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Sample records for sandy river oregon

  1. Simulation and control of morphological changes due to dam removal in the Sandy River, Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Y.; Altinakar, M. S.

    2015-03-01

    A one-dimensional channel evolution simulation model (CCHE1D) is applied to assess morphological changes in a reach of the Sandy River, Oregon, USA, due to the Marmot Dam removal in 2007. Sediment transport model parameters (e.g. sediment transport capacity, bed roughness coefficient) were calibrated using observed bed changes after the dam removal. The validated model is then applied to assess long-term morphological changes in response to a 10-year hydrograph selected from historical storm water records. The long-term assessment of sedimentation gives a reasonable prediction of morphological changes, expanding erosion in reservoir and growing deposition immediately downstream of the dam site. This prediction result can be used for managing and planning river sedimentation after dam removal. A simulation-based optimization model is also applied to determine the optimal sediment release rates during dam-removal that will minimize the morphological changes in the downstream reaches.

  2. The Scientific and Institutional Context for the Removal of Marmot Dam, Sandy River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, G. E.; Major, J. J.; O'Connor, J.; Wallick, J. R.; Marr, J.; Wilcock, P.; Podolack, C.

    2008-12-01

    Dam removal has been widely viewed as an important river restoration strategy and an interesting scientific opportunity, the latter because it represents a real-time, full-scale field experiment on fluvial adjustment. Removals therefore offer an excellent setting for testing analytical models of sediment transport, morphologic change, and our capacity to predict short- and medium-term channel evolution in response to changing water and sediment transport regimes. Most dam removals to date have involved relatively small structures and modest releases of sediment stored in pre-removal reservoirs. The largest instantaneous and uncontrolled release of sediment accompanying a dam removal occurred with the breaching of the Marmot coffer dam on the Sandy River in Oregon in October 2007. Marmot Dam was a 14-m-high by 50-m-wide diversion dam built in 1913 as part of a larger hydroelectric project. It was located on the Sandy River, an energetic gravel to cobble-bed river that naturally carries copious quantities of sand and gravel, ~45 km upstream from its confluence with the Columbia River near Portland, Oregon. At the time of removal, the reservoir upstream of the dam was completely filled with ~750,000 m3 of sand (40%) and gravel (60%). The river below the dam includes bedrock gorges, mixed bedrock/alluvial reaches, and alluvial reaches with well-developed gravel and sand bars. The decision to remove the dam was motivated by a combination of increasing maintenance costs and an unfavorable future economic return due to the necessity of installing expensive fish passage facilities to meet relicensing requirements. Portland General Electric, the dam's owner, surrendered the dam's license in 1999, and removal commenced in summer 2007. To remove the concrete structure, a temporary coffer dam was constructed 70 m upstream. In October 2007 the coffer dam was breached and the river allowed to erode the remaining impounded sediment (~730,000 m3). Physical modeling conducted at

  3. Geomorphic response of the Sandy River, Oregon, to removal of Marmot Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Jon J.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Podolak, Charles J.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Grant, Gordon E.; Spicer, Kurt R.; Pittman, Smokey; Bragg, Heather M.; Wallick, J. Rose; Tanner, Dwight Q.; Rhode, Abagail; Wilcock, Peter R.

    2012-01-01

    The October 2007 breaching of a temporary cofferdam constructed during removal of the 15-meter (m)-tall Marmot Dam on the Sandy River, Oregon, triggered a rapid sequence of fluvial responses as ~730,000 cubic meters (m3) of sand and gravel filling the former reservoir became available to a high-gradient river. Using direct measurements of sediment transport, photogrammetry, airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) surveys, and, between transport events, repeat ground surveys of the reservoir reach and channel downstream, we monitored the erosion, transport, and deposition of this sediment in the hours, days, and months following breaching of the cofferdam. Rapid erosion of reservoir sediment led to exceptional suspended-sediment and bedload-sediment transport rates near the dam site, as well as to elevated transport rates at downstream measurement sites in the weeks and months after breaching. Measurements of sediment transport 0.4 kilometers (km) downstream of the dam site during and following breaching show a spike in the transport of fine suspended sediment within minutes after breaching, followed by high rates of suspended-load and bedload transport of sand. Significant transport of gravel bedload past the measurement site did not begin until 18 to 20 hours after breaching. For at least 7 months after breaching, bedload transport rates just below the dam site during high flows remained as much as 10 times above rates measured upstream of the dam site and farther downstream. The elevated sediment load was derived from eroded reservoir sediment, which began eroding when a meters-tall knickpoint migrated about 200 m upstream in the first hour after breaching. Rapid knickpoint migration triggered vertical incision and bank collapse in unconsolidated sand and gravel, leading to rapid channel widening. Over the following days and months, the knickpoint migrated upstream more slowly, simultaneously decreasing in height and becoming less distinct. Within 7 months

  4. First-Year Downstream Sediment Budget Following the Marmot Dam Removal from the Sandy River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolak, C. J.; Wilcock, P. R.; Pittman, A.

    2008-12-01

    The October 2007 removal of the Marmot Dam, from the Sandy River, OR, provides an opportunity to assess the impact of increased sediment flux on a river channel. The Sandy River drains the west flank of Mt Hood and typically carries a large load of sand and gravel. The 14-meter-tall dam impounded over 750,000 m3 of sediment, only a small amount of which was removed during the decommissioning. Using a one- dimensional modeling approach, it was assessed that the river could transport the accumulated sediment without large adverse impacts downstream of the dam (Cui et al, 2008 - abstract submitted). In order to observe the actual changes to the river due to the dam removal and to test the modeled predictions, a significant monitoring effort has be in place on the Sandy River including bedload and suspended load measurements, discharge measurements, high-fidelity topographic surveys, repeat photography, multiple airborne LIDAR flights, long profile surveys, as well as mapping and characterizing the grain sizes throughout several reaches downstream of the dam. A key step in the quest to describe and predict the spatial distribution of the sediment throughout the downstream reach is to first account for all the sediment (both stored in the reservoir and supplied from upstream). Here, we examine the transport and deposition downstream of the dam through a 2-fraction sediment budget approach using the former dam as the upstream limit of the reach and choosing a the mouth of a bedrock gorge 7 km below the dam site as the downstream limit. Suspended sediment and bedload measurements taken by the USGS just below the dam site (Major et al, 2008 - abstract submitted) are combined with suspended sediment and bedload measurements collected just below the mouth of the gorge and the annual hydrograph to define the sediment fluxes into and out of the reach. Repeat surveys in the reach below the dam (Wallick et al, 2008 - abstract submitted) provide the measure of change in storage

  5. Time-lapse imagery of the breaching of Marmot Dam, Oregon, and subsequent erosion of sediment by the Sandy River, October 2007 to May 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Jon J.; Spicer, Kurt R.; Collins, Rebecca A.

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, Marmot Dam on the Sandy River, Oregon, was removed and a temporary cofferdam standing in its place was breached, allowing the river to flow freely along its entire length. Time-lapse imagery obtained from a network of digital single-lens reflex cameras placed around the lower reach of the sediment-filled reservoir behind the dam details rapid erosion of sediment by the Sandy River after breaching of the cofferdam. Within hours of the breaching, the Sandy River eroded much of the nearly 15-m-thick frontal part of the sediment wedge impounded behind the former concrete dam; within 24-60 hours it eroded approximately 125,000 m3 of sediment impounded in the lower 300-meter-reach of the reservoir. The imagery shows that the sediment eroded initially through vertical incision, but that lateral erosion rapidly became an important process.

  6. Using Repeat LiDAR Surveys to Determine the Geomorphic Changes Related the Removal of the Marmot Dam on the Sandy River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzek, C. D.; Ely, L. L.; O'Connor, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    The removal of the Marmot Dam on the Sandy River, Oregon in October 2007 released an estimated 430,000 m3 of sand and gravel downstream. Field surveys by Major and others (Major and others, USGS Professional Paper 1792) following the dam removal documented deposition of nearly half of the eroded sediment (215,000 m3) in the first 2 km downstream of the dam within a year of breaching. However, the fate of more than 200,000 m3 of chiefly sand transported farther downstream is uncertain. In the current study, five sequential LiDAR data sets from 2006 to 2011 were used to quantify sediment storage and erosion in the 40 km from the former dam site to the confluence with the Columbia River to track the downstream movement of the sediment released from the reservoir. We hypothesized that a pulse of sediment from the dam removal would be distinguished by a successive downstream growth of sediment bars through time. The LiDAR imagery includes two data sets acquired before the dam removal and three afterward. Geomorphic Change Detection software (GCD) (gcd.joewheaton.org) was used to quantify the locations and volume of sediment erosion and deposition through the successive years of LiDAR imagery. GCD allows for error assessment of each LiDAR-derived digital elevation map (DEM) and propagates the combined errors when differencing two repeat surveys. This process allows creation of DEM of Difference (DoD) maps with associated uncertainty estimates. Preliminary results of the LiDAR analysis agree with the previous field estimates of deposition within the first 2 km from the former dam. Following the initial phase of deposition immediately downstream of the dam breach, the subsequent surveys (2008-2011) show an erosional front beginning to migrate downstream through the newly deposited sediment. Many of the sediment bars still remained in 2011, but were reduced in size. After calibrating the model in the 2-km reach below the dam, we analyzed the additional 38 km of channel

  7. Sandy River Delta Habitat Restoration Project, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Virginia; Dobson, Robin L.

    2002-11-01

    The Sandy River Delta is located at the confluence of the Sandy and Columbia Rivers, just east of Troutdale, Oregon. It comprises about 1,400 land acres north of Interstate 84, managed by the USDA Forest Service, and associated river banks managed by the Oregon Division of State Lands. Three islands, Gary, Flag and Catham, managed by Metro Greenspaces and the State of Oregon lie to the east, the Columbia River lies to the north and east, and the urbanized Portland metropolitan area lies to the west across the Sandy River. Sandy River Delta was historically a wooded, riparian wetland with components of ponds, sloughs, bottomland woodland, oak woodland, prairie, and low and high elevation floodplain. It has been greatly altered by past agricultural practices and the Columbia River hydropower system. Restoration of historic landscape components is a primary goal for this land. The Forest Service is currently focusing on restoration of riparian forest and wetlands. Restoration of open upland areas (meadow/prairie) would follow substantial completion of the riparian and wetland restoration. The Sandy River Delta is a former pasture infested with reed canary grass, blackberry and thistle. The limited over story is native riparian species such as cottonwood and ash. The shrub and herbaceous layers are almost entirely non-native, invasive species. Native species have a difficult time naturally regenerating in the thick, competing reed canary grass, Himalayan blackberry and thistle. A system of drainage ditches installed by past owners drains water from historic wetlands. The original channel of the Sandy River was diked in the 1930's, and the river diverted into the ''Little Sandy River''. The original Sandy River channel has subsequently filled in and largely become a slough. The FS acquired approximately 1,400 acres Sandy River Delta (SRD) in 1991 from Reynolds Aluminum (via the Trust for Public Lands). The Delta had been grazed for many years

  8. Eruption-related lahars and sedimentation response downstream of Mount Hood: Field guide to volcaniclastic deposits along the Sandy River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Tom C.; Scott, William E.; Vallance, James W.; Pringle, Patrick T.; O'Connor, Jim; Dorsey, Rebecca; Madin, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Late Holocene dome-building eruptions at Mount Hood during the Timberline and Old Maid eruptive periods resulted in numerous dome-collapse pyroclastic flows and lahars that moved large volumes of volcaniclastic sediment into temporary storage in headwater canyons of the Sandy River. During each eruptive period, accelerated sediment loading to the river through erosion and remobilization of volcanic fragmental debris resulted in very high sediment-transport rates in the Sandy River during rain- and snowmelt-induced floods. Large sediment loads in excess of the river's transport capacity led to channel aggradation, channel widening, and change to a braided channel form in the lowermost reach of the river, between 61 and 87 km downstream from the volcano. The post-eruption sediment load moved as a broad bed-material wave, which in the case of the Old Maid eruption took ~2 decades to crest 83 km downstream. Maximum post-eruption aggradation levels of at least 28 and 23 m were achieved in response to Timberline and Old Maid eruptions. In each case, downstream aggradation cycles were initiated by lahars, but the bulk of the aggradation was achieved by fluvial sediment transport and deposition. When the high rates of sediment supply began to diminish, the river degraded, incising the channel fills and forming progressively lower sets of degradational terraces. A variety of debris-flow, hyperconcentrated-flow, and fluvial (upper and lower flow regime) deposits record the downstream passage of the sediment waves that were initiated by these eruptions. The deposits also presage a hazard that may be faced by communities along the Sandy River when volcanic activity at Mount Hood resumes.

  9. Sprague River Oregon Bars 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  10. Sprague River Oregon Floodplain Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  11. Sprague River Oregon Floodplain 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  12. Sprague River Oregon Centerline 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  13. Sprague River Oregon Centerline 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  14. Sprague River Oregon Water 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  15. Sprague River Oregon Water 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  16. Sprague River Oregon Floodplain 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  17. Sprague River Oregon Bars 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  18. Sprague River Oregon Bars 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  19. Sprague River Oregon Centerline 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  20. Sprague River Oregon Centerline 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  1. Sprague River Oregon Floodplain Centerline

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  2. Umpqua River Oregon Geologic Floodplain

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  3. Sprague River Oregon Centerline North Fork 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  4. Sprague River Oregon Centerline North Fork 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  5. Sprague River Oregon Centerline North Fork 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  6. Sprague River Oregon Centerline South Fork 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  7. Sprague River Oregon Centerline South Fork 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  8. Sprague River Oregon Centerline Sycan 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  9. Sprague River Oregon Centerline North Fork 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  10. Sprague River Oregon Centerline South Fork 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  11. Sprague River Oregon Centerline South Fork 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  12. Sprague River Oregon Water circa 1870

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  13. Sprague River Oregon Centerline Sycan 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  14. Sprague River Oregon Centerline South Fork 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  15. Sprague River Oregon Centerline circa 1870

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  16. Sprague River Oregon Centerline Sycan circa 1870

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  17. Umpqua River Oregon Active Channel 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  18. Umpqua River Oregon Active Channel 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  19. Umpqua River Oregon Active Channel 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  20. Umpqua River Oregon Active Channel 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  1. Umpqua River Oregon Active Channel 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  2. Umpqua River Oregon Active Channel 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  3. Channel centerline for the Rogue River, Oregon in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Rogue River drains 13,390 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean near the town of Gold Beach, Oregon. The Rogue River...

  4. Channel centerline for the Rogue River, Oregon in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Rogue River drains 13,390 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean near the town of Gold Beach, Oregon. The Rogue River...

  5. 2008 USDA Forest Service Lidar: Sandy River Study Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Sandy River study area in collaboration with the USDA Forest Service. The areas...

  6. Seepage investigations of the Clackamas River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Karl K.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of streamflow measurements and continuous records of streamflow provided insight into interaction of the groundwater system with the Clackamas River in northwestern Oregon. This report assesses gains and losses of the Clackamas River based on streamflow measurements made during previous hydrologic studies, decades of continuous streamflow data, and a detailed suite of streamflow measurements made in September 2006. Gains and losses were considered significant if, after accounting for tributary inflows and withdrawals, the difference in streamflow from a measurement site to the next site downstream exceeded the streamflow measurement uncertainty. Streamflow measurements made in 1987, 1992, and 1998 indicated minor gains and losses. Comparison of continuous records of late summer streamflow of the Clackamas River at Estacada to sites at Clackamas and Oregon City indicated gains in some years, and no losses. Analysis of streamflow measurements of the Clackamas River from Estacada to Oregon City during low-flow conditions in September 2006 enabled an estimation of gains and losses on a reach-by-reach scale; these gains and losses were attributable to the geomorphic setting. During late summer, most groundwater discharge occurs upstream of Estacada, and groundwater contributions to streamflow downstream of Estacada are minor.

  7. 2009 Oregon Parks and Recreation Department Lidar: Columbia River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set represents the lidar elevations along the Columbia River corridor in Oregon, including portions of the following counties: Gilliam, Hood River,...

  8. 2009 Oregon Parks and Recreation Department Lidar: Columbia River

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data set represents the lidar elevations along the Columbia River corridor in Oregon, including portions of the following counties: Gilliam, Hood River,...

  9. Umpqua River Oregon Roseburg PhotoMosaic 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  10. Umpqua River Oregon Aerial Photograph Data for 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  11. Umpqua River Oregon Tidal PhotoMosaic 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  12. Umpqua River Oregon Coast Range PhotoMosaic 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  13. Umpqua River Oregon North Umpqua PhotoMosaic 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  14. Channel centerline for the Nehalem River, Oregon in 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  15. Channel centerline for the Nehalem River, Oregon in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  16. Landslide Inventory for the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase is an inventory of existing landslides in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon (2009). Each landslide feature shown has been classified...

  17. Umpqua River Oregon Garden Valley PhotoMosaic 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  18. Umpqua River Oregon Aerial Photograph Data for 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  19. Umpqua River Oregon Coast Range PhotoMosaic 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  20. Channel centerline for the Nehalem River, Oregon in 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  1. Umpqua River Oregon Days Creek PhotoMosaic 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  2. Channel centerline for the Coquille River, Oregon in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Coquille River system is an unregulated system that encompasses 2,745 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon and flows into the Pacific Ocean near the town of...

  3. Channel centerline for the Coquille River, Oregon in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Coquille River system is an unregulated system that encompasses 2,745 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon and flows into the Pacific Ocean near the town of...

  4. Aerial photo mosaic of the Nehalem River, Oregon in 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  5. Channel centerline for the Coquille River, Oregon in 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Coquille River system is an unregulated system that encompasses 2,745 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon and flows into the Pacific Ocean near the town of...

  6. Umpqua River Oregon Days Creek PhotoMosaic 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  7. Umpqua River Oregon Roseburg PhotoMosaic 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  8. Umpqua River Oregon North Umpqua PhotoMosaic 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  9. Umpqua River Oregon Garden Valley PhotoMosaic 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  10. Umpqua River Oregon Tidal PhotoMosaic 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers (4,673 square miles) in southwest Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean at Winchester Bay near the city of...

  11. Channel centerline for the Coquille River, Oregon in 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Coquille River system is an unregulated system that encompasses 2,745 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon and flows into the Pacific Ocean near the town of...

  12. Channel centerline for the Nehalem River, Oregon in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  13. Aerial photo mosaic of the Nehalem River, Oregon in 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  14. 33 CFR 80.170 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. 80.170 Section 80.170 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River...

  15. Channel centerline for the Rogue River, Oregon in 1967 and 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Rogue River drains 13,390 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean near the town of Gold Beach, Oregon. The Rogue River...

  16. Wetted channel and bar features for the Rogue River, Oregon in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Rogue River drains 13,390 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean near the town of Gold Beach, Oregon. The Rogue River...

  17. Wetted channel and bar features for the Rogue River, Oregon in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Rogue River drains 13,390 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean near the town of Gold Beach, Oregon. The Rogue River...

  18. Wetted channel and bar features for the Rogue River, Oregon in 1967 and 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Rogue River drains 13,390 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean near the town of Gold Beach, Oregon. The Rogue River...

  19. Environmental Contaminants in River Otter (Lontra canadensis) Collected from the Willamette River, Oregon, 1996-99

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Willamette River originates in the Cascade Mountains southeast of Eugene, Oregon and makes a 300 mile northward journey through the Willamette Valley, joining...

  20. Assessment of sandy desertification trends in the Shule River Basin from 1978 to 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Song; ChangZhen Yan; Sen Li; JiaLi Xie

    2014-01-01

    Sandy desertification in the Shule River Basin has expanded dramatically during the past 30 years. We evaluated the status, evolution, and main causes of sandy desertification by interpreting Landsat images which were acquired in 1978, 1990, 2000, 2005, and 2010, and analyzing the relevant meteorological data. The results show there was 3,477.95 km2, 3,733.32 km2, 3,620.29 km2, 3,565.65 km2, and 3,557.88 km2 of sandy desertified land in 1978, 1990, 2000, 2005, and 2010, respectively. From 1978 to 1990, not only the area of sandy desertified land (SDL) but also the degree of SDL levels increased. From 1990 to 2010 there was widespread restoration of SDL but the recovery trend of SDL gradually slowed. Although climate change contributes to expanding sandy desertification, human activities can either accelerate or reverse trends of natural sandy desertification. Some detrimental human activities can accelerate sandy desertification, but, conversely, desertification control measures such as the Three-North Shelter Forest Project and watershed rehabilitation programs in areas including the Shule River Basin resulted in many SDL being turned into grasslands or forest lands when shrubs and trees were planted to fix mobile sands at the edges of oases and cities. With population growth, much SDL has been reclaimed as farm land using water-saving agricultural methods or has been turned into built-up land as a result of urbanization.

  1. AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Diet of Pacific harbor seals at Umpqua River, Oregon and Columbia River, Oregon/Washington during 1994 through 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1994 to 2005, The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) collected fecal samples at the Umpqua River, Oregon and...

  2. Ecology of Juvenile Salmon in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta, Lower Columbia River, 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sather, NK; Johnson, GE; Storch, AJ [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2009-07-06

    The tidal freshwater monitoring (TFM) project reported herein is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers [USACE], and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System. The project is being performed under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Project No. 2005-001-00). The research is a collaborative effort among the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, the National Marine Fisheries Service, and the University of Washington. The overarching goal of the TFM project is to bridge the gap in knowledge between tidal freshwater habitats and the early life history attributes of migrating salmon. The research questions include: In what types of habitats within the tidal freshwater area of the Columbia River are juvenile salmon found, when are they present, and under what environmental conditions? What is the ecological contribution of shallow (0-5 m) tidal freshwater habitats to the recovery of ESA-listed salmon in the Columbia River basin? Field data collection for the TFM project commenced in June 2007 and since then has continued monthly at six to nine sites in the vicinity of the Sandy River delta (river kilometer 192-208). While this report includes summary data spanning the 19-month period of study from June 2007 through December 2008, it highlights sampling conducted during calendar year 2008. Detailed data for calendar year 2007 were reported previously. The 2008 research objectives were as follows: (1) Characterize the vegetation composition and percent cover, conventional water quality, water surface elevation, substrate composition, bathymetry, and beach slope at the study sites within the vicinity of the Sandy

  3. Economic analysis of temperature reduction in a large river floodplain: An exploratory study of the WIllamette River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper examines ecosystem restoration practices that focus on water temperature reductions in the upper mainstem Willamette River, Oregon, for the benefit of endangered salmonids and other native cold-water species. The analysis integrates hydrologic, natural science and eco...

  4. Wetted channel and bar features for the Nehalem River, Oregon in 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  5. Location of Photographs Showing Landslide Features in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Data points represent locations of photographs taken of landslides in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon. Photos were taken in spring of 2010 during field...

  6. Timber Harvest Change in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon, 1995 to 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Using available aerial photos from approximately a 15-year period, changes in timber harvest were mapped in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon. Timber...

  7. Landslide Deposit Boundaries for the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This layer is an inventory of existing landslides deposits in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon (2009). Each landslide deposit shown on this map has been...

  8. Head Scarp Boundary for the Landslides in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Polygons represent head scarps and flank scarps associated with landslide deposits in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon. This work was completed as part...

  9. Bathymetry from 2013 Interferometric Swath Bathymetry Systems Survey of Columbia River Mouth, Oregon and Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of the USGS Data Release presents bathymetry data for the Columbia River Mouth, Oregon and Washington. The GeoTIFF raster data file is included in...

  10. Wetted channel and bar features for the Coquille River, Oregon 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Coquille River system is an unregulated system that encompasses 2,745 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon and flows into the Pacific Ocean near the town of...

  11. Aerial photo mosaic of the Wilson and Kilchis Rivers, Tillamook basin, Oregon in 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  12. Channel centerline for the Tillamook, Trask, Wilson, Kilchis, and Miami Rivers, Oregon in 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  13. Wetted channel and bar features for the Nehalem River, Oregon in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  14. Aerial photo mosaic of the Bandon Reach, Coquille River, Oregon in 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Coquille River system is an unregulated system that encompasses 2,745 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon and flows into the Pacific Ocean near the town of...

  15. Channel centerline for the Tillamook, Trask, Wilson, Kilchis, and Miami Rivers, Oregon in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  16. Aerial photo mosaic of the Bridge Reach, Middle Fork Coquille River, Oregon in 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Coquille River system is an unregulated system that encompasses 2,745 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon and flows into the Pacific Ocean near the town of...

  17. Aerial photo mosaic of the Miami River, Tillamook basin, Oregon in 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  18. Wetted channel and bar features for the Coquille River, Oregon 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Coquille River system is an unregulated system that encompasses 2,745 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon and flows into the Pacific Ocean near the town of...

  19. Channel centerline for the Tillamook, Trask, Wilson, Kilchis, and Miami Rivers, Oregon in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  20. Wetted channel and bar features for the Coquille River, Oregon 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Coquille River system is an unregulated system that encompasses 2,745 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon and flows into the Pacific Ocean near the town of...

  1. Wetted channel and bar features for the Coquille River, Oregon 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Coquille River system is an unregulated system that encompasses 2,745 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon and flows into the Pacific Ocean near the town of...

  2. Aerial photo mosaic of the Tillamook and Trask Rivers, Tillamook basin, Oregon in 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  3. Channel centerline for the Tillamook, Trask, Wilson, Kilchis, and Miami Rivers, Oregon in 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  4. Wetted channel and bar features for the Nehalem River, Oregon in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  5. Wetted channel and bar features for the Nehalem River, Oregon in 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  6. Geomorphology and flood-plain vegetation of the Sprague and lower Sycan Rivers, Klamath Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, James E.; McDowell, Patricia F.; Lind, Pollyanna; Rasmussen, Christine G.; Keith, Mackenzie K.

    2015-01-01

    This study provides information on channel and flood-plain processes and historical trends to guide effective restoration and monitoring strategies for the Sprague River Basin, a primary tributary (via the lower Williamson River) of Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. The study area covered the lower, alluvial segments of the Sprague River system, including the lower parts of the Sycan River, North Fork Sprague River, South Fork Sprague River, and the entire main-stem Sprague River between the confluence of the North Fork Sprague and the South Fork Sprague Rivers and its confluence with the Williamson River at Chiloquin, Oregon. The study included mapping and stratigraphic analysis of flood-plain deposits and flanking features; evaluation of historical records, maps and photographs; mapping and analysis of flood-plain and channel characteristics (including morphologic and vegetation conditions); and a 2006 survey of depositional features left by high flows during the winter and spring of 2005–06.

  7. Stratigraphic and microfossil evidence for a 4500-year history of Cascadia subduction zone earthquakes and tsunamis at Yaquina River estuary, Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graehl, Nicholas A; Kelsey, Harvey M.; Witter, Robert C.; Hemphill-Haley, Eileen; Engelhart, Simon E.

    2015-01-01

    The Sallys Bend swamp and marsh area on the central Oregon coast onshore of the Cascadia subduction zone contains a sequence of buried coastal wetland soils that extends back ∼4500 yr B.P. The upper 10 of the 12 soils are represented in multiple cores. Each soil is abruptly overlain by a sandy deposit and then, in most cases, by greater than 10 cm of mud. For eight of the 10 buried soils, times of soil burial are constrained through radiocarbon ages on fine, delicate detritus from the top of the buried soil; for two of the buried soils, diatom and foraminifera data constrain paleoenvironment at the time of soil burial.We infer that each buried soil represents a Cascadia subduction zone earthquake because the soils are laterally extensive and abruptly overlain by sandy deposits and mud. Preservation of coseismically buried soils occurred from 4500 yr ago until ∼500–600 yr ago, after which preservation was compromised by cessation of gradual relative sea-level rise, which in turn precluded drowning of marsh soils during instances of coseismic subsidence. Based on grain-size and microfossil data, sandy deposits overlying buried soils accumulated immediately after a subduction zone earthquake, during tsunami incursion into Sallys Bend. The possibility that the sandy deposits were sourced directly from landslides triggered upstream in the Yaquina River basin by seismic shaking was discounted based on sedimentologic, microfossil, and depositional site characteristics of the sandy deposits, which were inconsistent with a fluvial origin. Biostratigraphic analyses of sediment above two buried soils—in the case of two earthquakes, one occurring shortly after 1541–1708 cal. yr B.P. and the other occurring shortly after 3227–3444 cal. yr B.P.—provide estimates that coseismic subsidence was a minimum of 0.4 m. The average recurrence interval of subduction zone earthquakes is 420–580 yr, based on an ∼3750–4050-yr-long record and seven to nine interearthquake

  8. Calculations of Bed-Material Transport, Chetco River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, S.; Wallick, R.; Cannon, C.; O'Connor, J. E.

    2009-12-01

    The Chetco River drains 914 square kilometers of the Klamath Mountains in far southwestern Oregon. The lower 18 kilometers of the river are flanked by large and abundant gravel bars, which have been commercially mined for aggregate during most of the last century. Increasing concern regarding the impact of this mining on aquatic habitats motivated an assessment of historical channel change and sediment transport rates along this lower reach. A key component of this research was estimating bed-material transport through the application of sediment transport equations at multiple locations along the study reach. Flow hydraulics were estimated with a 1-D hydraulic model constructed in HEC-RAS, using a combination of LiDAR and bathymetric surveys to characterize the valley morphology. Once calibrated to USGS rating curves, low flow water surfaces, and several high flow photos, this model allowed us to calculate energy slopes for a given cross section at a variety of flows. These flow-energy slope pairs, along with cross sections and sediment data collected from surface pebble counts, were then applied to a number of different modern bedload transport equations. This process was facilitated by the Bedload Assessment in Gravel-bedded Streams Excel macro, or BAGS, which allows users to quickly apply multiple transport equations using a single set of inputs (Pitlick et al., 2009). A review of the literature, along with tests of internal consistency and comparisons to direct bedload measurements taken in the winter of 2008-09, led us to choose the Parker (1991) and Wilcock-Crowe (2003) equations as the two most applicable to the Chetco River. Sediment transport-flow curves for both equations were calculated for seven cross sections spanning the study area. For each of these cross sections, we estimated annual transport fluxes using derived transport rating curves in conjunction with unit flow data from a USGS gage at the upstream end of study reach, with data extending back

  9. Sandy River Delta Habitat Restoration : Annual Report, January 2008 - March 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobson, Robin [USDA Forest Service, Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area

    2009-09-11

    During the period 2008-2009, there were 2 contracts with BPA. One (38539) was dealing with the restoration work for 2007 and the other (26198) was an extension on the 2006 contract including the NEPA for Dam removal on the old channel of the Sandy River. For contract 38539, the Sandy River Delta Habitat Restoration project continued its focus on riparian hardwood reforestation with less emphasis on wetlands restoration. Emphasis was placed on Sundial Island again due to the potential removal of the dike and the loss of access in the near future. AshCreek Forest Management was able to leverage additional funding from grants to help finance the restoration effort; this required a mid year revision of work funded by BPA. The revised work not only continued the maintenance of restored hardwood forests, but was aimed to commence the restoration of the Columbia River Banks, an area all along the Columbia River. This would be the final restoration for Sundial Island. The grant funding would help achieve this. Thus by 2011, all major work will have been completed on Sundial Island and the need for access with vehicles would no longer be required. The restored forests continued to show excellent growth and development towards true riparian gallery forests. Final inter-planting was commenced, and will continue through 2010 before the area is considered fully restored. No new wetland work was completed. The wetlands were filled by pumping in early summer to augment the water levels but due to better rainfall, no new fuel was required to augment existing. Monitoring results continued to show very good growth of the trees and the restoration at large was performing beyond expectations. Weed problems continue to be the most difficult issue. The $100,000 from BPA planned for forest restoration in 2008, was augmented by $25,000 from USFS, $120,000 from OR150 grant, $18,000 from LCREP, and the COE continued to add $250,000 for their portion. Summary of the use of these funds are

  10. Oregon Trust Agreement Planning Project : Potential Mitigations to the Impacts on Oregon Wildlife Resources Associated with Relevant Mainstem Columbia River and Willamette River Hydroelectric Projects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-10-01

    A coalition of the Oregon wildlife agencies and tribes (the Oregon Wildlife Mitigation Coalition) have forged a cooperative effort to promote wildlife mitigation from losses to Oregon wildlife resources associated with the four mainstream Columbia River and the eight Willamette River Basin hydroelectric projects. This coalition formed a Joint Advisory Committee, made up of technical representatives from all of the tribes and agencies, to develop this report. The goal was to create a list of potential mitigation opportunities by priority, and to attempt to determine the costs of mitigating the wildlife losses. The information and analysis was completed for all projects in Oregon, but was gathered separately for the Lower Columbia and Willamette Basin projects. The coalition developed a procedure to gather information on potential mitigation projects and opportunities. All tribes, agencies and interested parties were contacted in an attempt to evaluate all proposed or potential mitigation. A database was developed and minimum criteria were established for opportunities to be considered. These criteria included the location of the mitigation site within a defined area, as well as other criteria established by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Costs were established for general habitats within the mitigation area, based on estimates from certified appraisers. An analysis of the cost effectiveness of various types of mitigation projects was completed. Estimates of operation and maintenance costs were also developed. The report outlines strategies for gathering mitigation potentials, evaluating them, determining their costs, and attempting to move towards their implementation.

  11. Dissolved-oxygen and algal conditions in selected locations of the Willamette River basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinella, F.A.; McKenzie, S.W.; Wille, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    During July and August 1978, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Oregon Department of Enviromental Quality, made three intensive river-quality dissolved-oxygen studies in the upper Willamette River basin. Two studies were made on the upper Willamette River and one was made on the Santiam River, a Willamette River tributary. Nitrification, occurring in both the upper Willamette and South Santiam Rivers, accounted for about 62% and 92% of the DO sag in the rivers, respectively. Rates of nitrification were found to be dependent on ammonia concentrations in the rivers. Periphyton and phytoplankton algal samples were collected on the main stem Willamette River and selected tributaries during August 1978. Diatoms were the dominant group in both the periphyton and phytoplankton samples. The most common diatom genera were Melosira, Stephanodiscus, Cymbella, Achnanthes, and Nitzschia. Comparisons with historical data indicate no significant difference from previous years in the total abundance or diversity of the algae. (USGS)

  12. ALIEN SPECIES IMPORTANTANCE IN NATIVE VEGETATION ALONG WADEABLE STREAMS, JOHN DAY RIVER BASIN, OREGON, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    We evaluated the importance of alien species in existing vegetation along wadeable streams of a large, topographically diverse river basin in eastern Oregon, USA; sampling 165 plots (30 × 30 m) across 29 randomly selected 1-km stream reaches. Plots represented eight streamside co...

  13. Modeling discharge, temperature, and water quality in the Tualatin River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Stewart A.; Wood, Tamara M.; Lynch, Dennis D.

    1999-01-01

    The discharge, water temperature, and water quality of the Tualatin River in northwestern Oregon was simulated with CE-QUAL-W2, a two-dimensional, laterally averaged model developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The model was calibrated for May through October periods of 1991, 1992, and 1993. Nine hypothetical scenarios were tested with the model to provide insight for river managers and regulators.

  14. Laboratory analysis of diet of Pacific harbor seals at Umpqua River, Oregon and Columbia River, Oregon/Washington conducted from 1994-06-23 to 2005-09-03 (NCEI Accession 0139413)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1994 to 2005, The National Marine Mammal Laboratories' California Current Ecosystem Program (AFSC/NOAA) collected fecal samples at the Umpqua River, Oregon and...

  15. Wetted channel and bar features for the Tillamook, Trask, Wilson, Kilchis, and Miami Rivers, Oregon in 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  16. Wetted channel and bar features for the Tillamook, Trask, Wilson, Kilchis, and Miami Rivers, Oregon in 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  17. Upstream factors affecting Tualatin River algae—Tracking the 2008 Anabaena algae bloom to Wapato Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Stewart A.; Carpenter, Kurt D.; Fesler, Kristel J.; Dorsey, Jessica L.

    2015-12-17

    Significant Findings A large bloom that included floating mats of the blue-green algae Anabaena flos-aquae occurred in the lower 20 miles of the Tualatin River in northwestern Oregon between July 7 and July 17, 2008.

  18. Surface-sediment grain-size data from the mouth of the Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This portion of the USGS data release presents sediment grain-size data from samples collected from the mouth of the Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, in 2013....

  19. Wetted channel and bar features for the Tillamook, Trask, Wilson, Kilchis, and Miami Rivers, Oregon in 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  20. Aerial photo mosaic of the Powers Reach and Broadbent Reach, South Fork Coquille River, Oregon in 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Coquille River system is an unregulated system that encompasses 2,745 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon and flows into the Pacific Ocean near the town of...

  1. Wetted channel and bar features for the Tillamook, Trask, Wilson, Kilchis, and Miami Rivers, Oregon in 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  2. Aerial photo mosaic of the South Fork Coquille, Middle Fork Coquille, North Fork Coquille, and Coquille Rivers, Oregon in 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Coquille River system is an unregulated system that encompasses 2,745 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon and flows into the Pacific Ocean near the town of...

  3. Vessel-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data from the mouth of the Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Spatial surveys of water column currents were performed between June 14 and 16, 2013, in the mouth of the Columbia River, Oregon and Washington. These data were...

  4. Geomorphology of the Burnt River, eastern Oregon, USA: Topographic adjustments to tectonic and dynamic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morriss, Matthew Connor; Wegmann, Karl W.

    2017-02-01

    Eastern Oregon contains the deepest gorge in North America, where the Snake River cuts vertically down 2300 m. This deep gorge is known as Hells Canyon. A landscape containing such a topographic feature is likely undergoing relatively recent deformation. Study of the Burnt River, a tributary to the Snake River at the upstream end of Hells Canyon, yields data on active river incision in eastern Oregon, indicating that Quaternary faults are a first order control on regional landscape development. Through 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping, a 500,000-year record of fluvial incision along the Burnt River was constructed and is chronologically anchored by optically stimulated luminescence dating and tephrochronology analyses. A conceptual model of fluvial terrace formation was developed using these ages and likely applies to other non-glaciated catchments in eastern Oregon. Mapped terraces, inferred to have formed during glacial-interglacial cycles, provide constraints on rates of incision of the Burnt River. Incision through these terraces indicates that the Burnt River is down-cutting at 0.15 to 0.57 m kyr- 1. This incision appears to reflect a combination of local base-level adjustments tied to movement along the newly mapped Durkee fault and regional base-level control imposed by the downcutting of the Snake River. Deformation of terraces as young as 38.7 ± 5.1 ka indicates Quaternary activity along the Durkee fault, and when combined with topographic metrics (slope, relief, hypsometry, and stream-steepness), reveals a landscape in disequilibrium. Longer wavelength lithospheric dynamics (delamination and crustal foundering) that initiated in the Miocene may also be responsible for continued regional deformation of the Earth's surface.

  5. 33 CFR 110.228 - Columbia River, Oregon and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Astoria, Oregon, at latitude 46°12′00.79″ N, longitude 123°49′55.40″ W; thence continuing easterly to... northeasterly to latitude 46°13′02.18″ N, longitude 123°45′54.55″ W; thence continuing easterly to latitude 46... 46°07″28.44′ N, longitude 122°59′31.18″ W; thence continuing easterly to latitude 46°07′14.77″...

  6. Aerial photo mosaic of the Gravelford Reach, North Fork Coquille River and Myrtle Point Reach, South Fork Coquille River, Oregon in 1939

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Coquille River system is an unregulated system that encompasses 2,745 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon and flows into the Pacific Ocean near the town of...

  7. Nesting of Phrynops geoffroanus (Testudines: Chelidae on sandy beaches along the Upper Xingu River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo D. Ferreira Júnior

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the first data on incubation temperature of Phrynops geoffroanus (Schweigger, 1812 in a natural environment, and provides information on nest predation, hatching success and size of offspring born in the nests on sandy beaches along the Upper Xingu River. Thirty-one P. geoffroanus nests were found, of which eleven were completely predated, mainly by Cerdocyon thous (Linnaeus, 1766. Incubation was completed in nine out of the 17 nests protected by netting. The nests presented an average of 13.1 eggs and were distributed over the various geomorphological sectors of the nine sampled beaches. The size and weight of the hatchlings varied significantly between nests, and the incubation period in protected nests lasted for 76.5 days, less than reported for controlled incubation in the laboratory. Daily variation in incubation temperature in the three nests monitored for temperature was lower in those situated in fine sand sediments. Incubation temperature varied from 22 to 39 C and may have affected hatching success, which reached 60.8% in protected nests. Nest distribution in different geomorphological sectors indicated the plasticity of P. geoffroanus in terms of variation in nesting environment, which partly explains the species' broad geographical distribution.

  8. Klamath River Water Quality Data from Link River Dam to Keno Dam, Oregon, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Deas, Michael L.; Asbill, Jessica; Kirshtein, Julie D.; Butler, Kenna D.; Vaughn, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This report documents sampling and analytical methods and presents field data from a second year of an ongoing study on the Klamath River from Link River Dam to Keno Dam in south central Oregon; this dataset will form the basis of a hydrodynamic and water quality model. Water quality was sampled weekly at six mainstem and two tributary sites from early April through early November, 2008. Constituents reported herein include field-measured water-column parameters (water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration, specific conductance); total nitrogen and phosphorus; particulate carbon and nitrogen; total iron; filtered orthophosphate, nitrite, nitrite plus nitrate, ammonia, organic carbon, and iron; specific UV absorbance at 254 nanometers; chlorophyll a; phytoplankton and zooplankton enumeration and species identification; and bacterial abundance and morphological subgroups. Sampling program results indicated: *Most nutrient and carbon concentrations were lowest in spring, increased starting in mid-June, remained elevated in the summer, and decreased in fall. Dissolved nitrite plus nitrate had a different seasonal cycle and was below detection or at low concentration in summer. *Although total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations did not show large differences from upstream to downstream, filtered ammonia and orthophosphate concentrations increased in the downstream direction and particulate carbon and particulate nitrogen generally decreased in the downstream direction. *Large bacterial cells made up most of the bacteria biovolume, though cocci were the most numerous bacteria type. Cocci, with diameters of 0.1 to 0.2 micrometers, were smaller than the filter pore sizes used to separate dissolved from particulate matter. *Phytoplankton biovolumes were dominated by diatoms in spring and by the blue-green alga Aphanizomenon flos-aquae after mid-June. Another blue-green, Anabaena flos-aquae, was noted in samples from late May to late June. Phytoplankton

  9. Modeling water quality, temperature, and flow in Link River, south-central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2016-09-09

    The 2.1-km (1.3-mi) Link River connects Upper Klamath Lake to the Klamath River in south-central Oregon. A CE-QUAL-W2 flow and water-quality model of Link River was developed to provide a connection between an existing model of the upper Klamath River and any existing or future models of Upper Klamath Lake. Water-quality sampling at six locations in Link River was done during 2013–15 to support model development and to provide a better understanding of instream biogeochemical processes. The short reach and high velocities in Link River resulted in fast travel times and limited water-quality transformations, except for dissolved oxygen. Reaeration through the reach, especially at the falls in Link River, was particularly important in moderating dissolved oxygen concentrations that at times entered the reach at Link River Dam with marked supersaturation or subsaturation. This reaeration resulted in concentrations closer to saturation downstream at the mouth of Link River.

  10. Channel change and bed-material transport in the Umpqua River basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallick, J. Rose; O'Connor, Jim E.; Anderson, Scott; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Cannon, Charles; Risley, John C.

    2011-01-01

    The Umpqua River drains 12,103 square kilometers of western Oregon; with headwaters in the Cascade Range, the river flows through portions of the Klamath Mountains and Oregon Coast Range before entering the Pacific Ocean. Above the head of tide, the Umpqua River, along with its major tributaries, the North and South Umpqua Rivers, flows on a mixed bedrock and alluvium bed, alternating between bedrock rapids and intermittent, shallow gravel bars composed of gravel to cobble-sized clasts. These bars have been a source of commercial aggregate since the mid-twentieth century. Below the head of tide, the Umpqua River contains large bars composed of mud and sand. Motivated by ongoing permitting and aquatic habitat concerns related to in-stream gravel mining on the fluvial reaches, this study evaluated spatial and temporal trends in channel change and bed-material transport for 350 kilometers of river channel along the Umpqua, North Umpqua, and South Umpqua Rivers. The assessment produced (1) detailed mapping of the active channel, using aerial photographs and repeat surveys, and (2) a quantitative estimation of bed-material flux that drew upon detailed measurements of particle size and lithology, equations of transport capacity, and a sediment yield analysis. Bed-material transport capacity estimates at 45 sites throughout the South Umpqua and main stem Umpqua Rivers for the period 1951-2008 result in wide-ranging transport capacity estimates, reflecting the difficulty of applying equations of bed-material transport to a supply-limited river. Median transport capacity values calculated from surface-based equations of bedload transport for each of the study reaches provide indications of maximum possible transport rates and range from 8,000 to 27,000 metric tons per year (tons/yr) for the South Umpqua River and 20,000 to 82,000 metric tons/yr for the main stem Umpqua River upstream of the head of tide; the North Umpqua River probably contributes little bed material. A

  11. Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta, Lower Columbia River, 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobocinski, Kathryn; Johnson, Gary; Sather, Nichole [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2008-03-17

    This document is the first annual report for the study titled 'Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta in the Lower Columbia River'. Hereafter, we refer to this research as the Tidal Freshwater Monitoring (TFM) Study. The study is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The project is performed under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The goal of the 2007-2009 Tidal Freshwater Monitoring Study is to answer the following questions: In what types of habitats within the tidal freshwater area of the lower Columbia River and estuary (LCRE; Figure 1) are yearling and subyearling salmonids found, when are they present, and under what environmental conditions?1 And, what is the ecological importance2 of shallow (0-5 m) tidal freshwater habitats to the recovery of Upper Columbia River spring Chinook salmon and steelhead and Snake River fall Chinook salmon? Research in 2007 focused mainly on the first question, with fish stock identification data providing some indication of Chinook salmon presence at the variety of habitat types sampled. The objectives and sub-objectives for the 2007 study were as follows: (1) Habitat and Fish Community Characteristics-Provide basic data on habitat and fish community characteristics for yearling and subyearling salmonids at selected sites in the tidal freshwater reach in the vicinity of the Sandy River delta. (1a) Characterize vegetation assemblage percent cover, conventional water quality, substrate composition, and beach slope at each of six sampling sites in various tidal freshwater habitat types. (1b

  12. Extreme Rainfall Analysis using Bayesian Hierarchical Modeling in the Willamette River Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, C. A.; Skahill, B. E.; AghaKouchak, A.; Karlovits, G. S.; England, J. F.; Duren, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    We present preliminary results of ongoing research directed at evaluating the worth of including various covariate data to support extreme rainfall analysis in the Willamette River basin using Bayesian hierarchical modeling (BHM). We also compare the BHM derived extreme rainfall estimates with their respective counterparts obtained from a traditional regional frequency analysis (RFA) using the same set of rain gage extreme rainfall data. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Portland District operates thirteen dams in the 11,478 square mile Willamette River basin (WRB) located in northwestern Oregon, a major tributary of the Columbia River whose 187 miles long main stem, the Willamette River, flows northward between the Coastal and Cascade Ranges. The WRB contains approximately two-thirds of Oregon's population and 20 of the 25 most populous cities in the state. Extreme rainfall estimates are required to support risk-informed hydrologic analyses for these projects as part of the USACE Dam Safety Program. We analyze daily annual rainfall maxima data for the WRB utilizing the spatial BHM R package "spatial.gev.bma", which has been shown to be efficient in developing coherent maps of extreme rainfall by return level. Our intent is to profile for the USACE an alternate methodology to a RFA which was developed in 2008 due to the lack of an official NOAA Atlas 14 update for the state of Oregon. Unlike RFA, the advantage of a BHM-based analysis of hydrometeorological extremes is its ability to account for non-stationarity while providing robust estimates of uncertainty. BHM also allows for the inclusion of geographical and climatological factors which we show for the WRB influence regional rainfall extremes. Moreover, the Bayesian framework permits one to combine additional data types into the analysis; for example, information derived via elicitation and causal information expansion data, both being additional opportunities for future related research.

  13. Simulating future water temperatures in the North Santiam River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman; Risley, John C.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2016-01-01

    A previously calibrated two-dimensional hydrodynamic and water-quality model (CE-QUAL-W2) of Detroit Lake in western Oregon was used in conjunction with inflows derived from Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) hydrologic models to examine in-lake and downstream water temperature effects under future climate conditions. Current and hypothetical operations and structures at Detroit Dam were imposed on boundary conditions derived from downscaled General Circulation Models in base (1990–1999) and future (2059–2068) periods. Compared with the base period, future air temperatures were about 2 °C warmer year-round. Higher air temperature and lower precipitation under the future period resulted in a 23% reduction in mean annual PRMS-simulated discharge and a 1 °C increase in mean annual estimated stream temperatures flowing into the lake compared to the base period. Simulations incorporating current operational rules and minimum release rates at Detroit Dam to support downstream habitat, irrigation, and water supply during key times of year resulted in lower future lake levels. That scenario results in a lake level that is above the dam’s spillway crest only about half as many days in the future compared to historical frequencies. Managing temperature downstream of Detroit Dam depends on the ability to blend warmer water from the lake’s surface with cooler water from deep in the lake, and the spillway is an important release point near the lake’s surface. Annual average in-lake and release temperatures from Detroit Lake warmed 1.1 °C and 1.5 °C from base to future periods under present-day dam operational rules and fill schedules. Simulated dam operations such as beginning refill of the lake 30 days earlier or reducing minimum release rates (to keep more water in the lake to retain the use of the spillway) mitigated future warming to 0.4 and 0.9 °C below existing operational scenarios during the critical autumn spawning period for endangered

  14. Simulating future water temperatures in the North Santiam River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman L.; Risley, John C.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2016-04-01

    A previously calibrated two-dimensional hydrodynamic and water-quality model (CE-QUAL-W2) of Detroit Lake in western Oregon was used in conjunction with inflows derived from Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) hydrologic models to examine in-lake and downstream water temperature effects under future climate conditions. Current and hypothetical operations and structures at Detroit Dam were imposed on boundary conditions derived from downscaled General Circulation Models in base (1990-1999) and future (2059-2068) periods. Compared with the base period, future air temperatures were about 2 °C warmer year-round. Higher air temperature and lower precipitation under the future period resulted in a 23% reduction in mean annual PRMS-simulated discharge and a 1 °C increase in mean annual estimated stream temperatures flowing into the lake compared to the base period. Simulations incorporating current operational rules and minimum release rates at Detroit Dam to support downstream habitat, irrigation, and water supply during key times of year resulted in lower future lake levels. That scenario results in a lake level that is above the dam's spillway crest only about half as many days in the future compared to historical frequencies. Managing temperature downstream of Detroit Dam depends on the ability to blend warmer water from the lake's surface with cooler water from deep in the lake, and the spillway is an important release point near the lake's surface. Annual average in-lake and release temperatures from Detroit Lake warmed 1.1 °C and 1.5 °C from base to future periods under present-day dam operational rules and fill schedules. Simulated dam operations such as beginning refill of the lake 30 days earlier or reducing minimum release rates (to keep more water in the lake to retain the use of the spillway) mitigated future warming to 0.4 and 0.9 °C below existing operational scenarios during the critical autumn spawning period for endangered salmonids. A

  15. Thermal effects of dams in the Willamette River basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Stewart A.

    2010-01-01

    Methods were developed to assess the effects of dams on streamflow and water temperature in the Willamette River and its major tributaries. These methods were used to estimate the flows and temperatures that would occur at 14 dam sites in the absence of upstream dams, and river models were applied to simulate downstream flows and temperatures under a no-dams scenario. The dams selected for this study include 13 dams built and operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) as part of the Willamette Project, and 1 dam on the Clackamas River owned and operated by Portland General Electric (PGE). Streamflows in the absence of upstream dams for 2001-02 were estimated for USACE sites on the basis of measured releases, changes in reservoir storage, a correction for evaporative losses, and an accounting of flow effects from upstream dams. For the PGE dam, no-project streamflows were derived from a previous modeling effort that was part of a dam-relicensing process. Without-dam streamflows were characterized by higher peak flows in winter and spring and much lower flows in late summer, as compared to with-dam measured flows. Without-dam water temperatures were estimated from measured temperatures upstream of the reservoirs (the USACE sites) or derived from no-project model results (the PGE site). When using upstream data to estimate without-dam temperatures at dam sites, a typical downstream warming rate based on historical data and downstream river models was applied over the distance from the measurement point to the dam site, but only for conditions when the temperature data indicated that warming might be expected. Regressions with measured temperatures from nearby or similar sites were used to extend the without-dam temperature estimates to the entire 2001-02 time period. Without-dam temperature estimates were characterized by a more natural seasonal pattern, with a maximum in July or August, in contrast to the measured patterns at many of the tall dam sites

  16. Environmental Flow Assessments in the McKenzie and Santiam River Basins, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley, J. C.; Bach, L.; Budai, C.; Duffy, K.

