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Sample records for sandy mud assemblage

  1. Viral infections stimulate the metabolism and shape prokaryotic assemblages in submarine mud volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2012-06-01

    Mud volcanoes are geological structures in the oceans that have key roles in the functioning of the global ecosystem. Information on the dynamics of benthic viruses and their interactions with prokaryotes in mud volcano ecosystems is still completely lacking. We investigated the impact of viral infection on the mortality and assemblage structure of benthic prokaryotes of five mud volcanoes in the Mediterranean Sea. Mud volcano sediments promote high rates of viral production (1.65-7.89 × 10(9) viruses g(-1) d(-1)), viral-induced prokaryotic mortality (VIPM) (33% cells killed per day) and heterotrophic prokaryotic production (3.0-8.3 μgC g(-1) d(-1)) when compared with sediments outside the mud volcano area. The viral shunt (that is, the microbial biomass converted into dissolved organic matter as a result of viral infection, and thus diverted away from higher trophic levels) provides 49 mgC m(-2) d(-1), thus fuelling the metabolism of uninfected prokaryotes and contributing to the total C budget. Bacteria are the dominant components of prokaryotic assemblages in surface sediments of mud volcanoes, whereas archaea dominate the subsurface sediment layers. Multivariate multiple regression analyses show that prokaryotic assemblage composition is not only dependant on the geochemical features and processes of mud volcano ecosystems but also on synergistic interactions between bottom-up (that is, trophic resources) and top-down (that is, VIPM) controlling factors. Overall, these findings highlight the significant role of the viral shunt in sustaining the metabolism of prokaryotes and shaping their assemblage structure in mud volcano sediments, and they provide new clues for our understanding of the functioning of cold-seep ecosystems.

  2. 高光谱特征辨别潴育型麻沙泥田和潮沙泥田水稻土%Discrimination between hydromorphic alluvial sandy mud paddy and tide sandy mud paddy based on hyperspectral characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭熙; 谢碧裕; 叶英聪; 谢文

    2014-01-01

    为了快速识别和划分不同类型水稻土,该研究以江西省兴国县潴育型麻沙泥田和潴育型潮沙泥田为研究对象,以样点方差分析为基础,采用光谱重采样处理、包络线去除处理及光谱一阶微分变换3种光谱分析方法,提取有效的光谱吸收特征参数(spectral absorption feature parameter,SAFP),分析得出两土种有效光谱特征。结果表明:识别潴育型水稻土最有效的是波谷波长位置的共性参数,而区分两土种最有效的是波峰宽度、波谷宽度及波谷倾斜角特性参数。重采样光谱特征参数分析中最有效的是波峰宽度:麻沙泥田的波峰宽度为58 nm,而潮沙泥田为27 nm,麻沙泥田波形起点高,下滑速度比潮沙泥田更快,吸收宽度大;去包络线算法提取光谱吸收特征参数发现,辨别麻沙泥田与潮沙泥田最有效的是波谷宽度,前者在波长482 nm处波谷宽度为26 nm,后者在波长484 nm处波谷宽度为178 nm,潮沙泥田波谷宽度大了将近6倍,而且麻沙泥田波谷倾斜角比潮沙泥田更大,麻沙泥田趋于突变型,而潮沙泥田趋于平缓型;光谱一阶微分方法提取特征参数中区分两土种最有效的是波谷倾斜角:麻沙泥田与潮沙泥田在波段471 nm处分别为-0.00573°和0.00573°,前者相邻波谷走向为负向坡,而后者为正向坡。研究可为高光谱技术辨别不同水稻土类型提供参考。%The application of hyperspectral analysis techniques can extract hyperspectral characteristic parameters and identify soil types. In contrast to the traditional methods, this application is more convenient and time-saving. This paper took two types of Typic Hapli-Stagnic Anthrosols (the hydromorphic alluvial sandy mud paddy and the hydromorphic tide sandy mud paddy) in Xingguo County as the research objects to analyze the hyperspectal characteristics and to extract the effective hyperspectral

  3. Morphodynamic rotation of an embayed sandy beach in a mud-dominated setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunier, Guillaume; Anthony, Edward; Gardel, Antoine; Millet, Bertrand; Fleury, Jules; Dussouillez, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The morphodynamics of beaches between bedrock headlands along the muddy French Guiana coast in South America are controlled by rotation induced by the alongshore migration of mud banks from the mouths of the Amazon River. As they migrate alongshore, these mud banks generate changes in shore-incident wave angles, resulting in reversals in longshore drift. A poor appreciation of the problems caused by this process has resulted in the past in damages to the highly urbanized sea-fronts on these beaches, including erosion and flooding. This work enhances our understanding of this rather unusual type of mud-induced rotation based on surveys of the 4 km-long Montjoly beach near Cayenne, in French Guiana, in the course of an approaching mud bank between October 2013 and October 2014. Our method was based on innovative high-resolution topographic surveys from airborne Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry over the beach in October 2013, March 2014 and October 2014. We produced digital surface models (DSM) with a resolution of 10 cm/pixel and an accuracy less than 10 cm from RTK-GPS measurements. We further measured incident wave heights from pressure sensors and conducted a bathymetric survey of the nearshore zone in October 2014. We also modelled high-tide wave propagation over the bathymetry using the REF/DIF v2.5 model. The results show the transfer of sand from the northern part of beach to the south between October 2013 and March 2014. The October 2013 DSM shows a reflective beach in the north indicative of erosion, with a narrow 50 m-wide upper beach. The southern sector was smoother and up to 90 m-wide. Between October 2013 and March 2014, the beach rotated under the influence of a mud bank, with a 30-m retreat of the berm in the north and an advance of 40 m in the south. We quantified a loss of ≈66,000 m³ of sand in the north and a gain of ≈22,000 m³ in the south over this six-month period. The October 2014 DSM shows minor morphological changes, thus

  4. Macrofaunal assemblages from mud volcanoes in the Gulf of Cadiz: abundance, biodiversity and diversity partitioning across spatial scales

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    M. R. Cunha

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Gulf of Cadiz is an extensive seepage area in the south Iberian margin (NE Atlantic encompassing over 40 mud volcanoes (MVs at depths ranging from 200 to 4000 m. The area has a long geologic history and a central biogeographic location with a complex circulation ensuring oceanographic connectivity with the Mediterranean Sea, equatorial and North Atlantic regions. The geodynamics of the region promotes a notorious diversity in the seep regime despite the relatively low fluxes of hydrocarbon-rich gases. We analyse quantitative samples taken during the cruises TTR14, TTR15 and MSM01-03 in seven mud volcanoes grouped into Shallow MVs (Mercator: 350 m, Kidd: 500 m, Meknès: 700 m and Deep MVs (Captain Arutyunov: 1300 m, Carlos Ribeiro: 2200 m, Bonjardim: 3000 m, Porto: 3900 m and two additional Reference sites (ca. 550 m. Macrofauna (retained by a 500 μm sieve was identified to species level whenever possible. The samples yielded modest abundances (70–1567 individuals per 0.25 m2, but the local and regional number of species is among the highest ever reported for cold seeps. Among the 366 recorded species, 22 were symbiont-hosting bivalves (Thyasiridae, Vesicomyidae, Solemyidae and tubeworms (Siboglinidae. The multivariate analyses supported the significant differences between Shallow and Deep MVs: The environmental conditions at the Shallow MVs make them highly permeable to the penetration of background fauna leading to high diversity of the attendant assemblages (H′: 2.92–3.94; ES(100: 28.3–45.0; J′: 0.685–0.881. The Deep MV assemblages showed, in general, contrasting features but were more heterogeneous (H′: 1.41–3.06; ES(100: 10.5–30.5; J′: 0.340–0.852 and often dominated by one or more siboglinid species. The rarefaction curves confirmed the differences in biodiversity of Deep and Shallow MVs as well as the convergence of the latter to the Reference sites. The Bray–Curtis dissimilarity demonstrated the high

  5. Species-specific effect of macrobenthic assemblages on meiobenthos and nematode community structure in shallow sandy sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban-Malinga, Barbara; Drgas, Aleksander; Gromisz, Sławomira; Barnes, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Three functionally different macrofaunal species (the filter- and/or surface deposit-feeding polychaete Hediste diversicolor, and the suspension-feeding bivalves Mya arenaria and Cerastoderma glaucum) were introduced as single- and two-species treatments into microcosms containing sandy sediment with a natural meiofaunal community. H. diversicolor is a burrowing species building a system of galleries, C. glaucum lives actively near the sediment surface acting as a biodiffuser and M. arenaria buries deeply and leads a sessile lifestyle. It is shown that H. diversicolor extended the vertical distribution of meiofauna into deeper sediment layers compared to the control and non-Hediste treatments. The response of the nematode community varied significantly among treatments and was dependant on the macrobenthic species composition but not on the species number. Nematode assemblages in all treatments with the polychaete, both in monoculture and with either bivalve, differed significantly from those recorded in other treatments and were more similar than replicates within any other single treatment. H. diversicolor also appeared to have stimulated nematode species diversity. The present study demonstrated that the impact of macrobenthic assemblages on meiofauna is not a simple summation of individual species effects but is species specific.

  6. Biodiversity and distribution of macroinfauna assemblages on sandy beaches along the Gulf of Cadiz (SW Spain

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    M. José Reyes-Martínez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, the macroinfauna communities inhabiting 12 sandy beaches along the Spanish coast of the Gulf of Cadiz were describe in order to characterize their unexplored biodiversity, their zonation patterns and their environmental features. A total of 66 macroinfauna taxa were recorded on 12 sandy beaches, ranging from 4 to 33 species. Density reached 848 individual per m2. The individual zonation pattern ranged from two to three zones, regardless of the morphodynamic state. A common zonation pattern of the whole set of beaches was established, comprising three across-shore biological zones. Generally, the supralittoral zone was typified by the air-breathing amphipod Talitrus saltator and coleopterans; the middle zone was dominated by true intertidal species, such as Haustoriidae amphipods (Haustorius arenarius, Cirolanidae isopods (Eurydice affinis, Spionidae polychaetes (Scolelepis spp. and nemerteans; and the lower or sublittoral zone was typified by Pontoporeiidae amphipods, mysids and spionid polychaetes. Sediment moisture, average grain size, organic matter content and elevation were the main predictor variables of zonation patterns. We used the conservation and recreation potential indices to show how this information can be useful for coastal management. Most beaches studied show a score above 5 on the conservation index, so the beaches have a reasonable potential for conservation management.

  7. Variability of coastal suprabenthic assemblages from sandy beaches of the Caribbean coast of Venezuela

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    Ileana Ortega

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The suprabenthos or hyperbenthos is the macrofaunal assemblage of small-sized organisms that interact for some time in the benthic boundary layer. Information about the taxonomic composition and role of suprabenthic species, especially in littoral zones, is scarce and scattered. This work attempts to contribute alleviate this problem. We analyze the temporal and spatial variations of suprabenthic assemblages in the swash-zone from four beaches of the littoral coast of Venezuela. For each beach, two sites were chosen, and special attention was given to water and sediment characteristics. 12 environmental variables were measured: Dissolved oxygen, oxygen saturation percentage, pH, salinity, surface temperature, total, organic and inorganic suspended solids, total organic carbon, organic matter in sediment, grain size of sediment, and amount of dragged material of sample. All faunal samples were taken on a monthly basis during 2011; these were extracted using a manual suprabenthic sledge towed parallel to the shoreline. Samples were sorted and identified to their lowest possible taxonomic level. A total of 24 141 specimens (mean abundance: 26.16±55.35ind./m² belonging to 21 taxonomic groups were identified. Analysis suggests that seasonality does not explain observed changes either in fauna or environmental variables. It was found that suprabenthic assemblages, total suprabenthos density, richness and environmental variables changed in a dissimilar fashion between months and beaches. The most frequent groups were amphipods and decapods; and at the species/categories level post-larval shrimp (Penaeidae, Grapsidae crab megalopae and Arenaeus cribarius megalopae were common. Dissimilarity between months in each beach was primarily explained by the abundance of amphipods, ctenophores, decapods and mysids. For particular months and selected beaches very high abundances of ctenophores were found. This group dominated the sample even though it is not

  8. Diel Variations and Ecological Aspects in Fish Assemblages of a Sandy Beach in the Semi-Arid Region of Northeast Brazil.

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    Natália Carla Fernandes Medeiros Dantas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT For the demersal fish that inhabit sandy beaches, the variation between day and night periods represents a determinant factor in their behavior, especially for species that live in shallow waters. This research aims at determining whether there are differences in the fish assemblage structure of the sandy beach of São Cristóvão, RN, Brazil, between diurnal and nocturnal periods. Samplings were carried out in 2011, during spring high tide period, with an otter trawl net. Dissimilarity between diurnal and nocturnal fish assemblages was confirmed by PERMANOVA results. No statistical differences were observed for richness and diversity of fish assemblage between day and night periods. The first and third order carnivores were the significantly more representative trophic categories during night and day periods, respectively. Only four species presented significant differences regarding total length of fish between the periods. The demersal fish assemblage of São Cristóvão beach presented variations in the density of individuals between day and night periods. Dissimilarities were also recorded in trophic categories and in total lengths of individuals; however this occurred as a result of the high density of some species. The low depth of the beach may prevent the establishment of larger size adult fish, thus becoming a favourable environment for juveniles and small-sized fish species.

  9. Effects of deposition of heavy-metal-polluted harbor mud on microbial diversity and metal resistance in sandy marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toes, Ann-Charlotte M; Finke, Niko; Kuenen, J Gijs;

    2008-01-01

    Deposition of dredged harbor sediments in relatively undisturbed ecosystems is often considered a viable option for confinement of pollutants and possible natural attenuation. This study investigated the effects of deposition of heavy-metal-polluted sludge on the microbial diversity of sandy...

  10. Low level off-road vehicle (ORV) traffic negatively impacts macroinvertebrate assemblages at sandy beaches in south-western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Rebecca; Speldewinde, Peter C; Stewart, Barbara A

    2016-04-28

    Off-road vehicle use is arguably one of the most environmentally damaging human activities undertaken on sandy beaches worldwide. Existing studies focused on areas of high traffic volumes have demonstrated significantly lower abundance, diversity and species richness of fauna in zones where traffic is concentrated. The impact of lower traffic volumes is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of relatively low-level vehicle traffic on sandy beach fauna by sampling invertebrate communities at eight beaches located in south-western Australia. We found that even low-level vehicle traffic negatively impacts the physical beach environment, and consequently, the ability of many species to survive in this habitat in the face of this disturbance. Compaction, rutting and displacement of the sand matrix were observed over a large area, resulting in significant decreases in species diversity and density, and measurable shifts in community structure on beaches that experienced off-road vehicle traffic. Communities at impact sites did not display seasonal recovery as traffic was not significantly different between seasons. Given a choice between either reducing traffic volumes, or excluding ORV traffic from beaches, our results suggest that the latter would be more appropriate when the retention of ecological integrity is the objective.

  11. Molluscan assemblage from a tropical intertidal estuarine sand-mud flat, Gulf of Nicoya, Pacific, Costa Rica (1984-1987).

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    Vargas-Zamora, José A; Sibaja-Cordero, Jeffrey A

    2011-09-01

    The availability of data sets covering more than a year is scarce for tropical environments. Advances in hardware and software speed-up the re-analysis of old data sets and facilitates the identification of hidden data patterns. From February 1984 to April 1987 (49 sampling dates), core samples (17.7cm2, 15cm deep) were collected at low tide at a sand-mud flat in the mid upper Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Pacific, Costa Rica. Predator exclusion experiments (cages 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.2m, galvanized wire, mesh size 5mm), were conducted at the site in 1985 (dry and rainy seasons sets). Samples were preserved with 5% buffered formalin in sea water stained with Rose Bengal, and washed after 24 hours on a 500 micron mesh sieve. The 1 120 cores yielded a total of 112 morphological species of which the mollusks were represented by 23 species, and included the bivalves Tellina rubescens, Tagelus bourgeoisae, Dosinia dunkeri and Leukoma asperrima, and the gastropods, Natica unifasciata, Nassarius luteostomus, Costoanachis rugosa and Turbonilla sp. The 23 species are indicative of a relatively rich sedimentary molluscan fauna. T. bourgeoisae had a seasonal oscillation, with higher abundances during the rainy seasons. T. rubescens was not seasonal, but presented an oscillation with peaks at about 1.5 year intervals. Many empty shells of Cosmioconcha modesta, lower number of N. luteostomus and a few of T. rubescens were found with boreholes by the predatory snail N. unifasciata. T. rubescens was not significantly more abundant inside or outside cages. T. bourgeoisae showed a significant increase within the caged areas. The numerical fluctuations of the mollusks became more important during the rainy season of 1985. Red tide outbreaks in the Gulf of Nicoya in 1985 may have had an impact on the molluscan populations.

  12. Molluscan assemblage from a tropical intertidal estuarine sand-mud flat, Gulf of Nicoya, Pacific, Costa Rica (1984-1987

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Vargas-Zamora

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The availability of data sets covering more than a year is scarce for tropical environments. Advances in hardware and software speed-up the re-analysis of old data sets and facilitates the identification of hidden data patterns. From February 1984 to April 1987 (49 sampling dates, core samples (17.7cm², 15cm deep were collected at low tide at a sand-mud flat in the mid upper Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Pacific, Costa Rica. Predator exclusion experiments (cages 0.5x0.5x0.2m, galvanized wire, mesh size 5mm, were conducted at the site in 1985 (dry and rainy seasons sets. Samples were preserved with 5% buffered formalin in sea water stained with Rose Bengal, and washed after 24 hours on a 500 micron mesh sieve. The 1 120 cores yielded a total of 112 morphological species of which the mollusks were represented by 23 species, and included the bivalves Tellina rubescens, Tagelus bourgeoisae, Dosinia dunkeri and Leukoma asperrima, and the gastropods, Natica unifasciata, Nassarius luteostomus, Costoanachis rugosa and Turbonilla sp. The 23 species are indicative of a relatively rich sedimentary molluscan fauna. T. bourgeoisae had a seasonal oscillation, with higher abundancesduring the rainy seasons. T. rubescens was not seasonal, but presented an oscillation with peaks at about 1.5 year intervals. Many empty shells of Cosmioconcha modesta, lower number of N. luteostomus and a few of T. rubescens were found with boreholes by the predatory snail N. unifasciata. T. rubescens was not significantly more abundant inside or outside cages. T. bourgeoisae showed a significant increase within the caged areas. The numerical fluctuations of the mollusks became more important during the rainy season of 1985. Red tide outbreaks in the Gulf of Nicoya in 1985 may have had an impact on the molluscan populations. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1135-1148. Epub 2011 September 01.

  13. Mud dynamics on the shoreface and upper shelf, Noordwijk, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinhans, M.G.; Montfort, O.; Dankers, P.J.T.; Rijn, L.C. van; Bonne, W.

    2005-01-01

    Mud dynamics on the shoreface were studied with measured mud concentrations in the water related to hydrodynamics and measured mud concentrations in the sandy bed. In addition, mud infiltration into the bed was modelled and mud inmixing into the bed by macro-benthos was assessed. The mud concentrati

  14. Impact of oil-based drill mud disposal on benthic foraminiferal assemblages on the continental margin off Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorissen, F. J.; Bicchi, E.; Duchemin, G.; Durrieu, J.; Galgani, F.; Cazes, L.; Gaultier, M.; Camps, R.

    2009-12-01

    In order to assess the possible environmental impact of oily cuttings discharged during oil exploration activities, we studied the benthic foraminiferal faunas in a five-station, 4-km-long sampling transect around a cuttings disposal site at about 670 m depth offshore Angola (W Africa), where drilling activities started 1.5 years before sampling. Living (Rose Bengal stained) and dead foraminiferal faunas were sampled in March 2006. The faunal patterns mirror the spatial distribution of hydrocarbons, which are dispersed into a southeastern direction. Four different areas can be distinguished on the basis of the investigated faunal parameters (density, diversity and species composition of the living fauna, and comparison with subrecent dead faunas). The fauna at station S31, 300 m SE of the oil cuttings disposal site, appears to be clearly impacted: the faunal density and diversity are maximal, but evenness is minimal. Taxa sensitive to organic enrichment, such as Uvigerina peregrina, Cancris auriculus and Cribrostomoides subglobosus, have largely disappeared, whereas the low-oxygen-resistant taxon Chilostomella oolina and opportunistic buliminids and bolivinids attain relatively high densities. At station S32, 500 m SE of the disposal site, environmental impact is still perceptible. The faunal density is slightly increased, and U. peregrina, apparently the most sensitive species, is still almost absent. The faunas found at 1 and 1.8 km SE of the disposal site are apparently no longer impacted by the drill mud disposal. Faunal density and diversity are low, and the faunal composition is typical for a mesotrophic to eutrophic upper slope environment. Finally, Station S35, 2 km NW of the disposal site, contains an intermediate fauna, where both the low-oxygen-resistant C. oolina and the more sensitive taxa ( U. peregrina, C. auriculus and C. subglobosus) are present. All taxa live close to the sediment-water interface here, indicating a reduced oxygen penetration into

  15. Molluscan assemblage from a tropical intertidal estuarine sand-mud flat, Gulf of Nicoya, Pacific, Costa Rica (1984-1987

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Vargas-Zamora

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The availability of data sets covering more than a year is scarce for tropical environments. Advances in hardware and software speed-up the re-analysis of old data sets and facilitates the identification of hidden data patterns. From February 1984 to April 1987 (49 sampling dates, core samples (17.7cm², 15cm deep were collected at low tide at a sand-mud flat in the mid upper Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Pacific, Costa Rica. Predator exclusion experiments (cages 0.5x0.5x0.2m, galvanized wire, mesh size 5mm, were conducted at the site in 1985 (dry and rainy seasons sets. Samples were preserved with 5% buffered formalin in sea water stained with Rose Bengal, and washed after 24 hours on a 500 micron mesh sieve. The 1 120 cores yielded a total of 112 morphological species of which the mollusks were represented by 23 species, and included the bivalves Tellina rubescens, Tagelus bourgeoisae, Dosinia dunkeri and Leukoma asperrima, and the gastropods, Natica unifasciata, Nassarius luteostomus, Costoanachis rugosa and Turbonilla sp. The 23 species are indicative of a relatively rich sedimentary molluscan fauna. T. bourgeoisae had a seasonal oscillation, with higher abundancesduring the rainy seasons. T. rubescens was not seasonal, but presented an oscillation with peaks at about 1.5 year intervals. Many empty shells of Cosmioconcha modesta, lower number of N. luteostomus and a few of T. rubescens were found with boreholes by the predatory snail N. unifasciata. T. rubescens was not significantly more abundant inside or outside cages. T. bourgeoisae showed a significant increase within the caged areas. The numerical fluctuations of the mollusks became more important during the rainy season of 1985. Red tide outbreaks in the Gulf of Nicoya in 1985 may have had an impact on the molluscan populations. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1135-1148. Epub 2011 September 01.La disponibilidad de datos con una cobertura mayor al año es rara para ambientes tropicales. Avances en

  16. Age and morphodynamics of a sandy beach fronted by a macrotidal mud flat along the west coast of Korea: a lateral headland bypass model for beach-dune formation

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    Chang, Tae Soo; Hong, Seok Hwi; Chun, Seung Soo; Choi, Jeong-Heon

    2016-11-01

    The Dasari beach-dune system fronted by an intertidal mud flat is a typical example of numerous small beaches found both in embayments and along the open macrotidal west coast of Korea. The beach is frequently exposed to energetic wave action at high tide in winter. Although this coastal dune-sandy beach-intertidal mud flat system has previously been described, its origin and morphodynamic behavior has to date not been firmly established. To clarify these issues, elevation profiles and surficial sediment samples were collected seasonally along five monitoring transects across the tidal flat. In addition, box-cores as well as vibro- and drill-cores were acquired along the middle transect. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and 14C- AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) dating methods were applied to determine the age of the tidal flat, the beach and the dune deposits. The results show that Dasari beach is topographically composed of two distinct morphological and sedimentological sectors, comprising a high-tide sandy beach that merges seaward into an extensive low-tide tidal flat composed of mud. The transition between the two sectors is marked by a sharp break in slope and change in internal sedimentary structures. At the boundary, the subtle shoreward fining trend in mean grain size on the intertidal flat switches to a pronounced shoreward coarsening trend. Near the transition, mixing between the beach sand and the mud is observed. Another striking feature is a seasonal rotation of the beach system centered on the middle sector, with the northern sector eroding in winter and accreting in summer, and the southern sector accreting in winter and eroding in summer. The spatial grain-size pattern reveals that the beach is fed from the neighboring beach in the north by lateral headland bypassing, rather than onshore transport across the tidal flat, the intermittent lateral supply of sand explaining the seasonal rotation of the beach. Stratigraphically, the beach

  17. Age and morphodynamics of a sandy beach fronted by a macrotidal mud flat along the west coast of Korea: a lateral headland bypass model for beach-dune formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tae Soo; Hong, Seok Hwi; Chun, Seung Soo; Choi, Jeong-Heon

    2017-08-01

    The Dasari beach-dune system fronted by an intertidal mud flat is a typical example of numerous small beaches found both in embayments and along the open macrotidal west coast of Korea. The beach is frequently exposed to energetic wave action at high tide in winter. Although this coastal dune-sandy beach-intertidal mud flat system has previously been described, its origin and morphodynamic behavior has to date not been firmly established. To clarify these issues, elevation profiles and surficial sediment samples were collected seasonally along five monitoring transects across the tidal flat. In addition, box-cores as well as vibro- and drill-cores were acquired along the middle transect. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and 14C- AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry) dating methods were applied to determine the age of the tidal flat, the beach and the dune deposits. The results show that Dasari beach is topographically composed of two distinct morphological and sedimentological sectors, comprising a high-tide sandy beach that merges seaward into an extensive low-tide tidal flat composed of mud. The transition between the two sectors is marked by a sharp break in slope and change in internal sedimentary structures. At the boundary, the subtle shoreward fining trend in mean grain size on the intertidal flat switches to a pronounced shoreward coarsening trend. Near the transition, mixing between the beach sand and the mud is observed. Another striking feature is a seasonal rotation of the beach system centered on the middle sector, with the northern sector eroding in winter and accreting in summer, and the southern sector accreting in winter and eroding in summer. The spatial grain-size pattern reveals that the beach is fed from the neighboring beach in the north by lateral headland bypassing, rather than onshore transport across the tidal flat, the intermittent lateral supply of sand explaining the seasonal rotation of the beach. Stratigraphically, the beach

  18. Taxonomic and trait based recolonization dynamics of a riverine fish assemblage following a large scale human mediated disturbance: the red mud disaster in Hungary

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    Tibor Eros

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined the recovery of a fish assemblage following the catastrophic spill of highly alkaline (pH~13 red sludge into a lowland river (i to characterize taxonomic and trait based colonization of fishes in the river in the first three years of the recovery, and (ii to determine which structural and trait based variables best predicted colonization. Species richness showed comparable values to pre-disturbance state less than one year after the spill. We found only moderate changes in the dominance of the most abundant species between pre- and post-disturbance periods, and consistent changes in the relative abundance of some rare species during the post-disturbance period. Frequency of occurrence (% of the fishes in the watershed, and their relative abundance (% proved to be the most important predictor variables in colonization, whereas trait based variables had a less important role. Our study about one of the largest scale and most serious documented fish kill shows that both taxonomic and trait based structure of fish assemblages can regenerate remarkable fast in a modified river and also shows that unfortunate chemical spills provide insights into the assembly of stream fish assemblages.

  19. Plugging mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogoza, Z.I.; Bulla, Yu.A.; Fedorov, V.V.; Isakova, Ye.F.

    1983-01-01

    A plugging mud is proposed which includes cement, water and hydrolyzed polyacronitrile. In order to reduce water output, it additionally contains iron sulfate and sodium sulfate with the following ratio of components, % by mass: cement 68.665.42; hydrolyzed polyacronitrile 0.07-0.21; iron sulfate 0.03-0.07; sodium sulfate 0.34-1.40; water--the rest.

  20. Therapeutic muds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrascu Mioara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As defined by the "International Society of Medical Hydrology" muds (peloids are "substances formed under natural conditions under the influence of geological processes and in a state finely divided and mixed with water, that are used in medical practice in general or local baths.

  1. Therapeutic muds

    OpenAIRE

    Dumitrascu Mioara; Munteanu Constantin

    2011-01-01

    As defined by the "International Society of Medical Hydrology" muds (peloids) are "substances formed under natural conditions under the influence of geological processes and in a state finely divided and mixed with water, that are used in medical practice in general or local baths.

  2. Marvelous Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Rusty

    2011-01-01

    The author visited the Open Spaces Preschool in Whangarei, New Zealand and was surprised to see the most amazing natural preschool play. There were six preschoolers stripped down to tee shirts and underpants slipping, slopping, and sliding in the dirt spot which had now become the most lovely, silky-smooth deep-brown mud ever. Studies have…

  3. Assessment of soft-bottom polychaete assemblages in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean) based on a mesoscale survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrune, Céline; Grémare, Antoine; Amouroux, Jean-Michel; Sardá, Rafael; Gil, João; Taboada, Sergi

    2007-01-01

    Ninety-two stations (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 m depth) located on 21 inshore-offshore transects between the French-Spanish border and the mouth of the Rhône River were sampled during the 1998 Fall. Their polychaete fauna was analyzed to: (1) describe the distribution pattern of polychaete assemblages at the scale of the whole Gulf of Lions, (2) identify the relationships between these assemblages and the main environmental parameters, (3) establish a link between these assemblages and the benthic communities already described for Northwestern Mediterranean, and (4) assess recent historical changes in trends in densities and α diversity between assemblages. Three polychaete assemblages were identified using cluster analysis and associated procedures. These assemblages were tightly associated with depth and sediment granulometry as indicated by the concordance between their spatial distributions and the sedimentary map of the Gulf of Lions. Assemblage I contained most of the 10 and 20 m deep stations and was associated with littoral fine sands. Assemblage I was found all over the Gulf of Lions and was characterized by high abundance and high biomass due to the presence of large numbers of the serpulid Ditrupa arietina. Assemblage II was mostly composed of 30 m deep stations and was associated with littoral sandy mud. Assemblage II was dominated by the lumbrinerid Lumbrineris latreilli. It was composed of two sub-assemblages (IIa and IIb) in relation with sediment granulometry. Sub-assemblage IIb was associated with finer sediment than sub-assemblage IIa. Sub-assemblage IIa was only found in the Southern part of the Gulf of Lions, whereas sub-assemblage IIb was mostly found in the Northern part of the Gulf of Lions. This pattern is probably indicative of the sedimentation of fine particles originating from the Rhône River at intermediate depth as suggested by: (1) the sedimentary map of the Gulf of Lions, and (2) the outputs of recent models of sediment transport in

  4. Structure and diversity of intertidal benthic diatom assemblages in contrasting shores: a case study from the Tagus estuary(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Lourenço; Brotas, Vanda; Rincé, Yves; Jesus, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    The structure of intertidal benthic diatoms assemblages in the Tagus estuary was investigated during a 2-year survey, carried out in six stations with different sediment texture. Nonparametric multivariate analyses were used to characterize spatial and temporal patterns of the assemblages and to link them to the measured environmental variables. In addition, diversity and other features related to community physiognomy, such as size-class or life-form distributions, were used to describe the diatom assemblages. A total of 183 diatom taxa were identified during cell counts and their biovolume was determined. Differences between stations (analysis of similarity (ANOSIM), R = 0.932) were more evident than temporal patterns (R = 0.308) and mud content alone was the environmental variable most correlated to the biotic data (BEST, ρ = 0.863). Mudflat stations were typically colonized by low diversity diatom assemblages (H' ~ 1.9), mainly composed of medium-sized motile epipelic species (250-1,000 μm(3) ), that showed species-specific seasonal blooms (e.g., Navicula gregaria Donkin). Sandy stations had more complex and diverse diatom assemblages (H' ~ 3.2). They were mostly composed by a large set of minute epipsammic species (<250 μm(3) ) that, generally, did not show temporal patterns. The structure of intertidal diatom assemblages was largely defined by the interplay between epipelon and epipsammon, and its diversity was explained within the framework of the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis. However, the spatial distribution of epipelic and epipsammic life-forms showed that the definition of both functional groups should not be over-simplified. © 2012 Phycological Society of America.

  5. Hurricane Sandy and earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    MAVASHEV BORIS; MAVASHEV IGOR

    2013-01-01

    Submit for consideration the connection between formation of a hurricane Sandy and earthquakes. As a rule, weather anomalies precede and accompany earthquakes. The hurricane Sandy emerged 2 days prior to strong earthquakes that occurred in the area. And the trajectory of the hurricane Sandy matched the epicenter of the earthquakes. Possibility of early prediction of natural disasters will minimize the moral and material damage.

  6. Growth patterns and dynamics of mud cracks at different diagenetic stages and its geological significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-yu ZHAO; Yan-ru GUO; Yan WANG; Hong LIU; Qing ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the growth stages, spatial structures, quantitative fitting relationships among various parameters, growth patterns and influencing factors of mud cracks by field survey, core observation and SEM analysis. The study shows that:(1) Mud crack growth can go through three stages, i.e. the syndiagenetic stage, the burial diagenetic stage (including early diagenetic stage, middle-late diagenetic stage) and the epidiagenetic stage. (2) Quantitative fitting relationships among various parameters allow a great significance to describe the spatial structure, the regional distribution and the growth environment of mud cracks. (3) Mud crack growth has three models, such as the unilateral growth model including the linear growth pattern, the curvilinear growth pattern and the bifurcation growth pattern, the multilateral growth model including the intersectional growth pattern, the join growth pattern and the dispersed growth pattern, and the mixed growth model including the combination of any patterns listed above. (4) Modern mud crack growth usually undergoes four stages. Sand beds in sand-mud rhythmic strata can play a lubricative role on crack growth and provide enough sandy deposits for filling cracks. (5) Mud crack growth usually produces bifurcation and bifurcation angles which are mostly 120° or 90° that are related to sediment heterogeneity and released energy. (6) Factors affecting mud crack growth cover many aspects: clay content and salinity can control the number of mud cracks in different areas;terrain can control mud crack morphology;and different sedimentary cycles can control the growth patterns and filling models of mud cracks.

  7. Red Mud Stacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bélanger, Marie-J.

    The red mud slurry "stacking" method used in many Alcan Plants has been developed in the 1980's. The aim of this technique is to use minimum space for the disposal of the residue and to rapidly obtain consolidated material. The consistency of the mud slurry plays a key role in the steepness (angle) of the stacking slope.

  8. Broadband Scattering from Sand and Sand/Mud Sediments with Extensive Environmental Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-30

    frequency sound speed and attenuation measurements in sandy sediments with a portable velocimeter.” (4) Proceedings from the 2nd International...Bay, FL off the shore of Shell Island. The sediment consisted of the 15 cm mud layer overlying a muddy, coarse sand basement. Scattering data was...Demoulin, X., L. Guillon, and B.T. Hefner (2017), “High-frequency sound speed and attenuation measurements in sandy sediments with a portable

  9. Strange Assemblage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Robert Cole

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper contends that the power of Deleuze & Guattari’s (1988 notion of assemblage as theorised in 1000 Plateaus can be normalised and reductive with reference to its application to any social-cultural context where an open system of dynamic and fluid elements are located. Rather than determining the assemblage in this way, this paper argues for an alternative conception of ‘strange assemblage’ that must be deliberately and consciously created through rigorous and focused intellectual, creative and philosophical work around what makes assemblages singular. The paper will proceed with examples of ‘strange assemblage’ taken from a film by Peter Greenaway (A Zed and 2 Noughts; the film ‘Performance’; educational research with Sudanese families in Australia; the book, Bomb Culture by Jeff Nuttall (1970; and the band Hawkwind. Fittingly, these elements are themselves chosen to demonstrate the concept of ‘strange assemblage’, and how it can be presented. How exactly the elements of a ‘strange assemblage’ come together and work in the world is unknown until they are specifically elaborated and created ‘in the moment’. Such spontaneous methodology reminds us of the 1960s ‘Happenings’, the Situationist International and Dada/Surrealism. The difference that will be opened up by this paper is that all elements of this ‘strange assemblage’ cohere in terms of a rendering of ‘the unacceptable.'

  10. Landscape Visual Quality and Meiofauna Biodiversity on Sandy Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Gabriela; Marenzi, Rosemeri C.; Polette, Marcos; Netto, Sérgio A.

    2016-10-01

    Sandy beaches are central economic assets, attracting more recreational users than other coastal ecosystems. However, urbanization and landscape modification can compromise both the functional integrity and the attractiveness of beach ecosystems. Our study aimed at investigating the relationship between sandy beach artificialization and the landscape perception by the users, and between sandy beach visual attractiveness and biodiversity. We conducted visual and biodiversity assessments of urbanized and semiurbanized sandy beaches in Brazil and Uruguay. We specifically examined meiofauna as an indicator of biodiversity. We hypothesized that urbanization of sandy beaches results in a higher number of landscape detractors that negatively affect user evaluation, and that lower-rated beach units support lower levels of biodiversity. We found that urbanized beach units were rated lower than semiurbanized units, indicating that visual quality was sensitive to human interventions. Our expectations regarding the relationship between landscape perception and biodiversity were only partially met; only few structural and functional descriptors of meiofauna assemblages differed among classes of visual quality. However, lower-rated beach units exhibited signs of lower environmental quality, indicated by higher oligochaete densities and significant differences in meiofauna structure. We conclude that managing sandy beaches needs to advance beyond assessment of aesthetic parameters to also include the structure and function of beach ecosystems. Use of such supporting tools for managing sandy beaches is particularly important in view of sea level rise and increasing coastal development.

  11. Analyzing Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Angelyn; Meyer, Stephan; Edwards, Becca

    2015-03-01

    Post-tropical Storm Sandy underwent extratropical transition shortly before making landfall in southern New Jersey October 29 2012. Data from this system was compared with data from Hurricane Ike (2008) which represents a classic hurricane with a clear eye wall and symmetry after landfall. Storm Sandy collided with a low pressure system coming in from the north as the hurricane made landfall on the US East coast. This contributed to Storm Sandy acting as a non-typical hurricane when it made landfall. Time histories of wind speed and wind direction were generated from data provided by Texas Tech's StickNet probes for both storms. The NOAA Weather and Climate program were used to generate radar loops of reflectivity during the landfall for both storms; these loops were compared with time histories for both Ike and Sandy to identify a relationship between time series data and storm-scale features identified on radar.

  12. Thermal Mud Molecular Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersin Odabasi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal mud (peloids, which are frequently used for thermal therapy purposes consist of organic and inorganic (minerals compounds in general. Organic structure is formed after a variety of chemical processes occurring in decades and comprise of a very complex structure. Stagnant water environment, herbal diversity, microorganism multiplicity and time are crucial players to form the structure. Data regarding description of organic compounds are very limited. Nowadays, it was clearly understood that a variety of compounds those are neglected in daily practice are found in thermal mud after GC-MS and similar methods are being frequently used. Those compounds which are biologically active are humic compounds, carboxylic acids, terpenoids, steroids and fatty acids. By comprising the thermal mud, these different compound groups which are related to divers areas from cosmetology to inflammation, make the thermal mud very meaningful in the treatment of human disease. In this review, it was tried to put forward the effects of several molecule groups those consisting of the thermal mud structure. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(3.000: 257-264

  13. Effects of mud supply on large-scale estuarine morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braat, Lisanne; Kleinhans, Maarten; van Kessel, Thijs; Wongsoredjo, Samor; Bergsma, Laura

    2016-04-01

    Sandy river estuaries have great economic and ecologic values, but a better understanding is required about the effect of mud on large-scale morphodynamics to optimise maintenance strategies. Very few studies actually include sand-mud interaction effects on morphodynamics on decadal and centennial timescales due to model limitations and lack of spatially and temporally dense data of mud in the bed. Here we study effects of cohesive sediment supply on equilibrium estuary shape, bar-channel patterns and dynamics, during formation from idealised initial conditions over a time scale of centuries and millennia. On the basis of related modelling and experimentation of river and delta patterns we hypothesise that mud will settle into mud flats flanking the estuary that resist erosion and thus self-confine and narrow the estuary and reduce braiding index and channel-bar mobility. We applied the process-based numerical model Delft3D in depth-averaged mode starting from idealised convergent estuaries. Mixed sediment was modelled with an active layer and storage module with fluxes predicted by the Partheniades-Krone relations for the cohesive regime, and Engelund-Hansen for the non-cohesive regime depending on the fraction of mud. This was subjected to a range of different mud inputs from the river or from the sea and a range of river discharge and tidal amplitudes. Our modelling results show that mud is predominantly stored in mudflats on the sides of the estuary. Higher mud concentration at the river inflow leads to narrower and shorter estuaries. Channels within the estuary also become narrower due to increased cohesion in the channel banks. This trend is confirmed in preliminary experiments. However, channels do not increase in depth; this is in contrast with what is observed in rivers and we do not yet fully understand this. Migration rates of channels and bars and bar splitting and merging also reduce with increasing mud concentration. For higher discharge channel

  14. Complex burrows of the mud shrimp Callianassa truncata and their geochemical impact in the sea bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebis, W.; Forster, S.; Huettel, M.;

    1996-01-01

    ). Here we report the use of a diver observatory within the seabed, along with in situ measurements, to assess the geochemical impact of the mud-shrimp Callianassa truncata Giard and Bonnier (Decapoda, Thalassinidea), a species that commonly inhabits sandy sediments in the Mediterranean sea....

  15. Wadden Sea Mud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, P.

    The present thesis deals with the transport phenomena of estuarine cohesive sediment from a laboratory and a numerical point of view. The cohesive sediment used throughout the whole process was natural mud from the Danish part of the Wadden sea, Ho Bay. In the laboratory, the work was concentrated...

  16. Wadden Sea Mud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, P.

    The present thesis deals with the transport phenomena of estuarine cohesive sediment from a laboratory and a numerical point of view. The cohesive sediment used throughout the whole process was natural mud from the Danish part of the Wadden sea, Ho Bay. In the laboratory, the work was concentrated...

  17. Mud Brick Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Runa

    2012-01-01

    In the seemingly endless circle of demolition and illegal rebuilding hand-made mud bricks produced from the soil of contested territory become an act of resistance. In June 2011, the Palestinian village Fasayel encountered the Israeli military’s demolition of 21 of the village’s built structures....

  18. Mud Brick Resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Runa

    2012-01-01

    In the seemingly endless circle of demolition and illegal rebuilding hand-made mud bricks produced from the soil of contested territory become an act of resistance. In June 2011, the Palestinian village Fasayel encountered the Israeli military’s demolition of 21 of the village’s built structures....

