrolophus (sect. Centaurea s. str., Phalolepis y Willkommia, junto con consideraciones geográficas, ecológicas y cariológicas. Por último, proponemos nuevas secciones, subsecciones y combinaciones para correlacionar nomenclatura y clasificación: proponemos una nueva (sect. Acrocentron subsect. Chamaecyanus en el subgénero Lopholoma; se describen tres secciones nuevas (sects. Akamantis, Cnicus y Hyerapolitanae en el subgénero Centaurea; dos subsecciones (subsects. Phalolepis and Willkommia en la secci

  12. Begonia elachista Moonlight & Tebbitt sp. nov., an enigmatic new species and a new section of Begonia (Begoniaceae from Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Watson Moonlight

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The world’s smallest Begonia, Begonia elachista Moonlight & Tebbitt sp. nov., is described and illustrated from a limestone outcrop in the Amazonian lowlands of Pasco Region, Peru. It is placed within the newly described, monotypic Begonia sect. Microtuberosa Moonlight & Tebbitt sect. nov. and the phylogenetic affinities of the section are examined. Begonia elachista sp. nov. is considered Critically Endangered under the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN criteria.

  13. Performances of low-dose dual-energy CT in reducing artifacts from implanted metallic orthopedic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filograna, Laura [Catholic University of Rome, School of Medicine, University Hospital ' ' A. Gemelli' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Institute of Radiology, Rome (Italy); University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Imaging, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Magarelli, Nicola; Leone, Antonio; Bonomo, Lorenzo [Catholic University of Rome, School of Medicine, University Hospital ' ' A. Gemelli' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Institute of Radiology, Rome (Italy); De Waure, Chiara; Calabro, Giovanna Elisa [Catholic University of Rome, School of Medicine, University Hospital ' ' A. Gemelli' ' , Research Centre for Health Technology Assessment, Department of Public Health, Section of Hygiene, Rome (Italy); Finkenstaedt, Tim [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Thali, Michael John [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Imaging, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-07-15

    The objective was to evaluate the performances of dose-reduced dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) in decreasing metallic artifacts from orthopedic devices compared with dose-neutral DECT, dose-neutral single-energy computed tomography (SECT), and dose-reduced SECT. Thirty implants in 20 consecutive cadavers underwent both SECT and DECT at three fixed CT dose indexes (CTDI): 20.0, 10.0, and 5.0 mGy. Extrapolated monoenergetic DECT images at 64, 69, 88, 105, 120, and 130 keV, and individually adjusted monoenergy for optimized image quality (OPTkeV) were generated. In each group, the image quality of the seven monoenergetic images and of the SECT image was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by visually rating and by measuring the maximum streak artifact respectively. The comparison between SECT and OPTkeV evaluated overall within all groups showed a significant difference (p <0.001), with OPTkeV images providing better images. Comparing OPTkeV with the other DECT images, a significant difference was shown (p <0.001), with OPTkeV and 130-keV images providing the qualitatively best results. The OPTkeV images of 5.0-mGy acquisitions provided percentages of images with scores 1 and 2 of 36 % and 30 % respectively, compared with 0 % and 33.3 % of the corresponding SECT images of 10- and 20-mGy acquisitions. Moreover, DECT reconstructions at the OPTkeV of the low-dose group showed higher CT numbers than the SECT images of dose groups 1 and 2. This study demonstrates that low-dose DECT permits a reduction of artifacts due to metallic implants to be obtained in a similar manner to neutral-dose DECT and better than reduced or neutral-dose SECT. (orig.)

  14. Moderasi Khawarij Ibadiyah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Choirul Rofiq

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Generally many historians depict Kharijite sect with nega­tive image as a group that has an extreme religious ideas and noncon­formist political attitudes. Furthermore Kharijite sect was regarded as an extremist faction and radical terrorist who prefers violence against any goverment that has deviated from Islamic doctrine according to Kharijite perspective. Similar to many religious sects, Kharijite sect also separated into many factions. This separation is usually caused by difference views that frequently arouse a dispute and conflict among them. In addition, they occasionally consider another faction as an un­believer and infidel group. Because of this schism, the Kharijite sect became very weak so that can be destroyed easily. One of the Kharijite factions is Ibadite faction that is assessed by scholars as the closest fac­tion to Sunnite sect because the Ibadites have moderate views so that can survive and exist until now whereas almost Kharijite factions tend to have extreme views and perform violent actions to achieve their aims. The successful indoctrination and thorough strategy might cause this moderation attitude.

  15. Measures Taken by the Ottoman State against Shah İsmail's Attempts to Convert Anatolia to Shia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Küçükdağ

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Shah Ismail, when he was sheikh of Safevi sect established by Sheikh Safiyuddin, Ismail’s grandfather, established Safevi State in Azerbaijan taking Tebriz as the center at the beginning of XVI th.century. The followers of Safevi Sect were Turcomen originated from Anatolia. They helped Shah Ismail to establish state. Shah Ismail depending on Turcomen followers attempted to annex Anotolia which was under Otoman domination in his new state’s territory. He sent his caliphs to Anatolia to propagandize his sect. They tried to convince Anatolion people about Safevi sect. Ottoman state which understand that the main purpose of Shah Ismail was not the speading of Safevi sect took military, political, economical and cultural measures. In the war between two states, Shah Ismail was defeated by Ottoman army in Caldıran (1514 The relationship of Safevi’s followers with Iran was prevented. In order to prevent economical growth of Safevi State, economical embargo was put. By helping the organization of Halvetiyye which has Safevi sect orijin but accept’ s ottoman state outhority the spread of Safevism was prevented. Turcomen in Anatolia become hopeless when Sheikh Ismail was defeated by I. Selim. Ottoman State does not extinct Safevism

  16. FATWA MUI TENTANG ALIRAN SESAT DI INDONESIA (1976-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimyati Sajari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ruling of Indonesian Council of Ulama on Heretical Sects in Indonesia (1976-2010. The claims of truth and deception, even condemnation of unbeliever (takfir, still continue to happen to the present time. In Indonesia, the introduction of the Council of Ulama (MUI ruling or fatwa on misleading sect may proof the widespred claim. This paper attempts to trace the historical dynamics of acclaimed ambiguous sects by the MUI. However, the author argues that based on the study of the MUI fatwa section of Islamic faith and religious school of thoughts (1976-2010 it is revealed that such claim is purely a reflection of the MUI’s role as a safeguard and keeper of the faith of Islamic community. In addition, he further maintains that the thought of the misleading sects in Indonesia is deeply rooted in the history of Islamic thought and MUI fatwa of heretical sects in Indonesia is nothing more than a representation of a firm attitude of the majority throughout Islamic history against minorities of whom have been considered being misguided and go beyond the mainstreams, but nonetheless, it seems that such a sect will remain in the land of Indonesia.

  17. CROMOSOMAS Y EVOLUCION EN ARACHIS (LEGlIMINOSAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aveliano Fernández

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Fueron analizadas citológicamente cuarenta y un especies pertenecientes a ocho de las nueve secciones del género Arachis. Se analizaron en detalle los cariotipos veinticuatro de las cuarenta y un especies. Todas las especies tienen un par de cromosomas con satélite, excepto A. valida, que tiene dos pares. Los satélites se clasifican en diez tipos. Las secciones Procumbentes, Erectoides, Extranervosae, Caulorrhizae, Rhizomatosae, Heteranthae y Trierectoides tienen sólo uno o dos tipos de cromosomas con satélite, mientras que la sect. Arachis tiene seis tipos. Un par de cromosomas pequeños se encuentran en la sect. Arachis, excepto en A.batizocoi, A. ipaensis, A. glandulifera, A. magna y A. benensis. A. glandulifera (sect. Arachis tiene el cariotipo más asimétrico, con seis pares de cromosomas subtelocéntricos y A.guaranitica (sect. Trierectoides tiene el cariotipo más simétrico. Esto apoya la hipótesis de que la sect. Trierectoides es la más antigua en el género y la sect. Arachis tiene un origen más reciente. Teniendo en cuenta los cariotipos, morfología externa y la distribución geográfica, A. duranensis y A. ipaensis son probablemente los donantes del genoma de A.hypogaea.

  18. Anatomia do escapo floral de espécies brasileiras de Paepalanthus subgênero Platycaulon (Eriocaulaceae Anatomy of the inflorescence scape of Brazilian species of the Paepalanthus subgenus Platycaulon (Eriocaulaceae

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    Vera Lucia Scatena

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a anatomia dos escapos de 17 espécies de Paepalanthus subgênero Platycaulon, sendo 10 da sect. Divisi e sete da sect. Conferti. O trabalho foi realizado para caracterizar anatomicamente os escapos. como contribuição para o entendimento do grupo, uma vez que. morfologicamente, esse é o caráter laxonômico mais importante. Procurou-se, também, confirmar ou não o reconhecimento das duas seções dentro do subgênero. Para os estudos anatômicos utilizou-se material proveniente do Brasil, obtido de exsicatas de diferentes herbários e/ou coletado na Serra do Cipó, MG. Neste trabalho observou-se que Paepalanthus subg. Platycaulon é caracterizado morfologicamente por apresentar escapos pluricapitulados no ápice. Anatomicamente, as espécies estudadas da sect. Divisi apresentam escapos com vários cilindros vasculares, na região mediana e, ainda apresentam, em Paepalanthus vellozioides e P. spixianus, feixes vasculares corticais, características únicas na família. Diferentemente, as espécies avaliadas da sect. Conferti apresentam escapos com cilindro vascular único na região mediana, padrão análogo ao das demais Eriocaulaccae, e ainda apresentam, em Paepalanthus itatiaiensis, P. planifolius e P. paulensis, feixes vasculares medulares, que até então não haviam sido referidos para a família.The scape anatomy of 17 taxa of Paepalanthus subgenus Platycaylon were studied, being 10 taxa of sect. Divisi and seven of sect. Conferti. The study was carried out to see whether scape morphology and anatomy provide valid taxonomic characters at the subgeneric level in Paepalanthus and to lest a proposal to recognize two sections within Paepalanthus subgenus Platycaylon: sect. Divisi and sect. Conferti. The material for anatomical study was collected in Brazil, partly from herbarium specimens and partly from fresh material collected in the field, from the Serra do Cipó. Minas Gerais State. In this work, we observe that

  19. What is Atraphaxis L. (Polygonaceae, Polygoneae): cryptic taxa and resolved taxonomic complexity instead of the formal lumping and the lack of morphological synapomorphies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurtseva, Olga V; Kuznetsova, Oxana I; Mavrodieva, Maria E; Mavrodiev, Evgeny V

    2016-01-01

    The recently proposed recircumscription of the genus Atraphaxis (incl. Atraphaxis section Ovczinnikovia O.V. Yurtseva ex. S. Tavakkoli and Polygonum sect. Spinescentia Boissier (=A. sect. Polygonoides S. Tavakkoli, Kaz. Osaloo & Mozaff.) makes this genus fairly heterogeneous and therefore almost undefinable based on morphology. A critical comprehensive reappraisal of the group is necessary. Using the DNA sequence data (ITS1&2 regions of nrDNA and combined trnL intron + trnL-F IGS and rpl32-trnL((UAG)) IGS regions of plastid genome), Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian analyses (BI) were applied for phylogenetic reconstructions of the tribe Polygoneae with special attention to Atraphaxis, and related taxa. Maximum parsimony reconstructions of the evolution of perianth morphology and sporoderm ornamentation in the tribe Polygoneae were also performed. Life history, morphology of shoots, leaf blades, ocreas, perianth and achene morphology, ultrasculpture of achene surface, and pollen morphology were compared, and SEM and LM images were provided. The genera Atraphaxis and Polygonum were found to be widely polyphyletic. The rarest and morphologically remarkable endemic of Tian-Shan and Pamir Atraphaxis ovczinnikovii (Atraphaxis sect. Ovczinnikovia O.V. Yurtseva ex. S. Tavakkoli) was confirmed to be a sister of the clade (Atraphaxis + Polygonum sect. Spinescentia) in plastid topology. The genus Bactria (=Atraphaxis sect. Ovczinnikovia), which circumscribes two species, is newly established as a result of this analyses. Morphological data confirm the originality of the taxon. We are arguing for a narrow delimitation of Atraphaxis with petalloid segments and striato-perforate sporoderm ornamentation as morphological synapomorphies. The recently proposed inclusion of Polygonum sect. Spinescentia in Atraphaxis is fairly questionable from a morphological standpoint. The rank of Polygonum sect. Spinescentia requires further clarification. The generic composition of the tribe

  20. What is Atraphaxis L. (Polygonaceae, Polygoneae: cryptic taxa and resolved taxonomic complexity instead of the formal lumping and the lack of morphological synapomorphies

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    Olga V. Yurtseva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The recently proposed recircumscription of the genus Atraphaxis (incl. Atraphaxis section Ovczinnikovia O.V. Yurtseva ex. S. Tavakkoli and Polygonum sect. Spinescentia Boissier (=A. sect. Polygonoides S. Tavakkoli, Kaz. Osaloo & Mozaff. makes this genus fairly heterogeneous and therefore almost undefinable based on morphology. A critical comprehensive reappraisal of the group is necessary. Methods: Using the DNA sequence data (ITS1&2 regions of nrDNA and combined trnL intron + trnL–F IGS and rpl32–trnL(UAG IGS regions of plastid genome, Maximum Likelihood (ML and Bayesian analyses (BI were applied for phylogenetic reconstructions of the tribe Polygoneae with special attention to Atraphaxis, and related taxa. Maximum parsimony reconstructions of the evolution of perianth morphology and sporoderm ornamentation in the tribe Polygoneae were also performed. Life history, morphology of shoots, leaf blades, ocreas, perianth and achene morphology, ultrasculpture of achene surface, and pollen morphology were compared, and SEM and LM images were provided. Principal findings: The genera Atraphaxis and Polygonum were found to be widely polyphyletic. The rarest and morphologically remarkable endemic of Tian-Shan and Pamir Atraphaxis ovczinnikovii (Atraphaxis sect. Ovczinnikovia O.V. Yurtseva ex. S. Tavakkoli was confirmed to be a sister of the clade (Atraphaxis + Polygonum sect. Spinescentia in plastid topology. The genus Bactria (=Atraphaxis sect. Ovczinnikovia, which circumscribes two species, is newly established as a result of this analyses. Morphological data confirm the originality of the taxon. Discussion: We are arguing for a narrow delimitation of Atraphaxis with petalloid segments and striato-perforate sporoderm ornamentation as morphological synapomorphies. The recently proposed inclusion of Polygonum sect. Spinescentia in Atraphaxis is fairly questionable from a morphological standpoint. The rank of Polygonum sect. Spinescentia

  1. What is Atraphaxis L. (Polygonaceae, Polygoneae): cryptic taxa and resolved taxonomic complexity instead of the formal lumping and the lack of morphological synapomorphies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Oxana I.; Mavrodieva, Maria E.; Mavrodiev, Evgeny V.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The recently proposed recircumscription of the genus Atraphaxis (incl. Atraphaxis section Ovczinnikovia O.V. Yurtseva ex. S. Tavakkoli and Polygonum sect. Spinescentia Boissier (=A. sect. Polygonoides S. Tavakkoli, Kaz. Osaloo & Mozaff.) makes this genus fairly heterogeneous and therefore almost undefinable based on morphology. A critical comprehensive reappraisal of the group is necessary. Methods: Using the DNA sequence data (ITS1&2 regions of nrDNA and combined trnL intron + trnL–F IGS and rpl32–trnL(UAG) IGS regions of plastid genome), Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian analyses (BI) were applied for phylogenetic reconstructions of the tribe Polygoneae with special attention to Atraphaxis, and related taxa. Maximum parsimony reconstructions of the evolution of perianth morphology and sporoderm ornamentation in the tribe Polygoneae were also performed. Life history, morphology of shoots, leaf blades, ocreas, perianth and achene morphology, ultrasculpture of achene surface, and pollen morphology were compared, and SEM and LM images were provided. Principal findings: The genera Atraphaxis and Polygonum were found to be widely polyphyletic. The rarest and morphologically remarkable endemic of Tian-Shan and Pamir Atraphaxis ovczinnikovii (Atraphaxis sect. Ovczinnikovia O.V. Yurtseva ex. S. Tavakkoli) was confirmed to be a sister of the clade (Atraphaxis + Polygonum sect. Spinescentia) in plastid topology. The genus Bactria (=Atraphaxis sect. Ovczinnikovia), which circumscribes two species, is newly established as a result of this analyses. Morphological data confirm the originality of the taxon. Discussion: We are arguing for a narrow delimitation of Atraphaxis with petalloid segments and striato-perforate sporoderm ornamentation as morphological synapomorphies. The recently proposed inclusion of Polygonum sect. Spinescentia in Atraphaxis is fairly questionable from a morphological standpoint. The rank of Polygonum sect. Spinescentia requires

  2. Alternaria section Alternaria: Species, formae speciales or pathotypes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Seidl, M.F.; Groenewald, J.Z.; de Vries, M.; Stielow, J.B.; Thomma, B.P.H.J.; Crous, P.W.