    2012-12-01

    The McKenzie and Santiam Rivers are tributaries of the Willamette River in northwestern Oregon, draining areas of 3,370 and 4,690 square kilometers, respectively. The river basins are heavily forested and contain streams that historically provided critical habit for salmonid rearing, salmonid spawning, and bull trout. In the 1950s and 1960s, hydropower and flood control dams were constructed in both basins. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps), began assessing the impacts of dam regulation in the two basins on streamflow, geomorphic, and ecological processes (Risley et. al., 2010; 2012). The baseline assessments were made under the auspices of the Sustainable Rivers Project (SRP), formed in 2002 by TNC and the Corps. SRP is a nation-wide partnership aimed at developing, implementing, and refining environmental flows downstream of dams. Environmental flows can be defined as the streamflow needed to sustain ecosystems while continuing to meet human needs. Determining environmental flows is an iterative collective process involving stakeholders, workshops, bio-monitoring, and follow-up assessments. The dams on the McKenzie and Santiam Rivers have decreased the frequency and magnitude of floods and increased the magnitude of low flows. In the Santiam River study reaches, for example, annual 1-day maximum streamflows decreased by 46-percent on average because of regulated streamflow conditions. Annual 7-day minimum flows in six of the seven study reaches increased by 146 percent on average. On a seasonal basis, median monthly streamflows in both river basins decreased from February to May and increased from September to January. However, the magnitude of these impacts usually decreased farther downstream from the dams because of the cumulative inflow from unregulated tributaries and groundwater discharge below the dams. In addition to streamflow assessments, the USGS

  17. Temperature Regulation in Critical Salmon Habitat of the Middle Fork of the John Day River, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskirk, B. A.; Selker, J. S.

    2016-12-01

    Flow and temperature within the Middle Fork of the John Day River, an arid Eastern Oregon river, is dominated primarily by contributions from groundwater fed tributaries. The hydrology of arid streams is an important metric for understanding the critical environment in which salmon spawn and salmonids reside. The regulation of temperature within these streams is considered the primary metric for survival rates of these fish. Since 2007 Oregon State University has conducted stream monitoring efforts on the Middle Fork of the John Day River at the Oxbow and Forrest Conservation Areas. These sites were chosen through collaborative effort with the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon, who have been restoring remnant mining canals back to their natural sinuous river pattern. The John Day River is also one of the few undammed reaches in which salmon runs occur. Efforts have focused on fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS), groundwater gradient, stream discharge, bed permeability, GPS location and stream bathymetry across the conservation sites. During the peak of summer, stream temperature exhibits a strong diurnal cycle ranging from 9° C to 23° C depending on the daily maximum observed within the reach. Salmon have been found to be sensitive to stream temperatures above 15° C and are unable to survive temperatures above 24° C (Bell et al, 1991). The synthesis of temperature and stream flow data we collected show that very little groundwater is contributing to flow and temperature in the main channel of our study site while tributaries provide a constant, typically 0.5 to 2° C cooler, input of water to the main river channel and significant source of flow (0.01 - 0.1 m3/s). Due to the minimal rain fall in this arid environment, snow melt infiltration is likely the primary annual source of recharge into the head waters of the tributaries while also providing temperature regulation through input of near 0° C water. This cold water

  18. Reconnaissance of contaminants in selected wastewater-treatment-plant effluent and stormwater runoff entering the Columbia River, Columbia River Basin, Washington and Oregon, 2008-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morace, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Toxic contamination is a significant concern in the Columbia River Basin in Washington and Oregon. To help water managers and policy makers in decision making about future sampling efforts and toxic-reduction activities, a reconnaissance was done to assess contaminant concentrations directly contributed to the Columbia River through wastewater-treatment-plant (WWTP) effluent and stormwater runoff from adjacent urban environments and to evaluate instantaneous loadings to the Columbia River Basin from these inputs.

  19. Pomona Member of the Columbia River Basalt Group: an intracanyon flow in the Columbia River Gorge, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    The Pomona Member of the Saddle Mountains Basalt (Columbia River Basalt Group) occurs as an intracanyon flow greater than 75m (250ft) thick along the S side of the Columbia River Gorge between Mitchell Point and Shellrock Mountain, Oregon. Best exposures are at Mitchell Point, where this flow caps more than 70m (230ft) of cobble conglomerate that partially fills a canyon cut into flows of the underlying Frenchman Springs Member. These exposures provide a necessary link between outcrops of the Pomona Member in the Columbia Plateau and western Washington. Post-Frenchman Springs, pre-Pomona canyon cutting implies deformation in the ancestral Cascade Range between about 14.5 and 12Ma ago.-Author

  20. Modeling water quality in the Tualatin River, Oregon, 1991-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Stewart A.; Wood, Tamara M.

    2001-01-01

    The calibration of a model of flow, temperature, and water quality in the Tualatin River, Oregon, originally calibrated for the summers of 1991 through 1993, was extended to the summers of 1991 through 1997. The model is now calibrated for a total period of 42 months during the May through October periods of 7 hydrologically distinct years. Based on a modified version of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers model CE-QUAL-W2, this model provides a good fit to the measured data for streamflow, water temperature, and water quality constituents such as chloride, ammonia, nitrate, total phosphorus, orthophosphate, phytoplankton, and dissolved oxygen. In particular, the model simulates ammonia concentrations and the effects of instream ammonia nitrification very well, which is critical to ongoing efforts to revise ammonia regulations for the Tualatin River. In addition, the model simulates the timing, duration, and relative size of algal blooms with sufficient accuracy to provide important insights for regulators and managers of this river.Efforts to limit the size of algal blooms through phosphorus control measures are apparent in the model simulations, which show this limitation on algal growth. Such measures are largely responsible for avoiding violations of the State of Oregon maximum pH standard of 8.5 in recent years, but they have not yet reduced algal biomass levels below the State of Oregon nuisance phytoplankton growth guideline of 15 ?g/L chlorophyll-a.Most of the dynamics of the instream dissolved oxygen concentrations are captured by the model. About half of the error in the simulated dissolved oxygen concentrations is directly attributable to error in the size of the simulated phytoplankton population. To achieve greater accuracy in simulating dissolved oxygen, therefore, it will be necessary to increase accuracy in the simulation of Tualatin River phytoplankton.Future efforts may include the introduction of multiple algal groups in the model. This model of the

  1. Development of an Environmental Flow Framework for the McKenzie River Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley, John; Wallick, J. Rose; Waite, Ian; Stonewall, Adam J.

    2010-01-01

    The McKenzie River is a tributary to the Willamette River in northwestern Oregon. The McKenzie River is approximately 90 miles in length and has a drainage area of approximately 1,300 square miles. Two major flood control dams, a hydropower dam complex, and two hydropower canals significantly alter streamflows in the river. The structures reduce the magnitude and frequency of large and small floods while increasing the annual 7-day minimum streamflows. Stream temperatures also have been altered by the dams and other anthropogenic factors, such as the removal of riparian vegetation and channel simplification. Flow releases from one of the flood control dams are cooler in the summer and warmer in the fall in comparison to unregulated flow conditions before the dam was constructed. In 2006, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality listed a total of 112.4, 6.3, and 55.7 miles of the McKenzie River basin mainstem and tributary stream reaches as thermally impaired for salmonid rearing, salmonid spawning, and bull trout, respectively. The analyses in this report, along with previous studies, indicate that dams have altered downstream channel morphology and ecologic communities. In addition to reducing the magnitude and frequency of floods, dams have diminished sediment transport by trapping bed material. Other anthropogenic factors, such as bank stabilization, highway construction, and reductions of in-channel wood, also have contributed to the loss of riparian habitat. A comparison of aerial photography taken in 1939 and 2005 showed substantial decreases in secondary channels, gravel bars, and channel sinuosity, particularly along the lower alluvial reaches of the McKenzie River. In addition, bed armoring and incision may contribute to habitat degradation, although further study is needed to determine the extent of these processes. Peak streamflow reduction has led to vegetation colonization and stabilization of formerly active bar surfaces. The large flood control

  2. Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta, Lower Columbia River, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobocinski, Kathryn L.; Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Storch, Adam; Jones, Tucker A.; Mallette, Christine; Dawley, Earl M.; Skalski, John R.; Teel, David; Moran, Paul

    2008-03-18

    This document is the first annual report for the study titled “Ecology of Juvenile Salmonids in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta in the Lower Columbia River.” Hereafter, we refer to this research as the Tidal Freshwater Monitoring (TFM) Study. The study is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS). The project is performed under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council’s Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program.

  3. Plant succession after hydrologic disturbance: Inferences from contemporary vegetation on a chronosequence of bars, Willamette River, Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historic unconstrained, unregulated streamflow along the upper mainstem of the Willamette River, Oregon, produced a floodplain of coalescent bars supporting a mosaic of vegetation patches. We sampled the contemporary vegetation of 42 bars formed 3 to 64 + years ago in four, 1 km...

  4. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Sandy River Delta, Technical Report 2000-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocklage, Ann; Ratti, John

    2002-02-01

    requisites (e.g., food and nesting cover) for that species. These variables are evaluated with vegetation sampling, and/or through the interpretation of aerial photographs and the like. Variable values are assigned a numerical score. The score may be based on a categorical rating (e.g . , different vegetation types receive different scores based on their importance for that species) or may be the result of a linear relationship (e.g., the score increases with the variable value; Figure 1). Variable scores are then input into a mathematical formula, which results in an HSI score. The HSI score ranges from 0-1, with 0 representing poor-quality habitat and 1 optimal habitat. HSI models assume a positive, linear relationship between wildlife-species density and the HSI score. For example, with an HSI score of 1, we assume that a species will be present at its highest density. Models can be projected into the future by changing variable values and observing the corresponding changes in HSI scores. Most models are relatively simple, but some are complex. These models have come under considerable scrutiny in the last several years, particularly concerning the validity of model assumptions (Van Horne 1983, Laymon and Barrett 1986, Hobbs and Hanley 1990, Kellner et al. 1992). Regardless of criticisms, these models may be used with success when there is an understanding and acceptance of model limitations. Each model should be evaluated as to its applicability in a given situation. Model validation, where results have on-the-ground verification, is highly recommended. Specific objectives of this project were to (1) conduct avian surveys and measure the present vegetation at the Sandy River Delta, (2) input the vegetation data into HSI models for 5 avian species, (3) evaluate the current habitat suitability for these species, and (4) predict species responses to potential changes in vegetation, resulting from the removal of reed canarygrass and/or Himalayan blackberry.

  5. Trends In Particulate Organic Carbon Composition In Oregon And California Coast Range Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatten, J. A.; Goni, M. A.; Wheatcroft, R. A.; Borgeld, J.; Williamson, A.; Padgett, J.; Pasternack, G. B.; Gray, A.; Watson, E.

    2009-12-01

    The discharge of particulate organic carbon (POC) from small mountainous rivers may contribute nearly half of the world’s POC to the ocean. However, these smaller rivers have highly variable discharges throughout the year, which in turn affect the content and composition of POC being delivered to coastal margins. Further, POC composition has been shown to vary by season and throughout specific events. Understanding the composition of POC being discharged under these various conditions yields clues about the material’s stability in the coastal environment, its source within the watershed, and the process of delivery. During the 2008 and 2009 water years, suspended sediment samples were collected from the Alsea, Umpqua, Eel, and Salinas Rivers draining the Coast Ranges of Oregon and California. Events and discharges of various magnitudes were captured in this sample set. Fine (63 μm) particulate material was analyzed for OC, N, δ13C, δ15N, Δ14C, and cupric oxide oxidation products (e.g. lignin, cutin). This poster will present results from these coastal rivers and explore trends in POC in the context of watershed characteristics, discharge, season, and event-scale processes.

  6. Environmental contaminants in male river otters from Oregon and Washington, USA, 1994-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grove, R.A.; Henny, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    This study reports hepatic concentrations and distribution patterns of select metals, organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in 180 male river otters (Lontra canadensis) collected from Oregon and Washington, 1994-1999. Seven regional locations of western Oregon and Washington were delineated based on associations with major population centers, industry or agriculture. Cadmium (Cd) was not found above 0.5 ??g g-1, dry weight (dw) in juveniles, but increased with age in adults though concentrations were generally low (nd-1.18 ??g g-1, dw). Regional geometric means for total mercury (THg) ranged from 3.63 to 8.05 ??g g-1, dw in juveniles and 3.46-2.6 ??g g-1 (dw) in adults. The highest THg concentration was 148 ??g g-1, dw from an apparently healthy adult male from the Olympic Peninsula of Washington. Although THg increased with age in adult otters, the occurrence of the more toxic form methylmercury (MeHg) was not evaluated. Mean OC and PCB concentrations reported in this study declined dramatically from those reported in 1978-1979 from the lower Columbia River. Organochlorine pesticide and metabolite means for both juvenile and adult river otter males were all below 100 ??g kg-1, wet weight (ww), with only DDE, DDD and HCB having individual concentrations exceeding 500 ??g kg-1, ww. Mean ??PCB concentrations in both juvenile and adult male otters were below 1 ??g g-1 for all regional locations. Mean juvenile and adult concentrations of non-ortho substituted PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs were in the low ng kg-1 for all locations studied. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007.

  7. Modeling the Water - Quality Effects of Changes to the Klamath River Upstream of Keno Dam, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Sogutlugil, I. Ertugrul; Rounds, Stewart A.; Deas, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The Link River to Keno Dam (Link-Keno) reach of the Klamath River, Oregon, generally has periods of water-quality impairment during summer, including low dissolved oxygen, elevated concentrations of ammonia and algae, and high pH. Efforts are underway to improve water quality in this reach through a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program and other management and operational actions. To assist in planning, a hydrodynamic and water-quality model was used in this study to provide insight about how various actions could affect water quality in the reach. These model scenarios used a previously developed and calibrated CE-QUAL-W2 model of the Link-Keno reach developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Watercourse Engineering Inc., and the Bureau of Reclamation for calendar years 2006-09 (referred to as the "USGS model" in this report). Another model of the same river reach was previously developed by Tetra Tech, Inc. and the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality for years 2000 and 2002 and was used in the TMDL process; that model is referred to as the "TMDL model" in this report. This report includes scenarios that (1) assess the effect of TMDL allocations on water quality, (2) provide insight on certain aspects of the TMDL model, (3) assess various methods to improve water quality in this reach, and (4) examine possible water-quality effects of a future warmer climate. Results presented in this report for the first 5 scenarios supersede or augment those that were previously published (scenarios 1 and 2 in Sullivan and others [2011], 3 through 5 in Sullivan and others [2012]); those previous results are still valid, but the results for those scenarios in this report are more current.

  8. Turning the tide: effects of river inflow and tidal amplitude on sandy estuaries in laboratory landscape experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhans, Maarten; Braat, Lisanne; Leuven, Jasper; Baar, Anne; van der Vegt, Maarten; van Maarseveen, Marcel; Markies, Henk; Roosendaal, Chris; van Eijk, Arjan

    2016-04-01

    Many estuaries formed over the Holocene through a combination of fluvial and coastal influxes, but how estuary planform shape and size depend on tides, wave climate and river influxes remains unclear. Here we use a novel tidal flume setup of 20 m length by 3 m width, the Metronome (http://www.uu.nl/metronome), to create estuaries and explore a parameter space for the simple initial condition of a straight river in sandy substrate. Tidal currents capable of transporting sediment in both the ebb and flood phase because they are caused by periodic tilting of the flume rather than the classic method of water level fluctuation. Particle imaging velocimetry and a 1D shallow flow model demonstrate that this principle leads to similar sediment mobility as in nature. Ten landscape experiments recorded by timelapse overhead imaging and AGIsoft DEMs of the final bed elevation show that absence of river inflow leads to short tidal basins whereas even a minor discharge leads to long convergent estuaries. Estuary width and length as well as morphological time scale over thousands of tidal cycles strongly depend on tidal current amplitude. Paddle-generated waves subdue the ebb delta causing stronger tidal currents in the basin. Bar length-width ratios in estuaries are slightly larger to those in braided rivers in experiments and nature. Mutually evasive ebb- and flood-dominated channels are ubiquitous and appear to be formed by an instability mechanism with growing bar and bifurcation asymmetry. Future experiments will include mud flats and live vegetation.

  9. Water-quality, streamflow, and meteorological data for the Tualatin River Basin, Oregon, 1991-93

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, M.C.; Caldwell, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Surface-water-quality data, ground-water-quality data, streamflow data, field measurements, aquatic-biology data, meteorological data, and quality-assurance data were collected in the Tualatin River Basin from 1991 to 1993 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Unified Sewerage Agency of Washington County, Oregon (USA). The data from that study, which are part of this report, are presented in American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format in subject-specific data files on a Compact Disk-Read Only Memory (CD-ROM). The text of this report describes the objectives of the study, the location of sampling sites, sample-collection and processing techniques, equipment used, laboratory analytical methods, and quality-assurance procedures. The data files on CD-ROM contain the analytical results of water samples collected in the Tualatin River Basin, streamflow measurements of the main-stem Tualatin River and its major tributaries, flow data from the USA wastewater-treatment plants, flow data from stations that divert water from the main-stem Tualatin River, aquatic-biology data, and meteorological data from the Tualatin Valley Irrigation District (TVID) Agrimet Weather Station located in Verboort, Oregon. Specific information regarding the contents of each data file is given in the text. The data files use a series of letter codes that distinguish each line of data. These codes are defined in data tables accompanying the text. Presenting data on CD-ROM offers several advantages: (1) the data can be accessed easily and manipulated by computers, (2) the data can be distributed readily over computer networks, and (3) the data may be more easily transported and stored than a large printed report. These data have been used by the USGS to (1) identify the sources, transport, and fate of nutrients in the Tualatin River Basin, (2) quantify relations among nutrient loads, algal growth, low dissolved-oxygen concentrations, and high pH, and (3) develop and

  10. Agribusiness geothermal energy utilization potential of Klamath and Western Snake River Basins, Oregon. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.

    1978-03-01

    Resource assessment and methods of direct utilization for existing and prospective food processing plants have been determined in two geothermal resource areas in Oregon. Ore-Ida Foods, Inc. and Amalgamated Sugar Company in the Snake River Basin; Western Polymer Corporation (potato starch extraction) and three prospective industries--vegetable dehydration, alfalfa drying and greenhouses--in the Klamath Basin have been analyzed for direct utilization of geothermal fluids. Existing geologic knowledge has been integrated to indicate locations, depth, quality, and estimated productivity of the geothermal reservoirs. Energy-economic needs and balances, along with cost and energy savings associated with field development, delivery systems, in-plant applications and fluid disposal have been calculated for interested industrial representatives.

  11. Water surface elevations recorded by submerged pressure transducers along the upper Willamette River, Oregon, Spring, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Greg D.; Wellman, Roy E.; Mangano, Joseph F.

    2017-01-01

    Water-surface elevations were recorded by submerged pressure transducers in Spring, 2015 along the upper Willamette River, Oregon, between Eugene and Corvallis. The water-surface elevations were surveyed by using a real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS) at each pressure sensor location. These water-surface elevations were logged over a small range of discharges, from 4,600 cubic feet per second to 10,800 cubic feet per second at Harrisburg, OR. These datasets were collected for equipment calibration and validation for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission. This is one of multiple datasets that will be released for this effort.

  12. Causes and typical control model of wind-drift sandy lands in abandoned channel of the Yellow River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Guo-zhen; Yang Li; Xu Wei; Sun Bao-ping

    2006-01-01

    The historical formation and development of the abandoned channel of the Yellow River is reviewed and its causes of formation and present condition of prevention and control are analyzed in this paper. Based on this analysis, some ideas about control,critical problems and countermeasures in the next period are proposed with two typical control models as examples. We suggest that in preventing and controlling the wind-drift sandy lands in the region, the emphasis should be to develop, with a greatly expanded effort, a recycling economy. This should realize a combination of two ideas, i.e. integrate combating desertification with a structural adjustment of agricultural and an increase in the income of farmers.

  13. Comparison of Two Landslides and Related Outburst Flood Deposits and Their Effects on River Evolution, Owyhee River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othus, S.; Ely, L.; House, K.; Safran, L.; O'Connor, J. E.; Fenton, C.

    2007-12-01

    Abundant channel-encroaching landslides and lava flows on the Owyhee River in southeastern Oregon have the capacity to both inhibit incision by altering channel slope, width, and bed character, and burying valley-bottom bedrock under exogenous material, and promote incision by generating cataclysmic floods through natural dam failures. We hypothesize that these extrafluvial events play a significant role in creating and maintaining the geomorphic features of river canyons in uplifted volcanic terraces that comprise a significant part of the western U.S. Numerous landslides have entered the Owyhee River canyon north of Rome, Oregon. As the river flows through different lithologic units, the style of mass wasting changes from large slump events to large debris flows. These differences seem to be related to the composition and thickness of the underlying, exposed Tertiary sediments relative to the basalt cap. The largest exemplary mass wasting events of each morphologic category in two reaches were examined to compare the effects of these events on the river channel. Multiple slump events ranging in age from approximately 104 to 105 ka have impacted the river channel near Artillery Rapid (River km 33 from Rome, OR). At least one of these appears to have dammed the channel and failed catastrophically, creating a flood bar immediately downstream, with boulders up to 3 m in diameter that decrease in size with distance from the landslide dam. Greeley Debris Flow (River km 70), the largest debris flow in the Hole in the Ground reach, blocked the channel, creating extensive fill terraces behind the landslide dam and a large depositional flood bar downstream, with an age possibly as young as early Holocene. Downstream of both landslide reaches, outburst flood deposits of large boulders armoring the channel were measured and used to determine the velocity of the outburst flood that entrained the boulders. Based on this evidence, it is clear that landslides have affected the

  14. Reconnaissance of chemical and biological quality in the Owyhee River from the Oregon State line to the Owyhee Reservoir, Oregon, 2001–02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Mark A.; Maret, Terry R.; George, David L.

    2004-01-01

    The Owyhee River drains an extremely rugged and sparsely populated landscape in northern Nevada, southwestern Idaho, and eastern Oregon. Most of the segment between the Oregon State line and Lake Owyhee is part of the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System, and few water-quality data exist for evaluating environmental impacts. As a result, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, assessed this river segment to characterize chemical and biological quality of the river, identify where designated beneficial uses are met and where changes in stream quality occur, and provide data needed to address activities related to environmental impact assessments and Total Maximum Daily Loads. Water-quality issues identified at one or more sites were water temperature, suspended sediment, dissolved oxygen, pH, nutrients, trace elements, fecal bacteria, benthic invertebrate communities, and periphyton communities. Generally, summer water temperatures routinely exceeded Oregon's maximum 7-day average criteria of 17.8 degrees Celsius. The presence of few coldwater taxa in benthic invertebrate communities supports this observation. Suspended-sediment concentrations during summer base flow were less than 10 milligrams per liter (mg/L). Dissolved solids concentrations ranged from 46 to 222 mg/L, were highest during base flow, and tended to increase in a downstream direction. Chemical compositions of water samples indicated that large proportions of upland-derived water extend to the lower reaches of the study area during spring runoff. Dissolved fluoride and arsenic concentrations were highest during base flow and may be a result of geothermal springs discharging to the river. No dissolved selenium was detected. Upstream from the Rome area, spring runoff concentrations of suspended sediment ranged from 0 to 52 mg/L, and all except at the Three Forks site were typically below 20 mg/L. Stream-bottom materials from the North Fork Owyhee River, an area

  15. Demographic analysis of Lost River sucker and shortnose sucker populations in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janney, E.C.; Shively, R.S.; Hayes, B.S.; Barry, P.M.; Perkins, D.

    2008-01-01

    We used 13 years (1995-2007) of capture-mark-recapture data to assess population dynamics of endangered Lost River suckers Deltistes luxatus and shortnose suckers Chasmistes brevirostris in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. The Cormack-Jolly-Seber method was used to estimate survival, and information theoretic modeling was used to assess variation due to time, gender, species, and spawning subpopulations. Length data were used to detect multiple year-class failures and events of high recruitment into adult spawning populations. Average annual survival probability was 0.88 for Lost River suckers and 0.76 for shortnose suckers. Mean life span estimates based on these survival rates indicated that Lost River suckers survived long enough on average to attempt reproduction eight times, whereas shortnose suckers only survived to spawn three to four times. Shortnose sucker survival was not only poor in years of fish kills (1995-1997) but also was low in years without fish kills (i.e., 2002 and 2004). This suggests that high mortality occurs in some years but is not necessarily associated with fish kills. Annual survival probabilities were not only different between the two species but also differed between two spawning subpopulations of Lost River suckers. Length composition data indicated that recruitment into spawning populations only occurred intermittently. Populations of both species transitioned from primarily old individuals with little size diversity and consistently poor recruitment in the late 1980s and early 1990s to mostly small, recruit-sized fish by the late 1990s. A better understanding of the factors influencing adult survival and recruitment into spawning populations is needed. Monitoring these vital parameters will provide a quantitative means to evaluate population status and assess the effectiveness of conservation and recovery efforts.

  16. Sediment oxygen demand in the Tualatin River basin, Oregon, 1992-96

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Stewart; Doyle, M.C.

    1997-01-01

    Sediment oxygen demand (SOD) rates were measured by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) personnel at 20 stream sites in the Tualatin River Basin from 1992 through 1996 as part of an investigation into the sources and sinks of dissolved oxygen in the Tualatin River. During the low-flow summer periods of 1992 through 1994, 97 measurements were collected at 9 sites on the main stem of the river between river miles (RMs) 5.5 and 43.2. During the low-flow summer periods of 1995 and 1996, 28 measurements of SOD were collected at 11 sites on 8 tributaries of the Tualatin River. All SOD rates were measured with in-situ benthic chambers designed to monitor the loss of dissolved oxygen in a known volume of water circulating above a known area of minimally disturbed stream sediment. For main-stem Tualatin River sites, the observed SOD rate ranged from 0.6 to 4.4 grams of oxygen per square meter per day (g/m 2 d) with a median of 2.3 g/m 2 d. In the tributaries, the measured SOD rate ranged from 0.2 to 10.9 with a median of 3.6 g/m 2 d. These rates are in the range of those reported for other sites in Oregon and across the United States. Most of the variation in the measured SOD rates was likely due to heterogeneities in the bed sediment. Statistical comparisons show that the rates measured at the tributary sites are significantly larger than those measured in the main stem. Within the main stem, the rates measured at sites in the meander reach of the river were not significantly different from those measured in the reservoir reach. Similarly, no difference was found when the sites affected by the cycle of phytoplankton bloom and die-off were compared to those unaffected by phytoplankton. Only one site on the main stem, RM 5.5, was found to have an SOD rate that was significantly higher than that found at the other main-stem sites. Algal detritus may contribute to the elevated rate at that site, but other factors such as the rate of sediment accumulation could also account for the

  17. Hydrogeologic framework and selected components of the groundwater budget for the upper Umatilla River Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Nora B.; Ely, Kate; Mehta, Smita; Stonewall, Adam J.; Risley, John C.; Hinkle, Stephen R.; Conlon, Terrence D.

    2017-05-31

    Executive SummaryThis report presents a summary of the hydrogeology of the upper Umatilla River Basin, Oregon, based on characterization of the hydrogeologic framework, horizontal and vertical directions of groundwater flow, trends in groundwater levels, and components of the groundwater budget. The conceptual model of the groundwater flow system integrates available data and information on the groundwater resources of the upper Umatilla River Basin and provides insights regarding key hydrologic processes, such as the interaction between the groundwater and surface water systems and the hydrologic budget.The conceptual groundwater model developed for the study area divides the groundwater flow system into five hydrogeologic units: a sedimentary unit, three Columbia River basalt units, and a basement rock unit. The sedimentary unit, which is not widely used as a source of groundwater in the upper basin, is present primarily in the lowlands and consists of conglomerate, loess, silt and sand deposits, and recent alluvium. The Columbia River Basalt Group is a series of Miocene flood basalts that are present throughout the study area. The basalt is uplifted in the southeastern half of the study area, and either underlies the sedimentary unit, or is exposed at the surface. The interflow zones of the flood basalts are the primary aquifers in the study area. Beneath the flood basalts are basement rocks composed of Paleogene to Pre-Tertiary sedimentary, volcanic, igneous, and metamorphic rocks that are not used as a source of groundwater in the upper Umatilla River Basin.The major components of the groundwater budget in the upper Umatilla River Basin are (1) groundwater recharge, (2) groundwater discharge to surface water and wells, (3) subsurface flow into and out of the basin, and (4) changes in groundwater storage.Recharge from precipitation occurs primarily in the upland areas of the Blue Mountains. Mean annual recharge from infiltration of precipitation for the upper

  18. Integrated Basin Scale Hydropower and Environmental Opportunity Assessment in the Deschutes River Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, N.; Geerlofs, S. H.; Vail, L. W.; Ham, K. D.; Tagestad, J. D.; Hanrahan, T. P.; Seiple, T. E.; Coleman, A. M.; Stewart, K.

    2012-04-01

    The Deschutes River Basin in Oregon, USA, is home to a number of diverse groups of stakeholders that rely upon the complex snowmelt and groundwater-dominated river system to support their needs, livelihoods, and interests. Basin system operations that vary across various temporal and spatial scales often must balance an array of competing demands including maintaining adequate municipal water supply, recreation, hydropower generation, regulations related to environmental flows, mitigation programs for salmon returns, and in-stream and storage rights for irrigation water supplied by surface water diversions and groundwater pumping. The U.S. Department of Energy's Integrated Basin-scale Opportunity Assessment initiative is taking a system-wide approach to identifying opportunities and actions to increase hydropower and enhance environmental conditions while sustaining reliable supply for other uses. Opportunity scenarios are analyzed in collaboration with stakeholders, through nested integrated modeling and visualization software to assess tradeoffs and system-scale effects. Opportunity assessments are not intended to produce decisional documents or substitute for basin planning processes; assessments are instead intended to provide tools, information, and a forum for catalyzing conversation about scenarios where both environmental and hydropower gains can be realized within a given basin. We present the results of the nested integrated modeling approach and the modeling scenarios in order to identify and explore opportunities for the system.

  19. Temperature Effects of Point Sources, Riparian Shading, and Dam Operations on the Willamette River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Stewart A.

    2007-01-01

    Water temperature is an important factor influencing the migration, rearing, and spawning of several important fish species in rivers of the Pacific Northwest. To protect these fish populations and to fulfill its responsibilities under the Federal Clean Water Act, the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality set a water temperature Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) in 2006 for the Willamette River and the lower reaches of its largest tributaries in northwestern Oregon. As a result, the thermal discharges of the largest point sources of heat to the Willamette River now are limited at certain times of the year, riparian vegetation has been targeted for restoration, and upstream dams are recognized as important influences on downstream temperatures. Many of the prescribed point-source heat-load allocations are sufficiently restrictive that management agencies may need to expend considerable resources to meet those allocations. Trading heat allocations among point-source dischargers may be a more economical and efficient means of meeting the cumulative point-source temperature limits set by the TMDL. The cumulative nature of these limits, however, precludes simple one-to-one trades of heat from one point source to another; a more detailed spatial analysis is needed. In this investigation, the flow and temperature models that formed the basis of the Willamette temperature TMDL were used to determine a spatially indexed 'heating signature' for each of the modeled point sources, and those signatures then were combined into a user-friendly, spreadsheet-based screening tool. The Willamette River Point-Source Heat-Trading Tool allows the user to increase or decrease the heating signature of each source and thereby evaluate the effects of a wide range of potential point-source heat trades. The predictions of the Trading Tool were verified by running the Willamette flow and temperature models under four different trading scenarios, and the predictions typically were accurate

  20. Outburst fan deposit from pyroclastic flows, Williamson River canyon, south-central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, M. L.; Eibert, D.

    2016-12-01

    Pyroclastic flows from the Holocene eruption of Mount Mazama in the Cascade volcanic arc of Oregon, blocked the narrow (210 to 225 m wide, 35 to 40 m deep), bedrock-lined canyon of the Williamson River. The estimated volume of the long, narrow blockage was 4.4 x 10^7 cubic meters. The blockage eventually failed releasing an impounded lake and depositing a debris fan at the mouth of the canyon. Remnants of the debris fan underlie a gently sloping surface dissected by various abandoned channels of the river. The modern Williamson River cut its channel across the upper part of the fan. Three bedrock units are present as boulders: hydrovolcanic tuff (Di = 2.75 m) derived from tuff cones in the lower reaches of the canyon, distinctly layered geochemically primitive olivine basalt (Di = 3.4 m) that crops out approximately 6 km upstream, and massive basaltic andesite that underlies the channel in the upper canyon and cliffs that define the right bank of the canyon near the mouth. Matrix between boulders and deposits that flank and overlie the boulder deposit are dominated by medium- to fine-grained sand (ASTM; 61-70 wt. % in matrix; 76-100 wt. % elsewhere). Sand grains are predominantly well-rounded phenocryst-bearing glass that vary from massive to moderately vesiculated and crystals of plagioclase and hornblende commonly with attached remnants of groundmass. Crystals are most abundant in the medium- and fine-grained size range (>20 and fragments (twigs and molds) are common in medium-sand and larger. Elongate bars of rounded pumice gravel provide local current directions during the waning stage of the outburst flood. The thickness of the boulder deposit near the mouth of the canyon is not known. Sand deposits are 1 to 1.5 m thick near the mouth of the canyon and thin to 70 cm at about 3.4 km from the mouth of the canyon.

  1. Ecology of Juvenile Salmon in Shallow Tidal Freshwater Habitats in the Vicinity of the Sandy River Delta, Lower Columbia River, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sather, Nichole K.; Johnson, Gary E.; Storch, Adam; Teel, David; Skalski, John R.; Jones, Tucker A.; Dawley, Earl M.; Zimmerman, Shon A.; Borde, Amy B.; Mallette, Christine; Farr, R.

    2009-05-29

    The tidal freshwater monitoring (TFM) project reported herein is part of the research, monitoring, and evaluation effort developed by the Action Agencies (Bonneville Power Administration, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers [USACE], and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation) in response to obligations arising from the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as a result of operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System. The project is being performed under the auspices of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council’s Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (Project No. 2005-001-00). The research is a collaborative effort among the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, the National Marine Fisheries Service, and the University of Washington.

  2. Comparison of Natural Dams from Lava Flows and Landslides on the Owyhee River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, L. L.; Brossy, C. C.; Othus, S. M.; Orem, C.; Fenton, C.; House, P. K.; O'Connor, J. E.; Safran, E. B.

    2008-12-01

    Numerous large lava flows and mass movements have temporarily dammed the Owyhee River in southeastern Oregon at various temporal and spatial scales. These channel-encroaching events potentially play a significant role in creating and maintaining the geomorphic features of river canyons in uplifted volcanic terranes that compose a significant part of the western U.S. Abundant landslides and lava flows have the capacity to inhibit incision by altering channel slope, width, and bed character, and burying valley- bottom bedrock under exogenous material; or promote incision by generating cataclysmic floods through natural dam failures. The natural dams vary in their source, morphology, longevity and process of removal, which in turn affects the extent and duration of their impact on the river. The 3 most recent lava flows filled the channel 10-75 m deep and flowed up to 26 kilometers downvalley, creating long, low dams that were subject to gradual, rather than catastrophic, removal. In the last 125 ka, the Saddle Butte and West Crater lava dams created reservoirs into which 10-30 meters of silt and sand were deposited. The river overtopped the dams and in most reaches eventually cut a new channel through the adjacent, less resistant bedrock buttresses. Terraces at several elevations downstream and upstream of the West Crater dam indicate periods of episodic incision ranging from 0.28 to 1.7 mm/yr., based on 3He exposure ages on strath surfaces and boulder-rich fluvial deposits. In contrast to the lava dams, outburst flood deposits associated with landslide dams are common along the river. The mechanisms of failure are related to the geologic setting, and include rotational slump complexes, cantilevered blocks and block slides, and massive earthflows. Most large-scale mass movements occur in reaches where the Owyhee canyon incises through stacks of interbedded fluviolacustrine sediments capped with lava flows. The frequently observed association of landslides and flood

  3. Combined Effects of Dam Removal and Past Sediment Mining on a Relatively Large Lowland Sandy Gravelly Bed River (Vienne River, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, S.; Ursache, O.; Bouchard, J. P.; Juge, P.

    2014-12-01

    Dam removal is of growing interest for the management of sediment fluxes, morphological evolution and ecological restoration of rivers. If dam removal experiments are well documented for small streams, examples of lowland and large rivers are scarce. We present the morphological response of a relatively large lowland river (Vienne River, France) to a dam removal. The objective is to understand and quantify the morphological adaptation on a reach of 50 km and over 15 years associated with the dam removal and the presence of ancient sand pits located along the riverbed. This study is based on field data collected during 7 surveys performed between 1998 and 2013. This dataset focuses on bed geometry, sediment grain size, and bedload fluxes. It was combined with a 1D numerical model to assess flow dynamics and sediment transport before and after dam removal. Results show that dam removal triggered both regressive and progressive erosions and that discharges higher than 100 m3.s-1 were sufficient to erode the sandy sediments trapped by the dam whereas gravels were mobilised for discharges higher than 300 m3.s-1. Since 1999, large bedload sediment waves coming from upstream migrated downstream at an average celerity of 2.2 km.year-1 and were trapped by three ancient sand pits located downstream. Some of these pits constitute efficient sediment traps even 15 years after dam removal. As a result, between 2002 and 2013, the slope of the river bed adjusted gently and observed morphological processes were minors compared with the time period between 1998 and 2002.

  4. Processes controlling dissolved oxygen and pH in the upper Willamette River basin, Oregon, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogue, Ted R.; Anderson, Chauncey W.

    1995-01-01

    In July and August of 1994, the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (ODEQ) collected data to document the spatial extent and diel variability of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations and pH levels in selected reaches of streams in the upper Willamette River Basin. These data were also collected to identify primary factors that control DO concentrations downstream from major point sources as well as to provide ODEQ with data to refine calibration of their steady-state DO and nutrient models for the upper Willamette River Basin. All of the reaches studied had diel variations in DO and pH. The magnitude of the diel variations in DO ranged from 0.2 to 3.9 milligrams per liter (7 to 50 percent-saturation units based on ambient water temperature and barometric pressure) and in pH from 0.3 to 1.4 units. However, of the reaches studied, only the Coast Fork Willamette River from river mile (RM) 21.7 to 12.5 and the Willamette River from RM 151 to 141.6 had field measured violations of State standards for DO and pH. DO concentration and pH in water depend on many factors. Data were collected to examine several major factors, including BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), carbonaceous BOD, nitrogenous BOD, and measures of photosynthetic activity. Of the four study reaches, only a short stretch of the Coast Fork Willamette River has potential for important levels of oxygen consumption from BOD or nitrification. Additionally, water-column primary-productivity measurements indicated that respiration and photosynthesis by free-floating algae did not explain the observed diel variations in DO in the study reaches. Results from a simple mathematical model incorporating measures of community respiration and net primary productivities indicated that periphyton are capable of producing a diel variation of the order of magnitude observed during the August study period. In the Willamette River near Peoria, the combined periphyton DO

  5. Effects of ambient water quality on the endangered Lost River sucker in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, B.A.; Saiki, M.K.

    1999-01-01

    Populations of the Lost River sucker Deltistes luxatus have declined so precipitously in the Upper Klamath Basin of Oregon and California that this fish was recently listed for federal protection as an endangered species. Although Upper Klamath Lake is a major refuge for this species, fish in the lake occasionally experience mass mortalities during summer and early fall. This field study was implemented to determine if fish mortalities resulted from degraded water quality conditions associated with seasonal blooms of phytoplankton, especially Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Our results indicated that fish mortality did not always increase as water temperature, pH, and un-ionized ammonia concentration increased in Upper Klamath Lake. Little or no mortality occurred when these water quality variables attained their maximum values. On the other hand, an inverse relation existed between fish mortality and dissolved oxygen concentration. High mortality (>90%) occurred whenever dissolved oxygen concentrations decreased to 1.05 mg/L, whereas mortality was usually low (< 10%) when dissolved oxygen concentrations equaled or exceeded 1.58 mg/L. Stepwise logistic regression also indicated that the minimum concentration of dissolved oxygen measured was the single most important determinant of fish mortality.

  6. Late Pleistocene outburst flooding from pluvial Lake Alvord into the Owyhee River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Deron T.; Ely, Lisa L.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Fenton, Cassandra R.

    2006-05-01

    At least one large, late Pleistocene flood traveled into the Owyhee River as a result of a rise and subsequent outburst from pluvial Lake Alvord in southeastern Oregon. Lake Alvord breached Big Sand Gap in its eastern rim after reaching an elevation of 1292 m, releasing 11.3 km 3 of water into the adjacent Coyote Basin as it eroded the Big Sand Gap outlet channel to an elevation of about 1280 m. The outflow filled and then spilled out of Coyote Basin through two outlets at 1278 m and into Crooked Creek drainage, ultimately flowing into the Owyhee and Snake Rivers. Along Crooked Creek, the resulting flood eroded canyons, stripped bedrock surfaces, and deposited numerous boulder bars containing imbricated clasts up to 4.1 m in diameter, some of which are located over 30 m above the present-day channel. Critical depth calculations at Big Sand Gap show that maximum outflow from a 1292- to 1280-m drop in Lake Alvord was ˜ 10,000 m 3 s - 1 . Flooding became confined to a single channel approximately 40 km downstream of Big Sand Gap, where step-backwater calculations show that a much larger peak discharge of 40,000 m 3 s - 1 is required to match the highest geologic evidence of the flood in this channel. This inconsistency can be explained by (1) a single 10,000 m 3 s - 1 flood that caused at least 13 m of vertical incision in the channel (hence enlarging the channel cross-section); (2) multiple floods of 10,000 m 3 s - 1 or less, each producing some incision of the channel; or (3) an earlier flood of 40,000 m 3 s - 1 creating the highest flood deposits and crossed drainage divides observed along Crooked Creek drainage, followed by a later 10,000 m 3 s - 1 flood associated with the most recent shorelines in Alvord and Coyote Basins. Well-developed shorelines of Lake Alvord at 1280 m and in Coyote Basin at 1278 m suggest that after the initial flood, postflood overflow persisted for an extended period, connecting Alvord and Coyote Basins with the Owyhee River of the

  7. Regularities of wind-erosion of different land-use types in Yongding River sandy land,Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue Depeng; Liu Yongbing; Zang Runguo; Wang Xian

    2006-01-01

    The threshold wind velocity of a number of variables was studied in four different land-use types:farmland,forestland,wild grassland and a flood plain in the Yongding River sandy land in Beijing.The variables studied were transport of sand, underlying surface roughness,windblown sediment,wind-sand flow structure,soil mechanical composition and amount of wind erosion.The following conclusions were drawn: 1) The order of decreasing threshold of wind speed for sand displacement and surface roughness were forestland,wild grassland,farmland,sparse wild grassland and flood plain.2) There were significant differences in sand flux among different ground covers.At a height of 0-20 cm,the height increased while the sediment discharge percent of sand flux decreased;there were significant differences in the sand flow formation under different land-use types.3) The mechanical composition of sand particles consisted mainly of silver sand in the flood plain and sparse wild grassland,and of silver sand,particle silver sand and floury sand in other land-use types.4) The amounts of wind erosion and sand sediment were different among different land-use types.Increased vegetation cover and change in farming techniques were suggested to prevent and control wind erosion of sand and soil.

  8. The challenges in using UAV and plane imagery to quantify channel change in sandy braided rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick, Robert; Ashworth, Philip; Best, James; Lane, Stuart; Nicholas, Andrew; Parsons, Daniel; Sambrook Smith, Gregory; Simpson, Christopher; Unsworth, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    The development of numerical models of river morpho-dynamics is hampered by the lack of high-resolution data at multiple time and space scales for model validation. Such data are especially challenging to obtain for sand-bed braided rivers that typically have multiple channels of varying depth and contain rapidly migrating low-relief bar-lobes and dunes. This paper reports on the efforts to meet these challenges using repeat UAV surveys and plane sorties to quantify morphological change and bedform migration rates along the South Saskatchewan River, Canada. The South Saskatchewan River, near Outlook (SK Province) is 600 m wide with very well sorted medium sand (D50 = 0.3 mm) and negligible clay. The Gardiner Dam, 20 km upstream of the study reach, traps much of the very fine sediment so that the waters are clear at low flow and therefore the river bed is entirely visible. Fieldwork campaigns in 2015 and 2016 captured: (i) 1:5000 aerial colour photographs over a 17.5 km reach; (ii) high temporal frequency repeat imagery, obtained using quadcopter and fixed-wing UAV platforms for multiple 100 x 500 m sub-reaches. Plane images were processed via Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetric techniques using Pix4D and supporting ArcGIS and Global Mapper analysis. The resulting point cloud was corrected for tilt and filtered in MATLAB at multiple spatial scales to remove noise. Elevations in sub-aqueous zones were obtained using a statistical model, relating image brightness to water depth, developed using single beam echo-sounder data collected near to the flight time. The final DSM for the plane imagery combines these two methods and has a 0.5 m spatial resolution with vertical accuracy of 6 cm. UAV imagery is also processed using Pix4D with application of a diffraction water depth correction, required due to the lower flight height, and gives a resulting vertical accuracy of 2 cm. Initial results highlight the following issues: (i) there are a series of technical

  9. Spawning migration movements of Lost River and shortnose suckers in the Williamson and Sprague Rivers, Oregon, following the removal of Chiloquin Dam-2009 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Craig M.; VanderKooi, Scott P.

    2011-01-01

    The Chiloquin Dam was located at river kilometer (rkm) 1.3 on the Sprague River near the town of Chiloquin, Oregon. The dam was identified as a barrier that potentially inhibited or prevented the upstream spawning migrations and other movements of endangered Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus), shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris), and other fish in the Sprague River. Our research objectives in 2009 were to evaluate adult catostomid spawning migration patterns using radio telemetry to identify and describe shifts in spawning area distribution and migration behavior following the removal of Chiloquin Dam in 2008. We attached external radio transmitters to 58 Lost River suckers and 59 shortnose suckers captured at the Williamson River fish weir. A total of 17 radio-tagged Lost River suckers and one radio-tagged shortnose sucker were detected approaching the site of the former Chiloquin Dam but only two radio-tagged fish (one male Lost River sucker and one female Lost River sucker) were detected crossing upstream of the dam site. A lower proportion of radio-tagged shortnose suckers were detected migrating into the Sprague River when compared with previous years. Detections on remote passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag arrays located in the Sprague River show that although the proportion of fish coming into the Sprague River is small when compared to the number of fish crossing the Williamson River fish weir, the number of fish migrating upstream of the Chiloquin Dam site increased exponentially in the first year since its removal. These data will be used in conjunction with larval production and adult spawning distribution data to evaluate the effectiveness of dam removal in order to provide increased access to underutilized spawning habitat located further upstream in the Sprague River and to reduce the crowding of spawning fish below the dam site.

  10. Linking Watershed Nitrogen Sources with Nitrogen Dynamics in Rivers of Western Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobota, D. J.; Compton, J.; Goodwin, K. E.

    2012-12-01

    We constructed contemporary nitrogen (N) budgets for 25 river basins in the Willamette River Basin (WRB) of western Oregon, USA, to improve the understanding of how recent trends in human-driven N loading have influenced riverine N dynamics in the region. Nearly 20% of WRB stream length is currently in fair or poor condition because of high N concentrations. Additionally, nitrate contamination of drinking water affects at least 8,000 people in the WRB. We hypothesized that 1) the majority of N inputs in the WRB would originate from agricultural activities in lowland portions of watersheds, 2) annual riverine N yield (kg/ha/yr) would correspond to annual per area watershed N inputs, and 3) riverine N yields would be seasonal and highest during winter due to the region's Mediterranean climate. We calculated average annual N inputs for each study basin by summing newly available datasets describing spatially explicit N inputs of synthetic fertilizer, atmospheric deposition, crop biological N2 fixation, biological N2 fixation by red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.), livestock manure, and point sources for the period 1996 - 2007. Annual and seasonal riverine N exports were estimated with the USGS model LOADEST calibrated to N concentration data collected during the study period. We estimated that two-thirds of total N input to the WRB study basins in the 2000s came from synthetic fertilizer application. Nearly all fertilizer application occurred on the lowlands near watershed mouths. We found a wide range of riverine N yields from the study basins, ranging from one to 70 kg N/ha/yr. Across the study basins, N export was more strongly correlated to fertilizer application rates than to percent of agricultural area in the watershed. Low watershed N yields reflected a high proportion of watershed area in the forested Cascade Mountain Range, which received low N inputs mainly from atmospheric deposition. N yields from study basins were strongly seasonal, with at least 50%, and

  11. Pesticide Occurrence and Distribution in the Lower Clackamas River Basin, Oregon, 2000-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kurt D.; Sobieszczyk, Steven; Arnsberg, Andrew J.; Rinella, Frank A.

    2008-01-01

    upper Noyer Creek, which drain basins having nurseries, pasture, and rural residential land. Some concentrations of insecticides (diazinon, chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, and p,p?-DDE) exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) aquatic-life benchmarks in Carli, Sieben, Rock, Noyer, Doane, and North Fork Deep Creeks. One azinphos-methyl concentration in Doane Creek (0.21 micrograms per liter [?g/L]) exceeded Federal and State of Oregon benchmarks for the protection of fish and benthic invertebrates. Concentrations of several other pesticide compounds exceeded non-USEPA benchmarks. Twenty-six pesticides or degradates were detected in the Clackamas River mainstem, typically at much lower concentrations than those detected in the lower-basin tributaries. At least 1 pesticide was detected in 65 percent of 34 samples collected from the Clackamas River, with an average of 2?3 pesticides per sample. Pesticides were detected in 9 (or 60 percent) of the 15 finished water samples collected from the study water-treatment plant during 2003?2005. These included 10 herbicides, 1 insecticide, 1 fungicide, 1 insect repellent, and 2 pesticide degradates. The herbicides diuron and simazine were the most frequently detected (four times each during the study), at concentrations far below human-health benchmarks?USEPA Maximum Contaminant Levels or U.S. Geological Survey human Health-Based Screening Levels (HBSLs). The highest pesticide concentration in finished drinking water was 0.18 ?g/L of diuron, which was 11 times lower than its low HBSL benchmark. Although 0?2 pesticides were detected in most finished water samples, 9 and 6 pesticides were detected in 2 storm-associated samples from May and September 2005, respectively. Three of the unregulated compounds detected in finished drinking water (diazinon-oxon, deethylatrazine [CIAT], and N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide [DEET]) do not have human-health benchmarks available for comparison. Although most of the 51 curren

  12. Reconnaissance of land-use sources of pesticides in drinking water, McKenzie River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Valerie J.; Anderson, Chauncey W.; Morgenstern, Karl

    2012-01-01

    The Eugene Water and Electric Board (EWEB) provides water and electricity to the City of Eugene, Oregon, from the McKenzie River. In the spring of 2002, EWEB initiated a pesticide monitoring program in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey as part of their Drinking Water Source Protection Plan. Approximately twice yearly pesticide samples were collected from 2002 to 2010 at a suite of sampling sites representing varying land uses in the lower McKenzie River basin. A total of 117 ambient samples were collected from 28 tributary and mainstem sites, including those dominated by forestry, urban, and agricultural activities, as well as the mouths of major tributaries characterized by a mixture of upstream land use. Constituents tested included 175 compounds in filtered water (72 herbicides, 43 insecticides, 10 fungicides, and 36 of their degradation products, as well as 14 pharmaceutical compounds). No attempt was made to sample different site types equivalently; sampling was instead designed primarily to characterize representative storm events during spring and fall runoff conditions in order to assess or confirm the perceived importance of the different site types as sources for pesticides. Sampling was especially limited for agricultural sites, which were only sampled during two spring storm surveys. A total of 43 compounds were detected at least once, with many of these detected only at low concentrations (urban stormwater drains. Urban sites also were associated with the highest concentrations, occasionally exceeding 1 microgram per liter. Many of the compounds detected at urban sites were relatively hydrophobic (do not mix easily with water), persistent, and suspected of endocrine disruption. In contrast, forestry compounds were rarely detectable in the McKenzie River, even though forest land predominates in the basin and forestry pesticide use was detected in small tributaries draining forested lands following application. Agricultural pesticide runoff was

  13. Confirmatory chemical analyses and solid phase bioassays on sediment from the Columbia River Estuary at Tongue Point, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, J.S.; Word, J.Q.; Apts, C.W.; Barrows, M.E.; Cullinan, V.I.; Kohn, N.P.

    1988-12-01

    The Department of Economic Development, Ports Division, of the state of Oregon plans to develop a former ship supply and storage site near Tongue Point, Oregon, for commercial shipping. The development would require dredging the adjacent waterway to the Columbia River 40-foot channel to admit commercials vessels. The Portland District of the US Army Corps of Engineers requested the Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) to conduct confirmatory solid-phase bioassays that would provide technical data for an evaluation of the potential environmental impact of ocean disposal of the dredged material. These confirmatory studies provided chemical and biological information required by ocean dumping regulations to determine suitability of Tongue Point sediments for ocean disposal. Sediment core samples were collected from Cathlamet Bay at Tongue Point in the upper Columbia River estuary. Sediment surface grab samples were collected at reference/control sites offshore from the mouth of the Columbia River (Disposal Site F) and at West Beach, Whidbey Island, Washington. The Tongue Point sediments were mixed into two composited batches. The MSL conducted solid-phase bioassays with these composites and reference sediments on four species of organisms.