  19. Changes of biogeochemical activities before and after significant mud displacement at the Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano (HMMV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felden, J.; Wenzhöfer, F.; Yoerger, D.; Camilli, R.; German, C.; Olu, K.; Feseker, T.; de Beer, D.; Boetius, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano (72°N, 14° 43' E, 1250 m water depth) was studied for a period of a year by the Long-term Observatory On Mud-volcano Eruptions (LOOME) in 2009-2010, to investigate temporal variations of mud volcanism and consequences for biogeochemical processes. The HMMV is a highly active methane cold seep ecosystem characterized by high rates of methane efflux. It hosts different chemosynthetic communities such as thiotrophic bacterial mats and siboglinid tubeworm assemblages. This study focuses on changes in community composition and biogeochemical activity such as methane emission, total benthic oxygen uptake, microbial methane and sulfate consumption before and after a major mud displacement recorded by LOOME. The sensor-enabled long-term observations of the HMMV habitats were combined with short-term analyses before and after the displacement events by ROVs QUEST (MARUM) and GENESIS (University of Gent), the AUV Sentry (WHOI) equipped with a multibeam and subbottom profiler, CTD and photographic unit as well as with a mass spectrometer. We found shifts in the distribution patterns of chemosynthetic communities and also substantial changes in their activity, consistent with changes in temperature gradients. This study was sponsored by the EU-Projects HERMIONE "Hotspot Ecosystem Research and Man's Impact on European Seas", and ESONET "European Seas Observatory Network" (Demonstration Mission LOOME "Long term observations on mud volcano eruptions").

  20. Mollusc life and death assemblages on a tropical rocky shore as proxies for the taphonomic loss in a fossil counterpart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anne Mehlin; Surlyk, Finn

    2013-01-01

    species from the rocky shore and the associated sandy pocket beaches, and only a few exotic species from other, completely different habitats are present. The environmental fidelity between the life and death assemblage is thus high, with the majority of species from the death assemblage representing......Comparison of a modern rocky shore mollusc life assemblage from Thailand with the associated death assemblage, and interpretation of the fossilization potential of the latter, are used to investigate the fidelity in reconstruction of ancient analogues. The fauna from the death assemblage represents...... the intertidal to shallow subtidal rocky shore environment, from which the life assemblage was sampled, and the associated sandy beach environment. The life assemblage should in principle have a high fossilization potential because only two out of 67 species are without a calcareous shell, but it actually has...

  1. Multi-Sensor Mud Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Arturo L.; Matthies, Larry H.

    2010-01-01

    Robust mud detection is a critical perception requirement for Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) autonomous offroad navigation. A military UGV stuck in a mud body during a mission may have to be sacrificed or rescued, both of which are unattractive options. There are several characteristics of mud that may be detectable with appropriate UGV-mounted sensors. For example, mud only occurs on the ground surface, is cooler than surrounding dry soil during the daytime under nominal weather conditions, is generally darker than surrounding dry soil in visible imagery, and is highly polarized. However, none of these cues are definitive on their own. Dry soil also occurs on the ground surface, shadows, snow, ice, and water can also be cooler than surrounding dry soil, shadows are also darker than surrounding dry soil in visible imagery, and cars, water, and some vegetation are also highly polarized. Shadows, snow, ice, water, cars, and vegetation can all be disambiguated from mud by using a suite of sensors that span multiple bands in the electromagnetic spectrum. Because there are military operations when it is imperative for UGV's to operate without emitting strong, detectable electromagnetic signals, passive sensors are desirable. JPL has developed a daytime mud detection capability using multiple passive imaging sensors. Cues for mud from multiple passive imaging sensors are fused into a single mud detection image using a rule base, and the resultant mud detection is localized in a terrain map using range data generated from a stereo pair of color cameras.

  2. Irradiation of residual muds and its use in the oat cultivation; Irradiacion de lodos residuales y su uso en el cultivo de avena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, A.J.; Colin, C.A.; Gomeztagle, M.M.; Frias, P.H. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1997-07-01

    The irradiation of residual muds samples from a wastewater treatment plant at gamma radiation dose of 15 kGy removes from muds on average: fats and oils (33%), detergent (92%), phenols (50%) and over 99% of microorganisms of total account. The evaluation of irradiated residual mud and without irradiation as soil conditioner in oat growing (avena safira), was realized by triplicate, using different rates (80, 60, 40 and 20%) of frank sandy soil and irradiated and non-irradiated residual mud. The growing with rates 60/40 % of soil and irradiated mud respectively, resulted being more adequate as soil conditioner. It is important to clarify that for putting residual mud it is necessary that metals concentration not exceed the maximum permissible levels for the soil type and the corresponding growing. (Author)

  3. Complex burrows of the mud shrimp Callianassa truncata and their geochemical impact in the sea bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebis, W.; Forster, S.; Huettel, M.

    1996-01-01

    the overlying water and rapid consumption within the sea bed, Macrofauna organisms living within the sea bed affect the physical structure of the sea floor, its chemical zonations and the exchange processes across the sediment-water interface(3,4). Thalassinidean mud-shrimps are often abundant in tropical......). Here we report the use of a diver observatory within the seabed, along with in situ measurements, to assess the geochemical impact of the mud-shrimp Callianassa truncata Giard and Bonnier (Decapoda, Thalassinidea), a species that commonly inhabits sandy sediments in the Mediterranean sea....

  4. Complex burrows of the mud shrimp Callianassa truncata and their geochemical impact in the sea bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebis, W.; Forster, S.; Huettel, M.;

    1996-01-01

    the overlying water and rapid consumption within the sea bed, Macrofauna organisms living within the sea bed affect the physical structure of the sea floor, its chemical zonations and the exchange processes across the sediment-water interface(3,4). Thalassinidean mud-shrimps are often abundant in tropical......). Here we report the use of a diver observatory within the seabed, along with in situ measurements, to assess the geochemical impact of the mud-shrimp Callianassa truncata Giard and Bonnier (Decapoda, Thalassinidea), a species that commonly inhabits sandy sediments in the Mediterranean sea....

  5. The Mud Center: Recapturing Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Becky J.; Bullard, Julie A.

    2002-01-01

    Describes a Montana child development center's creation of an area in which children could enjoy messy, creative, sensory experiences playing with mud and a wide variety of outdoor props. Discusses how mud play contributed to young children's emerging interests and provided opportunities for expressing creativity, enhancing fine motor skills, and…

  6. Unit for cleaning drilling muds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorosh, M.M.; Dera, Ya.I.; Fesenko, M.M.; Makedonov, N.I.; Surkov, V.T.

    1983-01-01

    A design is proposed for a unit for cleaning drilling muds which includes a settling tank with input sleeve and a sleeve of the purified mud and hydrocyclones. In order to improve the effectiveness of the degree of purification, the unit is equipped with an ejector and sludge filter arranged under the settling tank in the form of a grid installed in the upper part of the settling tank and connected to the sleeve of purified mud, while the inlet sleeve is arranged tangentially. The proposed unit can operate during drilling with the use of muds on water and carbon bases. As a result of its use, the degree of purification of the drilling mud reaches 30-35%; there is an increase in mechanical drilling rate, the service life of the sand-separator and the silt separators and decrease in wear of the pump equipment.

  7. Mud Volcanoes Formation And Occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliyev, I. S.

    2007-12-01

    Mud volcanoes are natural phenomena, which occur throughout the globe. They are found at a greater or lesser scale in Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Georgia, on the Kerch and Taman peninsulas, on Sakhalin Island, in West Kuban, Italy, Romania, Iran, Pakistan, India, Burma, China, Japan, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Mexico, Colombia, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela and Ecuador. Mud volcanoes are most well-developed in Eastern Azerbaijan, where more than 30% of all the volcanoes in the world are concentrated. More than 300 mud volcanoes have already been recognized here onshore or offshore, 220 of which lie within an area of 16,000 km2. Many of these mud volcanoes are particularly large (up to 400 m high). The volcanoes of the South Caspian form permanent or temporary islands, and numerous submarine banks. Many hypotheses have been developed regarding the origin of mud volcanoes. Some of those hypotheses will be examined in the present paper. Model of spontaneous excitation-decompaction (proposed by Ivanov and Guliev, 1988, 2002). It is supposed that one of major factors of the movement of sedimentary masses and formation of hydrocarbon deposits are phase transitions in sedimentary basin. At phase transitions there are abnormal changes of physical and chemical parameters of rocks. Abnormal (high and negative) pressure takes place. This process is called as excitation of the underground environment with periodicity from several tens to several hundreds, or thousand years. The relationship between mud volcanism and the generation of hydrocarbons, particularly methane, is considered to be a critical factor in mud volcano formation. At high flow rates the gas and sediment develops into a pseudo-liquid state and as flow increases the mass reaches the "so-called hover velocity" where mass transport begins. The mass of fluid moves as a quasi-uniform viscous mass through the sediment pile in a piston like manner until expelled from the surface as a "catastrophic eruption

  8. Mud volcano origin of the Mottled Zone, South Levant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Novikov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Mottled Zone (MZ or Hatrurim Formation, which occurs near the Levantine Transform in the South Levant, has been studied during the last 150 years but its origin remains debatable. Mottled Zone Complex/Complexes (MZC/MZCs consist of brecciated carbonate and low-temperature calcium-hydrosilicate rocks, which include unusual high- and ultra-high-temperature low-pressure (HT-LP metamorphic mineral assemblages. The MZ has been regarded as a product of combustion of bituminous chalks of the Ghareb Fm. of Cretaceous (Maastrichtian age. In this paper we present detailed geographic, geomorphologic, structural and geological data from the MZCs of the South Levant, which show that the MZCs cannot be stratigraphically correlated with the Ghareb Fm., because MZC late Oligocene–late Pleistocene deposits occur within or unconformably, i.e., with stratigraphic hiatus, overlap both the late Cretaceous and, in places, Neogene stratigraphic units. We propose an alternative model for the formation of MZCs by tectonically induced mud volcanism during late Oligocene–late Pleistocene time. This model explains (i the presence of dikes and tube-like bodies, which consist of brecciated exotic clastic material derived from stratigraphically and hypsometrically lower horizons; (ii mineral assemblages of sanidinite facies metamorphism; (iii multi-stage character of HT-LP pyrometamorphism; and (iv multi-stage low-temperature hydrothermal alteration. High temperatures (up to 1500 °C mineral assemblages resulted from combustion of hydrocarbon gases of mud volcanoes. Mud volcanism was spatially and structurally related to neotectonic folds and deformation zones formed in response to opening of the Red Sea rift and propagation of the Levantine Transform Fault. Our model may significantly change the prospects for oil-and-gas deposits in the region.

  9. Solar Drying of Red Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, John L.

    Solar drying of thickened red mud is the latest method for its disposal in an economical and environmentally acceptable way. Two years full scale experience with this method in Jamaica has shown that its success depends on accurate grading of the solar drying area and accurate control of the pre-dewatering of the mud in the alumina plant. Experience with the use of deep thickening for pre-dewatering is described, together with a novel method for measurement and control of thickened mud rheology.

  10. Sedimentology and geochemistry of mud volcanoes in the Anaximander Mountain Region from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talas, Ezgi; Duman, Muhammet; Küçüksezgin, Filiz; Brennan, Michael L; Raineault, Nicole A

    2015-06-15

    Investigations carried out on surface sediments collected from the Anaximander mud volcanoes in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea to determine sedimentary and geochemical properties. The sediment grain size distribution and geochemical contents were determined by grain size analysis, organic carbon, carbonate contents and element analysis. The results of element contents were compared to background levels of Earth's crust. The factors that affect element distribution in sediments were calculated by the nine push core samples taken from the surface of mud volcanoes by the E/V Nautilus. The grain size of the samples varies from sand to sandy silt. Enrichment and Contamination factor analysis showed that these analyses can also be used to evaluate of deep sea environmental and source parameters. It is concluded that the biological and cold seep effects are the main drivers of surface sediment characteristics from the Anaximander mud volcanoes.

  11. Spatially limited mud turbidites on the Cascadia margin: segmented earthquake ruptures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Goldfinger

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of 23 thin, mostly mud-silt turbidites are found interspersed between larger, well-dated and regionally correlated paleoseismic sandy turbidites that extend along most of the Cascadia margin, northwestern United States. Investigation of the structure, distribution, and sedimentology of these thin mud-silt units supports the interpretation of these units as turbidites originating on the continental slope. Interpretation of mud turbidites is inhibited by bioturbation and lower response to analytical and imaging techniques; nevertheless most of the 23 interpreted beds exhibit most of the characteristics of coarser turbidites. These characteristics include sharp bases, fining upward sequences, darker color, increased gamma and CT density and magnetic susceptibility relative to the hemipelagic background, sparse microfossils, high lithic content, and evidence of transport from marine sources on the continental slope. New core data from sites south of Rogue Apron indicate that sandy and muddy turbidites may be correlated at least 150 km south to Trinidad Plunge Pool for the period ~ 4800 yr BP to present. Many of the mud turbidites initially described at Rogue Apron coarsen southward, becoming sandy turbidites. High-resolution Chirp seismic profiles reveal that turbidite stratigraphy along the base of the southern Cascadia continental slope is continuous, with little variation for at least 240 km along strike. The Chirp data show that turbidites along the Cascadia base of slope are ubiquitous, and likely not sourced solely from submarine canyon mouths, but may also have been delivered to the proximal abyssal plain as sheet flows from the open continental slope and coalescing local sources. Regional stratigraphy reveals that hemipelagic sedimentation rates and total Holocene turbidite thickness and mass are similar at widely separated sites, yet the total thickness of the Holocene section is greater by a factor of two in southern Cascadia

  12. Affects and assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    affects and assemblages produce subjective feelings and emotions (Pile 2009) Recently, urban experience designs and events aim at evoking affects through affects and assemblages. A Danish example is the Carlsberg city in Copenhagen another is The High line in Chelsea, New York (Samson 2011). Thus...

  13. Deep-sea foraminifera from the Cassidaigne Canyon (NW Mediterranean): Assessing the environmental impact of bauxite red mud disposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontanier, C.; Fabri, M.-C.; Buscail, R.; Biscara, L.; Koho, K.A.; Reichart, G.-J.; Cossa, D.; Galaup, S.; Chabaud, G.; Pigot, L.

    2012-01-01

    Benthic foraminiferal assemblages were investigated from two sites along the axis of the Cassidaigne Canyon (NW Mediterranean Sea). Both areas are contaminated by bauxite red mud enriched in iron, titanium, vanadium and chromium. These elemental enrichments are related to bauxite-derived minerals an

  14. Deep-sea foraminifera from the Cassidaigne Canyon (NW Mediterranean): Assessing the environmental impact of bauxite red mud disposal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontanier, C.; Fabri, M.-C.; Buscail, R.; Biscara, L.; Koho, K.A.; Reichart, G.-J.; Cossa, D.; Galaup, S.; Chabaud, G.; Pigot, L.

    2012-01-01

    Benthic foraminiferal assemblages were investigated from two sites along the axis of the Cassidaigne Canyon (NW Mediterranean Sea). Both areas are contaminated by bauxite red mud enriched in iron, titanium, vanadium and chromium. These elemental enrichments are related to bauxite-derived

  15. Effects of Habitat and Human Activities on Species Richness and Assemblages of Staphylinidae (Coleoptera in the Baltic Sea Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Irmler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, the staphylind fauna was studied in six habitats of the Baltic Sea coast of Schleswig-Holstein (northern Germany. The following habitats lagoon, sandy beach, shingle beach, primary dune, wooded cliff, and woodless cliff were significantly separated by their species composition. Vegetation and soil moisture were the most important factors separating the assemblages. Lagoons exhibited the most species-rich habitat. Sandy beaches provided the highest number of endangered species. Both sandy beaches and woodless cliffs showed the highest number of exclusive species. A loss of species was determined in the gradient from sandy to shingle beaches. Few species preferred shingle beaches; abundance of Cafius xantholoma increased with the increasing amount of shingle. More species preferred the sandy conditions, for example, Polystomota grisea, P. punctatella, and Phytosus spinifer. Anotylus insecatus and Bledius defensus require distinct mixtures of sand and silt on woodless cliffs. Tourist impact on sandy beaches accounts for approximately 50% loss of species.

  16. Mud Logging; Control geologico en perforaciones petroliferas (Mud Logging)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pumarega Lafuente, J.C.

    1994-12-31

    Mud Logging is an important activity in the oil field and it is a key job in drilling operations, our duties are the acquisition, collection and interpretation of the geological and engineering data at the wellsite, also inform the client immediately of any significant changes in the well. (Author)

  17. 30 CFR 250.1614 - Mud program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1614 Mud program. (a) The quantities, characteristics, use, and testing of drilling mud and the related drilling procedures shall be designed and... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mud program. 250.1614 Section 250.1614...

  18. Sandy PMO Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013 Financial Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Sandy PMO: Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013 (Sandy Supplemental Bill) Financial Data. This is the Sandy Supplemental Quarterly Financial Datasets that are...

  19. Decapod crustacean assemblages off the West coast of central Italy (western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Fanelli

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Community structure and faunal composition of decapod crustaceans off the west coast of central Italy (western Mediterranean were investigated. Samples were collected during five trawl surveys carried out from June 1996 to June 2000 from 16 to 750 m depth. Multivariate analysis revealed the occurrence of five faunistic assemblages: 1 a strictly coastal community over sandy bottoms at depths

  20. Rheological measurements on artifical muds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Wit, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    The rheological behaviour of three artificial muds was determined using a rotational viscometer. First some characteristics of the viscometer used were rneasured. For want of an appropriate calibration tluid, the viscosity of demineralized water was determined. The result agreed very well with what

  1. Mud-Wave Interaction: A Viscoelastic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This study is devoted to the interaction between water surface waves and a thin layer of viscoelastic mud on the bottom. On the assumption that the mud layer is comparable in thickness with the wave boundary layer and is much smaller than the wavelength, a two-layer Stokes boundary layer model is adopted to determine the mud motions under the waves. Analytical expressions are derived for the near-bottom water and mud velocity fields, surface wave-damping rate, and interface wave amplitude and phase lag. Examined in particular is how these kinematic quantities may depend on the viscous and elastic properties of the mud.

  2. Mud Flow - Slow and Fast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, C. C.; Liu, K.-F.; Yuhi, M.

    Heavy and persistent rainfalls in mountainous areas can loosen the hillslope and induce mud flows which can move stones, boulders and even trees, with destructive power on their path. In China where 70% of the land surface is covered by mountains, debris flows due to landslides or rainfalls affect over 18.6% of the nation. Over 10,000 debris flow ravines have been identified; hundreds of lives are lost every year [1]. While accurate assessment is still pending, mud flows caused by Hurr icane Mitch in 1998 have incurred devastating floods in Central America. In Honduras alone more than 6000 people perished. Half of the nation's infrastructures were damaged. Mud flows can also be the result of volcanic eruption. Near the volcano, lava and pyroclastic flows dominate. Further downstream solid particles become smaller and can mix with river or lake water, rainfall, melting snow or ice, or eroded soil, resulting in hyperconcentrated mud mixed with rocks. The muddy debris can travel at high speeds over tens of miles down the hill slopes and devastate entire communities. In 1985 the catastrophic eruption of Nevado del Ruiz in Colombia resulted in mud flows which took the life of 23,000 inhabitants in the town of Amero [2]. During the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in Phillipnes in 1991, one cubic mile of volcanic ash and rock fragments fell on the mountain slopes. Seasonal rain in the following months washed down much of the loose deposits, causing damage to 100,000 villages. These catastrophes have been vividly recorded in the film documentary by Lyons [3].

  3. Food habits of fishes on an exposed sandy beach at Fukiagehama, South-West Kyushu Island, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Yukinori; Suda, Yusuke; Sano, Mitsuhiko

    2011-06-01

    To clarify the feeding habits and major food sources of sandy beach fishes, the gut contents of 55 fish species collected on a sandy beach at Fukiagehama, South-West Kyushu Island, Japan, were examined. Ontogenetic changes in food preference were recognized in nine species ( Hypoatherina valenciennei, Lateolabrax japonicus, Trachurus japonicus, Sillago japonica, Sphyraena japonica, Paralichthys olivaceus, Heteromycteris japonica, Paraplagusia japonica, and Takifugu niphobles). A cluster analysis based on dietary overlaps showed that the sandy beach fish assemblage comprised six trophic groups (mysid, amphipod, zooplankton, juvenile fish, terrestrial insect, and mollusk feeders). Of these, the first three groups were the most abundantly represented, whereas the last two were represented by only a single species. These results indicated that epibenthic macrofauna, such as mysids and gammaridean amphipods, and zooplankton, were important food resources for the fish assemblage at the study site, but infaunal macrobenthos, such as polychaetes and bivalves, being relatively unimportant.

  4. Effects of Habitat and Human Activities on Species Richness and Assemblages of Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) in the Baltic Sea Coast

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich Irmler

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, the staphylind fauna was studied in six habitats of the Baltic Sea coast of Schleswig-Holstein (northern Germany). The following habitats lagoon, sandy beach, shingle beach, primary dune, wooded cliff, and woodless cliff were significantly separated by their species composition. Vegetation and soil moisture were the most important factors separating the assemblages. Lagoons exhibited the most species-rich habitat. Sandy beaches provided the highest number of endangered species. Both ...

  5. Hurricane Sandy Poster (October 29, 2012)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hurricane Sandy poster. Multi-spectral image from Suomi-NPP shows Hurricane Sandy approaching the New Jersey Coast on October 29, 2012. Poster size is approximately...

  6. On Sandy Shores. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Craig; And Others

    The activities in this guide (for grades 2-4) transport students to the sandy shore, one of the most fascinating ecosystems on the planet. At this ecological juncture a multiplicity of life forms find ways to survive, thrive, and interact with each other. Using a wide variety of learning formats, students explore and deepen their understanding of…

  7. Experimental research of drilling mud influence on mud motor mechanical rubber components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epikhin, A. V.; Ushakov, A. V.; Barztaikin, V. V.; Melnikov, V. V.; Ulyanova, S.

    2015-11-01

    The paper describes the experimental research of drilling mud influence on engineering parameters of mud motor mechanical rubber components. It is believed to be urgent due to increase in using mud motors in oil and gas well construction now, and, consequently, the issue of increasing their exploitation is becoming current. The development test results of elastomer IRP-1226 dependent on the mud type (alkaline, hydrocarbon or salt- saturated ones) and the temperature are shown in the paper. It is proved that the type of drilling mud and the temperature in bottom-hole zone have an influence on wear of mud motors elastomers.

  8. A sedimentological approach for an optimal resolution of drilling mud losses; Approche sedimentologique pour une resolution optimale des problemes de pertes de boues de forage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kherfellah, N.; Ait Salem, H. [Sonatrach, Centre de Recherche et Developpement, Boumerdes (Algeria); Bekkour, K. [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides et des Solides, UMR ULP-CNRS, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Benhadid, S. [Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, Institut de Physique, Lab. de Rheologie, El Alia (Algeria)

    2002-07-01

    In spite of the geological knowledge accumulated on more than 800 uninterruptedly cored wells during the forty last years, the drilling of the 81/2'' diameter phase of Hassi-Messaoud oil field (Algeria) remains delicate because of excavation and drilling mud losses problems. The main objective of this work was to study the problem of drilling mud losses by the use of a sedimentological approach and to localize the producing levels of the subjacent Cambrian. For that purpose, the fast and slow drilling advance zones in the Triassic sedimentary sequences were localized in order to establish distribution maps. Thus, it was highlighted: - that the fast advance zones correspond to the sectors without mud losses (argillaceous facies of the flood plain), whereas the zones with slow advance correspond to the significant mud losses sectors (sandy facies of the fluviatile bars); - that under the fast advance zones of the Triassic series, potential hydrocarbon reservoirs are located. (authors)

  9. Affects and assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Kristine

    the paper raises the questions where to locate aesthetics when planners and architects wishes to design for aesthetical experiences and sensations rather than formal objects. The paper will proceed through a brief outline of the recent notion of assemblage and affect in urban studies, planning theory...... as a ‘throwntogetherness’ (Massey 2005) or assemblage (Farias & Bender 2010) of perspectives bridging for instance the social and cultural experienced space investigated by the geographer and urban sociologist with the material and formal aesthetics of the architect and urban planner.......Affects and assemblages are Deleuzian Guattarian notions related to aesthetics and spatial territories. In recent urban geography and urban studies these notions are increasingly gaining more impact (Amin & Thrift 2002, Pile 2008, Farías & Bender 2010, Andersen & Harrison 2010, Thrift 2008). What...

  10. Device for purifying drilling mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surkov, V.T.; Dorosh, M.M.; Khariv, I.Yu.; Makedonov, N.I.

    1982-01-01

    A device is proposed for purifying drilling mud which includes a dynamic filter made in the form of a spiral-shaped tube with input and output sleeves, and a container for purified solution with outlet sleeve. It is distinguished by the fact that in order to simplify the design, the spiral-shaped tube is perforated from the inside and is installed in the container for the purified solution.

  11. The surveillant assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, K D; Ericson, R V

    2000-12-01

    George Orwell's 'Big Brother' and Michel Foucault's 'panopticon' have dominated discussion of contemporary developments in surveillance. While such metaphors draw our attention to important attributes of surveillance, they also miss some recent dynamics in its operation. The work of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari is used to analyse the convergence of once discrete surveillance systems. The resultant 'surveillant assemblage' operates by abstracting human bodies from their territorial settings, and separating them into a series of discrete flows. These flows are then reassembled in different locations as discrete and virtual 'data doubles'. The surveillant assemblage transforms the purposes of surveillance and the hierarchies of surveillance, as well as the institution of privacy.

  12. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of microbial mud mound derived boulders from gravity-flow polymictic megabreccias (Visean, SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, M.; Moreno-González, I.; Mas, R.; Reitner, J.

    2012-07-01

    The Upper Visean outcrops from the Guadiato Valley (Córdoba, SW Spain) provide a well-preserved record of the mud mound factory, which was developed in a mainly siliciclastic synorogenic foreland basin during the oblique sinistral collision of two terranes (Ossa Morena and Central Iberian blocks). The first onset of mud mound development has been recorded as microbial mud mound-derived boulders in polymictic megabreccias as result of strong tectonic activity. The Upper Visean record from the Mississippian central band at Guadiato Valley starts with lower heterolithic units (up to 180 m thick) and shows two major tectonically-controlled cycles: a fining upwards interval (FU) followed by a coarsening upwards interval (CU). These cycles are linked to two active margins with gravelly fan delta development and different source areas. Mud mound-derived boulders occur in the CU interval and are formed by peloidal primary and secondary (reworked) automicrites and allomicrites, showing a diverse faunal and floral assemblage, although never as the main skeletal framebuilders. However, the observed coeval richness in sponges (lyssacinose hexactinellids and non-lithistid demosponges) and the diverse calcareous algae assemblage in mud mound derived boulders are not common in other Visean buildups. The growth cavities display changes in the geopetal relationships between fillings and the secondary cavities containing sand to gravel fillings reflecting a complex pre-boulder and mud mound derived boulder history. Detailed mapping, sampling, stratigraphic and microfacial analyses have allowed the reconstruction of the mud mounds sedimentary environment prior to the collapse, transport and emplacement as boulders with polymictic gravels.

  13. Gulf of Mexico mud toxicity limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, H.E.; Beardmore, D.H. (Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (USA)); Stewart, W.S. (Drilling Specialties Co. (US))

    1989-10-01

    Because of the Environmental Protection Agency's recent toxicity limits on drilling mud discharges for offshore Gulf of Mexico, Phillips Petroleum conducted a mud toxicity study based on both field and lab tests. The study, discussed in this article, found the polyanionic cellulose-sulfomethylated quebracho-chrome lignosulfonate mud Phillips had been using would comfortably pass the toxicity limitations. The study also found barite and thinners were of low toxicity, and hydrocarbons and surfactants were highly toxic.

  14. Experimental research of drilling mud influence on mud motor mechanical rubber components

    OpenAIRE

    Epikhin, Anton Vladimirovich; Ushakov, A. V.; Barztaikin, V. V.; Melnikov, V. V.; Ulyanova, Oksana Sergeevna

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the experimental research of drilling mud influence on engineering parameters of mud motor mechanical rubber components. It is believed to be urgent due to increase in using mud motors in oil and gas well construction now, and, consequently, the issue of increasing their exploitation is becoming current. The development test results of elastomer IRP-1226 dependent on the mud type (alkaline, hydrocarbon or salt-saturated ones) and the temperature are shown in the paper. It ...

  15. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction of a downslope accretion history: From coralgal-coralline sponge rubble to mud mound deposits (Eocene, Ainsa Basin, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Marta; Reitner, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    In the Lutetian intraslope Ainsa sub-basin, small, sub-spherical, carbonate mud mounds occur associated with hemipelagic marls and mixed gravity flow deposits. The studied mud mounds consist of a mixture of allochthonous, parautochthonous and autochthonous components that show evidences of reworking, bioerosion, and accretion by different fossil assemblages at different growth stages. The crusts of microbial-lithistid sponges played an important role stabilizing the rubble of coralgal-coralline sponges and formed low-relief small benthic patches in a dominant marly soft slope environment. These accidental hard substrates turned into suitable initiation/nucleation sites for automicrite production (dense and peloidal automicrites) on which the small mud mounds dominated by opportunistic epi- and infaunal heterozoan assemblages grew. A detailed microfacies mapping and paleoenvironmental analysis reveals a multi-episodic downslope accretion history starred by demosponges (coralline and lithistid sponges), agariciid corals, calcareous red algae, putative microbial benthic communities and diverse sclerobionts from the upper slope to the middle slope. The analyzed mud mound microfacies are compared with similar fossil assemblages and growth fabrics described in many fossil mud mounds, and with recent deep-water fore reefs and cave environments.

  16. Assemblages of Patient Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balatsas Lekkas, Angelos

    2016-01-01

    This thesis identifies how design processes emerge during the use of devices in healthcare, by attending to assemblages where contingencies of risk and harm co-exist with the contribution of healthcare professionals to the safe care of patients. With support from the field of Science and Technology...

  17. Comparative study on microphytobenthic pigments of muddy and sandy intertidal sediments of the Tagus estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartaxana, P.; Mendes, C. R.; van Leeuwe, M. A.; Brotas, V.

    2006-01-01

    The abundance and distribution of microphytobenthic pigments determined by HPLC (chlorophylls and carotenoids) were compared between muddy and sandy sediments of the Tagus estuary (Portugal). In the two types of sediment, with similar periods of illuminated emersion, chlorophyll a concentrations on a per area basis (mg m -2) were comparable (down to 2 mm). Pigment analysis also revealed similar microphytobenthic communities in terms of algal classes. Diatoms were the dominant microalgae, but cyanophytes, euglenophytes and phanerogam debris were also present. For both muddy and sandy sediments, microphytobenthic biomass showed a high level of variability both within and between two consecutive years. Microphytobenthos was highly stratified in the mud, with most of the chlorophyll a occurring in the top 500 μm. In the sand, relatively constant concentrations were found throughout the sediment profile down to 3 mm. This is probably related to deeper light penetration in sandy sediment and/or increased physical mixing caused by invertebrate activity or overlying currents, leading to the burial of an important fraction of the microphytobenthic cells. Differences observed in the intensity of sediment coloration of muddy and sandy sediments might have resulted from the different vertical distribution of benthic biomass.

  18. Meandering worms: mechanics of undulatory burrowing in muds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dorgan, Kelly M; Law, Chris J; Rouse, Greg W

    2013-01-01

    .... However, Armandia brevis, a mud-burrowing opheliid polychaete, lacks an expansible anterior consistent with fracturing mud, and instead uses undulatory movements similar to those of sandfish lizards...

  19. Low levels of toxic elements in Dead Sea black mud and mud-derived cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, Ahmad; Pingitore, Nicholas E

    2009-08-01

    Natural muds used as or in cosmetics may expose consumers to toxic metals and elements via absorption through the skin, inhalation of the dried product, or ingestion (by children). Despite the extensive therapeutic and cosmetic use of the Dead Sea muds, there apparently has been no assessment of the levels of such toxic elements as Pb, As, or Cd in the mud and mud-based products. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis of eight toxic elements in samples collected from three black mud deposits (Lisan Marl, Pleistocene age) on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea in Jordan revealed no special enrichment of toxic elements in the mud. A similar analysis of 16 different commercial Dead Sea mud cosmetics, including packaged mud, likewise revealed no toxic elements at elevated levels of concern. From a toxic element standpoint, the Dead Sea black muds and derivative products appear to be safe for the consumer. Whatever the therapeutic benefits of the mud, our comparison of the elemental fingerprints of the consumer products with those of the field samples revealed one disturbing aspect: Dead Sea black mud should not be a significant component of such items as hand creams, body lotions, shampoo, and moisturizer.

  20. Fashion, Mediations & Method Assemblages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie; Jespersen, Astrid Pernille

    , respectively. The paper thus takes on aesthetics and the social in a manner closely related to a core argument of STS - namely that the scientific fact, and the social processes of constructing, distributing, and using that fact, are co-constructed (Callon, 1986; Latour, 1993). The paper thus contributes......, it is an important ambition of this paper to go into a methodological discussion of how "that which effectively happens" can be approached. To this end, the paper will combine Hennion's term of the "mediator" with John Laws methodological term of "method assemblages". Method assemblages is a suggested as a way...... of handling multiple, fluid realities with multiple, fluid methods. Empirically, the paper works with mediation in fashion - that is efforts the active shaping of relations between producer and consumer through communication, marketing and PR. Fashion mediation is by no means simple, but organise complex...

  1. FCJ-177 Television Assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Rizzo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Television has become a multiplatform medium that houses content on a number of different sites and devices that encourage new forms of engagement. This new digital environment has transformed television from a closed system, where programmes are transmitted to a television set for viewers to tune into, to an open system that produces new television connections and configurations. Drawing on the work of Deleuze and Guattari, Latour and current media theorists, this essay turns to the concept of assemblages for theorising this new interactive multiplatform television environment. Thinking about multiplatform television through the concept of assemblages offers a means of exploring how television devices, texts and media are reconfigured or modified so as to display new functionalities and capacities. It also enables us to consider the way television culture can be deterritorialised and reterritorialised through new connections and in doing so introduce new qualities such as interactivity and reciprocal determination.

  2. Phosphate removal from wastewater using red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weiwei; Wang, Shaobin; Zhu, Zhonghua; Li, Li; Yao, Xiangdong; Rudolph, Victor; Haghseresht, Fouad

    2008-10-01

    Red mud, a waste residue of alumina refinery, has been used to develop effective adsorbents to remove phosphate from aqueous solution. Acid and acid-thermal treatments were employed to treat the raw red mud. The effects of different treatment methods, pH of solution and operating temperature on adsorption have been examined in batch experiments. It was found that all activated red mud samples show higher surface area and total pore volume as well as higher adsorption capacity for phosphate removal. The red mud with HCl treatment shows the highest adsorption capacity among all the red mud samples, giving adsorption capacity of 0.58 mg P/g at pH 5.5 and 40 degrees C. The adsorption capacity of the red mud adsorbents decreases with increase of pH. At pH 2, the red mud with HCl treatment exhibits adsorption of 0.8 mg P/g while the adsorption can be lowered to 0.05 mg P/g at pH 10. However, the adsorption is improved at higher temperature by increasing 25% from 30 to 40 degrees C. The kinetic studies of phosphate adsorption onto red mud indicate that the adsorption mainly follows the parallel first-order kinetics due to the presence of two acidic phosphorus species, H(2)PO(4)(-) and HPO(4)(2-). An analysis of the adsorption data indicates that the Freundlich isotherm provides a better fitting than the Langmuir model.

  3. Factors controlling mud accumulation in the Heuksan mud belt off southwestern Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tae Soo; Ha, Hun Jun; Chun, Seung Soo

    2015-12-01

    The Heuksan mud belt (hereafter HMB) is 20~50 km wide, ~200 km long, and ~50 m thick, having accumulated in the course of the Holocene transgression on the tide-dominated epicontinental shelf southwest of Korea. The internal architecture of the HMB is characterized by offshore prograding clinoforms. Of particular interest are the depositional processes responsible for this anomalously thick mud accumulation within a relatively short period of time. Tidal currents are important in the dispersal of mud in the HMB, although these alone cannot explain such an enormous mud deposit. In order to understand the formative processes of the HMB, a detailed sedimentary facies analysis, including high-resolution grain-size measurements, has been conducted on more than 30 short cores and three long drill cores recovered from the mud belt. Five major mud facies were identified. Of these, mud sequences showing a thickening-thinning trend of alternating silt and clay laminae suggestive of a tidal origin occur dominantly at inner to mid shelf locations. By contrast, internally structureless muds with sharp bases and no bioturbation, which are interpreted of representing fluid-mud deposits, are widespread at mid to outer shelf locations. Wave-generated mud ripples and storm beds on the inner shelf suggest that storm waves in winter resuspend previously deposited mud to form near-bed fluid-mud suspensions with resulting gravity-driven mud transport across the low-gradient outer shelf. This previously not recognized process is probably a major factor controlling depositional processes on the giant mud belt, enabling rapid accumulation and offshore progradation even during transgression, i.e., at times of sea-level rise.

  4. Language Learning and MUDs: and Overview.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Macarro Asensio.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the potential of MUDs in Language Learning Acquisition. At the same time, it intends to serve as an introduction to these nonprofit virtual environments so that those who have never been in a MUD could be able to discover and explore these virtual text worlds in the future. It starts with a brief definition and history of these computer environments, together with some comments and ideas found in previous studies. The article continues to enumerate the several features that make MUDs ideal spaces for language learning, ending with an introductory guide to use a specific MUD, NannyMUD. It also includes extra information to access this and other similar worlds.

  5. TRANSMISSION BEHAVIOR OF MUD-PRESSURE PULSE ALONG WELL BORE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiu-shan; LI Bo; YUE Yu-quan

    2007-01-01

    In oil and gas industry, mud-pulse telemetry has been widely used to obtain directional data, drilling parameters, formation evaluation data and safety data, etc. Generally, the drilling mud in most current models was considered to be a single-phase fluid through which the mud pulses travel, despite the fact that the drilling mud is composed of two or more phases. In this article, a multiphase flow formula was proposed to calculate the mud-pulse velocity as mud solids and free-gas content change, and a mathematical model was put forward to simulate the dynamic-transmission behavior of the mud-pressure pulse or waves. Compared to conventional methods, the present model provides more accurate mud-pulse attenuation, and the dynamic-transmission behavior of drilling-mud pulses along well bores can also be easily examined. The model is valuable in improving the existing mud-pulse systems and developing new drilling-mud pulse systems.

  6. High-density turbidity currents: Are they sandy debris flows?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmugam, G. [Mobil Exploration and Producing Technical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Conventionally, turbidity currents are considered as fluidal flows in which sediment is supported by fluid turbulence, whereas debris flows are plastic flows in which sediment is supported by matrix strength, dispersive pressure, and buoyant lift. The concept of high-density turbidity current refers to high-concentration, commonly non-turbulent, flows of fluids in which sediment is supported mainly by matrix strength, dispersive pressure, and buoyant lift. The conventional wisdom that traction carpets with entrained turbulent clouds on top represent high-density turbidity currents is a misnomer because traction carpets are neither fluidal nor turbulent. Debris flows may also have entrained turbulent clouds on top. The traction carpet/debris flow and the overriding turbulent clouds are two separate entities in terms of flow rheology and sediment-support mechanism. In experimental and theoretical studies, which has linked massive sands and floating clasts to high-density turbidity currents, the term high-density turbidity current has actually been used for laminar flows. In alleviating this conceptual problem, sandy debris flow is suggested as a substitute for high-density turbidity current. Sandy debris flows represent a continuous spectrum of processes between cohesive and cohesionless debris flows. Commonly they are rheologically plastic. They may occur with or without entrained turbulent clouds on top. Their sediment-support mechanisms include matrix strength, dispersive pressure, and buoyant lift. They are characterized by laminar flow conditions, a moderate to high grain concentration, and a low to moderate mud content. Although flows evolve and transform during the course of transport in density-stratified flows, the preserved features in a deposit are useful to decipher only the final stages of deposition. At present, there are no established criteria to decipher transport mechanism from the depositional record.

  7. A facial mask comprising Dead Sea mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Jdayil, Basim; Mohameed, Hazim A

    2006-01-01

    Many investigators have proved that Dead Sea salt and mud are useful in treating skin disorders and skin diseases. Therefore, the black mud has been extensively used as a base for the preparation of soaps, creams, and unguents for skin care. This study concerns a facial mask made mainly of Dead Sea mud. The effects of temperature and shearing conditions on the rheological behavior of the facial mask were investigated. The mud facial mask exhibited a shear thinning behavior with a yield stress. It was found that the apparent viscosity of the mask has a strong dependence on the shear rate as well as on the temperature. The facial mask exhibited a maximum yield stress and very shear thinning behavior at 40 degrees C, which is attributed to the gelatinization of the polysaccharide used to stabilize the mud particles. On the other hand, the mud mask exhibited a time-independent behavior at low temperatures and shear rates and changed to a thixotropic behavior upon increasing both the temperature and the shear rate. The shear thinning and thixotropic behaviors have a significant importance in the ability of the facial mask to spread on the skin: the Dead Sea mud mask can break down for easy spreading, and the applied film can gain viscosity instantaneously to resist running. Moreover, particle sedimentation, which in this case would negatively affect consumer acceptance of the product, occurs slowly due to high viscosity at rest conditions.

  8. Mud Volcanoes as Exploration Targets on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.

    2010-01-01

    Tens of thousands of high-albedo mounds occur across the southern part of the Acidalia impact basin on Mars. These structures have geologic, physical, mineralogic, and morphologic characteristics consistent with an origin from a sedimentary process similar to terrestrial mud volcanism. The potential for mud volcanism in the Northern Plains of Mars has been recognized for some time, with candidate mud volcanoes reported from Utopia, Isidis, northern Borealis, Scandia, and the Chryse-Acidalia region. We have proposed that the profusion of mounds in Acidalia is a consequence of this basin's unique geologic setting as the depocenter for the tune fraction of sediments delivered by the outflow channels from the highlands.

  9. Axial Vibration Analysis of the Mud Recovery Line on Deepwater Riserless Mud Recovery Drilling System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国栋; 陈国明; 许亮斌; 殷志明

    2014-01-01

    The series connection of multistage pumping module is the common concept of deepwater riserless mud recovery drilling system. In this system, the influence of the mass of pumping module on the vibration of mud recovery line cannot be ignored, and the lumped mass method has been utilized to discretize the mud recovery line. Based on the analysis of different boundary conditions, the paper establishes the axial forced vibration model of the mud recovery line considering the seawater damping, and the vibration model analysis provides the universal solution to the vibration model. An example of the two-stage pumping system has been used to analyze the dynamic response of mud recovery line under different excited frequencies. This paper has the important directive significance for the application of riserless mud recovery drilling technology in deepwater surface drilling.

  10. Stockpiling and Comprehensive Utilization of Red Mud Research Progress

    OpenAIRE

    Chuan-Sheng Wu; Dong-Yan Liu

    2012-01-01

    With increasing production of red mud, the environmental problems caused by it are increasingly serious, and thus the integrated treatment of red mud is imminent. This article provides an overview of the composition and the basic characteristics of red mud. The research progress of safe stockpiling and comprehensive utilization of red mud is summarized. The safe stockpiling of red mud can be divided into two aspects: the design and safe operation of the stocking yard. The comprehensive utiliz...

  11. Stockpiling and Comprehensive Utilization of Red Mud Research Progress

    OpenAIRE

    Chuan-Sheng Wu; Dong-Yan Liu

    2012-01-01

    With increasing production of red mud, the environmental problems caused by it are increasingly serious, and thus the integrated treatment of red mud is imminent. This article provides an overview of the composition and the basic characteristics of red mud. The research progress of safe stockpiling and comprehensive utilization of red mud is summarized. The safe stockpiling of red mud can be divided into two aspects: the design and safe operation of the stocking yard. The comprehensive utiliz...