    2015-01-01

    The cosmopolitan fungal genus Alternaria consists of multiple saprophytic and pathogenic species. Based on phylogenetic and morphological studies, the genus is currently divided into 26 sections. Alternaria sect. Alternaria contains most of the small-spored Alternaria species with concatenated conidia, including important plant, human and postharvest pathogens. Species within sect. Alternaria have been mostly described based on morphology and / or host-specificity, yet molecular variation between them is minimal. To investigate whether the described morphospecies within sect. Alternaria are supported by molecular data, whole-genome sequencing of nine Alternaria morphospecies supplemented with transcriptome sequencing of 12 Alternaria morphospecies as well as multi-gene sequencing of 168 Alternaria isolates was performed. The assembled genomes ranged in size from 33.3–35.2 Mb within sect. Alternaria and from 32.0–39.1 Mb for all Alternaria genomes. The number of repetitive sequences differed significantly between the different Alternaria genomes; ranging from 1.4–16.5 %. The repeat content within sect. Alternaria was relatively low with only 1.4–2.7 % of repeats. Whole-genome alignments revealed 96.7–98.2 % genome identity between sect. Alternaria isolates, compared to 85.1–89.3 % genome identity for isolates from other sections to the A. alternata reference genome. Similarly, 1.4–2.8 % and 0.8–1.8 % single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were observed in genomic and transcriptomic sequences, respectively, between isolates from sect. Alternaria, while the percentage of SNPs found in isolates from different sections compared to the A. alternata reference genome was considerably higher; 8.0–10.3 % and 6.1–8.5 %. The topology of a phylogenetic tree based on the whole-genome and transcriptome reads was congruent with multi-gene phylogenies based on commonly used gene regions. Based on the genome and transcriptome data, a set of core

  3. Value of monoenergetic dual-energy CT (DECT) for artefact reduction from metallic orthopedic implants in post-mortem studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filograna, Laura; Magarelli, Nicola; Leone, Antonio; Guggenberger, Roman; Winklhofer, Sebastian; Thali, Michael John; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to assess the performance of monoenergetic dual-energy CT (DECT) reconstructions to reduce metal artefacts in bodies with orthopedic devices in comparison with standard single-energy CT (SECT) examinations in forensic imaging. Forensic and clinical impacts of this study are also discussed. Thirty metallic implants in 20 consecutive cadavers with metallic implants underwent both SECT and DECT with a clinically suitable scanning protocol. Extrapolated monoenergetic DECT images at 64, 69, 88, 105, 120, and 130 keV and individually adjusted monoenergy for optimized image quality (OPTkeV) were generated. Image quality of the seven monoenergetic images and of the corresponding SECT image was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by visual rating and measurements of attenuation changes induced by streak artefact. Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed statistically significant differences between monoenergetic DECT extrapolated images and SECT, with improvements in diagnostic assessment in monoenergetic DECT at higher monoenergies. The mean value of OPTkeV was 137.6 ± 4.9 with a range of 130 to 148 keV. This study demonstrates that monoenergetic DECT images extrapolated at high energy levels significantly reduce metallic artefacts from orthopedic implants and improve image quality compared to SECT examination in forensic imaging.

  4. Further discoveries in the ever-expanding genus Begonia (Begoniaceae: fifteen new species from Sumatra

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    Mark Hughes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen new species of Begonia L. from Sumatra are described and illustrated, in Begonia sect. Bracteibegonia (B. beludruvenea M.Hughes sp. nov. and B. jackiana M.Hughes sp. nov., B. sect. Petermannia (B. harauensis Girm. sp. nov., B. sect. Platycentrum (B. leuserensis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. sect. Reichenheimia (B. fluvialis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. halabanensis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. karangputihensis Girm. sp. nov., B. kemumuensis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. korthalsiana Miq. ex M.Hughes sp. nov., B. kudoensis Girm. sp. nov., B. lilliputana M.Hughes sp. nov., B. olivacea Ardi sp. nov., B. raoensis M.Hughes sp. nov., B. simolapensis Ardi sp. nov. and B. sect. Sphenanthera (B. pseudoscottii Girm. sp. nov.. Using the International Union for the Conservation of Nature criteria, 6 are considered to be Least Concern, 5 Vulnerable and 4 Data Deficient. A key to 58 of the 63 currently accepted Begonia species in Sumatra is provided.

  5. Classification of Camellia (Theaceae) Species Using Leaf Architecture Variations and Pattern Recognition Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sean; Nitin, Mantri

    2012-01-01

    Leaf characters have been successfully utilized to classify Camellia (Theaceae) species; however, leaf characters combined with supervised pattern recognition techniques have not been previously explored. We present results of using leaf morphological and venation characters of 93 species from five sections of genus Camellia to assess the effectiveness of several supervised pattern recognition techniques for classifications and compare their accuracy. Clustering approach, Learning Vector Quantization neural network (LVQ-ANN), Dynamic Architecture for Artificial Neural Networks (DAN2), and C-support vector machines (SVM) are used to discriminate 93 species from five sections of genus Camellia (11 in sect. Furfuracea, 16 in sect. Paracamellia, 12 in sect. Tuberculata, 34 in sect. Camellia, and 20 in sect. Theopsis). DAN2 and SVM show excellent classification results for genus Camellia with DAN2's accuracy of 97.92% and 91.11% for training and testing data sets respectively. The RBF-SVM results of 97.92% and 97.78% for training and testing offer the best classification accuracy. A hierarchical dendrogram based on leaf architecture data has confirmed the morphological classification of the five sections as previously proposed. The overall results suggest that leaf architecture-based data analysis using supervised pattern recognition techniques, especially DAN2 and SVM discrimination methods, is excellent for identification of Camellia species. PMID:22235330

  6. LAS ESPECIES COLOMBIANAS DEL GÉNERO DIGITARIA (POACEAE: PANICOIDEAE: PANICEAE

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    GIRALDO-CAÑAS DIEGO

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un estudio sistemático, macro y micromorfológico de las especies colombianas del género Digitaria. Se analizan diversos aspectos relativos a la clasificación, la nomenclatura, las afinidades genéricas y la variación macro y micromorfológica de los caracteres, así como algunos aspectos anatómicos de la espiguilla y el antecio superior. El género Digitaria está representado en Colombia por 18 especies distribuidas en cinco secciones: Digitaria sect. Calvulae (una especie, Digitaria sect. Digitaria (siete especies, Digitaria sect. Ischaemum (tres especies, Digitaria sect. Ternatae (cuatro especies y Digitaria sect. Trichachne (tres especies. Dos especies son endémicas de Colombia (Digitaria cardenasiana y Digitaria andicola. Las especies Digitaria argillacea, Digitaria neesiana y Digitaria fragilis se excluyen de la flora de Colombia. Se presentan las claves para reconocer las secciones y las especies presentes en Colombia, así como también las descripciones de éstas, la iconografía, los usos, los nombres vulgares, la distribución geográfica y se comentan algunas observaciones morfológicas y ecológicas. Se documenta la presencia de espiguillas trifloras en el género Digitaria, situación observada en las especies Digitaria dioica y Digitaria nuda.

  7. Statistical Approaches to Candidate Biomarker Panel Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Heidi M; Ju, Hyunsu

    2016-01-01

    The statistical analysis of robust biomarker candidates is a complex process, and is involved in several key steps in the overall biomarker development pipeline (see Fig. 22.1, Chap. 19 ). Initially, data visualization (Sect. 22.1, below) is important to determine outliers and to get a feel for the nature of the data and whether there appear to be any differences among the groups being examined. From there, the data must be pre-processed (Sect. 22.2) so that outliers are handled, missing values are dealt with, and normality is assessed. Once the processed data has been cleaned and is ready for downstream analysis, hypothesis tests (Sect. 22.3) are performed, and proteins that are differentially expressed are identified. Since the number of differentially expressed proteins is usually larger than warrants further investigation (50+ proteins versus just a handful that will be considered for a biomarker panel), some sort of feature reduction (Sect. 22.4) should be performed to narrow the list of candidate biomarkers down to a more reasonable number. Once the list of proteins has been reduced to those that are likely most useful for downstream classification purposes, unsupervised or supervised learning is performed (Sects. 22.5 and 22.6, respectively).

  8. On merging Acer sections Rubra and Hyptiocarpa: Molecular and morphological evidence

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    AJ Harris

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we expanded Acer sect. Rubra Pax to include A. sect. Hyptiocarpa Fang. Traditionally, section Rubra comprises two iconic species, Acer rubrum Linnaeus (red maple and A. saccharinum Linnaeus (silver maple, of eastern North American forests as well as the rare Japanese montane species, A. pycnanthum K. Koch. Section Hyptiocarpa consists of A. laurinum Hasskarl and A. pinnatinervium Merrill, which occur in subtropical and tropical regions of southwestern China to southeast Asia. Here, we confirm prior phylogenetic results showing the close relationship between sects. Rubra and Hyptiocarpa, and we use scanning electron microscopy to demonstrate that leaves of species within these sections have similar arrangements of cuticular waxes, which account for the silvery color of their abaxial surfaces. We describe that the sections also share labile sex expression; inflorescences that range from compound racemose thyrses, to racemes or umbels and that may have undergone evolutionary reduction; and several features of their fruits, such as seed locules without keels, basal portion of wings straight, acute attachment angle between mericarps, and production of some mericarps that are seedless and partially developed at maturity. Our expansion of sect. Rubra to include sect. Hyptiocarpa better elucidates the biogeographic and evolutionary history of these species. Additionally, we show that A. laurinum and A. pinnatinervium have intergrading morphology and are probably synonymous, but we note that further studies are required to conclude their taxonomic status.

  9. Preliminary report on virtual monochromatic spectral imaging with fast kVp switching dual energy head CT: comparable image quality to that of 120-kVp CT without increasing the radiation dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Kouhei; Kunimatsu, Akira; Mori, Harushi; Sato, Jiro; Akahane, Masaaki; Yamakawa, Takana; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate whether the image quality of virtual monochromatic spectral imaging with fast kVp switching dual-energy CT (DECT) can be comparable to that of 120-kVp single-energy CT (SECT) without increasing the radiation dose. We retrospectively identified 15 postoperative patients who had undergone both DECT and 120-kVp SECT within a short period of time for follow-up after brain surgery. Simulated 65 keV monochromatic images were reconstructed from DECT data. Subjective image noise, gray-white matter contrast, and overall image quality were rated using a four-point scale. Quantitative measurement of noise, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and posterior fossa beam-hardening artifact were also performed. The figure of merit (FOM), calculated as CNR(2)/CTDIvol, was used to quantify image quality improvement per exposure risk. The mean CTDIvol was 70.2 ± 0.3 mGy for DECT, which was 11 % lower than SECT (78.9 ± 2.1 mGy). All images were graded above clinically acceptable. Quantitative and qualitative measures for simulated 65-keV images were comparable with SECT images, except for increase in subjective noise. FOM was significantly greater for simulated 65-keV images (P = .03). Our results indicate that virtual monochromatic imaging possibly provides comparable image quality to that afforded by 120-kVp SECT without increasing the dose in routine head CT.

  10. Gravitational wave astrophysics, data analysis and multimessenger astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyung Mok; Le Bigot, Eric-Olivier; Du, ZhiHui; Lin, ZhangXi; Guo, XiangYu; Wen, LinQing; Phukon, Khun Sang; Pandey, Vihan; Bose, Sukanta; Fan, Xi-Long; Hendry, Martin

    2015-12-01

    This paper reviews gravitational wave sources and their detection. One of the most exciting potential sources of gravitational waves are coalescing binary black hole systems. They can occur on all mass scales and be formed in numerous ways, many of which are not understood. They are generally invisible in electromagnetic waves, and they provide opportunities for deep investigation of Einstein's general theory of relativity. Sect. 1 of this paper considers ways that binary black holes can be created in the universe, and includes the prediction that binary black hole coalescence events are likely to be the first gravitational wave sources to be detected. The next parts of this paper address the detection of chirp waveforms from coalescence events in noisy data. Such analysis is computationally intensive. Sect. 2 reviews a new and powerful method of signal detection based on the GPUimplemented summed parallel infinite impulse response filters. Such filters are intrinsically real time alorithms, that can be used to rapidly detect and localise signals. Sect. 3 of the paper reviews the use of GPU processors for rapid searching for gravitational wave bursts that can arise from black hole births and coalescences. In sect. 4 the use of GPU processors to enable fast efficient statistical significance testing of gravitational wave event candidates is reviewed. Sect. 5 of this paper addresses the method of multimessenger astronomy where the discovery of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave events can be used to identify sources, understand their nature and obtain much greater science outcomes from each identified event.

  11. Value of monoenergetic dual-energy CT (DECT) for artefact reduction from metallic orthopedic implants in post-mortem studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filograna, Laura [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Imaging, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Catholic University of Rome, School of Medicine, University Hospital ' ' A. Gemelli' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Magarelli, Nicola; Leone, Antonio; Bonomo, Lorenzo [Catholic University of Rome, School of Medicine, University Hospital ' ' A. Gemelli' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Guggenberger, Roman; Winklhofer, Sebastian [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Thali, Michael John [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Imaging, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to assess the performance of monoenergetic dual-energy CT (DECT) reconstructions to reduce metal artefacts in bodies with orthopedic devices in comparison with standard single-energy CT (SECT) examinations in forensic imaging. Forensic and clinical impacts of this study are also discussed. Thirty metallic implants in 20 consecutive cadavers with metallic implants underwent both SECT and DECT with a clinically suitable scanning protocol. Extrapolated monoenergetic DECT images at 64, 69, 88, 105, 120, and 130 keV and individually adjusted monoenergy for optimized image quality (OPTkeV) were generated. Image quality of the seven monoenergetic images and of the corresponding SECT image was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by visual rating and measurements of attenuation changes induced by streak artefact. Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed statistically significant differences between monoenergetic DECT extrapolated images and SECT, with improvements in diagnostic assessment in monoenergetic DECT at higher monoenergies. The mean value of OPTkeV was 137.6 ± 4.9 with a range of 130 to 148 keV. This study demonstrates that monoenergetic DECT images extrapolated at high energy levels significantly reduce metallic artefacts from orthopedic implants and improve image quality compared to SECT examination in forensic imaging. (orig.)

  12. Phylogeny of xerophilic aspergilli (subgenus Aspergillus ) and taxonomic revision of section Restricti

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sklenář, F.; Jurjević, Ž.; Zalar, P.

    2017-01-01

    a multidisciplinary approach for definition of species boundaries in sect. Restricti. The monophyly of sections Aspergillus and Restricti was tested on a set of 102 isolates comprising all currently accepted species and was strongly supported by Maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inferrence (BI) analysis based on β......-tubulin (benA), calmodulin (CaM) and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) loci. More than 300 strains belonging to sect. Restricti from various isolation sources and four continents were characterized by DNA sequencing, and 193 isolates were selected for phylogenetic analyses and phenotypic studies......Cl concentration from 0 to 25 %) and analysis of morphology including scanning electron microscopy. The micromorphology of conidial heads, vesicle dimensions, temperature profiles and growth parameters in osmotic gradient were useful criteria for species identification. The vast majority of species in sect...