  14. Simulations of a hypothetical temperature control structure at Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River, northwestern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman L.; Stonewall, Adam J.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2015-01-01

    Water temperature models of Detroit Lake, Big Cliff Lake, and the North Santiam River in northwestern Oregon were used to assess the potential for a hypothetical structure with variable intake elevations and an internal connection to power turbines at Detroit Dam (scenario SlidingWeir) to release more natural, pre-dam temperatures year round. This hypothetical structure improved outflow temperature control from Detroit Dam while meeting minimum dry-season release rates and lake levels specified by the rule curve specified for Detroit Lake.

  15. Simulating potential structural and operational changes for Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River, Oregon-Interim Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman L.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2011-01-01

    Prior to operational changes in 2007, Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River in western Oregon had a well-documented effect on downstream water temperature that was problematic for endangered salmonid fish species. In this U.S. Geological Survey study, done in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, an existing calibrated CE-QUAL-W2 model of Detroit Lake (the impounded waterbody behind Detroit Dam) was used to determine how changes in dam operation or changes to the structural release points of Detroit Dam might affect downstream water temperatures under a range of historical hydrologic and meteorological conditions.

  16. Captures, Cutoffs, and Autogenic Drainage Basin Reorganization from Bedrock River Meandering in the Oregon Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K. N.; Finnegan, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Meandering bedrock channels in the Oregon Coast Range (OCR), USA, have lateral migration rates far in excess of vertical incision rates. Consequently, the sweeping of trunk streams through this landscape can locally exert a much stronger influence on tributary channel long profiles than far-field tectonic forcing of base-level. Here, we use LiDAR-data to explore the influence of lateral channel mobility on the evolution of tributaries to the Smith River, in the OCR. We focus on two processes that dramatically and instantaneously change tributary long profiles: 1) Capture of tributaries by growing meander bends, and 2) Meander bend neck cutoffs on the main-stem that leave tributaries disconnected from base-level lowering. We focus on these two types of events because they provide clear examples of autogenic drivers of landscape disequilibrium at the sub-watershed scale in a landscape that is commonly argued to reflect steady tectonic forcing of base-level. We show that tributary streams are significantly more likely to flow into the leading edge of meander bends, testifying to the repeated capture of tributaries by growing bends. Examples of eminent captures by migrating bends, and examples with large knick points along recently captured tributaries suggest that the autogenic capture of tributaries by growing bends is a fundamental cause of transience in tributary channels in this landscape. To demonstrate the influence of the process of meander bend neck cutoff on tributary long profile evolution, we compare the long profiles of 34 tributaries that were hung above the main-stem of the Smith River following neck cutoff events. These stagnated tributary channels typically exhibit large convexities that record ongoing lowering of the trunk stream. Measured heights of these hanging tributaries implies that the timescale of adjustment for tributaries following cutoff events is ~ 105-106 years. The timescale of adjustment of tributary channels following meander cutoff

  17. Review of revised Klamath River Total Maximum Daily Load models from Link River Dam to Keno Dam, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Stewart A.; Sullivan, Annett B.

    2013-01-01

    Flow and water-quality models are being used to support the development of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) plans for the Klamath River downstream of Upper Klamath Lake (UKL) in south-central Oregon. For riverine reaches, the RMA-2 and RMA-11 models were used, whereas the CE-QUAL-W2 model was used to simulate pooled reaches. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was asked to review the most upstream of these models, from Link River Dam at the outlet of UKL downstream through the first pooled reach of the Klamath River from Lake Ewauna to Keno Dam. Previous versions of these models were reviewed in 2009 by USGS. Since that time, important revisions were made to correct several problems and address other issues. This review documents an assessment of the revised models, with emphasis on the model revisions and any remaining issues. The primary focus of this review is the 19.7-mile Lake Ewauna to Keno Dam reach of the Klamath River that was simulated with the CE-QUAL-W2 model. Water spends far more time in the Lake Ewauna to Keno Dam reach than in the 1-mile Link River reach that connects UKL to the Klamath River, and most of the critical reactions affecting water quality upstream of Keno Dam occur in that pooled reach. This model review includes assessments of years 2000 and 2002 current conditions scenarios, which were used to calibrate the model, as well as a natural conditions scenario that was used as the reference condition for the TMDL and was based on the 2000 flow conditions. The natural conditions scenario included the removal of Keno Dam, restoration of the Keno reef (a shallow spot that was removed when the dam was built), removal of all point-source inputs, and derivation of upstream boundary water-quality inputs from a previously developed UKL TMDL model. This review examined the details of the models, including model algorithms, parameter values, and boundary conditions; the review did not assess the draft Klamath River TMDL or the TMDL allocations

  18. Water-quality data from semipermeable-membrane devices and polar organic chemical integrative samplers deployed in the McKenzie River basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Alvarez, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Two types of passive samplers—the semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) and the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS)—are being used to collect data from the McKenzie River, Oregon. The McKenzie River is the source of drinking water for the City of Eugene, Oregon, and passive-sampler data are part of an ongoing monitoring effort designed to help understand and protect the drinking water source. Data from the passive samplers are reported here. This data report is dynamic and will be appended with additional data as they become available.

  19. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleary, Peter J.; Blenden, Michael L.; Kucera, Paul A.

    2002-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan Hatchery Evaluation Studies (LSRCP) and the Imnaha Smolt Monitoring Program (SMP) for the 1999 smolt migration from the Imnaha River, Oregon. These studies were designed and closely coordinated to provide information about juvenile natural and hatchery chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) biological characteristics, behavior and emigrant timing, survival, arrival timing and travel time to the Snake River dams and McNary Dam on the Columbia River. Data collected from these studies are shared with the Fish Passage Center (FPC). These data are essential to quantify smolt survival rates under the current passage conditions and to evaluate the future recovery strategies that seek to optimize smolt survival through the hydroelectric system. Information shared with the FPC assists with in-season shaping of flow and spill management requests in the Snake River reservoirs. The Bonneville Power Administration and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service contracted the Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) to monitor emigration timing and tag 21,200 emigrating natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead smolts from the Imnaha River during the spring emigration period (March 1-June 15) with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags. The completion of trapping in the spring of 1999 marked the eighth year of emigration studies on the Imnaha River and the sixth year of participating in the FPC smolt monitoring program. Monitoring and evaluation objectives were to: (1) Determine spring emigration timing of chinook salmon and steelhead smolts collected at the Imnaha River trap. (2) Evaluate effects of flow, temperature and other environmental factors on emigration timing. (3) Monitor the daily catch and biological characteristics of juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead smolts collected at the Imnaha River screw trap. (4) Determine emigration timing, travel time, and in-river

  20. Field-trip guide to Columbia River flood basalts, associated rhyolites, and diverse post-plume volcanism in eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferns, Mark L.; Streck, Martin J.; McClaughry, Jason D.

    2017-08-09

    The Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) is the youngest and best preserved continental flood basalt province on Earth, linked in space and time with a compositionally diverse succession of volcanic rocks that partially record the apparent emergence and passage of the Yellowstone plume head through eastern Oregon during the late Cenozoic. This compositionally diverse suite of volcanic rocks are considered part of the La Grande-Owyhee eruptive axis (LOEA), an approximately 300-kilometer-long (185 mile), north-northwest-trending, middle Miocene to Pliocene volcanic belt located along the eastern margin of the Columbia River flood basalt province. Volcanic rocks erupted from and preserved within the LOEA form an important regional stratigraphic link between the (1) flood basalt-dominated Columbia Plateau on the north, (2) bimodal basalt-rhyolite vent complexes of the Owyhee Plateau on the south, (3) bimodal basalt-rhyolite and time-transgressive rhyolitic volcanic fields of the Snake River Plain-Yellowstone Plateau, and (4) the High Lava Plains of central Oregon.This field-trip guide describes a 4-day geologic excursion that will explore the stratigraphic and geochemical relationships among mafic rocks of the Columbia River Basalt Group and coeval and compositionally diverse volcanic rocks associated with the early “Yellowstone track” and High Lava Plains in eastern Oregon. Beginning in Portland, the Day 1 log traverses the Columbia River gorge eastward to Baker City, focusing on prominent outcrops that reveal a distal succession of laterally extensive, large-volume tholeiitic flood lavas of the Grande Ronde, Wanapum, and Saddle Mountains Basalt formations of the CRBG. These “great flows” are typical of the well-studied flood basalt-dominated Columbia Plateau, where interbedded silicic and calc-alkaline lavas are conspicuously absent. The latter part of Day 1 will highlight exposures of middle to late Miocene silicic ash-flow tuffs, rhyolite domes, and

  1. Annotated bibliography of the geology of the Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Basalt) and adjacent areas of Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bela, J.

    1979-01-01

    This bibliography containing approximately 2000 entries was prepared by the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries under Subcontract SA-913 with Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. The objective of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program is to determine the feasibility of storing nuclear waste within the Columbia River Basalt Group. Under the geologic portion of this program, the stratigraphic, structural, tectonic, seismic, and hydrologic aspects of the Columbia Plateau are being examined. Other aspects of the Basalt Waste Isolation Program are concerned with systems integration, engineered barriers, engineering testing, and construction of a near-surface test facility. The area covered in this bibliography comprises that area north of 43/sup 0/30' latitude and east of the Willamette Meridian, which is located just west of Portland. The bibliographic entries are presented in two forms. The first is an alphabetized listing of all articles dealing with the geology of the Columbia Plateau (Columbia River Basalt) and adjacent areas of Oregon. The second form consists of an alphabetized listing of the entries subdivided under fourteen categories. (RWR)

  2. A method for characterizing late-season low-flow regime in the upper Grand Ronde River Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Valerie J.; White, Seth

    2016-04-19

    This report describes a method for estimating ecologically relevant low-flow metrics that quantify late‑season streamflow regime for ungaged sites in the upper Grande Ronde River Basin, Oregon. The analysis presented here focuses on sites sampled by the Columbia River Inter‑Tribal Fish Commission as part of their efforts to monitor habitat restoration to benefit spring Chinook salmon recovery in the basin. Streamflow data were provided by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Oregon Water Resources Department. Specific guidance was provided for selection of streamgages, development of probabilistic frequency distributions for annual 7-day low-flow events, and regionalization of the frequency curves based on multivariate analysis of watershed characteristics. Evaluation of the uncertainty associated with the various components of this protocol indicates that the results are reliable for the intended purpose of hydrologic classification to support ecological analysis of factors contributing to juvenile salmon success. They should not be considered suitable for more standard water-resource evaluations that require greater precision, especially those focused on management and forecasting of extreme low-flow conditions.

  3. Summary of the Snake River plain Regional Aquifer-System Analysis in Idaho and eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Regional aquifers underlying the 15,600-square-mile Snake River Plain in southern Idaho and eastern Oregon was studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Regional Aquifer-System Analysis program. The largest and most productive aquifers in the Snake River Plain are composed of Quaternary basalt of the Snake River Group, which underlies most of the 10,8000-square-mile eastern plain. Aquifer tests and simulation indicate that transmissivity of the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer in the eastern plain commonly ranges from about 100,000 to 1,000,000 feet squared per day. However, transmissivity of the total aquifer thickness may be as much as 10 million feet squared per day. Specific yield of the upper 200 feet of the aquifer ranges from about 0.01 to 0.20. Average horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer ranges from less than 100 to 9,000 feet per day. Values may be one to several orders of magnitude higher in parts in individual flows, such as flow tops. Vertical hydraulic conductivity is probably several orders of magnitude lower than horizontal hydraulic conductivity and is generally related to the number of joints. Pillow lava in ancestral Snake River channels has the highest hydraulic conductivity of all rock types. Hydraulic conductivity of the basalt decreases with depth because of secondary filling of voids with calcite and silica. An estimated 80 to 120 million acre-feet of water is believed to be stored in the upper 200 feet of the basalt aquifer in the eastern plain. The most productive aquifers in the 4,800-square-mile western plain are alluvial sand and gravel in the Boise River valley. Although aquifer tests indicate that transmissivity of alluvium in the Boise River valley ranges from 5,000 to 160,000 feet squared per day, simulation suggests that average transmissivity of the upper 500 feet is generally less than 20,000 feet squared per day. Vertically averaged horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the upper

  4. Ground Water Redox Zonation near La Pine, Oregon: Relation to River Position within the Aquifer-Riparian Zone Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Stephen R.; Morgan, David S.; Orzol, Leonard L.; Polette, Danial J.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing residential development since in the 1960s has lead to increases in nitrate concentrations in shallow ground water in parts of the 247 square mile study area near La Pine, Oregon. Denitrification is the dominant nitrate-removal process that occurs in suboxic ground water, and suboxic ground water serves as a barrier to transport of most nitrate in the aquifer. Oxic ground water, on the other hand, represents a potential pathway for nitrate transport from terrestrial recharge areas to the Deschutes and Little Deschutes Rivers. The effects of present and potential future discharge of ground-water nitrate into the nitrogen-limited Deschutes and Little Deschutes Rivers are not known. However, additions of nitrogen to nitrogen-limited rivers can lead to increases in primary productivity which, in turn, can increase the magnitudes of dissolved oxygen and pH swings in river water. An understanding of the distribution of oxic ground water in the near-river environment could facilitate understanding the vulnerability of these rivers and could be a useful tool for management of these rivers. In this study, transects of temporary wells were installed in sub-river sediments beneath the Deschutes and Little Deschutes Rivers near La Pine to characterize near-river reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions near the ends of ground-water flow paths. Samples from transects installed near the center of the riparian zone or flood plain were consistently suboxic. Where transects were near edges of riparian zones, most ground-water samples also were suboxic. Oxic ground water (other than hyporheic water) was uncommon, and was only detected near the outside edge of some meander bends. This pattern of occurrence likely reflects geochemical controls throughout the aquifer as well as geochemical processes in the microbiologically active riparian zone near the end of ground-water flow paths. Younger, typically less reduced ground water generally enters near-river environments through

  5. Ground Water Redox Zonation near La Pine, Oregon: Relation to River Position within the Aquifer-Riparian Zone Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkle, Stephen R.; Morgan, David S.; Orzol, Leonard L.; Polette, Danial J.

    2007-01-01

    Increasing residential development since in the 1960s has lead to increases in nitrate concentrations in shallow ground water in parts of the 247 square mile study area near La Pine, Oregon. Denitrification is the dominant nitrate-removal process that occurs in suboxic ground water, and suboxic ground water serves as a barrier to transport of most nitrate in the aquifer. Oxic ground water, on the other hand, represents a potential pathway for nitrate transport from terrestrial recharge areas to the Deschutes and Little Deschutes Rivers. The effects of present and potential future discharge of ground-water nitrate into the nitrogen-limited Deschutes and Little Deschutes Rivers are not known. However, additions of nitrogen to nitrogen-limited rivers can lead to increases in primary productivity which, in turn, can increase the magnitudes of dissolved oxygen and pH swings in river water. An understanding of the distribution of oxic ground water in the near-river environment could facilitate understanding the vulnerability of these rivers and could be a useful tool for management of these rivers. In this study, transects of temporary wells were installed in sub-river sediments beneath the Deschutes and Little Deschutes Rivers near La Pine to characterize near-river reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions near the ends of ground-water flow paths. Samples from transects installed near the center of the riparian zone or flood plain were consistently suboxic. Where transects were near edges of riparian zones, most ground-water samples also were suboxic. Oxic ground water (other than hyporheic water) was uncommon, and was only detected near the outside edge of some meander bends. This pattern of occurrence likely reflects geochemical controls throughout the aquifer as well as geochemical processes in the microbiologically active riparian zone near the end of ground-water flow paths. Younger, typically less reduced ground water generally enters near-river environments through

  6. The effect of chamber mixing velocity on bias in measurement of sediment oxygen demand rates in the Tualatin River basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Micelis C.; Rounds, Stewart

    2003-01-01

    Three sediment oxygen demand (SOD) measurement chambers were deployed in the Tualatin River near Tigard, Oregon, at river mile 10 in August 2000. SOD rates were calculated for three different circulation velocities during each chamber deployment. The SOD rate at each velocity was calculated from a graph of dissolved oxygen concentration versus elapsed time. An acoustic doppler current profiler (ADCP) was used to measure stream discharge and near-bottom water velocities in the Tualatin at river mile 10 and at two upstream locations. Measured river and chamber velocities were similar, indicating that results from the chambers were representative of instream effects.

  7. Summary of environmental flow monitoring for the Sustainable Rivers Project on the Middle Fork Willamette and McKenzie Rivers, western Oregon, 2014–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Krista L.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Wallick, J. Rose; Bervid, Heather D.; Olson, Melissa; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Bach, Leslie

    2016-11-07

    This report presents the results of an ongoing environmental flow monitoring study by The Nature Conservancy (TNC), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and U.S. Geological Survey in support of the Sustainable Rivers Project (SRP) of TNC and USACE. The overarching goal of this study is to evaluate and characterize relations between streamflow, geomorphic processes, and black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) recruitment on the Middle Fork Willamette and McKenzie Rivers, western Oregon, that were hypothesized in earlier investigations. The SRP can use this information to plan future monitoring and scientific investigations, and to help mitigate the effects of dam operations on streamflow regimes, geomorphic processes, and biological communities, such as black cottonwood forests, in consultation with regional experts. The four tasks of this study were to:Compare the hydrograph from Water Year (WY) 2015 with hydrographs from WYs 2000–14 and the SRP flow recommendations,Assess short-term and system-wide changes in channel features and vegetation throughout the alluvial valley section of the Middle Fork Willamette River (2005–12),Examine changes in channel features and vegetation over two decades (1994–2014) for two short mapping zones on the Middle Fork Willamette and McKenzie Rivers, andComplete a field investigation of summer stage and the growth of black cottonwood and other vegetation on the Middle Fork Willamette and McKenzie Rivers in summer 2015.

  8. Caesium-137 in sandy sediments of the River Loire (FR): Assessment of an alluvial island evolving over the last 50 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detriche, Sebastien; Rodrigues, Stephane; Macaire, Jean-Jacques; Breheret, Jean-Gabriel; Bakyono, Jean-Paul [Universite Francois-Rabelais de Tours, CNRS/INSU UMR 6113 ISTO, Universite d' Orleans Faculte des Sciences et Techniques, Laboratoire de Geologie des Environnements Aquatiques Continentaux, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Bonte, Philippe [UMR CNRS-CEA 1572, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement - LSCE, CNRS, Domaine du CNRS, Bat. 12, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Juge, Philippe [CETU-Elmis ingenieries, Antenne Universitaire en Val de Vienne, 11 quai Danton, 37500 Chinon (France)

    2010-07-01

    Recent sedimentological and morphological evolution of an island in the River Loire (FR) was investigated using the {sup 137}Cs method. This study describes the morphological adjustment of the island in the last 50 years, which corresponds to the increased bed incision of this sandy, multiple-channel environment because of, among other things, the increase in sediment extraction up to 1995. The results show that some {sup 137}Cs can be retained by sandy particles, potentially in clay minerals forming weathering features included in detrital sand grains. From a morphological perspective, significant lateral erosion can be observed in the upstream part of the island, while a weak lateral accretion occurs in its downstream section. Data about {sup 137}Cs and aerial photographs show that the morphology of the island margins has undergone significant changes leading to a lateral migration, while the centre of the island has remained relatively stable or is slowly eroding. The migration of the island depends on: (1) the withdrawal of inherited pre-incision morphological units, such as levees, or the development of new units, such as a channel shelf; (2) water and sediment supply from surrounding channels during flood events; (3) preferential sediment trapping (20 mm year{sup -1}) from the presence of riparian vegetation on the bank of the secondary channel that is subject to narrowing. The sedimentological and morphological response of the island in the context of incision of the Loire river bed is expressed mainly by lateral migration and secondarily by a low vertical adjustment. (authors)

  9. Operation Plans for Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin : Annual Report 1995 : Volume II, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife; US Fish and Wildlife Service

    1996-06-01

    Big Creek Hatchery is located 16 miles east of Astoria, Oregon and is approximately 3 miles upstream from Big Creek`s confluence with the Columbia River. The site elevation is approximately 75 feet above sea level. The facility includes 2 adult holding ponds, 30 raceways, 1 rearing pond, 64 troughs and 8 stacks of egg incubators. The adult collection and holding ponds are in poor condition and are inadequate to meet current program objectives. There are four water sources for the hatchery: Big Creek, Mill Creek and two springs. Current water rights total 36,158 gpm plus an additional 4.2 cfs reservoir water right. All water supplies are delivered by gravity but can be pumped for reuse if required. The facility is staffed with 9.25 FTE`s. Current practices at the hatchery are described.

  10. Sex biased survival and differences in migration of wild steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from two coastal Oregon rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Neil F.; Leblanc, Camille A.; Romer, Jeremy D.; Schreck, Carl B.; Blouin, Michael S.; Noakes, David L. G.

    2016-01-01

    In salmonids with partial migration, females are more likely than males to undergo smoltification and migrate to the ocean (vs. maturing in freshwater). However, it is not known whether sex affects survivorship during smolt migration (from fresh water to entry into the ocean). We captured wild steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts in two coastal Oregon rivers (USA) and collected fin tissue samples for genetic sex determination (2009; N = 70 in the Alsea and N = 69 in the Nehalem, 2010; N = 25 in the Alsea). We implanted acoustic tags and monitored downstream migration and survival until entry in to the Pacific Ocean. Survival was defined as detection at an estuary/ocean transition array. We found no effect of sex on smolt survivorship in the Nehalem River in 2009, or in the Alsea River in 2010. However, males exhibited significantly lower survival than females in the Alsea River during 2009. Residency did not influence this result as an equal proportion of males and females did not reach the estuary entrance (11% of males, 9% of females). The sexes did not differ in timing or duration of migration, so those variables seem unlikely to explain sex-biased survivorship. Larger males had higher odds of survival than smaller males in 2009, but the body size of females did not affect survivorship. The difference in survivorship between years in the Alsea River could be due to flow conditions, which were higher in 2010 than in 2009. Our findings suggest that sex may affect steelhead smolt survival during migration, but that the difference in survivorship may be weak and not a strong factor influencing adult sex ratios.

  11. 78 FR 42972 - Notice of Intent To Collect Fees on the John Day River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Office is proposing to begin collecting fees for day and overnight trips (floats) on the Service Creek (River Mile 157) to Tumwater Falls (River Mile 10) stretch of the John Day River, between Service...

  12. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Columbia River estuary - Washington/Oregon as part of the Low Level Waste Ocean Disposal project from 13 August 1979 - 27 September 1984 (NODC Accession 9500016)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Columbia River estuary - Washington/Oregon from August 13, 1979 to September 27, 1984. Data...

  13. Grain-size distribution characteristics of red sandy sediments in Dongjiang River valley, southern Nanling Mountains,during the MIS2 stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShuHuan Du; BaoSheng Li; DongFeng Niu; XiaoHao Wen; FengNian Wang; XianJiao Ou; Yi Yang; YueJun Si; XinNan Zhao

    2009-01-01

    Layer LJ3 of Linjiang sttrigraphic section in Dongjiang River valley in the south of the Nanling Mountains is a set of red sandy sediments.Measured by thermoluminescence (TL) dating, it was found to be formed in MIS2-9,500±800 yr to 19,600±1,800 yr B.P. After analysis of the grain sizes of the 16 samples (LJ3-100 to LJ3-85) in this layer, it was discovered that (1) The contents of each grain group in different samples are similar. (2) The values of Md, Mz,σ,Sk and Kg vary from LJ3-100 to LJ3-85 in a narrow range. (3) The segments of each sample in the accumulative curves extend parallel with similar slopes. All the three aspects reveal the Aeolian characteristics of Layer LJ3.Therefore, it is thought that Layer LJ3 consists of red sandy sediments formed in MIS2 in the south of Nanling Mountain, which reflects the arid climate at that time.

  14. Effects of Chiloquin Dam on spawning distribution and larval emigration of Lost River, shortnose, and Klamath largescale suckers in the Williamson and Sprague Rivers, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Barbara A.; Hewitt, David A.; Ellsworth, Craig M.

    2013-01-01

    Chiloquin Dam was constructed in 1914 on the Sprague River near the town of Chiloquin, Oregon. The dam was identified as a barrier that potentially inhibited or prevented the upstream spawning migrations and other movements of endangered Lost River (Deltistes luxatusChasmistes brevirostris) suckers, as well as other fish species. In 2002, the Bureau of Reclamation led a working group that examined several alternatives to improve fish passage at Chiloquin Dam. Ultimately it was decided that dam removal was the best alternative and the dam was removed in the summer of 2008. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a long-term study on the spawning ecology of Lost River, shortnose, and Klamath largescale suckers (Catostomus snyderi) in the Sprague and lower Williamson Rivers from 2004 to 2010. The objective of this study was to evaluate shifts in spawning distribution following the removal of Chiloquin Dam. Radio telemetry was used in conjunction with larval production data and detections of fish tagged with passive integrated transponders (PIT tags) to evaluate whether dam removal resulted in increased utilization of spawning habitat farther upstream in the Sprague River. Increased densities of drifting larvae were observed at a site in the lower Williamson River after the dam was removed, but no substantial changes occurred upstream of the former dam site. Adult spawning migrations primarily were influenced by water temperature and did not change with the removal of the dam. Emigration of larvae consistently occurred about 3-4 weeks after adults migrated into a section of river. Detections of PIT-tagged fish showed increases in the numbers of all three suckers that migrated upstream of the dam site following removal, but the increases for Lost River and shortnose suckers were relatively small compared to the total number of fish that made a spawning migration in a given season. Increases for Klamath largescale suckers were more substantial. Post-dam removal monitoring

  15. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Green Peter-Foster Project; Middle Fork Santiam River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, J.H.

    1986-02-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Green Peter-Foster Dam and Reservoir Project on the Middle Fork Santiam River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types at the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1955, 1972, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Eleven wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Green Peter-Foster Project extensively altered or affected 7873 acres of land and river in the Santiam River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 1429 acres of grass-forb vegetation, 768 acres of shrubland, and 717 acres of open conifer forest cover types. Impacts resulting from the Green Peter-Foster Project included the loss of critical winter range for black-tailed deer and Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for deer, upland game birds, river otter, beaver, pileated woodpecker, and many other wildlife species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Green Peter-Foster Project. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  16. The Role of Late-Cenozoic Lava Flows in the Evolution of the Owyhee River Canyon, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossy, C. C.; House, P. K.; Ely, L. L.; O'Connor, J. E.; Safran, E. B.; Bondre, N.; Champion, D. E.; Grant, G.

    2008-12-01

    Over the last 2 Ma, at least six lava flows entered the canyon of the Owyhee River in southeastern Oregon, dramatically and repeatedly altering the river's course and profile. A combination of geochronologic, geochemical, and paleomagnetic analyses accompanied by extensive field mapping shows that these lava flows erupted from upland vents 10s of km from the river, entered the canyon via tributary or rim, and formed blockages sufficient to create lakes. Thick deltas of pillow lavas and rising passage zones in the head of the dams and subaerial lavas downstream of the dam indicate effective damming. The presence of fine grained laminated sediments deposited in the lakes suggests the dams were fairly long lived. Pending OSL dates and ongoing field study of these sediments will shed light on the nature and duration of dam construction and removal. Lava-water interaction during dam construction was extensive, and thick pillow lava deltas are common. In contrast to rivers in other locations, we did not find evidence of pyroclastics such as cinders associated with the dams. The three oldest intracanyon lava flows: the lower undivided Bogus lavas (>1.92 ± 0.22 Ma), the Bogus Rim (1.92 ± 0.22 Ma), and the Greeley Bar lavas (>780 ka), all record the filling of a wide, deep canyon, damming of the Owyhee River, and creation of extensive lakes at elevations 230 to 310 m above the modern river. The three younger lava flows, the Clarks Butte (248 ± 45 ka), the Saddle Butte (~125 ka), and the West Crater (60-90 ka), record the occurrence of similar events but in a narrower, deeper canyon similar to the modern one. Overall, this array of late Cenozoic intracanyon lava flows provides key insights into the long-term incision history of the canyon, possibly including the effect of integration with the Snake River, and supports a model of long-term, regional landscape evolution that is strongly linked to lava-water interactions.

  17. Temperature of the Columbia River between Priest Rapids, Washington and Umatilla, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostenbach, R.E.

    1955-10-05

    This report brings together certain temperature information of the Columbia River which is related to the Hanford plant of the United States Atomic Energy Commission. The temperature of the Columbia River is important for a number of reasons including the possible effect on aquatic life especially the habitat for salmon and the supply of cooling water for the Hanford reactors. Since the heated cooling waters from these atomic reactors are returned to the Columbia River without substantial cooling, the re suiting river water temperature increase is monitored. Climatic conditions influence greatly the temperature and flow of the river. Of these, the solar heating effects are very important. In this review the flow and temperature of both the Columbia and Snake Rivers are considered.

  18. Use of Continuous Monitors and Autosamplers to Predict Unmeasured Water-Quality Constituents in Tributaries of the Tualatin River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Chauncey W.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2010-01-01

    Management of water quality in streams of the United States is becoming increasingly complex as regulators seek to control aquatic pollution and ecological problems through Total Maximum Daily Load programs that target reductions in the concentrations of certain constituents. Sediment, nutrients, and bacteria, for example, are constituents that regulators target for reduction nationally and in the Tualatin River basin, Oregon. These constituents require laboratory analysis of discrete samples for definitive determinations of concentrations in streams. Recent technological advances in the nearly continuous, in situ monitoring of related water-quality parameters has fostered the use of these parameters as surrogates for the labor intensive, laboratory-analyzed constituents. Although these correlative techniques have been successful in large rivers, it was unclear whether they could be applied successfully in tributaries of the Tualatin River, primarily because these streams tend to be small, have rapid hydrologic response to rainfall and high streamflow variability, and may contain unique sources of sediment, nutrients, and bacteria. This report evaluates the feasibility of developing correlative regression models for predicting dependent variables (concentrations of total suspended solids, total phosphorus, and Escherichia coli bacteria) in two Tualatin River basin streams: one draining highly urbanized land (Fanno Creek near Durham, Oregon) and one draining rural agricultural land (Dairy Creek at Highway 8 near Hillsboro, Oregon), during 2002-04. An important difference between these two streams is their response to storm runoff; Fanno Creek has a relatively rapid response due to extensive upstream impervious areas and Dairy Creek has a relatively slow response because of the large amount of undeveloped upstream land. Four other stream sites also were evaluated, but in less detail. Potential explanatory variables included continuously monitored streamflow

  19. Comparison of Stream Restoration and Vegetation Restoration on Stream Temperature in the Middle Fork John Day River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabat, M.; Wondzell, S. M.; Haggerty, R.

    2013-12-01

    Stream temperature is an important component of aquatic ecosystems. During the past century, various anthropogenic activities (such as timber harvest, mining, and agriculture) reduced riparian vegetation and channel complexity along many streams around the world. As a result, stream temperature increased and suitable habitat for cool- and cold-water organisms declined. Stream temperatures are expected to increase even more under future climate. The effects of warmer climate and anthropogenic activities are proposed to be mitigated by restoration projects aimed to reduce stream temperatures. Common restoration practices are replanting natural vegetation along stream banks and restoring channel complexity. The Middle Fork John Day River, in northeastern Oregon, USA is an example of such a process. We modeled stream temperature along a 37-km section of the Middle Fork John Day River for current and projected conditions of climate, restored riparian vegetation along 6.6-km, and restored channel meanders along 1.5 km. Preliminary simulations suggest that if current riparian vegetation remains unchanged, an average summertime air warming of 4°C increased the 7-day average daily maximum (7DADM) by about 1.3°C. However, restored riparian vegetation reduced the 7DADM by about 0.7°C relative to the current temperature. Restored channel meanders reduced the 7DADM by less than 0.05°C relative to the current temperature. These preliminary simulations assume no hyporheic exchange and riparian vegetation that is 10 m tall and has 30% canopy density.

  20. Preliminary assessment of channel stability and bed-material transport in the Rogue River basin, southwestern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Krista L.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Wallick, J. Rose

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes a preliminary assessment of bed-material transport, vertical and lateral channel changes, and existing datasets for the Rogue River basin, which encompasses 13,390 square kilometers (km2) along the southwestern Oregon coast. This study, conducted to inform permitting decisions regarding instream gravel mining, revealed that: * The Rogue River in its lowermost 178.5 kilometers (km) alternates between confined and unconfined segments, and is predominately alluvial along its lowermost 44 km. The study area on the mainstem Rogue River can be divided into five reaches based on topography, hydrology, and tidal influence. The largely confined, active channel flows over bedrock and coarse bed material composed chiefly of boulders and cobbles in the Grants Pass (river kilometers [RKM] 178.5-152.8), Merlin (RKM 152.8-132.7), and Galice Reaches (RKM 132.7-43.9). Within these confined reaches, the channel contains few bars and has stable planforms except for locally wider segments such as the Brushy Chutes area in the Merlin Reach. Conversely, the active channel flows over predominately alluvial material and contains nearly continuous gravel bars in the Lobster Creek Reach (RKM 43.9-6.7). The channel in the Tidal Reach (RKM 6.7-0) is also alluvial, but tidally affected and unconfined until RKM 2. The Lobster Creek and Tidal Reaches contain some of the most extensive bar deposits within the Rogue River study area. * For the 56.6-km-long segment of the Applegate River included in this study, the river was divided into two reaches based on topography. In the Upper Applegate River Reach (RKM 56.6-41.6), the confined, active channel flows over alluvium and bedrock and has few bars. In the Lower Applegate River Reach (RKM 41.6-0), the active channel alternates between confined and unconfined segments, flows predominantly over alluvium, shifts laterally in unconfined sections, and contains more numerous and larger bars. * The 6.5-km segment of the lower

  1. Field-trip guide to the vents, dikes, stratigraphy, and structure of the Columbia River Basalt Group, eastern Oregon and southeastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Victor E; Reidel, Stephen P.; Ross, Martin E.; Brown, Richard J.; Self, Stephen

    2017-06-22

    The Columbia River Basalt Group covers an area of more than 210,000 km2 with an estimated volume of 210,000 km3. As the youngest continental flood-basalt province on Earth (16.7–5.5 Ma), it is well preserved, with a coherent and detailed stratigraphy exposed in the deep canyonlands of eastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. The Columbia River flood-basalt province is often cited as a model for the study of similar provinces worldwide.This field-trip guide explores the main source region of the Columbia River Basalt Group and is written for trip participants attending the 2017 International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) Scientific Assembly in Portland, Oregon, USA. The first part of the guide provides an overview of the geologic features common in the Columbia River flood-basalt province and the stratigraphic terminology used in the Columbia River Basalt Group. The accompanying road log examines the stratigraphic evolution, eruption history, and structure of the province through a field examination of the lavas, dikes, and pyroclastic rocks of the Columbia River Basalt Group.

  2. Assessment of water quality, nutrients, algal productivity, and management alternatives for low-flow conditions, South Umpqua River basin, Oregon, 1990-92

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Dwight Q.; Anderson, Chauncey W.

    1996-01-01

    This report is an evaluation of the effects of nutrient loading on water quality in the South Umpqua River Basin. The study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Douglas County, Oregon. Five wastewater-treatment plants were shown to contribute less than 15 percent of the flow, but more than 90 percent of the nitrogen and phosphorus, in the South Umpqua River during low streamflows in summer. These nutrient inputs were associated with, and largely responsible for, the dense growth of periphytic algae that covered the rocky channel and produced biomass values as large as 340 grams of ash-free dry weight per square meter. The nighttime respiration of periphytic algae caused violations of the Oregon water-quality standard, which requires a dissolved oxygen concentration of at least 90 percent of saturation, at most sites along the South Umpqua River. Photosynthesis by algae during daylight resulted in many exceedances of the Oregon pH standard of 8.5.

  3. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Dexter Dam and Reservoir Project, Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-09-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Dexter Dam and Reservoir Project on the Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the project. Preconstruction, post-construction, and recent vegetation cover types of the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1944, 1956, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Fifteen wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Dexter Project extensively altered or affected 4662 acres of land and river in the Middle Fork Willamette River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 445 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Dexter Project included the loss of year-round habitat for black-tailed deer, red fox, mink, beaver, western gray squirrel, ruffed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, California quail, wood duck and nongame species. Bald eagle, osprey, and greater scaup were benefitted by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Dexter Project. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  4. Occurrence of selected trace elements and organic compounds and their relation to land use in the Willamette River basin, Oregon, 1992-94

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C.W.; Rinella, F.A.; Rounds, S.A.

    1996-01-01

    Between 1992 and 1994, the U.S.Geological Survey conducted a study of trace elements and organic compounds in the Willamette River Basin, Oregon, as part of the Willamette River Basin Water Quality Study. Low-level analyses were performed for trace elements, volatile organic compounds, organochlorine compounds, and pesticides. Overall, 94 water samples were collected from 40 sites, during predominantly high-flow conditions, representing urban, agricultural, mixed, and forested land uses. Although most observed concentrations were relatively low, some exceedances of water-quality criteria for acute and chronic toxicity and for the protection of human health were observed.

  5. Anomalies of larval and juvenile shortnose and lost river suckers in upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Larval and juvenile shortnose (Chasmistes brevirostris) and Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) suckers from Upper Klamath Lake, OR, were examined to determine anomaly...

  6. Geomorphic and vegetation processes of the Willamette River floodplain, Oregon: current understanding and unanswered science questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallick, J. Rose; Jones, Krista L.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Hulse, David; Gregory, Stanley V.

    2013-01-01

    This report summarizes the current understanding of floodplain processes and landforms for the Willamette River and its major tributaries. The area of focus encompasses the main stem Willamette River above Newberg and the portions of the Coast Fork Willamette, Middle Fork Willamette, McKenzie, and North, South and main stem Santiam Rivers downstream of U.S. Army Corps of Engineers dams. These reaches constitute a large portion of the alluvial, salmon-bearing rivers in the Willamette Basin. The geomorphic, or historical, floodplain of these rivers has two zones - the active channel where coarse sediment is mobilized and transported during annual flooding and overbank areas where fine sediment is deposited during higher magnitude floods. Historically, characteristics of the rivers and geomorphic floodplain (including longitudinal patterns in channel complexity and the abundance of side channels, islands and gravel bars) were controlled by the interactions between floods and the transport of coarse sediment and large wood. Local channel responses to these interactions were then shaped by geologic features like bedrock outcrops and variations in channel slope. Over the last 150 years, floods and the transport of coarse sediment and large wood have been substantially reduced in the basin. With dam regulation, nearly all peak flows are now confined to the main channels. Large floods (greater than 10-year recurrence interval prior to basinwide flow regulation) have been largely eliminated. Also, the magnitude and frequency of small floods (events that formerly recurred every 2–10 years) have decreased substantially. The large dams trap an estimated 50–60 percent of bed-material sediment—the building block of active channel habitats—that historically entered the Willamette River. They also trap more than 80 percent of the estimated bed material in the lower South Santiam River and Middle and Coast Forks of the Willamette River. Downstream, revetments further

  7. An Integrated Ensemble-Based Operational Framework to Predict Urban Flooding: A Case Study of Hurricane Sandy in the Passaic and Hackensack River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, F.; Ramaswamy, V.; Georgas, N.; Blumberg, A. F.; Wang, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Advances in computational resources and modeling techniques are opening the path to effectively integrate existing complex models. In the context of flood prediction, recent extreme events have demonstrated the importance of integrating components of the hydrosystem to better represent the interactions amongst different physical processes and phenomena. As such, there is a pressing need to develop holistic and cross-disciplinary modeling frameworks that effectively integrate existing models and better represent the operative dynamics. This work presents a novel Hydrologic-Hydraulic-Hydrodynamic Ensemble (H3E) flood prediction framework that operationally integrates existing predictive models representing coastal (New York Harbor Observing and Prediction System, NYHOPS), hydrologic (US Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Modeling System, HEC-HMS) and hydraulic (2-dimensional River Analysis System, HEC-RAS) components. The state-of-the-art framework is forced with 125 ensemble meteorological inputs from numerical weather prediction models including the Global Ensemble Forecast System, the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), the Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC), the Short Range Ensemble Forecast (SREF) and the North American Mesoscale Forecast System (NAM). The framework produces, within a 96-hour forecast horizon, on-the-fly Google Earth flood maps that provide critical information for decision makers and emergency preparedness managers. The utility of the framework was demonstrated by retrospectively forecasting an extreme flood event, hurricane Sandy in the Passaic and Hackensack watersheds (New Jersey, USA). Hurricane Sandy caused significant damage to a number of critical facilities in this area including the New Jersey Transit's main storage and maintenance facility. The results of this work demonstrate that ensemble based frameworks provide improved flood predictions and useful information about associated uncertainties, thus

  8. Trapping and Transportation of Adult and Juvenile Salmon in the Lower Umatilla River in Northeast Oregon: Umatilla River Basin Trap and Haul Program, October 1994-September 1995.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, Brian C.; Duke, Bill B.

    1995-09-01

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were collected at Threemile Dam from August 26, 1994 to June 27, 1995. A total of 1,531 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 688 adult, 236 jack, and 368 subjack fall chinook (O. tshawvtscha); 984 adult and 62 jack coho (O. kisutch) ; and 388 adult and 108 jack spring chinook (O. tshawvtscha) were collected. All fish were trapped at the east bank facility. Of the fish collected, 971 summer steelhead; 581 adult and 27 jack fall chinook; 500 adult and 22 jack coho; and 363 adult and 61 jack spring chinook were hauled upstream from Threemile Dam. There were also 373 summer steelhead; 12 adult, 186 jack and 317 subjack fall chinook; 379 adult and 32 jack coho; and 15 adult and one jack spring chinook released at Threemile Dam. In addition, 154 summer steelhead were hauled to Bonifer and Minthorn for brood. The Westland Canal facility, located near the town of Echo, is the major collection point for outmigrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts. The facility operated for a total of 179 days between December 2, 1994 and July 19, 1995. During that period, fish were bypassed back to the river 137 days and were trapped 42 days. Three steelhead kelts and an estimated 1,560 pounds of juvenile fish were transported from the Westland Canal trap to the Umatilla River boat ramp at rivermile 0.5. Approximately 98% of the fish transported this year were salmonids. The Threemile Dam west bank juvenile bypass began operating March 25, 1995 and was closed on June 16, 1995. The juvenile trap was operated by Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife research personnel from April 1, 1995 through the summer to monitor juvenile outmigration.

  9. Dispersal of larval suckers at the Williamson River Delta, Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2006-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Tamara M.; Hendrixson, Heather A.; Markle, Douglas F.; Erdman, Charles S.; Burdick, Summer M.; Ellsworth, Craig M.; Buccola, Norman L.

    2012-01-01

    An advection/diffusion modeling approach was used to simulate the transport of larval suckers from spawning areas in the Williamson River, through the newly restored Williamson River Delta, to Upper Klamath Lake. The density simulations spanned the years of phased restoration, from 2006/2007 prior to any levee breaching, to 2008 when the northern part of the delta was reconnected to the lake, and 2009 when levees on both sides of the delta had been breached. Model simulation results from all four years were compared to field data using rank correlation. Spearman ρ correlation coefficients were usually significant and in the range 0.30 to 0.60, providing moderately strong validation of the model. The correlation coefficients varied with fish size class in a way that suggested that the model best described the distribution of smaller fish near the Williamson River channel, and larger fish away from the channel. When Lost River and shortnose/Klamath largescale suckers were simulated independently, the correlation results suggested that the model better described the transport and dispersal of the latter species. The incorporation of night-time-only drift behavior in the Williamson River channel neither improved nor degraded correlations with field data. The model showed that advection by currents is an important factor in larval dispersal.

  10. Total dissolved gas, barometric pressure, and water temperature data, lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Dwight Q.; Harrison, Howard E.; McKenzie, Stuart W.

    1996-01-01

    Increased levels of total dissolved gas pressure can cause gas-bubble trauma in fish downstream from dams on the Columbia River. In cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Geological Survey collected data on total dissolved gas pressure, barometric pressure, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen pressure at 11 stations on the lower Columbia River from the John Day forebay (river mile 215.6) to Wauna Mill (river mile 41.9) from March to September 1996. Methods of data collection, review, and processing are described in this report. Summaries of daily minimum, maximum, and mean hourly values are presented for total dissolved gas pressure, barometric pressure, and water temperature. Hourly values for these parameters are presented graphically. Dissolved oxygen data are not presented in this report because the quality-control data show that the data have poor precision and high bias. Suggested changes to monitoring procedures for future studies include (1) improved calibration procedures for total dissolved gas and dissolved oxygen to better define accuracy at elevated levels of supersaturation and (2) equipping dissolved oxygen sensors with stirrers because river velocities at the shoreline monitoring stations probably cannot maintain an adequate flow of water across the membrane surface of the dissolved oxygen sensor.

  11. Proceedings of the Columbia River Estuary Conference on Ecosystem Restoration, April 29-30, 2008, Astoria, Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Sutherland, G. Bruce [Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (retired)

    2008-09-29

    The 2008 Columbia River Estuary Conference was held at the Liberty Theater in Astoria, Oregon, on April 19-20. The conference theme was ecosystem restoration. The purpose of the conference was to exchange data and information among researchers, policy-makers, and the public, i.e., interrelate science with management. Conference organizers invited presentations synthesizing material on Restoration Planning and Implementation (Session 1), Research to Reduce Restoration Uncertainties (Session 2), Wetlands and Flood Management (Session 3), Action Effectiveness Monitoring (Session 4), and Management Perspectives (Session 5). A series of three plenary talks opened the conference. Facilitated speaker and audience discussion periods were held at the end of each session. Contributed posters conveyed additional data and information. These proceedings include abstracts and notes documenting questions from the audience and clarifying answers from the presenter for each talk. The proceedings also document key points from the discussion periods at the end of each session. The conference program is outlined in the agenda section. Speaker biographies are presented in Appendix A. Poster titles and authors are listed in Appendix B. A list of conference attendees is contained in Appendix C. A compact disk, attached to the back cover, contains material in hypertext-markup-language from the conference website (http://cerc.labworks.org/) and the individual presentations.

  12. Growth, smoltification, and smolt-to-adult return of spring chinook salmon from hatcheries on the Deschutes river, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, B.R.; Dickhoff, Walton W.; Zaugg, W.S.; Sharpe, C.; Hirtzel, S.; Schrock, R.; Larsen, D.A.; Ewing, R.D.; Palmisano, A.; Schreck, C.B.; Mahnken, C.V.W.

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between smoltification and smolt-to-adult return (SAR) of spring chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Deschutes River, Oregon, was examined for four release groups in each of three successive years. Fish were reared, marked with coded wire tags, and released from Round Butte Hatchery, Pelton Ladder rearing facility, and Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery. Smolt releases occurred in nearly the same place at similar times, allowing a direct comparison of SAR to several characters representing smolt quality. Return rates varied significantly among facilities, varying over an order of magnitude each year. The highest average SAR was from Pelton Ladder, the lowest was from Warm Springs. Each of the characters used as metrics of smoltification - fish size, spring growth rate (February-April), condition factor, plasma hormone concentration (thyroxine, cortisol, and insulin-like growth factor-I [IGF-I]), stress challenge, gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity, and liver glycogen concentration - varied significantly among facilities and seasonally within hatchery groups. However, only spring growth rate, gill ATPase activity, and plasma IGF-I concentration showed significant relationships to SAR. These characters and SAR itself were consistently lower for fish released from Warm Springs Hatchery than for fish from Round Butte Hatchery and Pelton Ladder. This demonstrates that differences in the quality of fish released by facilities may have profound effects on subsequent survival and suggests that manipulations of spring growth rate may be used to influence the quality of smolts released from facilities.

  13. Age-0 Lost River sucker and shortnose sucker nearshore habitat use in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: A patch occupancy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, S.M.; Hendrixson, H.A.; VanderKooi, S.P.

    2008-01-01

    We examined habitat use by age-0 Lost River suckers Deltistes luxatus and shortnose suckers Chasmistes brevirostris over six substrate classes and in vegetated and nonvegetated areas of Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. We used a patch occupancy approach to model the effect of physical habitat and water quality conditions on habitat use. Our models accounted for potential inconsistencies in detection probability among sites and sampling occasions as a result of differences in fishing gear types and techniques, habitat characteristics, and age-0 fish size and abundance. Detection probability was greatest during mid- to late summer, when water temperatures were highest and age-0 suckers were the largest. The proportion of sites used by age-0 suckers was inversely related to depth (range = 0.4-3.0 m), particularly during late summer. Age-0 suckers were more likely to use habitats containing small substrate (64 mm) and habitats with vegetation than those without vegetation. Relatively narrow ranges in dissolved oxygen, temperature, and pH prevented us from detecting effects of these water quality features on age-0 sucker nearshore habitat use.

  14. Field Review of Fish Habitat Improvement Projects in the Grande Ronde and John Day River Basins of Eastern Oregon.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beschta, Robert L.; Platts, William S.; Kauffman, J. Boone

    1991-10-01

    The restoration of vegetation adapted to riparian environments and the natural succession of riparian plant communities is necessary to recreate sustainable salmonid habitat and should be the focal point for fish habitat improvement programs. In mid-August of 1991, a field review of 16 Salmon habitat improvement sites in the Grande Ronde and John Day River Basins in Eastern Oregon was undertaken. The review team visited various types of fish habitat improvements associated with a wide range of reach types, geology, channel gradients, stream sizes, and vegetation communities. Enhancement objectives, limiting factors, landuse history, and other factors were discussed at each site. This information, in conjunction with the reviewer's field inspection of portions of a particular habitat improvement project, provided the basis for the following report. This report that follows is divided into four sections: (1) Recommendations, (2) Objectives, (3) Discussion and Conclusions, and (4) Site Comments. The first section represents a synthesis of major recommendations that were developed during this review. The remaining sections provide more detailed information and comments related to specific aspects of the field review.

  15. Modeling the Effects of Connecting Side Channels to the Long Tom River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, C.; McDowell, P. F.

    2015-12-01

    The lower Long Tom River is a heavily managed, highly modified stream in the southwestern Willamette Valley with many opportunities for habitat improvements and river restoration. In the 1940s and 1950s, the US Army Corps of Engineers dramatically altered this river system by constructing the Fern Ridge Dam and three, large drop structures, converting the River from a highly sinuous channel to a straight, channelized stream that is interrupted by these grade control structures, and removed the majority of the riparian vegetation. As a result, juvenile spring Chinook salmon are no longer found in the Watershed and the local population of coastal cutthroat trout face limited aquatic habitat. When the river was channelized, long sections of the historical channel were left abandoned on the floodplain. Reconnecting these historical channels as side channels may improve the quality and quantity of aquatic habitat and could allow fish passage around current barriers. However, such construction may also lead to undesirable threats to infrastructure and farmland. This study uses multiple HEC-RAS models to determine the impact of reconnecting two historical channels to the lower Long Tom River by quantifying the change in area of flood inundation and identifying infrastructure in jeapordy given current and post-restoration conditions for 1.5, 5, 10, and 25-year flood discharges. Bathymetric data from ADCP and RTK-GPS surveys has been combined with LiDAR-derived topographic data to create continuous elevation models. Several types of side channel connections are modeled in order to determine which type of connection will result in both the greatest quantity of accessible habitat and the fewest threats to public and private property. In the future, this study will also consider the change in the quantity of physical salmonid habitat and map the areas prone to sedimentation and erosion using CEASAR and PHABSIM tools.

  16. Integrated geophysical studies of the Fort Worth Basin (Texas), Harney Basin (Oregon), and Snake River Plain (Idaho)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatiwada, Murari

    Geophysical methods such as seismic, gravity, magnetics, electric, and electromagnetics are capable of identifying subsurface features but each has a different spatial resolution. Although, each of these methods are stand-alone tools and have produced wonderful and reliable results for decades to solve geological problems, integrating geophysical results from these different methods with geological and geospatial data, adds an extra dimension towards solving geological problems. Integration techniques also involve comparing and contrasting the structural and tectonic evolution of geological features from different tectonic and geographic provinces. I employed 3D and 2D seismic data, passive seismic data, and gravity and magnetic data in three studies and integrated these results with geological, and geospatial data. Seismic processing, and interpretation, as well as filtering techniques applied to the potential filed data produced many insightful results. Integrated forward models played an important role in the interpretation process. The three chapters in this dissertation are stand-alone separate scientific papers. Each of these chapters used integrated geophysical methods to identify the subsurface features and tectonic evolution of the study areas. The study areas lie in the southeast Fort Worth Basin, Texas, Harney Basin, Oregon, and Snake River Plain, Idaho. The Fort Worth Basin is one of the most fully developed shale gas fields in North America. With the shallow Barnett Shale play in place, the Precambrian basement remains largely unknown in many places with limited published work on the basement structures underlying the Lower Paleozoic strata. In this research, I show how the basement structures relate to overlying Paleozoic reservoirs in the Barnett Shale and Ellenburger Group. I used high quality, wide-azimuth, 3D seismic data near the southeast fringe of the Fort Worth Basin. The seismic results were integrated with gravity, magnetic, well log, and

  17. Structured decision making for conservation of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) in Long Creek, Klamath River Basin, south-central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; McDonnell, Kevin; Dunham, Jason B.; Brignon, William R.; Peterson, James T.