  12. Radioactivity of peat mud used in therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpińska, Maria; Mnich, Krystian; Kapała, Jacek; Bielawska, Agnieszka; Kulesza, Grzegorz; Mnich, Stanisław

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the contents of natural and artificial isotopes in peat mud and to estimate the radiation dose absorbed via skin in patients during standard peat mud treatment. The analysis included 37 samples collected from 8 spas in Poland. The measurements of isotope concentration activity were conducted with the use of gamma spectrometry methods. The skin dose in a standard peat mud bath therapy is approximately 300 nSv. The effective dose of such therapy is considered to be 22 nSv. The doses absorbed during peat mud therapy are 5 orders of magnitude lower than effective annual dose absorbed from the natural radiation background by a statistical Pole (3.5 mSv). Neither therapeutic nor harmful effect is probable in case of such a small dose of ionising radiation.

  13. Design of tailing dam using red mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Subrat; Sahoo, Tapaswini; Das, Sarat

    2013-06-01

    Red mud, waste industrial product from aluminum industries produced approximately 75 million tonnes every year with less than half of this is used. Storage of this unutilized red mud takes vast tracts of usable land and pollutes, land, air and water. Construction of high embankments, under passes, flyovers, tailing dams uses vast tract of natural resources (top soil) is also matter of concern as its takes thousands of years to form the natural soil. This paper discusses use of red mud for construction of tailing dam based on laboratory findings and finite element analysis. The geotechnical properties such as plasticity, compaction, permeability, shear strength characteristics and dispersion of red mud are presented. Stability and seepage analysis of tailing dams as per finite element analysis using the above geotechnical parameters is presented.

  14. Treatment of a mud pit by bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdalović, Jelena; Đurić, Aleksandra; Miletić, Srdjan; Ilić, Mila; Milić, Jelena; Vrvić, Miroslav M

    2016-08-01

    The mud generated from oil and natural gas drilling, presents a considerable ecological problem. There are still insufficient remedies for the removal and minimization of these very stable emulsions. Existing technologies that are in use, more or less successfully, treat about 20% of generated waste drilling mud, while the rest is temporarily deposited in so-called mud pits. This study investigated in situ bioremediation of a mud pit. The bioremediation technology used in this case was based on the use of naturally occurring microorganisms, isolated from the contaminated site, which were capable of using the contaminating substances as nutrients. The bioremediation was stimulated through repeated inoculation with a zymogenous microbial consortium, along with mixing, watering and biostimulation. Application of these bioremediation techniques reduced the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons from 32.2 to 1.5 g kg(-1) (95% degradation) during six months of treatment.

  15. NEW POLIMER SEALING FLUID STOPS MUD LOSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Stryczek

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a composition of sealing fluid, prepared from acrylic acid salt water solution Solakryl M. Laboratory test results of technological properties of its modifications with mineral agents are shown. A new method of sealing mud loss operations with given sealing liquid is discussed along with comments on effects of its use for stopping mud loss in case of freeze-well drilling is described (the paper is published in Croatian.

  16. IMPLEMENTASI SANDI HILL UNTUK PENYANDIAN CITRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JJ Siang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hill's code is one of text encoding technique. In this research, Hill's code is extended to image encoding. The image used is BMP 24 bit format. 2x2 and 3x3 matrices is used as a key. The results show that Hill's code is suitable for image whose RGB values vary highly. On the contrary, it is not suitable for less varied RGB images since its original pattern is still persisted in encrypted image. Hill's code for image encoding has also disadvantage in the case that the key matrix is not unique. However, for daily application, with good key matrix, Hill's code can be applied to encode image since it's process only deals with simple matrix operation so it become fast. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Sandi Hill merupakan salah satu teknik penyandian teks. Dalam penelitian ini, pemakaian sandi Hill diperluas dari teks ke citra bertipe BMP 24 bit. Matriks yang dipakai berordo 2x2 dan 3x3. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa sandi Hill cocok untuk enkripsi citra dengan variasi nilai RGB antar piksel berdekatan yang tinggi (seperti foto, tapi tidak cocok untuk citra dengan variasi nilai RGB yang rendah (seperti gambar kartun karena pola citra asli masih tampak dalam citra sandi. Sandi Hill juga memiliki kelemahan dalam hal tidak tunggalnya matriks kunci yang dapat dipakai. Akan tetapi untuk pemakaian biasa, dengan pemilihan matriks kunci yang baik, sandi Hill dapat dipakai untuk penyandian karena hanya melibatkan operasi matriks biasa sehingga prosesnya relatif cepat. Kata kunci: Sandi Hill, Citra, Relatif Prima.

  17. Mud exposed: we must get rid of this idea that mud is a problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrauwers, A.

    2003-01-01

    Mud and shipping dont mix. Silted-up waterways must be dredged, which costs money. Even so, the behaviour of sand in water systems has been the subject of many studies, whereas mud has remained the great unknown. Geographer Ankie Bruens dived in to gain insight into the matter.

  18. Imaging mud fluid conduits of the Gunshuiping mud volcano with Electric Resistivity Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Ling-Rong; Lin, Ting-Li; Chang, Ping-Yu

    2016-04-01

    We conducted the resistivity survey at the Gunshuiping mud volcano and produced a 3D model in order to delineate the mud-fluid conduits in the mud volcano system. The Gunshuiping mud volcano is located in a 175-m × 90-m plateau in Southwest of Taiwan. There are three main mud-volcano craters: craters 1, 2 and 3. Crater 3 is active and the others are inactive. We conducted thirteen survey lines using the Wenner configuration to obtain the resistivity profile images. The lengths of the lines are about 155 m and 60 m, which can resolve the resistivity image down to 30 m and 10 m in depth, respectively. The results appeared that there is a vertical structure under the crater 3, and we suggest that it is the mud-fluid conduit. There is a chamber at depth between 3 and 14 m, and we interpret it is the temporary storage of mud fluid during the erupting process. Beneath the craters 1 and 2, there is a near-surface, horizontal conduit connecting the craters 1 and 2. At depth between 15 and 25 m, the vertical conduit beneath the crater 3 and the horizontal conduit beneath the craters 1 and 2 are connected. The resistivity images clearly delineate the conduit underneath the craters and suggest that the crater 3 is the main erupting conduit, which is consistent with the surface features, in the Gunshuiping mud volcano system.

  19. EAARL Coastal Topography-Sandy Hook 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A first surface/bare earth elevation map (also known as a Digital Elevation Model, or DEM) of the Gateway National Recreation Area's Sandy Hook Unit in New Jersey...

  20. Heterotrophic bacterial populations in tropical sandy beaches

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Distribution pattern of heterotrophic bacterial flora of three sandy beaches of the west coast of India was studied. The population in these beaches was microbiologically different. Population peaks of halotolerant and limnotolerant forms were...

  1. Estimation of the size of molluscan larval settlement using the death assemblage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, E. N.; Cummins, H.; Stanton, R. J.; Staff, G.

    1984-04-01

    The death assemblage is an important source of information about temporal variability in community composition. The living community and the short-term death assemblage have been studied at a sandy-bottom station in the Laguna Madre, Texas. Abundance peaks of living species are usually followed by long-term abundance increases of the same species in the death assemblage. This phenomenon provides a tool for investigating between-sampling-occasion events in the preservable component of the living community. Given a six-week sampling regimen, approximately 90% of all individuals settle, live and die during the period between consecutive sampling occasions and are not collected alive. Thus, larval settlements are consistently underestimated by about 90% from data on the living community. Comparisons of year-to-year variability in settlement and survivorship of settled individuals in the youngest age classes may be considerably in error. Better estimations of actual settlement and survivorship can be made from the death assemblage provided that the rate of taphonomic loss can be quantified. The rate of taphonomic loss can be expressed as the species' half-life, the time required for the destruction of 50% of the individuals that were added to the death assemblage following settlement. Half-lives for the smallest size classes in the death assemblage at this site are about 100 days.

  2. How new biopolymers can improve muds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dino, D.; Lindblad, D.E.; Moorhouse, R. (Rhoene-Poulenc Inc. (France))

    1993-11-01

    Xantham gum was introduced as a drilling-fluid component in the mid-1960s, but its use has risen noticeably since 1970, as prevalence of inhibitive polymeric drilling fluids has increased. Xanthan is known for its ability to build viscosity in both fresh water and salt solutions, its exceptional shear-thinning properties, and its tolerance to pH, all without environmental problems. Although biopolymers like xanthan typically represent only 0.25--1.5 lb/bbl of a drilling fluid, they are critical in building rheology, from spudding to the special demands of angled drilling and well completion. They add properties to muds which expand their use across a variety of formations and over a wide temperature range. Beyond xanthan, another useful class of biopolymers are the guar gums. Just as muds incorporating xanthan have been in the mainstay in rheology building over the years for many muds, fluids incorporating guar have long been the backbone of fracturing fluids. Guar and its derivatives are extremely versatile as rheology modifiers, particularly when used in conjunction with xanthans. In fact, xanthan/guar combinations have already been enhancing the effectiveness of muds at drill sites in the US. This paper reviews the performance of mixed xantham/guar additives to obtain an even better mud control system.

  3. RE-UTILIZATION OF INORGANIC SOLID WASTE (LIME MUD AS FOREST ROAD STABILIZER FROM THE CHEMICAL RECOVERY PROCESS IN KRAFT PULP MILL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habip Eroğlu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Waste handling is a concern in all pulp and paper mills. Best available techniques for reducing waste is to minimize the generation of solid waste and/or reuse these materials, wherever practicable. One of the most important solid wastes is lime mud which is generated from the kraft pulping in its chemical recovery process. This paper explores the composition of lime mud resulting from the chemical recovery unite of kraft pulp mill and investigation of this waste for re-using beneficially on sub grade and pavement of forest road as a alternative disposal method. Lime mud obtained from the re-causticising process in SEKA pulp mill that utilizes wheat straw and reed as the principal raw material was supplied with % 47 water content and its chemical and physical characterisations was performed according to standard methods. Dried waste to environmental condition was mixed with certain amount to composite cement for using on pavement and sandy clay, loamy clay and clay soils for enriching forest road sub grade properties. In order to investigate the lime mud addition on pavement and sub grade properties necessary physical tests were performed. As a consequence this study reveals that while waste of lime mud causes environmental and economical problem with conventional disposal techniques and/or abandoning to environment, this waste can be used as good stabilisation materials on forest road sub-grade and pavement without any environmental problem.

  4. Physical and Chemical Properties of Sintering Red Mud and Bayer Red Mud and the Implications for Beneficial Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Performances of two common types of red mud, Bayer red mud and Sintering red mud, were investigated in this research. Their compositions, mechanical properties and microstructure characterization were measured through XRD, TG and SEM analysis. Their shear strength, particle size, density and hydraulic characteristics also had been performed. Huge differences between the basic mineral types of these two kinds of red mud also can be found. The comparison of compositions shows that CaCO3 content in Sintering red mud is higher, Bayer red mud has more hazardous elements such as As, Pb and Hg and both have a high concentration of radioactivity. The micro particle of Bayer red mud is finer and more disperse, but the Sintering red mud has higher shear strength. Combining the TG and hydraulic characteristics analysis, it can be shown that Bayer red mud has higher value of water content and Sintering red mud has higher hydraulic conductivity. The paper then illustrates that Sintering red mud can become the main filling material of supporting structure of red mud stocking yard. Bayer red mud has a high reuse value and also can be used as a mixing material of masonry mortar.

  5. Physical and Chemical Properties of Sintering Red Mud and Bayer Red Mud and the Implications for Beneficial Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Dong-Yan

    2012-01-01

    Performances of two common types of red mud, Bayer red mud and Sintering red mud, were investigated in this research. Their compositions, mechanical properties and microstructure characterization were measured through XRD, TG and SEM analysis. Their shear strength, particle size, density and hydraulic characteristics also had been performed. Huge differences between the basic mineral types of these two kinds of red mud also can be found. The comparison of compositions shows that CaCO3 content in Sintering red mud is higher, Bayer red mud has more hazardous elements such as As, Pb and Hg and both have a high concentration of radioactivity. The micro particle of Bayer red mud is finer and more disperse, but the Sintering red mud has higher shear strength. Combining the TG and hydraulic characteristics analysis, it can be shown that Bayer red mud has higher value of water content and Sintering red mud has higher hydraulic conductivity. The paper then illustrates that Sintering red mud can become the main filling material of supporting structure of red mud stocking yard. Bayer red mud has a high reuse value and also can be used as a mixing material of masonry mortar.

  6. Biota - 2011 Vegetation Inventory - Mud Lake, MN/SD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 2011 Vegetation Classification for Mud Lake, MN/SD Vegetation Project Report, OMBIL Environmental Stewardship - Level 1 Inventory. Mud Lake, located on the Minnesota...

  7. Monitoring drilling mud composition using flowing liquid junction electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasinski, R.; Fletcher, P.; Vercaemer, C.

    1990-06-27

    The concentration of a chosen ionic component of a drilling mud is determined from the potential difference between an ion selective electrode, selective to the component and a reference electrode, the reference electrode being connected to the mud by a liquid junction through which reference electrolyte flows from the electrode to the mud. The system avoids errors due to undesirable interactions between the mud and the reference electrode materials. (author).

  8. Penetration grouting reinforcement of sandy gravel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ping; PENG Zhen-bin; TANG Yi-qun; PENG Wen-xiang; HE Zhong-ming

    2008-01-01

    To study the relationship between grouting effect and grouting factors, three factors (seven parameters) directionless pressure and small cycle grouting model experiment on sandy gravel was done, which was designed according to uniform design method. And regressing was applied to analysis of the test data. The two models test results indicate that when the diffusing radius of grout changes from 26 to 51 era, the grouted sandy gravel compressing strength changes fTom 2.13 to 12.30 MPa; the relationship between diffusing radius(R) and water cement ratio(m), permeability coefficient(k), grouting pressure(p), grouting time(t) is R=19.953m0.121k0.429p0.412t0.437, the relationship between compressing strength(P) and porosity(n), water cement ratio, grouting pressure, grouting time is P=0.984n0.517m-1.488p0.118t0.031.So the porosity of sandy gravel, the permeability coefficient of sandy gravel, grouting pressure, grouting time, water cement ratio are main factors to influence the grouting effect. The grouting pressure is the main factor to influence grouting diffusing radius, and the water cement ratio is the main factor to influence grouted sandy gravel compressing strength.

  9. Hyperspectral remote sensing and mud volcanism in Azerbaijan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, K.H.

    2005-01-01

    The fact that Azerbaijan mud volcanoes are closely associated with oil and gas makes their study and identification of the physical and chemical properties of insitu mud volcano surfaces important. Although the composition of in-situ mud volcano surfaces can be highly variable, it usually correspond

  10. Hyperspectral remote sensing and mud volcanism in Azerbaijan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, K.H.

    2005-01-01

    The fact that Azerbaijan mud volcanoes are closely associated with oil and gas makes their study and identification of the physical and chemical properties of insitu mud volcano surfaces important. Although the composition of in-situ mud volcano surfaces can be highly variable, it usually correspond

  11. Clay mineralogy of the mud banks of Cochin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Murty, P.S.N.

    The mineralogy of the sediments constituting the mud banks formed off Cochin, Kerala, India was studied. The clay mineral composition was used as a means of understanding the nature and source of origin of the muds. Fine fraction of the mud samples...

  12. Correlation of Red Mud Consolidation with its Soil Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinson, John M.

    Consolidation tests of red muds from various bauxites allow the prediction of the extent of settlement in a mud lake and the rate of consolidation. Differences in the consolidation properties have been shown to correlate with the moisture contents at which the various muds change from a liquid to a plastic state, as indicated by the Atterberg Liquid and Plastic Limits.

  13. Monthly variation in crustacean assemblage (decapod and stomatopod) and its relationships with environmental variables in Laizhou Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiang; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Ruisheng; Jin, Xianshi

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the community structure of crustaceans (decapod and stomatopod) inhabiting the sandy mud bottoms of Laizhou Bay (northeastern China) monthly from May 2011 to April 2012. Investigation was stopped from December 2011 to February 2012 because of the extreme weather and sea ice. A total of 205,057 specimens belonging to 31 species (shrimp, 15; crab, 15; and stomatopod, 1) were collected in 148 hauls. From 2011 to 2012, Oratosquilla oratoria was the dominant biomass species (47.80%), followed by Charybdis japonica (15.49%), Alpheus japonicas (12.61%), Portunus trituberculatus (6.46%), and Crangon spp. (4.19%). Crangon spp. was the most dominant species by individual (32.55%). O. oratoria was the most-frequently encountered species (81.76%), followed by Palaemon gravieri (70.95%), C. japonica (65.54%), A. japonicas (62.16%), and P. trituberculatus (54.73%). The biomass density increased from August to September 2011 and decreased from March 2012 to April 2012. The dynamics of the ecological indices evolve in a similar manner, with high values of diversity and evenness and rich species from May to June 2011 and low values from September to October 2011. O. oratoria, C. japonica, and P. trituberculatus differed by biomass data between groups I (samples obtained from September to October 2011) and II (samples in other months). These species contributed more than 70% to the similarity of the crustacean community structure. Furthermore, the subsets of environmental variables that best matched the crustacean-assemblage structure were as follows: water depth (WD) in summer (June to August); sea surface temperature (SST), dissolved oxygen (DO), and WD in autumn (September to November); and DO, salinity, and WD in spring (March to May). The calculated correlation coefficients and significance level were higher in the period of July to August 2011 than in other months. Comparing 2011 to 2012 with 1982 to 1983, the species composition remained stable

  14. Physical and Chemical Properties of Sintering Red Mud and Bayer Red Mud and the Implications for Beneficial Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Wang; Dong-Yan Liu

    2012-01-01

    Performances of two common types of red mud, Bayer red mud and Sintering red mud, were investigated in this research. Their compositions, mechanical properties and microstructure characterization were measured through XRD, TG and SEM analysis. Their shear strength, particle size, density and hydraulic characteristics also had been performed. Huge differences between the basic mineral types of these two kinds of red mud also can be found. The comparison of compositions shows that CaCO3 content...

  15. Physical and Chemical Properties of Sintering Red Mud and Bayer Red Mud and the Implications for Beneficial Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Ping Wang; Dong-Yan Liu

    2012-01-01

    Performances of two common types of red mud, Bayer red mud and Sintering red mud, were investigated in this research. Their compositions, mechanical properties and microstructure characterization were measured through XRD, TG and SEM analysis. Their shear strength, particle size, density and hydraulic characteristics also had been performed. Huge differences between the basic mineral types of these two kinds of red mud also can be found. The comparison of compositions shows that CaCO3 content...

  16. Earth and Water Make More Than Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-10

    Mud Approved by: Monograph Director Leuten t Col-onel Jimmie’F. Holt, MA, MMAS Director, School of Colonel William H. Ja MA, MMAS Advanced Military...support :f the main effort. -- reinforce natural obstacles with man--rade obst ac l es. -- plan obstacles in depth. -- use obstacles to strengthen

  17. An entrainment model for fluid mud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.

    1993-01-01

    An entrainment model for fluid mud is derived by integrating the equation for turbulent kinetic energy across the mixed layer and introducing some modelling assumptions. The resulting entrainment model is similar to models of mixed-layer deepening in lakes and reservoirs, but in addition accounts fo

  18. An entrainment model for fluid mud

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, C.

    1993-01-01

    An entrainment model for fluid mud is derived by integrating the equation for turbulent kinetic energy across the mixed layer and introducing some modelling assumptions. The resulting entrainment model is similar to models of mixed-layer deepening in lakes and reservoirs, but in addition accounts fo

  19. Fluid Mud in Energetic Systems: FLUMES II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    demonstrated for fluid mud on the Amazon Shelf (Kineke and Sternberg , 1992). Disaggregated Inorganic Grain Size (DIGS) analysis for the suspended...the Petitcodiac River, New Brunswick, Canada. Masters Thesis, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA. 125 pp. Kineke, G.C. and R.W. Sternberg (1992

  20. Detection of Buried Objects : The MUD Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quesson, B.A.J.; Vossen, R. van; Zampolli, M.; Beckers, A.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the Mine Underwater Detection (MUD) project at TNO is to experimentally investigate the acoustic and magnetic detection of explosives underwater, buried in a soft sediment layer. This problem is relevant for the protection of harbors and littoral assets against terrorist attacks and for

  1. Detection of Buried Objects : The MUD Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quesson, B.A.J.; Vossen, R. van; Zampolli, M.; Beckers, A.L.D.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the Mine Underwater Detection (MUD) project at TNO is to experimentally investigate the acoustic and magnetic detection of explosives underwater, buried in a soft sediment layer. This problem is relevant for the protection of harbors and littoral assets against terrorist attacks and for t

  2. The effect of the dominant polychaete Scolelepis squamata on nematode colonisation in sandy beach sediments: An experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Tatiana F.; Esteves, André M.; Vanaverbeke, Jan; Vanreusel, Ann

    2011-09-01

    The effect of an abundant sandy beach polychaete, Scolelepis squamata, on the colonisation of defaunated sediments by marine nematodes indicates that sandy beach fauna can be partially controlled by biological interactions within and across size groups. Experimental cores, equipped with windows allowing infaunal colonisation, were filled with defaunated sandy beach sediment containing two different treatments with and without S. squamata. These cores were inserted into microcosms filled with sediment with indigenous meiofauna collected from the field. The treatments were incubated in the laboratory at ambient temperature and salinity for 2, 7, 14 and 21 days, in order to follow the colonisation process of the defaunated sediments by the indigenous nematode fauna over time. Nematodes initially colonised both treatments, with abundances of up to 10% of the densities in the control; after 2 weeks, nematode densities in the cores without S. squamata surpassed the control densities. Nematode assemblages in both treatments were not species rich, and also differed in composition from the natural assemblages. The most successful colonising species, Enoplolaimus litoralis, was rare in the surrounding sediment, suggesting that colonisation was determined by species-specific characteristics such as body size, motility and feeding strategy. Initially the presence of macrofauna did not affect the nematode community composition, but after 2 weeks of the experiment, the presence of the polychaete seemed to facilitate the earlier establishment of non-opportunistic species.

  3. [Simulation alfalfa growth in Wulanbuhe sandy region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wenming; Bao, Xuemei

    2002-12-01

    Based on the theories of accumulated temperature and on the physio-ecological characteristics of Medicago sativa, a simulation model for its growth under soil water stress in arid sandy region was developed. The model was mainly composed of four modules: the stage module of growth, the dynamic module of leaf area index, the accumulated module of dry matter, and the distributive module of dry matter. After simulating and calculating, the model could be used to predict the growing progress and dynamic changes of leaf area and yield for herbage in sandy region. The result shows that the application of the model to production is usually effective.

  4. Stockpiling and Comprehensive Utilization of Red Mud Research Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Sheng Wu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available With increasing production of red mud, the environmental problems caused by it are increasingly serious, and thus the integrated treatment of red mud is imminent. This article provides an overview of the composition and the basic characteristics of red mud. The research progress of safe stockpiling and comprehensive utilization of red mud is summarized. The safe stockpiling of red mud can be divided into two aspects: the design and safe operation of the stocking yard. The comprehensive utilization of red mud can be further divided into three aspects: the effective recycling of components, resource utilization and application in the field of environmental protection. This paper points out that the main focus of previous studies on red mud stockpiling is cost reproduction and land tenure. The recovery of resources from red mud has a high value-added, but low level industrialization. The use of red mud as a building material and filler material is the most effective way to reduce the stockpiling of red mud. Red mud used for environmental remediation materials is a new hotspot and worth promoting for its simple processing and low cost.

  5. Stockpiling and Comprehensive Utilization of Red Mud Research Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong-Yan; Wu, Chuan-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    With increasing production of red mud, the environmental problems caused by it are increasingly serious, and thus the integrated treatment of red mud is imminent. This article provides an overview of the composition and the basic characteristics of red mud. The research progress of safe stockpiling and comprehensive utilization of red mud is summarized. The safe stockpiling of red mud can be divided into two aspects: the design and safe operation of the stocking yard. The comprehensive utilization of red mud can be further divided into three aspects: the effective recycling of components, resource utilization and application in the field of environmental protection. This paper points out that the main focus of previous studies on red mud stockpiling is cost reproduction and land tenure. The recovery of resources from red mud has a high value-added, but low level industrialization. The use of red mud as a building material and filler material is the most effective way to reduce the stockpiling of red mud. Red mud used for environmental remediation materials is a new hotspot and worth promoting for its simple processing and low cost.

  6. Utilization of red mud in cement production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Na

    2011-10-01

    Red mud is a solid waste residue of the digestion of bauxite ores with caustic soda for alumina production. Its disposal remains a worldwide issue in terms of environmental concerns. During the past decades, extensive work has been done by a lot of researchers to develop various economic ways for the utilization of red mud. One of the economic ways is using red mud in cement production, which is also an efficient method for large-scale recycling of red mud. This paper provides a review on the utilization of red mud in cement production, and it clearly points out three directions for the use of red mud in cement production, namely the preparation of cement clinkers, production of composite cements as well as alkali-activated cements. In the present paper, the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of red mud are summarized, and the current progresses on these three directions are reviewed in detail.

  7. A comparison of fish communities of subtidal seagrass beds and sandy seabeds in 13 marine embayments of a Caribbean island, based on species, families, size distribution and functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelkerken, I.; van der Velde, G.

    2004-08-01

    Differences in fish community structure between different estuaries, lagoons and bays can be very large, and generalisations are complicated by the use of a wide variety of sampling methods. In the present study, fish communities of subtidal seagrass beds and sandy seabeds in 13 marine embayments of a single Caribbean island were therefore sampled using a uniform method. The objective of the study was to determine whether the seagrass and sandy seabed habitats of various embayments are characterised by typical fish assemblages which differ in terms of taxa (species, families), size classes (life stages) and functional groups (ecological species groups, feeding time and diet). This was linked to the hypothesis that differences in fish assemblages between habitats in different embayments are larger at taxonomic levels than at the level of functional groups. A second objective was to determine the most useful discriminating features between the two habitat types. The above hypothesis was rejected, since differences in fish assemblages from different seagrass and sandy seabed sites did not increase from functional to taxonomic level, but from size class to diet/species to family/feeding time to ecological species group. However, the seagrass and sandy seabed habitats could each be characterised by typical fish assemblages which differed in taxonomical and functional group composition, irrespective of differences in environmental and biotic variables between the embayments in which these habitats were situated. The two habitat types could be best characterised on the basis of fish family, ecological species group, feeding time and size distribution. Seagrass beds mainly harboured nocturnally active nursery species (Haemulidae, Lutjanidae, etc.), whose relative abundance was related to vegetation (mainly seagrass) cover. Sandy seabeds mainly harboured diurnally active bay species (Gerreidae, etc.) whose relative abundance was related to cover of bare sand. Similarities

  8. Meiofauna in sandy back-reef platforms differently exposed to the monsoons in the Maldives (Indian Ocean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semprucci, F.; Colantoni, P.; Sbrocca, C.; Baldelli, G.; Rocchi, M.; Balsamo, M.

    2011-09-01

    Maldives comprise some of the most characteristic and significant atoll systems, but the meiobenthic assemblages of these islands are still largely unknown. A study on meiofauna was conducted on three Maldivian sandy back-reef platforms differently exposed to stronger westerly monsoons. Clear high energy effects of the waves causing currents and erosions were observed at the completely exposed and isolated offshore reef of Thoddoo Island. Wave energy of medium intensity was confirmed at Rasdhoo by depositional structures ( finolhu), while a medium to low energy level was recorded at Gulhi on the basis of the presence of a low sandy bar. The meiofaunal assemblage counted 17 major taxa. Copepods and nematodes were dominant, followed by platyhelminthes and polychaetes. The nematode assemblage was rather rich and composed of 28 families and 84 genera. Desmodoridae were the most abundant family, followed by Draconematidae, Xyalidae, Epsilonematidae and Chromadoridae. The meiofauna resulted strongly affected by erosion effects, both in terms of abundance and richness, but we were not able to distinguish the two different sedimentation rates. Instead, the structure of the nematode community seemed to be more sensitive in distinguishing each type of hydrodynamic condition and energy level.

  9. Temporal dynamics of gastropod fauna on subtidal sandy sediments of the Ensenada de Baiona (NW Iberian Peninsula)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, J.; Aldea, C.; Troncoso, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    The temporal variation of the gastropod fauna inhabiting sandy sediments of the Ensenada de Baiona (Galicia, Spain) was studied at three subtidal sites from February 1996 to February 1997 by means of quantitative sampling. A total of 5,463 individuals representing 51 gastropod species and 22 families were found. The family Pyramidellidae was the most diverse in number of species (11 species), followed by Rissoidae and Trochidae (4 species each). The dogwhelk, Nassarius reticulatus, and the rissoid snail, Rissoa parva, were the numerically dominant species at the three studied sites; those and other abundant species showed their greatest densities by the end of summer and the beginning of autumn. In general, univariate measures of the assemblage (number of species, abundance, diversity and evenness) showed variations through time; greater values were recorded between summer and autumn depending on the site. Multivariate analyses done on abundance data showed certain seasonality in the evolution of the assemblage as expected for shallow subtidal sandy sediments at temperate latitudes; those seasonal changes were mostly related to variations in abundance of numerically dominant species. Although the measured sedimentary variables did not show significant correlations with faunal univariate parameters, sediment heterogeneity due to the presence of mats of Zostera marina L. and shells of dead bivalves might explain the differences in composition of the gastropod assemblage among sampling sites.

  10. Interstitial meiofauna of Namib sandy beaches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-03-16

    Mar 16, 1988 ... sandy beaches on the Namibian coast, Langstrand and Cape Cross. A transverse ... prominent in the mid-shore at Cape Cross but occurred in low numbers at Langstrand , where archiannelids ... Koop (1983) recorded the faunal composition of local .... four replicate sediment cores were taken at 15 cm.

  11. Hurricane Sandy's Impact on Coastal Sedimentation on Long Island's South Shore: Results from a 2013 Rapid Response Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, B. A.; Goff, J. A.; Flood, R. D.; Austin, J. A., Jr.; Browne, C. M.; Saustrup, S.

    2014-12-01

    To understand the impact of Hurricane Sandy on the NY coast, we conducted subsurface and multi-beam analyses, ground-truthed by grab samples, in 3 areas: the western end of Fire Island (FIW), eastern Fire Island (FIE) where a new inlet formed during the storm, and Long Beach (LB). Grab samples yielded sands and muds, a surprise given the shallow (10-25m) water depths. Muds rested on top of sands and were removed for additional analyses. Since percent mud could not be determined absolutely, sediments were washed through a 63 mm sieve, RoTapped for 10 minutes at ¼ Φ, and weight percent calculated for the coarse fraction. At FIW and FIE, fine sands dominate the shallowest depths studied, consistent with previous studies. At FIE, the sedimentary wedge extends to ~15m, with finest sands (peak 3-3.5 Φ) in shallowest waters surveyed (~10m). Slightly coarser (2.5Φ) sediments plus relict gravels are present in swales where the wedge shoals. This supports mapping results indicating sand ridges migrated to the SW. Medium to fine sand is present at the deepest extent of the wedge; the grain size distribution matches a sample taken in the swash zone on the eastern flank of the new breach. Sediments may have been transported shoreward and then reworked post-Sandy. Samples seaward of the new breach were capped by a mud layer, which in turn had a layer of fine sand resting on it, evidence of a nascent ebb tidal deposit. At FIW, sediments in the shallow NE swale are finer (3.5Φ) and better sorted. As the region is underlain by relict sediments, these fine sands may be relicts exposed by storm-driven bedform migration. Deeper water (~22m w.d.) samples at FIW are coarser and contain shell hash. Sand on the lee side of the sand ridge, which CHIRP profiles show did not migrate significantly and accumulated sands, are medium (1.5 Φ), and match the grain sizes found on Fire Island beach. Muds contain heavy metals in concentrations consistent with transport from adjacent estuaries.

  12. Bibliography of sandy beaches and sandy beach organisms on the African continent

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bally, R

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available This bibliography covers the literature relating to sandy beaches on the African continent and outlying islands. The bibliography lists biological, chemical, geographical and geological references and covers shallow marine sediments, surf zones off...

  13. 77 FR 74341 - Establishing the Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... the Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force By the authority vested in me as President by the.... Hurricane Sandy made landfall on October 29, 2012, resulting in major flooding, extensive structural damage... assist the affected region. A disaster of Hurricane Sandy's magnitude merits a comprehensive...

  14. Hidden values in bauxite residue (red mud): recovery of metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanju; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-12-01

    Bauxite residue (red mud) is a hazardous waste generated from alumina refining industries. Unless managed properly, red mud poses significant risks to the local environment due to its extreme alkalinity and its potential impacts on surface and ground water quality. The ever-increasing generation of red mud poses significant challenges to the aluminium industries from management perspectives given the low proportion that are currently being utilized beneficially. Red mud, in most cases, contains elevated concentrations of iron in addition to aluminium, titanium, sodium and valuable rare earth elements. Given the scarcity of iron supply globally, the iron content of red mud has attracted increasing research interest. This paper presents a critical overview of the current techniques employed for iron recovery from red mud. Information on the recovery of other valuable metals is also reviewed to provide an insight into the full potential usage of red mud as an economic resource rather than a waste. Traditional hydrometallurgy and pyrometallurgy are being investigated continuously. However, in this review several new techniques are introduced that consider the process of iron recovery from red mud. An integrated process which can achieve multiple additional values from red mud is much preferred over the single process methods. The information provided here should help to improve the future management and utilization of red mud.

  15. Study on dealkalization and settling performance of red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Muxi; Qi, Xuejiao; Zhang, Yurui; Ren, Yufei; Tong, Jiacheng; Chen, Zining; Hou, Yiming; Yeerkebai, Nuerxiate; Wang, Hongtao; Feng, Shijin; Li, Fengting

    2017-01-01

    At present, the dealkalization and comprehensive utilization of red mud is a worldwide problem. Studies on the settling performance and phase transformation of red mud by HCl, CaO, and H2O leaching are limited. In this study, the characteristics of red mud were systematically analyzed. The average sizes of graded and initial red mud were 4.11 and 9.20 μm, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectra (XRF), and thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) results indicated the different mineralogical phases, composition, and thermal behavior. The addition of HCl could neutralize the alkalization in the red mud slurry, and CaO could replace the Na and K. Notably, the pH of the red mud slurry had no obvious change with the increase in water washing times in a certain pH. Interestingly, soluble Al and Fe were not detected in the HCl-red mud and CaO-red mud. In addition, the settling ratio was used to express the settling performance of the red mud slurry. Their interaction mechanisms were proposed, which may include phase transformation and the changing of the size and surface area. The research provided a better understanding of the phase transformation and settling performance in the treatment of red mud by HCl, CaO, and H2O leaching.

  16. Spatial variations of community structures and methane cycling across a transect of Lei-Gong-Hou mud volcanoes in eastern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei-Ling; Chiu, Yi-Ping; Cheng, Ting-Wen; Chang, Yung-Hsin; Tu, Wei-Xain; Lin, Li-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed cored sediments retrieved from sites distributed across a transect of the Lei-Gong-Hou mud volcanoes in eastern Taiwan to uncover the spatial distributions of biogeochemical processes and community assemblages involved in methane cycling. The profiles of methane concentration and carbon isotopic composition revealed various orders of the predominance of specific methane-related metabolisms along depth. At a site proximal to the bubbling pool, the methanogenic zone was sandwiched by the anaerobic methanotrophic zones. For two sites distributed toward the topographic depression, the methanogenic zone overlaid the anaerobic methanotrophic zone. The predominance of anaerobic methanotrophy at specific depth intervals is supported by the enhanced copy numbers of the ANME-2a 16S rRNA gene and coincides with high dissolved Fe/Mn concentrations and copy numbers of the Desulfuromonas/Pelobacter 16S rRNA gene. Assemblages of 16S rRNA and mcrA genes revealed that methanogenesis was mediated by Methanococcoides and Methanosarcina. pmoA genes and a few 16S rRNA genes related to aerobic methanotrophs were detected in limited numbers of subsurface samples. While dissolved Fe/Mn signifies the presence of anaerobic metabolisms near the surface, the correlations between geochemical characteristics and gene abundances, and the absence of aerobic methanotrophs in top sediments suggest that anaerobic methanotrophy is potentially dependent on iron/manganese reduction and dominates over aerobic methanotrophy for the removal of methane produced in situ or from a deep source. Near-surface methanogenesis contributes to the methane emissions from mud platform. The alternating arrangements of methanogenic and methanotrophic zones at different sites suggest that the interactions between mud deposition, evaporation, oxidation and fluid transport modulate the assemblages of microbial communities and methane cycling in different compartments of terrestrial mud volcanoes.

  17. Spatial variations of community structures and methane cycling across a transect of Lei-Gong-Hou mud volcanoes in eastern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Ling eWang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed cored sediments retrieved from sites distributed across a transect of the Lei-Gong-Hou mud volcanoes in eastern Taiwan to uncover the spatial distributions of biogeochemical processes and community assemblages involved in methane cycling. The profiles of methane concentration and carbon isotopic composition revealed various orders of the predominance of specific methane-related metabolisms along depth. At a site proximal to the bubbling pool, the methanogenic zone was sandwiched by the anaerobic methanotrophic zones. For two sites distributed toward the topographic depression, the methanogenic zone overlaid the anaerobic methanotrophic zone. The predominance of anaerobic methanotrophy at specific depth intervals is supported by the enhanced copy numbers of the ANME-2a 16S rRNA gene and coincides with high dissolved Fe/Mn concentrations and copy numbers of the Desulfuromonas/Pelobacter 16S rRNA gene. Assemblages of 16S rRNA and mcrA genes revealed that methanogenesis was mediated by Methanococcoides and Methanosarcina. pmoA genes and a few 16S rRNA genes related to aerobic methanotrophs were detected in limited numbers of subsurface samples. While dissolved Fe/Mn signifies the presence of anaerobic metabolisms near the surface, the correlations between geochemical characteristics and gene abundances, and the absence of aerobic methanotrophs in top sediments suggest that anaerobic methanotrophy is potentially dependent on iron/manganese reduction and dominates over aerobic methanotrophy for the removal of methane produced in situ or from a deep source. Near-surface methanogenesis contributes to the methane emissions from mud platform. The alternating arrangements of methanogenic and methanotrophic zones at different sites suggest that the interactions between mud deposition, evaporation, oxidation and fluid transport modulate the assemblages of microbial communities and methane cycling in different compartments of terrestrial

  18. Calcification-carbonation method for red mud processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruibing; Zhang, Tingan; Liu, Yan; Lv, Guozhi; Xie, Liqun

    2016-10-05

    Red mud, the Bayer process residue, is generated from alumina industry and causes environmental problem. In this paper, a novel calcification-carbonation method that utilized a large amount of the Bayer process residue is proposed. Using this method, the red mud was calcified with lime to transform the silicon phase into hydrogarnet, and the alkali in red mud was recovered. Then, the resulting hydrogarnet was decomposed by CO2 carbonation, affording calcium silicate, calcium carbonate, and aluminum hydroxide. Alumina was recovered using an alkaline solution at a low temperature. The effects of the new process were analyzed by thermodynamics analysis and experiments. The extraction efficiency of the alumina and soda obtained from the red mud reached 49.4% and 96.8%, respectively. The new red mud with red mud can be completely utilized.

  19. Preparation, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Properties of Modified Red Mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjie Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste red mud was modified by HCl leaching. The structure property and composition of modified red mud were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET. Under UV irradiation, methyl orange (MO aqueous solution was photodegraded by modified red mud. The obtained results showed that the specific surface area of modified red mud was 317.14 m2/g, which was about 40 times higher than that of the normal red mud. After UV irradiation for 50 min, the removal percentage of MO reached 94.2%. The study provided a novel way for the application of red mud to the photocatalytic degradation of organic wastes.

  20. Modifying alumina red mud to support a revegetation cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xenidis, A.; Harokopou, A. D.; Mylona, E.; Brofas, G.

    2005-02-01

    Alumina red mud, a fine-textured, iron-rich, alkaline residue, is the major waste product of bauxite digestion with caustic soda to remove alumina. The high alkalinity and salinity as well as the poor nutrient status are considered to be the major constraints of red mud revegetation. This research was conducted to evaluate the ameliorating effect of gypsum, sewage sludge, ferrous sulfate, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and calcium phosphate on alumina red mud. The effectiveness of the mixtures was evaluated by applying extraction tests and performing experiments using six plant species. Gypsum amendment significantly reduced the pH, electrical conductivity, and sodium and aluminum content of red mud. Sewage sludge application had an extended effect in improving both the soil structure and the nutrient status of the gypsum-amended red mud. Together with the gypsum and sewage sludge, calcium phosphate application into red mud enhanced plant growth and gave the most promising results.

  1. Suspended Sediment Transport and Fluid Mud Dynamics in Tidal Estuaries

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Marius

    2011-01-01

    Cohesive sediments transport has been systematically studied for more than a century from field studies, laboratory experiments, and mathematical models. During the past decades, the accumulation of flocculated cohesive sediments and the formation of weakly consolidated mud deposits, including fluid mud, gained increased attention. Despite extensive research efforts, the governing processes of fluid mud formation are far from being fully understood. The primary objective of this study is to i...

  2. Study of surface mud sediment in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seleznev, A.; Savastianova, A.; Yarmoshenko, I.

    2017-06-01

    Surface mud sediment is a media integrating pollution over space and time. Sampling of the mud sediment allows obtaining additional information about environmental state. The results of the study of surface mud sediment in Ekaterinburg city (Russia) are represented in the paper. Particle-size composition of the sediment is primarily represented by dust and fine sand. Study of the sediment allows ranking the territories over pollution degree with heavy metals, identifying technogenic and typomorphic geochemical associations of the elements in environmental compartments.

  3. Habitat-related patterns of soft-bottom macrofaunal assemblages in a brackish, low-diversity system (southern Baltic Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokołowski, Adam; Ziółkowska, Marcelina; Zgrundo, Aleksandra

    2015-09-01

    Coastal areas provide a high variety of sedimentary habitats that influence the structure of resident fauna even on small geographical scales. Therefore, examinations of spatial variations in benthic assemblages require background knowledge of the environmental and biotic heterogeneity of habitats in order to understand ecological processes in such areas. The effect of habitat-related abiotic and biological variables on macrofaunal benthic assemblages was studied seasonally in 2010 and 2011 in the brackish, semi-enclosed Puck Lagoon (Gulf of Gdańsk, southern Baltic Sea). Based on macrophytal biomass, two discrete benthic regions were identified in the lagoon: a region of large biomass and a region of few macrophytes. The quality of the surface sediment organic matter (measured as C/Nsed ratio), depth, and benthic macrophyte composition accounted for within-region variation, which led to the identification of four habitats. Shallow sandy sediments with low C/Nsed ratios provide high quality sedimentary food for animals that, together with species-rich, dense macrophyte vegetation, support diverse assemblages. High C/Nsed ratios and peat outcrops in shallow sands exert a negative effect on macrofaunal diversity. Two deeper sandy habitats with less massive, species-poor vegetation tend to host distinct faunal assemblages of higher abundance and biomass. The importance of benthic vegetation for macrofaunal assemblages in the southern Baltic Sea is suggested to stem from its complex spatial structure that offers a number of microniches for infaunal and epifaunal species. The effect of macrophytes on benthic faunal assemblages was consistent throughout most of the year with the strongest influence in summer when macrophytes reached the highest biomass.