  13. New Microsatellite Markers for Tricyrtis macrantha (Convallariaceae and Cross-Amplification in Closely Related Species

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    Noriko Ohki

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Microsatellite markers were characterized in Tricyrtis macrantha (sect. Brachycyrtis, Convallariaceae, a vulnerable species endemic to Japan, to investigate its genetic diversity and population structure. Methods and Results: Eleven microsatellite markers were developed. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to seven, and genetic diversity per locus ranged from 0.142 to 0.812. Four markers were successfully amplified in other species of sect. Brachycyrtis (T. ishiiana, T. ishiiana var. surugensis, and T. macranthopsis. Conclusions: The microsatellite markers can be used to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of the vulnerable and endangered species of Tricyrtis sect. Brachycyrtis, to aid in the development of conservation strategies for each species.

  14. Acetabular QCT in Total Hip Arthroplasty - a reliability study using porcine hips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo Redder; Overgaard, Soren; Torfing, Trine

    previously shown better delineation of the interface between bone and prosthesis and may be beneficial in quantitative analysis of bone loss close to the implant as compared to single energy computed tomography (SECT). The purpose of this porcine ex-vivo study was to test the intra-observer agreement...... and reliability of bone mineral density measurements (BMD) in close proximity of the acetabular cup using SECT and DECT images and 3D segmentation software. Materials and methods 22 acetabular cups (12 cemented, 10 un-cemented) were inserted in porcine hip specimens ex vivo. A femoral stem was attached to each...... specimen and imaging was performed with SECT and DECT. The specimens were repositioned and scans repeated to obtain double measurements. For each scan BMD was measured in a hemispherical volume around the acetabular cup using in-house segmentation software. Results In the uncemented concept mean BMD...

  15. Research on Modern Gas Discharge Light Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Born, M.; Markus, T.

    This article gives an overview of today's gas discharge light sources and their application fields with focus on research aspects. In Sect. 15.1 of this chapter, an introduction to electric light sources, the lighting market and related research topics is outlined. Due to the complexity of the subject, we have focused on selected topics in the field of high intensity discharge (HID) lamps since these represent an essential part of modern lamp research. The working principle and light technical properties of HID lamps are described in Sect. 15.2. Physical and thermochemical modelling procedures and tools as well as experimental analysis are discussed in Sects. 15.3 and 15.4, respectively. These tools result in a detailed scientific insight into the complexity of real discharge lamps. In particular, analysis and modelling are the keys for further improvement and development of existing and new products.

  16. Dynamical Frustration in ANNNI Model and Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Parongama; Das, Pratap K.

    Simulated annealing is usually applied to systems with frustration, like spin glasses and optimisation problems, where the energy landscape is complex with many spurious minima. There are certain other systems, however, which have very simple energy landscape picture and ground states, but still the system fails to reach its ground state during a energy-lowering dynamical process. This situation corresponds to "dynamical frustration ". We have specifically considered the case of the axial next nearest neighbour (ANNNI) chain, where such a situation is encountered. In Sect. II, we elaborate the notion of dynamic frustration with examples and in Sect. III, the dynamics in ANNNI model is discussed in detail. The results of application of the classical and quantum annealing are discussed in Sects. IV and V. Summary and some concluding comments are given in the last section.

  17. Introduction to IEEE P1900.4 Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buljore, Soodesh; Muck, Markus; Martigne, Patricia; Houzé, Paul; Harada, Hiroshi; Ishizu, Kentaro; Holland, Oliver; Mihailovic, Andrej; Tsagkaris, Kostas A.; Sallent, Oriol; Clemo, Gary; Sooriyabandara, Mahesh; Ivanov, Vladimir; Nolte, Klaus; Stametalos, Makis

    The Project Authorization Request (PAR) for the IEEE P1900.4 Working Group (WG), under the IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 41 (SCC41) was approved in December 2006, leading to this WG being officially launched in February 2007 [1]. The scope of this standard is to devise a functional architecture comprising building blocks to enable coordinated network-device distributed decision making, with the goal of aiding the optimization of radio resource usage, including spectrum access control, in heterogeneous wireless access networks. This paper introduces the activities and work under progress in IEEE P1900.4, including its scope and purpose in Sects. 1 and 2, the reference usage scenarios where the standard would be applicable in Sect. 4, and its current system architecture in Sect. 5.

  18. Molecular phylogeny of Hypoxylon and closely related genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Huei-Mei; Ju, Yu-Ming; Rogers, Jack D

    2005-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships were inferred among several xylariaceous genera with Nodulisporium or nodulisporium-like anamorphs based on the analyses of beta-tubulin and alpha-actin sequences. One hundred nine cultures and three specimens of 83 representatives of these four genera were included in the study. Biscogniauxia taxa formed a well supported clade that was basal to the other taxa, while taxa of Hypoxylon and Daldinia comprised a large monophyletic group that contained two subclades. The first subclade encompassed Hypoxylon sect. Annulata and is accepted here as the new genus Annulohypoxylon. The second subclade contained taxa of Hypoxylon sect. Hypoxylon and Daldinia. Hypoxylon is restricted to include only those taxa in sect. Hypoxylon. Thirty-three epithets are made in Annulohypoxylon. Hypoxylon cohaerens var. microsporum is raised to the species level and accepted as A. minutellum. Hypoxylon polyporoideum is recognized as distinct from H. crocopeplum. Hypoxylon placentiforme is accepted as Daldinia placentiformis.

  19. Toxicological benchmarks for potential contaminants of concern for effects on soil and litter invertebrates and heterotrophic process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Will, M.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1995-09-01

    An important step in ecological risk assessments is screening the chemicals occur-ring on a site for contaminants of potential concern. Screening may be accomplished by comparing reported ambient concentrations to a set of toxicological benchmarks. Multiple endpoints for assessing risks posed by soil-borne contaminants to organisms directly impacted by them have been established. This report presents benchmarks for soil invertebrates and microbial processes and addresses only chemicals found at United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites. No benchmarks for pesticides are presented. After discussing methods, this report presents the results of the literature review and benchmark derivation for toxicity to earthworms (Sect. 3), heterotrophic microbes and their processes (Sect. 4), and other invertebrates (Sect. 5). The final sections compare the benchmarks to other criteria and background and draw conclusions concerning the utility of the benchmarks.

  20. Metals and Ceramics Division progress report for period ending December 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, D.F.; Bradley, R.A.; Weir, J.R. Jr.

    1994-07-01

    This report provides an overview of activities and accomplishsments of the division from October 1992 through December 1993; the division is organized to provide technical support, mainly in the area of high-temperature materials, for technologies being developed by DOE. Activities span the range from basic research to industrial interactions (cooperative research and technology transfer). Sections 1-5 describe the different functional groups (engineering materials, high-temperature materials, materials science, ceramics, nuclear fuel materials). Sect. 6 provides an alternative view of the division in terms of the major programs, most of which cross group lines. Sect. 7 summarizes external interactions including cooperative R and D programs and technology transfer functions. Finally, Sect. 8 briefly describes the division`s involvement in educational activities. Several organizational changes were effected during this period.

  1. Engaged members of the Unification Church. Impact of a charismatic large group on adaptation and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanter, M

    1983-11-01

    This project was designed to study the psychological nature of compliance with unusual behavioral norms among members of a charismatic religious sect. Three hundred twenty-one members of the Unification Church had been placed into marital engagement a year previously in a highly unusual fashion: their partners were assigned to them by the group's leader as part of a religious ritual. The abrogation of contemporary norms for mate selection was not associated with increased psychological distress. Church-related life experiences, however, were perceived as being of considerable psychological impact. Multiple regression analyses further revealed that the vulnerability of respondents to perceived life disruption was relived by their affiliation to the sect. This "relief effect," associated with social and religious ties to the sect, apparently reinforces compliance with the group's behavorial norms, particularly since the manner of reinforcement is integrated into the social structure of the group.

  2. Test-retest reliability, criterion-related validity, and minimal detectable change of score on an abbreviated Wingate test for field sport participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachana, Younes; Attia, Ahmed; Nassib, Sabri; Shephard, Roy J; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel

    2012-05-01

    Repeat measurements in 69 young adults were performed to assess the test-retest reliability and the 95% confidence interval of the difference in score between paired observations (MDC95) of a Wingate test as abbreviated for field sport participants (test of a 15-second duration [15-secT]). Test-retest reliability was excellent for peak power output (PPO) and mean power output (MPO), independently of their mode of expression and was moderate for the fatigue index (FI). The standard errors of measurement (SEM) for absolute, relative, and derived PPO and MPO values ranged from 2.6 to 3.7%, all being smaller than the corresponding smallest worthwhile change (SWC). In contrast, FI values were rated as "marginal," with an SEM (9.6%) greater than the SWC (1.7). The range of MDC95 values for PPO and MPO were 9.9-10.4 and 7.37-7.42%, respectively. The absolute MPO showed the highest test-retest reliability and was the most effective in detecting real change. A second phase of the study evaluated the criterion-related validity of the 15-secT in 43 young men who performed 15-secT and standard 30-second Wingate anaerobic test (30-secT) in random order, on 2 separate occasions. There were no significant intertest differences in absolute, relative, or derived PPO. However, the FI for the 30-secT was greater than that for the 15-secT. Intertest correlations were highly significant for both MPOs and FIs. These findings suggest that the abbreviated Wingate test offers a reliable and valid tool for the evaluation of PPO and MPO, at least in young physical education students.

  3. Metal Artifact Reduction: Added Value of Rapid-Kilovoltage-Switching Dual-Energy CT in Relation to Single-Energy CT in a Piglet Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takrouri, Heba S; Alnassar, Mutaz M; Amirabadi, Afsaneh; Babyn, Paul S; Moineddin, Rahim; Padfield, Nancy L; BenDavid, Guila; Doria, Andrea S

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate virtual monochromatic spectral imaging and metal artifact reduction software for reducing metal artifact and to compare it with conventional single-energy CT (SECT) in an animal model. Postmortem juvenile (n = 5) and adult (n = 1) swine specimens were scanned with SECT followed by a dual-energy CT (DECT) pediatric protocol after the insertion of two rods into their paraspinal thoracolumbar regions. Virtual monochromatic spectral images were extrapolated from DECT images at five monoenergetic levels (64, 69, 75, 88, and 105 keV) with and without the use of metal artifact reduction software. Images were evaluated by a 5-point scoring system for the extent of metallic artifacts and image interpretability in soft-tissue and bone windows. The density in the most pronounced artifact was measured. CT dose index was recorded. In studies without metal artifact reduction software, higher energy reconstructions resulted in fewer artifacts and better image interpretability in both soft-tissue and bone windows (p 0.05). DECT studies showed lower scores compared with SECT with regard to all attributes. A new faint perimetallic hypodense halo was seen in all studies with metal artifact reduction software. The CT dose index of DECT was 1.18-3.56 times higher than that of SECT techniques. DECT at all energy levels with metal artifact reduction software and higher energy extrapolations without metal artifact reduction software reduced metallic artifact and enhanced image interpretability compared with SECT. Radiation dose with DECT could be significantly higher than SECT.

  4. Decision of the Federal Court of Administration of 7/17/80 concerning Wyhl reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    1. The preclusion of objections laid down in paragraph 1 of sect. 3 of the Ordinance concerning the Procedure for Licensing Nuclear Installations does also cover administrative court proceedings and leads to a loss of the opportunity to enforce claims to the annulment of licences granted. No objections can be raised against this under constitutional law. 2. Objections as defined by paragraph 1 of sect. 3 of the Ordinance concerning the Procedure for Licensing Nuclear Installations are factual counter-arguments. With third parties affected, they have to refer to a suspected jeopardizing of protected interests.

  5. Religious observance and market law in medieval Islam

    OpenAIRE

    Ersilia Francesca

    2009-01-01

    The Ibâḍîs are a moderate branch – and today theonly survivors – of the Khawârij, the oldest Islamic sect which, in the eyes of Sunnî Muslims, is heretical. At present, they form the main part of the population in the oases of Mzab in Algeria, of Zawâra and Jebel Nefusa in Tripolitania, in the island of Jerba in Tunisia and in Oman. Small groups are also found on the island of Zanzibar. According to tradition, the sect appeared in 65/684-685 in Basra when Abd Allah b. Ibâḍ broke away from the...

  6. Religious observance and market law in medieval Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersilia Francesca

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The Ibâḍîs are a moderate branch – and today theonly survivors – of the Khawârij, the oldest Islamic sect which, in the eyes of Sunnî Muslims, is heretical. At present, they form the main part of the population in the oases of Mzab in Algeria, of Zawâra and Jebel Nefusa in Tripolitania, in the island of Jerba in Tunisia and in Oman. Small groups are also found on the island of Zanzibar. According to tradition, the sect appeared in 65/684-685 in Basra when Abd Allah b. Ibâḍ broke away from the...

  7. Doubling left syntactic positions in Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the doubling of left syntactic positions in Danish. Such doublings consist of a referential element: a NP or a clause, and an anaphoric element, an unstressed personal pronoun or an unstressed resumptive adverb. In main clauses, the CP-spec position may double in this way, w...... in the analysis of a broadcasted public speech (sect. 5). In earlier versions of Danish, as shown in sect. 4, the construction is both more frequent in writing and also seems almost obligatory....

  8. Three new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae from Limestone Hills in southwestern Sarawak, Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Wei Lin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Most species of Begonia in Borneo, like those of other areas, are narrowly distributed and site-specific. In this study we report three new species of Begonia, namely B. felis C. W. Lin & C.-I Peng, B. kuchingensis C. W. Lin & C.-I Peng (sect. Petermannia and B. serianensis C. W. Lin & C.-I Peng (sect. Reichenheimia from the Padawan-Serian limestone hills in southwestern Sarawak. In addition to the taxonomic account, color plates, line drawings, a distribution map, and comparisons with phenetically similar species are provided to aid in identification.

  9. The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope: A summary update on the scientific potential for pulsating star research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Melissa L.

    2017-09-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will provide hundreds of deep images of the southern sky over its 10 year duration, enabling variability studies for an unprecedentedly large and unbiased population of objects. In this proceeding paper I will cover the aspects of the LSST's survey and data products that are most relevant to the study of stellar pulsations (Sect. 1), and provide a directory of pertinent materials for further information. I will also summarize the anticipated variable star sample sizes from the LSST, and highlight recent research from several members of the scientific community which evaluates the scientific potential of the LSST's data products with respect to pulsating stars (Sect. 2).

  10. Page 1 96 Sudhanshu Siha 5 xid O Figure 2. The ladder ionization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to neon) (eV) (eV) Sect) sect") (db cm2). Fe XVII 639 88 66 004 On 7 3.5 x 10-17. Co XVIII 729 204 61 0.03 O8 3-OX 1 O-7. Cu XX 927 261 47 0.02 1 - 4 3.5 x 10-7 are obtained for Co and Cu. Using equations (3.2), (4.4) and (3.4), we give in table 2 the values of X and A, for excitations in Fe XVII, Co XVIII and Cu XX,.

  11. Fourteen polymorphic microsatellite markers for a widespread limestone endemic,Carex eburnea(Cyperaceae:Carexsect.Albae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Emily L; Pauley, Annabella G; Haffner, Megan L; Hay, Nikolai M; Estep, Matt C; Murrell, Zack E

    2017-08-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed for a widespread limestone endemic sedge, Carex eburnea , to facilitate investigation of the genetic diversity and phylogeography of this taxon and its closest relative, C. mckittrickensis . Forty-eight primer pairs were designed from Illumina sequence data and screened for suitability. Fourteen of these primer pairs were polymorphic and generated one to seven alleles per locus. Cross-species amplifications were conducted for all four members of Carex sect. Albae . These primer pairs can be used to assess the genetic diversity and population structure in future studies of C. eburnea and C. mckittrickensis , and likely in other members of Carex sect. Albae .

  12. A new species of Astragalus (Fabaceae from west coast of Baikal Lake (Irkutsk Oblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Stepantsova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Astragalus rytyensis Stepantsova (Fabaceae, growing on the west coast of the lake Baikal, is described. Morphological differences from related taxa – A. versicolor Pall., A. austrosibiricus Schischk., and A. inopinatus Boriss., are discussed and uncertain position of the new species in the system of the genus is emphasized which is intermediate between subg. Phaca (L. Bunge sect. Hemiphaca Bunge and subg. Cercidothrix Bunge sect. Onobrychium Bunge. Ecological and phonological features of A. rytyensis are reported and chromosome numbers of the new (2n = 6x = 48 and related species are counted.