    2017-06-21

    With the decline of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), managers face multiple, and sometimes contradictory, management alternatives for species recovery. Moreover, effective decision-making involves all stakeholders influenced by the decisions (such as Tribal, State, Federal, private, and non-governmental organizations) because they represent diverse objectives, jurisdictions, policy mandates, and opinions of the best management strategy. The process of structured decision making is explicitly designed to address these elements of the decision making process. Here we report on an application of structured decision making to a population of bull trout believed threatened by high densities of nonnative brook trout (S. fontinalis) and habitat fragmentation in Long Creek, a tributary to the Sycan River in the Klamath River Basin, south-central Oregon. This involved engaging stakeholders to identify (1) their fundamental objectives for the conservation of bull trout, (2) feasible management alternatives to achieve their objectives, and (3) biological information and assumptions to incorporate in a decision model. Model simulations suggested an overarching theme among the top decision alternatives, which was a need to simultaneously control brook trout and ensure that the migratory tactic of bull trout can be expressed. More specifically, the optimal management decision, based on the estimated adult abundance at year 10, was to combine the eradication of brook trout from Long Creek with improvement of downstream conditions (for example, connectivity or habitat conditions). Other top decisions included these actions independently, as well as electrofishing removal of brook trout. In contrast, translocating bull trout to a different stream or installing a barrier to prevent upstream spread of brook trout had minimal or negative effects on the bull trout population. Moreover, sensitivity analyses suggested that these actions were consistently identified as optimal across

  18. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshOR: Flood-Inundation Maps for the Coast Fork Willamette River from Creswell, Oregon to Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents inundated area for the Coast Fork of the Willamette River, the Row River and Silk Creek (west of Cottage Grove, OR) for eight different...

  19. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshOR_breach: Flood-Inundation Maps for the Coast Fork Willamette River from Creswell, Oregon to Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents inundated area for the Coast Fork of the Willamette River, the Row River and Silk Creek (west of Cottage Grove, OR) for eight different...

  20. Georectification of historical aerial photos to track meander change in Wood River, Klamath County, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, C.; Hughes, M. L.

    2010-12-01

    The Wood River in Oregon’s Upper Klamath Basin is a meandering channel draining the southeastern slopes of Crater Lake National Park. Its valley floor is heavily grazed and highly altered by a series of irrigation channels that have substantially affected the river’s spring-fed flow regime and morphology. Despite efforts to restore the river’s hydrology, very little information is available about the river’s geomorphology. Using high-resolution LIDAR data from 2004 and georectified aerial photos from 1940-2009, we analyzed meander changes along the Wood River in the geomorphic context of its valley floor and meander belt. Aerial photos were scanned to produce digital images with sub-meter pixels, then georectified with a second-order polynomial transformation. Nine or fewer ground-control points were used for each photo to achieve an overall root-mean-square error value of 0.6 - 0.7 m. The scarcity of buildings and changes in the road and fence networks over the study period required the partial use of “natural pattern matching” during photo rectification. Semi-permanent patterns of fan erosion on the upper valley floor and hydrogeomorphic wetland patterns in lower valley provided the primary bases for natural pattern matching, further aided by the use of transparency during photo overlaying. Six prototypes of meander change were identified: extension, compression, translation, rotation, compound heading, and cutoff. Of these types, extension of meanders was the most frequently occurring. However, the effects of extension were counteracted by numerous meander cutoffs, which nominally affected sinuosity, but actually shortened the channel by about 1 km, or about 3%. Cutoffs were most frequent in the upper reaches of the river, where valley slope is higher, the meander belt is wider, and accommodation space was adequate to promote relatively high initial sinuosity. In these reaches, some cutoffs appear to have initiated downstream transfers of bedload

  1. Capture of white sturgeon larvae downstream of The Dalles Dam, Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, Michael J.; Kofoot, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Wild-spawned white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) larvae captured and reared in aquaculture facilities and subsequently released, are increasingly being used in sturgeon restoration programs in the Columbia River Basin. A reconnaissance study was conducted to determine where to deploy nets to capture white sturgeon larvae downstream of a known white sturgeon spawning area. As a result of the study, 103 white sturgeon larvae and 5 newly hatched free-swimming embryos were captured at 3 of 5 reconnaissance netting sites. The netting, conducted downstream of The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River during June 25–29, 2012, provided information for potentially implementing full-scale collection efforts of large numbers of larvae for rearing in aquaculture facilities and for subsequent release at a larger size in white sturgeon restoration programs.

  2. Convective heat discharge of Wood River group of springs in the vicinity of Crater Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathenson, Manuel; Mariner, Robert H.; Thompson, J. Michael

    1994-01-01

    Data sets for spring and stream chemistry are combined to estimate convective heat discharge and discharge anomalous amounts of sodium and chloride for the Wood River group of springs south of Crater Lake. The best estimate of heat discharge is 87 MWt based on chloride inventory; this value is 3-5 times the heat input to Crater Lake itself. Anomalous discharges of sodium and chloride are also larger that into Crater Lake. Difference between the chemical and thermal characteristics of the discharge into Crater Lake and those from the Wood River group of springs suggest that the heat sources for the two systems may be different, although both ultimately related to the volcanic system.

  3. Channel Change and Bed-Material Transport in the Lower Chetco River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallick, J. Rose; Anderson, Scott W.; Cannon, Charles; O'Connor, Jim E.

    2010-01-01

    The lower Chetco River is a wandering gravel-bed river flanked by abundant and large gravel bars formed of coarse bed-material sediment. Since the early twentieth century, the large gravel bars have been a source of commercial aggregate for which ongoing permitting and aquatic habitat concerns have motivated this assessment of historical channel change and sediment transport rates. Analysis of historical channel change and bed-material transport rates for the lower 18 kilometers shows that the upper reaches of the study area are primarily transport zones, with bar positions fixed by valley geometry and active bars mainly providing transient storage of bed material. Downstream reaches, especially near the confluence of the North Fork Chetco River, are zones of active sedimentation and channel migration. Multiple analyses, supported by direct measurements of bedload during winter 2008-09, indicate that since 1970 the mean annual flux of bed material into the study reach has been about 40,000-100,000 cubic meters per year. Downstream tributary input of bed-material sediment, probably averaging 5-30 percent of the influx coming into the study reach from upstream, is approximately balanced by bed-material attrition by abrasion. Probably little bed material leaves the lower river under natural conditions, with most net influx historically accumulating in wider and more dynamic reaches, especially near the North Fork Chetco River confluence, 8 kilometers upstream from the Pacific Ocean. The year-to-year flux, however, varies tremendously. Some years may have less than 3,000 cubic meters of bed material entering the study area; by contrast, some high-flow years, such as 1982 and 1997, likely have more than 150,000 cubic meters entering the reach. For comparison, the estimated annual volume of gravel extracted from the lower Chetco River for commercial aggregate during 2000-2008 has ranged from 32,000 to 90,000 cubic meters and averaged about 59,000 cubic meters per year

  4. Distribution and condition of larval and juvenile Lost River and shortnose suckers in the Williamson River Delta restoration project and Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Summer M.

    2012-01-01

    Federally endangered Lost River sucker (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose sucker (Chasmistes brevirostris) were once abundant throughout their range but populations have declined. They were extirpated from several lakes in the 1920s and may no longer reproduce in other lakes. Poor recruitment to the adult spawning populations is one of several reasons cited for the decline and lack of recovery of these species and may be the consequence of high mortality during juvenile life stages. High larval and juvenile sucker mortality may be exacerbated by an insufficient quantity of suitable or high-quality rearing habitat. In addition, larval suckers may be swept downstream from suitable rearing areas in Upper Klamath Lake into Keno Reservoir, where they are assumed lost to Upper Klamath Lake populations. The Nature Conservancy flooded about 3,600 acres (1,456 hectares) to the north of the Williamson River mouth (Tulana) in October 2007, and about 1,400 acres (567 hectares) to the south and east of the Williamson River mouth (Goose Bay Farms) in October 2008, in order to retain larval suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, create nursery habitat, and improve water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey joined a long-term research and monitoring program in collaboration with The Nature Conservancy, the Bureau of Reclamation, and Oregon State University in 2008 to assess the effects of the Williamson River Delta restoration on the early life-history stages of Lost River and shortnose suckers. The primary objectives of the research were to describe habitat colonization and use by larval and juvenile suckers and non-sucker fishes and to evaluate the effects of the restored habitat on the health and condition of juvenile suckers. This report summarizes data collected in 2010 by the U.S. Geological Survey as a part of this monitoring effort and follows two annual reports on data collected in 2008 and 2009. Restoration modifications made to the Williamson River Delta appeared to provide

  5. Development of CE-QUAL-W2 models for the Middle Fork Willamette and South Santiam Rivers, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman L.; Stonewall, Adam J.; Sullivan, Annett B.; Kim, Yoonhee; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrodynamic (CE-QUAL-W2) models of Hills Creek Lake (HCL), Lookout Point Lake (LOP), and Dexter Lake (DEX) on the Middle Fork Willamette River (MFWR), and models of Green Peter Lake and Foster Lake on the South Santiam River systems in western Oregon were updated and recalibrated for a wide range of flow and meteorological conditions. These CE-QUAL-W2 models originally were developed by West Consultants, Inc., for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. This study by the U.S. Geological Survey included a reassessment of the models’ calibration in more recent years—2002, 2006, 2008, and 2011—categorized respectively as low, normal, high, and extremely high flow calendar years. These years incorporated current dam-operation practices and more available data than the time period used in the original calibration. Modeled water temperatures downstream of both HCL and LOP-DEX on the MFWR were within an average of 0.68 degree Celsius (°C) of measured values; modeled temperatures downstream of Foster Dam on the South Santiam River were within an average of 0.65°C of measured values. A new CE-QUAL-W2 model was developed and calibrated for the riverine MFWR reach between Hills Creek Dam and the head of LOP, allowing an evaluation of the flow and temperature conditions in the entire MFWR system from HCL to Dexter Dam. The complex bathymetry and long residence time of HCL, combined with the relatively deep location of the power and regulating outlet structures at Hills Creek Dam, led to a HCL model that was highly sensitive to several outlet and geometric parameters related to dam structures (STR TOP, STR BOT, STR WIDTH). Release temperatures from HCL were important and often persisted downstream as they were incorporated in the MFWR model and the LOP-DEX model (downstream of MFWR). The models tended to underpredict the measured temperature of water releases from Dexter Dam during the late-September-through-December drawdown period in 2002, and again (to a lesser extent) in

  6. Water-quality assessment of the Smith River drainage basin, California and Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsubo, Rick T.; Washabaugh, Donna S.

    1982-01-01

    A water-quality assessment of the Smith River drainage basin was made to provide a summary of the water-quality conditions including known or potential water-quality problems. Results of the study showed that the water quality of the Smith River is excellent and generally meets the water-quality objectives for the beneficial uses identified by the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, North Coast Region. Known and potential problems related to water quality include: Sedimentation resulting from both natural erosional processes and land-use activities such as timber harvest, road construction, and mining that accelerate the erosional processes; bacterial contamination of surface and ground waters from inundated septic tanks and drainfields, and grazing activities; industrial spills which have resulted in fish kills and oil residues; high concetrations of iron in ground water; log and debris jams creating fish migration barriers; and pesticide and trace-element contamination from timber-harvest and mining activities, respectively. Future studies are needed to establish: (1) a sustained long-term monitoring program to provide a broad coverage of water-quality conditions in order to define long-term water-quality trends; and (2) interpretive studies to determine the source of known and potential water-quality problems. (USGS)

  7. Thermal regimes, nonnative trout, and their influences on native Bull Trout in the Upper Klamath River Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; Heltzel, Jeannie; Dunham, Jason; Heck, Michael; Banish, Nolan P.

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of fish species may be strongly influenced by a stream’s thermal regime (magnitude, frequency, variation, and timing). For instance, magnitude and frequency provide information about sublethal temperatures, variability in temperature can affect behavioral thermoregulation and bioenergetics, and timing of thermal events may cue life history events, such as spawning and migration. We explored the relationship between thermal regimes and the occurrences of native Bull Trout Salvelinus confluentus and nonnative Brook Trout Salvelinus fontinalis and Brown Trout Salmo trutta across 87 sites in the upper Klamath River basin, Oregon. Our objectives were to associate descriptors of the thermal regime with trout occurrence, predict the probability of Bull Trout occurrence, and estimate upper thermal tolerances of the trout species. We found that each species was associated with a different suite of thermal regime descriptors. Bull Trout were present at sites that were cooler, had fewer high-temperature events, had less variability, and took longer to warm. Brook Trout were also observed at cooler sites with fewer high-temperature events, but the sites were more variable and Brook Trout occurrence was not associated with a timing descriptor. In contrast, Brown Trout were present at sites that were warmer and reached higher temperatures faster, but they were not associated with frequency or variability descriptors. Among the descriptors considered, magnitude (specifically June degree-days) was the most important in predicting the probability of Bull Trout occurrence, and model predictions were strengthened by including Brook Trout occurrence. Last, all three trout species exhibited contrasting patterns of tolerating longer exposures to lower temperatures. Tolerance limits for Bull Trout were lower than those for Brook Trout and Brown Trout, with contrasts especially evident for thermal maxima. Our results confirm the value of exploring a suite of thermal

  8. Water-quality and algal conditions in the North Umpqua River basin, Oregon, 1992-95, and indications for resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Chauncey W.; Carpenter, Kurt D.

    1998-01-01

    This report describes the results of a synoptic water-quality and algal investigation during July 1995 at 36 stream sites in a 1,350 square-mile area of the North Umpqua River Basin, Oregon. The study area includes a headwaters hydroelectric project area, a Wild and Scenic reach in the main stem immediately downstream, and the watersheds of several major tributaries. Additional data from previous investigations are reviewed, and impacts on water quality in the Wild and Scenic reach from resource management, including forestry and reservoir operations, are inferred where sufficient data exist.

  9. Overview of Hydrologic Issues in the Upper Klamath River Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, D. D.

    2005-12-01

    The geologic setting of the upper Klamath Basin makes it a naturally arid landscape with eutrophic water bodies. Anthropogenic alterations of the land and hydrology over the past 100 years have put large demands on water supplies and further enriched water bodies with nutrients. Major changes to the upper basin include diking and draining lakes and wetlands for agricultural and grazing land, modifying lakes to increase the supply of summer irrigation water, clearing land and harvesting timber, and installing hydropower dams on the mainstem Klamath River that has blocked salmon passage above Iron Gate Dam. These alterations have contributed to diminished populations of endangered shortnose and Lost River suckers in the upper basin and threatened Coho salmon in the lower Klamath River. Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), with an average depth of 2.5 meters and a surface area of 310 square kilometers, is the primary water-supply reservoir for the Bureau of Reclamation's Klamath Project, which services about half (97,000 ha) of the irrigated agriculture in the upper Klamath Basin. The lake is also the primary habitat for the two endangered suckers. Because of the nutrient enrichment of UKL, the development of large summer blooms of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, and the periodic crash of these near monoculture blooms, the magnitude and frequency of large sucker die-offs from hypoxia have increased. The relation between management of the lake and surrounding wetlands and algal ecology is not well understood. It is clear, however, that runoff from drained wetlands upstream and around UKL have enriched the lake water and its bottom sediments with phosphorus for many decades. Internal loading from enriched bottom sediments triples the summer phosphorus concentration in UKL and fuels the problematic algal blooms from June through October. An ongoing pattern of below-average precipitation has increased demands from UKL and generated concern. Two recent Biological Opinions aimed at

  10. 2011 Oregon Parks and Recreation Department Lidar: Northeast (Clyde Holliday, Cove Palisades, Lake Owyhee, and White River Falls State Parks)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set provides the lidar elevations for four Oregon State Parks. The four state parks are Clyde Holliday (766 square acres) in Grant County, Cove Palisades...

  11. Simulating potential structural and operational changes for Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River, Oregon, for downstream temperature management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman L.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Sullivan, Annett B.; Risley, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Detroit Dam was constructed in 1953 on the North Santiam River in western Oregon and resulted in the formation of Detroit Lake. With a full-pool storage volume of 455,100 acre-feet and a dam height of 463 feet, Detroit Lake is one of the largest and most important reservoirs in the Willamette River basin in terms of power generation, recreation, and water storage and releases. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers operates Detroit Dam as part of a system of 13 reservoirs in the Willamette Project to meet multiple goals, which include flood-damage protection, power generation, downstream navigation, recreation, and irrigation. A distinct cycle in water temperature occurs in Detroit Lake as spring and summer heating through solar radiation creates a warm layer of water near the surface and isolates cold water below. Controlling the temperature of releases from Detroit Dam, therefore, is highly dependent on the location, characteristics, and usage of the dam's outlet structures. Prior to operational changes in 2007, Detroit Dam had a well-documented effect on downstream water temperature that was problematic for endangered salmonid fish species, releasing water that was too cold in midsummer and too warm in autumn. This unnatural seasonal temperature pattern caused problems in the timing of fish migration, spawning, and emergence. In this study, an existing calibrated 2-dimensional hydrodynamic water-quality model [CE-QUAL-W2] of Detroit Lake was used to determine how changes in dam operation or changes to the structural release points of Detroit Dam might affect downstream water temperatures under a range of historical hydrologic and meteorological conditions. The results from a subset of the Detroit Lake model scenarios then were used as forcing conditions for downstream CE-QUAL-W2 models of Big Cliff Reservoir (the small reregulating reservoir just downstream of Detroit Dam) and the North Santiam and Santiam Rivers. Many combinations of environmental, operational, and

  12. Plankton communities and summertime declines in algal abundance associated with low dissolved oxygen in the Tualatin River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kurt D.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton populations in the Tualatin River in northwestern Oregon are an important component of the dissolved oxygen (DO) budget of the river and are critical for maintaining DO levels in summer. During the low-flow summer period, sufficient nutrients and a long residence time typically combine with ample sunshine and warm water to fuel blooms of cryptophyte algae, diatoms, green and blue-green algae in the low-gradient, slow-moving reservoir reach of the lower river. Algae in the Tualatin River generally drift with the water rather than attach to the river bottom as a result of moderate water depths, slightly elevated turbidity caused by suspended colloidal material, and dominance of silty substrates. Growth of algae occurs as if on a “conveyor belt” of streamflow, a dynamic system that is continually refreshed with inflowing water. Transit through the system can take as long as 2 weeks during the summer low-flow period. Photosynthetic production of DO during algal blooms is important in offsetting oxygen consumption at the sediment-water interface caused by the decomposition of organic matter from primarily terrestrial sources, and the absence of photosynthesis can lead to low DO concentrations that can harm aquatic life. The periods with the lowest DO concentrations in recent years (since 2003) typically occur in August following a decline in algal abundance and activity, when DO concentrations often decrease to less than State standards for extended periods (nearly 80 days). Since 2003, algal populations have tended to be smaller and algal blooms have terminated earlier compared to conditions in the 1990s, leading to more frequent declines in DO to levels that do not meet State standards. This study was developed to document the current abundance and species composition of phytoplankton in the Tualatin River, identify the possible causes of the general decline in algae, and evaluate hypotheses to explain why algal blooms diminish in midsummer. Plankton

  13. Reconnaissance of Pharmaceutical Chemicals in Urban Streams of the Tualatin River Basin, Oregon, 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Stewart A.; Doyle, Micelis C.; Edwards, Patrick M.; Furlong, Edward T.

    2009-01-01

    A reconnaissance of pharmaceutical chemicals in urban streams of the Tualatin River basin was conducted in July 2002 in an effort to better understand the occurrence and distribution of such compounds, and to determine whether they might be useful indicators of human-related stream contamination. Of the 21 pharmaceutical chemicals and metabolites tested, only 6 (acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, codeine, cotinine, and sulfamethoxazole) were detected in filtered stream samples from 10 sites. The concentrations of most of the detected compounds were relatively low (less than 0.05 microgram per liter). The most frequently detected compounds were cotinine (a nicotine metabolite, 8 of 10 samples) and caffeine (a stimulant, 7 of 10 samples). More compounds were detected in urban stream samples than in samples from forested or agricultural drainages. Filtered water samples also were collected from four locations within an advanced wastewater treatment facility to quantify the relative amounts of these chemicals in a municipal waste stream and to determine the degree to which those chemicals are removed by treatment processes. Fifteen pharmaceutical chemicals or metabolites were detected in wastewater treatment facility influent, with concentrations far exceeding those measured in streams. Only five of those compounds, however, were detected in the treated effluent (carbamazepine, cotinine, ibuprofen, metformin, and sulfamethoxazole) and most of those were at concentrations less than 0.2 microgram per liter. The target pharmaceutical chemicals and metabolites showed limited potential for use as tracers of specific types of human-related contamination in Tualatin River basin streams because of widespread sources (caffeine, for example) or extremely low concentrations. Caffeine and cotinine are likely to be good indicators of sources that can occur in urban areas, such as sewage spills or leaks or the widespread use and careless disposal of tobacco products and

  14. Comparing effects of active and passive restoration on the Middle Fork John Day River, NE Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, P. F.; Goslin, M.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2000, cattle grazing has been eliminated on over 14 km of the upper Middle Fork John Day. Starting in 2008, active restoration (log structures with dug pools, woody vegetation planting, and modifications to increase channel-floodplain hydrologic connectivity) was implemented on nearly 6 km within the cattle exclosure length. Implementation of active and passive restoration strategies in the same and adjacent reaches allows comparison of these two approaches. We have been monitoring these reaches since 2008. Unexpectedly in response to grazing exclosure, a native sedge, Carex nudata (torrent sedge), has exploded in population. C. nudata grows in the active channel, anchoring itself tightly to the gravel-cobble river bed with a dense root network. As a result, C. nudata has changed erosion and sedimentation patterns including bank erosion, channel bed scour, and island formation. We present data on fish cover increases due to C. nudata and log structures, and on channel complexity before and after restoration. Both active and passive restorations are increasing channel complexity and juvenile fish cover, although in different ways. Fish cover provided by active and passive restoration are similar in area but different in depth and position, with C. nudata fish cover generally shallower and partly mid-channel. Residual pool depth is larger in log structure pools than in C. nudata scour pools, but C. nudata pools are more numerous in some reaches. By producing frequent, small scour features and small islands, it can be argued that C. nudata is increasing hydraulic complexity more than the large, meander-bend pools at log structures, but this is hard to quantify. C. nudata has also stabilized active bars, perhaps changing the bedload sediment budget. Positive habitat benefits of active restoration appear to be greater in the short term, but over the long term (20 years or more) effects of C. nudata may be comparable or greater.

  15. Water-quality modeling of Klamath Straits Drain recirculation, a Klamath River wetland, and 2011 conditions for the Link River to Keno Dam reach of the Klamath River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Sogutlugil, I. Ertugrul; Deas, Michael L.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2014-01-01

    The upper Klamath River and adjacent Lost River are interconnected basins in south-central Oregon and northern California. Both basins have impaired water quality with Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) in progress or approved. In cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Watercourse Engineering, Inc., have conducted modeling and research to inform management of these basins for multiple purposes, including agriculture, endangered species protection, wildlife refuges, and adjacent and downstream water users. A water-quality and hydrodynamic model (CE-QUAL-W2) of the Link River to Keno Dam reach of the Klamath River for 2006–09 is one of the tools used in this work. The model can simulate stage, flow, water velocity, ice cover, water temperature, specific conductance, suspended sediment, nutrients, organic matter in bed sediment and the water column, three algal groups, three macrophyte groups, dissolved oxygen, and pH. This report documents two model scenarios and a test of the existing model applied to year 2011, which had exceptional water quality. The first scenario examined the water-quality effects of recirculating Klamath Straits Drain flows into the Ady Canal, to conserve water and to decrease flows from the Klamath Straits Drain to the Klamath River. The second scenario explicitly incorporated a 2.73×106 m2 (675 acre) off-channel connected wetland into the CE-QUAL-W2 framework, with the wetland operating from May 1 through October 31. The wetland represented a managed treatment feature to decrease organic matter loads and process nutrients. Finally, the summer of 2011 showed substantially higher dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the Link-Keno reach than in other recent years, so the Link-Keno model (originally developed for 2006–09) was run with 2011 data as a test of model parameters and rates and to develop insights regarding the reasons for the improved water-quality conditions.

  16. Beach litter occurrence in sandy littorals: The potential role of urban areas, rivers and beach users in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeta, Gianluca; Conti, Luisa; Malavasi, Marco; Battisti, Corrado; Acosta, Alicia Teresa Rosario

    2016-11-01

    Litter washed ashore on the coastline, also called beach litter, constitutes one of the most obvious signs of marine litter pollution. Surveys of beach litter represent a fundamental tool for monitoring pollution in the marine environment and have been used world-wide to classify and quantify marine litter. Identifying the sources of marine and beach litter is, together with education, the prime weapon in combating this type of pollution. This work investigates the impact of three main potential land sources on litter occurrence: urban areas, rivers and beach users. Three sources were analyzed simultaneously on a broad scale (Lazio region, central Italy) using a random sampling design and fitting a generalized linear mixed-effect model. The results show that urban areas are the main drivers for the occurrence of marine litter along central Italy's coastal ecosystems, suggesting that the presence of such litter on Lazio beaches could be effectively reduced by identifying failings in recycling and waste collection procedures and by improving waste processing systems and sewage treatment in urban areas.

  17. Evaluation of Juvenile Fish Bypass and Adult Fish Passage Facilities at Three-Mile Falls Dam; Umatilla River, Oregon, 1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigro, Anthony A.

    1990-09-01

    We report on our progress from October 1989 through September 1990 on evaluating juvenile fish bypass and adult fish passage facilities at Three Mile Falls Dam on the Umatilla River. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) and the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). Study objectives addressed by ODFW and CTUIR are: (1) ODFW (Report A): Operate and evaluate the juvenile fish bypass system in the West Extension Irrigation District canal at Three Mile Falls Dam; and (2) CTUIR (Report 8): Examine the passage of adult salmonids at Three Mile Falls Dam. The study is part of a program to rehabilitate anadromous fish stocks in the Umatilla River Basin that includes restorations of coho salmon Oncorhynchus Wsutch and chinook salmon 0. tshawytscha and enhancement of summer steelhead 0. mytiss.

  18. Digital seafloor images and sediment grain size from the mouth of the Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; Carlson, Emily; Stevens, Andrew; Rubin, David M.

    2017-01-01

    : Sediment grain size and digital image calibration parameters from the mouth of the Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, 2014.Still images were extracted from the videos using RHS IsWhere software, which embeds the images with the positioning information. Images were extracted from the video when the target substrate was flush against the exterior surface of the lens and the LED lights effectively illuminated the sediments. This process was performed for both the in-situ and sediment grab sample video types. The in-situ images are avaialble in the folder "MCR14_SeafloorSediment_Images.zip" on this page, the sediment grab sample images are accessible through the child page in the folder titled "MCR14_Calibration_Images.zip".The size of sediment in the still images was determined using techniques described in Rubin (2004).  An auto-correlation was calculated for each image and a calibration equation relating the auto-correlation coefficient and median sediment diameter (D50) was developed using grain-size distributions derived from the laboratory analyzed grab samples. The calibration equation was used to assign D50 values to the images of the in-situ sediments which do not have a corresponding grab sample (Rubin, 2004; Buscumbe and Masselink, 2008; Barnard and others, 2007). The data used to develop the calibration as well as the resulting equation used to determine the D50 of each in-situ image can be found on the child item page of this data release.This portion of the data release includes still images (MCR14_SeafloorSediment_Images.zip) collected in the mouth of the Columbia River, a table that includes the image locations and derived sediment D50  (MCR14_SeafloorSediment_Grainsize.xlsx), and associated metadata.

  19. Water temperature effects from simulated dam operations and structures in the Middle Fork Willamette River, western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman L.; Turner, Daniel F.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2016-09-14

    Significant FindingsStreamflow and water temperature in the Middle Fork Willamette River (MFWR), western Oregon, have been regulated and altered since the construction of Lookout Point, Dexter, and Hills Creek Dams in 1954 and 1961, respectively. Each year, summer releases from the dams typically are cooler than pre-dam conditions, with the reverse (warmer than pre-dam conditions) occurring in autumn. This pattern has been detrimental to habitat of endangered Upper Willamette River (UWR) Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and UWR winter steelhead (O. mykiss) throughout multiple life stages. In this study, scenarios testing different dam-operation strategies and hypothetical dam-outlet structures were simulated using CE-QUAL-W2 hydrodynamic/temperature models of the MFWR system from Hills Creek Lake (HCR) to Lookout Point (LOP) and Dexter (DEX) Lakes to explore and understand the efficacy of potential flow and temperature mitigation options.Model scenarios were run in constructed wet, normal, and dry hydrologic calendar years, and designed to minimize the effects of Hills Creek and Lookout Point Dams on river temperature by prioritizing warmer lake surface releases in May–August and cooler, deep releases in September–December. Operational scenarios consisted of a range of modified release rate rules, relaxation of power-generation constraints, variations in the timing of refill and drawdown, and maintenance of different summer maximum lake levels at HCR and LOP. Structural scenarios included various combinations of hypothetical floating outlets near the lake surface and hypothetical new outlets at depth. Scenario results were compared to scenarios using existing operational rules that give temperature management some priority (Base), scenarios using pre-2012 operational rules that prioritized power generation over temperature management (NoBlend), and estimated temperatures from a without-dams condition (WoDams).Results of the tested model scenarios led

  20. Annual Progress Report Fish Research Project Oregon : Project title, Evaluation of Habitat Improvements -- John Day River.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Erik A.

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes data collected in 1983 to evaluate habitat improvements in Deer, Camp, and Clear creeks, tributaries of the John Day River. The studies are designed to evaluate changes in abundance of spring chinook and summer steelhead due to habitat improvement projects and to contrast fishery benefits with costs of construction and maintenance of each project. Structure types being evaluated are: (1) log weirs, rock weirs, log deflectors, and in stream boulders in Deer Creek; (2) log weirs in Camp Creek; and (3) log weir-boulder combinations and introduced spawning gravel in Clear Creek. Abundance of juvenile steelhead ranged from 16% to 119% higher in the improved (treatment) area than in the unimproved (control) area of Deer Creek. However, abundance of steelhead in Camp Creek was not significantly different between treatment and control areas. Chinook and steelhead abundance in Clear Creek was 50% and 25% lower, respectively in 1983, than the mean abundance estimated in three previous years. The age structure of steelhead was similar between treatment and control areas in Deer and Clear creeks. The treatment area in Camp Creek, however, had a higher percentage of age 2 and older steelhead than the control. Steelhead redd counts in Camp Creek were 36% lower in 1983 than the previous five year average. Steelhead redd counts in Deer Creek were not made in 1983 because of high streamflows. Chinook redds counted in Clear Creek were 64% lower than the five year average. Surface area, volume, cover, and spawning gravel were the same or higher than the corresponding control in each stream except in Deer Creek where there was less available cover and spawning gravel in sections with rock weirs and in those with log deflectors, respectively. Pool:riffle ratios ranged from 57:43 in sections in upper Clear Creek with log weirs to 9:91 in sections in Deer Creek with rock weirs. Smolt production following habitat improvements is estimated for each stream

  1. Occurrence and distribution of pesticides in surface waters of the Hood River basin, Oregon, 1999-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Whitney B.; Johnson, Henry M.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey analyzed pesticide and trace-element concentration data from the Hood River basin collected by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (ODEQ) from 1999 through 2009 to determine the distribution and concentrations of pesticides in the basin's surface waters. Instream concentrations were compared to (1) national and State water-quality standards established to protect aquatic organisms and (2) concentrations that cause sublethal or lethal effects in order to assess their potential to adversely affect the health of salmonids and their prey organisms. Three salmonid species native to the basin are listed as "threatened" under the U.S. Endangered Species Act: bull trout, steelhead, and Chinook salmon. A subset of 16 sites was sampled every year by the ODEQ for pesticides, with sample collection targeted to months of peak pesticide use in orchards (March-June and September). Ten pesticides and four pesticide degradation products were analyzed from 1999 through 2008; 100 were analyzed in 2009. Nineteen pesticides were detected: 11 insecticides, 6 herbicides, and 2 fungicides. Two of four insecticide degradation products were detected. All five detected organophosphate insecticides and the one detected organochlorine insecticide were present at concentrations exceeding water-quality standards, sublethal effects thresholds, or acute toxicity values in one or more samples. The frequency of organophosphate detection in the basin decreased during the period of record; however, changes in sampling schedule and laboratory reporting limits hindered clear analysis of detection frequency trends. Detected herbicide and fungicide concentrations were less than water-quality standards, sublethal effects thresholds, or acute toxicity values. Simazine, the most frequently detected pesticide, was the only herbicide detected at concentrations within an order of magnitude (factor of 10) of concentrations that impact salmonid olfaction. Some detected

  2. Quality of the ground water in basalt of the Columbia River group, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Reuben Clair

    1972-01-01

    The ground water within the 50,000-square-mile area of the layered basalt of the Columbia River Group is a generally uniform bicarbonate water having calcium and sodium in nearly equal amounts as the principal cations. water contains a relatively large amount of silica. The 525 chemical analyses indicate that the prevalent ground water is of two related kinds--a calcium and a sodium water. The sodium water is more common beneath the floors of the main synclinal valleys; the calcium water, elsewhere. In addition to the prevalent type, five special types form a small part of the ground water; four of these are natural and one is artificial. The four natural special types are: (1) calcium sodium chloride waters that rise from underlying sedimentary rocks west of the Cascade Range, (2) mineralized water at or near warm or hot springs, (3) water having unusual ion concentrations, especially of chloride, near sedimentary rocks intercalated at the edges of the basalt, and (4) more mineralized water near one locality of excess carbon dioxide. The one artificial kind of special ground water has resulted from unintentional artificial recharge incidental to irrigation in parts of central Washington. The solids dissolved in the ground water have been picked up on the surface, within the overburden, and from minerals and glasses within the basalt. Evidence for the removal of ions from solution is confined to calcium and magnesium, only small amounts of which are present in some of the sodium-rich water. Minor constituents, such as the heavy metals, alkali metals, and alkali earths, occur in the ground water in trace, or small, amounts. The natural radioactivity of the ground waters is very low. Except for a few of the saline calcium sodium chloride waters and a few occurrences of excessive nitrate, the ground water generally meets the common standards of water good for most ordinary uses, but some of it can be improved by treatment. The water is clear and colorless and has a

  3. Plankton communities and summertime declines in algal abundance associated with low dissolved oxygen in the Tualatin River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kurt D.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2013-01-01

    Phytoplankton populations in the Tualatin River in northwestern Oregon are an important component of the dissolved oxygen (DO) budget of the river and are critical for maintaining DO levels in summer. During the low-flow summer period, sufficient nutrients and a long residence time typically combine with ample sunshine and warm water to fuel blooms of cryptophyte algae, diatoms, green and blue-green algae in the low-gradient, slow-moving reservoir reach of the lower river. Algae in the Tualatin River generally drift with the water rather than attach to the river bottom as a result of moderate water depths, slightly elevated turbidity caused by suspended colloidal material, and dominance of silty substrates. Growth of algae occurs as if on a “conveyor belt” of streamflow, a dynamic system that is continually refreshed with inflowing water. Transit through the system can take as long as 2 weeks during the summer low-flow period. Photosynthetic production of DO during algal blooms is important in offsetting oxygen consumption at the sediment-water interface caused by the decomposition of organic matter from primarily terrestrial sources, and the absence of photosynthesis can lead to low DO concentrations that can harm aquatic life. The periods with the lowest DO concentrations in recent years (since 2003) typically occur in August following a decline in algal abundance and activity, when DO concentrations often decrease to less than State standards for extended periods (nearly 80 days). Since 2003, algal populations have tended to be smaller and algal blooms have terminated earlier compared to conditions in the 1990s, leading to more frequent declines in DO to levels that do not meet State standards. This study was developed to document the current abundance and species composition of phytoplankton in the Tualatin River, identify the possible causes of the general decline in algae, and evaluate hypotheses to explain why algal blooms diminish in midsummer. Plankton

  4. Distribution and condition of young-of-year Lost River and shortnose suckers in the Williamson River Delta restoration project and Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2008-10--Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Summer M.; Hewitt, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The Nature Conservancy undertook restoration of the Williamson River Delta Preserve with a primary goal "to restore and maintain the diversity of habitats that are essential to the endangered [Lost River sucker (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose sucker (Chasmistes brevirostris)] while, at the same time, minimizing disturbance and adverse impacts" (David Evans and Associates, 2005). The Western Fisheries Research Center of the U.S. Geological Survey was asked by the Bureau of Reclamation to assist The Nature Conservancy in assessing the use of the restoration by larval and juvenile suckers. We identified five obtainable objectives to gauge the habitat suitability for young-of-year suckers in the permanently flooded portions of the two most recently restored sections (Goose Bay and Tulana) of the Williamson River Delta Preserve (hereafter referred to as the Preserve) and its effects on the distribution and health of larval and juvenile suckers. Several of these objectives were met through collaborations with The Nature Conservancy, Oregon State University, Oregon Water Science Center, and Leetown Science Center.

  5. Magnitude and timing of downstream channel aggradation and degradation in response to a dome-building eruption at Mount Hood, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Thomas C.; Pringle, Patrick T.; Cameron, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    A dome-building eruption at Mount Hood, Oregon, starting in A.D. 1781 and lasting until ca. 1793, produced dome-collapse lithic pyroclastic flows that triggered lahars and intermittently fed 108 m3 of coarse volcaniclastic sediment to sediment reservoirs in headwater canyons of the Sandy River. Mobilization of dominantly sandy sediment from these reservoirs by lahars and seasonal floods initiated downstream migration of a sediment wave that resulted in a profound cycle of aggradation and degradation in the lowermost reach of the river (depositional reach), 61-87 km from the source. Stratigraphic and sedimentologic relations in the alluvial fill, together with dendrochronologic dating of degradation terraces, demonstrate that (1) channel aggradation in response to sediment loading in the headwater canyons raised the river bed in this reach at least 23 m in a decade or less; (2) the transition from aggradation to degradation in the upper part of this reach roughly coincided with the end of the dome-building eruption; (3) fluvial sediment transport and deposition, augmented by one lahar, achieved a minimum average aggradation rate of ~2 m/yr; (4) the degradation phase of the cycle was more prolonged than the aggradation phase, requiring more than half a century for the river to reach its present bed elevation; and (5) the present longitudinal profile of the Sandy River in this reach is at least 3 m above the pre-eruption profile. The pattern and rate of channel response and recovery in the Sandy River following heavy sediment loading resemble those of other rivers similarly subjected to very large sediment inputs. The magnitude of channel aggradation in the lower Sandy River, greater than that achieved at other volcanoes following much larger eruptions, was likely enhanced by lateral confinement of the channel within a narrow incised valley. A combination of at least one lahar and winter floods from frequent moderate-magnitude rainstorms and infrequent very large

  6. Hurricane Sandy and earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    MAVASHEV BORIS; MAVASHEV IGOR

    2013-01-01

    Submit for consideration the connection between formation of a hurricane Sandy and earthquakes. As a rule, weather anomalies precede and accompany earthquakes. The hurricane Sandy emerged 2 days prior to strong earthquakes that occurred in the area. And the trajectory of the hurricane Sandy matched the epicenter of the earthquakes. Possibility of early prediction of natural disasters will minimize the moral and material damage.

  7. Wandering gravel-bed rivers and high-constructive stable channel sandy fluvial systems in the Ross River area, Yukon Territory, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrel G.F. Long

    2011-07-01

    Gravel-dominated strata, inter-bedded with, and overlying coal-bearing units, are interpreted as deposits of wandering gravel-bed rivers, with sinuosity approaching 1.4. In most exposures they appear to be dominated by massive and thin planar-bedded granule to small pebble conglomerates, which would traditionally be interpreted as sheet-flood or longitudinal bar deposits of a high-gradient braided stream or alluvial fan. Architectural analysis of exposures in an open-pit shows that the predominance of flat bedding is an artefact of the geometry of the roadside exposures. In the pit the conglomerates are dominated by large scale cross stratification on a scale of 1–5.5 m. These appear to have developed as downstream and lateral accretion elements on side-bars and on in-channel bars in water depths of 2–12 m. Stacking of strata on domed 3rd order surfaces suggests development of longitudinal in-channel bar complexes similar to those observed in parts of the modern Rhône River system. Mudstone preserved in some of the channels reflects intervals of channel abandonment or avulsion. Minimum channel width is from 70 to 450 m.

  8. Integrated analysis of landscape management scenarios using state and transition models in the upper Grande Ronde River subbasin, Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles A. Hemstrom; James Merzenich; Allison Reger; Barbara. Wales

    2007-01-01

    We modeled the integrated effects of natural disturbances and management activities for three disturbance scenarios on a 178 000-ha landscape in the upper Grande Ronde subbasin of northeast Oregon. The landscape included three forest environments (warm-dry, cool-moist, and cold) as well as a mixture of publicly and privately owned lands. Our models were state and...

  9. Sprague River Oregon Geomorphology

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geomorphic mapping establishes the basic context for understanding modern channel conditions by (1) defining major elements of the late Cenozoic geologic history...

  10. Patterns of Larval Sucker Emigration from the Sprague and Lower Williamson Rivers of the Upper Klamath Basin, Oregon, Prior to the Removal of Chiloquin Dam - 2006 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, Craig M.; Tyler, Torrey J.; VanderKooi, Scott P.; Markle, Douglas F.

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, we collected larval Lost River sucker Deltistes luxatus (LRS), shortnose sucker Chasmistes brevirostris (SNS), and Klamath largescale sucker Catostomus snyderi (KLS) emigrating from spawning areas in the Williamson and Sprague Rivers. This work is part of a multi-year effort to characterize the relative abundance, drift timing, and length frequencies of larval suckers in this watershed prior to the removal of Chiloquin Dam on the lower Sprague River. Additional larval drift samples were collected from the Fremont Bridge on Lakeshore Drive on the south end of Upper Klamath Lake near its outlet to the Link River. Because of difficulties in distinguishing KLS larvae from SNS larvae, individuals identified as either of these two species were grouped together and reported as KLS-SNS in this report. We found that larval densities varied by site with the highest densities being collected at the most upstream site on the Sprague River at river kilometer (rkm) 108.0 near Beatty, Oregon (Beatty), and the most downstream sites near Chiloquin, Oregon; one site on the Sprague River at rkm 0.7 (Chiloquin) and the other site on the Williamson River at rkm 7.4 (Williamson). Larval catches were relatively small and sporadic at two other sites on the Sprague River located between Chiloquin and Beatty (Power Station at rkm 9.5 and Lone Pine at rkm 52.7) and one site on the Sycan River at rkm 4.7. Most larvae (79 percent) collected in 2006 were identified as LRS. More larvae and eggs were collected at Chiloquin than at any other site. The seasonal timing of larval drift varied by location; larvae generally were captured earlier at upstream sites than at downstream sites. Cumulative catch percentages of drifting larvae suggest that larval LRS emigrated earlier than KLS-SNS larvae at every site. Drift of LRS larvae at Beatty began 3 to 4 weeks earlier than at Chiloquin or Williamson. At Chiloquin, peak larval catches occurred 3 and 5 weeks after peak egg catches. The daily peak

  11. Chapter D. Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems in the Willamette River Basin and Surrounding Area, Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Ian R.; Sobieszczyk, Steven; Carpenter, Kurt D.; Arnsberg, Andrew J.; Johnson, Henry M.; Hughes, Curt A.; Sarantou, Michael J.; Rinella, Frank A.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the effects of urbanization on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of stream ecosystems in 28 watersheds along a gradient of urbanization in the Willamette River basin and surrounding area, Oregon and Washington, from 2003 through 2005. The study that generated the report is one of several urban-effects studies completed nationally by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Watersheds were selected to minimize natural variability caused by factors such as geology, elevation, and climate, and to maximize coverage of different stages of urban development among watersheds. Because land use or population density alone often are not a complete measure of urbanization, a combination of land use, land cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic variables were integrated into a multimetric urban intensity index (UII) to represent the degree of urban development in each watershed. Physical characteristics studied include stream hydrology, stream temperature, and habitat; chemical characteristics studied include sulfate, chloride, nutrients, pesticides, dissolved and particulate organic and inorganic carbon, and suspended sediment; and biological characteristics studied include algal, macroinvertebrate, and fish assemblages. Semipermeable membrane devices, passive samplers that concentrate trace levels of hydrophobic organic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls, also were used. The objectives of the study were to (1) examine physical, chemical, and biological responses along the gradient of urbanization and (2) determine the major physical, chemical, and landscape variables affecting the structure of aquatic communities. Common effects documented in the literature of urbanization on instream physical, chemical, and biological characteristics, such as increased contaminants, increased streamflow flashiness, increased concentrations of chemicals, and changes in

  12. Assessment of Present Anadromous Fish Production Facilities in the Columbia River Basin, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife Hatcheries, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delarm, Michael R.; Smith, Robert Z.

    1990-07-01

    The goal of this report is to document current production practices for hatcheries which rear anadromous fish in the Columbia River Basin and to identify those facilities where production can be increased. A total of 85 hatchery and satellite facilities operated by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Game, US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington Department of Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fisheries were evaluated. The years 1985 to 1987 were used in this evaluation. During those years, releases averaged 143,306,596 smolts weighing 7,693,589 pounds. A total of 48 hatchery or satellite facilities were identified as having expansion capability. They were estimated to have the potential for increasing production by an 84,448,000 smolts weighing 4,853,306 pounds. 2 refs, 25 figs.

  13. Simulated effects of dam removal on water temperatures along the Klamath River, Oregon and California, using 2010 Biological Opinion flow requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley, John C.; Brewer, Scott J.; Perry, Russell W.

    2012-01-01

    Computer model simulations were run to determine the effects of dam removal on water temperatures along the Klamath River, located in south-central Oregon and northern California, using flow requirements defined in the 2010 Biological Opinion of the National Marine Fisheries Service. A one-dimensional, daily averaged water temperature model (River Basin Model-10) developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 10, Seattle, Washington, was used in the analysis. This model had earlier been configured and calibrated for the Klamath River by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of the Interior, Klamath Secretarial Determination to simulate the effects of dam removal on water temperatures for current (2011) and future climate change scenarios. The analysis for this report was performed outside of the scope of the Klamath Secretarial Determination process at the request of the Bureau of Reclamation Technical Services Office, Denver, Colorado.For this analysis, two dam scenarios were simulated: “dams in” and “dams out.” In the “dams in” scenario, existing dams in the Klamath River were kept in place. In the “dams out” scenario, the river was modeled as a natural stream, without the J.C. Boyle, Copco1, Copco2, and Iron Gate Dams, for the entire simulation period. Output from the two dam scenario simulations included daily water temperatures simulated at 29 locations for a 50-year period along the Klamath River between river mile 253 (downstream of Link River Dam) and the Pacific Ocean. Both simulations used identical flow requirements, formulated in the 2010 Biological Opinion, and identical climate conditions based on the period 1961–2009.Simulated water temperatures from January through June at almost all locations between J.C. Boyle Reservoir and the Pacific Ocean were higher for the “dams out” scenario than for the “dams in” scenario. The simulated mean monthly water temperature increase was highest [1.7–2

  14. Simulating potential structural and operational changes for Detroit Dam on the North Santiam River, Oregon, for downstream temperature management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccola, Norman L.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Sullivan, Annett B.; Risley, John C.

    2012-01-01

    Detroit Dam was constructed in 1953 on the North Santiam River in western Oregon and resulted in the formation of Detroit Lake. With a full-pool storage volume of 455,100 acre-feet and a dam height of 463 feet, Detroit Lake is one of the largest and most important reservoirs in the Willamette River basin in terms of power generation, recreation, and water storage and releases. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers operates Detroit Dam as part of a system of 13 reservoirs in the Willamette Project to meet multiple goals, which include flood-damage protection, power generation, downstream navigation, recreation, and irrigation. A distinct cycle in water temperature occurs in Detroit Lake as spring and summer heating through solar radiation creates a warm layer of water near the surface and isolates cold water below. Controlling the temperature of releases from Detroit Dam, therefore, is highly dependent on the location, characteristics, and usage of the dam's outlet structures. Prior to operational changes in 2007, Detroit Dam had a well-documented effect on downstream water temperature that was problematic for endangered salmonid fish species, releasing water that was too cold in midsummer and too warm in autumn. This unnatural seasonal temperature pattern caused problems in the timing of fish migration, spawning, and emergence. In this study, an existing calibrated 2-dimensional hydrodynamic water-quality model [CE-QUAL-W2] of Detroit Lake was used to determine how changes in dam operation or changes to the structural release points of Detroit Dam might affect downstream water temperatures under a range of historical hydrologic and meteorological conditions. The results from a subset of the Detroit Lake model scenarios then were used as forcing conditions for downstream CE-QUAL-W2 models of Big Cliff Reservoir (the small reregulating reservoir just downstream of Detroit Dam) and the North Santiam and Santiam Rivers. Many combinations of environmental, operational, and

  15. Hydrologic and Water-Quality Conditions During Restoration of the Wood River Wetland, Upper Klamath River Basin, Oregon, 2003-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kurt D.; Snyder, Daniel T.; Duff, John H.; Triska, Frank J.; Lee, Karl K.; Avanzino, Ronald J.; Sobieszczyk, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Restoring previously drained wetlands is a strategy currently being used to improve water quality and decrease nutrient loading into Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. In this 2003-05 study, ground- and surface-water quality and hydrologic conditions were characterized in the Wood River Wetland. Nitrogen and phosphorus levels, primarily as dissolved organic nitrogen and ammonium (NH4) and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), were high in surface waters. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations also were elevated in surface water, with median concentrations of 44 and 99 milligrams of carbon per liter (mg-C/L) in the North and South Units of the Wood River Wetland, respectively, reaching a maximum of 270 mg-C/L in the South Unit in late autumn. Artesian well water produced NH4 and SRP concentrations of about 6,000 micrograms per liter (ug/L), and concentrations of 36,500 ug-N/L NH4 and 4,110 ug-P/L SRP in one 26-28 ft deep piezometer well. Despite the high ammonium concentrations, the nitrate levels were moderate to low in wetland surface and ground waters. The surface-water concentrations of NH4 and SRP increased in spring and summer, outpacing those for chloride (a conservative tracer), indicative of evapoconcentration. In-situ chamber experiments conducted in June and August 2005 indicated a positive flux of NH4 and SRP from the wetland sediments. Potential sources of NH4 and SRP include diffusion of nutrients from decomposed peat, decomposing aquatic vegetation, or upwelling ground water. In addition to these inputs, evapoconcentration raised surface-water solute concentrations to exceedingly high values by the end of summer. The increase was most pronounced in the South Unit, where specific conductance reached 2,500 uS/cm and median concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus reached 18,000-36,500 ug-N/L and about 18,000-26,000 ug-P/L, respectively. Water-column SRP and total phosphorus levels decreased during autumn and winter following inputs of irrigation

  16. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Cougar Dam and Reservoir Project, South Fork McKenzie River, Oregon; 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-09-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Cougar Dam and Reservoir Project on the South Fork McKenzie River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types of the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1953, 1965, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Fifteen wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Cougar Project extensively altered or affected 3096 acres of land and river in the McKenzie River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 1587 acres of old-growth conifer forest and 195 acres of riparian hardwoods. Impacts resulting from the Cougar Project included the loss of winter range for Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for black-tailed deer, black bear, cougar, river otter, beaver, spotted owl, and other nongame species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the effected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Cougar Project. Loses or grains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  17. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Hills Creek Dam and Reservoir Project, Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-09-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Hills Creek Dam and Reservoir Project on the Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types of the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1944, 1964, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Fifteen wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Hills Creek Project extensively altered or affected 4662 acres of land and river in the Middle Fork Willamette River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 2694 acres of old-growth forest and 207 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Hills Creek Project included the loss of winter range for Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for black-tailed deer, black bear, cougar, river otter, beaver, ruffed grouse, spotted owl, and other nongame species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Hills Creek Project, losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  18. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Detroit Big Cliff Dam and Reservoir Project, North Santiam River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-02-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Detroit/Big Cliff Dam and Reservoir Project (Detroit Project) on the North Santiam River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric-related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types at the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1939, 1956, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each time period were determined. Ten wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Detroit Project extensively altered or affected 6324 acres of land and river in the North Santiam River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 1,608 acres of conifer forest and 620 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Detroit Project included the loss of winter range for black-tailed deer and Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for deer, river otter, beaver, ruffed grouse, pileated woodpecker, spotted owl, and many other wildlife species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Detroit Project. Losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  19. Dissolved oxygen analysis, TMDL model comparison, and particulate matter shunting—Preliminary results from three model scenarios for the Klamath River upstream of Keno Dam, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Deas, Michael L.; Sogutlugil, I. Ertugrul

    2012-01-01

    Efforts are underway to identify actions that would improve water quality in the Link River to Keno Dam reach of the Upper Klamath River in south-central Oregon. To provide further insight into water-quality improvement options, three scenarios were developed, run, and analyzed using previously calibrated CE-QUAL-W2 hydrodynamic and water-quality models. Additional scenarios are under development as part of this ongoing study. Most of these scenarios evaluate changes relative to a "current conditions" model, but in some cases a "natural conditions" model was used that simulated the reach without the effect of point and nonpoint sources and set Upper Klamath Lake at its Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) targets. These scenarios were simulated using a model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Watercourse Engineering, Inc. for the years 2006–09, referred to here as the "USGS model." Another model of the reach was developed by Tetra Tech, Inc. for years 2000 and 2002 to support the Klamath River TMDL process; that model is referred to here as the "TMDL model." The three scenarios described in this report included (1) an analysis of whether this reach of the Upper Klamath River would be in compliance with dissolved oxygen standards if sources met TMDL allocations, (2) an application of more recent datasets to the TMDL model with comparison to results from the USGS model, and (3) an examination of the effect on dissolved oxygen in the Klamath River if particulate material were stopped from entering Klamath Project diversion canals. Updates and modifications to the USGS model are in progress, so in the future these scenarios will be reanalyzed with the updated model and the interim results presented here will be superseded. Significant findings from this phase of the investigation include: * The TMDL analysis used depth-averaged dissolved oxygen concentrations from model output for comparison with dissolved oxygen standards. The Oregon dissolved oxygen

  20. Preliminary assessment of channel stability and bed-material transport in the Tillamook Bay tributaries and Nehalem River basin, northwestern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Krista L.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Wallick, J. Rose

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes a preliminary study of bed-material transport, vertical and lateral channel changes, and existing datasets for the Tillamook (drainage area 156 square kilometers [km2]), Trask (451 km2), Wilson (500 km2), Kilchis (169 km2), Miami (94 km2), and Nehalem (2,207 km2) Rivers along the northwestern Oregon coast. This study, conducted in coopera-tion with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and Oregon Department of State Lands to inform permitting decisions regarding instream gravel mining, revealed that: * Study areas along the six rivers can be divided into reaches based on tidal influence and topography. The fluvial (nontidal or dominated by riverine processes) reaches vary in length (2.4-9.3 kilometer [km]), gradient (0.0011-0.0075 meter of elevation change per meter of channel length [m/m]), and bed-material composition (a mixture of alluvium and intermittent bedrock outcrops to predominately alluvium). In fluvial reaches, unit bar area (square meter of bar area per meter of channel length [m2/m]) as mapped from 2009 photographs ranged from 7.1 m2/m on the Tillamook River to 27.9 m2/m on the Miami River. * In tidal reaches, all six rivers flow over alluvial deposits, but have varying gradients (0.0001-0.0013 m/m) and lengths affected by tide (1.3-24.6 km). The Miami River has the steepest and shortest tidal reach and the Nehalem River has the flattest and longest tidal reach. Bars in the tidal reaches are generally composed of sand and mud. Unit bar area was greatest in the Tidal Nehalem Reach, where extensive mud flats flank the lower channel. * Background factors such as valley and channel confinement, basin geology, channel slope, and tidal extent control the spatial variation in the accumulation and texture of bed material. Presently, the Upper Fluvial Wilson and Miami Reaches and Fluvial Nehalem Reach have the greatest abundance of gravel bars, likely owing to local bed-material sources in combination with decreasing channel gradient and

  1. DCS Hydrology Submission for Lincoln County, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The hydrology dataset for Lincoln County, Oregon includes proposed 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year discharges for Salmon River, Schooner Creek, Drift Creek, Siletz...