  4. Public Sphere as Digital Assemblage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    the 1990s onwards digitalization brought concepts of network and complexity into the theoretical discourse. This relational turn changed the social ontology of the public sphere into a dynamic and complex system, erasing the division between the fields of reality (the world), representation (discourse...... theories. Drawing from Deleuze & Guattari (1987), Bennett (2010), and Latour (2004) in order to imagine post-human assemblages of public sphere, this paper argues for a relational ontology that emphasizes the complex interactions of political assemblages. Empirically, it draws from the author’s studies......Normative theories of public sphere have struggled with the topic of materiality. The historical narrative of the ‘public sphere’ situated the phenomenon in specific spaces, where practices (public deliberation) and language (discourse) constructed political agencies, and further publics. From...

  5. Mud banks of Kerala: Mystery yet to be unveiled!

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.

    the processes that initiate and sustain the mud banks, a large knowledge gaps still exists. Hypotheses of Formation The most remarkable feature of the mud banks is the damping effect of the mud suspension on the incident waves. The line of breakers... landed at the mud bank area are from the moving shoals as they are caught from this region because fi shing is possible only in this region (Raghunathan et al., 1984). Another argument is that the process of upwelling causes development of hypoxia...

  6. Feasibility study for an innovative industrial red mud utilisation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounalakis, Petros; Aravossis, Konstantinos; Karayianni, ChS

    2016-02-01

    Red mud is a high volume industrial waste, and its management poses a unique challenge. For the utilisation of red mud, an economical, energy saving, environmental friendly and widely applicable method has been found. The proposed novel method is purely chemical, and achieves the recovery of all the oxides contained in red mud totally and transforms them into high value added products. The present work shows that an investment in an industrial plant, treating red mud and turning a toxic industrial waste in commercial products, is safe and viable.

  7. Preparation, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Properties of Modified Red Mud

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, MingJie; Wang, Guanyu; Yang, Zhengpeng; Huang, Shanxiu; Guo, Weijie; Shen, Yuxia

    2015-01-01

    Solid waste red mud was modified by HCl leaching. The structure property and composition of modified red mud were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). Under UV irradiation, methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution was photodegraded by modified red mud. The obtained results showed that the specific surface area of modified red mud was 317.14 m2/g, which was about 40 times higher than tha...

  8. Preparation, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Properties of Modified Red Mud

    OpenAIRE

    Mingjie Ma; Guanyu Wang; Zhengpeng Yang; Shanxiu Huang; Weijie Guo; Yuxia Shen

    2015-01-01

    Solid waste red mud was modified by HCl leaching. The structure property and composition of modified red mud were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). Under UV irradiation, methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution was photodegraded by modified red mud. The obtained results showed that the specific surface area of modified red mud was 317.14 m2/g, which was about 40 times higher than tha...

  9. Organic chemical composition of mud from the LUSI mud volcano, Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbauer, R. J.; Campbell, P.; Lam, A.

    2009-12-01

    Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia is the site of LUSI, a terrestrial mud volcano that has been erupting since May 29, 2006. In response to a U.S. Department of State request, the U.S. Geological Survey has been assisting the Indonesian Government to describe the geological and geochemical aspects and potential health risk of the mud eruption. We report here on the organic chemical composition of the mud. Organic chemical analyses were carried out by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy following organic extraction by microwave-assisted solvent extraction and compound fractionation by adsorption chromatography. There is a petroliferous component in the mud that is fresh, immature, and nonbiodegraded. There is a complete suite of n-alkanes with a bell-shaped pattern typical of fresh petroleum with a Cmax around C20. The alkane content ranges from 0.12 to 1.01 mg/kg dry mud. The presence of certain hopanes (i.e. 17 α,21β(H)-30-norhopane and 17α,21β(H)-hopane) is also indicative of the presence of oil. The proportions of other biomarker compounds (pristane/phytane = 2.4) and the dominance of the C27 sterane (5α(H),14α(H),17α(H)-chlolestane) suggest that oil formed under oxic conditions and has a likely coastal marine or terrigenous source. The presence of oleanane indicates a Cretaceous or younger age for the petrogenic material. These geochemical parameters are consistent with Indonesian oil derived from Tertiary marlstone source rocks that contained kerogen deposited under oxic conditions, probably the upper Miocene Klasafet Formation. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present and range in content from 0.1 to 2.2 mg/kg dry mud. The low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs, in particular, naphthalene and methyl-naphthalene are dominant except for perylene which is ubiquitous in the environment. The presence of both parent and higher homologue PAHs indicate a petrogenic rather than combustion source. PAHs are known carcinogens but toxicity data in sediments are

  10. Environmental isotopes to test hypotheses for fluid mud (mud bank) generation mechanisms along the southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jacob, N.; Ansari, M.A.; Revichandran, C.

    -seawater interactions off the coast of southern Taiwan: evidence from environmental isotopes. J. Asian Ear. Sci. 41, 250e262. Mallik, T.K., Mukherji, K.K., Ramachandran, K.K., 1988. Sedimentology of the Kerala mud banks (fluid muds). Mar. Geol. 80, 99e118. Manoj Kumar..., K.K., 1989. Geochemical characteristics of mud bank environment e a case study from Quilandy, west coast of India. J. Geol. Soc. Ind. 33, 55e63. Ramachandran, K.K., Mallik, T.K., 1985. Sedimentological aspects of Alleppey mud bank, west coast...

  11. Screening of cellulose decomposing fungi in sandy dune soil of Horqin Sandy Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShaoKun Wang; XueYong Zhao; XiaoAn Zuo; XinPing Liu; Hao Qu; Wei Mao; JianYing Yun

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose decomposing fungi play an important role in litter decomposition and are decisive in nutrient cycling in sandy land ecosystems. Thirty-one strains were isolated to select efficient cellulose decomposers, and four efficient cellulose decomposing fungi (NM3-1, NM3-2, NM3-3, and NM3-4) were screened using a CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose) carbon source in dune soil of Horqin Sandy Land. They were identified as Asperigillus calidoustus, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, and Hypocrea lixii by rDNA-ITS molecular biological methods. Cloth decomposition rates were 15.71%, 15.89%, 17.29%, and 17.89%by the four efficient decomposers incubated for 30 days, respectively. Screening of efficient cellulose decomposers can not only increase the dune soil functional microbe bank, but can also accelerate litter decom-position and available nutrient input in the Horqin Sandy Land.

  12. Estructuras mudéjares aragonesas

    OpenAIRE

    Borrás Gualis, Gonzalo M. (, 1940-

    2006-01-01

    Algunas de las estructuras más singulares de la arquitectura mudéjar aragonesa, datadas entre los siglos XIII y XVI, de las que unas, como la tipología de iglesia-fortaleza, son de origen cristiano, mientras otras, como las estructuras de determinadas torres-campanario y de los cimborrios de las catedrales son de raigambre islámica. Sin embargo tanto en las estructuras de origen cristiano como en las de origen islámico se detectan transformaciones fundamentales respecto de los modelo...

  13. Using Ultrasound to Measure Mud Rheological Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maa, P. Y. P. Y.; Kwon, J. I.; Park, K. S.

    2015-12-01

    In order to predict the dynamic responses of newly consolidated cohesive sediment beds, a better understanding of the material rheological properties (bulk density, ρ, kinematic viscosity, ν, and shear modulus, G, assuming mud is a simple Voigt viscoelastic model) of these sediment beds is needed. An acoustic approach that uses a commercially available 250 kHz shear wave transducer and tone-burst waves has been developed to measure those properties. This approach uses a 86.3 mm long delay-line (DL) to separate the generated pressure and shear waves, and measures the reflected shear waves as well as the reflected pressure waves caused at the interface between the delay line and the mud to interpret these properties. By using materials (i.e., air, water, olive oil, and honey) with available rheological properties to establish a calibration relationship between the information carried by the measured reflected waves and those given material properties, the mud properties as well as thνe change of these properties during consolidation can be interpreted. Using jelly pudding as a check, a value of G ≈ 12310 N/m2 and ν ≈ 5 x 10-5 m2/s were estimated. For the consolidating kaolinite bed (with zero salinity and initial suspended sediment concentration about 420 g/cm3), the measurements show that the shear modulus developed after about 40 hours and approached a value on the order of 15000 N/m2 after about 100 hours. The initial kinematic viscosity was about 5 x 10-4 m2/s, and it decreased slowly with time and approached a low plateau between 10-6 and 10-7 m2/s after 300 hours. The measured bulk density showed a small increasing rate during the entire consolidation period, except at a short period between 80 and 90 hours after consolidation. Results from this study suggest a promising approach for developing an in-situ instrument to measure mud properties, as well as many other materials in other industries.

  14. Unusual Deep Water sponge assemblage in South China-Witness of the end-Ordovician mass extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixia; Feng, Hongzhen; Janussen, Dorte; Reitner, Joachim

    2015-11-05

    There are few sponges known from the end-Ordovician to early-Silurian strata all over the world, and no records of sponge fossils have been found yet in China during this interval. Here we report a unique sponge assemblage spanning the interval of the end-Ordovician mass extinction from the Kaochiapien Formation (Upper Ordovician-Lower Silurian) in South China. This assemblage contains a variety of well-preserved siliceous sponges, including both Burgess Shale-type and modern type taxa. It is clear that this assemblage developed in deep water, low energy ecosystem with less competitors and more vacant niches. Its explosion may be related to the euxinic and anoxic condition as well as the noticeable transgression during the end-Ordovician mass extinction. The excellent preservation of this assemblage is probably due to the rapid burial by mud turbidites. This unusual sponge assemblage provides a link between the Burgess Shale-type deep water sponges and the modern forms. It gives an excellent insight into the deep sea palaeoecology and the macroevolution of Phanerozoic sponges, and opens a new window to investigate the marine ecosystem before and after the end-Ordovician mass extinction. It also offers potential to search for exceptional fossil biota across the Ordovician-Silurian boundary interval in China.

  15. Unusual Deep Water sponge assemblage in South China—Witness of the end-Ordovician mass extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lixia; Feng, Hongzhen; Janussen, Dorte; Reitner, Joachim

    2015-11-01

    There are few sponges known from the end-Ordovician to early-Silurian strata all over the world, and no records of sponge fossils have been found yet in China during this interval. Here we report a unique sponge assemblage spanning the interval of the end-Ordovician mass extinction from the Kaochiapien Formation (Upper Ordovician-Lower Silurian) in South China. This assemblage contains a variety of well-preserved siliceous sponges, including both Burgess Shale-type and modern type taxa. It is clear that this assemblage developed in deep water, low energy ecosystem with less competitors and more vacant niches. Its explosion may be related to the euxinic and anoxic condition as well as the noticeable transgression during the end-Ordovician mass extinction. The excellent preservation of this assemblage is probably due to the rapid burial by mud turbidites. This unusual sponge assemblage provides a link between the Burgess Shale-type deep water sponges and the modern forms. It gives an excellent insight into the deep sea palaeoecology and the macroevolution of Phanerozoic sponges, and opens a new window to investigate the marine ecosystem before and after the end-Ordovician mass extinction. It also offers potential to search for exceptional fossil biota across the Ordovician-Silurian boundary interval in China.

  16. Characterization of ancient construction materials (mud walls and adobe in the churches at Cisneros, Villada and Boada de Campos (Palencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Hernández, R.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to characterize the ancient building materials (mud wall and adobe of three churches in the province of Palencia. This is the first part of a study which seeks to evaluate how the mud walls of the tower of the church of Cisneros reacted to restoration treatment which consisted of a structural reinforcement made by injecting a highly fluid grout of cement/lime/sand mortar. This treatment implies the introduction of large quantities of water into the fabric. The mud walls of the tower of Cisneros are compositionally and texturally very similar to each other, which indicates that despite their large dimensions, care was taken in the homogeneity of the materials. These mud walls are also very similar to those of the church of Villada. The original raw material is mud with some additives (rubble, ashes, bones, etc. and some remains of lime used as a stabiliser. Although there is a very high proportion of clay, no effervescing clay has been detected. Hence it is deduced that once the mud wall was built, there were no important changes in volume due to variation in the humidity of the fabric. The characteristics of the adobe of the tower of Boada are logically different form those of the mud walls, being made of less sandy, more clayey mud with a high proportion of straw that the mud walls do not have, and without the addition of bricks, bones, etc.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es caracterizar los materiales antiguos de construcción (tapial y adobe de tres iglesias en la provincia de Falencia. El trabajo es la primera parte de un estudio en el que se pretende evaluar el comportamiento de los tapiales de la torre de la iglesia de Cisneros frente al tratamiento de restauración, consistente en un cosido estructural mediante la realización de perforaciones en las que se introduce una barra de acero y donde, posteriormente, se inyecta una lechada muy fluidificada de mortero de cemento/cal/arena. Este tratamiento implica la

  17. Consolidation theory and rheology of mud: A literature survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckelbach, L.M.

    1996-01-01

    In the framework of project Strength evolution of soft consolidating mud layers, financially supported by the Netherlands Foundation of Technology, a literature survey on consolidation theory and rheological modelling of mud was carried out. A consolidation theory, focused on the Gibson equation (Gi

  18. Acoustic scattering from mud volcanoes and carbonate mounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Charles W; Weber, Thomas C; Etiope, Giuseppe

    2006-12-01

    Submarine mud volcanoes occur in many parts of the world's oceans and form an aperture for gas and fluidized mud emission from within the earth's crust. Their characteristics are of considerable interest to the geology, geophysics, geochemistry, and underwater acoustics communities. For the latter, mud volcanoes are of interest in part because they pose a potential source of clutter for active sonar. Close-range (single-interaction) scattering measurements from a mud volcano in the Straits of Sicily show scattering 10-15 dB above the background. Three hypotheses were examined concerning the scattering mechanism: (1) gas entrained in sediment at/near mud volcano, (2) gas bubbles and/or particulates (emitted) in the water column, (3) the carbonate bio-construction covering the mud volcano edifice. The experimental evidence, including visual, acoustic, and nonacoustic sensors, rules out the second hypothesis (at least during the observation time) and suggests that, for this particular mud volcano the dominant mechanism is associated with carbonate chimneys on the mud volcano. In terms of scattering levels, target strengths of 4-14 dB were observed from 800 to 3600 Hz for a monostatic geometry with grazing angles of 3-5 degrees. Similar target strengths were measured for vertically bistatic paths with incident and scattered grazing angles of 3-5 degrees and 33-50 degrees, respectively.

  19. Elementary concentration of Peruibe black mud by neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrecilha, Jefferson K.; Ponciano, Ricardo; Silva, Paulo S.C da, E-mail: jeffkoy@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The Peruibe Black Mud is used in therapies such as psoriasis, peripheral dermatitis, acne, seborrehea, myalgia arthritis and rheumatic non-articular processes. This material is characterized by is fine organic matter particles, sulphate reducing bacteria and a high content of potential reduction ions. Although this material is particles, sulphate reducing bacteria and a high content of potential reduction ions. Although this material is considered natural, it may not be free of possible adverse health effects, like toxic chemical elements, when used for therapeutic purposes. In the therapeutic treatments involving clays, clays are used in mud form also called peloids, obtained by maturation process. Five in natura and three maturated Black Mud samples were collected in Peruibe city, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. To investigate the distribution of major, trace and rare earth elements in the in natura and maturated clays that constitute the Peruibe Black Mud, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used. A comparison between in natura and maturated mud shows that major, trace and rare earth elements follow the same order in both types. Generally, the concentrations in the maturated mud are slightly lower than in natura mud. Enrichment on the upper continental crust could be observed for the elements As, Br, Sb and Se, in these types of mud. (author)

  20. Mineralogical and geochemical study of mud volcanoes in north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    Key word: Mud volcano, clay mineralogy, geochemistry, mud breccias, North Moroccan Atlantic margin. INTRODUCTION .... The geochemical analysis of the metals shows a high Ti ..... smectite evolved into an illite, or because the initial source is not .... Pinheiro LM, Kopf A, Boetius A (2006): Microbial methane turnover at.

  1. Adsorption of dichromate ions on the red mud surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terekhova, M. V.; Gorichev, I. G.; Lainer, Yu. A.; Artamonova, I. V.; Rusakova, S. M.

    2014-07-01

    The possibility of using a red mud (waste of alumina production) as a sorbent of dichromate ions from aqueous solutions is studied. A method for the activation of red mud by hydrochloric acid is proposed. The dependences of the amount adsorbed of dichromate ions on the pH and initial concentration of aqueous solutions are studied.

  2. Drilling Mud Formulation Using Potato Starch(Ipomoea Batatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WamiEmenikeNyeche

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the search for suitable local alternatives as additives in the manufacture of drilling muds which is an essential entity in the exploration of oil and gas, some vital considerations must be put in place such as cost and environmental effect. This study focuses on the suitability of locally processed potato starch as a viscosifier and fluid loss agent in drilling mud. Comparative analysis of properties obtained from the prepared potato starch mud and that formulated from Polyanionic cellulose (PAC were carried out. Results from this investigation showed that rheological properties (plastic viscosity and yield point of the potato starch mud increased when the content of both viscosifiers were equal at 1.0g/ 316.4ml of water. Plastic viscosity also increased by 13.6% when potato starch concentration increased by 50%. Also, a combination of PAC and potato starch at a ratio of 1:1 to 0.5:1.5 gave a fluid loss of 7.1 - 7.7 ml which were very close to that of the standard mud at 6.8ml. the pH, mud weight and specific gravity of the formulated mud samples ranged from 7.0 - 9.0, 7.0 - 9.1 and 0.83 - 1.09 respectively, which were all in line with the standard mud specifications.

  3. Calcification–carbonation method for red mud processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ruibing [School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Laboratory for Simulation and Modelling of Particulate Systems, Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, 3800 (Australia); Zhang, Tingan, E-mail: zhangta@smm.neu.edu.cn [School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liu, Yan; Lv, Guozhi; Xie, Liqun [School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2016-10-05

    Highlights: • A new approach named calcification–carbonation method for red mud processing is proposed. • The method can prevent emission of red mud from alumina production and is good for the environment. • Thermodynamics characteristics were investigated. • The method was verified experimentally using a jet-flow reactor. - Abstract: Red mud, the Bayer process residue, is generated from alumina industry and causes environmental problem. In this paper, a novel calcification–carbonation method that utilized a large amount of the Bayer process residue is proposed. Using this method, the red mud was calcified with lime to transform the silicon phase into hydrogarnet, and the alkali in red mud was recovered. Then, the resulting hydrogarnet was decomposed by CO{sub 2} carbonation, affording calcium silicate, calcium carbonate, and aluminum hydroxide. Alumina was recovered using an alkaline solution at a low temperature. The effects of the new process were analyzed by thermodynamics analysis and experiments. The extraction efficiency of the alumina and soda obtained from the red mud reached 49.4% and 96.8%, respectively. The new red mud with <0.3% alkali can be used in cement production. Using a combination of this method and cement production, the Bayer process red mud can be completely utilized.

  4. Research on mud pulse signal data processing in MWD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Bing; Li, De Sheng; Lin, En Huai; Ji, Miao Miao

    2012-12-01

    Wireless measure while drilling (MWD) transmits data by using mud pulse signal ; the ground decoding system collects the mud pulse signal and then decodes and displays the parameters under the down-hole according to the designed encoding rules and the correct detection and recognition of the ground decoding system towards the received mud pulse signal is one kind of the key technology of MWD. This paper introduces digit of Manchester encoding that transmits data and the format of the wireless transmission of data under the down-hole and develops a set of ground decoding systems. The ground decoding algorithm uses FIR (Finite impulse response) digital filtering to make de-noising on the mud pulse signal, then adopts the related base value modulating algorithm to eliminate the pump pulse base value of the denoised mud pulse signal, finally analyzes the mud pulse signal waveform shape of the selected Manchester encoding in three bits cycles, and applies the pattern similarity recognition algorithm to the mud pulse signal recognition. The field experiment results show that the developed device can make correctly extraction and recognition for the mud pulse signal with simple and practical decoding process and meet the requirements of engineering application.

  5. Heavy metal contamination in sandy beach macrofauna communities from the Rio de Janeiro coast, Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrini, Tatiana M B; Barboza, Carlos A M; Skinner, Viviane B; Hauser-Davis, Rachel A; Rocha, Rafael C; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D; Valentin, Jean L; Cardoso, Ricardo S

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated concentrations of eight heavy metals Cr, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cu, Cd, Co and V, in tissues of representative macrofauna species from 68 sandy beaches from the coast of Rio de Janeiro state. The links between contamination levels and community descriptors such as diversity, evenness, density and biomass, were also investigated. Metal concentrations from macrofaunal tissues were compared to maximum permissible limits for human ingestion stipulated by the Brazilian regulatory agency (ANVISA). Generalized linear models (GLM's) were used to investigate the variability in macrofauna density, richness, eveness and biomass in the seven different regions. A non-metric multidimensional scaling analysis (n-MDS) was used to investigate the spatial pattern of heavy metal concentrations along the seven regions of Rio de Janeiro coast. Variation partitioning was applied to evaluate the variance in the community assemblage explained by the environmental variables and the heavy metal concentrations. Our data suggested high spatial variation in the concentration of heavy metals in macrofauna species from the beaches of Rio de Janeiro. This result highlighted a diffuse source of contamination along the coast. Most of the metals concentrations were under the limits established by ANVISA. The variability in community descriptors was related to morphodynamic variables, but not with metal contamination values, indicating the lack of direct relationships at the community level. Concentration levels of eight heavy metals in macrofauna species from 68 sandy beaches on Rio de Janeiro coast (Brazil) were spatially correlated with anthropogenic activities such as industrialization and urbanization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Catalytic hydrodechlorination of tetrachloroethylene over red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez, S; Sastre, H; Díez, F V

    2001-01-29

    Hydrodechlorination of tetrachloroethylene was investigated using red mud (RM, a by-product in the production of alumina by the Bayer process) as the catalyst. Use of RM as a hydrodechlorination catalyst is of interest from an industrial point of view because its cost is much lower than that of commercial catalysts. Hydrodechlorination reactions were carried out in a continuous fixed bed reactor. The influence of catalyst sulfiding, temperature (50-350 degrees C), pressure (2-10MPa), hydrogen flow rate and the presence of solvents (hexane, heptane, benzene and toluene) on the reaction was studied. Sulfided red mud is active as a hydrodechlorination catalyst, conversion of tetrachloroethylene increases as the pressure and temperature increase. The solvents did not influence the conversion, nor were side reactions involving the solvent observed. The kinetics of the reaction was studied at 350 degrees C and 10MPa, conditions for which mass transfer limitations were negligible. A good fit of a Langmuir-Hinselwood model to the experimental data was obtained.

  7. Mud and cement for horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zurdo, C.; Georges, C.; Martin, M.

    1986-01-01

    High-angle and horizontal well bores raise many questions concerning the characteristics of mud and cement. This paper is a summary of the authors' knowledge and work on these two subjects. For all research carried out, large or full-scale laboratory test plants were used. Cutting transport is not only a problem in horizontal conditions but hole angles of 25 to 65/sup 0/ can be even more critical when parameters such as mud rheological properties and velocities are not optimized. Drilling a long horizontal drain creates a dynamic annulus pressure unbalance. This can lead to a loss and kick situation. Two test benches were thus used to obtain a good understanding of the inefficiency of conventional plugging methods and of the difficulties of gas migration control in subhorizontal well bores. High concentrations of LCM, high rheological properties of fluids and low flow rates increase the changes of solving the first problem. The results of the second bench demonstrate the difficulties of annulus gas evacution for angles varying from 90 to 100 degrees, or from over-gauged sections in horizontal holes.

  8. Mud volcanoes of trinidad as astrobiological analogs for martian environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosein, Riad; Haque, Shirin; Beckles, Denise M

    2014-01-01

    Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i) Digity; (ii) Piparo and (iii) Devil's Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region.

  9. Mud Volcanoes of Trinidad as Astrobiological Analogs for Martian Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riad Hosein

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eleven onshore mud volcanoes in the southern region of Trinidad have been studied as analog habitats for possible microbial life on Mars. The profiles of the 11 mud volcanoes are presented in terms of their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and soil properties. The mud volcanoes sampled all emitted methane gas consistently at 3% volume. The average pH for the mud volcanic soil was 7.98. The average Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC was found to be 2.16 kg/mol, and the average Percentage Water Content was 34.5%. Samples from three of the volcanoes, (i Digity; (ii Piparo and (iii Devil’s Woodyard were used to culture bacterial colonies under anaerobic conditions indicating possible presence of methanogenic microorganisms. The Trinidad mud volcanoes can serve as analogs for the Martian environment due to similar geological features found extensively on Mars in Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra region.

  10. Durability of Bricks Coated with Red mud Based Geopolymer Paste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Smita; Basavanagowda, S. N.; Aswath, M. U.; Ranganath, R. V.

    2016-09-01

    The present study is undertaken to assess the durability of concrete blocks coated with red mud - fly ash based geopolymer paste. Concrete blocks of size 200 x 200 x 100mm were coated with geopolymer paste synthesized by varying the percentages of red mud and fly ash. Uncoated concrete blocks were also tested for the durability for comparison. In thermal resistance test, the blocks were subjected to 600°C for an hour whereas in acid resistance test, they were kept in 5% sulphuric acid solution for 4 weeks. The specimens were thereafter studied for surface degradation, strength loss and weight loss. Pastes with red mud percentage greater than 50% developed lot of shrinkage cracks. The blocks coated with 30% and 50% red mud paste showed better durability than the other blocks. The use of blocks coated with red mud - fly ash geopolymer paste improves the aesthetics, eliminates the use of plaster and improves the durability of the structure.

  11. Elastomers in mud motors for oil field applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrik, J. [Baker Hughes INTEQ GmbH, Celle (Germany)

    1997-08-01

    Mud motors, the most frequently used downhole drilling motors in modern drilling systems, are described in their application and function. The elastomeric liner in a mud motor acts as a huge continuous seal. Important properties of elastomers such as chemical resistance, fatigue resistance, mechanical strength, abrasion resistance, bonding to steel and processability are discussed. Advantages and disadvantages of NBR, HNBR, FKM, TFEP, and EPDM elastomers for mud motor applications are briefly described. The importance of drilling fluids and their physical and chemical impact on motor elastomers are described. Drilling fluids are categorized in: oil based-, synthetic-, and water based. Results of compatibility tests in the different drilling muds of the presented categories demonstrate the complexity of elastomer development. Elastomers with an equally good performance in all drilling muds are not available. Future developments and improvements are directed towards higher chemical resistance at higher service temperatures. This will be possible only with improved elastomer-to-metal bonding, increased mechanical and better dynamic properties.

  12. Threats to sandy beach ecosystems: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defeo, Omar; McLachlan, Anton; Schoeman, David S.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Dugan, Jenifer; Jones, Alan; Lastra, Mariano; Scapini, Felicita

    2009-01-01

    We provide a brief synopsis of the unique physical and ecological attributes of sandy beach ecosystems and review the main anthropogenic pressures acting on the world's single largest type of open shoreline. Threats to beaches arise from a range of stressors which span a spectrum of impact scales from localised effects (e.g. trampling) to a truly global reach (e.g. sea-level rise). These pressures act at multiple temporal and spatial scales, translating into ecological impacts that are manifested across several dimensions in time and space so that today almost every beach on every coastline is threatened by human activities. Press disturbances (whatever the impact source involved) are becoming increasingly common, operating on time scales of years to decades. However, long-term data sets that describe either the natural dynamics of beach systems or the human impacts on beaches are scarce and fragmentary. A top priority is to implement long-term field experiments and monitoring programmes that quantify the dynamics of key ecological attributes on sandy beaches. Because of the inertia associated with global climate change and human population growth, no realistic management scenario will alleviate these threats in the short term. The immediate priority is to avoid further development of coastal areas likely to be directly impacted by retreating shorelines. There is also scope for improvement in experimental design to better distinguish natural variability from anthropogenic impacts. Sea-level rise and other effects of global warming are expected to intensify other anthropogenic pressures, and could cause unprecedented ecological impacts. The definition of the relevant scales of analysis, which will vary according to the magnitude of the impact and the organisational level under analysis, and the recognition of a physical-biological coupling at different scales, should be included in approaches to quantify impacts. Zoning strategies and marine reserves, which have not

  13. Mud Flow Characteristics Occurred in Izuoshima Island, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebayashi, H.; Egashira, S.; Fujita, M.

    2015-12-01

    Landslides and mud flows were occurred in the west part of the Izuoshima Island, Japan on 16 October 2013. The Izuoshima Island is a volcanic island and the land surface is covered by the volcanic ash sediment in 1m depth. Hence, the mud flow with high sediment concentration was formed. The laminar layer is formed in the debris flow from the bed to the fluid surface. On the other hand, the laminar flow is restricted near the bed in the mud flow and the turbulence flow is formed on the laminar flow layer. As a result, the equilibrium slope of the mud flow becomes smaller comparing to the debris flow. In this study, the numerical analysis mud flow model considering the effect of turbulence flow on the equilibrium slope of the mud flow is developed. Subsequently, the model is applied to the mud flow occurred in the Izuoshima Island and discussed the applicability of the model and the flow characteristics of the mud flow. The differences of the horizontal flow areas between the simulated results and the field data are compared and it was found that the outline of the horizontal shape of the flow areas is reproduced well. Furthermore, the horizontal distribution of the erosion and deposition area is reproduced by the numerical analysis well except for the residential area (Kandachi area). Kandachi area is judged as the erosion area by the field observation, but the sediment was deposited in the numerical analysis. It is considered that the 1.5hour heavy rain over 100mm/h after the mud flow makes the discrepancy. The difference of the horizontal distribution of the maximum flow surface elevation between the simulated results and the field data are compared and it was found that the simulated flow depth is overestimated slightly, because of the wider erosion area due to the coarse resolution elevation data. The averaged velocity and the depth of the mud flow was enough large to collapse the houses.

  14. Preliminary Analytical Results for a Mud Sample Collected from the LUSI Mud Volcano, Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Casadevall, Thomas J.; Wibowo, Handoko T.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Johnson, Craig A.; Breit, George N.; Lowers, Heather; Wolf, Ruth E.; Hageman, Philip L.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Anthony, Michael W.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Fey, David L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Morman, Suzette A.

    2008-01-01

    On May 29, 2006, mud and gases began erupting unexpectedly from a vent 150 meters away from a hydrocarbon exploration well near Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia. The eruption, called the LUSI (Lumpur 'mud'-Sidoarjo) mud volcano, has continued since then at rates as high as 160,000 m3 per day. At the request of the United States Department of State, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been providing technical assistance to the Indonesian Government on the geological and geochemical aspects of the mud eruption. This report presents initial characterization results of a sample of the mud collected on September 22, 2007, as well as inerpretive findings based on the analytical results. The focus is on characteristics of the mud sample (including the solid and water components of the mud) that may be of potential environmental or human health concern. Characteristics that provide insights into the possible origins of the mud and its contained solids and waters have also been evaluated.

  15. Seismic stratigraphy of the Heuksan mud belt in the southeastern Yellow Sea, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gwang-Soo; Yoo, Dong Geun; Bae, Sung Ho; Min, Gun-Hong; Kim, Seong-Pil; Choi, Hunsoo

    2015-12-01

    To establish the seismic stratigraphy of the Heuksan mud belt (HMB) and reconstruct its depositional history, approximately 1,600 km of high-resolution seismic data were newly obtained using chirp acoustic sub-bottom profiler, sparker, and air-gun seismic systems. Based on seismic stratigraphic analysis, the HMB can be divided into three major seismic units (I, II, and III, from top to bottom) and four subunits (II-a, II-b, III-a, and III-b) overlying transgressive sands, pre-last glacial maximum (LGM) deposits, and the acoustic basement. Each unit and subunit show different seismic facies and geometry, being clearly separated from each other by bounding surfaces formed since the LGM. The spatial distribution, thicknesses and volumes of the seismic units were determined and plotted to document the sequential formation of the HMB. The correlation between deep drill core data (HMB-101, HMB-102, HMB-103, YSDP-101, and YSDP-102) and the seismic data suggests that subunits III-b and III-a were formed by the continuous accumulation of fine-grained sediment with partial sandy sediment in an estuarine/deltaic environment during the early to middle transgressive stage, accompanied by landward migration of the shoreline. Subunits II-b and II-a were probably formed by re-deposition of large volumes of sediment eroded from unit III during the middle transgressive to early highstand stage. Unit I is interpreted as the most recent mud deposit representing the highstand systems tract when sea-level rise terminated. The careful definition of seismic units and their interpretation proposed in this study, on the basis of the large and partly new seismic dataset covering the entire HMB together with deep drill core data, have been instrumental in reconstructing the depositional environment and formation mechanisms of the HMB.

  16. Chemosymbiotic bivalves from the mud volcanoes of the Gulf of Cadiz, NE Atlantic, with descriptions of new species of Solemyidae, Lucinidae and Vesicomyidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Graham; Rodrigues, Clara F; Cunha, Marina R

    2011-01-01

    The chemosymbiotic bivalves collected from the mud volcanoes of the Gulf of Cadiz are reviewed. Of the thirteen species closely associated with chemosynthetic settings two Solemyidae, Solemya (Petrasma) elarraichensissp. n. and Acharax gadiraesp. n., one Lucinidae, Lucinoma asapheussp. n., and one Vesicomyidae, Isorropodon megadesmussp. n. are described and compared to close relatives of their respective families. The biodiversity and distribution of the chemosymbiotic bivalves in the Gulf of Cadiz are discussed and compared to the available information from other cold seeps in the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean. Although there is considerable similarity at the genus level between seep/mud volcano fields in the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean, there is little overlap at the species level. This indicates a high degree of endemism within chemosymbiotic bivalve assemblages.

  17. Chemosymbiotic bivalves from the mud volcanoes of the Gulf of Cadiz, NE Atlantic, with descriptions of new species of Solemyidae, Lucinidae and Vesicomyidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Oliver

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemosymbiotic bivalves collected from the mud volcanoes of the Gulf of Cadiz are reviewed. Of the thirteen species closely associated with chemosynthetic settings two Solemyidae, Solemya (Petrasma elarraichensis sp. n. and Acharax gadirae sp. n., one Lucinidae, Lucinoma asapheus sp. n., and one Vesicomyidae, Isorropodon megadesmus sp. n. are described and compared to close relatives of their respective families. The biodiversity and distribution of the chemosymbiotic bivalves in the Gulf of Cadiz is discussed and compared to the available information from other cold seeps in the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean. Although there is considerable similarity at the genus level between seep/mud volcano fields in the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean, there is little overlap at the species level. This indicates a high degree of endemism within chemosymbiotic bivalve assemblages.

  18. Hurricane Sandy science plan: coastal impact assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronko, Jakob M.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: coastal topography and bathymetry, impacts to coastal beaches and barriers, impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology, impacts on environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposures, impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife. This fact sheet focuses assessing impacts to coastal beaches and barriers.

  19. The red mud accident in ajka (hungary): plant toxicity and trace metal bioavailability in red mud contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruyters, Stefan; Mertens, Jelle; Vassilieva, Elvira; Dehandschutter, Boris; Poffijn, André; Smolders, Erik

    2011-02-15

    The red mud accident of October 4, 2010, in Ajka (Hungary) contaminated a vast area with caustic, saline red mud (pH 12) that contains several toxic trace metals above soil limits. Red mud was characterized and its toxicity for plants was measured to evaluate the soil contamination risks. Red mud radioactivity (e.g., (238)U) is about 10-fold above soil background and previous assessments revealed that radiation risk is limited to indoor radon. The plant toxicity and trace metal availability was tested with mixtures of this red mud and a local noncontaminated soil up to a 16% dry weight fraction. Increasing red mud applications increased soil pH to maximally 8.3 and soil solution EC to 12 dS m(-1). Shoot yield of barley seedlings was affected by 25% at 5% red mud in soil and above. Red mud increased shoot Cu, Cr, Fe, and Ni concentrations; however, none of these exceed toxic limits reported elsewhere. Moreover, NaOH amended reference treatments showed similar yield reductions and similar changes in shoot composition. Foliar diagnostics suggest that Na (>1% in affected plants) is the prime cause of growth effects in red mud and in corresponding NaOH amended soils. Shoot Cd and Pb concentrations decreased by increasing applications or were unaffected. Leaching amended soils (3 pore volumes) did not completely remove the Na injury, likely because soil structure was deteriorated. The foliar composition and the NaOH reference experiment allow concluding that the Na salinity, not the trace metal contamination, is the main concern for this red mud in soil.

  20. The Early Shorebird Will Catch Fewer Invertebrates on Trampled Sandy Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A.; Carracher, Lucy K.; Porch, Nicholas; Connolly, Rod M.; Olds, Andrew D.; Gilby, Ben L.; Ekanayake, Kasun B.; Maslo, Brooke; Weston, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Many species of birds breeding on ocean beaches and in coastal dunes are of global conservation concern. Most of these species rely on invertebrates (e.g. insects, small crustaceans) as an irreplaceable food source, foraging primarily around the strandline on the upper beach near the dunes. Sandy beaches are also prime sites for human recreation, which impacts these food resources via negative trampling effects. We quantified acute trampling impacts on assemblages of upper shore invertebrates in a controlled experiment over a range of foot traffic intensities (up to 56 steps per square metre) on a temperate beach in Victoria, Australia. Trampling significantly altered assemblage structure (species composition and density) and was correlated with significant declines in invertebrate abundance and species richness. Trampling effects were strongest for rare species. In heavily trafficked plots the abundance of sand hoppers (Amphipoda), a principal prey item of threatened Hooded Plovers breeding on this beach, was halved. In contrast to the consistently strong effects of trampling, natural habitat attributes (e.g. sediment grain size, compactness) were much less influential predictors. If acute suppression of invertebrates caused by trampling, as demonstrated here, is more widespread on beaches it may constitute a significant threat to endangered vertebrates reliant on these invertebrates. This calls for a re-thinking of conservation actions by considering active management of food resources, possibly through enhancement of wrack or direct augmentation of prey items to breeding territories. PMID:27564550

  1. Change in the meiofauna community structure of sandy beaches of the Nuevo Gulf (Chubut, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Harguinteguy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The composition and distribution of the benthic meiofauna assemblages of the Nuevo Gulf (Chubut, Argentina are described in relation to abiotic variables. The meiofauna and sediment samples were collected in the intertidal zone of four sandy beaches with different anthropic disturbances in June 2005. The samples were obtained at 20 sampling sites using a 2.5 cm diameter core tube at a depth of 10 cm. A total of 13 meiofauna taxa were identified, with the meiofauna being primarily represented by nematodes, gastrotrichs, ciliates and polychaetes and the meiofauna abundances ranging from 1.5 × 10³ to 6.5 × 10³ ind. 10 cm‑2. Univariate (one-way ANOVA test and multivariate (ANOSIM/MDS test analyses showed clear dissimilarities in community structures between sites with anthropic effects and those in pristine condition, revealed by the significant differences were found between beaches near to and far way from a city with port activity. The meiofaunal assemblage varied in abundance and diversity, and these changes in the community structure may have been related to environmental gradients on the shore. The BIO‑ENV analysis showed that the redox potential discontinuity depth might be the main factor in the spatial distribution of organisms.

  2. The Early Shorebird Will Catch Fewer Invertebrates on Trampled Sandy Beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A; Carracher, Lucy K; Porch, Nicholas; Connolly, Rod M; Olds, Andrew D; Gilby, Ben L; Ekanayake, Kasun B; Maslo, Brooke; Weston, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Many species of birds breeding on ocean beaches and in coastal dunes are of global conservation concern. Most of these species rely on invertebrates (e.g. insects, small crustaceans) as an irreplaceable food source, foraging primarily around the strandline on the upper beach near the dunes. Sandy beaches are also prime sites for human recreation, which impacts these food resources via negative trampling effects. We quantified acute trampling impacts on assemblages of upper shore invertebrates in a controlled experiment over a range of foot traffic intensities (up to 56 steps per square metre) on a temperate beach in Victoria, Australia. Trampling significantly altered assemblage structure (species composition and density) and was correlated with significant declines in invertebrate abundance and species richness. Trampling effects were strongest for rare species. In heavily trafficked plots the abundance of sand hoppers (Amphipoda), a principal prey item of threatened Hooded Plovers breeding on this beach, was halved. In contrast to the consistently strong effects of trampling, natural habitat attributes (e.g. sediment grain size, compactness) were much less influential predictors. If acute suppression of invertebrates caused by trampling, as demonstrated here, is more widespread on beaches it may constitute a significant threat to endangered vertebrates reliant on these invertebrates. This calls for a re-thinking of conservation actions by considering active management of food resources, possibly through enhancement of wrack or direct augmentation of prey items to breeding territories.

  3. Testing the effect of habitat structure and complexity on nekton assemblages using experimental oyster reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Austin T.; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Kimball, Matthew E.; Rozas, Lawrence P.

    2011-01-01

    Structurally complex habitats are often associated with more diverse and abundant species assemblages in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Biogenic reefs formed by the eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) are complex in nature and are recognized for their potential habitat value in estuarine systems along the US Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Few studies, however, have examined the response of nekton to structural complexity within oyster reefs. We used a quantitative sampling technique to examine how the presence and complexity of experimental oyster reefs influence the abundance, biomass, and distribution of nekton by sampling reefs 4 months and 16 months post-construction. Experimental oyster reefs were colonized immediately by resident fishes and decapod crustaceans, and reefs supported a distinct nekton assemblage compared to mud-bottom habitat. Neither increased reef complexity, nor age of the experimental reef resulted in further changes in nekton assemblages or increases in nekton abundance or diversity. The presence of oyster reefs per se was the most important factor determining nekton usage.

  4. 78 FR 32296 - Second Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ... Response to Hurricane Sandy: Response, Recovery & Resiliency AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA... recipients most severely affected by Hurricane Sandy: the Metropolitan Transportation Authority, New Jersey... Federal Register notice, bringing the total amount of Hurricane Sandy Emergency Relief funds allocated...