  13. Functionalized Calixpyrroles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Zúñiga, Gabriela; Bähring, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    This chapter covers advances in the development of anion and ion pair recognition systems based on calix[4]pyrrole. The intention of this manuscript is to provide of an overview of promising systems for the sensing of relevant analytes, such as the toxic fluoride anion, phosphate anions, as well...... in Sect. 12.3. Receptors that are able to recognize and selectively extract ionic species from aqueous media into organic environments are the topic of Sect. 12.4. Anion and ion pair receptors based on calix[4]pyrroles that are designed to achieve the transmembrane transport of ions are the focus...

  14. A General Framework for Analyzing, Characterizing, and Implementing Spectrally Modulated, Spectrally Encoded Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    delay is evident in error control techniques like Turbo coding, IR (see Sect. 2.3.1.3), and hybrid ARQ (see Sect. 2.4.2.2). Redundancy Non uniform...V. Hovinen, R. Tesi , J. J. J. Iinatti, and M. Latva-aho. “On the UWB System Coexistence with GSM900, UMTS/WCDMA, and GPS”. IEEE J. Select. Areas...Commun., 20(9):1712–1721, December 2002. 78. Hamalainen, M., R. Tesi , and J. Iinatti. “UWB Coexistence with IEEE 802.11a and UMTS in Modified Saleh

  15. Considering the issue of aligning Ukrainian plant names. Communication 3. Names for Ribes L. species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Меженський

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The nomenclature and the system of genus Ribes s.l., application of indigenous and introduced plant names, from which such commercial small fruit crops as gooseberry, black and red currant have been formed, is considered. Scientifi c names based on Ukrainian generic name Porichky are streamlined. Ukrainian names for 64 taxa at the rank of species and variety were given. For hybrids nothotaxa ×Ribelaria Mezhenskyj, nothosubg. nov. (= subg. Ribes × subg. Grossularia and ×Сalocalyx Mezhenskyj, nothosect. nov. (= sect. Calobotrya × sect. Symplocalyx were defi ned.

  16. Miscellaneous notes on the genus Pelargonium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. A. van der Walt

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available It is pointed out that the name sect.  Pelargium DC. must be replaced by sect.  Pelargonium, and Pelargonium cardiophyllum Harv. (1860 by P. setulosum Turcz. (1858; P. mossambicense Engl, is reported as a new record for the Transvaal; a new name P. ternifolium Vorster is given to  P. trifolia turn Harv., nom. illeg.; and the typification of  P. multificlum Harv.,  P. plurisectum Salter,  P. dolomiticum Knuth and  P. dasyphyllum E. Mey. ex Knuth is discussed.

  17. Identification and recombinant expression of a novel chymotrypsin from Spodoptera exigua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrero, S.; Combes, E.; Oers, van M.M.; Vlak, J.M.; Maagd, de R.A.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    A novel chymotrypsin which is expressed in the midgut of the lepidopteran insect Spodoptera exigua is described. This enzyme, referred to as SeCT34, represents a novel class of chymotrypsins. Its amino-acid sequence shares common features of gut chymotrpysins, but can be clearly distinguished from

  18. Chaenorhinum semispeluncarum sp. nov. and C. yildirimlii sp. nov. (Scrophulariaceae) from east Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yildirim, Hasan; Tan, Kit; Senol, Serdar

    2010-01-01

    Chaenorhinum semispeluncarum H. Yildirim, Kit Tan, S. Senol & A. Pirhan sp. nov. and C. yildirimlii Kit Tan, H. Yildirim, S. Senol & A. Pirhan sp. nov. (Scrophulariaceae, C. sect. Microrrhinum) from east Anatolia are described and illustrated. They are both narrow endemics related to the rare C. ...

  19. 174 THE MORALITY OF SUICIDE TERRORISM AND BOKO HARAM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract. In the recent years, Nigeria has witnessed the insurgent of terrorist attacks by a group known as Boko Haram. A clear approach to the ideological spring of this Islamic sect has eluded scholarly discussion. One of the major moral challenges with Boko Haram menace has been its method and approach to their ...

  20. The Morality of Suicide Terrorism and Boko Haram Challenges in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the recent years, Nigeria has witnessed the insurgent of terrorist attacks by a group known as Boko Haram. A clear approach to the ideological spring of this Islamic sect has eluded scholarly discussion. One of the major moral challenges with Boko Haram menace has been its method and approach to their struggle.

  1. Begonia siccacaudata (Begoniaceae). A new species from Sulawesi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorenbos, J.

    2000-01-01

    A new species Begonia siccacaudata is described. It belongs to the sect. Petermannia but is distinguished from other species by being stemless with a short fleshy rhizome. The female flowers are solitary, the male flowers are borne on a many-flowered thyrsoid inflorescence of a type not yet

  2. A Survey of Road Construction and Maintenance Problems in Central Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-10-01

    reinforced with nylon /// ~/;7// ///////////// / Base courB : - 2O’ --~ Figure ii. Schematic cross section of MESL expedient road...providing partial answers to these questions , ~~H1-~. cons t ruct ed several test sect i ons near Fairbanks at the Farmer ’s T o . ~~ ~- - t i Field

  3. Integrative taxonomy reveals an unexpected diversity in Geastrum section Geastrum (Geastrales, Basidiomycota)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamora, J.C.; Calonge, F.D.; Martín, M.P.

    2015-01-01

    A revision of the classification of Geastrum sect. Geastrum is presented on the basis of an integrative taxonomic approach, which involves the study of morphological, molecular, ecological, and chorological data. Four DNA regions are analysed: the ITS and LSU nrDNA, rpb1, and atp6. Phylogenetic

  4. Mission Critical Computer Resources Management Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    consistent with respect to the products of the previous phase. B-5 Appendix C Outline of Program Manangement Plan "APPENDIX C OUTLINE OF PROGRAM...airea of Ada software C-1 Appendix C Outline of Program Manangement Plan tools. Some of these tools, particularly corn- C.4 TEST AN1) EVALUATION (Sect 5

  5. Piecing Together the Past: The Dead Sea Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Eugene; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Illustrates the astonishing coordination of archaeological and scholarly activities surrounding the Dead Sea Scrolls. First discovered by Bedouin nomads in 1947, the Scrolls consist of a few complete manuscripts and over 80,000 fragments. Discusses the early Christian sect that produced the Scrolls, and provides current perspectives on the…

  6. Markets, Distribution, and Exchange after Societal Cataclysm

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-03-01

    and Space in Egalitarian Sects: A Millenarian Cosmology ," in M. Douglas, Essays in the Sociology of Perception, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 1982...Strathern, Andrew, The Rope of Moka: Big-men and Ceremonial Exchange in Mount Hagen, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1971. Susskind , Lawrence E

  7. Old Order Amish and the Philosophy of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    The Old Order Amish, or Mennonites, are a religious sect that represents both a traditional and changing culture. Their conservatism is evidenced in their rural way of life, large families of 8 to 12 children, use of horse drawn farm machinery and transportation, nonuse of electricity, and uniformity of dress. The Old Order Amish also present a…

  8. Protecting Yourself from Stinging Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from St ing in g In sect s Flying Insects Outdoor workers are at risk of being stung by flying insects (bees, wasps, and hornets) and fire ants. While ... If a worker is stung by a stinging insect: ■■ Have someone stay with the worker to be ...

  9. Religiositas Matematika dalam Sekte Pythagorean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwit Kurniawan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Presently, mathematic is commonly known as scholarly studies specialized on worldly matters, step aside from mysticism. However, such perspective does not prevail on Pythagorean traditional sect. For this sect, mathematics constitutes divine activities and comprises of metaphysical elements. Pythagorean is a group of derived from Pythagoras disciples. Besides studying of mathematic, they also have tight tradition and mystical belief. This paper aims to analyze the religious side of Pythagorean sect which relates to mathematics. Many concept of mathematics in some universities recently come from Pythagoras thoughts. One of Pythagoras ideas used till now is Pythagoras’s theoretical framework of the comparative quadrate of trilateral sides, (a2+b2=c2. This mathematic concept is widely used, taught and taken as irrelevance with mystical matters, metaphysical and religiosity. The religious elements that have been analyzed refer to Durkheim’s concept of religion on belief in a sacred, namely totem, taboo and ritual. This study argues that Pythagorean conviction of mathematics, related to number, geometry and ratio are categorized as a kind of religious form. Pythagorean sect possessed belief to the sacred, totem, taboo and ritual which is connected with their conception on mathematics.

  10. Morphometry and micromorphometry analyses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MRT

    2013-08-14

    Aug 14, 2013 ... Studies on seed morphology with scanning electron microscope (SEM) have revealed taxonomically useful micro- characters. The present study was performed to study morphological and micromorphological features in seven Silene species and subspecies in the sect Auriculatae and Inflatae growing in ...

  11. 75 FR 14190 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Joint Venture To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et sect. (``the Act''), Joint ] Venture to Perform Project Entitled... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993--Joint Venture To Perform Project Entitled Robotic Rehabilitation of Aging Water Pipelines Notice is hereby given...

  12. A Note on Morley's Triangle Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Nancy; Tikoo, Mohan; Wang, Haohao

    2012-01-01

    In this note, we offer a proof of a variant of Morley's triangle theorem, when the exterior angles of a triangle are trisected. We also offer a generalization of Morley's theorem when angles of an "n"-gon are "n"-sected. (Contains 9 figures.)

  13. Developing an intelligent control system of automatic window motor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    135 Yuan-Tung Road, Chung-Li, Taoyuan 32003, Taiwan; Department of Health Risk Management, China Medical University, No. 91 Hsueh-Shi Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan; Department of Landscape Architecture, National Chin-Yi University of Technology, No.57, Chung Shan Road, Sect. II, Taiping, Taichung 41170, ...

  14. Penstemon lanceolatus Benth. or P. ramosus Crosswhite in Arizona and New Mexico, a peripheral or endemic species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. L. Anderson; S. Richmond-Williams; O. Williams

    2007-01-01

    The red-flowered member of Penstemon sect. Chamaeleon from southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico has been treated taxonomically both as part of the Mexican species, P. lanceolatus Benth., and as a separate species, P. ramosus Crosswhite. Under the former treatment the Arizona and New Mexico populations are peripheral populations of a primarily Mexican...

  15. Application of lexical information in grammar: On the data of Czech verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panevova Jarmila

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between lexical information and the rules of grammar is demonstrated by selected morphological and syntactic phenomena from the domain of Czech verbs. The application of some grammatical rules is based on the data stored in the lexicon. The information about valency is a substantial part of a lexical entry and it contains a great deal of supplementary information about this item. Systemic surface omissions of the obligatory valency positions are indicated in the valency frame in the lexicon (Sect. 2. Conditions for the choice of the formal expressions of the valency members (e.g. conjunctions in content clauses, infinitive forms of participants depend on the features given in the corresponding lexical item of their governing verb as well (Sect. 3 and 6. Two types of semantic conversions are demonstrated in Section 4 with regard to the distinctions in their valency frames. The relation of reciprocity is understood here as a syntactic diathesis (Sect. 5. The introduction of the new types of grammatical diatheses is discussed in Sect. 7: The morphologhy and syntax of resultative, recipient and dispositional diatheses are described here together with the requirements of the grammatical component regarding the shape of lexical items of the verbs participating in these diathesis (Section 8.

  16. Revision of the genus Bromheadia (Orchidaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruizinga, J.; Scheindelen, van H.J.; Vogel, de E.F.

    1997-01-01

    This paper is a taxonomic revision of the genus Bromheadia. In Bromheadia sect. Bromheadia seven species and two varieties are recognized. One species, B. pendek, and one variety, B. borneensis var. longiflora, are described as new. Bromheadia philippinensis Ames & Quisumb. is here reduced to

  17. [Studies on hypoglycemic action of Rheum emodi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Wang, Z; Li, J

    1997-05-01

    The hypoglycemic action has been studied with the 95% ethyl alcohol extract and stilbene glycoside E (exists in a large amount), which are obtained from Rheum emodi. The experimental result shows us the utilization value of R. emodi. In the meanwhile, as tell us how to use the sect Rheum resources.

  18. "Asphodelus cerasiferus" J. Gay y "A. Villarsii" Verlot (asphodelaceae): caracterización y tipificación

    OpenAIRE

    Valdés Castrillón, Benito; Díaz Lifante, Zoila

    1994-01-01

    Asphodelus cerasiferus J. Gay y A. villarsii Verlot (Asphodelaceae): Caracterización y tipificación. Se tipifican y caracterizan morfológica, ecológica y corológicamente Asphodelus cerasiferus J. Gay y A. villarsii Verlot, como una primera contribución al reconocimiento de estas dos especies de la Sect. Asphodelus.

  19. Joshua A. Obaleye"*, Chike L. Orjiekwe' and Dennis A. Edwards2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    complexes support polymeric structures through chlorine bridges. ... absorption bands at 502, 470, and 380 nm which are characteristic of Mn" complexes [37]. .... 37. 38. 39. 40. Joshua A. Obaleye. Galeazzi, G.; Rosso, N.; Valle, G.; Calogero, S. Trans. Met. Chem. 1981 21, 325. . Lebioda, L. Acta. Cryst. Sect B 1980, 36, 271.

  20. Helicobacter pylori Seropositivity in Children With Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Yousefichaijan; Mosayebi; Sharafkhah; Kahbazi; Heydarbagi; Rafiei

    2016-01-01

    Background Some studies have reported an association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonization and the occurrence of asthma or other allergies. However, data are inconsistent, and few studies have been performed in children. Objectives The current study aimed to investigate H. pylori seropositivity in children with and without asthma. Patients and Methods This cross-sect...

  1. The Equity and Access Sub Group: current achievements and future ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and future challenges in promoting equity in the health. sectOr in Malawi. Edward Kataika', Julia Kempz, Paul ... Sub-Group (E&ASG) by describing the move towards. Sector Wide Approaches (SWAps). SWAps are a ... Research Technical Working Group, and was commissioned to ensure that sector monitoring included an ...

  2. The species of Alangium section Rhytidandra (Alangiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.; Duyfjes, B.E.E.

    2017-01-01

    Alangium sect. Rhytidandra is confined to SE Asia, the Pacific and East Australia, and contains 13 species. Five species, viz. Alangium brassii, A. glabrum, A. gracile, A. guadalcanalense, and A. velutinum are described as new, whereas A. villosum subsp. solomonense is raised to specific rank: A.

  3. Large-spored Alternaria pathogens in section Porri disentangled

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudenberg, J H C; Truter, M; Groenewald, J Z; Crous, P W

    The omnipresent fungal genus Alternaria was recently divided into 24 sections based on molecular and morphological data. Alternaria sect. Porri is the largest section, containing almost all Alternaria species with medium to large conidia and long beaks, some of which are important plant pathogens

  4. Alternaria redefined

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Binder, M.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    breviramosa Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria chlamydosporigena Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria concatenata Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria embellisia Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria heterospora Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria papavericola Woudenb. & Crous, Alternaria terricola Woudenb. & Crous. Resurrected names - Alternaria cetera E.G. Simmons, Alternaria chartarum Preuss, Alternaria consortialis (Thüm.) J.W. Groves & S. Hughes, Alternaria cucurbitae Letendre & Roum., Alternaria dennisii M.B. Ellis, Alternaria eureka E.G. Simmons, Alternaria gomphrenae Togashi, Alternaria malorum (Ruehle) U. Braun, Crous & Dugan, Alternaria phragmospora Emden, Alternaria scirpicola (Fuckel) Sivan. New sections, all in Alternaria - sect. Chalastospora Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Cheiranthus Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Crivellia Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Dianthicola Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Embellisia Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Embellisioides Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Eureka Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Infectoriae Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Japonicae Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Nimbya Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Phragmosporae Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Pseudoulocladium Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Teretispora Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Ulocladioides Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Ulocladium Woudenb. & Crous, sect. Undifilum Woudenb. & Crous. New genus - Paradendryphiella Woudenb. & Crous. PMID:24014900

  5. Parallels in Computer-Aided Design Framework and Software Development Environment Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    Civil Rights Act of 1964 Title IX of th. Educational Amenrimeirts of 1972? and Sect Jr S04 of !hfe Reoahcrl,ton Art of 1973 or other fedlerl sate, or...is similar to many efforts in the SDE community for defining reference models for IPSEs. Research Systems Commercial Systems Many mechanisms I Concepto

  6. Erigeron L., sectie Phalacroloma (Cass.) Cronquist in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooststroom, van S.J.; Reichgelt, Th.J.