  2. Use of stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen to identify sources of organic matter to bed sediments of the Tualatin River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn, Bernadine A.; Rounds, Stewart A.

    2010-01-01

    The potential sources of organic matter to bed sediment of the Tualatin River in northwestern Oregon were investigated by comparing the isotopic fractionation of carbon and nitrogen and the carbon/nitrogen ratios of potential sources and bed sediments. Samples of bed sediment, suspended sediment, and seston, as well as potential source materials, such as soil, plant litter, duckweed, and wastewater treatment facility effluent particulate were collected in 1998-2000. Based on the isotopic data, terrestrial plants and soils were determined to be the most likely sources of organic material to Tualatin River bed sediments. The delta 13C fractionation matched well, and although the delta 15N and carbon/nitrogen ratio of fresh plant litter did not match those of bed sediments, the changes expected with decomposition would result in a good match. The fact that the isotopic composition of decomposed terrestrial plant material closely resembled that of soils and bed sediments supports this conclusion. Phytoplankton probably was not a major source of organic matter to bed sediments. Compared to the values for bed sediments, the delta 13C values and carbon/nitrogen ratios of phytoplankton were too low and the delta 15N values were too high. Decomposition would only exacerbate these differences. Although phytoplankton cannot be considered a major source of organic material to bed sediment, a few bed sediment samples in the lower reach of the river showed a small influence from phytoplankton as evidenced by lower delta 13C values than in other bed sediment samples. Isotopic data and carbon/nitrogen ratios for bed sediments generally were similar throughout the basin, supporting the idea of a widespread source such as terrestrial material. The delta 15N was slightly lower in tributaries and in the upper reaches of the river. Higher rates of sediment oxygen demand have been measured in the tributaries in previous studies and coupled with the isotopic data may indicate the

  3. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment Summary at Lookout Point Dam and Reservoir Project, Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon; 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedrossian, K.L.; Noyes, J.H.

    1985-09-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Lookout Point Dam and Reservoir Project on the Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from development and operation of the hydroelectric related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types of the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1944, 1956, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Seventeen wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Lookout Point Project extensively altered or affected 6790 acres of land and river in the Middle Fork Willamette River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 724 acres of old-growth conifer forest and 118 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Lookout Point Project included the loss of winter range for Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for black-tailed deer, western gray squirrel, red fox, mink, beaver, ruffed grouse, ring-necked pheasant, California quail, spotted owl, and other nongame species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefitted by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Lookout Point Project. Loses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  4. Synthesis of downstream fish passage information at projects owned by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in the Willamette River Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Amy C.; Kock, Tobias J.; Hansen, Gabriel S.

    2017-08-07

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) operates the Willamette Valley Project (Project) in northwestern Oregon, which includes a series of dams, reservoirs, revetments, and fish hatcheries. Project dams were constructed during the 1950s and 1960s on rivers that supported populations of spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), winter steelhead (O. mykiss), and other anadromous fish species in the Willamette River Basin. These dams, and the reservoirs they created, negatively affected anadromous fish populations. Efforts are currently underway to improve passage conditions within the Project and enhance populations of anadromous fish species. Research on downstream fish passage within the Project has occurred since 1960 and these efforts are documented in numerous reports and publications. These studies are important resources to managers in the Project, so the USACE requested a synthesis of existing literature that could serve as a resource for future decision-making processes. In 2016, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted an extensive literature review on downstream fish passage studies within the Project. We identified 116 documents that described studies conducted during 1960–2016. Each of these documents were obtained, reviewed, and organized by their content to describe the state-of-knowledge within four subbasins in the Project, which include the North Santiam, South Santiam, McKenzie, and Middle Fork Willamette Rivers. In this document, we summarize key findings from various studies on downstream fish passage in the Willamette Project. Readers are advised to review specific reports of interest to insure that study methods, results, and additional considerations are fully understood.

  5. Organochlorine compounds and trace elements in fish tissue and bed sediments in the lower Snake River basin, Idaho and Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gregory M.; Maret, Terry R.

    1998-01-01

    Fish-tissue and bed-sediment samples were collected to determine the occurrence and distribution of organochlorine compounds and trace elements in the lower Snake River Basin. Whole-body composite samples of suckers and carp from seven sites were analyzed for organochlorine compounds; liver samples were analyzed for trace elements. Fillets from selected sportfish were analyzed for organochlorine compounds and trace elements. Bed-sediment samples from three sites were analyzed for organochlorine compounds and trace elements. Twelve different organochlorine compounds were detected in 14 fish-tissue samples. All fish-tissue samples contained DDT or its metabolites. Concentrations of total DDT ranged from 11 micrograms per kilogram wet weight in fillets of yellow perch from C.J. Strike Reservoir to 3,633 micrograms per kilogram wet weight in a whole-body sample of carp from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River. Total DDT concentrations in whole-body samples of sucker and carp from the Snake River at C.J. Strike Reservoir, Snake River at Swan Falls, Snake River at Nyssa, and Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River exceeded criteria established for the protection of fish-eating wildlife. Total PCB concentrations in a whole-body sample of carp from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River also exceeded fish-eating wildlife criteria. Concentrations of organochlorine compounds in whole-body samples, in general, were larger than concentrations in sportfish fillets. However, concentrations of dieldrin and total DDT in fillets of channel catfish from the Snake River at Nyssa and Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River, and concentrations of total DDT in fillets of smallmouth bass and white crappie from Brownlee Reservoir at Burnt River exceeded a cancer risk screening value of 10-6 established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Concentrations of organochlorine compounds in bed sediment were smaller than concentrations in fish tissue. Concentrations of p,p'DDE, the only compound detected

  6. Impact of seasonality and anthropogenic impoundments on dissolved organic matter dynamics in the Klamath River (Oregon/California, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Allison A.; Spencer, Robert G. M.; Deas, Michael L.; Dahlgren, Randy A.

    2016-07-01

    Rivers play a major role in the transport and processing of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Disturbances that impact DOM dynamics, such as river impoundments and flow regulation, have consequences for biogeochemical cycling and aquatic ecosystems. In this study we examined how river impoundments and hydrologic regulation impact DOM quantity and quality by tracking spatial and seasonal patterns of DOM in a large, regulated river (Klamath River, USA). Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations decreased downstream and longitudinal patterns in DOC load varied by season. Export of DOM (as DOC) was largely driven by river flow, while DOM composition was strongly influenced by impoundments. Seasonal algal blooms in upstream lentic reaches provided a steady source of algal DOM that was processed in downstream reaches. DOM at upstream sites had an average spectral slope ratio (SR) > 1, indicating algal-derived material, but decreased downstream to an average SR Removal of the four lower dams on the Klamath River is scheduled to proceed in the next decade. These results suggest that management should consider the role of impoundments on altering DOM dynamics, particularly in the context of dam removal.

  7. Distribution, Health, and Development of Larval and Juvenile Lost River and Shortnose Suckers in the Williamson River Delta Restoration Project and Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: 2008 Annual Data Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Summer M.; Ottinger, Christopher; Brown, Daniel T.; VanderKooi, Scott P.; Robertson, Laura; Iwanowicz, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Federally endangered Lost River sucker Deltistes luxatus and shortnose sucker Chasmistes brevirostris were once abundant throughout their range but populations have declined; they have been extirpated from several lakes, and may no longer reproduce in others. Poor recruitment into the adult spawning populations is one of several reasons cited for the decline and lack of recovery of these species, and may be the consequence of high mortality during juvenile life stages. High larval and juvenile sucker mortality may be exacerbated by an insufficient quantity of suitable rearing habitat. Within Upper Klamath Lake, a lack of marshes also may allow larval suckers to be swept from suitable rearing areas downstream into the seasonally anoxic waters of the Keno Reservoir. The Nature Conservancy (TNC) flooded about 3,600 acres to the north of the Williamson River mouth (Tulana Unit) in October 2007, and about 1,400 acres to the south and east of the Williamson River mouth (Goose Bay Unit) a year later, to retain larval suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, create nursery habitat for suckers, and improve water quality. In collaboration with TNC, the Bureau of Reclamation, and Oregon State University, we began a long-term collaborative research and monitoring program in 2008 to assess the effects of the Williamson River Delta restoration on the early life-history stages of Lost River and shortnose suckers. Our approach includes two equally important aspects. One component is to describe habitat use and colonization processes by larval and juvenile suckers and non-sucker fish species. The second is to evaluate the effects of the restored habitat on the health and condition of juvenile suckers. This report contains a summary of the first year of data collected as a part of this monitoring effort.

  8. Flood-inundation maps for a 9.1-mile reach of the Coast Fork Willamette River near Creswell and Goshen, Lane County, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Glen W.; Haluska, Tana L.

    2016-04-13

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 9.1-mile reach of the Coast Fork Willamette River near Creswell and Goshen, Oregon, were developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected stages at the USGS streamgage at Coast Fork Willamette River near Goshen, Oregon (14157500), at State Highway 58. Current stage at the streamgage for estimating near-real-time areas of inundation may be obtained at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/or/nwis/uv/?site_no=14157500&PARAmeter_cd=00065,00060. In addition, the National Weather Service (NWS) forecasted peak-stage information may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation.In this study, areas of inundation were provided by USACE. The inundated areas were developed from flood profiles simulated by a one-dimensional unsteady step‑backwater hydraulic model. The profiles were checked by the USACE using documented high-water marks from a January 2006 flood. The model was compared and quality assured using several other methods. The hydraulic model was then used to determine eight water-surface profiles at various flood stages referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from 11.8 to 19.8 ft, approximately 2.6 ft above the highest recorded stage at the streamgage (17.17 ft) since 1950. The intervals between stages are variable and based on annual exceedance probability discharges, some of which approximate NWS action stages.The areas of inundation and water depth grids provided to USGS by USACE were used to create interactive flood‑inundation maps. The availability of these maps with current stage from USGS streamgage and forecasted stream stages from the NWS provide emergency management

  9. Population structure and genetic characteristics of summer steelhead (Onchorhynchus mykiss) in the Deschutes River Basin, Oregon: Final report: January 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Deschutes River Basin represents a region of substantial diversity among anadromous and resident forms of Oncorhynchus mykiss. However, the current distribution...

  10. Top of Head Scarp and Internal Scarps for Landslide Deposits in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Data points represent head scarps, flank scarps, and minor internal scarps (linear) associated with landslide deposits in the Little North Santiam River Basin,...

  11. Analyzing Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Angelyn; Meyer, Stephan; Edwards, Becca

    2015-03-01

    Post-tropical Storm Sandy underwent extratropical transition shortly before making landfall in southern New Jersey October 29 2012. Data from this system was compared with data from Hurricane Ike (2008) which represents a classic hurricane with a clear eye wall and symmetry after landfall. Storm Sandy collided with a low pressure system coming in from the north as the hurricane made landfall on the US East coast. This contributed to Storm Sandy acting as a non-typical hurricane when it made landfall. Time histories of wind speed and wind direction were generated from data provided by Texas Tech's StickNet probes for both storms. The NOAA Weather and Climate program were used to generate radar loops of reflectivity during the landfall for both storms; these loops were compared with time histories for both Ike and Sandy to identify a relationship between time series data and storm-scale features identified on radar.

  12. Contaminants of legacy and emerging concern in largescale suckers (Catostomus macrocheilus) and the foodweb in the lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Elena B.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Alvarez, David A.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Waite, Ian R.; Counihan, Timothy D.; Hardiman, Jill M.; Torres, Leticia; Patino, Reynaldo; Mesa, Matthew G.; Grove, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We investigated occurrence, transport pathways, and effects of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants and other endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in aquatic media and the foodweb in the lower Columbia River. In 2009 and 2010, foodweb sampling at three sites along a gradient of contaminant exposure near Skamania (Washington), Columbia City (Oregon) and Longview (Washington) included water (via passive samplers), bed sediment, invertebrate biomass residing in sediment, a resident fish species (largescale suckers [Catostomus macrocheilus]), and eggs from osprey (Pandion haliaetus). This paper primarily reports fish tissue concentrations. In 2009, composites of fish brain, fillet, liver, stomach, and gonad tissues revealed that overall contaminant concentrations were highest in livers, followed by brain, stomach, gonad, and fillet. Concentrations of halogenated compounds in tissue samples from all three sites ranged from concentration differences were not as pronounced as in 2009. Chemical concentrations in sediments, fish tissues, and osprey eggs increased moving downstream from Skamania to the urbanized sites near Columbia City and Longview. Numerous organochlorine (OC) pesticides, both banned and currently used, and PBDEs, were present at each site in multiple media and concentrations exceeded environmental quality benchmarks in some cases. Frequently detected OC compounds included hexachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its degradates, chlorpyrifos, and oxyfluorofen. Biomagnification of BDE47, 100, 153, and 154 occurred in largescale suckers and osprey eggs. Results support the hypothesis that contaminants in the environment lead to bioaccumulation and potential negative effects in multiple levels of the foodweb.

  13. A physiological approach to quantifying thermal habitat quality for redband rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri) in the south Fork John Day River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldhaus, J.W.; Heppell, S.A.; Li, H.; Mesa, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    We examined tissue-specific levels of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) and whole body lipid levels in juvenile redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri) from the South Fork of the John Day River (SFJD), Oregon, with the goal of determining if these measures could be used as physiological indicators of thermal habitat quality for juvenile redband trout. Our objectives were to determine the hsp70 induction temperature in liver, fin, and white muscle tissue and characterize the relation between whole body lipids and hsp70 for fish in the SFJD. We found significant increases in hsp70 levels between 19 and 22??C in fin, liver, and white muscle tissue. Maximum hsp70 levels in liver, fin, and white muscle tissue occurred when mean weekly maximum temperatures (MWMT) exceeded 20-22??C. In general, the estimated hsp70 induction temperature for fin and white muscle tissue was higher than liver tissue. Whole body lipid levels began to decrease when MWMT exceeded 20. 4??C. There was a significant interaction between temperature and hsp70 in fin and white muscle tissue, but not liver tissue. Collectively, these results suggest that increased hsp70 levels in juvenile redband trout are symptomatic of thermal stress, and that energy storage capacity decreases with this stress. The possible decrease in growth potential and fitness for thermally stressed individuals emphasizes the physiological justification for thermal management criteria in salmon-bearing streams. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.

  14. Determing Lamprey Species Composition, Larval Distribution, and Adult Abundance in the Deschutes River, Oregon, Subbasin; 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Jennifer C.; Brun, Christopher V. (Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon, Department of Natural Resources, John Day, OR)

    2006-05-01

    Information about lamprey species composition, distribution, life history, abundance, habitat requirements, and exploitation in the lower Deschutes River Subbasin is extremely limited. During 2002, we began a multi-year study to assess the status of lamprey in the Deschutes River subbasin. The objectives of this project are to determine ammocoete (larval lamprey) distribution and associated habitats; Lampretra species composition; numbers of emigrants; adult escapement and harvest rates at Sherars Falls. This report describes the preliminary results of data collected during 2005. We continued documenting ammocoete (larval) habitat selection by surveying four perennial eastside tributaries to the Deschutes River (Warm Springs River, Badger, Beaver and Shitike creeks) within the known ammocoete distribution. The results of 2003-2005 sampling indicate that positive relationships exist between: presence of wood (P = < 0.001), depositional area (P = < 0.001), flow (P = < 0.001), and fine substrate (P = < 0.001). Out-migrants numbers were not estimated during 2005 due to our inability to recapture marked larvae. In Shitike Creek, ammocoete and microphthalmia out-migration peaked during November 2005. In the Warm Spring River, out-migration peaked for ammocoetes in April 2006 and December 2005 for microphthalmia. Samples of ammocoetes from each stream were retained in a permanent collection of future analysis. An escapement estimate was generated for adult Pacific lamprey in the lower Deschutes River using a two event mark-recapture experiment during run year 2005. A modified Peterson model was used to estimate the adult population of Pacific lamprey at 3,895 with an estimated escapement of 2,881 during 2005 (95% CI= 2,847; M = 143; C = 1,027 R = 37). A tribal creel was also conducted from mid-June through August. We estimated tribal harvest to be approximately 1,015 adult lamprey during 2005 (95% CI= +/- 74).

  15. Estimation of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in streams of the Middle Columbia River Basin (Oregon, Washington, and Idaho) using SPARROW models, with emphasis on the Yakima River Basin, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Henry M.; Black, Robert W.; Wise, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    The watershed model SPARROW (Spatially Related Regressions on Watershed attributes) was used to predict total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads and yields for the Middle Columbia River Basin in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The new models build on recently published models for the entire Pacific Northwest, and provide revised load predictions for the arid interior of the region by restricting the modeling domain and recalibrating the models. Results from the new TN and TP models are provided for the entire region, and discussed with special emphasis on the Yakima River Basin, Washington. In most catchments of the Yakima River Basin, the TN and TP in streams is from natural sources, specifically nitrogen fixation in forests (TN) and weathering and erosion of geologic materials (TP). The natural nutrient sources are overshadowed by anthropogenic sources of TN and TP in highly agricultural and urbanized catchments; downstream of the city of Yakima, most of the load in the Yakima River is derived from anthropogenic sources. Yields of TN and TP from catchments with nearly uniform land use were compared with other yield values and export coefficients published in the scientific literature, and generally were in agreement. The median yield of TN was greatest in catchments dominated by agricultural land and smallest in catchments dominated by grass and scrub land. The median yield of TP was greatest in catchments dominated by forest land, but the largest yields (90th percentile) of TP were from agricultural catchments. As with TN, the smallest TP yields were from catchments dominated by grass and scrub land.

  16. Fish Research Project, Oregon : Evaluation of the Success of Supplementing Imnaha River Steelhead with Hatchery Reared Smolts: Phase One : Completion Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmichael, Richard W.; Whitesel, Timothy A.; Jonasson, Brian C.

    1995-08-01

    Two streams in the Imnaha River subbasin (Camp Creek and Little Sheep Creek) and eight streams in the Grande Ronde River subbasin (Catherine, Deer, Five Points, Fly, Indian, Lookingglass, Meadow, and Sheep creeks) were selected as study streams to evaluate the success and impacts of steelhead supplementation in northeast Oregon. The habitat of the study streams was inventoried to compare streams and to evaluate whether habitat might influence the performance parameters we will measure in the study. The mean fecundity of hatchery and natural steelhead 1-salts returning to Little Sheep Creek fish facility in 1990 and 1991 ranged from 3,550 to 4,663 eggs/female; the mean fecundity of hatchery and natural steelhead 2-salts ranged from 5,020 to 5,879 eggs/female. Variation in length explained 57% of the variation in fecundity of natural steelhead, but only 41% to 51% of the variation in fecundity of hatchery steelhead. Adult steelhead males had an average spermatocrit of 43.9% at spawning. We were also able to stain sperm cells so that viable cells could be distinguished from dead cells. Large, red disc tags may be the most useful for observing adults on the spawning grounds. The density of wild, juvenile steelhead ranged from 0 fish/l00{sup 2} to 35.1 (age-0) and 14.0 (age-1) fish/l00m{sup 2}. Evidence provided from the National Marine Fisheries Service suggests that hatchery and wild fish within a subbasin are genetically similar. The long-term experimental design is presented as a component of this report.

  17. Relationships between water temperatures and upstream migration, cold water refuge use, and spawning of adult bull trout from the Lostine River, Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, P.J.; Dunham, J.B.; Sankovich, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding thermal habitat use by migratory fish has been limited by difficulties in matching fish locations with water temperatures. To describe spatial and temporal patterns of thermal habitat use by migratory adult bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus, that spawn in the Lostine River, Oregon, we employed a combination of archival temperature tags, radio tags, and thermographs. We also compared temperatures of the tagged fish to ambient water temperatures to determine if the fish were using thermal refuges. The timing and temperatures at which fish moved upstream from overwintering areas to spawning locations varied considerably among individuals. The annual maximum 7-day average daily maximum (7DADM) temperatures of tagged fish were 16-18 ??C and potentially as high as 21 ??C. Maximum 7DADM ambient water temperatures within the range of tagged fish during summer were 18-25 ??C. However, there was no evidence of the tagged fish using localized cold water refuges. Tagged fish appeared to spawn at 7DADM temperatures of 7-14 ??C. Maximum 7DADM temperatures of tagged fish and ambient temperatures at the onset of the spawning period in late August were 11-18 ??C. Water temperatures in most of the upper Lostine River used for spawning and rearing appear to be largely natural since there has been little development, whereas downstream reaches used by migratory bull trout are heavily diverted for irrigation. Although the population effects of these temperatures are unknown, summer temperatures and the higher temperatures observed for spawning fish appear to be at or above the upper range of suitability reported for the species. Published 2009. This article is a US Governmentwork and is in the public domain in the USA.

  18. Summer distribution and species richness of non-native fishes in the mainstem Willamette River, oregon, 1944-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    We reviewed the results of seven extensive and two reach-specific fish surveys conducted on the mainstem Willamette River between 1944 and 2006 to document changes in the summer distribution and species richness of non-native fishes through time and the relative abundances of the...

  19. Sources and characteristics of organic matter in the Clackamas River, Oregon, related to the formation of disinfection by-products in treated drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kurt D.; Kraus, Tamara E.C.; Goldman, Jami H.; Saraceno, John Franco; Downing, Bryan D.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; McGhee, Gordon; Triplett, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    This study characterized the amount and quality of organic matter in the Clackamas River, Oregon, to gain an understanding of sources that contribute to the formation of chlorinated and brominated disinfection by-products (DBPs), focusing on regulated DBPs in treated drinking water from two direct-filtration treatment plants that together serve approximately 100,000 customers. The central hypothesis guiding this study was that natural organic matter leaching out of the forested watershed, in-stream growth of benthic algae, and phytoplankton blooms in the reservoirs contribute different and varying proportions of organic carbon to the river. Differences in the amount and composition of carbon derived from each source affects the types and concentrations of DBP precursors entering the treatment plants and, as a result, yield varying DBP concentrations and species in finished water. The two classes of DBPs analyzed in this study-trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs)-form from precursors within the dissolved and particulate pools of organic matter present in source water. The five principal objectives of the study were to (1) describe the seasonal quantity and character of organic matter in the Clackamas River; (2) relate the amount and composition of organic matter to the formation of DBPs; (3) evaluate sources of DBP precursors in the watershed; (4) assess the use of optical measurements, including in-situ fluorescence, for estimating dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and DBP formation; and (5) assess the removal of DBP precursors during treatment by conducting treatability "jar-test" experiments at one of the treatment plants. Data collection consisted of (1) monthly sampling of source and finished water at two drinking-water treatment plants; (2) event-based sampling in the mainstem, tributaries, and North Fork Reservoir; and (3) in-situ continuous monitoring of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM), turbidity, chlorophyll-a, and

  20. Year-Round Monitoring of Contaminants in Neal and Rogers Creeks, Hood River Basin, Oregon, 2011-12, and Assessment of Risks to Salmonids.

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    Whitney B Hapke

    Full Text Available Pesticide presence in streams is a potential threat to Endangered Species Act listed salmonids in the Hood River basin, Oregon, a primarily forested and agricultural basin. Two types of passive samplers, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs, were simultaneously deployed at four sites in the basin during Mar. 2011-Mar. 2012 to measure the presence of pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. The year-round use of passive samplers is a novel approach and offers several new insights. Currently used pesticides and legacy contaminants, including many chlorinated pesticides and PBDEs, were present throughout the year in the basin's streams. PCBs were not detected. Time-weighted average water concentrations for the 2-month deployment periods were estimated from concentrations of chemicals measured in the passive samplers. Currently used pesticide concentrations peaked during spring and were detected beyond their seasons of expected use. Summed concentrations of legacy contaminants in Neal Creek were highest during July-Sept., the period with the lowest streamflows. Endosulfan was the only pesticide detected in passive samplers at concentrations exceeding Oregon or U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality thresholds. A Sensitive Pesticide Toxicity Index (SPTI was used to estimate the relative acute potential toxicity among sample mixtures. The acute potential toxicity of the detected mixtures was likely greater for invertebrates than for fish and for all samples in Neal Creek compared to Rogers Creek, but the indices appear to be low overall (<0.1. Endosulfans and pyrethroid insecticides were the largest contributors to the SPTIs for both sites. SPTIs of some discrete (grab samples from the basin that were used for comparison exceeded 0.1 when some insecticides (azinphos methyl, chlorpyrifos, malathion were detected at concentrations near or

  1. Year-Round Monitoring of Contaminants in Neal and Rogers Creeks, Hood River Basin, Oregon, 2011-12, and Assessment of Risks to Salmonids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapke, Whitney B; Morace, Jennifer L; Nilsen, Elena B; Alvarez, David A; Masterson, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide presence in streams is a potential threat to Endangered Species Act listed salmonids in the Hood River basin, Oregon, a primarily forested and agricultural basin. Two types of passive samplers, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), were simultaneously deployed at four sites in the basin during Mar. 2011-Mar. 2012 to measure the presence of pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The year-round use of passive samplers is a novel approach and offers several new insights. Currently used pesticides and legacy contaminants, including many chlorinated pesticides and PBDEs, were present throughout the year in the basin's streams. PCBs were not detected. Time-weighted average water concentrations for the 2-month deployment periods were estimated from concentrations of chemicals measured in the passive samplers. Currently used pesticide concentrations peaked during spring and were detected beyond their seasons of expected use. Summed concentrations of legacy contaminants in Neal Creek were highest during July-Sept., the period with the lowest streamflows. Endosulfan was the only pesticide detected in passive samplers at concentrations exceeding Oregon or U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality thresholds. A Sensitive Pesticide Toxicity Index (SPTI) was used to estimate the relative acute potential toxicity among sample mixtures. The acute potential toxicity of the detected mixtures was likely greater for invertebrates than for fish and for all samples in Neal Creek compared to Rogers Creek, but the indices appear to be low overall (<0.1). Endosulfans and pyrethroid insecticides were the largest contributors to the SPTIs for both sites. SPTIs of some discrete (grab) samples from the basin that were used for comparison exceeded 0.1 when some insecticides (azinphos methyl, chlorpyrifos, malathion) were detected at concentrations near or exceeding

  2. Year-round monitoring of contaminants in Neal and Rogers Creeks, Hood River Basin, Oregon, 2011-12, and assessment of risks to salmonids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Whitney B.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Nilsen, Elena B.; Alvarez, David; Masterson, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide presence in streams is a potential threat to Endangered Species Act listed salmonids in the Hood River basin, Oregon, a primarily forested and agricultural basin. Two types of passive samplers, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs), were simultaneously deployed at four sites in the basin during Mar. 2011–Mar. 2012 to measure the presence of pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The year-round use of passive samplers is a novel approach and offers several new insights. Currently used pesticides and legacy contaminants, including many chlorinated pesticides and PBDEs, were present throughout the year in the basin’s streams. PCBs were not detected. Time-weighted average water concentrations for the 2-month deployment periods were estimated from concentrations of chemicals measured in the passive samplers. Currently used pesticide concentrations peaked during spring and were detected beyond their seasons of expected use. Summed concentrations of legacy contaminants in Neal Creek were highest during July–Sept., the period with the lowest streamflows. Endosulfan was the only pesticide detected in passive samplers at concentrations exceeding Oregon or U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality thresholds. A Sensitive Pesticide Toxicity Index (SPTI) was used to estimate the relative acute potential toxicity among sample mixtures. The acute potential toxicity of the detected mixtures was likely greater for invertebrates than for fish and for all samples in Neal Creek compared to Rogers Creek, but the indices appear to be low overall (<0.1). Endosulfans and pyrethroid insecticides were the largest contributors to the SPTIs for both sites. SPTIs of some discrete (grab) samples from the basin that were used for comparison exceeded 0.1 when some insecticides (azinphos methyl, chlorpyrifos, malathion) were detected at concentrations near or

  3. Generalized regression neural network-based approach for modelling hourly dissolved oxygen concentration in the Upper Klamath River, Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddam, Salim

    2014-08-01

    In this study, a comparison between generalized regression neural network (GRNN) and multiple linear regression (MLR) models is given on the effectiveness of modelling dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in a river. The two models are developed using hourly experimental data collected from the United States Geological Survey (USGS Station No: 421209121463000 [top]) station at the Klamath River at Railroad Bridge at Lake Ewauna. The input variables used for the two models are water, pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, and sensor depth. The performances of the models are evaluated using root mean square errors (RMSE), the mean absolute error (MAE), Willmott's index of agreement (d), and correlation coefficient (CC) statistics. Of the two approaches employed, the best fit was obtained using the GRNN model with the four input variables used.

  4. Biomagnification factors (fish to osprey eggs from Willamette River, Oregon, U.S.A.) for PCDDS, PCDFS, PCBS, and OC pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, Charles J.; Kaiser, James L.; Grove, Robert A.; Bentley, V.R.; Elliot, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    A migratory population of 78 pairs of Osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nesting along the Willamette River in westernOregon was studied in 1993. The study was designed to determinecontaminant concentrations in eggs, contaminant concentrationsin fish species predominant in the Ospreys diet, andBiomagnification Factors (BMFs) of contaminants from fish specieseaten to Osprey eggs. Ten Osprey eggs and 25 composite samplesof fish (3 species) were used to evaluate organochlorine (OC)pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinateddibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans(PCDFs). Mercury was also analyzed in fish. Geometric meanresidues in Osprey eggs were judged low, e.g., DDE 2.3 g g-1 wet weight (ww), PCBs 0.69 g g-1, 2,3,7,8-TCDD 2.3 ng kg-1, and generally well below known threshold values for adverse effects on productivity, and the population was increasing. Osprey egg residue data presentedby River Mile (RM) are discussed, e.g., higher PCDDs were generally found immediately downstream of paper mills and eggsfrom the Willamette River had significantly elevated PCBs and PCDDs compared to reference eggs collected nearby in the CascadeMountains. Prey remains at nest sites indicated that the Largescale Sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) and NorthernPikeminnow (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) accounted for an estimated 90.1% of the biomass in the Osprey diet, and composite samples of these two species were collected from different sampling sites throughout the study area for contaminant analyses. With the large percentage of the fishbiomass in the Osprey diet sampled for contaminants (and fisheaten by Ospreys similar in size to those chemically analyzed),and fish contaminant concentrations weighted by biomass intake, a mean BMF was estimated from fish to Osprey eggs for the largeseries of contaminants. BMFs ranged from no biomagnification(0.42) for 2,3,7,8-TCDF to 174 for OCDD. Our findings for themigratory Osprey were compared to BMFs for the resident

  5. Survival, movement, and health of hatchery-raised juvenile Lost River suckers within a mesocosm in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hereford, Danielle M.; Burdick, Summer M.; Elliott, Diane G.; Dolan-Caret, Amari; Conway, Carla M.; Harris, Alta C.

    2016-01-28

    The recovery of endangered Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) in Upper Klamath Lake is limited by poor juvenile survival and failure to recruit into the adult population. Poor water quality, degradation of rearing habitat, and toxic levels of microcystin are hypothesized to contribute to low juvenile survival. Studies of wild juvenile suckers are limited in that capture rates are low and compromised individuals are rarely captured in passive nets. The goal of this study was to assess the use of a mesocosm for learning about juvenile survival, movement, and health. Hatchery-raised juvenile Lost River suckers were PIT (passive integrated transponder) tagged and monitored by three vertically stratified antennas. Fish locations within the mesocosm were recorded at least every 30 minutes and were assessed in relation to vertically stratified water-quality conditions. Vertical movement patterns were analyzed to identify the timing of mortality for each fish. Most mortality occurred from July 28 to August 16, 2014. Juvenile suckers spent daylight hours near the benthos and moved throughout the entire water column during dark hours. Diel movements were not in response to dissolved-oxygen concentrations, temperature, or pH. Furthermore, low dissolved-oxygen concentrations, high temperatures, high pH, high un-ionized ammonia, or high microcystin levels did not directly cause mortality, although indirect effects may have occurred. However, water-quality conditions known to be lethal to juvenile Lost River suckers did not occur during the study period. Histological assessment revealed severe gill hyperplasia and Ichthyobodo sp. infestations in most moribund fish. For these fish, Ichthyobodo sp. was likely the cause of mortality, although it is unclear if this parasite originated in the rearing facility because fish were not screened for this parasite prior to introduction. This study has demonstrated that we can effectively use a mesocosm equipped with antennas to learn

  6. Distribution of dissolved pesticides and other water quality constituents in small streams, and their relation to land use, in the Willamette River Basin, Oregon, 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Chauncey W.; Wood, Tamara M.; Morace, Jennifer L.

    1997-01-01

    Water quality samples were collected at sites in 16 randomly selected agricultural and 4 urban subbasins as part of Phase III of the Willamette River Basin Water Quality Study in Oregon during 1996. Ninety-five samples were collected and analyzed for suspended sediment, conventional constituents (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, nutrients, biochemical oxygen demand, and bacteria) and a suite of 86 dissolved pesticides. The data were collected to characterize the distribution of dissolved pesticide concentrations in small streams (drainage areas 2.6? 13 square miles) throughout the basin, to document exceedances of water quality standards and guidelines, and to identify the relative importance of several upstream land use categories (urban, agricultural, percent agricultural land, percent of land in grass seed crops, crop diversity) and seasonality in affecting these distributions. A total of 36 pesticides (29 herbicides and 7 insecticides) were detected basinwide. The five most frequently detected compounds were the herbicides atrazine (99% of samples), desethylatrazine (93%), simazine (85%), metolachlor (85%), and diuron (73%). Fifteen compounds were detected in 12?35% of samples, and 16 compounds were detected in 1?9% of samples. Water quality standards or criteria were exceeded more frequently for conventional constituents than for pesticides. State of Oregon water quality standards were exceeded at all but one site for the indicator bacteria E. coli, 3 sites for nitrate, 10 sites for water temperature, 4 sites for dissolved oxygen, and 1 site for pH. Pesticide concentrations, which were usually less than 1 part per billion, exceeded State of Oregon or U.S. Environmental Protection Agency aquatic life toxicity criteria only for chlorpyrifos, in three samples from one site; such criteria have been established for only two other detected pesticides. However, a large number of unusually high concentrations (1?90 parts per billion) were

  7. Macrophyte and pH buffering updates to the Klamath River water-quality model upstream of Keno Dam, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Asbill-Case, Jessica R.; Deas, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    A hydrodynamic, water temperature, and water-quality model of the Link River to Keno Dam reach of the upper Klamath River was updated to account for macrophytes and enhanced pH buffering from dissolved organic matter, ammonia, and orthophosphorus. Macrophytes had been observed in this reach by field personnel, so macrophyte field data were collected in summer and fall (June-October) 2011 to provide a dataset to guide the inclusion of macrophytes in the model. Three types of macrophytes were most common: pondweed (Potamogeton species), coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum), and common waterweed (Elodea canadensis). Pondweed was found throughout the Link River to Keno Dam reach in early summer with densities declining by mid-summer and fall. Coontail and common waterweed were more common in the lower reach near Keno Dam and were at highest density in summer. All species were most dense in shallow water (less than 2 meters deep) near shore. The highest estimated dry weight biomass for any sample during the study was 202 grams per square meter for coontail in August. Guided by field results, three macrophyte groups were incorporated into the CE-QUAL-W2 model for calendar years 2006-09. The CE-QUAL-W2 model code was adjusted to allow the user to initialize macrophyte populations spatially across the model grid. The default CE-QUAL-W2 model includes pH buffering by carbonates, but does not include pH buffering by organic matter, ammonia, or orthophosphorus. These three constituents, especially dissolved organic matter, are present in the upper Klamath River at concentrations that provide substantial pH buffering capacity. In this study, CE-QUAL-W2 was updated to include this enhanced buffering capacity in the simulation of pH. Acid dissociation constants for ammonium and phosphoric acid were taken from the literature. For dissolved organic matter, the number of organic acid groups and each group's acid dissociation constant (Ka) and site density (moles of sites per mole of

  8. Geological Studies of the Salmon River Suture Zone and Adjoining Areas, West-Central Idaho and Eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Mel A.; Snee, Lawrence W.

    2007-01-01

    The papers in this volume describe petrologic, structural, and geochemical studies related to geographic areas adjacent to and including the Salmon River suture zone. We therefore start this volume by defining and giving a general description of that suture zone. The western margin of the North American continent was the setting for complex terrane accretion and large-scale terrane translation during Late Cretaceous and Eocene time. In western Idaho, the boundary that separates the Paleozoic-Mesozoic accreted oceanic, island-arc rocks on the west from Precambrian continental metamorphic and sedimentary rocks on the east is called the Salmon River suture zone (SRSZ). Readers will note that the term 'Salmon River suture zone' is used in the title of this volume and in the text of several of the papers and the term 'western Idaho suture zone' is used in several other papers in this volume. Both terms refer to the same geologic feature and reflect historical usage and custom; thus no attempt has been made by the editors to impose or demand a single term by the various authors of this volume. The suture zone is marked by strong lithologic and chemical differences. Rocks adjacent to the suture zone are characterized by high-grade metamorphism and much structural deformation. In addition, the zone was the locus of emplacement of plutons ranging in composition from tonalite to monzogranite during and after the final stages of accretion of the oceanic terrane to the North American continent. The contents of this paper consists of seven chapters.

  9. Oxygen isotope evolution of the Lake Owyhee volcanic field, Oregon, and implications for low-δ18O magmas of the Snake River Plain - Yellowstone hotspot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, T.; Kitajima, K.; Nakashima, D.; Valley, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    The Snake River Plain - Yellowstone (SRP-Y) hotspot trend is one of the largest known low-δ18O magmatic provinces, yet the timing and distribution of hydrothermal alteration relative to hotspot magmatism remains incompletely understood. Existing models for SRP-Y low-δ18O magma genesis differ regarding the timing of protolith alteration (e.g. Eocene vs. present), depth at which alteration occurs (e.g. 15 km vs. Owyhee volcanic field (LOVF) of east central Oregon to further identify magmatic oxygen isotope trends within the field. These data offer insight into the timing of alteration and the extent of the greater SRP-Y low-δ18O province, as well as the conditions that generate large low-δ18O provinces. 16-14 Ma silicic volcanism in the LOVF is linked to the pre-14 Ma SRP-Y hotspot, with volcanism partially overlapping extension in the north-south trending Oregon-Idaho Graben (OIG). Ion microprobe analyses of zircons from 16 LOVF silicic lavas and tuffs reveal homogeneous zircons on both the single grain and hand sample scales: individual samples have 2 S.D. for δ18O ranging from 0.27 to 0.96‰ (SMOW), and sample averages ranging from 1.8 to 6.0‰, excluding texturally chaotic and/or porous zircons which have δ18O values as low as 0.0‰. All low-δ18O LOVF magmas, including the caldera-forming Tuff of Leslie Gulch and Tuff of Spring Creek, are confined to the OIG, although not all zircons from within the OIG have low δ18O values. The presence and sequence of low-δ18O magmas in the LOVF and adjacent central Snake River Plain (CSRP) cannot be explained by existing caldera subsidence or pre-hotspot source models. These data, however, combined with volumetrically limited low-δ18O material in the adjacent Idaho Batholith and Basin and Range, are consistent with low-δ18O magmas generated by the superposition of high hotspot-derived thermal fluxes on active extensional structures (OIG extension in the LOVF, and Basin and Range rifting in the CSRP) thereby

  10. Status and trends of adult Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose (Chasmistes brevirostris) sucker populations in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, David A.; Janney, Eric C.; Hayes, Brian S.; Harris, Alta C.

    2017-07-21

    Executive SummaryData from a long-term capture-recapture program were used to assess the status and dynamics of populations of two long-lived, federally endangered catostomids in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Lost River suckers (LRS; Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (SNS; Chasmistes brevirostris) have been captured and tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags during their spawning migrations in each year since 1995. In addition, beginning in 2005, individuals that had been previously PIT-tagged were re-encountered on remote underwater antennas deployed throughout sucker spawning areas. Captures and remote encounters during the spawning season in spring 2015 were incorporated into capture-recapture analyses of population dynamics. Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) open population capture-recapture models were used to estimate annual survival probabilities, and a reverse-time analog of the CJS model was used to estimate recruitment of new individuals into the spawning populations. In addition, data on the size composition of captured fish were examined to provide corroborating evidence of recruitment. Separate analyses were done for each species and also for each subpopulation of LRS. Shortnose suckers and one subpopulation of LRS migrate into tributary rivers to spawn, whereas the other LRS subpopulation spawns at groundwater upwelling areas along the eastern shoreline of the lake. Characteristics of the spawning migrations in 2015, such as the effects of temperature on the timing of the migrations, were similar to past years.Capture-recapture analyses for the LRS subpopulation that spawns at the shoreline areas included encounter histories for 13,617 individuals, and analyses for the subpopulation that spawns in the rivers included 39,321 encounter histories. With a few exceptions, the survival of males and females in both subpopulations was high (greater than or equal to 0.86) between 1999 and 2013. Survival was notably lower for males from the rivers

  11. White River Falls Fish Passage Project, Tygh Valley, Oregon : Final Technical Report, Volume II, Appendix A, Fisheries Habitat Inventory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oregon. Dept. of Fish and Wildlife; Mount Hood National Forest (Or.)

    1985-06-01

    Stream habitat inventories on 155 stream miles in the White River drainage on the Mt. Hood National Forest are summarized in this report. Inventory, data evaluation, and reporting work were accomplished within the framework of the budgetary agreements established between the USDA Forest Service, Mt. Hood National Forest, and the Bonneville Power Administration, in the first 2 years of a multiyear program. One hundred forty-two stream miles of those inventoried on the Forest appear suitable for anadromous production. The surveyed area appears to contain most or all of the high quality fish habitat which would be potentially available for anadromous production if access is provided above the White River Falls below the Forest boundary. About 34 stream miles would be immediately accessible without further work on the Forest with passage at the Falls. Seventy-two additional miles could be made available with only minor (requiring low investment of money and planning) passage work further up the basin. Thirty-six miles of potential upstream habitat would likely require major investment to provide access.

  12. Determining Adult Pacific Lamprey Abundance and Spawning Habitat in the Lower Deschutes River Sub-Basin, Oregon, 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Matt; Graham, Jennifer C. [Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation, Oregon

    2009-04-30

    An adult Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) escapement estimate was generated in the lower Deschutes River during run year 2008. This included a mark-recapture study to determine adult abundance and a tribal subsistence creel. Fish measuring less than 10.5 cm received two marks for the mark-recapture estimate while those measuring greater than 10.5 cm were surgically implanted with radio transmitters to monitor migration upstream of Sherars Falls (rkm 70.4). Radio telemetry was used to determine habitat, focal spawning areas and spawn timing. All fish were collected at the Sherars Falls fish ladder from July-October 2008 using a long handled dip-net. Escapement was generated using a two event mark-recapture experiment. Adult lamprey populations were estimated at 3,471 (95% CI = 2,384-5,041; M = 101; C = 885 R = 25) using Chapman's modification of the Peterson estimate. The relative precision around the estimate was 31.42. Tribal harvest was approximately 806 adult lamprey (95% CI = +/- 74) with a total escapement of 2,669. Fourteen lamprey received radio tags and were released at Lower Blue Hole recreation site (rkm 77.3). Movement was recorded by mobile, fixed site and aerial telemetry methods. Upstream movements of lamprey were documented from July through December 2008 with most lamprey over-wintering in the mainstem Deschutes River.

  13. The vertical distribution of selected trace metals and organic compounds in bottom materials of the proposed lower Columbia River export channel, Oregon, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrer, Gregory J.; Horowitz, Arthur J.

    1989-01-01

    A proposal to deepen the lower Columbia River navigation channel in Oregon prompted a study of the vertical distribution of selected trace metals and organic compounds in bottom sediments. These data are needed to evaluate the effects of dredging and disposal operations. Elutriation testing of bottom material indicated chemical concentrations as large as 900 ug/L for barium, 6,500 ug/L for manganese, and 14 ug/L for nickel. The amount of oxygen present during elutriation testing of reduced bottom material was shown to have a negligble effect on manganese elutriate-test concentrations, but it did affect barium and iron concentrations. Sediment-associated organochlorine compounds detected in bottom-sediment core samples were as large as 0.1 ug/kg (micrograms/kilogram) for aldrin, 2.0 ug/kg for chlordane, 27 ug/kg for DDD, 5.0 ug/kg for DDE, 0.2 ug/kg for DDT, 0.2 ug/kg for dieldrin, 37 ug/kg for PCB 's 1.0 ug/kg for PCN 's and 1.0 ug/kg for heptachlor epoxide. Concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in selected cores were found to exceed those of local basalts. Concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc were as large as 3.6 ug/g, 26 ug/g, and 210 ug/g respectively. Bottom-sediment concentrations of cadmium , chromium, copper, iron, and zinc associated with the less-than-100-micrometer size fraction are larger than those associated with the greater-than-100-micrometer fraction. (USGS)

  14. Determining Lamprey Species Composition, Larval Distribution and Adult Abundance in the Deschutes River Subbasin, Oregon ; 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Matt; Graham, Jennifer C. [Department of Natural Resources, Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation, Oregon

    2009-06-26

    We will report results of an ongoing project in the Deschutes River Subbasin to describe Pacific lamprey (Lampetra tridentata) life history. Project objectives were to determine adult lamprey escapement from Sherars Falls located at Rkm 70.4 and determine lamprey focal spawning areas, spawn timing and habitat through radio telemetry. A mark-recapture study and tribal creel was conducted to determine adult escapement. Lamprey were radio tagged and are currently being mobile, aerial and fixed site tracked to describe spawning. Adult lamprey were collected at Sherars Falls using a long-handled dip net from June-September 2007. The fate of lamprey collected at Sherars Falls was determined based on girth measurements. Fish measuring less than 10.5 cm received two markings for the mark-recapture estimation while those measuring 10.5 cm or greater were implanted with radio transmitters. Two-hundred and nine lamprey were marked during first event sampling, 2,501 lamprey inspected for marks and 64 recaptured during second event sampling. We estimate lamprey abundance to be 8,083 (6,352-10,279) with a relative precision of 19.8. Tribal harvest was 2,303 +/- 88. Escapement was estimated at 5,780 adult lamprey. Thirty-six lamprey received radio transmitters. Lamprey were transported upstream 6.3 Rkm for surgery, held to recover from anesthesia and released. Mobile tracking efforts started mid-July 2007 and are on-going. To date 35 of the 36 lamprey have been detected. Upon release, extensive ground-based tracking was conducted until fish became dormant in mid-October. Since, fixed site downloading and tracking have occurred weekly on the mainstem Deschutes River. Majority of lamprey (88%) are holding in the mainstem Deschutes River. Three lamprey moved upstream more than 70 Rkms into westside tributaries from August-December. Three moved approximately 18 Rkms downstream of the release site. Tracking will continue through the spawning season when redd characteristics will be

  15. Crims Island-Restoration and monitoring of juvenile salmon rearing habitat in the Columbia River Estuary, Oregon, 2004-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, Craig A.; Tiffan, Kenneth F.

    2011-01-01

    Under the 2004 Biological Opinion for operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System released by the National Marine Fisheries Service, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) were directed to restore more than 4,047 hectares (10,000 acres) of tidal marsh in the Columbia River estuary by 2010. Restoration of Crims Island near Longview, Washington, restored 38.1 hectares of marsh and swamp in the tidal freshwater portion of the lower Columbia River. The goal of the restoration was to improve habitat for juveniles of Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed salmon stocks and ESA-listed Columbian white-tailed deer. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) monitored and evaluated the fisheries and aquatic resources at Crims Island in 2004 prior to restoration (pre-restoration), which began in August 2004, and then post-restoration from 2006 to 2009. This report summarizes pre- and post-restoration monitoring data used by the USGS to evaluate project success. We evaluated project success by examining the interaction between juvenile salmon and a suite of broader ecological measures including sediments, plants, and invertebrates and their response to large-scale habitat alteration. The restoration action at Crims Island from August 2004 to September 2005 was to excavate a 0.6-meter layer of soil and dig channels in the interior of the island to remove reed canary grass and increase habitat area and tidal exchange. The excavation created 34.4 hectares of tidal emergent marsh where none previously existed and 3.7 hectares of intertidal and subtidal channels. Cattle that had grazed the island for more than 50 years were relocated. Soil excavated from the site was deposited in upland areas next to the tidal marsh to establish an upland forest. Excavation deepened and widened an existing T-shaped channel to increase tidal flow to the interior of the island. The western arm of the existing 'T

  16. Are the Columbia River Basalts, Columbia Plateau, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, USA, a viable geothermal target? A preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Erick R.; Williams, Colin F.; Tolan, Terry; Kaven, Joern Ole

    2016-01-01

    The successful development of a geothermal electric power generation facility relies on (1) the identification of sufficiently high temperatures at an economically viable depth and (2) the existence of or potential to create and maintain a permeable zone (permeability >10-14 m2) of sufficient size to allow efficient long-term extraction of heat from the reservoir host rock. If both occur at depth under the Columbia Plateau, development of geothermal resources there has the potential to expand both the magnitude and spatial extent of geothermal energy production. However, a number of scientific and technical issues must be resolved in order to evaluate the likelihood that the Columbia River Basalts, or deeper geologic units under the Columbia Plateau, are viable geothermal targets.Recent research has demonstrated that heat flow beneath the Columbia Plateau Regional Aquifer System may be higher than previously measured in relatively shallow (10-14 m2) interflows are documented at depths up to ~1,400 m. If the elevated permeability in these zones persists to greater depths, they may provide natural permeability of sufficient magnitude to allow their exploitation as conventional geothermal reservoirs. Alternatively, if the permeability in these interflow zones is less than 10-14 m2 at depth, it may be possible to use hydraulic and thermal stimulation to enhance the permeability of both the interflow zones and the natural jointing within the low-permeability interior portions of individual basalt flows in order to develop Enhanced/Engineered Geothermal System (EGS) reservoirs. The key challenge for an improved Columbia Plateau geothermal assessment is acquiring and interpreting comprehensive field data that can provide quantitative constraints on the recovery of heat from the Columbia River Basalts at depths greater than those currently tested by deep boreholes.