  5. The diversity of mud volcanoes in the landscape of Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidov, Tofig

    2014-05-01

    As the natural phenomenon the mud volcanism (mud volcanoes) of Azerbaijan are known from the ancient times. The historical records describing them are since V century. More detail study of this natural phenomenon had started in the second half of XIX century. The term "mud volcano" (or "mud hill") had been given by academician H.W. Abich (1863), more exactly defining this natural phenomenon. All the previous definitions did not give such clear and capacious explanation of it. In comparison with magmatic volcanoes, globally the mud ones are restricted in distribution; they mainly locate within the Alpine-Himalayan, Pacific and Central Asian mobile belts, in more than 30 countries (Columbia, Trinidad Island, Italy, Romania, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Iran, Pakistan, Indonesia, Burma, Malaysia, etc.). Besides it, the zones of mud volcanoes development are corresponded to zones of marine accretionary prisms' development. For example, the South-Caspian depression, Barbados Island, Cascadia (N.America), Costa-Rica, Panama, Japan trench. Onshore it is Indonesia, Japan, and Trinidad, Taiwan. The mud volcanism with non-accretionary conditions includes the areas of Black Sea, Alboran Sea, the Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana coast), Salton Sea. But new investigations reveal more new mud volcanoes and in places which were not considered earlier as the traditional places of mud volcanoes development (e.g. West Nile Rive delta). Azerbaijan is the classic region of mud volcanoes development. From over 800 world mud volcanoes there are about 400 onshore and within the South-Caspian basin, which includes the territory of East Azerbaijan (the regions of Shemakha-Gobustan and Low-Kura River, Absheron peninsula), adjacent water area of South Caspian (Baku and Absheron archipelagoes) and SW Turkmenistan and represents an area of great downwarping with thick (over 25 km) sedimentary series. Generally, in the modern relief the mud volcanoes represent more or less large uplifts

  6. Microtremor study of Gunung Anyar mud volcano, Surabaya, East Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaifuddin, Firman; Bahri, Ayi Syaeful; Lestari, Wien; Pandu, Juan

    2016-05-01

    The existence of mud volcano system in East Java is known from the ancient period, especially in Surabaya. Gunung Anyar mud volcano is one of the mud volcano system manifestation was appeared close to the residence. Because of this phenomenon we have to learn about the impact of this mud volcano manifestation to the neighbourhood. The microtremor study was conducted to evaluate the possible influence effect of the mud volcano to the environment and get more information about the subsurface condition in this area. Microtremor is one of the geophysical methods which measure the natural tremor or vibration of the earth, the dominant frequency of the tremor represent thickness of the soft sediment layer overlay above the bed rock or harder rock layer beneath our feet. In this study 90 stations was measured to record the natural tremor. The result from this study shows the direct influenced area of this small mud volcano system is close to 50m from the centre of the mud volcano and bed rock of this area is range between 66 to 140 meter.

  7. Sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO2) using red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vishwajeet S; Prasad, Murari; Khan, Jeeshan; Amritphale, S S; Singh, M; Raju, C B

    2010-04-15

    Red mud, an aluminium industry hazardous waste, has been reported to be an inexpensive and effective adsorbent. In the present work applicability of red mud for the sequestration of green house gases with reference to carbon dioxide has been studied. Red mud sample was separated into three different size fractions (RM I, RM II, RM III) of varying densities (1.5-2.2 g cm(-3)). Carbonation of each fraction of red mud was carried out separately at room temperature using a stainless steel reaction chamber at a fixed pressure of 3.5 bar. Effects of reaction time (0.5-12 h) and liquid to solid ratio (0.2-0.6) were studied for carbonation of red mud. Different instrumental techniques such as X-ray diffraction, FTIR and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to ascertain the different mineral phases before and after carbonation of each fraction of red mud. Characterization studies revealed the presence of boehmite, cancrinite, chantalite, hematite, gibbsite, anatase, rutile and quartz. Calcium bearing mineral phases (cancrinite and chantalite) were found responsible for carbonation of red mud. Maximum carbonation was observed for the fraction RM II having higher concentration of cancrinite. The carbonation capacity is evaluated to be 5.3 g of CO(2)/100 g of RM II.

  8. Study on Influence of Mud Pollution on Formation Fracture Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Hui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The mud pollution may change the mechanical properties of rock during oil and gas drilling process, which affects the prediction of fracture pressure, leads to the failure of hydraulic fracturing treatment. Therefore, it is necessary to study influence of mud pollution on formation fracture pressure to improve the forecasting accuracy. The mud pollution has influences on the modulus of elasticity and the Poisson’s ratio of rock by the mud pollution experiment, the core microstructure is observed around the mud pollution. Based on the experiment and research, the effects of mud pollution on the fracturing pressure are studied by finite element software system ANSYS, the factors such as pollution depth, perforation length and Poisson’s ratio of polluted area are taken into account. The result of the experiment indicated that the modulus of elasticity of rock is reduced and the Poisson’s ratio of rock is increased by the mud pollution. Through computing and analyzing, it can be concluded that increases in pollution depth and Poisson’s ratio can lead to a vast increase in formation fracturing pressure. A calculation example is presented and the results show that the results of this research can provide valuable guidance to the designers of hydraulic fracturing treatment.

  9. Radiochemical analysis of waters and mud of Euganean spas (Padua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cianchi A.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The area around the Euganean Hills (North-East Italy is concerned with thermal phenomena known and used for therapeutic purposes since ancient times. The thermal waters collected in this area have taken up a natural radionuclides content due to the leaching of hot and permeable deep rocks, with which they come into contact, before their rising to the surface. During the "maturation" process of the mud used for treatment purposes, the thermal waters make happen a complex series of biochemical changes and release a series of chemical species to the mud, resulting, in particular, in an enrichment phenomenon for some radionuclides. In this work, the first radiochemical analysis extended to all the Euganean Thermal District is reported. In particular, chemical analyses of mud, as well as radiochemical analyses of both mud and waters were performed; the enrichment of the radioisotopes in mud used for treatments was also documented. The results show that the 226Ra content in mud, during the "maturation" process, presents an enrichment even of one order of magnitude with respect to the value found in the unprocessed mud. Furthermore, in the same thermal waters, high concentrations of "unsupported" 222Rn have been found, which have shown to be not completely negligible both for people under treatment and particularly for spa workers.

  10. Radiochemical analysis of waters and mud of Euganean spas (Padua)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantaluppi, C.; Fasson, A.; Ceccotto, F.; Cianchi, A.; Degetto, S.

    2012-04-01

    The area around the Euganean Hills (North-East Italy) is concerned with thermal phenomena known and used for therapeutic purposes since ancient times. The thermal waters collected in this area have taken up a natural radionuclides content due to the leaching of hot and permeable deep rocks, with which they come into contact, before their rising to the surface. During the "maturation" process of the mud used for treatment purposes, the thermal waters make happen a complex series of biochemical changes and release a series of chemical species to the mud, resulting, in particular, in an enrichment phenomenon for some radionuclides. In this work, the first radiochemical analysis extended to all the Euganean Thermal District is reported. In particular, chemical analyses of mud, as well as radiochemical analyses of both mud and waters were performed; the enrichment of the radioisotopes in mud used for treatments was also documented. The results show that the 226Ra content in mud, during the "maturation" process, presents an enrichment even of one order of magnitude with respect to the value found in the unprocessed mud. Furthermore, in the same thermal waters, high concentrations of "unsupported" 222Rn have been found, which have shown to be not completely negligible both for people under treatment and particularly for spa workers.

  11. Concretes with red mud coarse aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dênio Ramam Carvalho de Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Red mud (RM is a mineral waste, residue of the Bayer process used to obtain alumina from bauxite. While the exploration of rolled pebble damages the environment and is much more controlled by the government, the huge RM disposal areas do not stop increasing and polluting soil, rivers and groundwater sources in Amazon. In this work, the material mixtures used to produce coarse aggregates presented up to 80% of RM, 30% of metakaolin and 30% of active silica as recycled waste. Several tests were carried out to determine the aggregates physical properties and to evaluate the mechanical performance of the concretes with the new aggregates, including hydraulic abrasion strength, and the results were compared to the reference ones, i.e. rolled pebble concretes. Additionally, the sintering process neutralizes any toxic substance as occur in some RM products like tiles and bricks, and these results have encouraged an industrial or semi-industrial production of RM aggregates for concretes.

  12. Organic matter dynamics in coarse sandy calcareous soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.A.; Reuler, van H.

    2011-01-01

    The decomposition of organic matter in coarse sandy calcareous soils (beach sand) is thought to be much higher than in acid fine sandy soils but relatively little research is performed on these soils. Laboratory incubation experiments in which the release of soil carbon (C) is determined may overest

  13. PSYCHOSOCIAL IMPACT OF LAPINDO MUD DISASTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundakir Mundakir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lapindo mud disaster that occurred since 29 May 2006 is considered as the longest disaster that occurred in Indonesia. This disaster has caused damage and lost of property which has been affecting the viability of the residents of the affected areas. Psychosocial well being is one af the impacts of disaster. Research was conducted using qualitative design with descriptive phenomenology method. The purpose required of this research was to identify the psychological impact, social impact, and hope for the settlement of problems and health services. Method: Number of participants were involved in this research based on the saturation of data was 7 people. This study used purposive sampling technique using the key informant. Procedure of data collection techniques using depth interviews with a semi-structured form of used questions. The Digital Voice Record was utilized to record the interviews, and verbatim transcripts made and analyzed using the methods of Colaizi (1978, in Daymon and Dolloway, 2008. Result: This study revealed 9 theme of core and 2 additional theme. Nine the core theme is emotional changes, cognitive changes, coping mechanism, changes in family function, changes in social relationships, social support, hope to the problem to the government and PT Lapindo, physical health service needs and psychological health. Discussion: While two additional theme that is risk and growth trouble, and distres spiritual. Conclusion of this research society of victim of mud of Lapindo experience of impact of psikosoial and hope to government and PT Lapindo settle the payment phase II (80% and also provide service of health of physical and also psikososial. This research recommend the importance of intervention of psikososial to society of victim and research of continuation after society of victim take possession of new residences.

  14. Invert muds : cost and disposal roadblocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garritty, N. [Engineered Drilling Solutions Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Since its inception, Engineered Drilling Solutions Incorporated (EDSI) has been focused on increasing drilling performance, increasing customer satisfaction, and decreasing drilling costs. Drilling fluid accounts for only 5 per cent of the cost to drill a well. It is necessary to look at how drilling fluid affects other aspects of drilling costs. Historically, the two main barriers to drilling with invert drilling fluids have been cost and disposal. EDSI's goal was to create an economical invert drilling fluid and develop an innovative way to dispose of the cuttings created while drilling it. This presentation discussed the costs and disposal roadblocks of invert muds. It provided a brief history of oil muds and the need for a new solution to the problem. Invert issues were identified. The presentation also discussed the removal of damaging components from the system and replacement of these materials with non-damaging alternatives which have allowed for the creation of a novel oil based drilling fluid formulation. The presentation discussed the development of 4G which was prepared with the use of a patent pending process using a colloid mill. The device achieved high levels of shear and, as a result, the fluid could be prepared to the consistency of paint. The 4G formulation was modified to 4GM in order to have a fluid that provided shear thinning at the bit for faster drilling, but that would gel up to provide for great hole cleaning. Shear thinning fluid also results in less fluid being lost over the shale shakers. 4GM was shown to enhance organophilic clay performance; significantly decrease maintenance; and decrease losses over the shaker. EDSI has also patented a solution that combines recycled tires and invert drill cuttings to create a product that replaces a portion of traditional aggregate in roads in order to offset the stresses on gravel road infrastructure as well as eliminating the waste going into landfills. figs.

  15. Recent morphodynamics of a chenier beach in the Amazon-influenced mud-bank setting of Suriname, South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Edward; Brunier, Guillaume; Hiwat, Micheal; Bilo, Karin

    2017-04-01

    The 350-km long coast of Suriname is part of a unique system in the world characterized by large-scale muddy sedimentation and chenier development. The mud is organized into discrete banks migrating alongshore under the influence of waves and currents, separated by 'inter-bank' zones, where cheniers commonly form. Braamspunt beach is a fine example of an open-coast chenier between the mouths of the Maroni and the Suriname Rivers. The former is the primary sand source for the beach, whereas the latter, near which the presently subsisting remnant of the beach is situated, forms a downdrift sink zone for this chenier. Satellite images between 1987 and 2016 shows that Braamspunt beach has significantly shortened over this period. This process has resulted from much of the sand supply coming from updrift (the Maroni) being integrated into a chenier driven landward by waves over mangroves and becoming overwhelmed by a mud bank migrating between the Maroni and Suriname Rivers. Two ground (hydrodynamics, GPS) and drone-photogrammetry surveys in 2016 show that Braamspunt beach is characterized by clear-cut longshore morphodynamic variations reflecting between the 'source' and the 'sink' zones. This gradient is related to different updrift (approaching mud bank) and downdrift (approaches to the Suriname estuary) contexts. The northern sector comprised two elements: the leading edge of the mud bank where the existing chenier (former open beach) has been isolated from the sea by mud and fossilized inland, and the 'terrestrial' shoreline junction with the leading edge of the mud bank. The latter segment consisted of a narrow 150 m-long sandy chenier migrating landward as mud has gained ground, resulting in shortening of the beach. As the chenier migrated inland over back-beach stands of Avicennia germinans mangroves, it left in its wake a muddy foreshore with subsisting mangroves that were part of the muddy mangrove-colonized muddy plain. The southern sector also comprised two

  16. Binding of Vapour-Phase Mercury (Hg0) on Chemically Treated Bauxite Residues (Red Mud)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, Hg capture using red mud, seawater-neutralized red mud, and acid-treated red mud is evaluated and compared to other, more conventional sorbent materials. Red mud (also known as bauxite residue) is a by-product of extracting alumina from ground bauxite ore by treati...

  17. Binding of Vapour-Phase Mercury (Hg0) on Chemically Treated Bauxite Residues (Red Mud)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, Hg capture using red mud, seawater-neutralized red mud, and acid-treated red mud is evaluated and compared to other, more conventional sorbent materials. Red mud (also known as bauxite residue) is a by-product of extracting alumina from ground bauxite ore by treati...

  18. Comparative study of using Water-Based mud containing Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes versus Oil-Based mud in HPHT fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Abduo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water-Based mud (WBM and Oil-Based mud (OBM are the most common drilling fluids currently used and both have several characteristics that qualify them for High Pressure High Temperature (HPHT purposes. This paper compares the different characteristics of WBM containing Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs and OBM to help decide the most suitable mud type for HPHT drilling by considering mud properties through several laboratory tests to generate some engineering guidelines. The tests were formulated at temperatures from 120 °F up to 500 °F and pressures from 14.7 psi to 25,000 psi. The comparison will mainly consider the rheological properties of the two mud types and will also take into account the environmental feasibility of using them. The results showing that the Water-Based offers a more environmental friendly choice yet some of additives that are used to enhance its performance at (HPHT conditions, such as (MWCNTs, thus it is necessary to develop new formulas for (HPHT Water-Based muds that could act like Oil-Based mud but cause less harm to the environment.

  19. Rediscovering community--reflections after Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    See, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    Hoboken, New Jersey, is a town of 50,000 residents located across the Hudson River from New York City. Most of Hoboken's infrastructure was compromised during Hurricane Sandy as a result of flooding and power outages that rendered many businesses inoperable, including all of the pharmacies in town. Despite a focus on emergency preparedness since Hurricane Katrina and 9/11, there were no contingencies in place to facilitate and assess the medication needs of the community in the event of a natural disaster. This essay describes how the author rediscovered the meaning of community, and through working with colleagues in other health care disciplines and non-health care volunteers, provided care to patients in suboptimal circumstances.

  20. Hurricane Sandy science plan: New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Clarice N.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. More than one-half of the U.S. population lives within 50 miles of a coast, and this number is increasing. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is one of the largest providers of geologic and hydrologic information in the world. Federal, State, and local partners depend on the USGS science to know how to prepare for hurricane hazards and reduce losses from future hurricanes. The USGS works closely with other bureaus within the Department of the Interior, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the Environmental Protection Agency, and many State and local agencies to identify their information needs before, during, and after hurricanes.

  1. Nitrate reduction in an unconfined sandy aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postma, Diederik Jan; Boesen, Carsten; Kristiansen, Henning;

    1991-01-01

    Nitrate distribution and reduction processes were investigated in an unconfined sandy aquifer of Quaternary age. Groundwater chemistry was studied in a series of eight multilevel samplers along a flow line, deriving water from both arable and forested land. Results show that plumes of nitrate...... processes of O2 and NO3- occur at rates that are fast compared to the rate of downward water transport. Nitrate-contaminated groundwater contains total contents of dissolved ions that are two to four times higher than in groundwater derived from the forested area. The persistence of the high content...... of total dissolved ions in the NO3- free anoxic zone indicates the downward migration of contaminants and that active nitrate reduction is taking place. Nitrate is apparently reduced to N2 because both nitrite and ammonia are absent or found at very low concentrations. Possible electron donors...

  2. Termite assemblages in five semideciduous Atlantic Forest fragments in the northern coastland limit of the biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitor Bruno de Araújo Souza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Termites are abundant organisms in tropical ecosystems and strongly influence the litter decomposition and soil formation. Despite their importance, few studies about their assemblage structures have been made in Brazilian Atlantic Forest fragments, especially in the area located north of the São Francisco River. This study aims to analyze the assemblage composition of five Atlantic Forest fragments located in the northern biome limit along the Brazilian coast. A standardized sampling protocol of termites was applied in each fragment. Thirty-three termite species belonging to twenty genera and three families were found in the forest fragments. The wood-feeder group was dominant both concerning to species richness and number of encounters in all areas. In sites northern to 7°S, there is an evident simplification of the termite assemblage composition regarding species richness and number of encounters by feeding group. This fact is apparently due to a higher sandy level in soils and to semideciduous character of the vegetation in the northern fragments. Thus, even on the north of São Francisco River, termite biodiversity is heterogeneously spread with highest density of species in the portion between 07°S and São Francisco River mouth (10°29'S.

  3. Multi-scale analysis of hermatypic coral assemblages at Mexican Central Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joicye Hernández-Zulueta

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican Central Pacific is located in a zone of oceanographic transition between two biogeographic provinces with particular conditions that affect the associated fauna. The objective of this study was to evaluate the variation of hermatypic coral assemblages in this region and to determine their relationship with the heterogeneity of the benthonic habitat and spatial variables. A total of 156 transects were carried out at 41 sites in the years 2010 and 2011. The sampling effort returned 96.7% of the coral richness expected for the area, with a total of 15 species recorded. The results showed that richness, diversity and cover of corals varied only at the site and state scales. However, the composition and coverage of all coral species, as well as the benthonic habitat structure, differed significantly across the study scales (i.e. sites, zones and states. Canonical redundancy analysis showed that variation in the richness, diversity and assemblages of corals was explained by the cover of live corals, articulated calcareous algae, sandy substrate, sponges and fleshy macroalgae. This study suggests that local scale (i.e. site variation in the coral assemblages of the Mexican Central Pacific is the result of the heterogeneity of the benthonic habitat, while geomorphological and oceanographic characteristics play a greater role at regional scale.

  4. Delay Pressure Detection Method to Eliminate Pump Pressure Interference on the Downhole Mud Pressure Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Yue Shen; Ling-Tan Zhang; Shi-Li Cui; Li-Min Sheng; Lin Li; Yi-Nao Su

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of applying delay pressure detection method to eliminate mud pump pressure interference on the downhole mud pressure signals is studied. Two pressure sensors mounted on the mud pipe in some distance apart are provided to detect the downhole mud continuous pressure wave signals on the surface according to the delayed time produced by mud pressure wave transmitting between the two sensors. A mathematical model of delay pressure detection is built by analysis of transmission path...

  5. A Comparative Study of Diesel Oil and Soybean Oil as Oil-Based Drilling Mud

    OpenAIRE

    Okorie E. Agwu; Okon, Anietie N.; Udoh, Francis D.

    2015-01-01

    Oil-based mud (OBM) was formulated with soybean oil extracted from soybean using the Soxhlet extraction method. The formulated soybean mud properties were compared with diesel oil mud properties. The compared properties were rheological properties, yield point and gel strength, and mud density and filtration loss properties, fluid loss and filter cake. The results obtained show that the soybean oil mud exhibited Bingham plastic rheological model with applicable (low) yield point and gel stren...

  6. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: September - December, 1949

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1949. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  7. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: September - December, 1951

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1951. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  8. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: September - December, 1950

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1950. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  9. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: January - April, 1951

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1951. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  10. Mud cloth from Mali: its making and use

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    The stark, geometric, black and white designs tradi- ... Due to the symbolic nature of the mud cloth designs, and the use of these .... Tourist-Market Bogolan Large quantities of cloth .... interested in their graphic quality (Rovine, 1997; Luke-.

  11. Prediction Method of Safety Mud Density in Depleted Oilfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jun-Liang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, many oilfields were placed in the middle and late development period and the reservoir pressure depleted usually, resulting in more serious differential pressure sticking and drilling mud leakage both in the reservoir and cap rock. In view of this situation, a systematic prediction method of safety mud density in depleted oilfields was established. The influence of reservoir depletion on stress and strength in reservoir and cap formation were both studied and taken into the prediction of safety mud density. The research showed that the risk of differential pressure sticking and drilling mud leakage in reservoir and cap formation were both increased and they were the main prevention object in depleted oilfields drilling. The research results were used to guide the practice drilling work, the whole progress gone smoothly.

  12. THE USE OF MUD "TINAKSKAYA" IN MEDICINE (LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Tsurigova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the published data on the therapeutic properties of the mud "Tinakskaya". In addition, data on the use of natural factors lake "Therapeutic" in medicine is performed.

  13. Aluminium leaching from red mud by filamentous fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urík, Martin; Bujdoš, Marek; Milová-Žiaková, Barbora; Mikušová, Petra; Slovák, Marek; Matúš, Peter

    2015-11-01

    This contribution investigates the efficient and environmentally friendly aluminium leaching from red mud (bauxite residue) by 17 species of filamentous fungi. Bioleaching experiments were examined in batch cultures with the red mud in static, 7-day cultivation. The most efficient fungal strains in aluminium bioleaching were Penicillium crustosum G-140 and Aspergillus niger G-10. The A. niger G-10 strain was capable to extract up to approximately 141 mg·L(-1) of aluminium from 0.2 g dry weight red mud. Chemical leaching with organic acids mixture, prepared according to A. niger G-10 strain's respective fungal excretion during cultivation, proved that organic acids significantly contribute to aluminium solubilization from red mud.

  14. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report: 1938

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from 1938. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions, water...

  15. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report: September - December, 1948

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1948. The report begins by summarizing...

  16. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May - August, 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1955. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  17. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: January- April, 1955

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1955. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions...

  18. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: May - August, 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1952. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions and...

  19. Physical and chemical characterization of Dead Sea mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khlaifat, Abdelaziz, E-mail: abdelaziz.khlaifat@me.weatherford.com [Weatherford Oil Tool Middle East Ltd., P.O. Box 4627, Dubai (United Arab Emirates); Al-Khashman, Omar [Department of Environmental Engineering, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, Ma' an, P.O. Box 20 (Jordan); Qutob, Hani [Weatherford Oil Tool Middle East Ltd., P.O. Box 4627, Dubai (United Arab Emirates)

    2010-05-15

    A laboratory analysis was performed to determine the physical and chemical properties of 24 Dead Sea mud samples collected from three different locations on the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. Several analytical techniques were used to determine the chemical and mineralogical compositions of those samples including atomic absorption spectrometry and X-ray diffraction. Physical parameters such as specific gravity, Atterberg limits, grain size, specific surface area, cation exchange capacity, pH and electrical conductivity were also studied. The main focus of the work was to document mud characteristics and to study the interrelation between physical and chemical properties. The mud samples were quite rich in minerals. Strontium was the most abundant trace element in the samples (range: 410-810 ppm) followed by barium (range: 155-380 ppm), vanadium (range: 209-264 ppm) and lead (range: 108-114 ppm). There were significant differences in the elemental contents of mud samples collected from different locations.

  20. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: September - December, 1953

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1953. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  1. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report: September - December, 1946

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1946. The report begins by summarizing...

  2. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report: Jan- April, 1947

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1947. The report begins by summarizing the...

  3. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge Narrative report: Jan- April, 1946

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1946. The report begins by summarizing the...

  4. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: September - December, 1954

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1954. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  5. Mud Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative report: September - December, 1952

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Mud Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1952. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  6. On the Fossil Pediastrum from the Gaoximage Section, Hunshandak Sandy Land and Its Ecological Significance Since 5 000 a BP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUZhao-Liang; LIChun-Yu; KONGZhao-Chen

    2004-01-01

    The fossil Pediastrum was investigated from the Gaoximage section ( 42°57′14″ N, 115°22′3″E, Air 1 253 m ) in the Hunshandak Sandy Land, Inner Mongolia (Nei Mongol) of China in order to gain a better understanding the changes of palaeovegetation, palaeoenvironment and palaeoclimite since 5000 aBP when the pollen-spore was studied. The results show that the fossil Pediastrum assemblage can be divided into three periods: Ⅰ. 5 000-3 500 a BP, the fossil Pediastrum occurred rarely. Based on this result it can be surmised that the lake might be fresh water with poor organics. Ⅱ. 3 500-1 500 a BP, the fossil Pediastrum likes volcanic emerged. It probably indicate moist conditions and the grasslands were developed during this time; and Ⅲ. 1 500-200 a BP, the fossil Pediastrum disappeared. It can show that the lake water become salty and shrunk, and the weather could become drier and drier. This result shows that Pediastrurn, a kind of facies fossil, happened simultaneously in the pollen-spore assemblage during the second period. Sometimes Pediastrurncan reach more than 60 per cent of the total spore pollen assemblage, indicating that Gaoximage lake was not only fresh water with abundant eutrophic materials but also occupied a large area during 3 500-1 500 a BP.

  7. A Fluid Mud Transport Model in Multi-Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A Fluid Mud Transport Model in Multi-dimensions Tian-Jian Hsu Civil and Coastal Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32608 phone...NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Florida, Civil and Coastal Engineering,Gainesville,FL,32608 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9...sediment transport processes are carried out in several directions: Extend to 2D and incorporate Bingham rheology : The previous 1DV fluid mud

  8. Meandering worms: mechanics of undulatory burrowing in muds

    OpenAIRE

    Dorgan, Kelly M.; Law, Chris J.; Rouse, Greg W.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has shown that muddy sediments are elastic solids through which animals extend burrows by fracture, whereas non-cohesive granular sands fluidize around some burrowers. These different mechanical responses are reflected in the morphologies and behaviours of their respective inhabitants. However, Armandia brevis, a mud-burrowing opheliid polychaete, lacks an expansible anterior consistent with fracturing mud, and instead uses undulatory movements similar to those of sandfish lizards...

  9. Inverse magnetic fabric in unconsolidated sandy event deposits in Kiritappu Marsh, Hokkaido, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Shusaku; Nakamura, Norihiro; Nishimura, Yuichi; Goto, Kazuhisa; Sugawara, Daisuke

    2017-03-01

    Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and anisotropy of anhysteretic remanence magnetization (AARM) were evaluated for samples collected from units of two unconsolidated sandy event layers, presumed to be paleo-tsunami deposits, from Kiritappu Marsh, northeastern Japan. The AARM technique isolates the fabric of fine-grained (titano)magnetite from AMS fabric of all minerals in deposits. Bulk susceptibilities of the older event layer were weaker than those of the younger event layer. Our AMS results show that the principal minimum AMS axes (Kmin) were distributed along the horizontal bedding plane, suggesting the presence of an AMS ;inverse fabric; where magnetic axes are interchanged. Our AARM results indicated the principal maximum AARM axes (kmax) are parallel to the AMS Kmin, whereas the AARM intermediate and minimum axes (kint and kmin) are related to the AMS Kmax and Kint. Moreover, the shape of anisotropy parameters revealed that the AMS is oblate (Kmax ≈ Kint), whereas the AARM is prolate (kint ≈ kmin). We found the presence of single-domain sized titanomagnetites in the mud matrix based on electron microscopy observations. AARM is regarded as a complementary tool to estimate paleocurrent directions using grain fabrics of unconsolidated sediments. However, these lines of evidence confirm that our AMS fabrics showed ;inverse fabric;, providing no information about flow directions at this locality. Although this effect is uncommon in soft sediments, it requires caution to estimate paleocurrent directions using AMS.

  10. A study of burrow morphology in representative axiidean and gebiidean mud shrimps, from the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Sepahvand

    Full Text Available Mud shrimps (formerly Thalassinidea are common burrow dwelling decapod crustaceans in the littoral zone of the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman. Their burrow morphology was investigated using foam casting methods. The present study shows that the burrow morphology in Upogebia carinicauda is not consistent and the recorded variations are based on habitat type and some physical characteristics of sediments. Adult burrow morphology in sandy-muddy substrate with shells, and boulder field habitats were Y-shaped and complex burrows of horizontal channels with turning chambers and vertical connections to internal passages or crevices of boulders, respectively. In burrows of U. carinicauda, some narrow passages, connected to the upper part of adult burrows in sandy-muddy habitats, belong to juveniles. Another species, Neocallichirus jousseaumei was found under boulders in sandy-muddy habitats of the Gulf of Oman and Qeshm Island, Persian Gulf. Since this type of habitat is special in some features, no conspicuous ex-current openings (usually obvious as conical mounds of extruded sediment have been observed on the sediment surface; as these were hidden among the boulders surrounded by mixed sand and shells. The only method for observing this type of burrow was to remove the boulders by hand or lever.

  11. Large historical eruptions at subaerial mud volcanoes, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Manga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Active mud volcanoes in the northern Apennines, Italy, currently have gentle eruptions. There are, however, historical accounts of violent eruptions and outbursts. Evidence for large past eruptions is also recorded by large decimeter rock clasts preserved in erupted mud. We measured the rheological properties of mud currently being erupted in order to evaluate the conditions needed to transport such large clasts to the surface. The mud is well-characterized by the Herschel-Bulkley model, with yield stresses between 4 and 8 Pa. Yield stresses of this magnitude can support the weight of particles with diameters up to several mm. At present, particles larger than this size are not being carried to the surface. The transport of larger clasts to the surface requires ascent speeds greater than their settling speed in the mud. We use a model for the settling of particles and rheological parameters from laboratory measurements to show that the eruption of large clasts requires ascent velocities > 1 m s−1, at least three orders of magnitude greater than during the present, comparatively quiescent, activity. After regional earthquakes on 20 May and 29 May 2012, discharge also increased at locations where the stress changes produced by the earthquakes would have unclamped feeder dikes below the mud volcanoes. The magnitude of increased discharge, however, is less than that inferred from the large clasts. Both historical accounts and erupted deposits are consistent in recording episodic large eruptions.

  12. Radiological restrictions of using red mud as building material additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Hannian; Wang, Ning; Liu, Shirong

    2012-09-01

    Red mud remains as residue from the processing of bauxite using different methods. The chemical composition of red mud varies widely with respect to the types of bauxite ore and processing parameters. Red mud samples from Guizhou, China, were investigated using a X-ray fluorescence spectroscope, a quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer and a electron probe micro-analyzer. The results showed that red mud consisted of eight main chemical components--CaO, Al(2)O(3), SiO(2), Fe(2)O(3), TiO(2), Na(2)O, K(2)O and MgO--and dozens of trace elements, including natural radioactive elements, such as uranium and thorium. Gamma spectrometric analysis showed that the values of internal exposure index I (Ra) and external exposure index I (γ) of Guizhou red mud were 1.1-2.4 and 2.3-3.5 respectively. Thus, it should not be used as a main building material indiscriminately. The amount of red mud from Guizhou when it is used for main building materials in China should be less than 28-44%.

  13. The impact of sediment removal on the aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblage in a fishpond littoral zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk ADÁMEK

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Bottom sediment removal, a widely used technique in restoration management of standing water bodies, has a strong influence on communities of aquatic organisms. As most information on the impact of sediment removal on the aquatic environment comes from studies on lakes, the aim of this study was to describe macroinvertebrate assemblage succession in a fishpond (Štěpánek fishpond, Bohemian-Moravian highlands, Czech Republic littoral zone following restoration by sediment removal during the winter of 2003/2004. Semi-quantitative hand net sampling was undertaken one year before (2003 and in each of the following five years (2004–2008 after sediment removal. A significant decrease in both abundance (approx. 90% of individuals and diversity (approx. 30% of taxa of macroinvertebrates was detected immediately after pond restoration. The values gradually increased over subsequent years, reaching comparable abundance and diversity three years after sediment removal. A significant shift was recorded in the taxonomic and functional composition of the macroinvertebrate assemblage after sediment removal. Mayfly larvae were the dominant invertebrates before restoration, while chironomid larvae and oligochaetes dominated after sediment removal. Phytophilous taxa, grazers and scrapers, and swimming or diving invertebrates were common in 2003, whilst open-water taxa preferring mud and other mostly inorganic microhabitats, gatherers/collectors, and burrowing/boring invertebrates were relatively common after sediment removal. In 2008, the assemblage reverted towards the situation before sediment removal, probably connected with a lower water level and accelerated macrophyte bed succession. Principal Component Analysis on the species data confirmed the differences in invertebrate taxonomic structure among sampling years. Succession of the fishpond invertebrate assemblage in the years following sediment removal was mainly influenced by fish farming practice and

  14. A Study on the Reservoir Capacity to Control Mud Flood Derived from Mud Volcano: A Phenomenon in Sidoarjo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sholihin Sholihin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an extended research of Coastal Zone Management of Sidoarjo mud phenomenon. The idea is to find special concept of management to control mud flood using reservoir system. This method, in the mud fluid, is intentionally used to make separation of the solid materials from water. The concept is to calculate sediment velocity in order to find the time of sedimentation then to estimate the volume of mud. Therefore, the reservoir will be determined from this calculation. The result of this research is the dimension of the reservoir: area of 3,704,144.36 m2, the depth of 5.94 m, and the volume 22.018.856.07 m3. The time of sedimentation is calculated of 28.33 hours for 42.2 % of material volume sedimentation. Consequently, the suspension material is 57.8 %. The correction of calculation is depending on the calculation of the velocity of sedimentation, about 2 %.

  15. Acidification of sandy grasslands - consequences for plant diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Pål Axel; Mårtensson, Linda-Maria; Bruun, Hans Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Questions: (1) Does soil acidification in calcareous sandy grasslands lead to loss of plant diversity? (2) What is the relationship between the soil content of lime and the plant availability of mineral nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in sandy grasslands? Location: Sandy glaciofluvial deposits...... in south-eastern Sweden covered by xeric sand calcareous grasslands (EU habitat directive 6120). Methods: Soil and vegetation were investigated in most of the xeric sand calcareous grasslands in the Scania region (136 sample plots distributed over four or five major areas and about 25 different sites...

  16. Invasion of drilling mud into gas-hydrate-bearing sediments. Part I: effect of drilling mud properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Fulong; Zhang, Keni; Wu, Nengyou; Zhang, Ling; Li, Gang; Jiang, Guosheng; Yu, Yibing; Liu, Li; Qin, Yinghong

    2013-06-01

    To our knowledge, this study is the first to perform a numerical simulation and analysis of the dynamic behaviour of drilling mud invasion into oceanic gas-hydrate-bearing sediment (GHBS) and to consider the effects of such an invasion on borehole stability and the reliability of well logging. As a case study, the simulation background sets up the conditions of mud temperature over hydrate equilibrium temperature and overbalanced drilling, considering the first Chinese expedition to drill gas hydrate (GMGS-1). The results show that dissociating gas may form secondary hydrates in the sediment around borehole by the combined effects of increased pore pressure (caused by mud invasion and flow resistance), endothermic cooling that accompanies hydrate dissociation compounded by the Joule-Thompson effect and the lagged effect of heat transfer in sediments. The secondary hydrate ring around the borehole may be more highly saturated than the in situ sediment. Mud invasion in GHBS is a dynamic process of thermal, fluid (mud invasion), chemical (hydrate dissociation and reformation) and mechanical couplings. All of these factors interact and influence the pore pressure, flow ability, saturation of fluid and hydrates, mechanical parameters and electrical properties of sediments around the borehole, thereby having a strong effect on borehole stability and the results of well logging. The effect is particularly clear in the borehole SH7 of GMGS-1 project. The borehole collapse and resistivity distortion were observed during practical drilling and wireline logging operations in borehole SH7 of the GMGS-1.mud density (i.e. the corresponding borehole pressure), temperature and salinity have a marked influence on the dynamics of mud invasion and on hydrate stability. Therefore, perhaps well-logging distortion caused by mud invasion, hydrate dissociation and reformation should be considered for identifying and evaluating gas hydrate reservoirs. And some suitable drilling

  17. Fish assemblages in southern California kelp forests.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a point file of fish assemblages calculated from diver surveys in kelp forests in Southern California. Visual census data was combined for two separate...

  18. Predictions of mineral assemblages in planetary interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolper, E.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that mineral compatibilities in the model system CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2 can be applied to deduce the mineral assemblages expected in planetary interiors and their variation with depth. In general, the available estimates of bulk composition of the terrestrial planets suggest that the terrestrial planets can be divided into two groups based on their predicted mineral assemblages. The terrestrial, Venusian, and lunar bulk compositions are expected to display the following sequence of mineral assemblages with increasing pressure: plagioclase lherzolite, spinel lherzolite, and garnet lherzolite. The sequences expected in Martian and Mercurian are different: spinel-plagioclase wehrlite, spinel lherzolite, and spinel-garnet wehrlite. These assemblages have a major influence on the compositions of liquids produced by melting of these planetary interiors, on the solidus temperatures, and thus on the nature of planetary differentiation and the types of magmas extruded at planetary surfaces.

  19. Giardia duodenalis genetic assemblages and hosts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyworth Martin F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for sub-classifying morphologically identical Giardia duodenalis trophozoites have included comparisons of the electrophoretic mobility of enzymes and of chromosomes, and sequencing of genes encoding β-giardin, triose phosphate isomerase, the small subunit of ribosomal RNA and glutamate dehydrogenase. To date, G. duodenalis organisms have been sub-classified into eight genetic assemblages (designated A–H. Genotyping of G. duodenalis organisms isolated from various hosts has shown that assemblages A and B infect the largest range of host species, and appear to be the main (or possibly only G. duodenalis assemblages that undeniably infect human subjects. In at least some cases of assemblage A or B infection in wild mammals, there is suggestive evidence that the infection had resulted from environmental contamination by G. duodenalis cysts of human origin.

  20. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 234: Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2008-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 234, Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills, located in Areas 2, 3, 4, 12, and 15 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008). Corrective Action Unit 234 is comprised of the following 12 corrective action sites: •02-09-48, Area 2 Mud Plant #1 •02-09-49, Area 2 Mud Plant #2 •02-99-05, Mud Spill •03-09-02, Mud Dump Trenches •04-44-02, Mud Spill •04-99-02, Mud Spill •12-09-01, Mud Pit •12-09-04, Mud Pit •12-09-08, Mud Pit •12-30-14, Cellar •12-99-07, Mud Dump •15-09-01, Mud Pit The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 234 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 234: Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: •Determine whether contaminants of concern are present. •If contaminants of concern are present, determine their extent. •Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 234 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs.

  1. Disentangling the effects of solar radiation, wrack macroalgae and beach macrofauna on associated bacterial assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodil, Iván F; Fernandes, Joana P; Mucha, Ana P

    2015-12-01

    Wrack detritus plays a significant role in shaping community dynamics and food-webs on sandy beaches. Macroalgae is the most abundant beach wrack, and it is broken down by the combination of environmental processes, macrofauna grazing, and microbial degradation before returning to the sea as nutrients. The role of solar radiation, algal species and beach macrofauna as ecological drivers for bacterial assemblages associated to wrack was investigated by experimental manipulation of Laminaria ochroleuca and Sargassum muticum. We examined the effects of changes in solar radiation on wrack-associated bacterial assemblages by using cut-off filters: PAR + UVA + UVB (280-700 nm; PAB), PAR + UVA (320-700 nm; PA), PAR (400-700 nm; P), and a control with no filter (C). Results showed that moderate changes in UVR are capable to promote substantial differences on bacterial assemblages so that wrack patches exposed to full sunlight treatments (C and PAB) showed more similar assemblages among them than compared to patches exposed to treatments that blocked part of the solar radiation (P and PA). Our findings also suggested that specific algal nutrient quality-related variables (i.e. nitrogen, C:N ratio and phlorotannins) are main determinants of bacterial dynamics on wrack deposits. We showed a positive relationship between beach macrofauna, especially the most abundant and active wrack-users, the amphipod Talitrus saltator and the coleopteran Phaleria cadaverina, and both bacterial abundance and richness. Moderate variations in natural solar radiation and shifts in the algal species entering beach ecosystems can modify the role of wrack in the energy-flow of nearshore environments with unknown ecological implications for coastal ecosystems.

  2. On the Impact Angle of Hurricane Sandy's New Jersey Landfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Timothy M.; Sobel, Adam H.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy's track crossed the New Jersey coastline at an angle closer to perpendicular than any previous hurricane in the historic record, one of the factors contributing to recordsetting peak-water levels in parts of New Jersey and New York. To estimate the occurrence rate of Sandy-like tracks, we use a stochastic model built on historical hurricane data from the entire North Atlantic to generate a large sample of synthetic hurricanes. From this synthetic set we calculate that under long-term average climate conditions, a hurricane of Sandy's intensity or greater (category 1+) makes NJ landfall at an angle at least as close to perpendicular as Sandy's at an average annual rate of 0.0014 yr-1 (95% confidence range 0.0007 to 0.0023); i.e., a return period of 714 years (95% confidence range 435 to 1429).

  3. 2014 USGS CMGP Lidar: Post Sandy (Long Island, NY)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: Long Island New York Sandy LIDAR lidar Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS Contract No. G10PC00057 Task Order No. G14PD00296 Woolpert...

  4. Hurricane Sandy: Rapid Response Imagery of the Surrounding Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The imagery posted on this site is of Hurricane Sandy. The aerial photography missions were conducted by the NOAA Remote Sensing Division. The images were acquired...

  5. 2008 USDA Forest Service Lidar: Sandy River Study Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Sandy River study area in collaboration with the USDA Forest Service. The areas...

  6. James J. Howard Marine Sciences Laboratory @ Sandy Hook

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The James J. Howard Marine Sciences Laboratory, located on the New Jersey shore at Sandy Hook, is a state-of-the-art marine research facility shared by the National...

  7. Studies on Thiobacilli spp. isolated from sandy beaches of Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gore, P.S.; Raveendran, O.; Unnithan, R.V.

    Occurrence, isolation and oxidative activity of Thiobacilli spp. from some sandy beaches of Kerala are reported. These organisms were encountered in polluted beaches and were dominant during monsoon in all the beaches...

  8. James J. Howard Marine Sciences Laboratory @ Sandy Hook

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The James J. Howard Marine Sciences Laboratory, located on the New Jersey shore at Sandy Hook, is a state-of-the-art marine research facility shared by the National...

  9. 2014 USGS CMGP Lidar: Sandy Restoration (Delaware and Maryland)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geographic Extent: SANDY_Restoration_DE_MD_QL2 Area of Interest covers approximately 3.096 square miles. Lot #5 contains the full project area Dataset Description:...

  10. Short Communication Energy and ash contents of sandy beach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    macrofauna found on three exposed sandy beaches on the west coast ... that they often form the predominant shore type (Bally,. McQuaid ... their sediments are given in Table I. Animals ..... The biochemical composition of the tropical intertida1 ...

  11. Prokaryotic diversity and metabolically active microbial populations in sediments from an active mud volcano in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Robert J; Mills, Heath J; Story, Sandra; Sobecky, Patricia A

    2006-10-01

    In this study, ribosomes and genomic DNA were extracted from three sediment depths (0-2, 6-8 and 10-12 cm) to determine the vertical changes in the microbial community composition and identify metabolically active microbial populations in sediments obtained from an active seafloor mud volcano site in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Domain-specific Bacteria and Archaea 16S polymerase chain reaction primers were used to amplify 16S rDNA gene sequences from extracted DNA. Complementary 16S ribosomal DNA (crDNA) was obtained from rRNA extracted from each sediment depth that had been subjected to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction amplification. Twelve different 16S clone libraries, representing the three sediment depths, were constructed and a total of 154 rDNA (DNA-derived) and 142 crDNA (RNA-derived) Bacteria clones and 134 rDNA and 146 crDNA Archaea clones obtained. Analyses of the 576 clones revealed distinct differences in the composition and patterns of metabolically active microbial phylotypes relative to sediment depth. For example, epsilon-Proteobacteria rDNA clones dominated the 0-2 cm clone library whereas gamma-Proteobacteria dominated the 0-2 cm crDNA library suggesting gamma to be among the most active in situ populations detected at 0-2 cm. Some microbial lineages, although detected at a frequency as high as 9% or greater in the total DNA library (i.e. Actinobacteria, alpha-Proteobacteria), were markedly absent from the RNA-derived libraries suggesting a lack of in situ activity at any depth in the mud volcano sediments. This study is one of the first to report the composition of the microbial assemblages and physiologically active members of archaeal and bacterial populations extant in a Gulf of Mexico submarine mud volcano.