    1964-01-01

    Dutch floras mention two adventitious species of Erigeron L. sect. Phalacroloma (Cass.) Cronquist, viz. E. annuus (L.) Pers. [= Stenactis annua (L.) N. ab E.] and E. strigosus Mühlenb. ex Willd. [= Stenactis strigosa (Mühlenb. ex Willd.) DC.; S. bellidiflora (Wallr.) A. Br. ex Koch]. From a study of

  7. Evoked Potentials to Evaluate Mechanisms of Peripheral Nerve Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    or shared innervation from a nearby nerve. Histologically, the re- sected specimens in this group showed a degree of neurotmesis incompat- ible with...great. However, due to the neurotmesis found in this area and lack of re- generation because of it, full recovery does not occur even by a year. Primary

  8. TOWARDS A PASTORAL CHURCH. I The term “pastoral theology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    work, missions, mental health and cult life. Pastoral theology today has come into an embarassing .... these new sects and cults, which express themselves in books, in movies and television, on the stage, in journals, and in new human .... mind and serving spirit. Only the love of God can deliver men from self-love and set ...

  9. Contributions towards a monograph of Phoma (Coelomycetes) — II. Section Peyronellaea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerema, G.H.

    1993-01-01

    Seventeen taxa in Phoma sect. Peyronellaea are keyed out and briefly described by their characteristics in vitro. The following new taxa are described: Phoma narcissi (Aderh.) Boerema, de Gruyter & Noordeloos comb. nov., Phoma pomorum var. calorpreferens Boerema, de Gruyter & Noordeloos var. nov.

  10. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs, No. 2197

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-13

    forms in the new religious movements ( Scientology , also known by the name of the "Church of New Comprehension," the Moon sect or the "Association for...intentions which they, are actually pursuing. For example, Scientology embeds in its followers the idea that through special psychological training - whose

  11. The Influence of Mutazilah Theology upon Karaite Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ghorban Elmi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract:   Excessive sanctity of the oral tradition (Talmud among Rabbinic Judaism, sometimes, which marginalized the Holy Scriptures among Jews, caused appearance of a sect that rejected the oral tradition. It was the Karaites sect that appeared in 8th century the century of Messiah movements of the eastern Jewish society. Among the causes of these Messiah movements are the appearance of Islam, and reestablishment of the traditional style of leadership of the Jewish society and the appearance of social-economical riots as consequences of this kind of leadership.   Responding to these crises some Jews found some reforms necessary in their religion. Among these was Anan Ben David. The general rule of Anan was rejection of oral tradition, and returning to the Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament. He believed every individual is required to take responsibility for interpreting the Scriptures, which resulted nothing but a lot of divisions in his newly appeared sect. But Karaite scholars prevented the sect from experiencing more split, by approving a series of interpretation rules.   In the 10th and 11th centuries, Karaite literary men like Kirkisāni, David b. Boaz, Japhet b. Ali, Joseph Al-Basir and Jeshua b. Judah appeared and laid the foundation of Karaite's theological philosophy by getting help from Mutazilah theology. And after this period, Karaite scholars just engaged in translation, explanation and interpretation of the rich works of this period and created the most useful Jewish philosophy in Middle Ages.

  12. Resolving interspecific relationships within evolutionarily young lineages using RNA-seq data: An example from Pedicularis section Cyathophora (Orobanchaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Juan; Li, Wei-Tao; Liu, Ya-Nan; Yang, Fu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Quan

    2017-02-01

    Phylogenomics has shown great potential in resolving evolutionary relationships at different taxonomical levels. However, it remains controversial whether all orthologous genes under different selective pressures can be concatenated for phylogenomic reconstruction. Here we used sect. Cyathophora of Pedicularis, one of the most species-rich genera of angiosperms in the alpine and arctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere, as a model to investigate the efficiency of RNA-seq in resolving relationships of closely related congeneric species. Flower transcriptomes were sequenced for all species of sect. Cyathophora and two outgroup species. Forty-one highly conserved single-/low-copy nuclear genes and 1553 orthologous groups (OGs) were identified and concatenated into five datasets based on gene copy numbers and Ka/Ks values to reconstruct the phylogeny of section Cyathophora. We also tested how many genes minimally can resolve the interspecific relationships, and reconstructed the evolutionary history of some floral characters in sect. Cyathophora. The results showed that the five different datasets consistently resolved the interspecific relationships of sect. Cyathophora, and the interspecific relationships can be robustly reconstructed with maximal support when ⩾20 single-/low-copy nuclear genes or 25 OGs are used. Our study suggests that all OGs under different selective pressures can be concatenated for phylogenomic reconstruction, and provides a successful and efficient use of RNA-seq in reconstructing interspecific relationships of a non-model plant group with recent radiations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Studies in Coprinus—II. Subsection Setulosi of section Pseudocoprinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ujlé, C.B.; Bas, C.

    1991-01-01

    A key is given to the Netherlands’ species of subsect. Setulosi J. Lange of Coprinus sect. Pseudocoprinus (Kühn.) P.D. Orton & Watling. Some additional species are also included. All species dealt with are concisely described and fully discussed. A few probably new species are described ad interim.

  14. Studies in Coprinus—I. Subsections Auricomi and Glabri of Coprinus section Pseudocoprinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uljé, C.B.; Bas, C.

    1988-01-01

    A key is given to the Netherlands’ species of subsect. Auricomi Sing. and Glabri J. Lange of Coprinus sect. Pseudocoprinus (Kühn.) Orton & Watling. All species concerned are concisely described and amply discussed. Coprinus plicatilis var. microsporus Kühn. is raised to species level as C. kuehneri

  15. Page 1 i ; i Studies in Turbine Geometry—/V 495 lenticular space ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Studies in Turbine Geometry—/V 495 lenticular space whose coefficient of torsion is b, and whose fundamental group is cyclic and of order b. Such a lenticular space” is bounded by two equal spherical caps inter-. Secting in a circular edge C. The circumference of C is divided into p equal segments. Each point on either of ...

  16. REVIEW ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abdomen, labia, genito-crural groove, interior aspect of the thighs) as well as the vagina, a. 16 Fr. urethral catheter is inserted and a mid- line vertical 2 cm vaginal incision is made one centimeter behind the urethral meatus. The internal aspect of the vaginal mucosa is dis- sected with the tip of the Metzenbaum scissors.

  17. Boko Haram : Islamism, politics, security and the state in Nigeria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérouse, de Montclos M.-A.

    2014-01-01

    This book is the first attempt to understand Boko Haram in a comprehensive and consistent way. It examines the early history of the sect and its transformation into a radical armed group. It analyses the causes of the uprising against the Nigerian state and evaluates the consequences of the on-going

  18. Comparative study of ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy for the diagnosis for fatty liver in a rat model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Hoon; Song, Xiao Li; Heo, Suk Hee; Kim, Jin Woong; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sang Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Kyu Youn [Dept. of Anatomy, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    To compare the accuracy of ultrasonography (US), single-energy CT (SECT), dual-energy CT (DECT), MR imaging (MRI), and MR spectroscopy (MRS) for detecting fatty liver in a rat model. Fatty liver was induced by 60% high-fat diet for 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 weeks (3 rats per group, a total of 15 rats). The control group comprised of five rats fed 10% high-fat diet. US, SECT, DECT, MRI, and MRS of the liver were performed weekly. Histologic steatosis grade and intrahepatocelluar triglyceride level were determined histologically for the livers of sacrificed rats. Pearson correlation test was used to assess the correlation between examinations and standard reference levels. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed. Area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity were calculated. US, SECT, DECT, MRI, and MRS were significantly correlated with histologic steatosis grade. The diagnostic performance of AUC, sensitivity, and specificity were 0.893, 80%, and 80% for US, 0.960, 80%, and 80% for SECT, 0.947, 100%, and 60% for DECT, 0.933, 93.3%, and 100% for MRI, and 0.960, 93.3%, and 100% for MRS. MRS showed the strongest correlation with histologic steatosis grade with the highest sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of fatty liver compared to other modalities.

  19. Gymnopus beltraniae, a new species of section Vestipedes (Agaricales) from the Canary Islands (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banares, Á.; Antonín, V.; Moreno, G.

    2007-01-01

    Gymnopus beltraniae, collected on the Canary Islands in ‘monteverde’ forest as well as mixed monteverde/Canary pine forest, is proposed as a new species belonging to sect. Vestipedes subsect. Vestipedes. It is compared with species from North and South America considered to represent the closest

  20. Mass médias et figures du religieux islamique au Mali: entre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dynamics underway are translated by the formation of divergent religious groups, or even sects, some of which, due to their rejection of any form of social compromise, are sources of conflict. The tensions between the different currents are sometimes heightened by external influences or sociological and economic ...

  1. Classification of the Vireya group of Rhododendron (Ericaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craven, L.A.; Goetsch, L.A.; Hall, B.D.; Brown, G.K.

    2008-01-01

    A new classification of the Vireya group of Rhododendron, based upon their evolutionary relationships as inferred from analysis of nuclear and plastid DNA sequence data, is presented. Rhododendron sect. Vireya is not monophyletic and its species are herein placed in three sections within subg.

  2. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 9, No 30 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of Fusarium corm rot of gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus sect. Blandus cv. Aarti) by using leaves of allelopathic plants · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. T Riaz, SN Khan, A Javaid, 4681-4686 ...

  3. Euler characteristic and quadrilaterals of normal surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tejas Kalelkar matching equations which ensure that normal disks in adjacent tetrahedrons glue together to form a surface. As quadrilaterals of different types within the same tetrahedron inter- sect, the normal coordinates of a normal surface have at most one non-zero coordinate corresponding to the different quadrilateral ...

  4. Journal of East African Natural History - Vol 97, No 2 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three new species of Barleria Sect. Somalia (Acanthaceae) from the miombo woodlands of western Tanzania · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. I Darbyshire, HJ Ndangalasi. http://dx.doi.org/10.2982/0012-8317-97.2.123 ...

  5. AYENIA LUYENSIS (STERCULIACEAE NUEVA ESPECIE DE PERU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L. Cristóbal

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe e ilustra una nueva especie de Luya, Amazones, Perú: Ayenia luyensis Cristób. Esta pertenece a la sect. Ayenia subsect Ayenia. Se presenta una clave para las cuatro especies de Ayenia encontradas hasta ahora en Perú.

  6. Medicine, religion and faith: issues in Jehovah's Witnesses and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper looks at the ethical and legal aspects of this peculiar religious sect in relation to surgical treatment. It also provides guidelines for contemporary management of JW using transfusion avoidance strategies. Methodology: Medical literature on the subject was reviewed using manual library search, articles in journals ...

  7. The Influence of Mutazilah Theology upon Karaite Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ghorban Elmi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:   Excessive sanctity of the oral tradition (Talmud among Rabbinic Judaism, sometimes, which marginalized the Holy Scriptures among Jews, caused appearance of a sect that rejected the oral tradition. It was the Karaites sect that appeared in 8th century the century of Messiah movements of the eastern Jewish society. Among the causes of these Messiah movements are the appearance of Islam, and reestablishment of the traditional style of leadership of the Jewish society and the appearance of social-economical riots as consequences of this kind of leadership.   Responding to these crises some Jews found some reforms necessary in their religion. Among these was Anan Ben David. The general rule of Anan was rejection of oral tradition, and returning to the Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament. He believed every individual is required to take responsibility for interpreting the Scriptures, which resulted nothing but a lot of divisions in his newly appeared sect. But Karaite scholars prevented the sect from experiencing more split, by approving a series of interpretation rules.   In the 10th and 11th centuries, Karaite literary men like Kirkisāni, David b. Boaz, Japhet b. Ali, Joseph Al-Basir and Jeshua b. Judah appeared and laid the foundation of Karaite's theological philosophy by getting help from Mutazilah theology. And after this period, Karaite scholars just engaged in translation, explanation and interpretation of the rich works of this period and created the most useful Jewish philosophy in Middle Ages.

  8. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    : The Evolutionary Phases of the Boko Haram Sect in Nigeria Abstract · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of ...

  9. Synthesis, characterization and crystal structure of four new ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coordination Chemistry (Oxford: Pergamon Press) p. 189. 8. Moore D S and Robinson S D 1986 Adv. Inorg. Chem. Radiochem. 28 1. 9. Horner M, Carratu V S, Bordinhao J, Silva A and Niquet. E 2004 Acta Crystallogr. Sect. C 60 m140. 10. Horner M, Bortoluzzi A J, Beck J and Serafin M 2002. Z Anorg. Allg. Chem. 628 1104.

  10. Search for anomalous Wtb couplings in single top quark production ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-11-08

    Nov 8, 2012 ... CDF Collaboration: T Aaltonen et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 092002 (2009). [2] S Cortese and R Petronzio, Phys. Lett. B253, 494 (1991). [3] C-P Yuan, Phys. Rev. D41, 42 (1990). [4] N Kidonakis, Phys. Rev. D74, 114012 (2006). [5] D0 Collaboration: V M Abazov et al, Nucl. Instrum. Meth. in Phys. Res. Sect.

  11. Giemsa C-Banding in Asiactic Taxa of Hordeum Section Stenostachys with Notes on Chromosome Morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linde-Laursen, Ib; Bothmer, R. von; Jacobsen, N.

    1980-01-01

    C-banding patterns of eight cytotypes of six Asiatic taxa of Hordeum sect. Stenostachys were characterized by (1) the small size of most centromeric bands, (2) the paucity and generally small size of the intercalary bands and of the bands at the secondary constrictions, and (3) the existence...

  12. Centaurea tchihatcheffii Fischer & C.A. Meyer (Asteraceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Vural, Mecit

    2007-01-01

    Abstract   Centaurea tchihatcheffii is a steppic annual possessing some unique features absent in other Centaureas. The chromosome number is 2n = 20, differing from all other annual species of Centaurea sect. Cyanus. The type locality as published is erroneous and the correct provenance is provided....

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nwadialor, Kanayo. Vol 12 (2016): Special Issue - Articles Wealth and political influence in the expansion of Christian frontiers in contemporary Nigeria: the Clapham sect lesson. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1597-474X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  14. The expression of GFP under the control of fibroin promotor in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Jarvis D L 1993 Effects of baculovirus infection on IE1- mediated foreign gene expression in stably transformed in- sect cells; J. Virol. 67 2583–2591. Jarvis D L, Fleming J G W, Kovacs G R, Summers M D and. Gua-rino L A 1990 Use of early baculovirus promoters for continuous expression and efficient processing of foreign.

  15. Maliki Jurisprudence and Boko Haram ideology versus Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No doubt this aspiration is consistent with the sect's recent rechristening of itself with the term 'Islamic State of West African Province (ISWAP)'. This paper aims at exploring the common thread connecting Boko Haram philosophy to Maliki thought in the light of the multifarious ways of practicing Islam as exemplified in ...

  16. Review: The Third Stage of Labour-A Time Bomb!! | Nwagha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apart from refreshing our memories on the recent techniques of management where state of the art facilities are available, it also provides alternative non sophisticated methods that can be life saving.. Management of PPH in some religious sects like the Jehovah's witness and Faith healers are also highlighted. Key Words: ...

  17. The Nigerian State as an equilibrium of violence: An explanation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel Ikechi Onah. 1. Introduction. Despite the state of emergency that has been in operation in three states of the northeastern part of Nigeria for almost a year, the violent campaign embarked upon by the Boko Haram Islamic sect has refused to die down. In fact, the violence seems to be escalating, especially in its toll ...

  18. Determinants of perinatal mortality in Marondera district ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Labor complications, belonging to apostolic sect, having a home delivery, maternal HIV infection, low birth weight and antenatal care booking were independently associated with perinatal mortality. Health worker training in emergency management of obstetric and neonatal care was initiated. Marondera District ...

  19. Aspergillus mulundensis sp. nov., a new species for the fungus producing the antifungal echinocandin lipopeptides, mulundocandins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bills, Gerald F.; Yue, Qun; Chen, Li

    2016-01-01

    that it is a distinct and novel species of Aspergillus sect. Nidulantes. The taxonomic novelty, Aspergillus mulundensis, is introduced for this historically important echinocandin-producing strain. The closely related A. nidulans FGSC A4 has one of the most extensively characterized secondary metabolomes of any...