  17. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, Progress Report 2000-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleary, Peter; Kucera, Paul; Blenden, Michael

    2003-12-01

    This report summarizes the emigration studies of the Nez Perce Tribe in the Imnaha River subbasin during the 2001 and 2002 migration years. A migration year for the Imnaha River is defined here as beginning July 31 of the previous year and ending July 30 the following year. The conclusion of the studies at the end of migration year 2002 marked the 11th year of the Nez Perce Tribe's Lower Snake River Emigration Studies. The Nez Perce Tribe has participated in the Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program for nine of the 11 years. These studies collect and tag juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead at two locations in the fall, rkm 74 and rkm 7, and at rkm 7 during the spring. Data from captured and tagged fish provide an evaluation of hatchery production and releases strategies, post release survival of hatchery chinook salmon, abundance of natural chinook salmon, and downstream survival and arrival timing of natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead. The hydrologic conditions that migrating fish encountered in 2001 were characterized as a drought and conditions in 2002 were characterized as below average. Hatchery chinook salmon had a mean fork length that was 34 mm greater in 2001 and 35 mm greater in 2002 than the mean fork length of natural chinook smolts. Hatchery steelhead smolt mean fork lengths were 39 mm greater than natural steelhead smolts in 2001 and 44 mm greater than natural steelhead smolt fork lengths in 2002. A significant difference (p < 0.05) between hatchery and natural chinook salmon and steelhead fork lengths has been documented by these emigration studies from 1997 to 2002. Hatchery chinook salmon were volitionally released in 2001 and 2002 and the 90% arrivals for 2001 and 2002 at the lower rkm 7 trap were within the range of past observations of 22 to 38 days observed in 1999 and 2000. We estimated that 93.9% of the 123,014 hatchery chinook salmon released in 2001 survived to the lower trap and 90.2% of the 303

  18. Demographics and run timing of adult Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and short nose (Chasmistes brevirostris) suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, David A.; Janney, Eric C.; Hayes, Brian S.; Harris, Alta C.

    2014-01-01

    Data from a long-term capture-recapture program were used to assess the status and dynamics of populations of two long-lived, federally endangered catostomids in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) have been captured and tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags during their spawning migrations in each year since 1995. In addition, beginning in 2005, individuals that had been previously PIT-tagged were re-encountered on remote underwater antennas deployed throughout sucker spawning areas. Captures and remote encounters during spring 2012 were used to describe the spawning migrations in that year and also were incorporated into capture-recapture analyses of population dynamics. Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) open population capture-recapture models were used to estimate annual survival probabilities, and a reverse-time analog of the CJS model was used to estimate recruitment of new individuals into the spawning populations. In addition, data on the size composition of captured fish were examined to provide corroborating evidence of recruitment. Model estimates of survival and recruitment were used to derive estimates of changes in population size over time and to determine the status of the populations in 2011. Separate analyses were conducted for each species and also for each subpopulation of Lost River suckers (LRS). Shortnose suckers (SNS) and one subpopulation of LRS migrate into tributary rivers to spawn, whereas the other LRS subpopulation spawns at groundwater upwelling areas along the eastern shoreline of the lake. In 2012, we captured, tagged, and released 749 LRS at four lakeshore spawning areas and recaptured an additional 969 individuals that had been tagged in previous years. Across all four areas, the remote antennas detected 6,578 individual LRS during the spawning season. Spawning activity peaked in April and most individuals were encountered at Cinder Flats and

  19. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, Progress Report 2000-2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleary, Peter; Kucera, Paul; Blenden, Michael

    2003-12-01

    This report summarizes the emigration studies of the Nez Perce Tribe in the Imnaha River subbasin during the 2001 and 2002 migration years. A migration year for the Imnaha River is defined here as beginning July 31 of the previous year and ending July 30 the following year. The conclusion of the studies at the end of migration year 2002 marked the 11th year of the Nez Perce Tribe's Lower Snake River Emigration Studies. The Nez Perce Tribe has participated in the Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program for nine of the 11 years. These studies collect and tag juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead at two locations in the fall, rkm 74 and rkm 7, and at rkm 7 during the spring. Data from captured and tagged fish provide an evaluation of hatchery production and releases strategies, post release survival of hatchery chinook salmon, abundance of natural chinook salmon, and downstream survival and arrival timing of natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead. The hydrologic conditions that migrating fish encountered in 2001 were characterized as a drought and conditions in 2002 were characterized as below average. Hatchery chinook salmon had a mean fork length that was 34 mm greater in 2001 and 35 mm greater in 2002 than the mean fork length of natural chinook smolts. Hatchery steelhead smolt mean fork lengths were 39 mm greater than natural steelhead smolts in 2001 and 44 mm greater than natural steelhead smolt fork lengths in 2002. A significant difference (p < 0.05) between hatchery and natural chinook salmon and steelhead fork lengths has been documented by these emigration studies from 1997 to 2002. Hatchery chinook salmon were volitionally released in 2001 and 2002 and the 90% arrivals for 2001 and 2002 at the lower rkm 7 trap were within the range of past observations of 22 to 38 days observed in 1999 and 2000. We estimated that 93.9% of the 123,014 hatchery chinook salmon released in 2001 survived to the lower trap and 90.2% of the 303

  20. Flood-plain delineation for Occoquan River, Wolf Run, Sandy Run, Elk Horn Run, Giles Run, Kanes Creek, Racoon Creek, and Thompson Creek, Fairfax County, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, Pat LeRoy

    1978-01-01

    Water-surface profiles of the 25-, 50-, and 100-year recurrence interval discharges have been computed for all streams and reaches of channels in Fairfax County, Virginia, having a drainage area greater than 1 square mile except for Dogue Creek, Little Hunting Creek, and that portion of Cameron Run above Lake Barcroft. Maps having a 2-foot contour interval and a horizontal scale of 1 inch equals 100 feet were used for base on which flood boundaries were delineated for 25-, 50-, and 100-year floods to be expected in each basin under ultimate development conditions. This report is one of a series and presents a discussion of techniques employed in computing discharges and profiles as well as the flood profiles and maps on which flood boundaries have been delineated for the Occoquan River and its tributaries within Fairfax County and those streams on Mason Neck within Fairfax County tributary to the Potomac River. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Natural Propagation and Habitat Improvement, Volume I, Oregon, Supplement C, White River Habitat Inventory, 1983 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, David

    1984-04-01

    More than 130 miles of stream fish habitat was inventoried and evaluated on the Mt. Hood National Forest during the first year of this multi-year project. First year tasks included field inventory and evaluation of habitat conditions on the White River and tributary streams thought to have the highest potential for supporting anadromous fish populations. All streams inventoried were located on the Mt. Hood National Forest. The surveyed area appears to contain most of the high quality anadromous fish habitat in the drainage. Habitat conditions appear suitable for steelhead, coho, and chinook salmon, and possibly sockeye. One hundred and twenty-four miles of potential anadromous fish habitat were identifed in the survey. Currently, 32 miles of this habitat would be readily accessible to anadromous fish. An additional 72 miles of habitat could be accessed with only minor passage improvement work. About 20 miles of habitat, however, will require major investment to provide fish passage. Three large lakes (Boulder, 14 acres; Badger, 45 acres; Clear, 550 acres) appear to be well-suited for rearing anadromous fish, although passage enhancement would be needed before self-sustaining runs could be established in any of the lakes.

  2. Field-trip guide to Mount Hood, Oregon, highlighting eruptive history and hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, William E.; Gardner, Cynthia A.

    2017-06-22

    This guidebook describes stops of interest for a geological field trip around Mount Hood volcano. It was developed for the 2017 International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) Scientific Assembly in Portland, Oregon. The intent of this guidebook and accompanying contributions is to provide an overview of Mount Hood, including its chief geologic processes, magmatic system, eruptive history, local tectonics, and hazards, by visiting a variety of readily accessible localities. We also describe coeval, largely monogenetic, volcanoes in the region. Accompanying the field-trip guidebook are separately authored contributions that discuss in detail the Mount Hood magmatic system and its products and behavior (Kent and Koleszar, this volume); Mount Hood earthquakes and their relation to regional tectonics and the volcanic system (Thelen and Moran, this volume); and young surface faults cutting the broader Mount Hood area whose extent has come to light after acquisition of regional light detection and ranging coverage (Madin and others, this volume).The trip makes an approximately 175-mile (280-kilometer) clockwise loop around Mount Hood, starting and ending in Portland. The route heads east on Interstate 84 through the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area. The guidebook points out only a few conspicuous features of note in the gorge, but many other guides to the gorge are available. The route continues south on the Mount Hood National Scenic Byway on Oregon Route 35 following Hood River, and returns to Portland on U.S. Highway 26 following Sandy River. The route traverses rocks as old as the early Miocene Eagle Creek Formation and overlying Columbia River Basalt Group of middle Miocene age, but chiefly lava flows and clastic products of arc volcanism of late Miocene to Holocene age.

  3. Temporal and spatial distribution of endangered juvenile Lost River and shortnose suckers in relation to environmental variables in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: 2009 annual data summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottcher, Jared L.; Burdick, Summer M.

    2010-01-01

    Lost River sucker (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose sucker (Chasmistes brevirostris) were listed as endangered in 1988 for a variety of reasons including apparent recruitment failure. Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, and its tributaries are considered the most critical remaining habitat for these two species. Age-0 suckers are often abundant in Upper Klamath Lake throughout the summer months, but catches decline dramatically between late August and early September each year. Similar declines of age-1 suckers between spring and late summer also occur annually. These rapid declines in catch rates and a lack of substantial recruitment into adult sucker populations in recent years suggests sucker populations experience high mortality between their first summer and first spawn. Summer age-0 sucker habitat use and distribution have been studied extensively, but many uncertainties remain about age-1 and older juvenile habitat use, distribution, and movement patterns within Upper Klamath Lake. This study was designed to examine seasonal changes in distribution of age-1 suckers in Upper Klamath Lake as they relate to depth and water quality. The results of our third annual spring and summer sampling effort are presented in this report. Catch data collected in 2009 indicate seasonal changes in age-1 and older juvenile sucker habitat use coincident with changes in water quality. Although age-1 sucker catch rates were again concentrated along the western shore in June and early July, as they were in 2007 and 2008, very few age-1 suckers were captured in Eagle Ridge Trench in 2009 - a deepwater area along the western shore extending from Howard Bay to Eagle Ridge Point. Instead, suckers in 2009 were concentrated in the relatively shallow bays along the western shore. Nevertheless, as dissolved-oxygen concentrations decreased in mid-July below sublethal thresholds around the Eagle Ridge Trench, age-1 suckers apparently moved away from the western shore, and subsequently were captured

  4. Estimation of bed-material transport in the lower Chetco River, Oregon, water years 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallick, J. Rose; O'Connor, Jim E.

    2011-01-01

    This assessment of bed-material transport uses methods developed in a previous study (Wallick and others, 2010) to estimate bed-material flux at the USGS Chetco River streamflow gaging station located at flood-plain kilometer 15 (14400000). On the basis of regressions between daily mean flow and transport capacity, daily bed-material flux was calculated for the period October 1, 2008 to March 30, 2011. The daily flux estimates were then aggregated by water year (WY) for WY 2009 and WY 2010 and the period April 1-March 31 during 2008-09, 2009-10 and 2010-11. The main findings were: *Estimated bed-material flux for WY 2009 (October 1, 2008 to September 30, 2009) was 87,300 metric tons as calculated by the Parker (1990a, b) equation (hereinafter \\'the Parker equation\\') and 116,900 metric tons as calculated by the Wilcock and Crowe (2003) equation (hereinafter \\'the Wilcock-Crowe equation\\'). *Estimated bed-material flux for water year 2010 (October 1, 2008 to September 30, 2009) was 56,800 metric tons as calculated by the Parker equation and 96,700 metric tons as calculated by the Wilcock-Crowe equation. *Estimated bed-material flux for April 1, 2008, to March 31, 2009, was 84,700 metric tons as calculated by the Parker equation and 111,700 metric tons as calculated by the Wilcock-Crowe equation. Flux values from April 1 to September 30, 2008, are from Wallick and others (2010). *Estimated bed-material flux for April 1, 2009, to March 31, 2010, was 45,500 metric tons as calculated by the Parker equation and 79,100 metric tons as calculated by the Wilcock-Crowe equation. *Estimated bed-material flux for April 1, 2010, to March 31, 2011, was 67,100 metric tons as calculated by the Parker equation and 134,300 metric tons as calculated by the Wilcock-Crowe equation. These calculations used provisional flow data for December 29, 2010, to March 31, 2011, and may be subject to revision. *Water years 2009 and 2010 both had less bed-material transport than the average

  5. Phosphorus and E. coli in the Fanno and Bronson Creek subbasins of the Tualatin River basin, Oregon, during summer low-flow conditions, 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.

    2000-01-01

    As part of an ongoing cooperative study between the Unified Sewerage Agency of Washington County, Oregon, and the U.S. Geological Survey, phosphorus and Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentrations were measured in the Fanno and Bronson Creek subbasins of the Tualatin River Basin during September 1996. Data were collected at 19 main-stem and 22 tributary sites in the Fanno Creek subbasin, and at 14 main-stem and 4 tributary sites in the Bronson Creek subbasin. These data provided the following information on summer base-flow conditions in the subbasins. Concentrations of total phosphorus at 70% of the sites sampled in the Fanno Creek subbasin were between 0.1 and 0.2 mg/L (milligrams per liter), very near the estimated background level of 0.14 mg/L attributed to ground-water base flow. These data indicate that ground-water discharge could account for the phosphorus measured at most sites in this subbasin.Concentrations of phosphorus at all but one of the sites sampled in the Bronson Creek subbasin were also between 0.1 and 0.2 mg/L, indicating that ground-water discharge could account for the phosphorus measured at most sites in this subbasin.A few sites in the Fanno Creek subbasin had phosphorus concentrations above background levels, indicating a source other than ground water. Some of these sites- Pendleton Creek and the tributary near Gemini, for example-were probably affected by the decomposition of avian waste materials and the release of phosphorus from bottom sediments in nearby ponds.Concentrations of E. coli--an indicator of fecal contamination and the potential presence of bacterial pathogens-exceeded the current single-sample criterion for recreational contact in freshwater (406 organisms/100 mL [organisms per 100 milliliters]) at 70% of the sites sampled in the Fanno Creek subbasin.Concentrations of E. coli in the Bronson Creek subbasin exceeded the single-sample criterion at one-third of the sites sampled.Most occurrences of elevated E. coli levels were

  6. Tidal wetlands of the Yaquina and Alsea River estuaries, Oregon: Geographic Information Systems layer development and recommendations for National Wetlands Inventory revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Laura S.; Reusser, Deborah A.; Janousek, Christopher N.

    2013-01-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) layers of current, and likely former, tidal wetlands in two Oregon estuaries were generated by enhancing the 2010 National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) data with expert local field knowledge, Light Detection and Ranging-derived elevations, and 2009 aerial orthophotographs. Data were generated for two purposes: First, to enhance the NWI by recommending revised Cowardin classifications for certain NWI wetlands within the study area; and second, to generate GIS data for the 1999 Yaquina and Alsea River Basins Estuarine Wetland Site Prioritization study. Two sets of GIS products were generated: (1) enhanced NWI shapefiles; and (2) shapefiles of prioritization sites. The enhanced NWI shapefiles contain recommended changes to the Cowardin classification (system, subsystem, class, and/or modifiers) for 286 NWI polygons in the Yaquina estuary (1,133 acres) and 83 NWI polygons in the Alsea estuary (322 acres). These enhanced NWI shapefiles also identify likely former tidal wetlands that are classified as upland in the current NWI (64 NWI polygons totaling 441 acres in the Yaquina estuary; 16 NWI polygons totaling 51 acres in the Alsea estuary). The former tidal wetlands were identified to assist strategic planning for tidal wetland restoration. Cowardin classifications for the former tidal wetlands were not provided, because their current hydrology is complex owing to dikes, tide gates, and drainage ditches. The scope of this project did not include the field evaluation that would be needed to determine whether the former tidal wetlands are currently wetlands, and if so, determine their correct Cowardin classification. The prioritization site shapefiles contain 49 prioritization sites totaling 2,177 acres in the Yaquina estuary, and 39 prioritization sites totaling 1,045 acres in the Alsea estuary. The prioritization sites include current and former (for example, diked) tidal wetlands, and provide landscape units appropriate for basin

  7. Erosion and deposition for Fanno Creek, Oregon 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began investigating the sources and sinks of organic matter in Fanno Creek, a tributary of the Tualatin River, Oregon....

  8. Aerial photo mosaic of the Tillamook basin, Oregon in 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Tillamook Bay subbasins and Nehalem River basins encompass 1,369 and 2,207 respective square kilometers of northwestern Oregon and drain to the Pacific Ocean....

  9. Review of a model to assess stranding of juvenile salmon by ship wakes along the Lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Tobias J.; Plumb, John M.; Adams, Noah S.

    2013-01-01

    Long period wake waves from deep draft vessels have been shown to strand small fish, particularly juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tschawytcha, in the lower Columbia River (LCR). The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers is responsible for maintaining the shipping channel in the LCR and recently conducted dredging operations to deepen the shipping channel from an authorized depth of 40 feet(ft) to an authorized depth of 43 ft (in areas where rapid shoaling was expected, dredging operations were used to increase the channel depth to 48 ft). A model was developed to estimate stranding probabilities for juvenile salmon under the 40- and 43-ft channel scenarios, to determine if channel deepening was going to affect wake stranding (Assessment of potential stranding of juvenile salmon by ship wakes along the Lower Columbia River under scenarios of ship traffic and channel depth: Report prepared for the Portland District U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland, Oregon). The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers funded the U.S. Geological Survey to review this model. A total of 30 review questions were provided to guide the review process, and these questions are addressed in this report. In general, we determined that the analyses by Pearson (2011) were appropriate given the data available. We did identify two areas where additional information could have been provided: (1) a more thorough description of model diagnostics and model selection would have been useful for the reader to better understand the model framework; and (2) model uncertainty should have been explicitly described and reported in the document. Stranding probability estimates between the 40- and 43-ft channel depths were minimally different under most of the scenarios that were examined by Pearson (2011), and a discussion of the effects of uncertainty given these minimal differences would have been useful. Ultimately, however, a stochastic (or simulation) model would provide the best opportunity to illustrate

  10. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Naco x (Chinook salmon; Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Heeyey (Steelhead; Oncorhynchus mykiss) Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon from 5 October 2006 to 21 June 2007, Annual Report 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaels, Brian; Espinosa, Neal (Nez Perce Tribe)

    2009-02-18

    This report summarizes the Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) Department of Fisheries Resources Management (DFRM) results for the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) Hatchery Evaluation studies and the Imnaha River Smolt Monitoring Program (SMP) for the 2007 smolt migration from the Imnaha River, Oregon. These studies are closely coordinated and provide information about juvenile natural and hatchery spring/summer Naco x (Chinook Salmon; Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Heeyey (steelhead; O. mykiss) biological characteristics, emigrant timing, survival, arrival timing and travel time to the Snake River dams and McNary Dam (MCD) on the Columbia River. These studies provide information on listed Naco x (Chinook salmon) and Heeyey (steelhead) for the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (NMFS 2000). The Lower Snake River Compensation Plan program's goal is to maintain a hatchery production program of 490,000 Naco x (Chinook salmon) and 330,000 Heeyey (steelhead) for annual release in the Imnaha River (Carmichael et al. 1998, Whitesel et al. 1998). These hatchery releases occur to compensate for fish losses due to the construction and operation of the four lower Snake River hydroelectric facilities. One of the aspects of the LSRCP hatchery evaluation studies in the Imnaha River is to determine natural and hatchery Naco x (Chinook salmon) and Heeyey (steelhead) smolt performance, emigration characteristics and survival (Kucera and Blenden 1998). A long term monitoring effort was established to document smolt emigrant timing and post release survival within the Imnaha River, estimate smolt survival downstream to McNary Dam, compare natural and hatchery smolt performance, and collect smolt-to-adult return information. This project collects information for, and is part of, a larger effort entitled Smolt Monitoring by Federal and Non-Federal Agencies (BPA Project No. 198712700). This larger project provides data on movement of smolts out of major

  11. Sources and characteristics of organic matter in the Clackamas River, Oregon, related to the formation of disinfection by-products in treated drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kurt D.; Kraus, Tamara E.C.; Goldman, Jami H.; Saraceno, John Franco; Downing, Bryan D.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; McGhee, Gordon; Triplett, Tracy

    2013-01-01

    This study characterized the amount and quality of organic matter in the Clackamas River, Oregon, to gain an understanding of sources that contribute to the formation of chlorinated and brominated disinfection by-products (DBPs), focusing on regulated DBPs in treated drinking water from two direct-filtration treatment plants that together serve approximately 100,000 customers. The central hypothesis guiding this study was that natural organic matter leaching out of the forested watershed, in-stream growth of benthic algae, and phytoplankton blooms in the reservoirs contribute different and varying proportions of organic carbon to the river. Differences in the amount and composition of carbon derived from each source affects the types and concentrations of DBP precursors entering the treatment plants and, as a result, yield varying DBP concentrations and species in finished water. The two classes of DBPs analyzed in this study-trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs)-form from precursors within the dissolved and particulate pools of organic matter present in source water. The five principal objectives of the study were to (1) describe the seasonal quantity and character of organic matter in the Clackamas River; (2) relate the amount and composition of organic matter to the formation of DBPs; (3) evaluate sources of DBP precursors in the watershed; (4) assess the use of optical measurements, including in-situ fluorescence, for estimating dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and DBP formation; and (5) assess the removal of DBP precursors during treatment by conducting treatability "jar-test" experiments at one of the treatment plants. Data collection consisted of (1) monthly sampling of source and finished water at two drinking-water treatment plants; (2) event-based sampling in the mainstem, tributaries, and North Fork Reservoir; and (3) in-situ continuous monitoring of fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM), turbidity, chlorophyll-a, and

  12. Demographics and run timing of adult Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose (Chasmistes brevirostris) suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, David A.; Hayes, Brian S.; Janney, Eric C.; Harris, Alta C.; Koller, Justin P.; Johnson, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Data from a long-term capture-recapture program were used to assess the status and dynamics of populations of two long-lived, federally endangered catostomids in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon. Lost River suckers (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) have been captured and tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags during their spawning migrations in each year since 1995. In addition, beginning in 2005, individuals that had been previously PIT-tagged were re-encountered on remote underwater antennas deployed throughout the spawning areas. Captures and remote encounters during spring 2009 were used to describe the spawning migrations in that year and also were incorporated into capture-recapture analyses of population dynamics over the last decade. Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) open population capture-recapture models were used to estimate annual survival probabilities, and a reverse-time analog of the CJS model was used to estimate recruitment of new individuals into the spawning populations. In addition, data on the size composition of captured fish was examined for any additional evidence of recruitment. Survival and recruitment estimates were combined to estimate changes in population size over time and to determine the status of the populations through 2007. Separate analyses were conducted for each species and also for each subpopulation of Lost River suckers (LRS). One subpopulation of LRS migrates into tributaries to spawn, similar to shortnose suckers (SNS), whereas the other subpopulation spawns at upwelling areas along the eastern shoreline of the lake. In 2009, we captured and tagged 781 LRS at four shoreline areas and recaptured an additional 638 individuals that had been tagged in previous years. Across all four areas, the remote antennas detected 6,056 individual LRS during the spawning season. Spawning activity peaked in April and most individuals were encountered at Sucker Springs and Cinder Flats. In the Williamson

  13. 40 CFR 81.338 - Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Section 107 Attainment Status Designations § 81.338 Oregon... Urban Growth Boundary Medford Area Jackson County (part) 9/23/02 Attainment Medford Urban Growth... Intrastate Unclassifiable/Attainment Crook County Deschutes County Hood River County Jefferson County...

  14. New Insights to the Mid Miocene Calc-alkaline Lavas of the Strawberry Volcanics, NE Oregon Surrounded by the Coeval Tholeiitic Columbia River Basalt Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, A. R.; Streck, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Strawberry Volcanics (SV) of NE Oregon were distributed over 3,400 km2 during the mid-Miocene and comprise a diverse volcanic suite, which span the range of compositions from basalt to rhyolite. The predominant composition of this volcanic suite is calc-alkaline (CA) basaltic andesite and andesite, although tholeiitic (TH) lavas of basalt to andesite occur as well. The coeval flood basalts of the Columbia River province surround the SV. Here we will discuss new ages and geochemical data, and present a new geologic map and stratigraphy of the SV. The SV are emplaced on top of pre-Tertiary accreted terranes of the Blue Mountain Province, Mesozoic plutonic rocks, and older Tertiary volcanic rocks thought to be mostly Oligocene of age. Massive rhyolites (~300 m thick) are exposed mainly along the western flank and underlie the intermediate composition lavas. In the southern portion of this study area, alkali basaltic lavas, thought to be late Miocene to early Pliocene in age, erupted and overlie the SV. In addition, several regional ignimbrites reach into the area. The 9.7 Ma Devine Canyon Tuff and the 7.1 Ma Rattlesnake Tuff also overlie the SV. The 15.9-15.4 Ma Dinner Creek Tuff is mid-Miocene, and clear stratigraphic relationships are found in areas where the tuff is intercalated between thick SV lava flows. All of the basalts of the SV are TH and are dominated by phenocryst-poor (≤2%) lithologies. These basalts have an ophitic texture dominated by plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine (often weathered to iddingsite). Basalts and basaltic andesites have olivine Fo #'s ranging from 44 at the rims (where weathered to iddingsite) and as high as 88 at cores. Pyroxene Mg #'s range from 65 to 85. Andesites of the SV are sub-alkaline, and like the basalts, are exceedingly phenocryst-poor (≤3%) with microphenocrysts of plagioclase and lesser pyroxene and olivine, which occasionally occur as crystal clots of ~1-3 mm instead of single crystals. In addition, minimal

  15. Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Endangered Juvenile Lost River and Shortnose Suckers in Relation to Environmental Variables in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: 2008 Annual Data Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Summer M.; VanderKooi, Scott P.

    2010-01-01

    Lost River sucker (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose sucker (Chasmistes brevirostris) were listed as endangered in 1988 for a variety of reasons including apparent recruitment failure. Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, and its tributaries are considered the most critical remaining habitat for these two species. Age-0 suckers are often abundant in Upper Klamath Lake throughout the summer months, but catches decline dramatically between late August and early September each year and age-1 and older sub-adult suckers are rare. These rapid declines in catch rates and a lack of substantial recruitment into adult sucker populations in recent years suggests sucker populations experience high mortality between their first summer and first spawn. A lack of access to, or abundance of, optimal rearing habitat may exacerbate juvenile sucker mortality or restrict juvenile growth or development. Summer age-0 sucker habitat use and distribution has been studied extensively, but many uncertainties remain about age-1 and older juvenile habitat use, distribution, and movement patterns within Upper Klamath Lake. We designed a study to examine seasonal changes in distribution of age-1 suckers in Upper Klamath Lake as they relate to depth and water quality. In this document, which meets our annual data summary and reporting obligations, we discuss the results of our second annual spring and summer sampling effort. Catch data collected in 2007 and 2008 indicate seasonal changes in age-1 and older juvenile sucker habitat use coincident with changes in water quality, which were previously undocumented. In both years during April and May, age-1 and older juvenile suckers were found in shallow water environments. Then, as water temperatures began to warm throughout Upper Klamath Lake in June, age-1 and older juvenile suckers primarily were captured along the western shore in some of the deepest available environments. Following a dramatic decrease in dissolved oxygen concentrations in Eagle Ridge

  16. A new genus and species of entocytherid ostracod (Ostracoda: Entocytheridae) from the John Day River Basin of Oregon, U.S.A., with a key to genera of the subfamily Entocytherinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Patricia G; Williams, Bronwyn W

    2017-06-07

    Targeted sampling efforts by the authors for the signal crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus, from its native range in the John Day River Basin, Oregon, U.S.A. yielded entocytherid ostracods with a male copulatory complex so clearly different from other entocytherines that a new genus, Aurumcythere gen. nov. is proposed to receive them. This newly proposed, apparently nonsclerotized, genus with hook and spur-like prominences of the posteroventral end of the peniferum is the first new genus of the subfamily Entocytherinae named since Hobbs & Peters described Aphelocythere (= Waltoncythere) in 1977. Aurumcythere gen. nov. represents only the second genus of entocytherid known from the Pacific Northwest. Lack of sclerotization in Aurumcythere gen. nov. provides new insight into poorly understood mating behaviors of entocytherid ostracods.

  17. Aerial photo mosaic of the Illinois River repeat photo site in 1969

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Rogue River drains 13,390 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean near the town of Gold Beach, Oregon. The Rogue River...

  18. Aerial photo mosaic of the Applegate River repeat photo sites in 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Rogue River drains 13,390 square kilometers of southwestern Oregon before flowing into the Pacific Ocean near the town of Gold Beach, Oregon. The Rogue River...

  19. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Naco x (Chinook salmon; Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Heeyey (Steelhead; Oncorhynchus mykiss) Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon from 5 October 2006 to 21 June 2007, Annual Report 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michaels, Brian; Espinosa, Neal (Nez Perce Tribe)

    2009-02-18

    This report summarizes the Nez Perce Tribe (NPT) Department of Fisheries Resources Management (DFRM) results for the Lower Snake River Compensation Plan (LSRCP) Hatchery Evaluation studies and the Imnaha River Smolt Monitoring Program (SMP) for the 2007 smolt migration from the Imnaha River, Oregon. These studies are closely coordinated and provide information about juvenile natural and hatchery spring/summer Naco x (Chinook Salmon; Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Heeyey (steelhead; O. mykiss) biological characteristics, emigrant timing, survival, arrival timing and travel time to the Snake River dams and McNary Dam (MCD) on the Columbia River. These studies provide information on listed Naco x (Chinook salmon) and Heeyey (steelhead) for the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion (NMFS 2000). The Lower Snake River Compensation Plan program's goal is to maintain a hatchery production program of 490,000 Naco x (Chinook salmon) and 330,000 Heeyey (steelhead) for annual release in the Imnaha River (Carmichael et al. 1998, Whitesel et al. 1998). These hatchery releases occur to compensate for fish losses due to the construction and operation of the four lower Snake River hydroelectric facilities. One of the aspects of the LSRCP hatchery evaluation studies in the Imnaha River is to determine natural and hatchery Naco x (Chinook salmon) and Heeyey (steelhead) smolt performance, emigration characteristics and survival (Kucera and Blenden 1998). A long term monitoring effort was established to document smolt emigrant timing and post release survival within the Imnaha River, estimate smolt survival downstream to McNary Dam, compare natural and hatchery smolt performance, and collect smolt-to-adult return information. This project collects information for, and is part of, a larger effort entitled Smolt Monitoring by Federal and Non-Federal Agencies (BPA Project No. 198712700). This larger project provides data on movement of smolts out of major

  20. Status of Oregon's Bull Trout.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, David V.; Hanson, Mary L.; Hooton, Robert M.

    1997-10-01

    Limited historical references indicate that bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in Oregon were once widely spread throughout at least 12 basins in the Klamath River and Columbia River systems. No bull trout have been observed in Oregon's coastal systems. A total of 69 bull trout populations in 12 basins are currently identified in Oregon. A comparison of the 1991 bull trout status (Ratliff and Howell 1992) to the revised 1996 status found that 7 populations were newly discovered and 1 population showed a positive or upgraded status while 22 populations showed a negative or downgraded status. The general downgrading of 32% of Oregon's bull trout populations appears largely due to increased survey efforts and increased survey accuracy rather than reduced numbers or distribution. However, three populations in the upper Klamath Basin, two in the Walla Walla Basin, and one in the Willamette Basin showed decreases in estimated population abundance or distribution.

  1. Emigration of Natural and Hatchery Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Smolts from the Imnaha River, Oregon, October 20, 1999 to June 15, 2000 : 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleary, Peter J.

    2002-12-01

    This report details the smolt performance of natural and hatchery chinook salmon and steelhead from the Imnaha River to the Snake River and Columbia River dams during migration year 2000. Flow conditions in the Imnaha River and Snake River were appreciably lower during May and June in 2000, compared to historic levels at gauging stations, but flow conditions in the Imnaha and Snake River were above average during April. Overall, water conditions for the entire Columbia River were characterized by the Fish Passage Center as below normal levels. Spill occurred continuously at Lower Granite Dam (LGR), Little Goose Dam (LGO), and Lower Monumental Dam (LMO) from April 5, April 10, and April 4, respectively, to June 20, and encompassed the periods of migration of Imnaha River juvenile chinook salmon and steelhead, with a few exceptions. Outflow in the tailraces of LGR, LGO, and LMO decreased in May and June while temperatures increased. Chinook salmon and steelhead were captured using rotary screw traps at river kilometer (rkm) 74 and 7 during the fall from October 20 to November 24, 1999, and during the spring period from February 26 to June 15, 2000, at rkm 7. Spring trapping information was reported weekly to the Fish Passage Center's Smolt Monitoring Program. A portion of these fish were tagged weekly with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and were detected migrating past interrogation sites at Snake River and Columbia River dams. Survival of PIT tagged fish was estimated with the Survival Using Proportional Hazards model (SURPH model). Estimated survival of fall tagged natural chinook (with {+-} 95% confidence intervals in parenthesis) from the upper Imnaha (rkm 74) to LGR was 29.6% ({+-} 2.8 ). Natural chinook salmon tagged in the fall in the lower Imnaha River at rkm 7, which over wintered in the Snake River, had an estimated survival of 36.8% ({+-} 2.9%) to LGR. Spring tagged natural chinook salmon from the lower site had an estimated survival of 84

  2. Rediscovering community--reflections after Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Hoboken, New Jersey, is a town of 50,000 residents located across the Hudson River from New York City. Most of Hoboken's infrastructure was compromised during Hurricane Sandy as a result of flooding and power outages that rendered many businesses inoperable, including all of the pharmacies in town. Despite a focus on emergency preparedness since Hurricane Katrina and 9/11, there were no contingencies in place to facilitate and assess the medication needs of the community in the event of a natural disaster. This essay describes how the author rediscovered the meaning of community, and through working with colleagues in other health care disciplines and non-health care volunteers, provided care to patients in suboptimal circumstances.

  3. Sandy PMO Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013 Financial Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Sandy PMO: Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013 (Sandy Supplemental Bill) Financial Data. This is the Sandy Supplemental Quarterly Financial Datasets that are...

  4. Biological science in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsteinson, Lyman

    2005-01-01

    Fishing is an important part of Oregon's culture. The Western Fisheries Research Center (WFRC) has been conducting research in Oregon for many years to provide information that can be used by managers to help keep fish and other parts of the ecosystem healthy. Below are examples of some of WFRC's studies.

  5. PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs, OC pesticides and mercury in fish and osprey eggs from Willamette River, Oregon (1993, 2001 and 2006) with calculated biomagnification factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Kaiser, J.L.; Grove, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    The osprey (Pandion haliaetus) population nesting along the main stem Willamette River and lower Santiam River was first studied to evaluate contaminants and reproductive rates in 1993 when 78 occupied nests were present. By 2001, the population increased to 234 occupied nests, a 13.7% annual rate of population increase. A sample egg was collected from each of a series of nests along the Upper River (river mile 55-187) in 1993, 2001 and 2006 to evaluate trends of persistent contaminants (organochlorine [OC] pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins [PCDDs], and polychlorinated dibenzofurans [PCDFs]). Nearly all OC pesticide residues decreased significantly, e.g., p, p?-DDE (DDE) from 2,350 to 1,353 to 210 ??g/kg wet weight (ww). PCBs followed a similar pattern over time, e.g., ???PCBs 688 to 245 to 182 ??g/kg ww, while PCDDs and PCDFs showed a more precipitous decline (often 85-95%) between 1993 and 2001, with no egg analyses warranted in 2006. During 2001-2002, sample osprey eggs were also collected from nests at three Headwater Reservoirs and two lower reaches (Newberg Pool and Tidal Portland) of the Willamette River, as well as the lower portion of the Santiam River to evaluate spatial residue patterns. Significant differences were seldom detected among the different sampling areas for OC pesticides (probably due to small sample sizes), although higher concentrations were often seen in the lower reaches, e.g., DDE 901 ??g/kg ww (Headwater Reservoirs), 1,353 (Upper River), 1,384 (Newberg Pool) and 2,676 (Tidal Portland). PCB congener concentrations in eggs were usually higher in the Tidal Portland reach than at other locations and often significantly higher than at the Headwater Reservoirs or Upper River. Mercury (first analyzed in eggs in 2001), PCDDs and PCDFs were extremely low in 2001/2002 with no significant spatial patterns. Whole fish composite samples of largescale sucker (Catastomus macrocheilus) and northern

  6. Hurricane Sandy Poster (October 29, 2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Sandy poster. Multi-spectral image from Suomi-NPP shows Hurricane Sandy approaching the New Jersey Coast on October 29, 2012. Poster size is approximately...

  7. On Sandy Shores. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Craig; And Others

    The activities in this guide (for grades 2-4) transport students to the sandy shore, one of the most fascinating ecosystems on the planet. At this ecological juncture a multiplicity of life forms find ways to survive, thrive, and interact with each other. Using a wide variety of learning formats, students explore and deepen their understanding of…

  8. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_8: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 62,300 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  9. Discharge-related trends in the composition of particulate organic matter exported by small mountainous rivers: results from Oregon and California (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goni, M. A.; Hatten, J. A.; Wheatcroft, R. A.; Borgeld, J.; Williamson, A.; Padgett, J.; Pasternack, G. B.; Gray, A.; Watson, E. B.

    2009-12-01

    Small mountainous rivers display highly variable discharges on both seasonal and event scales. Previous work has shown marked differences in the composition of the particulate load of rivers collected at different stages of the hydrograph, but fewer studies have specifically investigated how the biogeochemical compositions of particulate organic matter change as a function of discharge and how this variation affects the characteristics of the materials reaching the ocean. We explore these issues using data from three rivers along the west coast of the U.S. (Umpqua, Eel and Salinas) with similar watershed size but contrasting climate, vegetation and land use. Coarse and fine particulate organic matter samples collected at different discharges, including several flood events, were analyzed for carbon and nitrogen content, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions, radiocarbon compositions and yields of different organic biomarkers (e.g. lignin phenols, cutin acids, amino acid products). This presentation will focus on comparing and contrasting the provenance, age, and biochemical make-up of materials transported by each of the rivers as a function of discharge. Seasonal and event-scale differences in organic matter concentrations and compositions will be the subject of an accompanying poster. We will discuss both the processes responsible for these contrasts and the impacts they have on the delivery and fate of terrigenous organic matter in the coastal ocean.

  10. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_4: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 27,900 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  11. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_7: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 46,800 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  12. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_6: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 39,900 at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  13. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_3: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 21,450 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  14. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_5: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 33,900 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  15. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_1: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 12,000 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  16. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_2: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 15,000 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  17. Investigation of methods for successful installation and operation of Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System (JSATS) hydrophones in the Willamette River, Oregon, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutz, Gary L.; Sholtis, Matthew D.; Adams, Noah S.; Beeman, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Acoustic telemetry equipment was installed at three sites in the Willamette River during October 2012 to test the effectiveness of using the Juvenile Salmon Acoustic Telemetry System to monitor the movements of fish in a high-flow, high-velocity riverine environment. Hydrophones installed on concrete blocks were placed on the bottom of the river, and data cables were run from the hydrophones to shore where they were attached to anchor points. Under relatively low-flow conditions (less than approximately 10,000 cubic feet per second) the monitoring system remained in place and could be used to detect tagged fish as they traveled downstream during their seaward migration. At river discharge over approximately 10,000 cubic feet per second, the hydrophones were damaged and cables were lost because of the large volume of woody debris in the river and the increase in water velocity. Damage at two of the sites was sufficient to prevent data collection. A limited amount of data was collected from the equipment at the third site. Site selection and deployment strategies were re-evaluated, and an alternate deployment methodology was designed for implementation in 2013.

  18. Habitat selection influences sex distribution, morphology, tissue biochemistry, and parasite load of juvenile coho salmon in the West Fork Smith River, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the strong influence of water temperature on salmonid physiology and behavior, in the summers of 2004 and 2005 we studied juvenile male and female coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in two reaches of Oregon’s West Fork Smith River with different thermal profiles. Our goals we...

  19. Water-discharge determinations for the tidal reach of the Willamette River from Ross Island Bridge to Mile 10.3, Portland, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, G.R.; Lutz, Gale A.

    1968-01-01

    Water-discharge, velocity, and slope variations for a 3.7-mile-Iong tidal reach of the Willamette River at Portland, Oreg., were defined from discharge measurements and river stage data collected between July 1962 and January 1965. Observed water discharge during tide-affected flows, during floods, and during backwater from the Columbia River and recorded stages at each end of the river reach were used to determine water discharge from two mathematical models. These models use a finite-difference method to solve the equations of moderately unsteady open-channel streamflow, and discharges are computed by an electronic digital computer. Discharges computed by using the mathematical models compare satisfactorily with observed discharges, except during the period of backwater from the annual flood of the Columbia River. The flow resistance coefficients used in the models vary with discharge; for one model, the coefficients for discharges above 30,000 cfs (cubic feet per second) are 12 and 24 percent less than the coefficient used for discharges below 30,000 cfs. Daily mean discharges were determined by use of one mathematical model for approximately two-thirds of the water year, October 1963 through September 1964. Agreement of computed with routed daily mean discharges is fair; above 30,000 cfs, average differences between the two discharges are about 10 percent, and below 30,000 cfs, computed daily discharges are consistently greater (by as much as 25 percent) than routed discharges. The other model was used to compute discharges for the unusually high flood flows of December 1964.

  20. Oxygen isotope evolution of the Lake Owyhee volcanic field, Oregon, and implications for the low-δ18O magmatism of the Snake River Plain-Yellowstone hotspot and other low-δ18O large igneous provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Tyler B.; Kitajima, Kouki; Nakashima, Daisuke; Strickland, Ariel; Spicuzza, Michael J.; Valley, John W.

    2016-11-01

    The Snake River Plain-Yellowstone (SRP-Y) hotspot track represents the largest known low-δ18O igneous province; however, debate persists regarding the timing and distribution of meteoric hydrothermal alteration and subsequent melting/assimilation relative to hotspot magmatism. To further constrain alteration relations for SRP-Y low-δ18O magmatism, we present in situ δ18O and U-Pb analyses of zircon, and laser fluorination δ18O analyses of phenocrysts, from the Lake Owyhee volcanic field (LOVF) of east-central Oregon. U-Pb data place LOVF magmatism between 16.3 and 15.4 Ma, and contain no evidence for xenocrystic zircon. LOVF δ18O(Zrc) values demonstrate (1) both low-δ18O and high-δ18O caldera-forming and pre-/post-caldera magmas, (2) relative increases in δ18O between low-δ18O caldera-forming and post-caldera units, and (3) low-δ18O magmatism associated with extension of the Oregon-Idaho Graben. The new data, along with new compilations of (1) in situ zircon δ18O data for the SRP-Y, and (2) regional δ18O(WR) and δ18O(magma) patterns, further constrain the thermal and structural associations for hydrothermal alteration in the SRP-Y. Models for low-δ18O magmatism must be compatible with (1) δ18O(magma) trends within individual SRP-Y eruptive centers, (2) along axis trends in δ18O(magma), and (3) the high concentration of low-δ18O magmas relative to the surrounding regions. When considered with the structural and thermal evolution of the SRP-Y, these constraints support low-δ18O magma genesis originating from syn-hotspot meteoric hydrothermal alteration, driven by hotspot-derived thermal fluxes superimposed on extensional tectonics. This model is not restricted to continental hotspot settings and may apply to several other low-δ18O igneous provinces with similar thermal and structural associations.

  1. Stream Temperature Data in the Little Blitzen watershed of SE Oregon, 2009-15

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset includes stream temperatures from two data loggers installed at one site in the Little Blitzen River of SE Oregon as part of a redband trout...

  2. Near-shore and off-shore habitat use by endangered juvenile Lost River and Shortnose Suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon: 2006 data summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Summer M.; Wilkens, Alexander X.; VanderKooi, Scott P.

    2008-01-01

    Lost River suckers Deltistes luxatus and shortnose suckers Chasmistes brevirostris , listed as endangered in 1988 under the Endangered Species Act, have shown infrequent recruitment into adult populations in Upper Klamath Lake (NRC 2004). In an effort to understand the causes behind and provide management solutions to apparent recruitment failure, a number of studies have been conducted including several on larval and juvenile sucker habitat use. Near-shore areas in Upper Klamath Lake with emergent vegetation, especially those near the mouth of the Williamson River, were identified as important habitat for larval suckers (Cooperman and Markle 2000; Reiser et al. 2001). Terwilliger et al. (2004) characterized primary age-0 sucker habitat as near-shore areas in the southern portion of Upper Klamath Lake with gravel and cobble substrates. Reiser et al. (2001) provided some evidence that juvenile suckers use habitats with emergent vegetation, but nothing concerning the extent or timing of use.

  3. South Oregon Coast Reinforcement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1998-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to build a transmission line to reinforce electrical service to the southern coast of Oregon. This FYI outlines the proposal, tells how one can learn more, and how one can share ideas and opinions. The project will reinforce Oregon`s south coast area and provide the necessary transmission for Nucor Corporation to build a new steel mill in the Coos Bay/North Bend area. The proposed plant, which would use mostly recycled scrap metal, would produce rolled steel products. The plant would require a large amount of electrical power to run the furnace used in its steel-making process. In addition to the potential steel mill, electrical loads in the south Oregon coast area are expected to continue to grow.

  4. Pre-and post-Missoula flood geomorphology of the Pre-Holocene ancestral Columbia River Valley in the Portland forearc basin, Oregon and Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Curt D.; Minor, Rick; Peterson, Gary L.; Gates, Edward B.

    2011-06-01

    Geomorphic landscape development in the pre-Holocene ancestral Columbia River Valley (1-5 km width) in the Portland forearc basin (~ 50 km length) is established from depositional sequences, which pre-date and post-date the glacial Lake Missoula floods. The sequences are observed from selected borehole logs (150 in number) and intact terrace soil profiles (56 in number) in backhoe trenches. Four sequences are widespread, including (1) a vertically aggraded Pleistocene alluvial plain, (2) a steep sided valley that is incised (125-150 m) into the Pleistocene gravel plain, (3) Missoula flood terraces (19-13 ka) abandoned on the sides of the ancestral valley, and (4) Holocene flooding surfaces (11-8 ka) buried at 70-30 m depth in the axial Columbia River Valley. Weathering rims and cementation are used for relative dating of incised Pleistocene gravel units. Soil development on the abandoned Missoula flood terraces is directly related to terrace deposit lithology, including thin Bw horizons in gravel, irregular podzols in sand, and multiple Bw horizons in thicker loess-capping layers. Radiocarbon dating of sand and mud alluvium in the submerged axial valley ties Holocene flooding surfaces to a local sea level curve and establishes Holocene sedimentation rates of 1.5 cm year- 1 during 11-9 ka and 0.3 cm year- 1 during 9-0 ka. The sequences of Pleistocene gravel aggradation, river valley incision, cataclysmic Missoula flooding, and Holocene submergence yield complex geomorphic landscapes in the ancestral lower Columbia River Valley.

  5. Monitoring instream turbidity to estimate continuous suspended-sediment loads and yields and clay-water volumes in the upper North Santiam River Basin, Oregon, 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrich, Mark A.; Bragg, Heather M.

    2003-01-01

    Three real-time, instream water-quality and turbidity-monitoring sites were established in October 1998 in the upper North Santiam River Basin on the North Santiam River, the Breitenbush River, and Blowout Creek, the main tributary inputs to Detroit Lake, a large, controlled reservoir that extends from river mile 61 to 70. Suspended-sediment samples were collected biweekly to monthly at each station. Rating curves provided estimated suspended-sediment concentration in 30-minute increments from log transformations of the instream turbidity monitoring data. Turbidity was found to be a better surrogate than discharge for estimating suspended-sediment concentration. Daily and annual mean suspended-sediment loads were estimated using the estimated suspended-sediment concentrations and corresponding streamflow data. A laboratory method for estimating persistent (residual) turbidity from separate turbidity samples was developed. Turbidity was measured over time for each sample. Turbidity decay curves were derived as the suspended sediment settled. Each curve was used to estimate a turbidity value for a given settling time. Medium to fine clay particle (size clay particle persistent turbidity for each site. The monitored instream 30-minute turbidity values were converted to a calculated persistent turbidity value that would have resulted after 8.5 hours of settling in the laboratory. Persistent turbidities of 10 NTU and above were tabulated for each site. (Water of 10 NTU and above can interfere with or damage treatment filters and result in intake closures at drinking-water facilities.) A method was developed that used the persistent turbidity experiments, turbidity decay curves, and stream discharge to estimate the volume of water containing suspended clay that entered Detroit Lake from the three main tributaries. 'Suspended-clay water' was defined as water having a value of at least 10 NTU after settling the required 8.5 hours. The suspended-clay concentrations of 10

  6. Sediment yield computation of the sandy and gritty area based on the digital watershed model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Jiahong; WANG; Guangqian; LI; Tiejian; XUE; Hai

    2006-01-01

    The Yellow River is well known as a sediment-laden river, which is the main reason that it cannot be controlled as easily as other rivers. Many researchers, such as Qian Ning et al., have found that the sediment load of the Yellow River comes mainly from the sandy and gritty area of the Loess Plateau. Therefore, it is very important to simulate the sediment yield in this area. This paper proposes a method to compute the sediment production in the sandy and gritty area based on the digital watershed model. The suggested model is calibrated and validated in the Chabagou basin, which is a small catchment in the study area. Finally, the model simulates the sediment yield of the sandy and gritty area in 1967, 1978, 1983, 1994 and 1997, which represents a high water and high sediment year, a mean water and mean sediment year, a high water and low sediment year, a low water and high sediment year, and a low water and low sediment year separately. The simulation results, including the runoff depth and erosion modulus, can well explain the "low water and high sediment" phenomena in the Yellow River basin. The total amount of the sediment production and its distribution generated by the model is very useful for water and soil conservation in the sandy and gritty area of the Loess Plateau.

  7. Inter-annual variability in apparent relative production, survival, and growth of juvenile Lost River and shortnose suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2001–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick, Summer M.; Martin, Barbara A.

    2017-06-15

    Executive SummaryPopulations of the once abundant Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) of the Upper Klamath Basin, decreased so substantially throughout the 20th century that they were listed under the Endangered Species Act in 1988. Major landscape alterations, deterioration of water quality, and competition with and predation by exotic species are listed as primary causes of the decreases in populations. Upper Klamath Lake populations are decreasing because fish lost due to adult mortality, which is relatively low for adult Lost River suckers and variable for adult shortnose suckers, are not replaced by new young adult suckers recruiting into known adult spawning aggregations. Catch-at-age and size data indicate that most adult suckers presently in Upper Klamath Lake spawning populations were hatched around 1991. While, a lack of egg production and emigration of young fish (especially larvae) may contribute, catch-at-length and age data indicate high mortality during the first summer or winter of life may be the primary limitation to the recruitment of young adults. The causes of juvenile sucker mortality are unknown.We compiled and analyzed catch, length, age, and species data on juvenile suckers from Upper Klamath Lake from eight prior studies conducted from 2001 to 2015 to examine annual variation in apparent production, survival, and growth of young suckers. We used a combination of qualitative assessments, general linear models, and linear regression to make inferences about annual differences in juvenile sucker dynamics. The intent of this exercise is to provide information that can be compared to annual variability in environmental conditions with the hopes of understanding what drives juvenile sucker population dynamics.Age-0 Lost River suckers generally grew faster than age-0 shortnose suckers, but the difference in growth rates between the two species varied among years. This unsynchronized annual variation in

  8. Osprey distribution, abundance, and status in western North America: II. The Oregon population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Collins, J.A.; Deibert, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    An estimated 308 ? 23 pairs of Ospreys nested in the survey area in Oregon in 1976. Major concentration centers include Crane Prairie Reservoir and the adjacent Deschutes National Forest, the coastal lakes and reservoirs between Florence and North Bend, the Rogue River, the Lane County reservoirs, and the Umpqua River. An estimated 47 percent of the Oregon population is nesting at reservoirs. Limited information is available concerning the long-term status of the Oregon population; however, the ability of the species to pioneer newly created reservoirs emphasizes that the population is utilizing new habitats.