  12. New mud gas monitoring system aboard D/V Chikyu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Yusuke; Inagaki, Fumio; Eguchi, Nobuhisa; Igarashi, Chiaki

    2013-04-01

    Mud gas logging has been commonly used in oil industry and continental scientific drilling to detect mainly hydrocarbon gases from the reservoir formation. Quick analysis of the gas provides almost real-time information which is critical to evaluate the formation and, in particular, safety of drilling operation. Furthermore, mud gas monitoring complements the lack of core or fluid samples particularly in a deep hole, and strengthen interpretations of geophysical logs. In scientific ocean drilling, on the other hand, mud gas monitoring was unavailable in riserless drilling through the history of DSDP and ODP, until riser drilling was first carried out in 2009 by D/V Chikyu. In IODP Exp 319, GFZ installed the same system with that used in continental drilling aboard Chikyu. High methane concentrations are clearly correlated with increased wood content in the cuttings. The system installation was, however, temporary and gas separator was moved during the expedition for a technical reason. In 2011, new mud gas monitoring system was installed aboard Chikyu and was used for the first time in Exp 337. The gas separator was placed on a newly branched bypass mud flow line, and the gas sample was sent to analysis unit equipped with methane carbon isotope analyzer in addition to mass spectrometer and gas chromatograph. The data from the analytical instruments is converted to depth profiles by calculating the lag effects due to mud circulation. Exp 337 was carried out from July 26 to Sep 30, 2011, at offshore Shimokita peninsula, northeast Japan, targeting deep sub-seafloor biosphere in and around coal bed. Data from the hole C0020A, which was drilled to 2466 mbsf with riser drilling, provided insights into bio-geochemical process through the depth of the hole. In this presentation, we show the design of Chikyu's new mud gas monitoring system, with preliminary data from Exp 337.

  13. Temporal variations in microbial activities and carbon turnover in subtidal sandy sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böer, S. I.; Arnosti, C.; van Beusekom, J. E. E.; Boetius, A.

    2009-07-01

    Temporal dynamics and vertical patterns in bacterial abundances and activities were studied in a shallow subtidal sand flat in the Sylt-Rømø Basin (North Frisian Wadden Sea, Germany). Extracellular enzymatic activities, bacterial carbon production and community respiration showed strong (factor of 4-5) temporal variations that were mostly related to seasonal temperature change and to changes in substrate availability. These temporal patterns in enzymatic activity were barely reflected in bacterial (200-400 mmol C m-2) and microphytobenthic biomass (800-1500 mmol C m-2) or the sedimentary carbohydrate inventory (1300-2900 mmol C m-2), suggesting that grazing controls the standing stocks of the microphytobenthic and bacterial assemblages. Despite their exposure to strong hydrodynamic forces such as tidal currents and wind-induced wave surge, the subtidal sandy sediments showed persistent vertical gradients in bacterial abundances, carbon production and extracellular enzymatic activities at all times. The vertical distribution of these parameters was tightly coupled to that of the microphytobenthos, dominated by diatoms. Despite the low organic carbon content typical for surge-exposed sandy sediments, high extracellular enzymatic activities and bacterial carbon production rates indicate a very active heterotrophic bacterial community, with a gross secondary productivity of 30-180 mmol C m-2, and a biomass turnover time of 2-18 days. Our data suggest that this high activity is supported by the rapid flux of carbohydrates from microphytobenthic primary productivity. Accordingly, the potential activities of enzymes hydrolyzing carbohydrates cover most of the total bacterial carbon demand during all seasons.

  14. Temporal variations in microbial activities and carbon turnover in subtidal sandy sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Boetius

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Temporal dynamics and vertical patterns in bacterial abundances and activities were studied in a shallow subtidal sand flat in the Sylt-Rømø Basin (North Frisian Wadden Sea, Germany. Extracellular enzymatic activities, bacterial carbon production and community respiration showed strong (factor of 4–5 temporal variations that were mostly related to seasonal temperature change and to changes in substrate availability. These temporal patterns in enzymatic activity were barely reflected in bacterial (200–400 mmol C m−2 and microphytobenthic biomass (800–1500 mmol C m−2 or the sedimentary carbohydrate inventory (1300–2900 mmol C m−2, suggesting that grazing controls the standing stocks of the microphytobenthic and bacterial assemblages. Despite their exposure to strong hydrodynamic forces such as tidal currents and wind-induced wave surge, the subtidal sandy sediments showed persistent vertical gradients in bacterial abundances, carbon production and extracellular enzymatic activities at all times. The vertical distribution of these parameters was tightly coupled to that of the microphytobenthos, dominated by diatoms. Despite the low organic carbon content typical for surge-exposed sandy sediments, high extracellular enzymatic activities and bacterial carbon production rates indicate a very active heterotrophic bacterial community, with a gross secondary productivity of 30–180 mmol C m−2, and a biomass turnover time of 2–18 days. Our data suggest that this high activity is supported by the rapid flux of carbohydrates from microphytobenthic primary productivity. Accordingly, the potential activities of enzymes hydrolyzing carbohydrates cover most of the total bacterial carbon demand during all seasons.

  15. NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION ON MUD BED-GENERATION AND IMPACTING A WALL ALONG A SLOPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper mud was treated as the Bingham fluid. In staggered grids, two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for non-Newtonian fluid was solved by the MAC method. Numerical simulations were conducted on mud bed-generating phenomenon and mud impacting a wall along a slope. The distributions of free surface, pressure and velocity of mud and water were obtained. The results indicate that the computed layer thickness of mud bed almost equals the theoretically predicted value. Because of the differences in constitutive relationship, the distributions of free surface are different for water and mud. The distortion of water free surface is much more complicated.

  16. EAARL-B Coastal Topography--Eastern New Jersey, Hurricane Sandy, 2012: First Surface, Pre-Sandy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — ASCII xyz and binary point-cloud data, as well as a digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the New Jersey coastline, pre- and post-Hurricane Sandy (October...

  17. Estimation of bioavailability of metals from drilling mud barite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Jerry M

    2008-04-01

    Drilling mud and associated drill cuttings are the largest volume wastes associated with drilling of oil and gas wells and often are discharged to the ocean from offshore drilling platforms. Barite (BaSO4) often is added as a weighting agent to drilling muds to counteract pressure in the geologic formations being drilled, preventing a blowout. Some commercial drilling mud barites contain elevated (compared to marine sediments) concentrations of several metals. The metals, if bioavailable, may harm the local marine ecosystem. The bioavailable fraction of metals is the fraction that dissolves from the nearly insoluble, solid barite into seawater or sediment porewater. Barite-seawater and barite-porewater distribution coefficients (Kd) were calculated for determining the predicted environmental concentration (PEC; the bioavailable fraction) of metals from drilling mud barite in the water column and sediments, respectively. Values for Kdbarite-seawater and Kdbarite-porewater were calculated for barium, cadmium, chromium, copper, mercury, lead, and zinc in different grades of barite. Log Kdbarite-seawater values were higher (solubility was lower) for metals in the produced water plume than log Kdbarite-porewater values for metals in sediments. The most soluble metals were cadmium and zinc and the least soluble were mercury and copper. Log Kd values can be used with data on concentrations of metals in barite and of barite in the drilling mud-cuttings plume and in bottom sediments to calculate PECseawater and PECsediment.

  18. Radiological aspects of red mud disaster in Hungary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Tibor; Sas, Zoltán; Jobbágy, Viktor; Csordás, Anita; Szeiler, Gábor; Somlai, János

    2013-08-01

    One of the most severe industrial catastrophes happened in Kolontár, Hungary, on 4 October 2010. Red mud (bauxite residue) broke through the eroded wall of the red mud reservoir pond "Number X" and flooded the surrounding area. This led to the instant death of 10 people and the injury of more than 100 people. Red mud is enriched in radium and thorium isotopes; therefore, there is a chance that this flooding will increase radionuclide concentrations of soils and also in air. In this study we have examined the site to assess the realistic radiological risks. For the risk assessment the following parameters were determined: gamma dose rate, radon concentration, radionuclide concentration of red mud and air dust concentration. It was found that the radiation dose exposure resulting from red mud contamination was < 0.045 mSv y-1 (excluding radon), which can be considered negligible when compared to the average annual effective dose from natural sources (2.4 mSv y-1).

  19. Leaching of metals from fresh and sintered red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Indrani; Guha, Saumyen; Balasubramaniam, R; Kumar, A V Ramesh

    2011-01-30

    The disposal of red mud, a solid waste generated during the extraction of alumina from bauxite, is one of the major problems faced by the aluminum industry. Proper disposal followed by its utilization, for example as bricks, can provide a satisfactory solution to this problem. Pollution potential of red mud and its finished product, due to metals leaching out from them under certain environmental conditions, need to be studied. Sintering of red mud was performed in a resistance type vertical tube furnace to simulate the brick-making conditions in lab-scale. Leachability of metals in red mud and the sintered product was evaluated by performing sequential extraction experiments on both. The metals studied were the 'macro metals' iron and aluminum and the 'trace metals' copper and chromium. The total extractabilities of all the metals estimated by the microwave digestion of red mud samples decreased due to sintering. The leachability in sequential extraction of the macro metals iron and aluminum, on the other hand, increased due to sintering in all phases of sequential extraction. However, the effect of sintering on the leachability of the trace metals by sequential extraction was different for copper and chromium in different fractions of sequential extraction.

  20. Neutralization of red mud using CO2 sequestration cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Ramesh Chandra; Patel, Raj Kishore; Ray, Bankim Chandra

    2010-07-15

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the ability of neutralization of red mud (RM) using carbon dioxide gas sequestration cycle at ambient conditions. The neutralized red mud (NRM) was characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, FT-IR and auto titration method. X-ray diffraction pattern of NRM was revealed that the intensity of gibbsite was increased prominently and formed ilmenite due to dissolution of minerals. EDX analysis was showed that the %(w/w) of Na, C, O, Si were higher in the carbonated filtrate as compared to the RM and NRM. The permanently sequestered CO(2)%(w/w) per 10 g of red mud were approximately 26.33, approximately 58.01, approximately 55.37, and approximately 54.42 in NRM and first, second, third cycles of carbonated filtrate, respectively. The pH of red mud was decreased from approximately 11.8 to approximately 8.45 and alkalinity was decreased from approximately 10,789 to approximately 178 mg/L. The acid neutralizing capacity of NRM was approximately 0.23 mol H(+)/kg of red mud. The specific advantages of these cyclic processes are that, large amount of CO(2) can be captured as compared to single step.

  1. The impact of Hurricane Sandy on the shoreface and inner shelf of Fire Island, New York: Large bedform migration but limited erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John A.; Flood, Roger D.; Austin, James A., Jr.; Schwab, William C.; Christensen, Beth; Browne, Cassandra M.; Denny, Jane F.; Baldwin, Wayne E.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the impact of superstorm Sandy on the lower shoreface and inner shelf offshore the barrier island system of Fire Island, NY using before-and-after surveys involving swath bathymetry, backscatter and CHIRP acoustic reflection data. As sea level rises over the long term, the shoreface and inner shelf are eroded as barrier islands migrate landward; large storms like Sandy are thought to be a primary driver of this largely evolutionary process. The "before" data were collected in 2011 by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of a long-term investigation of the Fire Island barrier system. The "after" data were collected in January, 2013, ~two months after the storm. Surprisingly, no widespread erosional event was observed. Rather, the primary impact of Sandy on the shoreface and inner shelf was to force migration of major bedforms (sand ridges and sorted bedforms) 10's of meters WSW alongshore, decreasing in migration distance with increasing water depth. Although greater in rate, this migratory behavior is no different than observations made over the 15-year span prior to the 2011 survey. Stratigraphic observations of buried, offshore-thinning fluvial channels indicate that long-term erosion of older sediments is focused in water depths ranging from the base of the shoreface (~13-16 m) to ~21 m on the inner shelf, which is coincident with the range of depth over which sand ridges and sorted bedforms migrated in response to Sandy. We hypothesize that bedform migration regulates erosion over these water depths and controls the formation of a widely observed transgressive ravinement; focusing erosion of older material occurs at the base of the stoss (upcurrent) flank of the bedforms. Secondary storm impacts include the formation of ephemeral hummocky bedforms and the deposition of a mud event layer.

  2. The impact of Hurricane Sandy on the shoreface and inner shelf of Fire Island, New York: large bedform migration but limited erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John A.; Flood, Roger D.; Austin, James A.; Schwab, William C.; Christensen, Beth A.; Browne, Cassandra M.; Denny, Jane F.; Baldwin, Wayne E.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the impact of superstorm Sandy on the lower shoreface and inner shelf offshore the barrier island system of Fire Island, NY using before-and-after surveys involving swath bathymetry, backscatter and CHIRP acoustic reflection data. As sea level rises over the long term, the shoreface and inner shelf are eroded as barrier islands migrate landward; large storms like Sandy are thought to be a primary driver of this largely evolutionary process. The “before” data were collected in 2011 by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of a long-term investigation of the Fire Island barrier system. The “after” data were collected in January, 2013, ~two months after the storm. Surprisingly, no widespread erosional event was observed. Rather, the primary impact of Sandy on the shoreface and inner shelf was to force migration of major bedforms (sand ridges and sorted bedforms) 10’s of meters WSW alongshore, decreasing in migration distance with increasing water depth. Although greater in rate, this migratory behavior is no different than observations made over the 15-year span prior to the 2011 survey. Stratigraphic observations of buried, offshore-thinning fluvial channels indicate that long-term erosion of older sediments is focused in water depths ranging from the base of the shoreface (~13–16 m) to ~21 m on the inner shelf, which is coincident with the range of depth over which sand ridges and sorted bedforms migrated in response to Sandy. We hypothesize that bedform migration regulates erosion over these water depths and controls the formation of a widely observed transgressive ravinement; focusing erosion of older material occurs at the base of the stoss (upcurrent) flank of the bedforms. Secondary storm impacts include the formation of ephemeral hummocky bedforms and the deposition of a mud event layer.

  3. Localised Effects of a Mega-Disturbance: Spatiotemporal Responses of Intertidal Sandy Shore Communities to the 2010 Chilean Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda, Roger D; Valdivia, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    . Therefore, our results suggest that the effects of the Maule mega-earthquake on the ecological communities were spatially heterogeneous and highly localised. We suggest that high mobility and other species' adaptations to the dynamic environmental conditions of sandy beaches might explain the comparatively high resilience of these assemblages. With this work we hope to motivate further experimental research on the role of individual- and population-level properties in the response of sandy-beach communities to interacting sources of disturbances.

  4. Localised Effects of a Mega-Disturbance: Spatiotemporal Responses of Intertidal Sandy Shore Communities to the 2010 Chilean Earthquake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger D Sepúlveda

    -earthquake tsunami. Therefore, our results suggest that the effects of the Maule mega-earthquake on the ecological communities were spatially heterogeneous and highly localised. We suggest that high mobility and other species' adaptations to the dynamic environmental conditions of sandy beaches might explain the comparatively high resilience of these assemblages. With this work we hope to motivate further experimental research on the role of individual- and population-level properties in the response of sandy-beach communities to interacting sources of disturbances.

  5. Pozzolanic Activity Assessment of LUSI (LUmpur SIdoarjo Mud in Semi High Volume Pozzolanic Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Christianto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available LUSI mud obtained from the mud volcano in Sidoarjo, Indonesia, is a viable aluminosilicate material to be utilized as pozzolanic material. LUSI is an abbreviation of the local name of the mud, i.e., Lumpur Sidoarjo, meaning Sidoarjo mud. This paper reports the results of an investigation to assess the pozzolanic activity of LUSI mud, especially in semi high volume pozzolanic mortar. In this case, the amount of mud incorporated is between 30% to 40% of total cementitious material, by mass. The content of SiO2 in the mud is about 30%, whilst the total content of SiO2, Fe2O3 and Al2O3 is more than 70%. Particle size and degree of partial cement replacement by treated LUSI mud affect the compressive strength, the strength activity index (SAI, the rate of pozzolanic activity development, and the workability of mortar incorporating LUSI mud. Manufacturing semi high volume LUSI mud mortar, up to at least 40% cement replacement, is a possibility, especially with a smaller particle size of LUSI mud, less than 63 μm. The use of a larger percentage of cement replacement by LUSI mud does not show any adverse effect on the water demand, as the flow of the fresh mortar increased with the increase of percentage of LUSI mud usage.

  6. Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna production: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Petracco

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The state of the art of the studies on the production of Brazilian sandy beach macrofauna was analyzed on the basis of the data available in the literature. For this purpose, the representativeness of the production dataset was examined by latitudinal distribution, degree of exposure and morphodynamic state of beaches, taxonomic groups, and methods employed. A descriptive analysis was, further, made to investigate the trends in production of the more representative taxonomic groups and species of sandy beach macrofauna. A total of 69 macrofauna annual production estimates were obtained for 38 populations from 25 studies carried out between 22º56'S and 32º20'S. Production estimates were restricted to populations on beaches located on the southern and southeastern Brazilian coast. Most of the populations in the dataset inhabit exposed dissipative sandy beaches and are mainly represented by mollusks and crustaceans, with a smaller number of polychaetes. The trends in production among taxonomic groups follow a similar pattern to that observed on beaches throughout the world, with high values for bivalves and decapods. The high turnover rate (P/B ratio of the latter was due to the presence of several populations of the mole crab Emerita brasiliensis, which can attain high values of productivity, in the dataset. Most of the studies focus on the comparison of production and, especially, of P/B ratio according to life history traits in populations of the same species/taxonomic group. Despite the importance of life history-production studies, other approaches, such as the effect of man-induce disturbances on the macrofauna, should be undertaken in these threatened environments.O estado da arte dos estudos de produção da macrofauna de praias arenosas brasileiras foi analisado a partir de informações disponíveis na literatura. Para essa finalidade, a representatividade dos dados de produção foi examinada de acordo com a distribuição latitudinal

  7. Mud peeling and horizontal crack formation in drying clays

    KAUST Repository

    Style, Robert W.

    2011-03-01

    Mud peeling is a common phenomenon whereby horizontal cracks propagate parallel to the surface of a drying clay. Differential stresses then cause the layer of clay above the crack to curl up to form a mud peel. By treating the clay as a poroelastic solid, we analyze the peeling phenomenon and show that it is caused by the gradient in tensile stress at the surface of the clay, analogously to the spalling of thermoelastic materials. For a constant water evaporation rate at the clay surface we derive equations for the depth of peeling and the time of peeling as functions of the evaporation rate. Our model predicts a simple relationship between the radius of curvature of a mud peel and the depth of peeling. The model predictions are in agreement with the available experimental data. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Analysis of chloride diffusivity in concrete containing red mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Red mud is a solid waste produced in the alumina production process and, due to its high pH, is classified as hazardous. Its incorporation in concrete mixtures, acting as filler due to the particles fineness, might be an interesting reuse alternative. The focus of this paper is to study the chloride diffusivity of concrete mixtures containing red-mud. The concentration of chlorides was monitored by measuring the conductivity of the anolyte, which was distilled water initially. In addition, the estimation of the chloride ions diffusion coefficients in steady and non-steady conditions, Ds and Dns, was obtained from the ''time-lag'' and ''equivalent time'' between diffusion and migration experiments. Due to superfine particle-size distribution and the "filler" effect, the red mud addition seems to assure lower chloride diffusivity.

  9. Radiological investigation of the effects of red mud disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, T; Sas, Z; Somlai, J; Jobbágy, V; Szeiler, G

    2012-11-01

    On 4 October 2010, the gate of a red mud waste dump of a Hungarian alumina factory was damaged and ∼800.000 m(3) of alkaline red mud flooded the vicinity of the dumps. Red mud samples were collected from the contaminated area and they were investigated from the radiological point of view. The activity concentrations were as follows: (232)Th: 264 (194-337) Bq kg(-1), (238)U: 265 (197-332) Bq kg(-1), (226)Ra: 180 (143-237) Bq kg(-1), (40)K: 283 (228-360) Bq kg(-1). As a function of the moisture content (0-28 %), the obtained radon emanation coefficients were relatively high (7.6-20 %) and, consequently, the radon exhalation also increased.

  10. Production of Green Steel from Red Mud: A Novel Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoi, Bhagyadhar; Behera, Pravas Ranjan; Mishra, Chitta Ranjan

    Red mud of Indian origin contains around 55% plus of Fe2O3 and is considered as a hazardous waste for the alumina industry. For production of one tone of alumina employing the Bayer's Process, around two tones of red mud is generated from three tones of Bauxite. Conventional process of steel making is not devoid of environmental pollution. In the present investigation, efforts have been made to produce steel from red mud by adopting reduction roasting, magnetic separation and hydrogen plasma smelting route. Magnetic fraction, containing enriched iron oxide and minimal content of alumina, is produced following the first two stages which is then subjected to hydrogen plasma smelting process for production of steel. This novel concept follows a green path way for production of steel free from pollution and is termed as green steel. Further, the only by-product that is produced in the process, is water, which is eco-friendly and recyclable.

  11. Utilization of red mud in the manufacture of ceramic tiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youssef, N.F.; Shater, M.O. [Housing and Building Research Center, Cairo (Egypt); Abadir, M.F.; Ibrahim, O.A. [Cairo Univ., Giza (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering

    2002-07-01

    Red mud, which is a pollutant residue from the extraction of alumina from bauxite ore, was utilized as an additive to a well blended mixture of three Egyptian clays, feldspar, quartz and grog. This was added in gradual proportions to study its effect on the vitrification properties of fired samples. Samples were moulded under a pressure of 20.7 MPa and fired at temperatures ranging from 950 C to 1100 C for soaking periods up to three hours. Compressive strength was determined as function of percent red mud added and firing temperature. A semi-exponential relation was established between strength and apparent porosity. 50 x 50 mm tiles containing 70% red mud addition and fired at 1100 C for one hour were tested. They were found to match the standards required for glazed wall tiles bodies. Tiles fired at 1100 C for 3 hours were compatible with the standards for glazed floor tiles. (orig.)

  12. WAVE ATTENUATION OVER MUD BED: A PSEUDO-PLASTIC MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Qing-he; Onyx W.H. Wai; Joseph H. W. Lee

    2003-01-01

    A two-layer model, with the upper layer being the perfect fluid and the lower layer being the pseudo-plastic fluid describing water wave attenuation over mud bed, was established. A simplified method based on the principle of equivalent work was applied to solve the boundary value problems. The computational results of the model show that the two-layer perfect fluid model and the perfect-viscous fluid model are all special cases of the present model. The complex nonlinear properties of wave attenuation over mud bed, can be explained by the present model, e.g., the wave dissipation rate decreases with the wave height in certain cases, while the small wave propagates over mud bed with less energy dissipation and large wave attenuates rapidly in other cases. Other factors influencing the wave attenuation were also discussed.

  13. Numerical modeling of the effects of Hurricane Sandy and potential future hurricanes on spatial patterns of salt marsh morphology in Jamaica Bay, New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongqing; Chen, Qin; Hu, Kelin; Snedden, Gregg A.; Hartig, Ellen K.; Couvillion, Brady R.; Johnson, Cody L.; Orton, Philip M.

    2017-03-29

    model was run to predict the effects of Sandy-like and Irene-like hurricanes with different storm tracks and wind intensities on wetland morphology in Jamaica Bay. Model results indicate that, in Jamaica Bay salt marshes, the morphological changes (greater than 5 millimeters [mm] determined by the long-term marsh accretion rate) caused by Hurricane Sandy were complex and spatially heterogeneous. Most of the erosion (5–40 mm) and deposition (5–30 mm) were mainly characterized by fine sand for channels and bay bottoms and by mud for marsh areas. Hurricane Sandy-generated deposition and erosion were generated locally. The storm-induced net sediment input through Rockaway Inlet was only about 1 percent of the total amount of the sediment reworked by the hurricane. Salt marshes inside the western part of the bay showed erosion overall while marshes inside the eastern part showed deposition from Hurricane Sandy. Model results indicated that most of the marshes could recover from Hurricane Sandy-induced erosion after 1 year and demonstrated continued marsh accretion after the hurricane over the course of long simulation periods although the effect (accretion) was diminished. Local waves and currents generated by Hurricane Sandy appeared to play a critical role in sediment transport and associated wetland morphological change in Jamaica Bay. Hypothetical hurricanes, depending on their track and intensity, cause variable responses in spatial patterns of sediment deposition and erosion compared to simulations without the hurricane. In general, hurricanes passing west of the Jamaica Bay estuary appear to be more destructive to the salt marshes than those passing the east. Consequently, marshes inside the western part of the bay were likely to be more vulnerable to hurricanes than marshes inside the eastern part of the bay. 

  14. Advanced Mud System for Microhole Coiled Tubing Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth Oglesby

    2008-12-01

    An advanced mud system was designed and key components were built that augment a coiled tubing drilling (CTD) rig that is designed specifically to drill microholes (less than 4-inch diameter) with advanced drilling techniques. The mud system was tailored to the hydraulics of the hole geometries and rig characteristics required for microholes and is capable of mixing and circulating mud and removing solids while being self contained and having zero discharge capability. Key components of this system are two modified triplex mud pumps (High Pressure Slurry Pumps) for advanced Abrasive Slurry Jetting (ASJ) and a modified Gas-Liquid-Solid (GLS) Separator for well control, flow return and initial processing. The system developed also includes an additional component of an advanced version of ASJ which allows cutting through most all materials encountered in oil and gas wells including steel, cement, and all rock types. It includes new fluids and new ASJ nozzles. The jetting mechanism does not require rotation of the bottom hole assembly or drill string, which is essential for use with Coiled Tubing (CT). It also has low reactive forces acting on the CT and generates cuttings small enough to be easily cleaned from the well bore, which is important in horizontal drilling. These cutting and mud processing components and capabilities compliment the concepts put forth by DOE for microhole coiled tubing drilling (MHTCTD) and should help insure the reality of drilling small diameter holes quickly and inexpensively with a minimal environmental footprint and that is efficient, compact and portable. Other components (site liners, sump and transfer pumps, stacked shakers, filter membranes, etc.. ) of the overall mud system were identified as readily available in industry and will not be purchased until we are ready to drill a specific well.

  15. A Bingham-Plastic Model for Fluid Mud Transport Under Waves and Currents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春嵘; 吴博; 呼和敖德

    2014-01-01

    Simplified equations of fluid mud motion, which is described as Bingham-Plastic model under waves and currents, are presented by order analysis. The simplified equations are non-linear ordinary differential equations which are solved by hybrid numerical-analytical technique. As the computational cost is very low, the effects of wave current parameters and fluid mud properties on the transportation velocity of the fluid mud are studied systematically. It is found that the fluid mud can move toward one direction even if the shear stress acting on the fluid mud bed is much smaller than the fluid mud yield stress under the condition of wave and current coexistence. Experiments of the fluid mud motion under current with fluctuation water surface are carried out. The fluid mud transportation velocity predicted by the presented mathematical model can roughly match that measured in experiments.

  16. Changes on aggregation in mine waste amended with biochar and marble mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángeles Muñoz, María; Guzmán, Jose; Zornoza, Raúl; Moreno-Barriga, Fabián; Faz, Ángel; Lal, Rattan

    2016-04-01

    Mining activities have produced large amounts of wastes over centuries accumulated in tailing ponds in Southeast Spain. Applications of biochar may have a high potential for reclamation of degraded soils. Distribution, size and stability of aggregates are important indices of soil physical quality. However, research data on aggregation processes at amended mining tailings with biochar are scanty. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of seven different treatments involving biochar and marble mud (MM) on the aggregation in mine waste (MW). Seven different treatments were tested after 90 days of incubation in the laboratory. These treatments were the mix of MW and: biochar from solid pig manure (PM), biochar from cotton crop residues (CR), biochar from municipal solid waste (MSW), marble mud (MM), PM+MM, CR+MM, MSW+MM and control without amendment. High sand percentages were identified in the MW. The biochars made from wastes (PM, CR, MSW) were obtained through pyrolysis of feedstocks. The water stability of soil aggregates was studied. The data on total aggregation were corrected for the primary particles considering the sandy texture of the MW. Moreover, partial aggregation was determined for each fraction and the mean weight diameter (MWD) of aggregates was computed. Soil bulk density and total porosity were also determined. No significant differences were observed in total aggregation and MWD among treatments including the control. For the size range of >4.75 mm, there were significant differences in aggregates > 4.75 mm between CR+MM in comparison with that for CT. There were also significant differences between MSW and PM+MM for the 1-0.425 mm fraction, and between CT and MM and CR for 0.425-0.162 mm aggregate size fractions. Therefore, CR-derived biochar applied with MM enhanced stability of macro-aggregates. Furthermore, soil bulk density was also the lowest bulk density and total porosity the highest for the CR-derived biochar

  17. Response of intertidal sandy-beach macrofauna to human trampling: An urban vs. natural beach system approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Martínez, Ma José; Ruíz-Delgado, Ma Carmen; Sánchez-Moyano, Juan Emilio; García-García, Francisco José

    2015-02-01

    Sandy beaches are subjected to intense stressors, which are mainly derived from the increasing pattern of beach urbanization. These ecosystems are also a magnet for tourists, who prefer these locations as leisure and holiday destinations, and such activity further increases the factors that have an adverse effect on beaches. In the study reported here the effect of human trampling on macrofauna assemblages that inhabit intertidal areas of sandy beaches was assessed using a BACI design. For this purpose, three contrasting sectors of the same beach were investigated: an urban area with a high level of visitors, a protected sector with a low density of users, and a transitional area with a high level of human occupancy. The physical variables were constant over time in each sector, whereas differences were found in the intensity of human use between sectors. Density variations and changes in the taxonomic structure of the macrofauna with time were shown by PERMANOVA analysis in the urban and transitional locations whereas the protected sector remained constant throughout the study period. The amphipod Bathyporeia pelagica appears sensitive to human trampling pressure and the use of this species as a bioindicator for these types of impact is recommended. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chitinolytic bactery activity isolated from the mud fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuniek Herdyastuti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A chitinolytic microorganism had been isolated from mud fields in Ketintang Surabaya area by using a minimal media containing 0.4% colloidal chitin. Activity assay is based on released N-acetyl-glucosamine which reacted with 3,5 dinitrosalicyclic acid. Mud fields produce 63 bacterial isolates with chitinase activity (TNH1 – TNH63 isolates. The highest activity was shown by TNH11 isolate with specific activity 1.27 U/mg. TNH11 isolates was Gram negative, rod-cocoid cell, has a colony of yellow, round shape, convex elevation, flat margin and the colony diameter 3–5 mm.

  19. Efficiency evaluation of mud applications of laser doppler of skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimova, S. K.; Kondratenko, E. I.; Alykova, O. M.; Lomtieva, N. A.; Alykova, A. F.

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism of the microcirculation’s change of the face skin of the women under the influence of the sulfur silt mud application of the lake Karantinnoe of Astrakhan region was studied. The age particularities of vasorelaxation’s peloid action on the microcirculation of the face skin was installed. Peloid promotes the influx of arterial blood, the improvement of the tissue’s feeding and the reduction of the stagnant events. The prolonged action of the sulfur silt mud application reveals at more mature age.

  20. Polyamine sensitization in offshore workers handling drilling muds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, A D; Wakeel, R A; Mann, T A; Main, R A; Aldridge, R D

    1989-11-01

    Oil-based mud, a complex mixture containing amines in emulsifiers, is used in offshore drilling operations. It is a skin irritant that occasionally gives rise to allergic contact sensitivity. In patch testing patients with allergy to drilling mud, we have identified polyamine (diethylenetriamine and triethylenetetramine) sensitivity in 5 patients. All 5 patients were also allergic to emulsifiers. These emulsifiers are cross-linked fatty acid amido-amines, in which unreacted amine groups are thought to cross-sensitize with these constituent polyamines. Cross-reactivity between ethylenediamine, diethylenetetramine and triethylenetetramine was found in 9 subjects.

  1. Characterization of red mud derived from a combined Bayer Process and bauxite calcination method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Lin, Chuxia; Wu, Yonggui

    2007-07-19

    Red mud can be derived from the processing of bauxite using different methods. The chemical and mineralogical composition of the combined Bayer Process and bauxite calcination red mud (BPBCRM) differs markedly from those of the pure Bayer Process red mud (PBPRM). In this study, red mud derived from a combined Bayer Process and bauxite calcination method was characterized. The results show that pH of the red mud decreased with increasing duration of storage time. Na dominated among the soluble cations, but the concentration of soluble Na decreased with increasing duration of storage time as a result of leaching. Cation exchange capacity also decreased with increasing duration of storage time, probably due to a decrease in pH causing a reduction in negatively charged sites on the red mud particles. Ca was the predominant exchangeable cation in the fresh red mud but the concentration of exchangeable Ca markedly decreased in the old red mud, which was dominated by exchangeable Na. The degree of crystallization and thermal stability of the red mud increased with increasing duration of storage. The acid neutralizing capacity of red mud obtained from this study was about 10 mol kg(-1), which is much greater than the reported values for the pure Bayer Process red mud. Column filtering experiment indicates that the red mud also had a very strong capacity to remove Cu, Zn and Cd from the filtering solution. It is conservatively estimated that the simultaneous removal rates of Cd, Zn and Cu by red mud are over 22,250 mg kg(-1), 22,500 mg kg(-1) and 25,000 mg kg(-1), respectively. The affinity of these metals to the red mud was in the following decreasing order: Cu>Zn>Cd. In general, the fresh red mud retained more heavy metals than the old red mud did.

  2. Recent benthic foraminifera assemblages from mangrove swamp and channels of Abu Dhabi (UAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Flavia; Lokier, Stephen W.; Odeh, Weaam A. S. Al; Paul, Andreas; Song, Jianfeng; Freeman, Mark; Michel, Françoise

    2017-04-01

    Zonation of Recent mangrove environments can be defined using benthic foraminifera, however, little is known about foraminifera from mangrove environments of the Persian/Arabian Gulf. The objective of this study is to produce a detailed micropaleontological and sedimentological analysis to identify foraminiferal associations from mangrove swamps and channels located on the eastern side of Abu Dhabi Island (UAE). Detailed sediment sampling collection in mangal environments of Eastern Abu Dhabi was carried out to assess the distribution of benthic foraminifera in different sedimentary facies in the mangal and in the surrounding natural environments of the upper and lower intertidal area (mud flats and channels). A 100 m transect across a natural channel in a mangal on the eastern side of Abu Dhabi Island was sampled in detail for sedimentological and foraminiferal analysis. Forty-seven samples were collected at 2 meter intervals along the transect in a number of different sedimentary facies including; fine sediment in areas exposed during low tide and close to mangrove trees (Avicennia marina), fine sediment rich in leaf material, coarse sediment in channels, and coarse sediments with a shell lag. At each sampling location environmental parameters were recorded, including water depth, salinity, temperature and pH. Samples collected for foraminiferal analysis were stained in rose Bengal in order to identify living specimens. Samples collected on the mud flat at the margin of the channel show a living foraminiferal assemblage characterised by abundant foraminifera belonging to the genera Ammonia, Elphidium, Cribroelphidium, Triloculina, Quinqueloculina, Sigmoilinita, Spiroloculina, Peneroplis and Spirolina. Samples collected in the lower (wet) intertidal area close to Avicennia marina roots, presented a low-diversity assemblage mostly comprising small-sized opportunistic foraminifera of the genera Ammonia and Cribroelphidium along with rare Triloculina and

  3. Sandy River Delta Habitat Restoration Project, Annual Report 2001.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Virginia; Dobson, Robin L.

    2002-11-01

    The Sandy River Delta is located at the confluence of the Sandy and Columbia Rivers, just east of Troutdale, Oregon. It comprises about 1,400 land acres north of Interstate 84, managed by the USDA Forest Service, and associated river banks managed by the Oregon Division of State Lands. Three islands, Gary, Flag and Catham, managed by Metro Greenspaces and the State of Oregon lie to the east, the Columbia River lies to the north and east, and the urbanized Portland metropolitan area lies to the west across the Sandy River. Sandy River Delta was historically a wooded, riparian wetland with components of ponds, sloughs, bottomland woodland, oak woodland, prairie, and low and high elevation floodplain. It has been greatly altered by past agricultural practices and the Columbia River hydropower system. Restoration of historic landscape components is a primary goal for this land. The Forest Service is currently focusing on restoration of riparian forest and wetlands. Restoration of open upland areas (meadow/prairie) would follow substantial completion of the riparian and wetland restoration. The Sandy River Delta is a former pasture infested with reed canary grass, blackberry and thistle. The limited over story is native riparian species such as cottonwood and ash. The shrub and herbaceous layers are almost entirely non-native, invasive species. Native species have a difficult time naturally regenerating in the thick, competing reed canary grass, Himalayan blackberry and thistle. A system of drainage ditches installed by past owners drains water from historic wetlands. The original channel of the Sandy River was diked in the 1930's, and the river diverted into the ''Little Sandy River''. The original Sandy River channel has subsequently filled in and largely become a slough. The FS acquired approximately 1,400 acres Sandy River Delta (SRD) in 1991 from Reynolds Aluminum (via the Trust for Public Lands). The Delta had been grazed for many years

  4. Hurricane Sandy Washover Deposits on Southern Long Beach Island, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, J. M.; Richmond, B. M.; Kane, H. H.; Lunghino, B.

    2015-12-01

    Hurricane Sandy washover deposits were investigated at Forsyth National Wildlife Refuge (FNWR) on Southern Long Beach Island, New Jersey in order to map deposit thickness and characterize the sedimentary deposits. FNWR was chosen as a field area because there has been relatively little anthropogenic shoreline modification since washover deposition from Hurricane Sandy. Sediment, elevation, and geophysical data were collected during the April 2015 field campaign, approximately two and a half years after the storm. Sediment deposit data included trenches, stratigraphic descriptions, bulk sediment samples, push cores, Russian cores, and photos. Computed tomography (CT) scanning was conducted on push cores in order to acquire high resolution imaging of density, grain size, and sedimentary structure. Profiles of washover elevation were measured using Differential GPS with Real Time Kinematic processing. Ground Penetrating Radar data was collected to image the depth of the deposit and identify sedimentary structures. These data sets are compared to pre- and post -Sandy lidar surveys in order to determine post-Sandy modification in the two and a half years following the hurricane. We compare sediment thickness and sedimentary characteristics to hurricane Sandy deposits elsewhere along the U.S. eastern seaboard and to tsunami deposits.

  5. EAARL Coastal Topography - Sandy Hook 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayegandhi, Amar; Brock, John C.; Wright, C. Wayne; Stevens, Sara; Yates, Xan; Bonisteel, Jamie M.

    2008-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of Lidar-derived topography were produced as a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC), St. Petersburg, FL; the National Park Service (NPS), Northeast Coastal and Barrier Network, Kingston, RI; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Wallops Flight Facility, VA. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of Gateway National Recreation Area's Sandy Hook Unit in New Jersey, acquired on May 16, 2007. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural resource managers. An innovative airborne Lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL) was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) Lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive Lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multi-spectral color infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for submeter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine Cessna 310 aircraft, but the instrument may be deployed on a range of light aircraft. A single pilot, a Lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then

  6. Chemo-Mechanical Characteristics of Mud Formed from Environmental Dust Particles in Humid Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ghassan; Yilbas, B. S.; Said, Syed A. M.; Al-Aqeeli, N.; Matin, Asif

    2016-07-01

    Mud formed from environmental dust particles in humid ambient air significantly influences the performance of solar harvesting devices. This study examines the characterization of environmental dust particles and the chemo-mechanics of dry mud formed from dust particles. Analytical tools, including scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, particle sizing, and X-ray diffraction, are used to characterize dry mud and dust particles. A micro/nano tribometer is used to measure the tangential force and friction coefficient while tensile tests are carried out to assess the binding forces of dry mud pellets. After dry mud is removed, mud residuals on the glass surface are examined and the optical transmittance of the glass is measured. Dust particles include alkaline compounds, which dissolve in water condensate and form a mud solution with high pH (pH = 7.5). The mud solution forms a thin liquid film at the interface of dust particles and surface. Crystals form as the mud solution dries, thus, increasing the adhesion work required to remove dry mud from the surface. Optical transmittance of the glass is reduced after dry mud is removed due to the dry mud residue on the surface.

  7. Microhabitat influence on larval fish assemblages within ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined larval and juvenile fish assemblage structure in relation to microhabitat variables within the St. Louis River estuary, a drowned river mouth of Lake Superior. Fish were sampled in vegetated beds throughout the estuary, across a gradient of vegetation types and densities (including disturbed, preserved and post-restoration sites). Canonical correspondence analysis, relating species abundances to environmental variables revealed that plant species richness, turbidity and aquatic plant cover were most influential in structuring assemblages. Results from this microhabitat analysis at this crucial life stage has potential to inform wetland restoration efforts within the St. Louis River and other Great Lake coastal wetlands. not applicable

  8. Validating Experimental Bedform Dynamics on Cohesive Sand-Mud Beds in the Dee Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Jaco H.; Baker, Megan; Hope, Julie; Malarkey, Jonathan; Rocha, Renata

    2014-05-01

    Recent laboratory experiments and field measurements have shown that small quantities of cohesive clay, and in particular 'sticky' biological polymers, within a sandy substrate dramatically reduce the development rate of sedimentary bedforms, with major implications for sediment transport rate calculations and process interpretations from the sedimentary record. FURTHER INFORMATION Flow and sediment transport predictions from sedimentary structures found in modern estuaries and within estuarine geological systems are impeded by an almost complete lack of process-based knowledge of the behaviour of natural sediments that consist of mixtures of cohesionless sand and biologically-active cohesive mud. Indeed, existing predictive models are largely based on non-organic cohesionless sands, despite the fact that mud, in pure form or mixed with sand, is the most common sediment on Earth and also the most biologically active interface across a range of Earth-surface environments, including rivers and shallow seas. The multidisciplinary COHBED project uses state-of-the-art laboratory and field technologies to measure the erosional properties of mixed cohesive sediment beds and the formation and stability of sedimentary bedforms on these beds, integrating the key physical and biological processes that govern bed evolution. The development of current ripples on cohesive mixed sediment beds was investigated as a function of physical control on bed cohesion versus biological control on bed cohesion. These investigations included laboratory flume experiments in the Hydrodynamics Laboratory (Bangor University) and field experiments in the Dee estuary (at West Kirby near Liverpool). The flume experiments showed that winnowing of fine-grained cohesive sediment, including biological stabilisers, is an important process affecting the development rate, size and shape of the cohesive bedforms. The ripples developed progressively slower as the kaolin clay fraction in the sandy substrate

  9. Did Hurricane Sandy influence the 2012 US presidential election?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joshua

    2014-07-01

    Despite drawing on a common pool of data, observers of the 2012 presidential campaign came to different conclusions about whether, how, and to what extent "October surprise" Hurricane Sandy influenced the election. The present study used a mixed correlational and experimental design to assess the relation between, and effect of, the salience of Hurricane Sandy on attitudes and voting intentions regarding President Barack Obama and Mitt Romney in a large sample of voting-aged adults. Results suggest that immediately following positive news coverage of Obama's handling of the storm's aftermath, Sandy's salience positively influenced attitudes toward Obama, but that by election day, reminders of the hurricane became a drag instead of a boon for the President. In addition to theoretical implications, this study provides an example of how to combine methodological approaches to help answer questions about the impact of unpredictable, large-scale events as they unfold.