  20. Maximal saddle solution of a nonlinear elliptic equation involving the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    p-Laplacian, Nonlinear Diff. Equ. Appl. 18 (2011) 101–114. [9] Kowalczyk M and Liu Y, Nondegeneracy of the saddle solution of the Allen–Cahn equation, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 139(12) (2011) 4319–4329. [10] Schatzman M, On the stability of the saddle solution of Allen-Cahn's equation, Proc. Roy. Soc. Edinburgh Sect.

  1. Weberian Sociology and the Study of Pentecostalism: Historical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents three sociological theories of Weberian origin: church-sect theory, secularization theory and what I have called the Pentecostal ethic for development. These theories are discussed with respect to the study of Pentecostalism, as it will be demonstrated that Pentecostalism has played a unique role in ...

  2. Clusia nubium (Clusiaceae): a new species from cloud-forests of southwestern Ecuador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Mats; Borchsenius, Finn

    2016-01-01

    Clusia nubium from southwestern Ecuador is described as a species new to science. It grows as a hemiepiphyte in lower montane cloud forest. The species belongs to Clusia sect. Retinostemon, a largely Andean group characterized by male flowers with a resin-secreting synandrium of completely fused...

  3. Non-covalent O⋅⋅⋅O interactions among isopolyanions using a cis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    2008-05-09

    May 9, 2008 ... P and Lorenzo-Luis P A Acta Crystallogr., Sect. C: Cryst. Struct. Commun. 56 2000 e441; Cindric M,. Strukan N and Kamenar B 1999 Polyhedron 18 2781;. Upreti S and Ramanan A 2006 Cryst. Growth. Design. 6 2066; Kortz U, Savelieff M G, Ghali F Y A, Khalil. L M, Maalouf S A and Sinno D I 2002 Angew.

  4. Polio eradication efforts in regions of geopolitical strife: the Boko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The World Health Organization aims to eradicate wild poliovirus worldwide by the end of 2018. Cameroon and Nigeria, neighboring countries, have been affected by the terrorist and militant activities of the Islamist sect Boko Haram. Impacted regions are mainly the far North of Cameroon and Northern Nigeria. Targets of ...

  5. Page 1 AJ Vav V V vuvu . . volume 1. Number l, january 200 rp. 22 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in fruit (inct sect production and this shots'c'd at trend of incr'ascadfruit canal seed it'll as foultry manure use is as increased 'ith increased plant (tensity rates. Key words. "Egusi' melon, poultry manure, plant density. INTRODUCTION. The 'egusi" melon (Colocynthis citrullus) is a member of the cucurbitaceae family.

  6. Two major groups of chloroplast DNA haplotypes in diploid and tetraploid Aconitum subgen. Aconitum (Ranunculaceae in the Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mitka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum in Europe is represented by ca. 10% of the total number of species and the Carpathian Mts. are the center of the genus variability in the subcontinent. We studied the chloroplast DNA intergenic spacer trnL(UAG-rpl32- ndhF (cpDNA variability of the Aconitum subgen. Aconitum in the Carpathians: diploids (2n=16, sect. Cammarum, tetraploids (2n=32, sect. Aconitum and triploids (2n=24, nothosect. Acomarum. Altogether 25 Aconitum accessions representing the whole taxonomic variability of the subgenus were sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Both parsimony, Bayesian and character network analyses showed the two distinct types of the cpDNA chloroplast, one typical of the diploid and the second of the tetraploid groups. Some specimens had identical cpDNA sequences (haplotypes and scattered across the whole mountain arch. In the sect. Aconitum 9 specimens shared one haplotype, while in the sect. Camarum one haplotype represents 4 accessions and the second – 5 accessions. The diploids and tetraploids were diverged by 6 mutations, while the intrasectional variability amounted maximally to 3 polymorphisms. Taking into consideration different types of cpDNA haplotypes and ecological profiles of the sections (tetraploids – high‑mountain species, diploids – species from forest montane belt we speculate on the different and independent history of the sections in the Carpathians.

  7. Alkaloids of some Asian Sedum species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, JH; THart, H; Stevens, JF

    The leafy parts of 16 Asian species belonging to the three sections of Sedum were investigated for the presence of alkaloids. Only in seven species of Sedum sect. Sedum were alkaloids found. Sedum bulbiferum, S. japonicum, S. lepidopodium, S. morrisomensis, S. oryzifolium, S. polytrichoides and S.

  8. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 121 of 121 ... Vol 12 (2016): Special Issue, Wealth and political influence in the expansion of Christian frontiers in contemporary Nigeria: the Clapham sect lesson, Abstract PDF. Kanayo Nwadialor, Chinedu Emmanuel Nnatuanya. Vol 9 (2012), Western Influence on Chinese and Nigerian Cultures, Abstract PDF.

  9. Qualea amapaensis (Vochysiaceae), a new and phytogepgraphically interesting species from Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Mori, Scott A

    1981-01-01

    Qualea amapaËnsis, the second species of sect. Polytrias Stafleu is described. It differs from its close relative, Q. cymulosa, principally in its entirely glabrous leaves and more profusely branched cymes. The two species add a new pair to the growing list of taxa disjunct between eastern Panama...

  10. True religion and nation building: a biblical perspective | Obielosi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Today, Nigeria seems to record the greatest number of sects and religions than her neighbours. Because of the crushing hardship bedeviling our nation, some seem to look up to God for solution. Some have created imaginary God and are living in utopian world. Most so called Men of God seize the opportunity to loot the ...

  11. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nmah, P. Vol 13, No 1 (2012) - Articles Religious Fanaticism, a Threat to National Security: The Case of Boko Haram Sect Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1595-1413. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of ...

  12. Abortion in the North of Burkina Faso | Dehane | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response rates and knowledge of abortions were lower among younger women and among those belonging to the Islamic Hamallist and Wahabiya sects. Abortions were commonly induced by drinking a watery solution of the roots and leaves of a commonly found bush –– Securidaca longepedunculata. The plant contains ...

  13. A pellet mould for small powdery specimens for X-ray microanalysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KOYAMA, T. 1979. A new needle-type colloid osmometer for continuous determination of blood oncotic pressure. Am. 1. Physiol. 236: F419 - F422. LANDIS, E.M. & PAPPENHEIMER, J.R. 1963. Exchange of sub- stances through capillary walls. In: Handbook of Physiology. Circulation. Sect. 2, Vo!. II. 961 - 1034. Am. Physiol.

  14. Advanced Stellar Compass - Proposal for the LunARSat project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John Leif; Kilsgaard, Søren

    1998-01-01

    is structured as follows. First we present the ASC - heritage, system description, performance and the calibration procedures. In section 3 the mechanical and electrical interfaces are given. In section 4 and 5 we address issues like manufacturing, transportation and storage and to conclude, in sect. 6, we...

  15. A new autumn-flowering species of Allium (Liliaceae) from the island of Sifnos (Cyclades, Greece)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biel, B.; Tan, Kit; Tzanoudakis, D.

    2006-01-01

    Allium apolloniensis is described as a species new to science, illustrated and compared with related species of A. sect. Codonoprasum. It is apparently restricted to the Cyclades in the central Aegean and of particular interest for the phylogeny of the genus because it is tetraploid (2n = 4x = 32)....

  16. and Cu(II) complexes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    England: Oxford Diffraction Ltd. 27. Sheldrick G M 1996 Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A 46. 467. 28. Sheldrick G M 1997 SHELXL-97, Program for crystal structure refinement, Germany: University of Göttingen. 29. Sheldrick G M 2001 SADABS, Version 2, Multi scan absorption correction program, Germany: University of. Göttingen.

  17. The Potential of ClaSsical Biological Control Against Leu~ena

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sect problems. In 1983 a sup-sucking insect. IIi Tanzania, like ma.nY other leucaena grow- leucaena psyllid (Heteropsylla cubana), which ing regions, heaVy damages have ~een observed. aIso originates from the leucaena natural range, at- . in nearly all infested areas, causing fanners to tacked and caused slevere ...

  18. Genetic relationships among some Hesperis L. (Brassicaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... In this study the phylogenetic relations among infraspecific, specific and supraspecific categories of 6 taxa of the genus Hesperis collected from different parts of Turkey were investigated by RAPD analysis. The results of the RAPD analysis support the idea that H. bicuspidata (Sect. Hesperis), H. schischkinii.

  19. Prayer as a Panacea for Human Problems: Nigerian Christian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Christian religious sects as a consequence, over the last two decades, have blossomed in Nigeria. In cities as well as the suburbs, prayer sessions and overnight vigils and crusades for prosperity, faith and spiritual healings, and supplication against bribery and corruption are held by real and fake men of God. This paper ...

  20. Paronychia manfrediana (Caryophyllaceae), a new species from northeast Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Kit; Strid, Arne

    2008-01-01

    Paronychia manfrediana (Caryophyllaceae) is decribed as a species new to science based on material collected near the Turkish border in northeastern Greece; it is illustrated by a photograph. Although belonging to Paronychia sect. Heterosepalae it bears a strong resemblance to P.macedonica (Paron......Paronychia manfrediana (Caryophyllaceae) is decribed as a species new to science based on material collected near the Turkish border in northeastern Greece; it is illustrated by a photograph. Although belonging to Paronychia sect. Heterosepalae it bears a strong resemblance to P.......macedonica (Paronychia sect. Anoplonychia), differing by its leaves with prominent midvein beneath, the number of stipules (four) at each node and the outer surface of the sepal which is completely glabrous or adpressed-pubescent only in the upper part. In P. macedonica, the leaf midvein is not as conspicuous......, there are two stipules at each node and the entire outer surface of the sepal is densely sericeous. The leaves of P. capitata and P. macrosepala, both in sect. Heterosepalae, differ in being strongly scabrid-hirsute and densely sericeous respectively....

  1. The Influence of Mutazilah Theology upon Karaite Theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr ghorban Elmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive sanctity of the oral tradition (Talmud among Rabbinic Judaism, sometimes, which marginalized the Holy Scriptures among Jews, caused appearance of a sect that rejected the oral tradition. It was the Karaites sect that appeared in 8th century; the century of Messiah movements of the eastern Jewish society. Among the causes of these Messiah movements are the appearance of Islam, and reestablishment of the traditional style of leadership of the Jewish society; and the appearance of social-economical riots as consequences of this kind of leadership. Responding to these crises some Jews found some reforms necessary in their religion. Among these was Anan Ben David. The general rule of Anan was rejection of oral tradition, and returning to the Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament. He believed every individual is required to take responsibility for interpreting the Scriptures, which resulted nothing but a lot of divisions in his newly appeared sect. But Karaite scholars prevented the sect from experiencing more split, by approving a series of interpretation rules. In the 10th and 11th centuries, Karaite literary men like Kirkisāni, David b. Boaz, Japhet b. Ali, Joseph Al-Basir and Jeshua b. Judah appeared; and laid the foundation of Karaite's theological philosophy by getting help from Mutazilah theology. And after this period, Karaite scholars just engaged in translation, explanation and interpretation of the rich works of this period and created the most useful Jewish philosophy in Middle Ages.

  2. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rahman, A. Vol 9, No 3 (2012) - Articles Medicinal plants used for treatment of diabetes by the marakh sect of the Garo tribe living in Mymensingh district, Bangladesh Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0189-6016. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  3. Educational Disparities and Conflict: Evidence from Lebanon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfaily, Rania; Diab, Hassan; Kulczycki, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the impact of Lebanon's civil war (1975-1991) on disparities in education among the country's main religious sects and across various regions. District of registration is adopted as a proxy for religious affiliation through a novel, detailed classification to assess sectarian differentials by region and regional differentials…

  4. Fronteiras espirituais e fronteiras nacionais: o combate às seitas na França

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Birman

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa a constituição dos movimentos contra as seitas na sociedade francesa, direcionada à defesa de valores familiares, nos anos 1980. Busca destacar de que forma estes movimentos conseguiram se impor no espaço público e fazer da questão das seitas um problema relativo à integridade da nação e de seus membros. A associação entre família, homogeneidade cultural e integridade da nação, de um lado, e irracionalidade e seitas estrangeiras, de outro, fez do perigo das seitas uma ameaça aos supostos fundamentos da nação, sob a guarda da instituição familiar.This paper examines the upsurge of anti-sect movements in France during the 1970s and 80s, and their accompanying defence of family values. It explores the ways in which these movements gained public attention and influence, as well as their success in transforming the issue of sects and beliefs into a problem of national and family unity. The distinct associations made between family, cultural homogeneity and national unity on one hand, and between irrational and foreign sects on the other, has transformed the perceived danger posed by the sects into a threat to the very foundations of the nation and its dependence on the family institution.

  5. The Ethics of Quantification and Why It Doesn't Work; or Life among the Numerologists, Inumerates, and Qualitatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sax, Gilbert

    The paper states that quantification is neither ethical nor unethical, but is ethically neutral. It is the behavior or intent of the human being that is clearly a matter of ethical concern. Like numerology and the sects of inumerates and qualitatives, there is not so much an unethical practice that is supported as there is a lack of vision and…

  6. Resurrection of the genus Aphyllon for New World broomrapes (Orobanche s.l., Orobanchaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Adam C

    2016-01-01

    Recent phylogenetic studies support a monophyletic clade of New World broomrapes (Orobanche sects. Gymnocaulis and Nothaphyllon) sister to the Old World genus Phelipanche. I place the New World taxa in the genus Aphyllon, propose 21 new combinations, and provide a list of currently accepted taxa.

  7. Perception of Boko Haram in Northern Nigeria and the 2015 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Boko Haram terror sect has become an important matter in the annals of Nigerian history. Its existence, philosophy and activities have played a significant role in how Nigeria's citizens score the performance of the government – at least in the area of security, which is an important aspect. We argue in this article that the ...

  8. The Lebanese in America. In America Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harik, Elsa Marston

    The history of Lebanese immigrants to the United States is reviewed, and the contributions of this ethnic group to the American fabric are explored in this book which is part of a series for children. For at least 1,500 years Lebanon was a sort of haven for religious sects that would not have been allowed such freedom elsewhere. As a result, the…

  9. Quantum Markov Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kümmerer, Burkhard

    These notes give an introduction to some aspects of quantum Markov processes. Quantum Markov processes come into play whenever a mathematical description of irreversible time behaviour of quantum systems is aimed at. Indeed, there is hardly a book on quantum optics without having at least a chapter on quantum Markov processes. However, it is not always easy to recognize the basic concepts of probability theory in families of creation and annihilation operators on Fock space. Therefore, in these lecture notes much emphasis is put on explaining the intuition behind the mathematical machinery of classical and quantum probability. The lectures start with describing how probabilistic intuition is cast into the mathematical language of classical probability (Sects. 4.1-4.3). Later on, we show how this formulation can be extended such as to incorporate the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics (Sects. 4.4,4.5). Quantum Markov processes are constructed and discussed in Sects. 4.6,4.7, and we add some further discussions and examples in Sects. 4.8-4.11.

  10. L'État colonial et les missions catholiques face au mouvement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But after World War II, the colonial government began to organize its own lines of research into these sects and it consequently developed a policy towards them which was less influenced by the Catholic Church than before. From the years 1953-1954, the sons of Simon Kimbangu, together with a group of young, dynamic, ...

  11. C*-algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bär, Christian; Becker, Christian

    In this chapter we will collect those basic concepts and facts related to C*-algebras that will be needed later on. We give complete proofs. In Sects. 1, 2, 3, and 6 we follow closely the presentation in [1]. For more information on C*-algebras, see, e.g. [2-6].

  12. Mutagenesis effects of X-irradiation on the germination, growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The time of exposure and mutagenesis effects of X-ray on the germination, growth and development of maize (Zea mays) seeds have been investigated employing a nuclear source, (90Sr as X-ray source; 3mA, 70kv). Five sects of zea mays seeds in different packs were irradiated in different times of exposure and later ...

  13. What Is Amish in Old Amish Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    The Old Order Amish society is unique among diverse Mennonite sects. Their traditions and simplicity of lifestyle are evident in their manner of dress, non-mechanized farming practices, and rejection of electricity or running water in their homes. In an Old Order Amish education, children are taught the "four R's:" reading, writing,…

  14. Dimensions of Intellectual Productivity Among Sectarian and Non-Sectarian College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, James W.