  9. Testing for genetic differences in survival and growth between hatchery and wild Chinook salmon from Warm Springs River, Oregon (Study sites: Warm Springs Hatchery and Little White Salmon River; Stocks: Warm Springs hatchery and Warm Springs River wild; Year classes: 1992 and 1996): Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Leonetti,; Rubin, Stephen P.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.; Hayes, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    The program at Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery in north - central Oregon was initiated with spring Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from the Warm Springs River. Managers included wild fish in the broodstock most years and avoided artificial selection to minimize genetic divergence from the wild founder population. We tested for genetic differences in survival and growth between the hatchery and wild populations to ascertain whether this goal has been achieved. Progeny of hatchery x hatchery (HH), hatchery female x wild male (HW), and wild x wild (WW) crosses were genetically marked at the sSOD - 1* allozyme locus and released together as unfed fry in hatchery ponds in 1992 and 1996 and in the Little White Salmon River, in south - central Washington, in 1996. Fish were evaluated to returning adult at the hatchery and over their freshwater residence of 16 months in the stream. The three crosses differed on several measures including survival to outmigration in the stream (WW>HH>HW) and juvenile growth in the hatchery (1992 year - class; WW>HW>HH); however, results may have been confounded. The genetic marks were found to differentially effect survival in a companion study (HH mark favored over WW mark; HW mark intermediate). Furthermore, HW survival in the current study was neither intermediate, as would be expect ed from additive genetic effects, nor similar to that of HH fish as would be expected from maternal effects since HW and HH fish were maternal half - siblings. Finally, the unexpected performance of HW fish precludes ruling out maternal differences between hatchery and wild mothers as the cause of differences between HH and WW fish. The key finding that survival of HH fish in a stream was 0.91 that for WW fish, indicating a small loss of fitness for natural rearing in the hatchery population, is valid only if three conditions hold: (1) any selection on the genetic marks was in the same direction as in the companion study, (2) lower survival in

  10. Time-integrated passive sampling as a complement to conventional point-in-time sampling for investigating drinking-water quality, McKenzie River Basin, Oregon, 2007 and 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Alvarez, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The Eugene Water & Electric Board (EWEB) supplies drinking water to approximately 200,000 people in Eugene, Oregon. The sole source of this water is the McKenzie River, which has consistently excellent water quality relative to established drinking-water standards. To ensure that this quality is maintained as land use in the source basin changes and water demands increase, EWEB has developed a proactive management strategy that includes a combination of conventional point-in-time discrete water sampling and time‑integrated passive sampling with a combination of chemical analyses and bioassays to explore water quality and identify where vulnerabilities may lie. In this report, we present the results from six passive‑sampling deployments at six sites in the basin, including the intake and outflow from the EWEB drinking‑water treatment plant (DWTP). This is the first known use of passive samplers to investigate both the source and finished water of a municipal DWTP. Results indicate that low concentrations of several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organohalogen compounds are consistently present in source waters, and that many of these compounds are also present in finished drinking water. The nature and patterns of compounds detected suggest that land-surface runoff and atmospheric deposition act as ongoing sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, some currently used pesticides, and several legacy organochlorine pesticides. Comparison of results from point-in-time and time-integrated sampling indicate that these two methods are complementary and, when used together, provide a clearer understanding of contaminant sources than either method alone.

  11. Mercury concentrations in water, and mercury and selenium concentrations in fish from Brownlee Reservoir and selected sites in Boise and Snake Rivers, Idaho and Oregon, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCoy, Dorene E.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) analyses were conducted on samples of sport fish and water collected from six sampling sites in the Boise and Snake Rivers, and Brownlee Reservoir to meet National Pollution Discharge and Elimination System (NPDES) permit requirements for the City of Boise, Idaho. A water sample was collected from each site during October and November 2013 by the City of Boise personnel and was analyzed by the Boise City Public Works Water Quality Laboratory. Total Hg concentrations in unfiltered water samples ranged from 0.73 to 1.21 nanograms per liter (ng/L) at five river sites; total Hg concentration was highest (8.78 ng/L) in a water sample from Brownlee Reservoir. All Hg concentrations in water samples were less than the EPA Hg chronic aquatic life criterion in Idaho (12 ng/L). The EPA recommended a water-quality criterion of 0.30 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) methylmercury (MeHg) expressed as a fish-tissue residue value (wet-weight MeHg in fish tissue). MeHg residue in fish tissue is considered to be equivalent to total Hg in fish muscle tissue and is referred to as Hg in this report. The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality adopted the EPA’s fish-tissue criterion and a reasonable potential to exceed (RPTE) threshold 20 percent lower than the criterion or greater than 0.24 mg/kg based on an average concentration of 10 fish from a receiving waterbody. NPDES permitted discharge to waters with fish having Hg concentrations exceeding 0.24 mg/kg are said to have a reasonable potential to exceed the water-quality criterion and thus are subject to additional permit obligations, such as requirements for increased monitoring and the development of a Hg minimization plan. The Idaho Fish Consumption Advisory Program (IFCAP) issues fish advisories to protect general and sensitive populations of fish consumers and has developed an action level of 0.22 mg/kg wet weight Hg in fish tissue. Fish consumption advisories are water body- and species-specific and are used to

  12. Wyoming big sagebrush associations of eastern Oregon; vegetation attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report provides a synopsis of several vegetative characteristics for the Wyoming big sagebrush complex in eastern Oregon covering the High Desert , Snake River, and Owyhee Ecological Provinces in Harney, Lake, and Malheur Counties. The complex has been grouped into six associations defined by t...

  13. Health status of Largescale Sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) collected along an organic contaminant gradient in the lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Leticia; Nilsen, Elena B.; Grove, Robert A.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2014-01-01

    The health of Largescale Sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) in the lower Columbia River (USA) was evaluated using morphometric and histopathological approaches, and its association with organic contaminants accumulated in liver was evaluated in males. Fish were sampled from three sites along a contaminant gradient In 2009, body length and mass, condition factor, gonadosomatic index, and hematocrit were measured in males and females; liver and gonad tissue were collected from males for histological analyses; and organ composites were analyzed for contaminant content in males. In 2010, additional data were collected for males and females, including external fish condition assessment, histopathologies of spleen, kidney and gill and, for males, liver contaminant content. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that biological traits in males, but not females, differed among sites in 2009 and 2010. Discriminant function analysis indicated that site-related differences among male populations were relatively small in 2009, but in 2010, when more variables were analyzed, males differed among sites in regards to kidney, spleen, and liver histopathologies and gill parasites. Kidney tubular hyperplasia, liver and spleen macrophage aggregations, and gill parasites were generally more severe in the downstream sites compared to the reference location. The contaminant content of male livers was also generally higher downstream, and the legacy pesticide hexachlorobenzene and flame retardants BDE-47 and BDE-154 were the primary drivers for site discrimination. However, bivariate correlations between biological variables and liver contaminants retained in the discriminant models failed to reveal associations between the two variable sets. In conclusion, whereas certain non-reproductive biological traits and liver contaminant contents of male Largescale Sucker differed according to an upstream-downstream gradient in the lower Columbia River, results from this study did not reveal

  14. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, Final Siting Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Montgomery

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Bonneville Power Administration Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of hatchery facilities for the Bonneville Power Administration. The hatchery project consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in three adjacent tributaries to the Columbia River in northeast Oregon: the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and Imnaha River drainage basins. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult capture and holding facilities; spawning incubation, and early rearing facilities; full-term rearing facilities; and direct release or acclimation facilities. The evaluation includes consideration of a main production facility for one or more of the basins or several smaller satellite production facilities to be located within major subbasins. The historic and current distribution of spring and fall chinook salmon and steelhead was summarized for the Columbia River tributaries. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Among the three tributaries, forty seven sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  15. The Oregon Walkabout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnell, Dale

    1974-01-01

    Too often American schools aim to satisfy the self-actualizing and higher-level needs in Maslow's hierarchy, while ignoring survival and security needs. The new State curriculum seeks to correct that deficit. To graduate, an Oregon student in the Class of 1978 will be expected to demonstrate the competencies to function effectively on the job, as…

  16. Secular variation of the middle and late Miocene geomagnetic field recorded by the Columbia River Basalt Group in Oregon, Idaho and Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Ada R.; Van der Voo, Rob

    2014-06-01

    This study of 118 discrete volcanic flows from the Columbia River Basalt Group is aimed to determine their distribution of geomagnetic field directions and virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) and to compare the inherent secular variation parameters with those from other studies. The magnetic signature of these rocks is uniformly carried by primary titanomagnetite, indicating that magnetic changes are due to variations in the magnetic field. Although most flows are flat lying, those that are tilted pass the Tauxe and Watson tilt test. Sequential flows with statistically similar site means were grouped, and directions that were considered outliers were evaluated and removed using the Vandamme cut-off method. Three normal-polarity (N-polarity) and three reversed-polarity (R-polarity) intervals are revealed by the stratigraphically ordered flows and have mean directions of N polarity (dec/inc = 6.6°/+61.2°, k = 29.3, α95 = 4.2°), and R polarity (dec/inc = 178.2°/-59.2°, k = 16, α95 = 5.5°). Regression analysis indicates that the secular variation analysis has not been affected by regional rotation, and that apparent polar wander is negligible. The VGP distribution is almost perfectly circular and supports the preference of VGP positions for the dispersion analysis. Dispersion parameters with corrections for within-site scatter (Sb) show a range of 14.3°-25.5°, including error limits, and were consistently higher for R-polarity results than for those of N polarity. Published dispersion parameters for extrusives <5 Ma show Sb values slightly lower than ours, yielding values of 16°-19°, although the difference is not statistically significant. In contrast, published dispersion parameters from high quality data from the Cretaceous Normal Superchron are lower than those for the Neogene, which suggests that the noisiness of the magnetic field correlates with the frequency of reversals. Our new results allow us to extend the Plio-Pleistocene palaeosecular variation

  17. The Shoreline Management Tool - an ArcMap tool for analyzing water depth, inundated area, volume, and selected habitats, with an example for the lower Wood River Valley, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Daniel T.; Haluska, Tana L.; Respini-Irwin, Darius

    2013-01-01

    within each parcel. The Shoreline Management Tool is highly transferable, using easily generated or readily available data. The capabilities of the tool are demonstrated using data from the lower Wood River Valley adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes in southern Oregon.

  18. The Shoreline Management Tool, an ArcMap Tool for Analyzing Water Depth, Inundated Area, Volume, and Selected Habitats, with an Example for the Lower Wood River Valley, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, D. T.; Haluska, T. L.; Respini-Irwin, D.

    2012-12-01

    using easily generated or readily available data. The capabilities of the tool are demonstrated using data from the lower Wood River Valley adjacent to Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes in southern Oregon.

  19. Electrical resistance tomography experiments at the Oregon Graduate Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, W.; Ramirez, A.; LaBrecque, D.; Barber, W.

    1995-04-01

    Three controlled experiments were conducted at the Oregon Graduate Institute (OGI) with the purpose of evaluating electrical resistance tomography for imaging underground processes associated with in-situ site assessment and remediation. The OGI facilities are unique: a double-wall tank 10 m square and 5 m deep, filled with river bottom sediments and instrumented for geophysical and hydrological studies. At this facility, liquid contaminants could be released into the confined soil at a scale sufficiently large to represent real-world physical phenomena. In the first test, images of electrical resistivity were made before and during a controlled spill of gasoline into a sandy soil. The primary purpose was to determine if electrical resistivity images could detect the hydrocarbon in either the vadose or saturated zone. Definite changes in electrical resistivity were observed in both the vadose and saturated soils. The effects were an increase in resistivity of as much as 10% above pre-release values. A single resistive anomaly was imaged, directly below the release point, principally within the vadose zone but extending below the phreatic surface. The anomaly remained identifiable in tomograms taken two days after the release ended with clear indications of lateral spreading along the water table. The second test involved electrical resistance measurements before, during, and after air sparging in a saturated soil. The primary purpose was to determine if the electrical images could be used to detect and delineate the extent of the zone influenced by sparging. The images showed an increase of about 20% in resistivity over background values within the sparged zone and the extent of the imaged zone agreed with that inferred from other information. Electrical resistivity tomography measurements were made under a simulated oil storage tank in the third test. Comparison of images taken before and during separate releases of brine and water showed effects of changes

  20. IMPLEMENTASI SANDI HILL UNTUK PENYANDIAN CITRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JJ Siang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hill's code is one of text encoding technique. In this research, Hill's code is extended to image encoding. The image used is BMP 24 bit format. 2x2 and 3x3 matrices is used as a key. The results show that Hill's code is suitable for image whose RGB values vary highly. On the contrary, it is not suitable for less varied RGB images since its original pattern is still persisted in encrypted image. Hill's code for image encoding has also disadvantage in the case that the key matrix is not unique. However, for daily application, with good key matrix, Hill's code can be applied to encode image since it's process only deals with simple matrix operation so it become fast. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Sandi Hill merupakan salah satu teknik penyandian teks. Dalam penelitian ini, pemakaian sandi Hill diperluas dari teks ke citra bertipe BMP 24 bit. Matriks yang dipakai berordo 2x2 dan 3x3. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa sandi Hill cocok untuk enkripsi citra dengan variasi nilai RGB antar piksel berdekatan yang tinggi (seperti foto, tapi tidak cocok untuk citra dengan variasi nilai RGB yang rendah (seperti gambar kartun karena pola citra asli masih tampak dalam citra sandi. Sandi Hill juga memiliki kelemahan dalam hal tidak tunggalnya matriks kunci yang dapat dipakai. Akan tetapi untuk pemakaian biasa, dengan pemilihan matriks kunci yang baik, sandi Hill dapat dipakai untuk penyandian karena hanya melibatkan operasi matriks biasa sehingga prosesnya relatif cepat. Kata kunci: Sandi Hill, Citra, Relatif Prima.

  1. Oceanographic water temperature, salinity, and velocity collected from Rogue River Mooring off the coast of Oregon from 2000-09-17 to 2004-09-08 (NCEI Accession 0137120)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A single mooring measuring temperature, salinity, and velocity was deployed on the 73 m isobath off the Oregon coast. The mooring was located at 42° 26.49' N, 124°...

  2. Oceanographic profile water temperature and salinity data collected from the Rogue River Mooring off the coast of Oregon from 2000-05-18 to 2000-09-16 (NCEI Accession 0136938)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A single mooring measuring temperature, salinity, and velocity was deployed on the 73 m isobath off the Oregon coast. The mooring was located at 42° 26.49' N, 124°...

  3. EAARL Coastal Topography-Sandy Hook 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first surface/bare earth elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the Gateway National Recreation Area's Sandy Hook Unit in New Jersey...

  4. Heterotrophic bacterial populations in tropical sandy beaches

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Distribution pattern of heterotrophic bacterial flora of three sandy beaches of the west coast of India was studied. The population in these beaches was microbiologically different. Population peaks of halotolerant and limnotolerant forms were...

  5. Trapping and Transportation of Adult and Juvenile Salmon in the Lower Umatilla River in Northeast Oregon, 1995-1996 : Umatilla River Basin Trap and Haul Program : Annual Progress Report, October 1995-September 1996.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, Brian C.; Duke, Bill B.

    1996-09-01

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were collected at Threemile Dam from September 5, 1995 to July 1, 1996. A total of 2,081 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 603 adult, 288 jack, and 338 subjack fall chinook (O. tshawytscha); 946 adult and 53 jack coho (O. kisutch); and 2,152 adult and 121 jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) were collected. All fish were trapped at the east bank facility. The Westland Canal juvenile facility (Westland), located near the town of Echo at rivermile (RM) 27, is the major collection point for outmigrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts. The Threemile Dam west bank juvenile bypass was operated from September 8 to October 13, 1995 and from March 18 to June 30, 1996. The juvenile trap was operated from July 1 to July 11. Daily operations at the facility were conducted by the ODFW Fish Passage Research project to monitor juvenile outmigration.

  6. River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The OECD report “Boosting Resilience through Innovative Risk Governance” examines the efforts of OECD countries to prevent or reduce future disaster impacts, and highlights several key areas where improvements can be made. International collaboration is insufficiently utilised to address shocks that have increasingly global consequences. Institutional design plays a significant role in facilitating or hampering the engagement and investments of governmental and non-governmental stakeholders in disaster risk prevention and mitigation. To inform the design of “better” institutions, the OECD proposes the application of a diagnostic framework that helps governments identify institutional shortcomings and take actions to improve them. The goal of the case study on the Rhone River is to conduct an analysis of the progress, achievements and existing challenges in designing and implementing disaster risk reduction strategies through the Rhone Plan from a comparative perspective across a set of selected countries of this study, like Austria and Switzerland, will inform how to improve institutional frameworks governing risk prevention and mitigation. The case study will be used to identify examples of successful practice taking into account their specific country contexts, and analyse their potential for policy transfer.

  7. STRAWBERRY MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, T.P.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

    1984-01-01

    The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness extends 18 mi along the crest of the Strawberry Range and comprises about 53 sq mi in the Malheur National Forest, Grant County, Oregon. Systematic geologic mapping, geochemical sampling and detailed sampling of prospect workings was done. A demonstrated copper resource in small quartz veins averaging at most 0. 33 percent copper with traces of silver occurs in shear zones in gabbro. Two small areas with substantiated potential for chrome occur near the northern edge of the wilderness. There is little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources in the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness.

  8. Hurricane Sandy: Shared Trauma and Therapist Self-Disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Nyapati; Mehra, Ashwin

    2015-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy was one of the most devastating storms to hit the United States in history. The impact of the hurricane included power outages, flooding in the New York City subway system and East River tunnels, disrupted communications, acute shortages of gasoline and food, and a death toll of 113 people. In addition, thousands of residences and businesses in New Jersey and New York were destroyed. This article chronicles the first author's personal and professional experiences as a survivor of the hurricane, more specifically in the dual roles of provider and trauma victim, involving informed self-disclosure with a patient who was also a victim of the hurricane. The general analytic framework of therapy is evaluated in the context of the shared trauma faced by patient and provider alike in the face of the hurricane, leading to important implications for future work on resilience and recovery for both the therapist and patient.

  9. Penetration grouting reinforcement of sandy gravel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ping; PENG Zhen-bin; TANG Yi-qun; PENG Wen-xiang; HE Zhong-ming

    2008-01-01

    To study the relationship between grouting effect and grouting factors, three factors (seven parameters) directionless pressure and small cycle grouting model experiment on sandy gravel was done, which was designed according to uniform design method. And regressing was applied to analysis of the test data. The two models test results indicate that when the diffusing radius of grout changes from 26 to 51 era, the grouted sandy gravel compressing strength changes fTom 2.13 to 12.30 MPa; the relationship between diffusing radius(R) and water cement ratio(m), permeability coefficient(k), grouting pressure(p), grouting time(t) is R=19.953m0.121k0.429p0.412t0.437, the relationship between compressing strength(P) and porosity(n), water cement ratio, grouting pressure, grouting time is P=0.984n0.517m-1.488p0.118t0.031.So the porosity of sandy gravel, the permeability coefficient of sandy gravel, grouting pressure, grouting time, water cement ratio are main factors to influence the grouting effect. The grouting pressure is the main factor to influence grouting diffusing radius, and the water cement ratio is the main factor to influence grouted sandy gravel compressing strength.

  10. 75 FR 39839 - Regulated Navigation Area; Hudson River and Port of NY/NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... restrictions with the Kiewit and Weeks Marine contractors, and with Hudson River and Sandy Hook Pilots... transfer of the bridge span from shore to the barges has been scheduled on a weekday when it is expected to... Overtaking zones are established in areas identified by Weeks Marine, Hudson River and Sandy Hook Pilots as...

  11. 2007 Oregon Department of Forestry (ODF) Northwest Oregon Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This lidar dataset encompasses two areas in northwest Oregon. The northern area is located in Clatsop County, encompassing Clatsop State Forest ownership; the...

  12. [Simulation alfalfa growth in Wulanbuhe sandy region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wenming; Bao, Xuemei

    2002-12-01

    Based on the theories of accumulated temperature and on the physio-ecological characteristics of Medicago sativa, a simulation model for its growth under soil water stress in arid sandy region was developed. The model was mainly composed of four modules: the stage module of growth, the dynamic module of leaf area index, the accumulated module of dry matter, and the distributive module of dry matter. After simulating and calculating, the model could be used to predict the growing progress and dynamic changes of leaf area and yield for herbage in sandy region. The result shows that the application of the model to production is usually effective.

  13. SURVEY OF COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN STREAMS FOR COLUMBIA PEBBLESNAIL Fluminicola columbiana AND SHORTFACE LANX Fisherola nuttalli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D. A.; Frest, T. J.

    1993-05-01

    At present, there are only two remaining sizable populations of Columbia pebblesnail Fluminicola columbiana; those in the Methow and Okanogan rivers, Washington. Smaller populations survive in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington; the lower Salmon River and middle Snake River, Idaho; and possibly in Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon; and the Grande Ronde River, Oregon and Washington. Neither large population is at present protected, and there has been a substantial documented reduction in the species' historical range. Large populations of the shortface lanx Fisherola nuttalli persist in four streams: the Deschutes River, Oregon; the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington; Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho and Oregon; and the Okanogan River, Washington. Smaller populations, or ones of uncertain size, are known from the lower Salmon and middle Snake rivers, Idaho; the Grande Ronde, Washington and Oregon; Imnaha and John Day rivers, Oregon; Bonneville Dam area of the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon; and the Methow River, Washington. While substantial range reduction has occurred in this species, and the large populations are not well protected, the problem is not as severe as in the case of the Columbia pebblesnail. Both species appear to have been widespread historically in the mainstem Columbia River and the Columbia River Basin prior to the installation of the current dam system. Both are now apparently reduced within the Columbia River: Columbia pebblesnail to a population in the Hanford Reach plus six other sites that are separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river's major mbutaries shortface lanx to two populations (in the Hanford Reach and near Bonneville Dam) plus nine other sites that are separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river's major tributaries.

  14. Hood River Production Master Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Toole, Patty

    1991-07-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council's 1987 Columbia River Fish and Wildlife Program authorizes the development of artificial production facilities to raise chinook salmon and steelhead for enhancement in the Hood, Umatilla, Walla Walla, Grande Ronde and Imnaha rivers and elsewhere. On February 26, 1991 the Council agreed to disaggregate Hood River from the Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, and instead, link the Hood River Master Plan (now the Hood River Production Plan) to the Pelton Ladder Project (Pelton Ladder Master Plan 1991).

  15. Survey of Columbia River Basin streams for Columbia pebblesnail Fluminicola columbiana and shortface lanx Fisherola nuttalli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Frest, T.J. [Deixis Consultants, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1992-08-01

    At present, there are only two remaining sizable populations of Columbia pebblesnails Fluminicola columbiana; those in the Methow and Okanogan rivers, Washington. Smaller populations survive in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, and the lower Salmon River, Idaho, and possibly in the middle Snake River, Idaho; Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon, and the Grande Ronde River, Oregon and Washington. Neither large population is at present protected, and there has been a substantial documented reduction in the species` historic range. Large populations of the shortface lanx Fisherolla nuttalli persist in four streams: the Deschutes River, Oregon; the Hanford Reach and Bonneville Dam area of the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon; Hens Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho and Oregon; and the Okanogan River, Washington. Smaller populations, or ones of uncertain size, are known from the lower Salmon and middle Snake rivers, Idaho; the Grande Ronde Washington and Oregon; Imnaha, and John Day rivers, Oregon; and the Methow River, Washington. While substantial range reduction has occurred in this species, and the large populations are not well protected, the problem is not as severe as in the case of the Columbia pebblesnail. Both species appear to have been widespread historically in the mainstem Columbia River and the Columbia River Basin prior to the installation of the current dam system. Both are now apparently reduced within the Columbia River to populations in the Hanford Reach and possibly other sites that are now separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river`s major tributaries.

  16. Interstitial meiofauna of Namib sandy beaches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-03-16

    Mar 16, 1988 ... sandy beaches on the Namibian coast, Langstrand and Cape Cross. A transverse ... prominent in the mid-shore at Cape Cross but occurred in low numbers at Langstrand , where archiannelids ... Koop (1983) recorded the faunal composition of local .... four replicate sediment cores were taken at 15 cm.

  17. Bibliography of sandy beaches and sandy beach organisms on the African continent

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bally, R

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available This bibliography covers the literature relating to sandy beaches on the African continent and outlying islands. The bibliography lists biological, chemical, geographical and geological references and covers shallow marine sediments, surf zones off...

  18. 77 FR 74341 - Establishing the Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... the Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force By the authority vested in me as President by the.... Hurricane Sandy made landfall on October 29, 2012, resulting in major flooding, extensive structural damage... assist the affected region. A disaster of Hurricane Sandy's magnitude merits a comprehensive...

  19. Residence Times of Juvenile Salmon and Steelhead in Off-Channel Tidal Freshwater Habitats, Columbia River, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Gary E.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Sather, Nichole K.; Teel, D. J.

    2015-05-01

    We estimated seasonal residence times of acoustic-tagged juvenile salmonids in off-channel, tidal freshwater habitats of the Columbia River near the Sandy River delta (rkm 198; 2007, 2008, 2010, and 2011) and Cottonwood Island (rkm 112; 2012).

  20. A Coordinated USGS Science Response to Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S.; Buxton, H. T.; Andersen, M.; Dean, T.; Focazio, M. J.; Haines, J.; Hainly, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    In late October 2012, Hurricane Sandy came ashore during a spring high tide on the New Jersey coastline, delivering hurricane-force winds, storm tides exceeding 19 feet, driving rain, and plummeting temperatures. Hurricane Sandy resulted in 72 direct fatalities in the mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States, and widespread and substantial physical, environmental, ecological, social, and economic impacts estimated at near $50 billion. Before the landfall of Hurricane Sandy, the USGS provided forecasts of potential coastal change; collected oblique aerial photography of pre-storm coastal morphology; deployed storm-surge sensors, rapid-deployment streamgages, wave sensors, and barometric pressure sensors; conducted Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) aerial topographic surveys of coastal areas; and issued a landslide alert for landslide prone areas. During the storm, Tidal Telemetry Networks provided real-time water-level information along the coast. Long-term networks and rapid-deployment real-time streamgages and water-quality monitors tracked river levels and changes in water quality. Immediately after the storm, the USGS serviced real-time instrumentation, retrieved data from over 140 storm-surge sensors, and collected other essential environmental data, including more than 830 high-water marks mapping the extent and elevation of the storm surge. Post-storm lidar surveys documented storm impacts to coastal barriers informing response and recovery and providing a new baseline to assess vulnerability of the reconfigured coast. The USGS Hazard Data Distribution System served storm-related information from many agencies on the Internet on a daily basis. Immediately following Hurricane Sandy the USGS developed a science plan, 'Meeting the Science Needs of the Nation in the Wake of Hurricane Sandy-A U.S. Geological Survey Science Plan for Support of Restoration and Recovery'. The plan will ensure continuing coordination of internal USGS activities as well as

  1. Survey of Columbia River Basin streams for Columbia pebblesnail Fluminicola columbiana and shortface lanx Fisherola nuttalli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neitzel, D.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Frest, T.J. (Deixis Consultants, Seattle, WA (United States))

    1992-08-01

    At present, there are only two remaining sizable populations of Columbia pebblesnails Fluminicola columbiana; those in the Methow and Okanogan rivers, Washington. Smaller populations survive in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, and the lower Salmon River, Idaho, and possibly in the middle Snake River, Idaho; Hells Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho, Washington, and Oregon, and the Grande Ronde River, Oregon and Washington. Neither large population is at present protected, and there has been a substantial documented reduction in the species' historic range. Large populations of the shortface lanx Fisherolla nuttalli persist in four streams: the Deschutes River, Oregon; the Hanford Reach and Bonneville Dam area of the Columbia River, Washington and Oregon; Hens Canyon of the Snake River, Idaho and Oregon; and the Okanogan River, Washington. Smaller populations, or ones of uncertain size, are known from the lower Salmon and middle Snake rivers, Idaho; the Grande Ronde Washington and Oregon; Imnaha, and John Day rivers, Oregon; and the Methow River, Washington. While substantial range reduction has occurred in this species, and the large populations are not well protected, the problem is not as severe as in the case of the Columbia pebblesnail. Both species appear to have been widespread historically in the mainstem Columbia River and the Columbia River Basin prior to the installation of the current dam system. Both are now apparently reduced within the Columbia River to populations in the Hanford Reach and possibly other sites that are now separated by large areas of unsuitable habitat from those in the river's major tributaries.

  2. Water Infiltration and Hydraulic Conductivity in Sandy Cambisols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bens, Oliver; Wahl, Niels Arne; Fischer, Holger

    2006-01-01

    Soil hydrological properties like infiltration capacity and hydraulic conductivity have important consequences for hydrological properties of soils in river catchments and for flood risk prevention. They are dynamic properties due to varying land use management practices. The objective of this st......Soil hydrological properties like infiltration capacity and hydraulic conductivity have important consequences for hydrological properties of soils in river catchments and for flood risk prevention. They are dynamic properties due to varying land use management practices. The objective...... of this study was to characterize the variation of infiltration capacity, hydraulic conductivity and soil organoprofile development on forest sites with comparable geological substrate, soil type and climatic conditions, but different stand ages and tree species in terms of the effects of forest transformation...... from pure Scots pine stands towards pure European beech stands. The water infiltration capacity and hydraulic conductivity (K) of the investigated sandy-textured soils are low and very few macropores exist. Additionally these pores are marked by poor connectivity and therefore do not have any...

  3. Sediment oxygen demand in upper Klamath and Agency lakes, Oregon, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, T.M.

    2001-06-28

    Sediment oxygen demand (SOD) was measured in two shallow, interconnected lakes in southern Oregon, Upper Klamath Lake and Agency Lake, in spring and late summer of 1999. Upper Klamath Lake contains populations of two endangered fishes, the shortnose sucker and the Lost River sucker, and low dissolved oxygen concentrations in summer are thought to be one factor affecting sucker populations.

  4. Estimates of Low Frequency Volume Scattering Off the Oregon-Washington Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Megaptera novaeangliae ; sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus; Steller sea lion, Eumetopiasjubatus; and northern fur seal, Callorhinus ursinus. Nonswimbladder...humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae , and sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus. Gray whales, Eschrichtius robustus, although common along the Oregon...predatory fish (Simard and Mackas, 1989). Plumes from the Columbia River and Strait of Juan de Fuca frequently extend to the edge of the continental shelf

  5. Status Review of Wildlife Mitigation at Columbia Basin Hydroelectric Projects, Oregon Facilities, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedrossian, Karen L.

    1984-08-01

    The report presents a review and documentation of existing information on wildlife resources at Columbia River Basin hydroelectric facilities within Oregon. Effects of hydroelectric development and operation; existing agreements; and past, current and proposed wildlife mitigation, enhancement, and protection activities were considered. (ACR)

  6. 77 FR 22525 - Safety Zone; Swim Events in the Captain of the Port New York Zone; Hudson River, East River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ...) Ederle Swim: Within the waters of the Hudson River between North Cove Marina, New York, NY and Sandy Hook... patrol vessel or may be on shore and will communicate with vessels via VHF-FM radio or loudhailer. In...

  7. 78 FR 20559 - Safety Zones; Swim Events in the Captain of the Port New York Zone; Hudson River, East River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    ... River between North Cove Marina, New York, NY and Sandy Hook, NJ. The proposed regulation would prevent... be on shore and will communicate with vessels via VHF-FM radio or loudhailer. In addition, members of...

  8. The Oregon Geothermal Planning Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-02

    Oregon's geothermal resources represent a large portion of the nation's total geothermal potential. The State's resources are substantial in size, widespread in location, and presently in various stages of discovery and utilization. The exploration for, and development of, geothermal is presently dependent upon a mixture of engineering, economic, environmental, and legal factors. In response to the State's significant geothermal energy potential, and the emerging impediments and incentives for its development, the State of Oregon has begun a planning program intended to accelerate the environmentally prudent utilization of geothermal, while conserving the resource's long-term productivity. The program, which is based upon preliminary work performed by the Oregon Institute of Technology's Geo-Heat Center, will be managed by the Oregon Department of Energy, with the assistance of the Departments of Economic Development, Geology and Mineral Industries, and Water Resources. Funding support for the program is being provided by the US Department of Energy. The first six-month phase of the program, beginning in July 1980, will include the following five primary tasks: (1) coordination of state and local agency projects and information, in order to keep geothermal personnel abreast of the rapidly expanding resource literature, resource discoveries, technological advances, and each agency's projects. (2) Analysis of resource commercialization impediments and recommendations of incentives for accelerating resource utilization. (3) Compilation and dissemination of Oregon geothermal information, in order to create public and potential user awareness, and to publicize technical assistance programs and financial incentives. (4) Resource planning assistance for local governments in order to create local expertise and action; including a statewide workshop for local officials, and the formulation of two specific community resource development

  9. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin : Fish Research Project Oregon : Annual Progress Report Project Period 1 September 1997 to 31 August 1998.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keefe, MaryLouise; Tranquilli, J. Vincent

    1998-01-01

    We determined migration timing and abundance of juvenile spring chinook salmon from three populations in the Grande Ronde River basin. We estimated 6,716 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of the Grande Ronde River from July 1997 to June 1998; approximately 6% of the migrants left in summer, 29% in fall, 2% in winter, and 63% in spring. We estimated 8,763 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of Catherine Creek from July 1997 to June 1998; approximately 12% of the migrants left in summer, 37% in fall, 21% in winter, and 29% in spring. We estimated 8,859 juvenile chinook salmon left the Grande Ronde Valley, located below the upper rearing areas in Catherine Creek and the Grande Ronde River, from October 1997 to June 1998; approximately 99% of the migrants left in spring. We estimated 15,738 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of the Lostine River from July 1997 to April 1998; approximately 3% of the migrants left in summer, 61% in fall, 2% in winter, and 34% in spring. We estimated 22,754 juvenile spring chinook salmon left the Wallowa Valley, located below the mouth of the Lostine River, from September 1997 to April 1998; approximately 55% of the migrants left in fall, 5% in winter, and 40% in spring. Juvenile chinook salmon PIT-tagged on the upper Grande Ronde River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 4 April to 26 June 1998, with a median passage date of 1 May. PIT-tagged salmon from Catherine Creek were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 3 April to 26 June 1998, with a median passage date of 8 May. PIT-tagged salmon from the Lostine River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 31 March through 26 May 1998, with a median passage date of 28 April. Juveniles tagged as they left the upper rearing areas of the Grande Ronde and Lostine rivers in fall and that overwintered in areas downstream were detected in the hydrosystem at a higher rate than fish tagged during winter in the upper rearing areas, indicating a higher

  10. THE BIODIVERSITY AT SANDI BIRD SANCTUARY, HARDOI WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO MIGRATORY BIRDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indian subcontinent plays host to a number of migratory birds in summers as well as winters. It is estimated that over hundred species of migratory birds fly to India, either in search of feeding grounds or to escape the severe winter of their native habitat. Sandi bird sanctuary was created in 1990 in order to protect and conserve the natural habitation and surroundings and also the marine vegetation for the migratory birds, as well as for the local people of the region. The term migration is used to describe movements of populations of birds or other animals. There are three types of migrants. One way to look at migration is to consider the distances traveled. The pattern of migration can vary within each category, but is most variable in short and medium distance migrants. The origin of migration is related to the distance traveled. The birds migrating through the area, take shelter on the river front before going to the Sandi Bird sanctuary. The birds generally migrate in the winter months of October-November-December. Bird sanctuary is a popular tourist location. Sandi particularly attracts ornithologists and bird watchers, as many rare migratory birds take refuge in the sanctuary. The bird watching camps arranged to observe the migratory birds at Sandi Bird Sanctuary in the month of October and November 2012. The migratory birds at Sandi Bird Sanctuary include great crested grebe, white storks, black lbis, glossy lbis, spoonbill, ruddy shelduck, pin tail, sholveller, spot bill duck, mallard, gadwall, wigeon, tufted pochard, gargancey teal, common teal, cotton teal, grey lag goose, coot, black tailed godwit, painted stock pin tail snipe, marsh sand piper, common tern, river tern, magpie robin, white wagtail, pied wagtail, common snipe, starlings, white lbis, red crested pochard, common pochard, painted stock, black lbis, curlew, Indian skimmer etc. The resident birds at Sandi Bird Sanctuary include little grebe, darter, purple heron, grey

  11. Biological baseline data Youngs Bay, Oregon, 1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMechan, K.J. (ed.); Higley, D.L.; Holton, R.L.

    1975-04-01

    This report presents biological baseline information gathered during the research project, Physical, Chemical and Biological Studies on Youngs Bay.'' Youngs Bay is a shallow embayment located on the south shore of the Columbia River, near Astoria, Oregon. Research on Youngs Bay was motivated by the proposed construction by Alumax Pacific Aluminum Corporation of an aluminum reduction plant at Warrenton, Oregon. The research was designed to provide biological baseline information on Youngs Bay in anticipation of potential harmful effects from plant effluents. The information collected concerns the kinds of animals found in the Youngs Bay area, and their distribution and seasonal patterns of abundance. In addition, information was collected on the feeding habits of selected fish species, and on the life history and behavioral characteristics of the most abundant benthic amphipod, Corophium salmonis. Sampling was conducted at approximately three-week intervals, using commonly accepted methods of animal collection. Relatively few stations were sampled for fish, because of the need to standardize conditions of capture. Data on fish capture are reported in terms of catch-per-unit effort by a particular sampling gear at a specific station. Methods used in sampling invertebrates were generally more quantitative, and allowed sampling at a greater variety of places, as well as a valid basis for the computation of densities. Checklists of invertebrate species and fish species were developed from these samples, and are referred to throughout the report. The invertebrate checklist is more specific taxonomically than are tables reporting invertebrate densities. This is because the methods employed in identification were more precise than those used in counts. 9 refs., 27 figs., 25 tabs.

  12. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, Conceptual Design Report, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Montgomery (Montgomery Watson, Bellevue, WA)

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Bonneville Power Administration Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of hatchery facilities for the Bonneville Power Administration. The hatchery project consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in three adjacent tributaries to the Columbia River in northeast Oregon: the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and Imnaha River drainage basins. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult capture and holding facilities; spawning incubation, and early rearing facilities; full-term rearing facilities; and direct release or acclimation facilities. The evaluation includes consideration of a main production facility for one or more of the basins or several smaller satellite production facilities to be located within major subbasins. The historic and current distribution of spring and fall chinook salmon and steelhead was summarized for the Columbia River tributaries. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Among the three tributaries, forty seven sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  13. Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, Conceptual Design Report, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Montgomery (Montgomery Watson, Bellevue, WA)

    1995-03-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Bonneville Power Administration Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of hatchery facilities for the Bonneville Power Administration. The hatchery project consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in three adjacent tributaries to the Columbia River in northeast Oregon: the Grande Ronde, Walla Walla, and Imnaha River drainage basins. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult capture and holding facilities; spawning incubation, and early rearing facilities; full-term rearing facilities; and direct release or acclimation facilities. The evaluation includes consideration of a main production facility for one or more of the basins or several smaller satellite production facilities to be located within major subbasins. The historic and current distribution of spring and fall chinook salmon and steelhead was summarized for the Columbia River tributaries. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Among the three tributaries, forty seven sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  14. Screening of cellulose decomposing fungi in sandy dune soil of Horqin Sandy Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShaoKun Wang; XueYong Zhao; XiaoAn Zuo; XinPing Liu; Hao Qu; Wei Mao; JianYing Yun

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose decomposing fungi play an important role in litter decomposition and are decisive in nutrient cycling in sandy land ecosystems. Thirty-one strains were isolated to select efficient cellulose decomposers, and four efficient cellulose decomposing fungi (NM3-1, NM3-2, NM3-3, and NM3-4) were screened using a CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose) carbon source in dune soil of Horqin Sandy Land. They were identified as Asperigillus calidoustus, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, and Hypocrea lixii by rDNA-ITS molecular biological methods. Cloth decomposition rates were 15.71%, 15.89%, 17.29%, and 17.89%by the four efficient decomposers incubated for 30 days, respectively. Screening of efficient cellulose decomposers can not only increase the dune soil functional microbe bank, but can also accelerate litter decom-position and available nutrient input in the Horqin Sandy Land.

  15. Geology and mineral resources of the Southwestern and South-Central Wyoming Sagebrush Focal Area, Wyoming, and the Bear River Watershed Sagebrush Focal Area, Wyoming and Utah: Chapter E in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anna B.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Yager, Douglas B.; Anderson, Eric D.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; Parks, Heather L.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; Williams, Colin F.

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the Southwestern and South-Central Wyoming and Bear River Watershed, Wyoming and Utah, SFAs.

  16. Western juniper in eastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney; David L. Azuma; Charles L. Bolsinger; Neil. McKay

    1999-01-01

    This report analyzes and summarizes a 1988 inventory of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook.) in eastern Oregon. This inventory, conducted by the Pacific Northwest Research Station of the USDA Forest Service, was intensified to meet increased need for more information about the juniper resource than was available in previous inventories. A...

  17. Oregon's forest products industry: 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James O. Howard; Bruce A. Hiserote

    1976-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a 100-percent canvas of the primary forest products industry in Oregon for 1976. Tabular presentation includes characteristics of the industry log consumption and disposition of mill residues. Accompanying the tables is a descriptive analysis of conditions and trends in the industry.

  18. Lakeview, Oregon, Disposal Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Joshua [USDOE Office of Legacy Management (LM), Washington, DC (United States); Hall, Steve [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-03-01

    9.1 Compliance Summary The Lakeview, Oregon, Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) Title I Disposal Site was inspected September 16 and 17, 2015. Other than some ongoing concern with erosion-control rock riprap degradation, the disposal cell was in good condition. Some minor fence repairs and vegetation removal, and minor erosion repair work along the west site fence is planned. Inspectors identified no other maintenance needs or cause for a follow-up or contingency inspection. Disposal cell riprap is evaluated annually to ensure continued long-term protection of the cell from erosion during a severe precipitation event. Degradation of the rock riprap was first observed at the site in the mid-1990s. Rock gradation monitoring of the riprap on the west side slope has been performed as part of the annual inspection since 1997 to determine the mean diameter (D50) value. As prescribed by the monitoring procedure, the rock monitoring is routinely conducted at random locations. However, at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) request, the 2015 rock monitoring approach deviated from the normal procedure by using a pre-established monitoring grid in a subset area of the west side slope. This changed the monitoring approach from random sampling to biased sampling. The D50 value measured during the 2015 gradation monitoring is 2.39 inches, which falls below the original D50 design size range of 2.7–3.9 inches for the Type B size side slope riprap. At NRC’s request, rock durability monitoring was added to the gradation monitoring in 2009 to monitor durability by rock type. Results of the 2015 durability monitoring showed that74 percent of the total rock sampled is durability class code A rock with an assigned durability class of “highly durable” or durability class code B “durable” rock, and that over 90 percent of the 3-inch or larger rock is durability class code A or B. The rock durability

  19. White River Falls Fish Passage Project, Tygh Valley, Oregon : Final Technical Report, Volume III, Appendix B, Fisheries Report; Appendix C, Engineering Alternative Evaluation; Appendix D, Benefit/Cost Analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oregon. Dept. of Fish and Wildlife; Mount Hood National Forest (Or.)

    1985-06-01

    Studies were conducted to describe current habitat conditions in the White River basin above White River Falls and to evaluate the potential to produce anadromous fish. An inventory of spawning and rearing habitats, irrigation diversions, and enhancement opportunities for anadromous fish in the White River drainage was conducted. Survival of juvenile fish at White River Falls was estimated by releasing juvenile chinook and steelhead above the falls during high and low flow periods and recapturing them below the falls in 1983 and 1984. Four alternatives to provide upstream passage for adult salmon and steelhead were developd to a predesign level. The cost of adult passage and the estimated run size of anadromous fish were used to determine the benefit/cost of the preferred alternative. Possible effects of the introduction of anadromous fish on resident fish and on nearby Oak Springs Hatchery were evaluated. This included an inventory of resident species, a genetic study of native rainbow, and the identification of fish diseases in the basin. This volume contains appendices of habitat survey data, potential production, resident fish population data, upstream passage designs, and benefit/cost calculations. (ACR)

  20. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_5b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 33,900 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  1. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_6b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 39,900 at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  2. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_1b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 12,000 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  3. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_3b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 21,450 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  4. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_7b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 46,800 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  5. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_8b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 62,300 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  6. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_4b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 27,900 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  7. SIR2016-5029_cfwgoshor_2b: Flood Inundation Depth for a Flow of 15,000 cfs at the Gage Coast Fork Willamette River at Goshen, Oregon (Area of Uncertainty)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The domain of the model is as follows: Row River from Dorena dam to the confluence with the Coast Fork; Coast Fork from Cottage Grove dam to the confluence with the...

  8. Investigations into the [Early] Life History of Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin : Fish Research Project, Oregon : Annual Report 1994 : Project Period 1 June 1993 to 31 May 1994.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keefe, MaryLouise

    1996-04-01

    This study was designed to describe aspects of the life history strategies of spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde basin. During the past year we focused on rearing and migration patterns of juveniles and surveys of spawning adults. The specific objectives for the early life history portion of the study were: Objective 1, document the annual in-basin migration patterns for spring chinook salmon juveniles in the upper Grande Ronde River, including the abundance of migrants, migration timing and duration; Objective 2, estimate and compare smolt survival indices to mainstem Columbia and Snake River dams for fall and spring migrating spring chinook salmon; Objective 3 initiate study of the winter habitat utilized by spring chinook salmon in the Grande Ronde River basin. The specific objectives for the spawning ground surveys were: Objective 4, conduct extensive and supplemental spring chinook salmon spawning ground surveys in spawning streams in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha basin, Objective 5; determine how adequately historic index area surveys index spawner abundance by comparing index counts to extensive and supplemental redd counts; Objective 6, determine what changes in index areas and timing of index surveys would improve the accuracy of index surveys; Objective 7, determine the relationship between number of redds observed and fish escapement for the Grande Ronde and Imnaha river basins.

  9. Investigations into the Early Life History of Naturally Produced Spring Chinook Salmon in the Grande Ronde River Basin : Fish Research Project Oregon : Annual Progress Report Project Period 1 September 1998 to 31 August 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonasson, Brian C.

    2000-01-01

    We determined migration timing and abundance of juvenile spring chinook salmon from three populations in the Grande Ronde River basin. We estimated 13,180 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of the Grande Ronde River from July 1998 to June 1999; approximately 0.2% of the migrants left in summer, 18% in fall and 82% in spring. We estimated 15,949 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of Catherine Creek from July 1998 to June 1999; approximately 0.2% of the migrants left in summer, 57% in fall, 2% in winter, and 41% in spring. We estimated 14,537 juvenile chinook salmon left the Grande Ronde Valley, located below the upper rearing areas in Catherine Creek and the Grande Ronde River, from October 1998 to June 1999; approximately 99% of the migrants left in spring. We estimated 31,113 juvenile chinook salmon left upper rearing areas of the Lostine River from July 1998 to June 1999; approximately 4% of the migrants left in summer, 57% in fall, 3% in winter, and 36% in spring. We estimated 42,705 juvenile spring chinook salmon left the Wallowa Valley, located below the mouth of the Lostine River, from August 1998 to June 1999; approximately 46% of the migrants left in fall, 6% in winter, and 47% in spring. Juvenile chinook salmon PIT-tagged on the upper Grande Ronde River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 31 March to 20 June 1999, with a median passage date of 5 May. PIT-tagged salmon from Catherine Creek were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 19 April to 9 July 1999, with a median passage date of 24 May. PIT-tagged salmon from the Lostine River were detected at Lower Granite Dam from 31 March through 8 July 1999, with a median passage date of 4 May. Juveniles tagged as they left the upper rearing areas of the Grande Ronde River in fall and that overwintered in areas downstream were detected in the hydrosystem at a higher rate than fish tagged during winter in the upper rearing areas, indicating a higher overwinter survival in the

  10. Threats to sandy beach ecosystems: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defeo, Omar; McLachlan, Anton; Schoeman, David S.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Dugan, Jenifer; Jones, Alan; Lastra, Mariano; Scapini, Felicita

    2009-01-01

    We provide a brief synopsis of the unique physical and ecological attributes of sandy beach ecosystems and review the main anthropogenic pressures acting on the world's single largest type of open shoreline. Threats to beaches arise from a range of stressors which span a spectrum of impact scales from localised effects (e.g. trampling) to a truly global reach (e.g. sea-level rise). These pressures act at multiple temporal and spatial scales, translating into ecological impacts that are manifested across several dimensions in time and space so that today almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. Press disturbances (whatever the impact source involved) are becoming increasingly common, operating on time scales of years to decades. However, long-term data sets that describe either the natural dynamics of beach systems or the human impacts on beaches are scarce and fragmentary. A top priority is to implement long-term field experiments and monitoring programmes that quantify the dynamics of key ecological attributes on sandy beaches. Because of the inertia associated with global climate change and human population growth, no realistic management scenario will alleviate these threats in the short term. The immediate priority is to avoid further development of coastal areas likely to be directly impacted by retreating shorelines. There is also scope for improvement in experimental design to better distinguish natural variability from anthropogenic impacts. Sea-level rise and other effects of global warming are expected to intensify other anthropogenic pressures, and could cause unprecedented ecological impacts. The definition of the relevant scales of analysis, which will vary according to the magnitude of the impact and the organisational level under analysis, and the recognition of a physical-biological coupling at different scales, should be included in approaches to quantify impacts. Zoning strategies and marine reserves, which have not

  11. Instream wood as a driver of nutrient attenuation in a lowland sandy stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaar, Megan; Shelley, Felicity; Blaen, Phil; Dapelo, Davide; Trimmer, Mark; Bridgeman, John; Hannah, David; Krause, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Our poster outlines our research to assess the potential of instream wood to enhance nutrient (nitrogen and carbon) attenuating potential in UK lowland rivers. Using cutting-edge distributed temperature sensing, geophysical technologies, novel microbial metabolic activity tracers and 15N isotope tracer applications, we are able to identify how instream wood alters hyporheic exchange fluxes and residence times which control the development and occurrence of biogeochemical hotspots, which facilitate nitrogen removal. Initial results show that instream wood increases surface water downwelling into the hyporheic, creating increased hyporheic mixing. Metabolic tracer, nutrient and modelling data reveal a correlation between these hyporheic exchange flow locations and increased denitrification hotspots. This data in conjunction with ongoing experimentation suggests that instream wood could be used in river basin management and river restoration efforts to improve water quality and hydromorphic integrity within lowland sandy streams. Ongoing work seeks to quantify the efficiency of alternative (stationary and transient) wood designs for controlled alteration and management of hyporheic exchange fluxes and residence times and nutrient turnover in the streambed. Outputs from this project will provide a quantitative understanding of the optimal design and efficiency of instream wood structures for removing excess nitrate from streambed sediments of nutrient impacted lowland rivers. This information will directly impact UK and European river restoration policies and inform decisions of whether wood restoration in UK lowland rivers should be promoted on a national level and how the most efficient strategies should be designed.

  12. Hurricane Sandy science plan: coastal impact assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronko, Jakob M.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: coastal topography and bathymetry, impacts to coastal beaches and barriers, impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology, impacts on environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposures, impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife. This fact sheet focuses assessing impacts to coastal beaches and barriers.

  13. Tsunami Preparedness in Oregon (video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about tsunami preparedness in Oregon distinguishes between a local tsunami and a distant event and focus on the specific needs of this region. It offers guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI).

  14. Plugs or flood-makers? The unstable landslide dams of eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, E. B.; O'Connor, J. E.; Ely, L. L.; House, P. K.; Grant, G.; Harrity, K.; Croall, K.; Jones, E.

    2015-11-01

    Landslides into valley bottoms can affect longitudinal profiles of rivers, thereby influencing landscape evolution through base-level changes. Large landslides can hinder river incision by temporarily damming rivers, but catastrophic failure of landslide dams may generate large floods that could promote incision. Dam stability therefore strongly modulates the effects of landslide dams and might be expected to vary among geologic settings. Here, we investigate the morphometry, stability, and effects on adjacent channel profiles of 17 former and current landslide dams in eastern Oregon. Data on landslide dam dimensions, former impoundment size, and longitudinal profile form were obtained from digital elevation data constrained by field observations and aerial imagery; while evidence for catastrophic dam breaching was assessed in the field. The dry, primarily extensional terrain of low-gradient volcanic tablelands and basins contrasts with the tectonically active, mountainous landscapes more commonly associated with large landslides. All but one of the eastern Oregon landslide dams are ancient (likely of order 103 to 104 years old), and all but one has been breached. The portions of the Oregon landslide dams blocking channels are small relative to the area of their source landslide complexes (0.4-33.6 km2). The multipronged landslides in eastern Oregon produce marginally smaller volume dams but affect much larger channels and impound more water than do landslide dams in mountainous settings. As a result, at least 14 of the 17 (82%) large landslide dams in our study area appear to have failed cataclysmically, producing large downstream floods now marked by boulder outwash, compared to a 40-70% failure rate for landslide dams in steep mountain environments. Morphometric indices of landslide dam stability calibrated in other environments were applied to the Oregon dams. Threshold values of the Blockage and Dimensionless Blockage Indices calibrated to worldwide data sets

  15. Plugs or flood-makers? the unstable landslide dams of eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Elizabeth B.; O'connor, James; Ely, Lisa L.; House, Kyle; Grant, Gordon E.; Harrity, Kelsey; Croall, Kelsey; Jones, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Landslides into valley bottoms can affect longitudinal profiles of rivers, thereby influencing landscape evolution through base-level changes. Large landslides can hinder river incision by temporarily damming rivers, but catastrophic failure of landslide dams may generate large floods that could promote incision. Dam stability therefore strongly modulates the effects of landslide dams and might be expected to vary among geologic settings. Here, we investigate the morphometry, stability, and effects on adjacent channel profiles of 17 former and current landslide dams in eastern Oregon. Data on landslide dam dimensions, former impoundment size, and longitudinal profile form were obtained from digital elevation data constrained by field observations and aerial imagery; while evidence for catastrophic dam breaching was assessed in the field. The dry, primarily extensional terrain of low-gradient volcanic tablelands and basins contrasts with the tectonically active, mountainous landscapes more commonly associated with large landslides. All but one of the eastern Oregon landslide dams are ancient (likely of order 103 to 104 years old), and all but one has been breached. The portions of the Oregon landslide dams blocking channels are small relative to the area of their source landslide complexes (0.4–33.6 km2). The multipronged landslides in eastern Oregon produce marginally smaller volume dams but affect much larger channels and impound more water than do landslide dams in mountainous settings. As a result, at least 14 of the 17 (82%) large landslide dams in our study area appear to have failed cataclysmically, producing large downstream floods now marked by boulder outwash, compared to a 40–70% failure rate for landslide dams in steep mountain environments. Morphometric indices of landslide dam stability calibrated in other environments were applied to the Oregon dams. Threshold values of the Blockage and Dimensionless Blockage Indices calibrated to worldwide

  16. 78 FR 32296 - Second Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Response to Hurricane Sandy: Response, Recovery & Resiliency AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA... recipients most severely affected by Hurricane Sandy: the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, New Jersey... Federal Register notice, bringing the total amount of Hurricane Sandy Emergency Relief funds allocated...