  10. Hurricane Sandy, Disaster Preparedness, and the Recovery Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzi, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy was the second largest and costliest hurricane in U.S. history to affect multiple states and communities. This article describes the lived experiences of 24 occupational therapy students who lived through Hurricane Sandy using the Recovery Model to frame the research. Occupational therapy student narratives were collected and analyzed using qualitative methods and framed by the Recovery Model. Directed content and thematic analysis was performed using the 10 components of the Recovery Model. The 10 components of the Recovery Model were experienced by or had an impact on the occupational therapy students as they coped and recovered in the aftermath of the natural disaster. This study provides insight into the lived experiences and recovery perspectives of occupational therapy students who experienced Hurricane Sandy. Further research is indicated in applying the Recovery Model to people who survive disasters. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  11. Visuality and Representation in Traditional Igbo Uli Body and Mud ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    womenfolk on human body and mud wall and based on linear configurations. The intention .... traditional instruments, however, vary in both style and structure. The juice ... uli designs but in the cutting of permanent body decorations. Jeffreys ... Sometimes in order to achieve a smooth surface body hair is shaved onto which.

  12. Removal of fluoride ions from aqueous solution by waste mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemer, Baris; Ozdes, Duygu; Gundogdu, Ali; Bulut, Volkan N.; Duran, Celal [Karadeniz Technical University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa, E-mail: soylak@erciyes.edu.tr [Erciyes University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2009-09-15

    The present study was carried out to assess the ability of original waste mud (o-WM) and different types of activated waste mud which are acid-activated (a-WM) and precipitated waste mud (p-WM), in order to remove excess of fluoride from aqueous solution by using batch technique. The p-WM exhibited greater performance than the others. Adsorption studies were conducted as a function of pH, contact time, initial fluoride concentration, adsorbent concentration, temperature, etc. Studies were also performed to understand the effect of some co-existing ions present in aqueous solutions. Adsorption process was found to be almost independent of pH for all types of waste mud. Among the kinetic models tested for p-WM, pseudo-second-order model fitted the kinetic data well with a perfect correlation coefficient value of 1.00. It was found that the adequate time for the adsorption equilibrium of fluoride was only 1 h. Thermodynamic parameters including the Gibbs free energy ({Delta}G{sup o}), enthalpy ({Delta}H{sup o}), and entropy ({Delta}S{sup o}) revealed that adsorption of fluoride ions on the p-WM was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 0-40 deg. C. Experimental data showed a good fit with the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. Results of this study demonstrated the effectiveness and feasibility of WM for removal of fluoride ions from aqueous solution.

  13. Mechanisms of Fluid-Mud Interactions Under Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Dell Linux cluster , and a TeamHPC Beowulf cluster . With the development of this high-performance numerical tool, we are expecting to obtain a...and finite-difference scheme. A clustered grid is used in the vertical direction to fully resolve the bottom boundary layer and the mud-water

  14. Assessment of pollutants sequestration in flowing waters using Red Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red Mud, a waste product of bauxite refinement, has already been reported as a non-conventional adsorbent of heavy metals and some other important nutrients, such as phosphorus. Its use has been explored since it is a low cost solid adsorbent with a strong binding capacity. Although there were equil...

  15. Laboratory experiments on consolidation and strength evolution of mud layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckelbach, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    Many harbours in the world suffer from high siltation rates in their basins. To guarantee safe shipping, harbour authorities have to maintain the navigable depth by dredging large amounts of mud. Some authorities relate the navigable depth to the depth at which the density is equal to a certain valu

  16. Laboratory experiments on consolidation and strength evolution of mud layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merckelbach, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    Many harbours in the world suffer from high siltation rates in their basins. To guarantee safe shipping, harbour authorities have to maintain the navigable depth by dredging large amounts of mud. Some authorities relate the navigable depth to the depth at which the density is equal to a certain

  17. Removal of fluoride ions from aqueous solution by waste mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemer, Baris; Ozdes, Duygu; Gundogdu, Ali; Bulut, Volkan N; Duran, Celal; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-09-15

    The present study was carried out to assess the ability of original waste mud (o-WM) and different types of activated waste mud which are acid-activated (a-WM) and precipitated waste mud (p-WM), in order to remove excess of fluoride from aqueous solution by using batch technique. The p-WM exhibited greater performance than the others. Adsorption studies were conducted as a function of pH, contact time, initial fluoride concentration, adsorbent concentration, temperature, etc. Studies were also performed to understand the effect of some co-existing ions present in aqueous solutions. Adsorption process was found to be almost independent of pH for all types of waste mud. Among the kinetic models tested for p-WM, pseudo-second-order model fitted the kinetic data well with a perfect correlation coefficient value of 1.00. It was found that the adequate time for the adsorption equilibrium of fluoride was only 1h. Thermodynamic parameters including the Gibbs free energy (DeltaG degrees ), enthalpy (DeltaH degrees ), and entropy (DeltaS degrees ) revealed that adsorption of fluoride ions on the p-WM was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic in the temperature range of 0-40 degrees C. Experimental data showed a good fit with the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. Results of this study demonstrated the effectiveness and feasibility of WM for removal of fluoride ions from aqueous solution.

  18. Neither a Toddler nor a Stick-in-the-Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrea Livi

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to express the views from the "outside," from laypeople who want to go to museums, but perhaps find themselves not going very often. Adult visitors to history museums are often treated as either toddlers or sticks-in-the-mud, where they are assumed to break anything they touch, or enjoy didactic lectures. As a result,…

  19. Family Structures, Relationships, and Housing Recovery Decisions after Hurricane Sandy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nejat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of the recovery phase of a disaster cycle is still in its infancy. Recent major disasters such as Hurricane Sandy have revealed the inability of existing policies and planning to promptly restore infrastructure, residential properties, and commercial activities in affected communities. In this setting, a thorough grasp of housing recovery decisions can lead to effective post-disaster planning by policyholders and public officials. The objective of this research is to integrate vignette and survey design to study how family bonds affected rebuilding/relocating decisions after Hurricane Sandy. Multinomial logistic regression was used to investigate respondents’ family structures before Sandy and explore whether their relationships with family members changed after Sandy. The study also explores the effect of the aforementioned relationship and its changes on households’ plans to either rebuild/repair their homes or relocate. These results were compared to another multinomial logistic regression which was applied to examine the impact of familial bonds on respondents’ suggestions to a vignette family concerning rebuilding and relocating after a hurricane similar to Sandy. Results indicate that respondents who lived with family members before Sandy were less likely to plan for relocating than those who lived alone. A more detailed examination shows that this effect was driven by those who improved their relationships with family members; those who did not improve their family relationships were not significantly different from those who lived alone, when it came to rebuilding/relocation planning. Those who improved their relationships with family members were also less likely to suggest that the vignette family relocate. This study supports the general hypothesis that family bonds reduce the desire to relocate, and provides empirical evidence that family mechanisms are important for the rebuilding/relocating decision

  20. Mud Volcanism in the South East Caspian, Gorgon Plane, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzini, A.; Poludetkina, E. N.; Mehrabi, B.; Krueger, M.; Inguaggiato, S.; Etiope, G.

    2014-12-01

    Although numerous studies have been completed on the Western Caspian side (e.g. mainly Azerbaijan), very little is known about the hydrocarbon plumbing system of the deepest and southernmost basin. This region has great potentials for hydrocarbon exploration and the study of mud volcanoes located here represents the opportunity to access to an open window to better understand the stratigraphy and the mechanisms ongoing at great depth as well as the origin and signature of the seeping fluids. Three so far unexplored mud volcano structures (Sofikam, Gharniarigh, and Naftliche) have been mapped and sampled in the Golestan region in the south eastern Caspian Sea. All the structures have negative morphology (i.e. "pockmark like") with caldera collapse. A multidisciplinary workflow of analyses is being conducted including gas and water geochemistry, incubation of microbial colonies, petrography of the seeping mud and erupted mud breccia clasts. Sofikam consists of 5 distinct pools up to 4-5 m in diameter that forms an E-W oriented alignment. All of the pools display vigorous seepage of fluids and are either water- or denser mud-dominated. Gharniarigh is a large mud volcano up to ~600 m in diameter with a bulging island in the internal part of the crater where eroded gryphons ridges witness a palaeo vigorous activity. The outskirts of the "island" are almost entirely flooded with water and/or covered with salt crusts in the summer. Here are distributed several small water and gas seeps. Naftliche (~400 m wide) is filled with water with a main seep in the centre of the lake. Preliminary gas geochemistry indicates the seepage of methane-dominated gas in all structures with additional small portions of ethane and propane as well as iC4 in Gharniarigh and Naftliche. All samples collected for microbial colonies incubation reveal strong activity with CO2 production under aerobic and anaerobic conditions as well as production of biogenic methane. In particular, samples from

  1. Application of red mud as a basic catalyst for biodiesel production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Liu; Ruirui Xin; Chengcheng Li; Chunli Xu; Jun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Red mud was investigated in triglyceride transesterification with a view to determine its viability as a basic catalyst for use in biodiesel synthesis.The effect of calcination temperature on the structure and activity of red mud catalysts was investigated.It was found that highly active catalyst was obtained by simply drying red mud at 200℃.Utilization of red mud as a catalyst for biodiesel production not only provides a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way of recycling this solid red mud waste,significantly reducing its environmental effects,but also reduces the price of biodiesel to make biodiesel competitive with petroleum diesel.

  2. Application of red mud as a basic catalyst for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Xin, Ruirui; Li, Chengcheng; Xu, Chunli; Yang, Jun

    2013-04-01

    Red mud was investigated in triglyceride transesterification with a view to determine its viability as a basic catalyst for use in biodiesel synthesis. The effect of calcination temperature on the structure and activity of red mud catalysts was investigated. It was found that highly active catalyst was obtained by simply drying red mud at 200 degrees C. Utilization of red mud as a catalyst for biodiesel production not only provides a cost-effective and environmentally friendly way of recycling this solid red mud waste, significantly reducing its environmental effects, but also reduces the price of biodiesel to make biodiesel competitive with petroleum diesel.

  3. Research on the property improvement of PVC using red mud in industrial waste residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaopeng; Li, Xingang; Shuai, Songxian

    2015-07-01

    Red mud is a red solid power waste that is discharged in the aluminium refinery industry during production. It is a strong alkali and can be categorized as polluting industrial residue. How to make comprehensive use of red mud has become a worldwide issue. In this paper, we put red mud into PVC (polyvinyl chloride polymer), taking advantage of the complicated chemical properties of red mud derived from the Bayer process. The results are compared with silica fume, coal ash and calcium carbonate under the same experimental conditions, which shows that improvement of PVC plastication can be achieved by adding red mud.

  4. Thermogravimetric study of the dehydration and reduction of red mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplov, O. A.; Korenovskii, N. L.; Lainer, Yu. A.

    2015-01-01

    The processes of drying and reduction of red mud in the pure state and with coal additions in vacuum or in gaseous media (helium, hydrogen) have been experimentally studied by thermogravimetry using a Setaram TAG24 thermogravimetric analyzer. The minimum total weight loss (˜20%) is observed for red mud samples without additives in forevacuum, and the maximum loss (˜38%) is detected in samples with coal. It is demonstrated that, for this type of red mud with iron oxide Fe2O3, water molecules are bonded in the form of iron hydroxide Fe2O3 · 3H2O rather than goethite FeOOH. The peak of magnetite formation is observed in differential thermogravimetry (DTG) curve in the range 270-400°C. The simulation of the magnetite dehydration and formation rates under experimental conditions in the relevant temperature ranges agrees with the experimental data. A peak of wustite formation in hydrogen above ˜600°C is recorded in a DTG curve, and the removal of one-third of sodium oxide, which is likely not to be fixed into strong sodium alumosilicate, is observed in the range 800-1000°C. The peak detected in the DTG curve of the mud with charcoal in helium in the range 350-450°C is similar to the peak of hematite reduction in magnetite in a hydrogen atmosphere. The most probable source of hydrogen-containing gases in this temperature range consists of the residual hydrocarbons of charcoal. The reduction reactions of disperse iron oxides with coal proceed only at temperatures above 600°C. These processes occur in the same temperature range (600-900°C) both in forevacuum and in a helium atmosphere. It is experimentally demonstrated that sintering process occurs in the mud in the temperature range 450-850°C.

  5. Chemical, mineralogical, and isotopic characteristics of mud from the LUSI mud volcano, Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia: implications for the environment, public health, and eruption processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Casadevall, T. J.; Wibowo, H. T.; Rosenbauer, R. J.; Johnson, C. A.; Breit, G. N.; Hageman, P. L.; Wolf, R. E.; Morman, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    On May 29, 2006, mud and gases began erupting from a vent 150 meters away from a gas exploration well near Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia. The eruption, called the LUSI mud volcano, has continued at rates as high as 160,000 m3 per day. At the request of the United States Department of State, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been providing technical assistance to the Indonesian Government on the geological and geochemical aspects of the mud eruption. This paper will present analytical results of mud samples collected in Sept. 2007 and Nov. 2008, and interpretive findings based on the analytical results. The 2007 mud sample contains high proportions of particles that could be ingestible by hand-mouth transmission (~98 vol % petroleum source rocks. Although the 2007 mud sample contains several percent iron sulfides, net acid production tests indicate that enough carbonate material is also present to prevent the mud from becoming acid-generating due to weathering and sulfide oxidation in the near-surface environment. Water derived from settling mud deposits may have the potential to adversely affect the quality of surface- or groundwater sources for drinking water, due to high levels of fluoride, nitrate, iron, manganese, aluminum, sulfate, chloride, and total dissolved solids. The very high nitrate levels in the waters contained within the mud may present a source of nutrients that could enhance algal blooms and resulting adverse impacts such as hypoxia in fresh-water and marine ecosystems into which some of the mud is being discharged. In agreement with previous studies, water separated from the 2007 mud sample is compositionally and isotopically compatible with an origin as sedimentary formation water. The iron disulfide fraction of the mud sample is isotopically light, and likely formed by bacterial sulfate reduction during diagenesis of clay-rich rocks from which the mud was derived. A smaller, isotopically heavy monosulfide fraction likely formed later by

  6. Mangrove macrobenthos: Assemblages, services, and linkages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. Y.

    2008-02-01

    Macrobenthic assemblages are relatively poorly known compared to other components of the mangrove ecosystem. Tropical mangroves support macrobenthic biodiversity resources yet to be properly documented and interpreted. Some methodological challenges, such as the generally high spatial heterogeneity and complexity of the habitat, evidently reduce sampling efficiency and accuracy, while also leaving some microhabitats under-sampled. Macrobenthic assemblage structure seems to be influenced by local environmental conditions, such as hydroperiod, organic matter availability and sediment characteristics. Brachyurans, gastropods and oligochaetes dominate in the sediment, with the former two groups also common on hard surfaces provided by tree trunks, while insects and arachnids inhabit the canopy. Traditionally, studies of mangrove macrobenthos have focused on assemblage structure or the biology of individual species, but more complex inter-specific interactions and the inter-relationship between habitat and the biota are recently being addressed. Brachyuran crabs are the best-studied macrobenthos group, but many issues about their role in mangrove ecosystem dynamics are still controversial. Despite many species of mangrove macrobenthos being referred to as 'trophic dead ends', most serve as important links between recalcitrant mangrove organic matter and estuarine secondary production, through feeding excursion by mobile nekton during the high tide, and macrobenthos-mediated processing and exportation of organic matter. A significant difference in the standing crop biomass of forests between the Indo-west-Pacific (IWP)' and Atlantic-east-Pacific (AEP) mangroves may be related to the difference in species richness of mangrove as well as macrobenthos diversity in the two bioregions. Such differences in assemblage structure may also result in different ecosystem functioning, but the nature of the links is, however, yet to be explored. There is also a strong need for

  7. Hydrological controls on glacially exported microbial assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubnick, Ashley; Kazemi, Sina; Sharp, Martin; Wadham, Jemma; Hawkings, Jon; Beaton, Alexander; Lanoil, Brian

    2017-05-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) exports approximately 400 km3 of freshwater annually to downstream freshwater and marine ecosystems. These meltwaters originate in a wide range of well-defined habitats that can be associated with very different physical environments within the ice sheet, ranging from oxygenated surface environments that are exposed to light and supplied with nutrients from atmospheric/aeolian sources to subglacial environments that are permanently dark, isolated from the atmosphere, and potentially anoxic. Hydrological conditions in the latter likely favor prolonged rock-water contact. The seasonally evolving hydrological system that drains meltwaters from the GrIS connects these distinct microbial habitats and exports the microbes contained within them to downstream ecosystems. The microbial assemblages exported in glacier meltwater may have an impact on downstream ecosystem function and development. We explored how the seasonal development of a glacial drainage system influences the character of microbial assemblages exported from the GrIS by monitoring the seasonal changes in hydrology, water chemistry, and microbial assemblage composition of meltwaters draining from a glacier in southwest Greenland. We found that the microbial assemblages exported in meltwaters varied in response to glacier hydrological flow path characteristics. Whether or not meltwaters passed through the subglacial environment was the first-order control on the composition of the microbial assemblages exported from the glacier, while water source (i.e., supraglacial or extraglacial) and subglacial residence times were second-order controls. Glacier hydrology therefore plays a fundamental role in determining the microbial exports from glaciated watersheds.

  8. Effects of Polymeric Flocculants on Settlement of Bayer Red Mud Generated from Chinese Diaspore Bauxite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琨瑜; 胡慧萍; 张丽娟; 陈启元

    2008-01-01

    A systematic investigation on the interaction between Bayer red mud particles generated from Chinese diaspore bauxite and commercial sodium polyacrylate (SPA) or polyacrylamide (PAM) was performed by red mud settling tests, conductivity-pH titration and Ubbelodhe viscosimetric measurement. The results indicate that the treatment with red mud by SPA gives a lower red mud settling rate and lower supematant turbidity than the treatment with red mud by PAM. There is an optimum polymer dosage of 300 g/t (based on the weight of dry red mud) when red mud slurry is treated by SPA or PAM, so "bridging" adsorption is one of the main interactions between red mud and SPA or PAM. With the increase of NaOH concentration, the hydrolysis degree of PAM dissolved in NaOH solution increases and its molecular weight almost does not change, but the settling rote of red mud treated by it drops rapidly. The settling rate of red mud treated by PAM dissolved in 10 g/L NaOH solution is 0.61 m/h while by PAM dissolved in distilled water it is 1.31 m/h, because the adsorption ability of the hydrolyzed PAM onto red mud surface declines primarily due to the formation of-CONH2~-COO-~-CONH2 intramolecular hydrogen bond.

  9. Red mud as a carbon sink: variability, affecting factors and environmental significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Chunhua; Ma, Yingqun; Lin, Chuxia

    2013-01-15

    The capacity of red mud to sequester CO(2) varied markedly due to differences in bauxite type, processing and disposal methods. Calcium carbonates were the dominant mineral phases responsible for the carbon sequestration in the investigated red mud types. The carbon sequestration capacity of red mud was not fully exploited due to shortages of soluble divalent cations for formation of stable carbonate minerals. Titanate and silicate ions were the two major oxyanions that appeared to strongly compete with carbonate ions for the available soluble Ca. Supply of additional soluble Ca and Mg could be a viable pathway for maximizing carbon sequestration in red mud and simultaneously reducing the causticity of red mud. It is roughly estimated that over 100 million tonnes of CO(2) have been unintentionally sequestered in red mud around the world to date through the natural weathering of historically produced red mud. Based on the current production rate of red mud, it is likely that some 6 million tonnes of CO(2) will be sequestered annually through atmospheric carbonation. If appropriate technologies are in place for incorporating binding cations into red mud, approximately 6 million tonnes of additional CO(2) can be captured and stored in the red mud while the hazardousness of red mud is simultaneously reduced.

  10. Carbonised red mud--a new water treatment product made from a waste material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulford, I D; Hargreaves, J S J; Ďurišová, J; Kramulova, B; Girard, C; Balakrishnan, M; Batra, V S; Rico, J L

    2012-06-15

    Proposals to use red mud, the waste produced by the extraction of alumina from bauxite ore in the Bayer process, as a material for treatment of heavy metal-contaminated water are limited by its inherent alkalinity and variability. Attempts to lower its pH have been largely unreliable. However, an alternative strategy is carbonisation of red mud by catalytic hydrocarbon cracking, which results in a magnetic material of greater surface area. The efficacy of this material has been compared with that of the untreated parent red mud and acidified red mud for the sorption of CrO(4)(2-), Cu(2+) and Pb(2+). Carbonised red mud does not remove CrO(4)(2-) from solution, but shows enhancement of Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) removal. There is an approximate ten-fold increase in removal of Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) by carbonised red mud compared with acidified red mud.

  11. Seasonal variability in free-living marine nematode community structure in a sandy beach of the Taiping Bay of Qingdao, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Haibin; ZHANG Zhinan; FAN Shiliang; HUA Er; DENG Ke

    2008-01-01

    Nematode assemblage composition,trophic structure and biodiversity were followed over an annual cycle in a sandy beach of the Taiping Bay of Qingdao,China.Nematode assemblage in the sandy beach maintained a high genus diversity (75 genera).Micro-laimus and Bathylaimus were the dominant genus of the nematode assemblage,accounting for 66% of the total nematode abun-dance.The nematodes' dominant trophic structure changed seasonally as a response to the seasonal changes in food quality.Epi-growth-feeder nematodes (2A) were the dominant trophic groups in the trophic structure with the highest abundance in spring be-cause of phytoplankton bloom,while the feeding type (1B) showed higher abundance in summer that was due to the increasing of sediment detritus after spring bloom.Furthermore,species diversity and evenness calculated on nematodes identified to the genus level displayed significant temporal changes,which was also reflected by the index of trophic diversity.According to the cluster analysis,the nematode community structure of the whole year was clearly separated into two periods ( A and B).Biota-Environ-ment matching (BIOENV) results showed that seawater temperature,sediment Chl a and grain size were responsible for the nema-tode community structure variation in spring and summer period (Period A).However,seawater/interstitial water temperature,interstitial water dissolved oxygen concentration,interstitial water salinity,and sediment Ph a a were more important in construc-ting the autumn and winter period ( Period B) nematode community structure.

  12. Coastal Topography--Northeast Atlantic Coast, Post-Hurricane Sandy, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Derived products of a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines, post-Hurricane Sandy (Sandy was an October 2012...

  13. Coastal Topography--Northeast Atlantic Coast, Post-Hurricane Sandy, 2012: Lidar-extracted dune features

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Dune crest and toe positions along a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines, post-Hurricane Sandy (Sandy was an October...

  14. Coastal Topography--Northeast Atlantic Coast, Post-Hurricane Sandy, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Derived products of a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines, post-Hurricane Sandy (Sandy was an October 2012 hurricane...

  15. 2012 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic Lidar: Northeast Atlantic Coast Post-Hurricane Sandy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Binary point-cloud data were produced for a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines, post-Hurricane Sandy (Sandy was an...

  16. Coastal Topography--Northeast Atlantic Coast, Post-Hurricane Sandy, 2012: Digital elevation model (DEM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A DEM was produced for a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines, post-Hurricane Sandy (Sandy was an October 2012...

  17. 2012 U.S. Geological Survey Topographic Lidar: Northeast Atlantic Coast Post-Hurricane Sandy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Binary point-cloud data were produced for a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines, post-Hurricane Sandy (Sandy was an...

  18. STATUS, CAUSES AND COMBATING SUGGESTIONS OF SANDY DESERTIFICATION IN QINGHAI-TIBET PLATEAU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yi-hua; DONG Guang-rong; LI Sen; DONG Yu-xiang

    2005-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is one of the major sandy desertification regions of China. Based on the recent investigation on sandy desertification, this paper analyses the status such as the type, area, distribution and damage of sandy land desertification in the plateau. Through the analysis on the factors affecting sandy desertification in the region's natural and socio-economic systems as well as the processes and their interrelations, it can be concluded that sandy desertification in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau resulted from the combined actions of normal natural sand drift processes, natural sandy desertification processes caused by climatic changes and man-made sandy desertification caused by improper human activities. In addition, it also predicts the possible developmental trend including the increase in desertification area and the enhancement in desertification developmental degree with the exacerbation of the complex processes, and finally puts forward some strategic suggestions to combat sandy desertification in the coming years.

  19. Optimization of Mud Hammer Drilling Performance--A Program to Benchmark the Viability of Advanced Mud Hammer Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnis Judzis

    2006-03-01

    Operators continue to look for ways to improve hard rock drilling performance through emerging technologies. A consortium of Department of Energy, operator and industry participants put together an effort to test and optimize mud driven fluid hammers as one emerging technology that has shown promise to increase penetration rates in hard rock. The thrust of this program has been to test and record the performance of fluid hammers in full scale test conditions including, hard formations at simulated depth, high density/high solids drilling muds, and realistic fluid power levels. This paper details the testing and results of testing two 7 3/4 inch diameter mud hammers with 8 1/2 inch hammer bits. A Novatek MHN5 and an SDS Digger FH185 mud hammer were tested with several bit types, with performance being compared to a conventional (IADC Code 537) tricone bit. These tools functionally operated in all of the simulated downhole environments. The performance was in the range of the baseline ticone or better at lower borehole pressures, but at higher borehole pressures the performance was in the lower range or below that of the baseline tricone bit. A new drilling mode was observed, while operating the MHN5 mud hammer. This mode was noticed as the weight on bit (WOB) was in transition from low to high applied load. During this new ''transition drilling mode'', performance was substantially improved and in some cases outperformed the tricone bit. Improvements were noted for the SDS tool while drilling with a more aggressive bit design. Future work includes the optimization of these or the next generation tools for operating in higher density and higher borehole pressure conditions and improving bit design and technology based on the knowledge gained from this test program.

  20. Geochemical characterization of the Nirano Mud Volcano Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarra, Alessandra; Cantucci, Barbara; Ricci, Tullio; Conventi, Marzia

    2016-04-01

    Mud volcanoes, among fluid venting structures, are the most important phenomena related to natural seepage from the Earth's surface. The occurrence of mud volcanoes is controlled by several factors, such as tectonic activity and continuous hydrocarbon accumulation in a reservoir. Mud volcanoes in Italy occur along the external compressive margin of the Apennine chain. These mud volcanoes are usually small and unspectacular, when compared to other world examples. They rarely exhibit the periodic explosions, which is often related to important seismic activity. The Nirano Mud Volcano Field (NMVF) is located in the western sector of the Modena Apennine margin (Italy), which belongs to the Northern Apennines. The NMVF occurs over the crest of a thrust anticline associated with the main Pede-Apennine thrust and represents a good example of an onshore relationship between a mud volcano caldera structure and active thrust deformation, even if the fluid pathways are still not well understood at depth. The mud volcanoes are distributed along an area of about 10 ha, inside of the wider Natural Reserve, and are situated at the bottom of a wide sub-circular depression. The NMVF is currently formed by four main vents composed of a number of individual active cones (or gryphons) defining structural alignments trending ENE-WSW. A geochemical soil gas survey of 230 CO2 and CH4 fluxes and 150 CO2, CH4, Rn, He, H2 concentration measurements has been carried out inside the NMVF. Moreover, the fluid emissions from 4 active cones located in different sectors of NMVF have been sampled for chemical and isotopical analysis of water and free gas. The distribution of pathfinder elements as 222Rn, He e H2 has been studied in order to identify potential faults and/or fractures related to preferential migration pathways and the possible interactions between reservoir and surface. Soil gas data highlight two zones characterized by higher values, localized in the WSW and ENE of the NMVF area. In

  1. Effects of soil amendment on soil characteristics and maize yield in Horqin Sandy Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Liu, J. H.; Zhao, B. P.; Xue, A.; Hao, G. C.

    2016-08-01

    A 4-year experiment was conducted to investigate the inter-annual effects of sandy soil amendment on maize yield, soil water storage and soil enzymatic activities in sandy soil in Northeast China in 2010 to 2014. We applied the sandy soil amendment in different year, and investigated the different effects of sandy soil amendment in 2014. There were six treatments including: (1) no sandy soil amendment application (CK); (2) one year after applying sandy soil amendment (T1); (3) two years after applying sandy soil amendment(T2); (4) three years after applying sandy soil amendment(T3); (5)four years after applying sandy soil amendment(T4); (6) five years after applying sandy soil amendment (T5). T refers to treatment, and the number refers to the year after application of the sandy soil amendment. Comparing with CK, sandy soil amendments improved the soil water storage, soil urease, invertase, and catalase activity in different growth stages and soil layers, the order of soil water storage in all treatments roughly performed: T3 > T5 > T4 > T2 > T1 > CK. the order of soil urease, invertase, and catalase activity in all treatments roughly performed: T5 > T3 > T4 > T2 > T1 > CK. Soil application of sandy soil amendment significantly (p≤⃒0.05) increased the grain yield and biomass yield by 22.75%-41.42% and 29.92%-45.45% respectively, and maize yield gradually increased with the years go by in the following five years. Sandy soil amendment used in poor sandy soil had a positive effect on soil water storage, soil enzymatic activities and maize yield, after five years applied sandy soil amendment (T5) showed the best effects among all the treatments, and deserves further research.

  2. Deaths associated with Hurricane Sandy - October-November 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy hit the northeastern U.S. coastline. Sandy's tropical storm winds stretched over 900 miles (1,440 km), causing storm surges and destruction over a larger area than that affected by hurricanes with more intensity but narrower paths. Based on storm surge predictions, mandatory evacuations were ordered on October 28, including for New York City's Evacuation Zone A, the coastal zone at risk for flooding from any hurricane. By October 31, the region had 6-12 inches (15-30 cm) of precipitation, 7-8 million customers without power, approximately 20,000 persons in shelters, and news reports of numerous fatalities (Robert Neurath, CDC, personal communication, 2013). To characterize deaths related to Sandy, CDC analyzed data on 117 hurricane-related deaths captured by American Red Cross (Red Cross) mortality tracking during October 28-November 30, 2012. This report describes the results of that analysis, which found drowning was the most common cause of death related to Sandy, and 45% of drowning deaths occurred in flooded homes in Evacuation Zone A. Drowning is a leading cause of hurricane death but is preventable with advance warning systems and evacuation plans. Emergency plans should ensure that persons receive and comprehend evacuation messages and have the necessary resources to comply with them.

  3. Hurricane Sandy: An Educational Bibliography of Key Research Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2013-01-01

    There, undoubtedly, will be a flurry of research activity in the "Superstorm" Sandy impact area on a myriad of disaster-related topics, across academic disciplines. The purpose of this study was to review the disaster research related specifically to hurricanes in the educational and social sciences that would best serve as a compendium…

  4. Patterns of species richness in sandy beaches of South America

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Species richness of the intertidal macroinfauna of exposed sandy beaches around South America is reviewed in relation ... The middle shore is prim

  5. Microfungi diversity isolation from sandy soil of Acapulco touristic beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microscopic fungi diversity in marine sandy soil habitats is associated with key functions of beach ecosystems. There are few reports on their presence in Mexican beaches. Although standard methods to obtain the fungi from soil samples are established, the aim of this pilot study was to test the pla...

  6. 78 FR 46999 - Additional Waivers and Alternative Requirements for Hurricane Sandy Grantees in Receipt of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Additional Waivers and Alternative Requirements for Hurricane Sandy Grantees in... impacted and distressed areas declared a major disaster due to Hurricane Sandy (see 78 FR 14329, published....) (Stafford Act), due to Hurricane Sandy and other eligible events in calendar years 2011, 2012, and 2013....

  7. 77 FR 74891 - Order Granting Exemptions From Certain Rules of Regulation SHO Related to Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... COMMISSION Order Granting Exemptions From Certain Rules of Regulation SHO Related to Hurricane Sandy December 12, 2012. I. Introduction Hurricane Sandy made landfall along the mid-Atlantic Coast on October 29... in the Vault at the time Hurricane Sandy made landfall, facilitating DTCC's ability to...

  8. 78 FR 33467 - Second Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... Response to Hurricane Sandy: Response, Recovery & Resiliency; Correction AGENCY: Federal Transit... by Hurricane Sandy. This amount was in addition to the initial $2 billion allocation announced in the... allocation restoration FTA Section 5324 Emergency Relief Program Allocations for Hurricane Sandy, by...

  9. 33 CFR 165.507 - Security Zone; Chesapeake Bay, between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... south (eastbound) span of the William P. Lane Jr. Memorial Bridge, from the western shore at Sandy Point..., between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD. 165.507 Section 165.507 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Guard District § 165.507 Security Zone; Chesapeake Bay, between Sandy Point and Kent Island, MD. (a...

  10. Effects of reclamation on macrobenthic assemblages in the coastline of the Arabian Gulf: a microcosm experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naser, Humood A

    2011-03-01

    Coastal reclamation and modifications are extensively carried out in Bahrain, which may physically smother the coastal and subtidal habitats resulting in changes to abundance and distribution of macrobenthic assemblages. A microcosm laboratory experiment using three common macrobenthic invertebrates from a proposed reclaimed coastal area was preformed to examine their responses to mud burial using marine sediment collected from a designated borrow area. Significant difference in numbers of survived organisms between control and experimental treatments with a survival percentage of 41.8% for all of the selected species was observed. The polychaete Perinereis nuntia showed the highest percentage of survival (57.1%) followed by the bivalve Tellinavaltonis (42.3%) and the gastropod Cerithidea cingulata (24.0%). Quantifying species responses to sediment burial resulted from dredging and reclamation will aid in predicting the expected ecological impacts associated with coastal developments and subsequently minimizing these impacts and maintaining a sustainable use of coastal and marine ecosystems in the Arabian Gulf.

  11. Miura Tubes and Assemblages: Theory and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipov, Evgueni; Paulino, Glaucio; Tachi, Tomohiro

    2015-03-01

    Origami systems inspired from the Miura-ori pattern are rigid and flat foldable meaning that they can fold completely by deforming only about prescribed fold lines. We investigate origami tubes and assemblages constructed from Miura-ori inspired sheets and use eigenvalue analyses to study their stiffness characteristics. A simplified bar model is used to model the stretching and shear of the flat panel segments and rotational hinges are used to simulate the bending stiffness of the panels and prescribed fold lines. We discuss the small to large deformation bending of thin sheets and show an improved method to estimate stiffness when modeling origami structures. The tube assemblages show interesting behaviors that make them suitable for applications in science and engineering.

  12. Consumer–brand assemblages in advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrisgaard, Sofie Møller; Kjeldgaard, Dannie; Bengtson, Anders

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses how the use of tattoos in advertising renders diverse brand–consumer assemblages visible. In considering advertising practitioners as professionals of entanglement, the paper emphasizes the embeddedness of practitioners’ use of tattoo symbolism in institutionalized marketing...... systems and in the cultural history of tattooing. In accordance with recent emphasis on the importance of material devices for understanding contemporary sociality, this paper presents a semiotic analysis of a convenience sample of advertisements depicting tattoos. Tattoos are productive for the study...... of brand–consumer assemblages because they are situated on the human skin, which is a mediator between the individual and the socio-material world. Furthermore, tattoos reproduce discourses of both mainstream fashion and deviant subcultural identification, which imbue tattoo symbolism with communicative...

  13. Teosinte inflorescence phytolith assemblages mirror Zea taxonomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Hart

    Full Text Available Molecular DNA analyses of the New World grass (Poaceae genus Zea, comprising five species, has resolved taxonomic issues including the most likely teosinte progenitor (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays. However, archaeologically, little is known about the use of teosinte by humans both prior to and after the domestication of maize. One potential line of evidence to explore these relationships is opaline phytoliths produced in teosinte fruit cases. Here we use multidimensional scaling and multiple discriminant analyses to determine if rondel phytolith assemblages from teosinte fruitcases reflect teosinte taxonomy. Our results indicate that rondel phytolith assemblages from the various taxa, including subspecies, can be statistically discriminated. This indicates that it will be possible to investigate the archaeological histories of teosinte use pending the recovery of appropriate samples.

  14. Teosinte inflorescence phytolith assemblages mirror Zea taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, John P; Matson, R G; Thompson, Robert G; Blake, Michael

    2011-03-30

    Molecular DNA analyses of the New World grass (Poaceae) genus Zea, comprising five species, has resolved taxonomic issues including the most likely teosinte progenitor (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) of maize (Zea mays ssp. mays). However, archaeologically, little is known about the use of teosinte by humans both prior to and after the domestication of maize. One potential line of evidence to explore these relationships is opaline phytoliths produced in teosinte fruit cases. Here we use multidimensional scaling and multiple discriminant analyses to determine if rondel phytolith assemblages from teosinte fruitcases reflect teosinte taxonomy. Our results indicate that rondel phytolith assemblages from the various taxa, including subspecies, can be statistically discriminated. This indicates that it will be possible to investigate the archaeological histories of teosinte use pending the recovery of appropriate samples.

  15. Turning the tide: effects of river inflow and tidal amplitude on sandy estuaries in laboratory landscape experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhans, Maarten; Braat, Lisanne; Leuven, Jasper; Baar, Anne; van der Vegt, Maarten; van Maarseveen, Marcel; Markies, Henk; Roosendaal, Chris; van Eijk, Arjan

    2016-04-01

    Many estuaries formed over the Holocene through a combination of fluvial and coastal influxes, but how estuary planform shape and size depend on tides, wave climate and river influxes remains unclear. Here we use a novel tidal flume setup of 20 m length by 3 m width, the Metronome (http://www.uu.nl/metronome), to create estuaries and explore a parameter space for the simple initial condition of a straight river in sandy substrate. Tidal currents capable of transporting sediment in both the ebb and flood phase because they are caused by periodic tilting of the flume rather than the classic method of water level fluctuation. Particle imaging velocimetry and a 1D shallow flow model demonstrate that this principle leads to similar sediment mobility as in nature. Ten landscape experiments recorded by timelapse overhead imaging and AGIsoft DEMs of the final bed elevation show that absence of river inflow leads to short tidal basins whereas even a minor discharge leads to long convergent estuaries. Estuary width and length as well as morphological time scale over thousands of tidal cycles strongly depend on tidal current amplitude. Paddle-generated waves subdue the ebb delta causing stronger tidal currents in the basin. Bar length-width ratios in estuaries are slightly larger to those in braided rivers in experiments and nature. Mutually evasive ebb- and flood-dominated channels are ubiquitous and appear to be formed by an instability mechanism with growing bar and bifurcation asymmetry. Future experiments will include mud flats and live vegetation.

  16. The use of red mud as an immobiliser for metal/metalloid-contaminated soil: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yumei; Heal, Kate V; Friesl-Hanl, Wolfgang

    2017-03-05

    This review focuses on the applicability of red mud as an amendment for metal/metalloid-contaminated soil. The varying properties of red muds from different sources are presented as they influence the potentially toxic element (PTE) concentration in amended soil. Experiments conducted worldwide from the laboratory to the field scale are screened and the influencing parameters and processes in soils are highlighted. Overall red mud amendment is likely to contribute to lowering the PTE availability in contaminated soil. This is attributed to the high pH, Fe and Al oxide/oxyhydroxide content of red mud, especially hematite, boehmite, gibbsite and cancrinite phases involved in immobilising metals/metalloids. In most cases red mud amendment resulted in a lowering of metal concentrations in plants. Bacterial activity was intensified in red mud-amended contaminated soil, suggesting the toxicity from PTEs was reduced by red mud, as well as indirect effects due to changes in soil properties. Besides positive effects of red mud amendment, negative effects may also appear (e.g. increased mobility of As, Cu) which require site-specific risk assessments. Red mud remediation of metal/metalloid contaminated sites has the potential benefit of reducing red mud storage and associated problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Delay Pressure Detection Method to Eliminate Pump Pressure Interference on the Downhole Mud Pressure Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of applying delay pressure detection method to eliminate mud pump pressure interference on the downhole mud pressure signals is studied. Two pressure sensors mounted on the mud pipe in some distance apart are provided to detect the downhole mud continuous pressure wave signals on the surface according to the delayed time produced by mud pressure wave transmitting between the two sensors. A mathematical model of delay pressure detection is built by analysis of transmission path between mud pump pressure interference and downhole mud pressure signals. Considering pressure signal transmission characteristics of the mud pipe, a mathematical model of ideal low-pass filter for limited frequency band signal is introduced to study the pole frequency impact on the signal reconstruction and the constraints of pressure sensor distance are obtained by pole frequencies analysis. Theoretical calculation and numerical simulation show that the method can effectively eliminate mud pump pressure interference and the downhole mud continuous pressure wave signals can be reconstructed successfully with a significant improvement in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR in the condition of satisfying the constraints of pressure sensor distance.

  18. The "Mud-volcanoes route" (Emilia Apennines, northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coratza, Paola; Castaldini, Doriano

    2016-04-01

    In the present paper the "Mud-volcanoes route" (MVR), an itinerary unfolds across the districts of Viano, Sassuolo, Fiorano Modenese and Maranello, in which part of the Emilia mud volcanoes fields are located, is presented. The Mud-volanoes route represents an emotional journey that connects places and excellences through the geological phenomenon of mud volcanoes, known with the local name "Salse". The Mud Volcanoes are created by the surfacing of salt water and mud mixed with gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons along faults and fractures of the ground. The name "Salsa"- from Latin salsus - results from the"salt" content of these muddy waters, ancient heritage of the sea that about a million years ago was occupying the current Po Plain. The "Salse" may take the shape of a cone or a level-pool according to the density of the mud. The Salse of Nirano, in the district of Fiorano Modenese, is one of the most important in Italy and among the most complex in Europe. Less extensive but equally charming and spectacular, are the "Salse" located in the districts of Maranello (locality Puianello), Sassuolo (locality Montegibbio) and Viano (locality Casola Querciola and Regnano). These fascinating lunar landscapes have always attracted the interest of researchers and tourist.The presence on the MVR territory of ancient settlements, Roman furnaces and mansions, fortification systems and castles, besides historic and rural buildings, proves the lasting bond between this land and its men. In these places, where the culture of good food has become a resource, we can find wine cellars, dairy farms and Balsamic vinegar factories that enable us to appreciate unique worldwide products. This land gave also birth to some personalities who created unique worldwide famous values, such as the myth of the Ferrrari, the ceramic industry and the mechatronics. The MVR is represented in a leaflet containing, short explanation, photos and a map in which are located areas with mud volcanoes, castles

  19. Preliminary analysis of red mud spill based on aerial imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Burai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the largest industrial spills in Europe occurred in the village of Kolontár (Hungary on October 4, 2010. The primary objective of the hyperspectral remote sensing mission was to monitor that is necessary in order to estimate the environmental damage, the precise size of the polluted area, the rating of substance concentration in the mud, and the overall condition of the flooded district as soon as possible. The secondary objective was to provide geodetic data necessary for the high-resolution visual information from the data of an additional Lidar survey, and for the coherent modeling of the event. For quick assessment and remediation purposes, it was deemed important to estimate the thickness of the red mud, particularly the areas where it was deposited in a thick layer. The results showed that some of the existing tools can be easily modified and implemented to get the most out of the available advanced remote sensing data.