    One of the most important purposes of a college is the development of the intellectual nature of its students. It appears that US Catholic colleges and fundamentalist Protestant colleges (representing Pentecostal, Baptist, and Lutheran sects) have failed to produce students who possess intellectual attitudes. In the case of the Catholics, students…

  15. Minority Groups in Anglo-America: An Introduction and Bibliography of Selected Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterman, Gordon

    As a result of a resolution of the Association of Christian School Administrators this paper was produced on minorities in the United States and Canada. The groups considered here are not only the racial groups, but the various religious sects in both countries. Major emphasis, in terms of numbers of resources discussed or listed, is on the…

  16. The church, the state and the stage: Dramatic narratives during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The discourse focuses primarily on the exposition of the activities of some religious sects through the medium of theatre in Sinxo's Imfene kaDebeza neminye imidlalwana (1960) and Dhlomo's The Girl who killed to save: Nongqawuse the liberator (1936 in Visser & Couzens, 1985) as case studies. South African Journal of ...

  17. The Physician, The Patient And Religion – Any Conflict? A Fatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Though the advent of Christianity and western civilization has greatly altered the socio-cultural milieu in the past few centuries, this concept is still strongly held by some religious sects whose members are forbidden from taking medications or undergoing surgery when they fall sick, irrespective of their level of education or ...

  18. The Jesus of Paul: A contribution from the social sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2011-06-07

    Jun 7, 2011 ... of sects is a phenomenon characteristic of Second Temple. Judaism, as Albert Baumgarten (1997) has shown and it is in this context that the emergence of the first groups of Jesus' disciples in the Syro-Palestinian region should be located. The main goal of such a movement which has separated.

  19. Credibility, credulity, and redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viciana, Hugo A; Loverdo, Claude; Gomila, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    After raising some doubts for cultural group selection as an explanation of prosocial religiosity, we propose an alternative that views it as a "greenbeard effect." We combine the dynamic constraints on the evolution of greenbeard effects with Iannaccone's (1994) account of strict sects. Our model shows that certain social conditions may foster credulity and prosociality.

  20. Resurrection of the genus Aphyllon for New World broomrapes (Orobanche s.l., Orobanchaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C. Schneider

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent phylogenetic studies support a monophyletic clade of New World broomrapes (Orobanche sects. Gymnocaulis and Nothaphyllon sister to the Old World genus Phelipanche. I place the New World taxa in the genus Aphyllon, propose 21 new combinations, and provide a list of currently accepted taxa.

  1. Subject Headings for Church or Synagogue Libraries. 2nd Revised Edition. CSLA Guide No. 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Dorothy B.

    This guide to subject headings for church or synagogue libraries begins by providing guidelines for the subject cataloging process. These guidelines are presented under seven headings: (1) Selecting the Subject Heading (by names of persons, religious congregations and orders, sects and denominations, places, holidays, and new subjects); (2)…

  2. Academic Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Brian G.

    The strength of academic freedom has always depended upon historical circumstances. In the United States, higher education began with institutions founded and controlled by religious sects. The notion of who gets educated and to what ends expanded as American democracy expanded. By the 1980's, legitimate calls for equality became a general…

  3. Bound Exciton Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, B. K.

    In the preceding chapter, we concentrated on the properties of free excitons. These free excitons may move through the sample and hit a trap, a nonradiative or a radiative recombination center. At low temperatures, the latter case gives rise to either deep center luminescence, mentioned in Sect. 7.1 and discussed in detail in Chap. 9, or to the luminescence of bound exciton complexes (BE or BEC). The chapter continues with the most prominent of these BECs, namely A-excitons bound to neutral donors. The next aspects are the more weakly BEs at ionized donors. The Sect. 7.4 treats the binding or localization energies of BEC from a theoretical point of view, while Sect. 7.5 is dedicated to excited states of BECs, which contain either holes from deeper valence bands or an envelope function with higher quantum numbers. The last section is devoted to donor-acceptor pair transitions. There is no section devoted specifically to excitons bound to neutral acceptors, because this topic is still partly controversially discussed. Instead, information on these A0X complexes is scattered over the whole chapter, however, with some special emphasis seen in Sects. 7.1, 7.4, and 7.5.

  4. Manichaean exonyms and autonyms (including Augustine's writings)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-10

    Apr 10, 2013 ... Late Antiquity' (2008:144). Addressing the history of the label. 'Manichaean', Lim furthermore writes that 'at first glance, the nomen Manichaeorum belonged generically to the class of sectarian labels that identifies the follower in reference to the founder of the religion or philosophical sect' (2008:145). He.

  5. The special equalisation scheme of the EEG as a tool for relieving power-intensive industries; Die besondere Ausgleichsregelung im EEG als Instrument zur Entlastung der stromintensiven Industrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachel, Markus [Becker Buettner Held Rechtsanwaelte Wirtschaftspruefer Steuerberater, Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The special equalisation scheme in Sects. 50 ff EEG is a very important tool for industrial policy in Germany. The regulations have significantly reduced the power acquisition cost of the privileged organisations and will be further enhanced from 2013. The contribution describes the changes and discusses new and older legal problems occurring in practice.

  6. Israel, Schools, and Arab Conflict in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Franklin

    This paper examines how Israel's educational system attempts to deal with major social, geographic, religious, economic, and political problems. Problems are presented in two main categories--internal and external. Internal problems include high immigration levels, religious and cultural differences among various Jewish sects and between Jews and…

  7. Page 1 Agro Science Journal of rapical Agriculture, Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Okoli, O.O. (1975), Yam production from sects: Prospects and problems. Proc Agric. Sci. Soc. Nigeria, 12:6. Okoli, O.O., Igbokwe, M.C., Ene, L.S.O. and. Nwokoye, J.U. (1982). Rapid multipli- cation of yam by minister technique. Res. Bull. No2. NRCRI, Umudike Unualhia. Onwueme, I.C. (1972). Influence of the weight.

  8. Index to scientific plant names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    2002-01-01

    Numbers refer to page numbers. Infrageneric epithets have been entered directly under the generic name to which they belong, preceded by the indication of their rank (subg., sect., etc.). Infraspecific epithets have been entered under the specific name to which they belong, preceded by the

  9. impact of boko haram insurgency on human security in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    infectious diseases; denied millions of children and youths access to education; increased the number of internally displaced persons with dire need of ... killings and abduction of school children and college student by the sect has forced the ... These include bombing, guerrilla warfare, kidnapping and abduction” (Hassan ...

  10. Aspects of Poincare's program for dynamical systems and mathematical physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhulst, Ferdinand|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068380437

    2012-01-01

    This article is mainly historical, except for the discussion of integrability and characteristic exponents in Sect. 2. After summarising the achievements of Henri Poincaré, we discuss his theory of critical exponents. The theory is applied to the case of three degreesof- freedom Hamiltonian systems

  11. Thoraco-pericardiotomy in two bovines under field condition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The underlying muscles were incised and the rib was exposed. The periosteum over the rib was dis- sected out. The rib was then cut with obstetrical wire saw and disarticulated at costo -chondral junction. The underlying pleura was exposed. The pleura was then cut with scissor and the thoracic cavity opened. After opening ...

  12. Cousinia waldheimiana (Asteraceae) a new record from Uzbekistan (Central Asia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmonov, Mansur X

    2017-01-01

    During the study of plant specimens in the Central herbarium Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan Institute of the gene pool of plants and animals (TASH) one new record for the flora of Uzbekistan (Cousinia waldheimiana) was identified. This species is the fourth member of Cousinia sect. Jurineopsis collected in the Uzbek part of the Northern Alay range.

  13. Complementary and emendatory descriptions of Orchid species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, J.J.

    1945-01-01

    Neuwiedia (sect. Euneuwiedia) Griffithii Rehb.f. Xenia Orch. II (1874), 215; Rolfe in Journ. Linn. Soc. XXV (1890), 235, 241, t. XLVIII, fig. 2—9; in Orch. Rev. II (1894), 276; IV (1896), 329; Hook. f. Fl. Br. Ind. VI (1890), 176; in Bot. Mag. CXXI (1895), t. 7425; Krzl. Orch. I (1897), 4; Pfitz. in

  14. Resource Reviews Bronmateriaa lbesprekings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Certain sections, such as birds' nests, would re- quire some research and observation for the novice. .... artistic behavior and creative expression." Furthermore colouring books are restrictive in ... The flowe rs. seeds and fruit will attract many birds. like these Cape sparrows. They woll a lso attract on sects. and the b irds that ...

  15. A taxonomic revision of Xerospermum (Sapindaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, P.W.

    1983-01-01

    Xerospermum Blume, Rumphia 3 (1847) 99; Radlk. in Engl., Pflanzenr. 98 (1932) 936-950. – Xerospermum sect. Tetrasepalum Radlk. (in Th. Dur., Index Gen. Phan. (1887) 76, nom. nud.) in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. 3, 5 (1895) 331, nom. illeg. (I.C.B.N. ed. 1978, art. 22.1). – Type: X. noronhianum

  16. New and noteworthy species of Pluteus (Pluteaceae, Agaricales) from Kerala State, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pradeek, C.K.; Vrinda, K.B.

    2006-01-01

    During our study on the agaric family Pluteaceae of Kerala State, India, several interesting collections belonging to the genus Pluteus were made. Subsequently, a preliminary account of the genus Pluteus sect. Pluteus was published (Pradeep et al., 2002). Further study on the genus revealed two more

  17. Phylogeny of osmophillic aspergilli (subgenus Aspergillus) and taxonomic revision of section Restricti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus section Restricti together with sister sect. Aspergillus (formerly Eurotium) comprises osmophilic species, that are able to grow on substrates with low water activity and in extreme environments. We addressed the monophyly of both sections within subgenus Aspergillus and applied multidis...

  18. 2225-8590 (Print)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR Nneka

    2015-01-13

    Jan 13, 2015 ... the insurgency. All the segments of the nation – military, regions, governments ..... Boko Haram sect to enable them rule the country at all cost (Chigozie, 2014). .... development, human capital or resource development. A nation where ... 29 people including traders killed in a market in Bama, Borno State. 9.

  19. Stipa glareosa (Poaceae in the Republic of Buryatia (Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudkova Polina D.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Stipa glareosa P. A. Smirn. (sect. Smirnovia Tzvel. is reported for the first time from the Republic of Buryatia (Russia. Its stations are located at the northern limit of its general distribution range. The taxonomy, distribution and habitat preferences of the species are given, along with its population size at each new locality.

  20. A new species of Begonia section Parvibegonia (Begoniaceae) from Thailand and Myanmar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phutthai, T.; Hughes, M.

    2017-01-01

    Begonia tenasserimensis sp. nov. belongs to Begonia sect. Parvibegonia and is endemic to the hills of the Tenasserim Range, based on specimens from Peninsular Thailand and Tenasserim Division in Myanmar. The species is restricted to karst limestone and has been assessed as Vulnerable according to

  1. An interesting new Bulbophyllum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, J.J.

    1935-01-01

    Bulbophyllum (sect. Cirrhopetalum) Jacobsonii J. J. S. n. sp. — Rhizoma repens, teres. Pseudobulbi remoti, oblique ovoidei, manifesto quadranguli cum lateribus concavis, 1.8 cm longi, 0.75 et 0.95 cm diam., 1-folii. Folium lanceolatum, apice recurvulum, basi brevissime

  2. Flora Malesiana precursor for the treatment of Moraceae 3: Ficus subgenus Ficus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, C.C.

    2003-01-01

    The sections of Ficus L. subg. Ficus are described and their Malesian species listed and a key to their identification is provided. One new subsection is established: Ficus subg. Ficus sect. Eriosycea subsect. Auratae. Four new species and two new subspecies are described: F. auricoma, F.

  3. Could Clergy serve as a Resource in the Management Alcohol Use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We explored clergy attitudes towards and knowledge of alcohol use disorders as well as their readiness to collaborate with mental health professionals. Method: A cross sect ional descriptive study of a non-probability sample Christian and Muslim clerics in Benin City, Nigeria using an adapted vignette based (Clergy ...

  4. Syntheses and structural characterization of the alkaline earth and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    12. Haddon R C, Rayford R and Hirani A M 1981 J. Org. Chem. 46 4587. 13. Schulz T, Meindl K, Leusser D, Stern D, Graf J,. Michaelsen C, Ruf M, Sheldrick G M and Stalke D 2009. J. Appl. Crystallogr. 42 885. 14. Sheldrick G M 2008 Acta Crystallogr. Sect. A 64 112. 15. Zhang D and Kawaguchi H 2006 Organometallics 25.

  5. Making the Spoon: Analyzing and Employing Stability Power in Counterinsurgency Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-11

    Japanese society in 1946 is 99% Shinto or extremely homogenous / monopolistic with an HHI equaling 9802.256 Within the confines of religion and ethnic...sects there is little chance of internal sectarian violence in post WWII Japan (minus a Shinto reformation).257 An example of a distributed, very

  6. Pieced in the Plains: Kansas Amish Quilts and Cultural Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smucker, Janneken L.

    2004-01-01

    While the Old Order Amish are often thought of as the plain dressing religious sect that attracts millions of tourists annually to Pennsylvania Dutch country, this Anabaptist group also has a significant history in the Great Plains. The Amish who settled in the Great Plains share commonalities with the Old Order Amish who remained in more…

  7. Social Class, Amish Culture, and an Egalitarian Ethos: Case Study from a Rural School Serving Amish Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howley, Aimee; Howley, Craig; Burgess, Larry; Pusateri, Drew

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a case study of egalitarian educational practices evident in a rural school that served a large proportion (40%) of Amish students. The Amish are a pacifist Christian sect widely misunderstood as quaint and even backward; their traditional work is small-scale farming. In 1972 the Amish wrested the national right--via a US…

  8. Iraqi Perspectives Project. Saddam and Terrorism: Emerging Insights from Captured Iraqi Documents. Volume 1 (Redacted)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    like a pendulum, from arresting members of Wahabi sects to "extending lines of relations" to a new radical Kurdish Islamic group. 98 In one case...34torture these elements [the Wahabis ] or turn them over to ational Security." Harmony document folder ISGZ-2004-027795 - Iraqi intelligence reports

  9. Potato germplasm collecting expedition to Mexico in 1997 : taxonomy and new germplasm resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spooner, D.M.; Rivera-Pena, A.; Berg, van den R.G.; Schueler, K.

    2000-01-01

    Wild potato (Solanum sect. Petota) germplasm has been collected in Mexico on nine major expeditions, as determined by 20 collections or more from each expedition currently at the United States potato genebank, the National Research Support Program-6 (NRSP-6). These have resulted in 609 accessions

  10. 75 FR 35089 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... Antitrust Division Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993; National...) of the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993, 15 U.S.C. 4301 et sect. (``the Act... Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ; Scientific Applications & Research Associates, Inc., Cypress, CA; Shalimar...