  17. Organic matter dynamics in coarse sandy calcareous soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.A.; Reuler, van H.

    2011-01-01

    The decomposition of organic matter in coarse sandy calcareous soils (beach sand) is thought to be much higher than in acid fine sandy soils but relatively little research is performed on these soils. Laboratory incubation experiments in which the release of soil carbon (C) is determined may overest

  18. Distribution, foraging behavior, and capture results of the spotted bat (Euderma maculatum) in central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhouse, T.J.; McCaffrey, M.F.; Wright, R.G.

    2005-01-01

    The spotted bat (Euderma maculatum) has been virtually unknown in Oregon despite the existence of potential habitat in many areas of the state. In 2002 and 2003 we searched for spotted bats along the John Day, Deschutes, and Crooked Rivers and at a remote dry canyon southeast of the city of Bend in central Oregon. The species was documented through the use of mist-nets, a bat detector, and recognition of audible spotted bat calls. Spotted bats were found at 11 locations in 6 Oregon counties. Nightly activity patterns of spotted bats were unpredictable. Spotted bats were found in 78% of search areas but on only 48% of survey nights. We observed spotted bats foraging above fields and low upland slopes adjacent to rivers and creeks and along the rims of cliffs. Estimated flying heights of spotted bats ranged from 3 m to 50 m aboveground. The species was difficult to capture and was captured only after considerable experimentation with methods and materials. Three spotted bats were captured toward the end of the project in 2003 and accounted for only 0.5% of all bats captured during the study. Although we attached radio transmitters to 2 spotted bats, we found no roost locations. We believe additional spotted bat surveys in Oregon are warranted, especially in higher-elevation habitats, but recommend that to increase their effectiveness, surveys accommodate the unique foraging behavior of the species.

  19. Accommodation space in a high-wave-energy inner-shelf during the Holocene marine transgression: Correlation of onshore and offshore inner-shelf deposits (0–12 ka) in the Columbia River littoral cell system, Washington and Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C. D.; Twichell, D. C.; Roberts, M. C.; Vanderburgh, S.; Hostetler, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    The Columbia River Littoral Cell (CRLC), a high-wave-energy littoral system, extends 160 km alongshore, generally north of the large Columbia River, and 10–15 km in across-shelf distance from paleo-beach backshores to about 50 m present water depths. Onshore drill holes (19 in number and 5–35 m in subsurface depth) and offshore vibracores (33 in number and 1–5 m in subsurface depth) constrain inner-shelf sand grain sizes (sample means 0.13–0.25 mm) and heavy mineral source indicators (> 90% Holocene Columbia River sand) of the inner-shelf facies (≥ 90% fine sand). Stratigraphic correlation of the transgressive ravinement surface in onshore drill holes and in offshore seismic reflection profiles provide age constraints (0–12 ka) on post-ravinement inner-shelf deposits, using paleo-sea level curves and radiocarbon dates. Post-ravinement deposit thickness (1–50 m) and long-term sedimentation rates (0.4–4.4 m ka− 1) are positively correlated to the cross-shelf gradients (0.36–0.63%) of the transgressive ravinement surface. The total post-ravinement fill volume of fine littoral sand (2.48 × 1010 m3) in the inner-shelf represents about 2.07 × 106 m3 year− 1 fine sand accumulation rate during the last 12 ka, or about one third of the estimated middle- to late-Holocene Columbia River bedload or sand discharge (5–6 × 106 m3 year− 1) to the littoral zone. The fine sand accumulation in the inner-shelf represents post-ravinement accommodation space resulting from 1) geometry and depth of the transgressive ravinement surface, 2) post-ravinement sea-level rise, and 3) fine sand dispersal in the inner-shelf by combined high-wave-energy and geostrophic flow/down-welling drift currents during major winter storms.

  20. 77 FR 2965 - City of Portland, Oregon; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ..., on the Bull Run River, in Multnomah and Clackamas Counties, Oregon. g. Filed Pursuant to: Federal... modifications are necessary to allow for better temperature management below Dam No. 2, as required by the Bull... available for inspection and reproduction at the address in item h above. You may also register online...

  1. Vulnerability of water supply from the Oregon Cascades to changing climate: linking science to users and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen A. Farley; Christina Tague; Gordon E. Grant

    2011-01-01

    Despite improvements in understanding biophysical response to climate change, a better understanding of how such changes will affect societies is still needed. We evaluated effects of climate change on the coupled human-environmental system of the McKenzie River watershed in the Oregon Cascades in order to assess its vulnerability. Published empirical and modeling...

  2. Estimation of nitrogen pools in irrigated potato production on sandy soil using the model SUBSTOR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Prasad

    Full Text Available Recent increases in nitrate concentrations in the Suwannee River and associated springs in northern Florida have raised concerns over the contributions of non-point sources. The Middle Suwannee River Basin (MSRB is of special concern because of prevalent karst topography, unconfined aquifers and sandy soils which increase vulnerability of the ground water contamination from agricultural operations--a billion dollar industry in this region. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L. production poses a challenge in the area due to the shallow root system of potato plants, and low water and nutrient holding capacity of the sandy soils. A four-year monitoring study for potato production on sandy soil was conducted on a commercial farm located in the MSRB to identify major nitrogen (N loss pathways and determine their contribution to the total environmental N load, using a partial N budget approach and the potato model SUBSTOR. Model simulated environmental N loading rates were found to lie within one standard deviation of the observed values and identified leaching loss of N as the major sink representing 25 to 38% (or 85 to 138 kg ha(-1 N of the total input N (310 to 349 kg ha(-1 N. The crop residues left in the field after tuber harvest represented a significant amount of N (64 to 110 kg ha(-1 N and posed potential for indirect leaching loss of N upon their mineralization and the absence of subsequent cover crops. Typically, two months of fallow period exits between harvest of tubers and planting of the fall row crop (silage corn. The fallow period is characterized by summer rains which pose a threat to N released from rapidly mineralizing potato vines. Strategies to reduce N loading into the groundwater from potato production must focus on development and adoption of best management practices aimed on reducing direct as well as indirect N leaching losses.

  3. Considering temperature dependence of thermo-physical properties of sandy soils in two scenarios of oil pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aleksey V.Malyshev; Anatoly M.Timofeev

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the heat conductivity and volumetric heat capacity of sandy soil contaminated in two scenarios of oil pollu tion, and also determined the temperature dependencies of these changed thermophysical properties. In the first pollution scenario, the oil product was introduced into wet river sand, and in the second case, dry sand was contaminated by the oil product and was then moistened with water. By considering these two scenarios as multicomponent dispersion systems with varying degrees of contamination and humidity, and by using a polystructural granular model with pore spaces and closed inclusions, we calculated that the heat conductivity of the sandy soil increased under the first pollution scenario and decreased under the second, but the change in the volumetric heat capacity of the sandy soil was proportional only to the amount of oil pollution, not the manner in which it was introduced. We also determined the temperature dependencies of these two thermophysical properties of sandy soil when polluted by oil, of which information will be useful for future containment and remediation of oil contaminated soil.

  4. A multi-year longitudinal study of water quality parameters in four salmon-bearing and recreational streams on mount hood, Oregon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Wasowski

    Full Text Available Four streams-Clear Fork, Lost Creek, Camp Creek and Still Creek-in northwestern Oregon's Sandy River Basin were monitored for temperature, dissolved oxygen levels, and fecal bacterial concentrations in a multi-year analysis examining stream health for recreational users and anchor habitat for Pacific Salmon. Temperatures were recorded using micro -T temperature loggers at 15 locations, during 22 July - 5 September 2006, 2 July - 4 September 2007, 20 June - 7 September 2008, 23 June - 9 September 2009, and 2 July -9 September 2010. The Seven-Day Average Maximum water temperature (7-DAM of 13°C was used as a reference value for the biological limit governing suitable salmonid spawning and egg incubation conditions. The maximum 7-DAM temperatures occurred on different dates and all streams neared or exceeded the 13°C standard at least once each summer. Dissolved oxygen levels were measured at weekly or longer intervals in 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009. Dissolved oxygen levels fell below the 9.0 ppm standard for Clear Fork on almost half the sampling dates in 2006, 2007, and 2009. Concentrations of the bacterial genus Enterococcus were measured as an indicator of fecal contamination. Samples were collected at 15 sites along the four streams. Weekly samples were collected during a 9 week period from July - September 2007, an 11 week period from June - September 2008, and an 11 week period from June - September 2009. Enterococcus counts exceeded the federal recommended national criterion value of 61 colony forming units (CFU per 100 mL every year in Camp Creek and occasionally elsewhere, with exceedances trending towards late summer.

  5. Management, Monitoring and Productivity of the Piping Plover and Least Tern: Parker River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A report on the 1993 management program for piping plovers and least terns at Parker River National Wildlife Refuge and at the adjacent Sandy Point State Reservation

  6. Hurricane Sandy science plan: New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Clarice N.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. More than one-half of the U.S. population lives within 50 miles of a coast, and this number is increasing. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is one of the largest providers of geologic and hydrologic information in the world. Federal, State, and local partners depend on the USGS science to know how to prepare for hurricane hazards and reduce losses from future hurricanes. The USGS works closely with other bureaus within the Department of the Interior, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the Environmental Protection Agency, and many State and local agencies to identify their information needs before, during, and after hurricanes.

  7. Nitrate reduction in an unconfined sandy aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postma, Diederik Jan; Boesen, Carsten; Kristiansen, Henning;

    1991-01-01

    Nitrate distribution and reduction processes were investigated in an unconfined sandy aquifer of Quaternary age. Groundwater chemistry was studied in a series of eight multilevel samplers along a flow line, deriving water from both arable and forested land. Results show that plumes of nitrate...... processes of O2 and NO3- occur at rates that are fast compared to the rate of downward water transport. Nitrate-contaminated groundwater contains total contents of dissolved ions that are two to four times higher than in groundwater derived from the forested area. The persistence of the high content...... of total dissolved ions in the NO3- free anoxic zone indicates the downward migration of contaminants and that active nitrate reduction is taking place. Nitrate is apparently reduced to N2 because both nitrite and ammonia are absent or found at very low concentrations. Possible electron donors...

  8. Endangered Plants in Oregon and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Rhoda M.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a partial list of the 132 Oregon and Washington plants which have been proposed for federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. Suggestions for student/citizen involvement in preserving these species and a description of a videotape about rare/endangered species of the Willamette Valley (Oregon) are included. (DH)

  9. On the Oregon Trail. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    In this lesson, students work with primary documents and latter-day photographs to recapture the experience of traveling on the Oregon Trail. The learning objectives of the lesson are: (1) to learn about the pioneer experience on the Oregon Trail; (2) to evaluate a historical re-enactment in light of documentary evidence; and (3) to synthesize…

  10. Mercury concentrations in water and mercury and selenium concentrations in fish from Brownlee Reservoir and selected sites in the Boise and Snake Rivers, Idaho and Oregon, 2013–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Marshall L.; MacCoy, Dorene E.

    2016-06-30

    Mercury (Hg) analyses were conducted on samples of sport fish and water collected from selected sampling sites in Brownlee Reservoir and the Boise and Snake Rivers to meet National Pollution Discharge and Elimination System (NPDES) permit requirements for the City of Boise, Idaho, between 2013 and 2015. City of Boise personnel collected water samples from six sites between October and November 2013 and 2015, with one site sampled in 2014. Total Hg concentrations in unfiltered water samples ranged from 0.48 to 8.8 nanograms per liter (ng/L), with the highest value in Brownlee Reservoir in 2013. All Hg concentrations in water samples were less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Hg chronic aquatic life criterion of 12 ng/L.The USEPA recommended a water-quality criterion of 0.30 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) methylmercury (MeHg) expressed as a fish-tissue residue value (wet-weight MeHg in fish tissue). The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality adopted the USEPA’s fish-tissue criterion and established a reasonable potential to exceed (RPTE) threshold 20 percent lower than the criterion or greater than 0.24 mg/kg Hg based on an average concentration of 10 fish from a receiving waterbody. NPDES permitted discharge to waters with fish having Hg concentrations exceeding 0.24 mg/kg are said to have a reasonable potential to exceed the water-quality criterion and thus are subject to additional permit obligations, such as requirements for increased monitoring and the development of a Hg minimization plan. The Idaho Fish Consumption Advisory Program (IFCAP) issues fish advisories to protect general and sensitive populations of fish consumers and has developed an action level of 0.22 mg/kg Hg in fish tissue. Fish consumption advisories are water body- and species-specific and are used to advise allowable fish consumption from specific water bodies. The geometric mean Hg concentration of 10 fish of a single species collected from a single water body

  11. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C.; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A.

    2016-10-01

    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development.

  12. Numerical analysis of solid–liquidtwo-phase turbulent flow in Francis turbine runner with splitter bladesin sandy water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Hong

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As the key component of a hydroelectric power generation system, hydraulic turbine plays a decisive role in the overall performance of the system. There are many sandy rivers in the world, and turbines working in these rivers are seriously damaged. Therefore, the research of flow in sandy water has great theoretical significance and practical value. Based on the specific hydrological conditions of a hydropower station, the solid–liquid two-phase flow in the whole flow passage of a Francis turbine with splitter blades in sandy water was numerically studied. A geometric model of the whole flow passage of the Francis turbine was established on the basis of given design parameters. The solid–liquid two-phase turbulent flows in Francis turbine runner under three different loads were numerically analyzed by using this model. The three different loads are as follows: Condition 1: single unit with 1/4 load, Condition 2: single unit with 1/2 load, and Condition 3: single unit with full load. The distributions of pressure and sand concentration on the leading side and the suction side of the runner blades, as well as the velocity vector distribution of water and sand on the horizontal section of the runner, were obtained under different load conditions. Therefore, the damages to various flow passage components by sand can be qualitatively predicated under various conditions. To guarantee the safety and stability of the unit, the adverse conditions shall be avoided, which can provide certain reference for plant operation.

  13. Cascade Mountain Range in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The Cascade mountain system extends from northern California to central British Columbia. In Oregon, it comprises the Cascade Range, which is 260 miles long and, at greatest breadth, 90 miles wide (fig. 1). Oregon’s Cascade Range covers roughly 17,000 square miles, or about 17 percent of the state, an area larger than each of the smallest nine of the fifty United States. The range is bounded on the east by U.S. Highways 97 and 197. On the west it reaches nearly to Interstate 5, forming the eastern margin of the Willamette Valley and, farther south, abutting the Coast Ranges. 

  14. Acidification of sandy grasslands - consequences for plant diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Pål Axel; Mårtensson, Linda-Maria; Bruun, Hans Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Questions: (1) Does soil acidification in calcareous sandy grasslands lead to loss of plant diversity? (2) What is the relationship between the soil content of lime and the plant availability of mineral nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in sandy grasslands? Location: Sandy glaciofluvial deposits...... in south-eastern Sweden covered by xeric sand calcareous grasslands (EU habitat directive 6120). Methods: Soil and vegetation were investigated in most of the xeric sand calcareous grasslands in the Scania region (136 sample plots distributed over four or five major areas and about 25 different sites...

  15. Mississippi River Headwaters Lakes in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    TABLE .4 IMPACTS OF EXAMPLE 3 - Supplemental Releases (330 cfs) From Gull, Sandy, and Pine River Lakes To Cause Equal Drc -, i- . Levels; Only These...areas to be affected lie. The hearing shall be conducted by the commissioner or a duly appointed referee . All interested parties shall have an

  16. 78 FR 38703 - LNG Development Company (d/b/a Oregon LNG); Oregon Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission LNG Development Company (d/b/a Oregon LNG); Oregon Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 7, 2013, LNG Development Company, LLC (d/ b/a Oregon LNG) (Oregon LNG), 8100 NE Parkway Drive, Suite 165, Vancouver, WA 98662, filed in Docket No. CP9-6-001...

  17. Iowa and Eugene, Oregon, Orthopaedics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckwalter, Joseph A

    2003-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, the commitment of orthopaedic surgeons to basic and clinical research and evaluation of treatment outcomes has made possible remarkable improvements in the care of people with injuries and diseases of the limbs and spine. A group of Oregon orthopaedic surgeons has had an important role in these advances, especially in the orthopaedic specialties of sports medicine and hip reconstruction. Since Don Slocum (Iowa Orthopaedic Resident, 1934-1937), started practice in Eugene, Oregon, in 1939, three orthopaedic surgeons, Denny Collis, Craig Mohler and Paul Watson, who received their orthopaedic residency education at the University of Iowa, and three orthopaedic surgeons, Stan James, Tom Wuest and Dan Fitzpatrick, who received their undergraduate, medical school and orthopaedic residency education at the University of Iowa, have joined the group Dr. Slocum founded. These individuals, and their partners, established and have maintained a successful growing practice that serves the people of the Willamette valley, but in addition, they have made important contributions to the advancement of orthopaedics. PMID:14575262

  18. On the Impact Angle of Hurricane Sandy's New Jersey Landfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Timothy M.; Sobel, Adam H.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy's track crossed the New Jersey coastline at an angle closer to perpendicular than any previous hurricane in the historic record, one of the factors contributing to recordsetting peak-water levels in parts of New Jersey and New York. To estimate the occurrence rate of Sandy-like tracks, we use a stochastic model built on historical hurricane data from the entire North Atlantic to generate a large sample of synthetic hurricanes. From this synthetic set we calculate that under long-term average climate conditions, a hurricane of Sandy's intensity or greater (category 1+) makes NJ landfall at an angle at least as close to perpendicular as Sandy's at an average annual rate of 0.0014 yr-1 (95% confidence range 0.0007 to 0.0023); i.e., a return period of 714 years (95% confidence range 435 to 1429).

  19. 2014 USGS CMGP Lidar: Post Sandy (Long Island, NY)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: Long Island New York Sandy LIDAR lidar Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS Contract No. G10PC00057 Task Order No. G14PD00296 Woolpert...

  20. Hurricane Sandy: Rapid Response Imagery of the Surrounding Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of Hurricane Sandy. The aerial photography missions were conducted by the NOAA Remote Sensing Division. The images were acquired...

  1. James J. Howard Marine Sciences Laboratory @ Sandy Hook

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The James J. Howard Marine Sciences Laboratory, located on the New Jersey shore at Sandy Hook, is a state-of-the-art marine research facility shared by the National...

  2. Studies on Thiobacilli spp. isolated from sandy beaches of Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gore, P.S.; Raveendran, O.; Unnithan, R.V.

    Occurrence, isolation and oxidative activity of Thiobacilli spp. from some sandy beaches of Kerala are reported. These organisms were encountered in polluted beaches and were dominant during monsoon in all the beaches...

  3. James J. Howard Marine Sciences Laboratory @ Sandy Hook

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The James J. Howard Marine Sciences Laboratory, located on the New Jersey shore at Sandy Hook, is a state-of-the-art marine research facility shared by the National...

  4. 2014 USGS CMGP Lidar: Sandy Restoration (Delaware and Maryland)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: SANDY_Restoration_DE_MD_QL2 Area of Interest covers approximately 3.096 square miles. Lot #5 contains the full project area Dataset Description:...

  5. Short Communication Energy and ash contents of sandy beach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    macrofauna found on three exposed sandy beaches on the west coast ... that they often form the predominant shore type (Bally,. McQuaid ... their sediments are given in Table I. Animals ..... The biochemical composition of the tropical intertida1 ...

  6. Occurrence and concentration of caffeine in Oregon coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez del Rey, Zoe; Granek, Elise F; Sylvester, Steve

    2012-07-01

    Caffeine, a biologically active drug, is recognized as a contaminant of freshwater and marine systems. We quantified caffeine concentrations in Oregon's coastal ocean to determine whether levels correlated with proximity to caffeine pollution sources. Caffeine was analyzed at 14 coastal locations, stratified between populated areas with sources of caffeine pollution and sparsely populated areas with no major caffeine pollution sources. Caffeine concentrations were measured in major water bodies discharging near sampling locations. Caffeine in seawater ranged from below the reporting limit (8.5 ng/L) to 44.7 ng/L. Caffeine occurrence and concentrations in seawater did not correspond with pollution threats from population density and point and non-point sources, but did correspond with storm event occurrence. Caffeine concentrations in rivers and estuaries draining to the coast ranged from below the reporting limit to 152.2 ng/L. This study establishes the occurrence of caffeine in Oregon's coastal waters, yet relative importance of sources, seasonal variability, and processes affecting caffeine transport into the coastal ocean require further research.

  7. Annual Coded Wire Tag Program; Oregon Stock Assessment, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mark; Mallette, Christine; Murray, William

    2002-03-01

    This annual report is in fulfillment of contract obligations with Bonneville Power Administration which is the funding source for the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife project 'Annual Stock Assessment - Coded Wire Tag Program (ODFW)'. Results for the 2001 contract period: Objective 1--Over 1 million juvenile salmon were coded-wire by this program (Table 1); Objective 2--ODFW recovered and processed over 40,000 snout collected from coded-wire tagged fish (Table 2); Objective 3--Survival data is summarized below; Objective 4--The last group of VIE tagged coho was released in 2001 and returning coho were samples at Sandy Hatchery. This sampling showed only 1 of 1,160 returning coho VIE marked as juveniles retained the VIE mark as adults.

  8. EAARL-B Coastal Topography--Eastern New Jersey, Hurricane Sandy, 2012: First Surface, Pre-Sandy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ASCII xyz and binary point-cloud data, as well as a digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the New Jersey coastline, pre- and post-Hurricane Sandy (October...

  9. Floodplain Mapping Submission for Oregon County, MO

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for Oregon County, MO. The City of Thayer and the Missouri State Emergency Management...

  10. Headwater Stream Barriers in Western Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory — This data set is an ArcInfo point coverage depicting barriers to fish migration in headwater basins in western Oregon. Data were compiled from reports by fisheries...

  11. Northern Oregon 6 arc-second DEM

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 6-second North Coast Oregon Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 6-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  12. Oregon Salt Marshes: How Blue are They?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two important ecosystem services of wetlands are carbon sequestration and filtration of nutrients and particulates. We quantified the carbon and nitrogen accumulation rates in salt marshes at 135 plots distributed across eight estuaries located in Oregon, USA. Net carbon and ...

  13. Opportunities for silvicultural treatment in western Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin D. MacLean

    1980-01-01

    A recent Forest Survey inventory of western Oregon has been analyzed to determine the extent of physical opportunities to increase wood production through silvicultural treatment. Results are presented by owner group and by geographic unit.

  14. Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.V.; Johnson, A.G.; Bennett, S.L.; Ringle, J.C.

    1979-08-31

    The use of the Oregon State University TRIGA Reactor during the year ending June 30, 1979, is summarized. Environmental and radiation protection data related to reactor operation and effluents are included.

  15. Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna production: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Petracco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The state of the art of the studies on the production of Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna was analyzed on the basis of the data available in the literature. For this purpose, the representativeness of the production dataset was examined by latitudinal distribution, degree of exposure and morphodynamic state of beaches, taxonomic groups, and methods employed. A descriptive analysis was, further, made to investigate the trends in production of the more representative taxonomic groups and species of sandy beach macrofauna. A total of 69 macrofauna annual production estimates were obtained for 38 populations from 25 studies carried out between 22º56'S and 32º20'S. Production estimates were restricted to populations on beaches located on the southern and southeastern Brazilian coast. Most of the populations in the dataset inhabit exposed dissipative sandy beaches and are mainly represented by mollusks and crustaceans, with a smaller number of polychaetes. The trends in production among taxonomic groups follow a similar pattern to that observed on beaches throughout the world, with high values for bivalves and decapods. The high turnover rate (P/B ratio of the latter was due to the presence of several populations of the mole crab Emerita brasiliensis, which can attain high values of productivity, in the dataset. Most of the studies focus on the comparison of production and, especially, of P/B ratio according to life history traits in populations of the same species/taxonomic group. Despite the importance of life history-production studies, other approaches, such as the effect of man-induce disturbances on the macrofauna, should be undertaken in these threatened environments.O estado da arte dos estudos de produção da macrofauna de praias arenosas brasileiras foi analisado a partir de informações disponíveis na literatura. Para essa finalidade, a representatividade dos dados de produção foi examinada de acordo com a distribuição latitudinal

  16. Hurricane Sandy Washover Deposits on Southern Long Beach Island, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, J. M.; Richmond, B. M.; Kane, H. H.; Lunghino, B.

    2015-12-01

    Hurricane Sandy washover deposits were investigated at Forsyth National Wildlife Refuge (FNWR) on Southern Long Beach Island, New Jersey in order to map deposit thickness and characterize the sedimentary deposits. FNWR was chosen as a field area because there has been relatively little anthropogenic shoreline modification since washover deposition from Hurricane Sandy. Sediment, elevation, and geophysical data were collected during the April 2015 field campaign, approximately two and a half years after the storm. Sediment deposit data included trenches, stratigraphic descriptions, bulk sediment samples, push cores, Russian cores, and photos. Computed tomography (CT) scanning was conducted on push cores in order to acquire high resolution imaging of density, grain size, and sedimentary structure. Profiles of washover elevation were measured using Differential GPS with Real Time Kinematic processing. Ground Penetrating Radar data was collected to image the depth of the deposit and identify sedimentary structures. These data sets are compared to pre- and post -Sandy lidar surveys in order to determine post-Sandy modification in the two and a half years following the hurricane. We compare sediment thickness and sedimentary characteristics to hurricane Sandy deposits elsewhere along the U.S. eastern seaboard and to tsunami deposits.

  17. EAARL Coastal Topography - Sandy Hook 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

    2008-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of Gateway National Recreation Area's Sandy Hook Unit in New Jersey, acquired on May 16, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then

  18. Mammal Observations-Oregon OCS Floating Wind Farm Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of the Oregon OCS Data Release presents marine mammal observations from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) field activity 2014-607-FA in the Oregon Outer...

  19. Mammal Observations-Oregon OCS Floating Wind Farm Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of the Oregon OCS Data Release presents marine mammal observations from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) field activity 2014-607-FA in the Oregon Outer...

  20. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, D.

    2013-03-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project.

  1. Did Hurricane Sandy influence the 2012 US presidential election?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joshua

    2014-07-01

    Despite drawing on a common pool of data, observers of the 2012 presidential campaign came to different conclusions about whether, how, and to what extent "October surprise" Hurricane Sandy influenced the election. The present study used a mixed correlational and experimental design to assess the relation between, and effect of, the salience of Hurricane Sandy on attitudes and voting intentions regarding President Barack Obama and Mitt Romney in a large sample of voting-aged adults. Results suggest that immediately following positive news coverage of Obama's handling of the storm's aftermath, Sandy's salience positively influenced attitudes toward Obama, but that by election day, reminders of the hurricane became a drag instead of a boon for the President. In addition to theoretical implications, this study provides an example of how to combine methodological approaches to help answer questions about the impact of unpredictable, large-scale events as they unfold.

  2. Hurricane Sandy, Disaster Preparedness, and the Recovery Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzi, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy was the second largest and costliest hurricane in U.S. history to affect multiple states and communities. This article describes the lived experiences of 24 occupational therapy students who lived through Hurricane Sandy using the Recovery Model to frame the research. Occupational therapy student narratives were collected and analyzed using qualitative methods and framed by the Recovery Model. Directed content and thematic analysis was performed using the 10 components of the Recovery Model. The 10 components of the Recovery Model were experienced by or had an impact on the occupational therapy students as they coped and recovered in the aftermath of the natural disaster. This study provides insight into the lived experiences and recovery perspectives of occupational therapy students who experienced Hurricane Sandy. Further research is indicated in applying the Recovery Model to people who survive disasters. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  3. Hydrologic landscape classification assesses streamflow vulnerability to climate change in Oregon, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Leibowitz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Classification can allow assessments of the hydrologic functions of landscapes and their responses to stressors. Here we demonstrate the use of a hydrologic landscape (HL approach to assess vulnerability to potential future climate change at statewide and basin scales. The HL classification has five components: climate, seasonality, aquifer permeability, terrain, and soil permeability. We evaluate changes when the 1971–2000 HL climate indices are recalculated using 2041–2070 simulation results from the ECHAM and PCM climate models with the A2, A1b, and B1 emission scenarios. Changes in climate class were modest (4–18% statewide. However, there were major changes in seasonality class for five of the six realizations (excluding PCM_B1: Oregon shifts from being 13% snow-dominated to 4–6% snow-dominated under these five realizations, representing a 56–68% reduction in snowmelt-dominated area. At the basin scale, projected changes for the Siletz basin, in Oregon's coast range, include a small switch from very wet to wet climate, with no change in seasonality. However, there is a modest increase in fall and winter water due to increased precipitation. For the Sandy basin, on the western slope of the Cascades, HL climate class does not change, but there are major changes in seasonality, especially for areas with low aquifer permeability, which experiences a 100% loss of spring seasonality. This would reduce summer baseflow, but impacts could potentially be mitigated by streamflow buffering effects provided by groundwater in the high aquifer permeability portions of the upper Sandy. The Middle Fork John Day basin (MFJD, in northeastern Oregon, is snowmelt-dominated. The basin experiences a net loss of wet and moist climate area, along with an increase in dry climate area. The MFJD also experiences major shifts from spring to winter seasonality, representing a 20–60% reduction in snowmelt-dominated area. Altered seasonality and/or magnitude

  4. Family Structures, Relationships, and Housing Recovery Decisions after Hurricane Sandy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nejat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of the recovery phase of a disaster cycle is still in its infancy. Recent major disasters such as Hurricane Sandy have revealed the inability of existing policies and planning to promptly restore infrastructure, residential properties, and commercial activities in affected communities. In this setting, a thorough grasp of housing recovery decisions can lead to effective post-disaster planning by policyholders and public officials. The objective of this research is to integrate vignette and survey design to study how family bonds affected rebuilding/relocating decisions after Hurricane Sandy. Multinomial logistic regression was used to investigate respondents’ family structures before Sandy and explore whether their relationships with family members changed after Sandy. The study also explores the effect of the aforementioned relationship and its changes on households’ plans to either rebuild/repair their homes or relocate. These results were compared to another multinomial logistic regression which was applied to examine the impact of familial bonds on respondents’ suggestions to a vignette family concerning rebuilding and relocating after a hurricane similar to Sandy. Results indicate that respondents who lived with family members before Sandy were less likely to plan for relocating than those who lived alone. A more detailed examination shows that this effect was driven by those who improved their relationships with family members; those who did not improve their family relationships were not significantly different from those who lived alone, when it came to rebuilding/relocation planning. Those who improved their relationships with family members were also less likely to suggest that the vignette family relocate. This study supports the general hypothesis that family bonds reduce the desire to relocate, and provides empirical evidence that family mechanisms are important for the rebuilding/relocating decision

  5. Klamath Falls geothermal field, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.; Culver, G.; Lund, J.W.

    1989-09-01

    Klamath Falls, Oregon, is located in a Known Geothermal Resource Area which has been used by residents, principally to obtain geothermal fluids for space heating, at least since the turn of the century. Over 500 shallow-depth wells ranging from 90 to 2,000 ft (27 to 610 m) in depth are used to heat (35 MWt) over 600 structures. This utilization includes the heating of homes, apartments, schools, commercial buildings, hospital, county jail, YMCA, and swimming pools by individual wells and three district heating systems. Geothermal well temperatures range from 100 to 230{degree}F (38 to 110{degree}C) and the most common practice is to use downhole heat exchangers with city water as the circulating fluid. Larger facilities and district heating systems use lineshaft vertical turbine pumps and plate heat exchangers. Well water chemistry indicates approximately 800 ppM dissolved solids, with sodium sulfate having the highest concentration. Some scaling and corrosion does occur on the downhole heat exchangers (black iron pipe) and on heating systems where the geo-fluid is used directly. 73 refs., 49 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. 1982 Oregon energy resource manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, R.; Ebert, J. (eds.)

    1982-01-01

    This manual is divided into three distinct sections. Part one contains 40 passive solar home plans designed for the Pacific Northwest by Oregon architects and designers. Floor plans and exterior renderings of multi-family and single-family dwellings, earth sheltered and bermed designs, and light commercial structures are included. The degree of solar contribution each residence achieves is graphically presented for ease of understanding. Part two, renewable-energy-resource guide, is primarily designed as a locator to indepth publications that explain specific energy resources in detail. It contains illustrated book reviews of pertinent private and government publications available. Various tables, forms, diagrams, energy system evaluation criteria, an illustrated glossary, BPA energy programs, utility programs, financial outlooks and non-profit organizations are included. The product locator index makes up part three. This indexed directory contains the listings of businesses, including the address, phone number, contact person and a 30 to 50 word description of the product or services currently offered. These renewable energy companies range from architectural and engineering services to research and development firms.

  7. 2007 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DoGAMI) LiDAR: Northwest Oregon and Portland Metro Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DoGAMI) and the Oregon...

  8. 2007 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DoGAMI) LiDAR: Northwest Oregon and Portland Metro Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DoGAMI) and the Oregon...

  9. Trichinella surveillance in black bears (Ursus americanus) from Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, J A; Kent, M L; Fowler, D R; Chomel, B B; Immell, D A

    2014-01-01

    We used serology and muscle digestion to test black bears (Ursus americanus) from western Oregon, USA, for Trichinella. Results indicate black bears in Oregon are not part of a sylvatic cycle for Trichinella, and risk of human exposure to Trichinella larvae from eating black bear meat from Oregon appears low.

  10. Sprague River Oregon Geomorphology, with assessment of subirrigation potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrological Information Products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1199 U.S....

  11. Sprague River Oregon Geomorphology, with assessment of return flow potential

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Hydrological Information Products for the Off-Project Water Program of the Klamath Basin Restoration Agreement U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1199 U.S....

  12. Geologic map of the Hood River Quadrangle, Washington and Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korosec, M.A. (comp.)

    1987-01-01

    The report is comprised of a 1:100,000 scale geologic map and accompanying text. The text consists of unit descriptions, a table of age dates, a table of major element geochemistry, correlation diagram, and a source of mapping diagram. (ACR)

  13. Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) monitoring in the Oregon Cascades 2012-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael J.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Mccreary, Brome; Galvan, Stephanie; Rowe, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    This dataset contains information from visual encounter surveys conducted between 2012 and 2016 by USGS as part of an ongoing Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa) monitoring effort in the Oregon Cascade Mountain Range. We surveyed 91 sites using a rotating frame design in the Klamath and Deschutes Basins, Oregon, which encompass most of the species' core extant range. Data consist of spotted frog counts aggregated by date, location, and life stage, as well as data on environmental conditions at the time of each survey.

  14. Introduction to special section on marine sand wave and river dune dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Dohmen-Janssen, C. Marjolein

    2005-01-01

    Marine sand waves and river dunes are rhythmic patterns, formed at the interface between a sandy bed and turbulent flows, driven by tidal and river currents. Their origin, development, and dynamics are far from being fully understood. To enhance the discussion on this topic we organized the internat

  15. Height and wavelength of alternate bars in rivers: Modelling vs. laboratory experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knaapen, M.A.F.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.; Vriend, de H.J.; Harten, van A.

    2001-01-01

    Alternate bars are large wave patterns in sandy beds of rivers and channels. The crests and troughs alternate between the banks of the channel. These bars, which move downstream several meters per day, reduce the navigability of the river. Recent modelling of alternate bars has focused on stability

  16. Ground water in selected areas in the Klamath Basin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, A.R.; Harris, A.B.

    1973-01-01

    GROUNDWATER FEATURES OF SIX LOWLAND AREAS IN THE KLAMATH BASIN OF OREGON--KLAMATH MARSH AREA, AND SPRAGUE RIVER, SWAN LAKE, YONNA, POE, AND LANGELL VALLEYS--ARE DESCRIBED. RUGGED MOUNTAINS AND RIDGES SURROUND AND SEPARATE THESE LOWLANDS WHERE FLOORS RANGE IN ALTITUDE FROM 4,100 FEET IN POE VALLEY TO 4,600 FEET NORTH OF KLAMATH MARSH. THE SIX AREAS EXTEND OVER A NORTH-SOUTH DISTANCE OF 70 MILES, AN EAST-WEST DISTANCE OF 40 MILES, AND INCLUDE AN AREA OF APPROXIMATELY 600 SQUARE MILES. THE AREA IS SEMIARID AND RECEIVED ABOUT 14 TO 18 INCHES OF PRECIPITATION A YEAR. EXTINCT VOLCANOES AND THEIR EXTRUSIONS CHARACTERIZE THE AREA. MOST WELLS TAP PERMEABLE BASALT OR CINDERY RUBBLE BENEATH THE LACUSTRINE BEDS. THE DEPTHS OF WELLS RANGE FROM LESS THAN 50 TO NEARLY 2,000 FEET--MOST ARE BETWEEN 100 AND 1,000 FEET DEEP. FLOWING WELLS OCCUR IN ALL AREAS EXCEPT SWAN LAKE VALLEY. THE MOST EXTENSIVE AREA OF FLOWING WELLS IS IN THE SPRAGUE RIVER VALLEY, WHERE ABOUT 25 WELLS, SOME FLOWING MORE THAN 2,000 GPM, SUPPLY WATER FOR IRRIGATION. WATER LEVELS IN WELLS FLUCTUATE SEASONALLY FROM 1 TO 4 FEET. GROUNDWATER IN THE BASIN IS OF EXCELLENT QUALITY FOR DRINKING, IRRIGATION, AND MOST INDUSTRIAL USES.

  17. Chapter 6. Impacts of Climate Change on Oregon's Coasts and Estuaries in "Oregon Climate Change Assessment Report"

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2007 the Oregon legislature created a new Oregon Climate Change Research Institute (OCCRI), which is based at Oregon State University (OSU). As part of its charter, OCCRI is mandated to produce a biennial report for the state legislature synthesizing climate change impacts a...

  18. Coastal Topography--Northeast Atlantic Coast, Post-Hurricane Sandy, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Derived products of a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines, post-Hurricane Sandy (Sandy was an October 2012...

  19. Coastal Topography--Northeast Atlantic Coast, Post-Hurricane Sandy, 2012: Lidar-extracted dune features

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Dune crest and toe positions along a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines, post-Hurricane Sandy (Sandy was an October...

  20. Coastal Topography--Northeast Atlantic Coast, Post-Hurricane Sandy, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Derived products of a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines, post-Hurricane Sandy (Sandy was an October 2012 hurricane...

  1. 2012 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic Lidar: Northeast Atlantic Coast Post-Hurricane Sandy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Binary point-cloud data were produced for a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines, post-Hurricane Sandy (Sandy was an...

  2. Coastal Topography--Northeast Atlantic Coast, Post-Hurricane Sandy, 2012: Digital elevation model (DEM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A DEM was produced for a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines, post-Hurricane Sandy (Sandy was an October 2012...

  3. 2012 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic Lidar: Northeast Atlantic Coast Post-Hurricane Sandy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Binary point-cloud data were produced for a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines, post-Hurricane Sandy (Sandy was an...

  4. STATUS, CAUSES AND COMBATING SUGGESTIONS OF SANDY DESERTIFICATION IN QINGHAI-TIBET PLATEAU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi-hua; DONG Guang-rong; LI Sen; DONG Yu-xiang

    2005-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is one of the major sandy desertification regions of China. Based on the recent investigation on sandy desertification, this paper analyses the status such as the type, area, distribution and damage of sandy land desertification in the plateau. Through the analysis on the factors affecting sandy desertification in the region's natural and socio-economic systems as well as the processes and their interrelations, it can be concluded that sandy desertification in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau resulted from the combined actions of normal natural sand drift processes, natural sandy desertification processes caused by climatic changes and man-made sandy desertification caused by improper human activities. In addition, it also predicts the possible developmental trend including the increase in desertification area and the enhancement in desertification developmental degree with the exacerbation of the complex processes, and finally puts forward some strategic suggestions to combat sandy desertification in the coming years.

  5. Neogene fallout tuffs from the Yellowstone hotspot in the Columbia Plateau region, Oregon, Washington and Idaho, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara P Nash

    Full Text Available Sedimentary sequences in the Columbia Plateau region of the Pacific Northwest ranging in age from 16-4 Ma contain fallout tuffs whose origins lie in volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in northwestern Nevada, eastern Oregon and the Snake River Plain in Idaho. Silicic volcanism began in the region contemporaneously with early eruptions of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG, and the abundance of widespread fallout tuffs provides the opportunity to establish a tephrostratigrahic framework for the region. Sedimentary basins with volcaniclastic deposits also contain diverse assemblages of fauna and flora that were preserved during the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum, including Sucker Creek, Mascall, Latah, Virgin Valley and Trout Creek. Correlation of ashfall units establish that the lower Bully Creek Formation in eastern Oregon is contemporaneous with the Virgin Valley Formation, the Sucker Creek Formation, Oregon and Idaho, Trout Creek Formation, Oregon, and the Latah Formation in the Clearwater Embayment in Washington and Idaho. In addition, it can be established that the Trout Creek flora are younger than the Mascall and Latah flora. A tentative correlation of a fallout tuff from the Clarkia fossil beds, Idaho, with a pumice bed in the Bully Creek Formation places the remarkably well preserved Clarkia flora assemblage between the Mascall and Trout Creek flora. Large-volume supereruptions that originated between 11.8 and 10.1 Ma from the Bruneau-Jarbidge and Twin Falls volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in the central Snake River Plain deposited voluminous fallout tuffs in the Ellensberg Formation which forms sedimentary interbeds in the CRBG. These occurrences extend the known distribution of these fallout tuffs 500 km to the northwest of their source in the Snake River Plain. Heretofore, the distal products of these large eruptions had only been recognized to the east of their sources in the High Plains of Nebraska and Kansas.

  6. Neogene fallout tuffs from the Yellowstone hotspot in the Columbia Plateau region, Oregon, Washington and Idaho, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Barbara P; Perkins, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Sedimentary sequences in the Columbia Plateau region of the Pacific Northwest ranging in age from 16-4 Ma contain fallout tuffs whose origins lie in volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in northwestern Nevada, eastern Oregon and the Snake River Plain in Idaho. Silicic volcanism began in the region contemporaneously with early eruptions of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG), and the abundance of widespread fallout tuffs provides the opportunity to establish a tephrostratigrahic framework for the region. Sedimentary basins with volcaniclastic deposits also contain diverse assemblages of fauna and flora that were preserved during the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum, including Sucker Creek, Mascall, Latah, Virgin Valley and Trout Creek. Correlation of ashfall units establish that the lower Bully Creek Formation in eastern Oregon is contemporaneous with the Virgin Valley Formation, the Sucker Creek Formation, Oregon and Idaho, Trout Creek Formation, Oregon, and the Latah Formation in the Clearwater Embayment in Washington and Idaho. In addition, it can be established that the Trout Creek flora are younger than the Mascall and Latah flora. A tentative correlation of a fallout tuff from the Clarkia fossil beds, Idaho, with a pumice bed in the Bully Creek Formation places the remarkably well preserved Clarkia flora assemblage between the Mascall and Trout Creek flora. Large-volume supereruptions that originated between 11.8 and 10.1 Ma from the Bruneau-Jarbidge and Twin Falls volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in the central Snake River Plain deposited voluminous fallout tuffs in the Ellensberg Formation which forms sedimentary interbeds in the CRBG. These occurrences extend the known distribution of these fallout tuffs 500 km to the northwest of their source in the Snake River Plain. Heretofore, the distal products of these large eruptions had only been recognized to the east of their sources in the High Plains of Nebraska and Kansas.

  7. Simulation of groundwater flow and the interaction of groundwater and surface water in the Willamette Basin and Central Willamette subbasin, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Nora B.; Burns, Erick R.; Conlon, Terrence D.

    2014-01-01

    Full appropriation of tributary streamflow during summer, a growing population, and agricultural needs are increasing the demand for groundwater in the Willamette Basin. Greater groundwater use could diminish streamflow and create seasonal and long-term declines in groundwater levels. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Oregon Water Resources Department (OWRD) cooperated in a study to develop a conceptual and quantitative understanding of the groundwater-flow system of the Willamette Basin with an emphasis on the Central Willamette subbasin. This final report from the cooperative study describes numerical models of the regional and local groundwater-flow systems and evaluates the effects of pumping on groundwater and surface‑water resources. The models described in this report can be used to evaluate spatial and temporal effects of pumping on groundwater, base flow, and stream capture. The regional model covers about 6,700 square miles of the 12,000-square mile Willamette and Sandy River drainage basins in northwestern Oregon—referred to as the Willamette Basin in this report. The Willamette Basin is a topographic and structural trough that lies between the Coast Range and the Cascade Range and is divided into five sedimentary subbasins underlain and separated by basalts of the Columbia River Basalt Group (Columbia River basalt) that crop out as local uplands. From north to south, these five subbasins are the Portland subbasin, the Tualatin subbasin, the Central Willamette subbasin, the Stayton subbasin, and the Southern Willamette subbasin. Recharge in the Willamette Basin is primarily from precipitation in the uplands of the Cascade Range, Coast Range, and western Cascades areas. Groundwater moves downward and laterally through sedimentary or basalt units until it discharges locally to wells, evapotranspiration, or streams. Mean annual groundwater withdrawal for water years 1995 and 1996 was about 400 cubic feet per second; irrigation withdrawals

  8. Effects of soil amendment on soil characteristics and maize yield in Horqin Sandy Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Liu, J. H.; Zhao, B. P.; Xue, A.; Hao, G. C.

    2016-08-01

    A 4-year experiment was conducted to investigate the inter-annual effects of sandy soil amendment on maize yield, soil water storage and soil enzymatic activities in sandy soil in Northeast China in 2010 to 2014. We applied the sandy soil amendment in different year, and investigated the different effects of sandy soil amendment in 2014. There were six treatments including: (1) no sandy soil amendment application (CK); (2) one year after applying sandy soil amendment (T1); (3) two years after applying sandy soil amendment(T2); (4) three years after applying sandy soil amendment(T3); (5)four years after applying sandy soil amendment(T4); (6) five years after applying sandy soil amendment (T5). T refers to treatment, and the number refers to the year after application of the sandy soil amendment. Comparing with CK, sandy soil amendments improved the soil water storage, soil urease, invertase, and catalase activity in different growth stages and soil layers, the order of soil water storage in all treatments roughly performed: T3 > T5 > T4 > T2 > T1 > CK. the order of soil urease, invertase, and catalase activity in all treatments roughly performed: T5 > T3 > T4 > T2 > T1 > CK. Soil application of sandy soil amendment significantly (p≤⃒0.05) increased the grain yield and biomass yield by 22.75%-41.42% and 29.92%-45.45% respectively, and maize yield gradually increased with the years go by in the following five years. Sandy soil amendment used in poor sandy soil had a positive effect on soil water storage, soil enzymatic activities and maize yield, after five years applied sandy soil amendment (T5) showed the best effects among all the treatments, and deserves further research.

  9. Deaths associated with Hurricane Sandy - October-November 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy hit the northeastern U.S. coastline. Sandy's tropical storm winds stretched over 900 miles (1,440 km), causing storm surges and destruction over a larger area than that affected by hurricanes with more intensity but narrower paths. Based on storm surge predictions, mandatory evacuations were ordered on October 28, including for New York City's Evacuation Zone A, the coastal zone at risk for flooding from any hurricane. By October 31, the region had 6-12 inches (15-30 cm) of precipitation, 7-8 million customers without power, approximately 20,000 persons in shelters, and news reports of numerous fatalities (Robert Neurath, CDC, personal communication, 2013). To characterize deaths related to Sandy, CDC analyzed data on 117 hurricane-related deaths captured by American Red Cross (Red Cross) mortality tracking during October 28-November 30, 2012. This report describes the results of that analysis, which found drowning was the most common cause of death related to Sandy, and 45% of drowning deaths occurred in flooded homes in Evacuation Zone A. Drowning is a leading cause of hurricane death but is preventable with advance warning systems and evacuation plans. Emergency plans should ensure that persons receive and comprehend evacuation messages and have the necessary resources to comply with them.

  10. Hurricane Sandy: An Educational Bibliography of Key Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2013-01-01

    There, undoubtedly, will be a flurry of research activity in the "Superstorm" Sandy impact area on a myriad of disaster-related topics, across academic disciplines. The purpose of this study was to review the disaster research related specifically to hurricanes in the educational and social sciences that would best serve as a compendium…

  11. Patterns of species richness in sandy beaches of South America

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species richness of the intertidal macroinfauna of exposed sandy beaches around South America is reviewed in relation ... The middle shore is prim

  12. Microfungi diversity isolation from sandy soil of Acapulco touristic beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microscopic fungi diversity in marine sandy soil habitats is associated with key functions of beach ecosystems. There are few reports on their presence in Mexican beaches. Although standard methods to obtain the fungi from soil samples are established, the aim of this pilot study was to test the pla...

  13. Sandy beach surf zones: An alternative nursery habitat for 0-age Chinook salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin Jarrin, J. R.; Miller, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    The role of each habitat fish use is of great importance to the dynamics of populations. During their early marine residence, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), an anadromous fish species, mostly inhabit estuaries but also use sandy beach surf zones and the coastal ocean. However, the role of surf zones in the early life history of Chinook salmon is unclear. We hypothesized that surf zones serve as an alternative nursery habitat, defined as a habitat that consistently provides a proportion of a population with foraging and growth rates similar to those experienced in the primary nursery. First, we confirmed that juvenile Chinook salmon cohorts are simultaneously using both habitats by combining field collections with otolith chemical and structural analysis to directly compare size and migration patterns of juveniles collected in two Oregon (USA) estuaries and surf zones during three years. We then compared juvenile catch, diet and growth in estuaries and surf zones. Juveniles were consistently caught in both habitats throughout summer. Catches were significantly higher in estuaries (average ± SD = 34.3 ± 19.7 ind. 100 m-2) than surf zones (1.0 ± 1.5 ind. 100 m-2) and were positively correlated (r = 0.92). Size at capture (103 ± 15 mm fork length, FL), size at marine entry (76 ± 13 mm FL), stomach fullness (2 ± 2% body weight) and growth rates (0.4 ± 0.0 mm day-1) were similar between habitats. Our results suggest that when large numbers of 0-age Chinook salmon inhabit estuaries, juveniles concurrently use surf zones, which serve as an alternative nursery habitat. Therefore, surf zones expand the available rearing habitat for Chinook salmon during early marine residence, a critical period in the life history.

  14. 78 FR 46999 - Additional Waivers and Alternative Requirements for Hurricane Sandy Grantees in Receipt of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Additional Waivers and Alternative Requirements for Hurricane Sandy Grantees in... impacted and distressed areas declared a major disaster due to Hurricane Sandy (see 78 FR 14329, published....) (Stafford Act), due to Hurricane Sandy and other eligible events in calendar years 2011, 2012, and 2013....

  15. 77 FR 74891 - Order Granting Exemptions From Certain Rules of Regulation SHO Related to Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... COMMISSION Order Granting Exemptions From Certain Rules of Regulation SHO Related to Hurricane Sandy December 12, 2012. I. Introduction Hurricane Sandy made landfall along the mid-Atlantic Coast on October 29... in the Vault at the time Hurricane Sandy made landfall, facilitating DTCC's ability to...

  16. 78 FR 33467 - Second Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... Response to Hurricane Sandy: Response, Recovery & Resiliency; Correction AGENCY: Federal Transit... by Hurricane Sandy. This amount was in addition to the initial $2 billion allocation announced in the... allocation restoration FTA Section 5324 Emergency Relief Program Allocations for Hurricane Sandy, by...

  17. 33 CFR 165.507 - Security Zone; Chesapeake Bay, between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... south (eastbound) span of the William P. Lane Jr. Memorial Bridge, from the western shore at Sandy Point..., between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD. 165.507 Section 165.507 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.507 Security Zone; Chesapeake Bay, between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD. (a...

  18. Monitoring Oregon Silverspot Butterfly Habitat Restoration Methods: Willapa Bay National Wildlife Refuge and Oregon Coast NWRs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Oregon Silverspot Butterfly is thought to be extirpated from the northern portion oftheir historic range. Currently the entire population is only known to...

  19. 2009 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) Oregon Lidar: North Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Oregon Department of Geology & Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) contracted with Watershed Sciences, Inc. to collect high resolution topographic LiDAR data for...

  20. 2009 Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) Oregon Lidar: North Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI) contracted with Watershed Sciences, Inc. to collect high resolution topographic LiDAR data for...