  11. Evolution of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and Information System (EOSDIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramapriyan, Hampapuram K.; Behnke, Jeanne; Sofinowski, Edwin; Lowe, Dawn; Esfandiari, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    One of the strategic goals of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is to "Develop a balanced overall program of science, exploration, and aeronautics consistent with the redirection of the human spaceflight program to focus on exploration". An important sub-goal of this goal is to "Study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet societal needs." NASA meets this subgoal in partnership with other U.S. agencies and international organizations through its Earth science program. A major component of NASA s Earth science program is the Earth Observing System (EOS). The EOS program was started in 1990 with the primary purpose of modeling global climate change. This program consists of a set of space-borne instruments, science teams, and a data system. The instruments are designed to obtain highly accurate, frequent and global measurements of geophysical properties of land, oceans and atmosphere. The science teams are responsible for designing the instruments as well as scientific algorithms to derive information from the instrument measurements. The data system, called the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS), produces data products using those algorithms as well as archives and distributes such products. The first of the EOS instruments were launched in November 1997 on the Japanese satellite called the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the last, on the U.S. satellite Aura, were launched in July 2004. The instrument science teams have been active since the inception of the program in 1990 and have participation from Brazil, Canada, France, Japan, Netherlands, United Kingdom and U.S. The development of EOSDIS was initiated in 1990, and this data system has been serving the user community since 1994. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the history and evolution of EOSDIS since its beginnings to the present and indicate how it continues to evolve into the future. this chapter is organized as follows. Sect

  12. Dosimetric impact of dual-energy CT tissue segmentation for low-energy prostate brachytherapy: a Monte Carlo study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, Charlotte; Lalonde, Arthur; Béliveau-Nadeau, Dominic; Carrier, Jean-François; Bouchard, Hugo

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of a novel tissue characterization method using dual-energy over single-energy computed tomography (DECT and SECT) on Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations for low-dose rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy performed in a patient like geometry. A virtual patient geometry is created using contours from a real patient pelvis CT scan, where known elemental compositions and varying densities are overwritten in each voxel. A second phantom is made with additional calcifications. Both phantoms are the ground truth with which all results are compared. Simulated CT images are generated from them using attenuation coefficients taken from the XCOM database with a 100 kVp spectrum for SECT and 80 and 140Sn kVp for DECT. Tissue segmentation for Monte Carlo dose calculation is made using a stoichiometric calibration method for the simulated SECT images. For the DECT images, Bayesian eigentissue decomposition is used. A LDR prostate brachytherapy plan is defined with 125I sources and then calculated using the EGSnrc user-code Brachydose for each case. Dose distributions and dose-volume histograms (DVH) are compared to ground truth to assess the accuracy of tissue segmentation. For noiseless images, DECT-based tissue segmentation outperforms the SECT procedure with a root mean square error (RMS) on relative errors on dose distributions respectively of 2.39% versus 7.77%, and provides DVHs closest to the reference DVHs for all tissues. For a medium level of CT noise, Bayesian eigentissue decomposition still performs better on the overall dose calculation as the RMS error is found to be of 7.83% compared to 9.15% for SECT. Both methods give a similar DVH for the prostate while the DECT segmentation remains more accurate for organs at risk and in presence of calcifications, with less than 5% of RMS errors within the calcifications versus up to 154% for SECT. In a patient-like geometry, DECT-based tissue segmentation provides dose

  13. Multidimensional measurement by using 3-D PMD sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ringbeck

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Optical Time-of-Flight measurement gives the possibility to enhance 2-D sensors by adding a third dimension using the PMD principle. Various applications in the automotive (e.g. pedestrian safety, industrial, robotics and multimedia fields require robust three-dimensional data (Schwarte et al., 2000. These applications, however, all have different requirements in terms of resolution, speed, distance and target characteristics. PMDTechnologies has developed 3-D sensors based on standard CMOS processes that can provide an optimized solution for a wide field of applications combined with high integration and cost-effective production. These sensors are realized in various layout formats from single pixel solutions for basic applications to low, middle and high resolution matrices for applications requiring more detailed data. Pixel pitches ranging from 10 micrometer up to a 300 micrometer or larger can be realized and give the opportunity to optimize the sensor chip depending on the application.

    One aspect of all optical sensors based on a time-of-flight principle is the necessity of handling background illumination. This can be achieved by various techniques, such as optical filters and active circuits on chip. The sensors' usage of the in-pixel so-called SBI-circuitry (suppression of background illumination makes it even possible to overcome the effects of bright ambient light. This paper focuses on this technical requirement. In Sect. 2 we will roughly describe the basic operation principle of PMD sensors. The technical challenges related to the system characteristics of an active optical ranging technique are described in Sect. 3, technical solutions and measurement results are then presented in Sect. 4. We finish this work with an overview of actual PMD sensors and their key parameters (Sect. 5 and some concluding remarks in Sect. 6.

  14. TU-FG-BRB-02: The Impact of Using Dual-Energy CT for Determining Proton Stopping Powers: Comparison Between Theory and Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, E; Jee, K [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Zhang, R; Yang, K; Sharp, G; Liu, B [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Lalonde, A [University of Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Royle, G [University College London, London, London (United Kingdom); Bouchard, H [Universite de Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada); Lu, H [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical performance of dual-energy CT (DECT) in determining proton stopping power ratios (SPR) and demonstrate advantages over conventional single-energy CT (SECT). Methods: SECT and DECT scans of tissue-equivalent plastics as well as animal meat samples are performed with a Siemens SOMATOM Definition Flash. The methods of Schneider et al. (1996) and Bourque et al. (2014) are used to determine proton SPR on SECT and DECT images, respectively. Waterequivalent path length (WEPL) measurements of plastics and tissue samples are performed with a 195 MeV proton beam. WEPL values are determined experimentally using the depth-dose shift and dose extinction methods. Results: Comparison between CT-based and experimental WEPL is performed for 12 tissue-equivalent plastic as well as 6 meat boxes containing animal liver, kidney, heart, stomach, muscle and bones. For plastic materials, results show a systematic improvement in determining SPR with DECT, with a mean absolute error of 0.4% compared to 1.7% for SECT. For the meat samples, preliminary results show the ability for DECT to determine WEPL with a mean absolute value of 1.1% over all meat boxes. Conclusion: This work demonstrates the potential in using DECT for determining proton SPR with plastic materials in a clinical context. Further work is required to show the benefits of DECT for tissue samples. While experimental uncertainties could be a limiting factor to show the benefits of DECT over SECT for the meat samples, further work is required to adapt the DECT formalism in the context of clinical use, where noise and artifacts play an important role.

  15. Diversity and movement of indoor Alternaria alternata across the mainland USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woudenberg, J H C; van der Merwe, N A; Jurjević, Ž; Groenewald, J Z; Crous, P W

    2015-08-01

    Alternaria spp. from sect. Alternaria are frequently associated with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asthma and allergic fungal rhinitis and sinusitis. Since Alternaria is omnipresent in the outdoor environment, it is thought that the indoor spore concentration is mainly influenced by the outdoor spore concentration. However, few studies have investigated indoor Alternaria isolates, or attempted a phylogeographic or population genetic approach to investigate their movement. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the molecular diversity of indoor Alternaria isolates in the USA, and to test for recombination, using these approaches. Alternaria isolates collected throughout the USA were identified using ITS, gapdh and endoPG gene sequencing. This was followed by genotyping and population genetic inference of isolates belonging to Alternaria sect. Alternaria together with 37 reference isolates, using five microsatellite markers. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that species of Alternaria sect. Alternaria represented 98% (153 isolates) of the indoor isolates collected throughout the USA, of which 137 isolates could be assigned to A. alternata, 15 to the A. arborescens species complex and a single isolate to A. burnsii. The remaining 2% (3 isolates) represented sect. Infectoriae (single isolate) and sect. Pseudoulocladium (2 isolates). Population assignment analyses of the 137 A. alternata isolates suggested that subpopulations did not exist within the sample. The A. alternata isolates were thus divided into four artificial subpopulations to represent four quadrants of the USA. Forty-four isolates representing the south-western quadrant displayed the highest level of uniqueness based on private alleles, while the highest level of gene flow was detected between the south-eastern (32 isolates) and south-western quadrants. Genotypic diversity was high for all quadrants, and a test for linkage disequilibrium suggested that A. alternata has a cryptic sexual

  16. Validation of proton stopping power ratio estimation based on dual energy CT using fresh tissue samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taasti, Vicki T.; Michalak, Gregory J.; Hansen, David C.; Deisher, Amanda J.; Kruse, Jon J.; Krauss, Bernhard; Muren, Ludvig P.; Petersen, Jørgen B. B.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2018-01-01

    Dual energy CT (DECT) has been shown, in theoretical and phantom studies, to improve the stopping power ratio (SPR) determination used for proton treatment planning compared to the use of single energy CT (SECT). However, it has not been shown that this also extends to organic tissues. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the accuracy of SPR estimation for fresh pork and beef tissue samples used as surrogates of human tissues. The reference SPRs for fourteen tissue samples, which included fat, muscle and femur bone, were measured using proton pencil beams. The tissue samples were subsequently CT scanned using four different scanners with different dual energy acquisition modes, giving in total six DECT-based SPR estimations for each sample. The SPR was estimated using a proprietary algorithm (syngo.via DE Rho/Z Maps, Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany) for extracting the electron density and the effective atomic number. SECT images were also acquired and SECT-based SPR estimations were performed using a clinical Hounsfield look-up table. The mean and standard deviation of the SPR over large volume-of-interests were calculated. For the six different DECT acquisition methods, the root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) for the SPR estimates over all tissue samples were between 0.9% and 1.5%. For the SECT-based SPR estimation the RMSE was 2.8%. For one DECT acquisition method, a positive bias was seen in the SPR estimates, having a mean error of 1.3%. The largest errors were found in the very dense cortical bone from a beef femur. This study confirms the advantages of DECT-based SPR estimation although good results were also obtained using SECT for most tissues.

  17. Serial block face SEM visualization of unusual plant nuclear tubular extensions in a carnivorous plant (Utricularia, Lentibulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachno, Bartosz J; Swiatek, Piotr; Jobson, Richard W; Malota, Karol; Brutkowski, Wojciech

    2017-11-10

    In Utricularia nelumbifolia , the nuclei of placental nutritive tissue possess unusually shaped projections not known to occur in any other flowering plant. The main aim of the study was to document the morphology and ultrastructure of these unusual nuclei. In addition, the literature was searched to find examples of nuclear tubular projections in other plant groups, and the nuclei of closely related species of Utricularia (i.e. sects Iperua , Orchidioides , Foliosa and Utricularia ) were examined. To visualize the complexity of the nuclear structures, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used, and 3-D ultrastructural reconstructions were made using the serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBEM) technique. The nuclei of 11 Utricularia species, i.e. U. nelumbifolia , U. reniformis , U. cornigera , U. nephrophylla (sect. Iperua ), U. asplundii , U. alpina , U. quelchii (sect. Orchidioides ), U. longifolia (sect. Foliosa ), U. intermedia , U. minor and U. gibba (sect. Utricularia ) were examined. Of the 11 Utricularia species examined, the spindle-like tubular projections (approx. 5 μm long) emanating from resident nuclei located in placental nutritive tissues were observed only in U. nelumbifolia . These tubular nuclear extensions contained chromatin distributed along hexagonally shaped tubules. The apices of the projections extended into the cell plasma membrane, and in many cases also made contact at the two opposing cellular poles, and with plasmodesmata via a short cisterna of the cortical endoplasmic reticulum. Images from the SBEM provide some evidence that the nuclear projections are making contact with those of neighbouring cells. The term chromatubules (chromatin-filled tubules) for the nuclear projections of U. nelumbifolia placental tissue was proposed here. Due to the apparent association with the plasma membrane and plasmodesmata, it was also speculated that chromatubules are involved in nucleus-cell-cell communication. However

  18. SU-F-J-195: On the Performance of Four Dual Energy CT Formalisms for Extracting Proton Stopping Powers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baer, E; Royle, G [University College London, London (United Kingdom); Lalonde, A; Bouchard, H [University of Montreal, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Dual energy CT can predict stopping power ratios (SPR) for ion therapy treatment planning. Several approaches have been proposed recently, however accuracy and practicability in a clinical workflow are unaddressed. The aim of this work is to provide a fair comparison of available approaches in a human-like phantom to find the optimal method for tissue characterization in a clinical situation. Methods: The SPR determination accuracy is investigated using simulated DECT images. A virtual human-like phantom is created containing 14 different standard human tissues. SECT (120 kV) and DECT images (100 kV and 140 kV Sn) are simulated using the software ImaSim. The single energy CT (SECT) stoichiometric calibration method and four recently published calibration-based DECT methods are implemented and used to predict the SPRs from simulated images. The difference between SPR predictions and theoretical SPR are compared pixelwize. Mean, standard deviation and skewness of the SPR difference distributions are used as measures for bias, dispersion and symmetry. Results: The average SPR differences and standard deviations are (0.22 ± 1.27)% for SECT, and A) (−0.26 ± 1.30)%, B) (0.08 ± 1.12)%, C) (0.06 ± 1.15)% and D) (−0.05 ± 1.05)% for the four DECT methods. While SPR prediction using SECT is showing a systematic error on SPR, the DECT methods B, C and D are unbiased. The skewness of the SECT distribution is 0.57%, and A) −0.19%, B) −0.56%, C) −0.29% and D) −0.07% for DECT methods respectively. Conclusion: The here presented DECT methods B, C and D outperform the commonly used SECT stoichiometric calibration. These methods predict SPR accurately without a bias and within ± 1.2% (68th percentile). This indicates that DECT potentially improves accuracy of range predictions in proton therapy. A validation of these findings using clinical CT images of real tissues is necessary.

  19. Microbial Siderophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzikiewicz, Herbert

    Iron is of great importance for many metabolic processes since the redox potential between its two valence states Fe2+ and Fe3+ lies within the range of physiological processes. Actually, iron is not a rare element, it is fourth in abundance in the earth crust, but it is not readily available for microorganisms. In the soil ferric oxide hydrates are formed at pH values around seven and the concentration of free Fe3+ is at best 10-17 mol/dm3 while about 10-6 mol/dm3 would be needed. In living organisms iron is usually strongly bound to peptidic substances such as transferrins. To increase the supply of soluble iron microorganisms other than those living in an acidic habitat may circumvent the problem by reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+ (182), which seems to be of major importance for marine phytoplankton (151); see also amphiphilic marine bacteria (Sect.2.8) and Fe2+ binding ligands (Sect. 7) below. An important alternative is the production of Fe3+ chelating compounds, so-called siderophores. Siderophores are secondary metabolites with masses below 2,000 Da and a high affinity to Fe3+. Small iron-siderophore complexes can enter the cell via unspecific porins, larger ones need a transport system that recognizes the ferri-siderophore at the cell surface. In the cell, iron is released mostly by reduction to the less strongly bound Fe2+ state (137), and the free siderophore is re-exported ("shuttle mechanism"); for a modified shuttle system see pyoverdins (Sect. 2.1) and amonabactins (Sect. 2.7). Rarely the siderophore is degraded in the periplasmatic space as, e.g. enterobactin (Sect. 2.7). Alternatively Fe3+ is transferred at the cell surface from the ferri-siderophore to a trans-membrane transport system ("taxi mechanism"). A probably archaic and unspecific variety of the taxi mechanism comprises the reduction of Fe3+ at the cell surface (see ferrichrome A, Sect. 2.6 (99, 105)). The terms "shuttle" and "taxi mechanism" were coined by Raymond and Carrano (296).

  20. Phylogeny of xerophilic aspergilli (subgenus Aspergillus) and taxonomic revision of section Restricti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklenář, F; Jurjević, Ž; Zalar, P; Frisvad, J C; Visagie, C M; Kolařík, M; Houbraken, J; Chen, A J; Yilmaz, N; Seifert, K A; Coton, M; Déniel, F; Gunde-Cimerman, N; Samson, R A; Peterson, S W; Hubka, V

    2017-09-01

    Aspergillus section Restricti together with sister section Aspergillus (formerly Eurotium) comprises xerophilic species, that are able to grow on substrates with low water activity and in extreme environments. We adressed the monophyly of both sections within subgenus Aspergillus and applied a multidisciplinary approach for definition of species boundaries in sect. Restricti. The monophyly of sections Aspergillus and Restricti was tested on a set of 102 isolates comprising all currently accepted species and was strongly supported by Maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inferrence (BI) analysis based on β-tubulin (benA), calmodulin (CaM) and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) loci. More than 300 strains belonging to sect. Restricti from various isolation sources and four continents were characterized by DNA sequencing, and 193 isolates were selected for phylogenetic analyses and phenotypic studies. Species delimitation methods based on multispecies coalescent model were employed on DNA sequences from four loci, i.e., ID region of rDNA (ITS + 28S), CaM, benA and RPB2, and supported recognition of 21 species, including 14 new. All these species were also strongly supported in ML and BI analyses. All recognised species can be reliably identified by all four examined genetic loci. Phenotype analysis was performed to support the delimitation of new species and includes colony characteristics on seven cultivation media incubated at several temperatures, growth on an osmotic gradient (six media with NaCl concentration from 0 to 25 %) and analysis of morphology including scanning electron microscopy. The micromorphology of conidial heads, vesicle dimensions, temperature profiles and growth parameters in osmotic gradient were useful criteria for species identification. The vast majority of species in sect. Restricti produce asperglaucide, asperphenamate or both in contrast to species in sect. Aspergillus. Mycophenolic acid was detected for the first time in