  20. Novel Desorber for Online Drilling Mud Gas Logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackowski, Marcin; Tobiszewski, Marek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the construction solution and experimental results of a novel desorber for online drilling mud gas logging. The traditional desorbers use mechanical mixing of the liquid to stimulate transfer of hydrocarbons to the gaseous phase that is further analyzed. The presented approach is based on transfer of hydrocarbons from the liquid to the gas bubbles flowing through it and further gas analysis. The desorber was checked for gas logging from four different drilling muds collected from Polish boreholes. The results of optimization studies are also presented in this study. The comparison of the novel desorber with a commercial one reveals strong advantages of the novel one. It is characterized by much better hydrocarbons recovery efficiency and allows reaching lower limits of detection of the whole analytical system. The presented desorber seems to be very attractive alternative over widely used mechanical desorbers.

  1. Application and Development of MMH Mud in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Duo

    1995-01-01

    @@ At present, the application range of MMH is extending and the techniques of MMH drilling fluid is in rapid development and continuos improvement, a variety of MMH drilling fluid systems are using in more than ten Chinese oilfields. A number of oil wells drilled with MMH drilling fluid was registered over 150 in that 30 over 3 000m deep wells, 33 directional wells and 11 horizontal wells of different depth. DH1-4-7 well in Tarim Basin, Xinjiang with5 970 m deep was the deepest well drilled with MMH mud. Through vast drilling experiences in areas with complicated geological and engineering difficulties and with variable target depth, a series of MMH mud formulas suitable for different underground and technological circumstances were figured out.

  2. Red Mud Flocculants Used in the Bayer Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballentine, F.; Lewellyn, M. E.; Moffatt, S. A.

    Flocculation and separation of red mud is an integral part of the Bayer process. Over the latter half of the 20th century, flocculant technology dramatically changed from natural starches to use of "rationally designed" polymers. Many of these advancements were due to the introduction of liquid or emulsion based flocculants which enabled elaborate post-reaction chemistry to be done on the polymer backbone. This paper presents a historical overview of milestones of flocculant technology used in the Bayer process up to present day. Discussion of flocculants is based on inventions in the published literature that have gained widespread use throughout the industry and will included the benefits/advantages of different flocculant technology for settling red mud.

  3. Novel Desorber for Online Drilling Mud Gas Logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Lackowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the construction solution and experimental results of a novel desorber for online drilling mud gas logging. The traditional desorbers use mechanical mixing of the liquid to stimulate transfer of hydrocarbons to the gaseous phase that is further analyzed. The presented approach is based on transfer of hydrocarbons from the liquid to the gas bubbles flowing through it and further gas analysis. The desorber was checked for gas logging from four different drilling muds collected from Polish boreholes. The results of optimization studies are also presented in this study. The comparison of the novel desorber with a commercial one reveals strong advantages of the novel one. It is characterized by much better hydrocarbons recovery efficiency and allows reaching lower limits of detection of the whole analytical system. The presented desorber seems to be very attractive alternative over widely used mechanical desorbers.

  4. User Assemblages in Design: An Ethnographic Study

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents an ethnographic study of the role of users in user-centered design. It is written from the perspective of science and technology studies, in particular developments in actor-network theory, and draws on the notion of the assemblage from the work of Deleuze and Guattari. The data for this thesis derives from a six-month field study of the routine discourse and practices of user-centered designers working for a multinational microprocessor manufacturer. The central argument...

  5. Littoral zone fish assemblages of northern Cayuga Lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, James E.

    2001-01-01

    Fish assemblages from northern Cayuga Lake were examined for patterns in temporal structure. Fish assemblages changed significantly between seasons. Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), bluntnose minnow (Pimephales notatus), and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) formed the basis for most assemblages, but the spring assemblage was dominated by common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Correlations between community structure and abiotic factors were identified. Ten abiotic factors strongly influenced species assemblages, including phosphorus concentration, but could not fully explain differences between assemblages. Results indicate that the seasonal pattern of fish assemblage structure and abundance of fish that tend to feed in the water column were related to the annual cycle of productivity in the lake and behavioral adaptations of the fish.

  6. Daytime Mud Detection for Unmanned Ground Vehicle Autonomous Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    dry soil during nominal weather, i.e., no precipitation , calm wind, and near average temperatures. 2. MUD CUES FROM COLOR It is commonly...disambiguate shadows from wet soil than shadows from dry soil. (a) Red band (b) NIR band (c) NDVI image (d) Brightness image wet soil Red...spectral bands to segment wet soil. Red and NIR bands (Figures 5a and 5b) can be used to generate a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index ( NDVI

  7. Mechanisms of Fluid-Mud Interactions Under Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    surface a corrugated appearance (Figure 12). Through careful analysis of these tests, it has been concluded that the waves are the result of a resonant...square meter per month. Analysis of X-radiographs from this field program has contributed to development of new theory relating hydrodynamics of...Shear near the base of the mobile fluid mud layer mixes coarser underlying rippled sediment with overlying finer sediment, producing laminations

  8. Radiochemical analysis of waters and mud of Euganean spas (Padua)

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The area around the Euganean Hills (North-East Italy) is concerned with thermal phenomena known and used for therapeutic purposes since ancient times. The thermal waters collected in this area have taken up a natural radionuclides content due to the leaching of hot and permeable deep rocks, with which they come into contact, before their rising to the surface. During the "maturation" process of the mud used for treatment purposes, the thermal waters make happen a complex series of biochemical...

  9. PLEISTOCENE BATHYAL MOLLUSCAN ASSEMBLAGES FROM SOUTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ITALO DI GERONIMO

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Four Pleistocene bathyal molluscan assemblages from southern Italy (Calabria and Messina area were studied. One hundred and thirty-six species were recorded. Twenty-four were classified and described in detail and thirty-five were illustrated. The following new combinations are pro posed: Solariella marginulata (Philippi, 1844, Iphitus tenuisculptus (Seguenza, 1876, Benthomangelia tenuicostata (Seguenza, 1879, Chrysallida microscalaria (Seguenza, 1876, Ennucula corbuloides (Seguenza, 1877, Ennucula rotundata (Seguenza, 1877, Thestyleda cuspidata (Philippi, 1844, Katadesmia confusa (Seguenza, 1877, Austrotindaria pusio (Philippi, 1844, Austrotindaria salicensis (Seguenza, 1877. Comments concerning the taxonomy of Fissurisepta Seguenza, 1862, Solariella Wood, 1842, Ennucula Iredale, 1931, Thestyleda Iredale, 1929, Ledella Verrill & Bush, 1897, Yoldiella Verrill & Bush, 1897, Bathyspinula Filatova, 1958, Katadesmia Dall, 1908, Austrotindaria Fleming, 1948 and Cadulus Philippi, 1844 are included. The assemblages are dominated by nuculoids and fit the general compositional pattern of the deep-sea molluscan communities. A paleodepth of 500-600 m is inferred for two assemblages, whereas a greater depth, pro bably not exceeding 1,000 m, is suggested for the other two. Taxonomic affinities with northeast Atlantic and more generally with World Ocean deep-sea molluscan faunas are remarkable. The Plio-Quaternary evolution of the deep Mediterranean benthos is discussed.    

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 234: Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2007-08-01

    Corrective Action Unit 234, Mud Pits, Cellars, and Mud Spills, consists of 12 inactive sites located in the north and northeast section of the NTS. The 12 CAU 234 sites consist of mud pits, mud spills, mud sumps, and an open post-test cellar. The CAU 234 sites were all used to support nuclear testing conducted in the Yucca Flat and Rainier Mesa areas during the 1950s through the 1970s. The CASs in CAU 234 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting appropriate corrective action alternatives.

  11. Immobilization of copper flotation waste using red mud and clinoptilolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coruh, Semra

    2008-10-01

    The flash smelting process has been used in the copper industry for a number of years and has replaced most of the reverberatory applications, known as conventional copper smelting processes. Copper smelters produce large amounts of copper slag or copper flotation waste and the dumping of these quantities of copper slag causes economic, environmental and space problems. The aim of this study was to perform a laboratory investigation to assess the feasibility of immobilizing the heavy metals contained in copper flotation waste. For this purpose, samples of copper flotation waste were immobilized with relatively small proportions of red mud and large proportions of clinoptilolite. The results of laboratory leaching demonstrate that addition of red mud and clinoptilolite to the copper flotation waste drastically reduced the heavy metal content in the effluent and the red mud performed better than clinoptilolite. This study also compared the leaching behaviour of metals in copper flotation waste by short-time extraction tests such as the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), deionized water (DI) and field leach test (FLT). The results of leach tests showed that the results of the FLT and DI methods were close and generally lower than those of the TCLP methods.

  12. Rare earth elements behavior in Peruibe black mud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrecilha, Jefferson K.; Carvalho, Leandro P.; Gouvea, Paulo F.M.; Silva, Paulo S.C. da, E-mail: jeffkoy@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Rare earth elements in sediments have been used as powerful tools for environmental studies because of their behavior during geochemical processes and are also widely accepted as reliable provenance tracers because they are largely water-immobile and thus behave conservatively during sedimentary processes. The Peruibe Black Mud (PBM) is a sedimentary deposit originated from the interactions of marine sediments and organic matter in an estuarine environment that originates a peloid currently used for medicinal purposes. The objective of this study was to examine rare earth elements pattern distribution in the Peruibe black mud sedimentary deposit as a proxy for its geochemical development. Elemental ratios such as LaN/YbN, Th/U and La/Th were determined and a normalization of the mean rare earth elements concentrations in the samples related to NASC indicates that the light (La to Eu) rare earth elements present values close to the unity while the heavy (Tb to Lu) rare earth elements are depleted related to NASC. It can be observed that the light rare earth elements present enrichment values slightly enriched over the unity while the heavy rare earth elements present values generally below the unity reflecting the enrichment of the light rare earth elements over the heavy rare earth. Rare earth elements concentrations determined in Peruibe black mud samples showed a distribution similar to that found in the NASC for the light rare earth elements and depleted for the heavy rare earth elements. (author)

  13. Aerial monitoring in active mud volcano by UAV technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisciotta, Antonino; Capasso, Giorgio; Madonia, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    UAV photogrammetry opens various new applications in the close range domain, combining aerial and terrestrial photogrammetry, but also introduces low-cost alternatives to the classical manned aerial photogrammetry. Between 2014 and 2015 tree aerial surveys have been carried out. Using a quadrotor drone, equipped with a compact camera, it was possible to generate high resolution elevation models and orthoimages of The "Salinelle", an active mud volcanoes area, located in territory of Paternò (South Italy). The main risks are related to the damages produced by paroxysmal events. Mud volcanoes show different cyclic phases of activity, including catastrophic events and periods of relative quiescence characterized by moderate activity. Ejected materials often are a mud slurry of fine solids suspended in liquids which may include water and hydrocarbon fluids, the bulk of released gases are carbon dioxide, with some methane and nitrogen, usually pond-shaped of variable dimension (from centimeters to meters in diameter). The scope of the presented work is the performance evaluation of a UAV system that was built to rapidly and autonomously acquire mobile three-dimensional (3D) mapping data in a volcanic monitoring scenario.

  14. The biogenic emission potential of nitric oxide from sandy soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J. B.; Meixner, F. X.; Sun, Z. G.; Chen, X. B.; Mamtimin, B.

    2009-04-01

    There are about 160.9 Mha of sandy land in China, about 17.6% of total Chinese area, which mainly distributed in 35°-50° N. The western Songnen Plain, which located in the semi-arid region of Northeastern China, is one of the main sandy soil distribution regions. The changes of land use in sandy soil are accompanied by changes in biogeochemical cycles of nutrients, particularly of the air-surface exchange of trace gases like nitric oxide. Our study, based on results obtained by a laboratory incubation technique, focuses on (a) NO production and consumption in sandy soils from two types of land use as function of soil temperature and soil moisture, and (b) The biogenic emission potential of nitric oxide from sandy soils in semi-arid region. At 25˚C, average NO production (in terms of mass of N) was 0.016,and 0.013 ng kg-1s-1 in sandy soils from soybean land (SL) and man-made forest (MF), re¬spectively. NO consumption rate constant ranged from 0.26×10-6 to 7.28×10-6 m3 kg-1s-1. At 25˚C and under optimum soil moisture conditions for NO production, the NO compensation point mixing ratio was about 266 and 161 ug m-3 (465,and 281 ppb) for soils of SL and MF, respectively. Statistically sound relationships have been observed between NO fluxes and soil moisture (optimum curves). NO fluxes also increased exponentially with soil temperature at any given soil moisture. The optimum soil moisture for which maximum NO flux was observed was independent of soil temperature. The maximum of NO flux potentials for SL and MF soils (at 25°C) were 59.6 and 36.5 ng m-2s-1 at water-filled pore space (%WFPS) of 26 and 24, respectively. The NO flux potential was about 2 times larger for cropland soil than for man-made forest soils, most likely due to fertilizer application to the cropland soils.

  15. Landscape Change and Sandy Desertification Monitoring and Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eltahir M. Elhadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The objective of this study is to develop techniques for assessing and analyzing sand desertification in the northern part of Shaanxi Province, China. Approach: In order to reveal the process of land degradation, especially the latest situation of sandy desertification, a method integrating remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS and field survey was employed to build a sandy desertification dataset for analysis. Remote Sensing images included the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM images in 1987 and Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ images in 1999. Eight land-cover classes, including active sand dunes, fixed sand dunes, semi-fixed sand dunes, grass land, farm land, wet land, built up area and unused land and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, were identified. Results: The results showed that the active sand dunes and semi-fixed sand dunes have increased with a change rate of 128.70 and 55.65 km2 year-1, respectively, in the meantime the fixed sand dunes has decreased with a decreasing rate of 182.14 km2 year-1. During the 1987s, the area of sandy desertified land reached 12,006.11 km2 (57.17% of the total sandy area, of which severely desertified, medium desertified and slightly desertified land areas were 4,442.23, 4,253.45 and 3,310.43 km2, respectively. By the year 1999, the area of desertified land was increased to 13,782.30 km2 (65.63% of the total sandy area, of which severely desertified, medium desertified and slightly desertified land areas were 5,169.89, 4,918.15 and 3,694.26 km2, respectively increasing by 1,776.19 km2. Conclusion: Spatial change detection based on active sand dunes showed that the expansion area was much larger than the reversion in the past two decades and that several active sand belts has been formed, suggesting that sandy desertification of northern part of Shaanxi Province, China, will be a long-term task.

  16. Sandy Desertification Status and its Driving Mechanism in North Tibet Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yuxiang

    2004-01-01

    As the main body of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, North Tibet Plateau is one of three major sandy desertification regions in China and also a representative sandy desertification zone of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Accordingly, it is an important region for the study of recent sandy desertification processes and formation mechanism. From such aspects as desertified land types, areas and distributions etc., this paper analyses in detail the sandy desertification status on North Tibet Plateau,and qualitatively and quantitatively deals with the main factors that affect recent sandy desertification processes and the driving mechanism. Research results show that North Tibet Plateau is an important sandy desertification region in China characterized with large desertified land areas, diversified types,high severity, extensive distributions and serious damages. Sandy desertification occurrence and development resulted from combined effects of natural factors, anthropogenic factors, natural processes and man-made processes, of which climatic change is the main driving force.

  17. Geochemical recovery of the Torna-Marcal river system after the Ajka red mud spill, Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Á D; Klebercz, O; Magyar, Á; Burke, I T; Jarvis, A P; Gruiz, K; Mayes, W M

    2014-12-01

    The failure of the Ajka red mud depository in October 2010 led to the largest single release of red mud into the surface water environment. This study provides a comparative assessment of stream sediment quality in the Torna-Marcal-Rába catchment between post-disaster surveys (2010) and follow up surveys at an identical suite of 21 locations in 2013. The signature of red mud apparent in initial surveys with high Al, As, Cr, Na, V was only apparent at a small number of sample stations in recent surveys. These constitute 20 km reach of affected sediments in the immediate aftermath of the spill. Concentrations of red mud-derived contaminants are predominately associated with fine fractions of the red mud (red mud-derived contaminants and, along with extensive remedial efforts, has substantially limited the within-channel inventory of potentially ecotoxic metals and metalloids.

  18. Eruption of a deep-sea mud volcano triggers rapid sediment movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feseker, Tomas; Boetius, Antje; Wenzhöfer, Frank; Blandin, Jerome; Olu, Karine; Yoerger, Dana R; Camilli, Richard; German, Christopher R; de Beer, Dirk

    2014-11-11

    Submarine mud volcanoes are important sources of methane to the water column. However, the temporal variability of their mud and methane emissions is unknown. Methane emissions were previously proposed to result from a dynamic equilibrium between upward migration and consumption at the seabed by methane-consuming microbes. Here we show non-steady-state situations of vigorous mud movement that are revealed through variations in fluid flow, seabed temperature and seafloor bathymetry. Time series data for pressure, temperature, pH and seafloor photography were collected over 431 days using a benthic observatory at the active Håkon Mosby Mud Volcano. We documented 25 pulses of hot subsurface fluids, accompanied by eruptions that changed the landscape of the mud volcano. Four major events triggered rapid sediment uplift of more than a metre in height, substantial lateral flow of muds at average velocities of 0.4 m per day, and significant emissions of methane and CO₂ from the seafloor.

  19. Comparative Analysis of the Effects of Cashew and Mango Extracts on the Rheological Properties of Water Based Mud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omotioma M

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparative analysis of the effects of cashew and mango extracts on the rheological properties of water based mud is presented. To control corrosion of drilling materials, corrosion inhibitor is usually used as one of the drilling mud additives. Such inhibitive substance can only be applied when it improves the rheological properties of the drilling mud. In this work, the mud samples were formulated in the absence and presence of various concentrations of cashew and mango extracts. The production method of the mud and the determination of its rheological and allied properties were carried out based on the mud production standards of American Petroleum Institute. From the analysis of the experimental results, cashew and mango leaves extracts are suitable additives for the production of water based mud. Mango leaves extract shows higher improvement of the rheological properties of the drilling mud. Use of plant leaves extracts as drilling mud additives will encourage local content development.

  20. Quantifying the digital traces of Hurricane Sandy on Flickr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Tobias; Moat, Helen Susannah; Bishop, Steven R; Treleaven, Philip; Stanley, H Eugene

    2013-11-05

    Society's increasing interactions with technology are creating extensive "digital traces" of our collective human behavior. These new data sources are fuelling the rapid development of the new field of computational social science. To investigate user attention to the Hurricane Sandy disaster in 2012, we analyze data from Flickr, a popular website for sharing personal photographs. In this case study, we find that the number of photos taken and subsequently uploaded to Flickr with titles, descriptions or tags related to Hurricane Sandy bears a striking correlation to the atmospheric pressure in the US state New Jersey during this period. Appropriate leverage of such information could be useful to policy makers and others charged with emergency crisis management.

  1. Effect of ferroalloy gas purification rate on kinetics of red mud carbonization

    OpenAIRE

    Кириченко, Олексій Геннадійович

    2013-01-01

    The process of iron carburization by CO-containing gases of ferroalloy furnaces using as catalyst materials red mud from alumina production.Red mud from alumina production and waste gases ferroalloy furnaces after appropriate training are quite suitable for the decomposition reaction of carbon monoxide. Ferroalloy gas sulfur compounds have toxic effect on the catalytic ability of the red mud. The most effective absorber catalyst poisons in the experiments was a solution of potassium permangan...

  2. New technology of extracting the amount of rare earth metals from the red mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martoyan, G. A.; Karamyan, G. G.; Vardan, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper outlined the environmental and economic problems associated with red mud - the waste generated in processing of bauxite ore for aluminum production. The chemical analysis of red mud has identified a number of useful elements including rare earth metals. The electromembrane technology of red mud processing with extraction of valuable elements is described. A possible scheme of separation of these metals through electrolysis is also given.

  3. Linking geochemical processes in mud volcanoes with arsenic mobilization driven by organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Chuan; Kar, Sandeep; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Wang, Chung-Ho; Lee, Yao-Chang; Sracek, Ondra; Li, Zhaohui; Bundschuh, Jochen; Yang, Huai-Jen; Chen, Chien-Yen

    2013-11-15

    The present study deals with geochemical characterization of mud fluids and sediments collected from Kunshuiping (KSP), Liyushan (LYS), Wushanting (WST), Sinyangnyuhu (SYNH), Hsiaokunshui (HKS) and Yenshuikeng (YSK) mud volcanoes in southwestern Taiwan. Chemical constituents (cations, anions, trace elements, organic carbon, humic acid, and stable isotopes) in both fluids and mud were analyzed to investigate the geochemical processes and spatial variability among the mud volcanoes under consideration. Analytical results suggested that the anoxic mud volcanic fluids are highly saline, implying connate water as the probable source. The isotopic signature indicated that δ(18)O-rich fluids may be associated with silicate and carbonate mineral released through water-rock interaction, along with dehydration of clay minerals. Considerable amounts of arsenic in mud irrespective of fluid composition suggested possible release through biogeochemical processes in the subsurface environment. Sequential extraction of As from the mud indicated that As was mostly present in organic and sulphidic phases, and adsorbed on amorphous Mn oxyhydroxides. Volcanic mud and fluids are rich in organic matter (in terms of organic carbon), and the presence of humic acid in mud has implications for the binding of arsenic. Functional groups of humic acid also showed variable sources of organic matter among the mud volcanoes being examined. Because arsenate concentration in the mud fluids was found to be independent from geochemical factors, it was considered that organic matter may induce arsenic mobilization through an adsorption/desorption mechanism with humic substances under reducing conditions. Organic matter therefore plays a significant role in the mobility of arsenic in mud volcanoes.

  4. Recycling red mud from the production of aluminium as a red cement-based mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaojie; Zhao, Jianfeng; Li, Haoxin; Zhao, Piqi; Chen, Qin

    2017-05-01

    Current management for red mud is insufficient and a new method is needed. A series of experiments have been carried out to develop a new approach for effective management of red mud. Mortars without or with 3%, 6% and 9% red mud were prepared and their fresh and hardened properties were measured to access the possibility of recycling the red mud in the production of red cement-based mortar. The mechanisms corresponding to their mechanical performance variations were explored by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the fresh mortars with red mud present an increase of viscosity as compared with the control. However, little difference is found when the content of red mud is altered. It also can be seen that red mud increases flow time and reduces the slump flow of the mortar. Meanwhile, it is found that mortar with red mud is provided with higher air content. Red mud is eligible to adjust the decorative mortar colour. Compressive strength of mortar is improved when less than 6% red mud is added. However, overall it has a slightly negative effect on tensile bond strength. It decreases the Ca(OH)2 content and densifies the microstructure of hardened paste. The heavy metal concentrations in leachates of mortars with red mud are much lower than the values required in the standard, and it will not do harm to people's health and the environment. These results are important to recycle and effectively manage red mud via the production of red cement-based mortar.

  5. Development of alkali activated cements and concrete mixture design with high volumes of red mud

    OpenAIRE

    KRIVENKO PAVEL; O. Kovalchuk; PASKO ANTON; CROYMANS TOM; HULT MIKAEL; LUTTER GUILLAUME; VANDEVENNE N.; SCHREURS S.; Schroeyers, W.

    2017-01-01

    Dedicated cement compositions were formulated to enable the incorporation of large volume fractions of red mud in alkali activated cements, taking into account the role of the aluminosilicate phase in the processes of hydration and hardening. High volume red mud alkali activated cements were synthesized using a proper combination of red mud, low basic aluminosilicate compounds with a glass phase (blast-furnace slag) and additives selected from high-basic Ca-containing cements with a crystalli...

  6. Quantifying the Digital Traces of Hurricane Sandy on Flickr

    OpenAIRE

    Preis, Tobias; Moat, Helen Susannah; Bishop, Steven R.; Treleaven, Philip; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Society’s increasing interactions with technology are creating extensive “digital traces” of our collective human behavior. These new data sources are fuelling the rapid development of the new field of computational social science. To investigate user attention to the Hurricane Sandy disaster in 2012, we analyze data from Flickr, a popular website for sharing personal photographs. In this case study, we find that the number of photos taken and subsequently uploaded to Flickr with titles, desc...

  7. Evaluation of Corn Cob Cellulose and its Suitability for Drilling Mud Formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nmegbu, Chukwuma Godwin Jacob

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Properties of mud formulated with variable concentrations of cellulose processed from corn cob have been studied. The results obtained were compared with that of a standard mud formulated from Polyanionic Cellulose (PAC. These results have shown that the pH, mud density, specific gravity of the mud formulated from corn cob cellulose are higher than that of the standard mud, but rheology of the prepared mud was lower than that of the standard mud. The results show that cellulose processed from corn cob can significantly reduce fluid loss in a water based drilling mud, suggesting cellulose as a good fluid loss control agent. It is confirmed that polymer can be used as fluid loss control agent in the mud system. The water loss analysis showed that the drilling fluid formulated from local material has a lower fluid loss of between 5.2-5.8 mls as compared to 6.6 mls for PAC. This also confirms that cellulose processed from corn cobs are preferred fluid loss control agents thanPolyanionic Cellulose (PAC.

  8. Numerical Modeling of Water Wave Interaction with A Soft Mud Bed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐鹏; 王石青; 侯一筠

    2004-01-01

    A vertical 2-D numerical model is presented for simulating the interaction between water waves and a soft mud bed.Taking into account nonlinear rheology, a semi-empirical rheological model is applied to this water-mud model, reflecting the combined viseo-elasto-plastic properties of soft mud under such oscillatory external forces as water waves. In order to increase the resolution of the flow in the neighborhood of both sides of the inter-surface, a logarithmic grid in the vertical direction is employed for numerical treatment. Model verifications are given through comparisons between the calculated and the measured mud mass transport velocities as well as wave height changes.

  9. Mud Pit Risk-Based Closure Strategy Report, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brain Hoenes

    2004-08-01

    This report presents the findings of the human and ecological risk assessment for the NTS mud pits. The risk assessment utilizes data from 52 of the 270 NTS mud pits in conjunction with corroborative data from 87 other DOE mud pits associated with nuclear testing (at locations on the NTS, in the western United States, and Alaska) as well as relevant process knowledge. Based on the risk assessment findings, the report provides a strategy for further evaluation, characterization, and closure of all 270 NTS mud pit CASs using the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER).

  10. Comparison of Copper Scavenging Capacity between Two Different Red Mud Types

    OpenAIRE

    Yingqun Ma; Chuxia Lin; Chunhua Si

    2012-01-01

    A batch experiment was conducted to compare the Cu scavenging capacity between two different red mud types: the first one was a highly basic red mud derived from a combined sintering and Bayer process, and the second one was a seawater-neutralized red mud derived from the Bayer process. The first red mud contained substantial amounts of CaCO3, which, in combination with the high OH− activity, favored the immobilization of water-borne Cu through massive formation of atacamite. In comparison, t...

  11. Removal of Pb ion from water samples using red mud (bauxite ore processing waste)

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorbani A.; Nazarfakhari M.; Pourasad Y.; Mesgari Abbasi S.

    2014-01-01

    This work presented the use of red mud (bauxite ore processing waste) in removal of lead ions in water samples. For this 0.1 g of red mud has been used as adsorbent which suspended in 10 ml of lead solution with the concentration of 50 mg l-1 for about 1 h. After that the lead concentration in the samples taken from the red mud treated lead solution measured with atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The effect of some parameter which is important in adsorption of lead on red mud such as suit...

  12. Comparison of Copper Scavenging Capacity between Two Different Red Mud Types

    OpenAIRE

    Yingqun Ma; Chuxia Lin; Chunhua Si

    2012-01-01

    A batch experiment was conducted to compare the Cu scavenging capacity between two different red mud types: the first one was a highly basic red mud derived from a combined sintering and Bayer process, and the second one was a seawater-neutralized red mud derived from the Bayer process. The first red mud contained substantial amounts of CaCO3, which, in combination with the high OH? activity, favored the immobilization of water-borne Cu through massive formation of atacamite. In comparison, t...

  13. Properties of Bayer Red Mud Based Flux and its Application in the Steelmaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanling; Li, Fengshan; Wang, Ruimin

    Bayer red mud is characterized as highly oxidizing (high Fe2O3 content) and highly alkaline (high Na2O content), which tends to act as a flux and strong dephosphorizer in the steelmaking process. In this study, firstly, the thermodynamical properties of Bayer red mud based flux were predicted including the melting temperature and phosphorus capacity. Further, laboratory experiments on application of Bayer red mud-based flux in hot metal dephosphorization. The effects of influencing factors such as flux composition and basicity were discussed. The results gave necessary basic knowledge for promoting the application of Bayer red mud in the steelmaking process.

  14. The Potential Consequences of the Hungarian Red Mud Disaster for Soil

    OpenAIRE

    RUYTERS, Stefan; Mertens, Jelle; Smolders, Erik

    2011-01-01

    In October 2010 a dam of a waste reservoir of the Hungarian Aluminium Cooperation broke resulting in a red mud (pH=12) spill across the Torna river flooding the cities of Devecser and Kolontar in Hungary. Approximately 800 ha of land have been contaminated with red mud. Red mud was characterized and its toxicity for plants was measured to evaluate the soil contamination risks. Increasing red mud doses were mixed into the soil up to a 16.5% dry weight fraction resulting in a maximal soil pH in...

  15. Suspended matter and fluid mud off Alleppey, southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shynu, R.; Rao, V.P.; Samiksha, S.V.; Vethamony, P.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Kessarkar, P.M.; Babu, M.T.; DineshKumar, P.K.

    , T.K., Mukherji, K.K., Ramachandran, K.K., 1988. Sedimentology of the Kerala mud banks (Fluid Muds?). Marine Geology 80, 99-118. Mathew J. 1992. Wave-mud interaction in mudbanks, Ph. D. Thesis, 132p. Mathew, J., Baba, M., Kurian, N.P., 1995...-51. Ramachandran, K.K. and Mallik, T.K., 1985. Sedimentological aspects of Alleppey Mud Bank, West coast of India. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 14, 133-135. Ramachandran, K. K., Samsuddin, M., 1991. Removal of sediments from the Alleppey nearshore region...

  16. Brazilian sandy beaches: characteristics, ecosystem services, impacts, knowledge and priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Cecília Zacagnini Amaral

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sandy beaches constitute a key ecosystem and provide socioeconomic goods and services, thereby playing an important role in the maintenance of human populations and in biodiversity conservation. Despite the ecological and social importance of these ecosytems, Brazilian sandy beaches are significantly impacted by human interference, chemical and organic pollution and tourism, as well as global climate change. These factors drive the need to better understand the environmental change and its consequences for biota. To promote the implementation of integrated studies to detect the effects of regional and global environmental change on beaches and on other benthic habitats of the Brazilian coast, Brazilian marine researchers have established The Coastal Benthic Habitats Monitoring Network (ReBentos. In order to provide input for sample planning by ReBentos, we have conducted an intensive review of the studies conducted on Brazilian beaches and summarized the current knowledge about this environment. In this paper, we present the results of this review and describe the physical, biological and socioeconomics features of Brazilian beaches. We have used these results, our personal experience and worldwide literature to identify research projects that should be prioritized in the assessment of regional and global change on Brazilian sandy beaches. We trust that this paper will provide insights for future studies and represent a significant step towards the conservation of Brazilian beaches and their biodiversity.

  17. Hurricane Sandy washover deposits on Fire Island, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Selle, SeanPaul M.; Lunghino, Brent D.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Costa, Pedro J.M.

    2017-02-16

    Washover deposits on Fire Island, New York, from Hurricane Sandy in 2012 were investigated a year after the storm to document the sedimentary characteristics of hurricane washover features. Sediment data collected in the field includes stratigraphic descriptions and photos from trenches, bulk sediment samples, U-channels, and gouge and push cores. Samples and push cores were further analyzed in the laboratory for grain size, density variations using x-ray computed tomography (CT), and surface microtexture using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Elevation profiles of washover features were measured using Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) with Real Time Kinematic processing. The DGPS elevations were compared to lidar (light detection and ranging) data from pre- and post-Sandy surveys to assess the degree to which washover deposit thicknesses changed within the year following deposition. Hurricane Sandy washover deposits as much as 1 meter thick were observed in trenches. Initial results show that the upper parts of the deposits have been reworked significantly in some places by wind, but there are still areas where the deposits are almost entirely intact. Where mostly intact, the washover deposits consist of massive or weakly laminated sand near the base, overlain by more strongly laminated sands.

  18. Meiobenthic diversity in space and time: The case of harpacticoid copepods in two Mediterranean microtidal sandy beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevastou, Katerina; Lampadariou, Nikolaos; Eleftheriou, Anastasios

    2011-10-01

    Meiobenthic data from two microtidal sandy beaches of the eastern Mediterranean (Crete, Greece) were used to investigate patterns of both alpha and beta diversity in space and time. Copepod assemblages and environmental variables related to sediment characteristics, morphodynamics and food were studied over a year at four distinct habitats at each beach; the retention, resurgence and saturation zones of Salvat's intertidal scheme (midlittoral zone), and the surf zone of the sublittoral. Αlpha diversity analysis indicated similar species richness at both beaches when the whole 13-month data set was considered but was higher at the sheltered site when each sampling period was examined separately. Both beaches supported higher diversity in the sublittoral zone. Species richness increased seawards at the midlittoral zone of the sheltered site whereas, no pattern was evident at the exposed site, where the intense hydrodynamic conditions homogenized the sediments. Beta diversity increased markedly towards the sublittoral, indicating greater differences in alpha diversity between the sublittoral and the midlittoral zone. Species turnover was more variable at the exposed beach and at the most landward stations, where environmental conditions change often between extremes. A proportion of the variation in alpha diversity was explained by food availability at both beaches and additionally by grain size at the sheltered site. However, no environmental variable explained beta diversity patterns. Although the results of our study support the hypothesis of Multicausal Environmental Severity proposed for sandy beach macrofauna, we believe the classic Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis is a more appropriate framework for the meiofauna communities of the studied sites.

  19. Carbonate mud bodies in middle Mississippian strata of southern Indiana and northern Kentucky: End members of a middle Mississippian mud mound spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A. (BP Exploration Inc., Houston, TX (USA)); Dodd, J.R. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington (USA))

    1990-06-01

    Relatively small, lens-shaped carbonate mud bodies are common features in the Ramp Creek Formation and Harrodsburg Limestone (Mississippian) of southern Indiana and northern Kentucky. The outcrop dimensions of the lenses range from approximately 10 cm thick and 3 m wide to as much as 2 m thick and in excess of 100 m wide; their three-dimensional geometry is unknown. The lens cores consist of dolomitic mudstone that grades laterally and vertically into increasingly more fossiliferous wackestone to grainstone with fenestrate bryozoans and echinoderms being the dominant fossils. The great abundance of fenestrate bryozoan fragments surrounding the lenses suggests that lens evolution was controlled by the trapping of carbonate mud by the baffling action of bryozoans. Wisps of organic material preserved in the lens cores may be remnants of some form of non-calcareous algae that also baffled and trapped carbonate mud. These mud lenses are end members of a spectrum of Mississippian carbonate mud bodies ranging in size from these small lenses to the classical Waulsortian mounds that may be hundreds of meters thick and a kilometer or more broad. All of these carbonate mud bodies may have in part formed by baffling and localizing of carbonate mud by organisms and in part by local production of carbonate mud. The major difference between large and small bodies is the water depth in which each formed. The Ramp Creek-Harrodsburg mud lenses may be miniature Waulsortian mounds that developed at or above fair-weather wave base on a relatively shallow carbonate platform rather than on shelf-to-basin slopes as proposed for the classical Waulsortian mounds.

  20. Sothi-Siswal Ceramic Assemblage: A Reappraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejas Garge

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Harappan evidences in Chautan valley has a unique ceramic tradition. In the light of recent plethora of knowledge as well as against the background of the studies conducted by A. Ghosh, J.S. Nigam, Katy Frenchman, Suraj Bhan & Madhu Bala, we will have to not only reclassify the Sothi-Siswal ceramic assemblage but also alter basic nomenclatures and concepts involve in it. It will give us deep insight in to the process of evolution of Early Harappan cultures vis-à-vis the dynamic of regional cultural complexes.

  1. Nonlinear sequential laminates reproducing hollow sphere assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idiart, Martín I.

    2007-07-01

    A special class of nonlinear porous materials with isotropic 'sequentially laminated' microstructures is found to reproduce exactly the hydrostatic behavior of 'hollow sphere assemblages'. It is then argued that this result supports the conjecture that Gurson's approximate criterion for plastic porous materials, and its viscoplastic extension of Leblond et al. (1994), may actually yield rigorous upper bounds for the hydrostatic flow stress of porous materials containing an isotropic, but otherwise arbitrary, distribution of porosity. To cite this article: M.I. Idiart, C. R. Mecanique 335 (2007).

  2. Spatial distribution of sandy desertificationchange in the west of Jilin Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUHuiqing; XUJiawei; LVXinmiao

    2003-01-01

    The sandy land of the western part of Jilin Province is located in the ecotone of semi-humid and semi-arid area in the temperate zone of China. The sandy desertification has widely spread in the region because of the vulnerable natural conditions and the unreasonable human activity; as a result of this, the precious land resources and the economic development in the area have been seriously impacted. In this paper, the sandy land ecologic environment geographic information system is established based on the multi-spectral, multi-temporal Landsat TM images and field investigation. The comprehensive indexes of sandy desertification extent assessment which include vegetation degradation, wind erosion extent and soil depth are presented to classify the sandy land in western Jilin into three levels--slight, moderate and severe sandy desertification with the support of GIS platform. The results demonstrate that the sandy desertification has been partly controlled in the past twenty years, except some small sites. However, this doesn't necessarily mean that there is nothing for more concern. The two main causes of sandy desertification have not been eliminated yet, one is its natural factor, especially the physical and chemical characters of sandy soil and dry climate; another is the immoderate economic activity of human being that has highly accelerated the sandy desertification process.

  3. Habitat Specialization in Tropical Continental Shelf Demersal Fish Assemblages

    OpenAIRE

    Ben M Fitzpatrick; Euan S Harvey; Heyward, Andrew J.; Twiggs, Emily J.; Jamie Colquhoun

    2012-01-01

    The implications of shallow water impacts such as fishing and climate change on fish assemblages are generally considered in isolation from the distribution and abundance of these fish assemblages in adjacent deeper waters. We investigate the abundance and length of demersal fish assemblages across a section of tropical continental shelf at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to identify fish and fish habitat relationships across steep gradients in depth and in different benthic habitat types. ...

  4. Application of MUD/MOO/VR in Foreign Language Teaching and Its Prospect%MUD/MOO/VR的外语教学应用及前景分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋志娟

    2004-01-01

    建构主义是近年来在教育研究领域最常被引用的基本理论.MUD/MOO/VR这种网络应用形式很好地符合了建构主义的学习要求,有着广阔的教育应用前景.通过分析MUD/MOO/VR技术与外语教学的结合点,介绍几个外语教学MUD实例之后,提出MUD/MOO/VR技术在外语教学应用中的发展方向.

  5. The Lusi mud eruption dynamics: constraints from field data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzini, Adriano; Sciarra, Alessandra; Lupi, Matteo; Mauri, Guillaume; Karyono, Karyono; Husein, Alwi; Aquino, Ida; Ricco, Ciro; Obermann, Anne; Hadi, Soffian

    2017-04-01

    The Indonesian Lusi eruption has been spewing boiling water, gas, and sediments since the 29th of May 2006. Initially, numerous aligned eruptions sites appeared along the Watukosek fault system that was reactivated after the Yogyakarta earthquake occurring the 27th of May in the Java Island. Since its birth Lusi erupted with a pulsating behavior showing intermittent periods of stronger activity resulting in higher fluids and solid emissions intervals. Since 2010 two active vents are constantly active. We conducted detailed monitoring of such clastic geysering activity and this allowed us to distinguish four distinct phases that follow each other and that reoccur every 30 minutes: (1) regular bubbling activity (constant emission of water, mud breccia, and gas); (2) clastic geysering phase with intense bubbling (consisting in reduced vapor emission and more powerful diffused mud bursting); (3) clastic geysering with mud bursts and intense vapour discharge (typically dense plume that propagates up to 100 m in height); (4) quiescent phase marking the end of the geysering activity (basically no gas emissions or bursts observed). In order to better understand this pulsating behavior and to constrain the mechanisms controlling its activity, we designed a multidisciplinary monitoring of the eruption site combining the deployment of numerous instruments around the crater site. Processing of the collected data reveals the dynamic activity of Lusi's craters. Satellite images show that the location of these vents migrated along a NE-SW direction. This is subparallel to the direction of the Watukosek fault system that is the zone of (left) lateral deformation upon which Lusi developed in 2006. Coupling HR camera images with broadband and short period seismic stations allowed us to describe the seismic signal generated by clastic geysering and to constrain the depth of the source generating the signal. We measure a delay between the seismic (harmonic) record and the associated

  6. Giant convecting mud balls of the early solar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Philip A; Travis, Bryan J

    2017-07-01

    Carbonaceous asteroids may have been the precursors to the terrestrial planets, yet despite their importance, numerous attempts to model their early solar system geological history have not converged on a solution. The assumption has been that hydrothermal alteration was occurring in rocky asteroids with material properties similar to meteorites. However, these bodies would have accreted as a high-porosity aggregate of igneous clasts (chondrules) and fine-grained primordial dust, with ice filling much of the pore space. Short-lived radionuclides melted the ice, and aqueous alteration of anhydrous minerals followed. However, at the moment when the ice melted, no geological process had acted to lithify this material. It would have been a mud, rather than a rock. We tested the effect of removing the assumption of lithification. We find that if the body accretes unsorted chondrules, then large-scale mud convection is capable of producing a size-sorted chondrule population (if the body accretes an aerodynamically sorted chondrule population, then no further sorting occurs). Mud convection both moderates internal temperature and reduces variation in temperature throughout the object. As the system is thoroughly mixed, soluble elements are not fractionated, preserving primitive chemistry. Isotopic and redox heterogeneity in secondary phases over short length scales is expected, as individual particles experience a range of temperature and water-rock histories until they are brought together in their final configuration at the end of convection. These results are consistent with observations from aqueously altered meteorites (CI and CM chondrites) and spectra of primitive asteroids. The "mudball" model appears to be a general solution: Bodies spanning a ×1000 mass range show similar behavior.

  7. Transcultured Architecture: Mudéjar’s Epic Journey Reinterpreted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ila Nicole Sheren

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mudéjar phenomenon is unparalleled in the history of architecture. This style of architecture and ornamentation originated with Arab craftsmen living in reconquered medieval Spain. Embraced by Spanish Christians, Mudéjar traveled over the course of the next four centuries, becoming part of the architectural history of Latin America, especially present-day Mexico and Peru. The style’s transmission across different religions and cultures attests to its ability to unify disparate groups of people under a common visual language. How, then, did mudejar managto gain popularity across reconquered Spain, so much so that it spread to the New World colonies? In this article, I argue that art and architecture move more fluidly than ideologies across boundaries, physical and political. The theory of transculturation makes it possible to understand how an architectural style such as Mudéjar can be generated from a cultural clash and move to an entirely different context. Developed in 1947 by Cuban scholar and theorist Fernando Ortíz, transculturation posited means by which cultures mix to create something entirely new. This process is often violent, the result of intense conflict and persecution, and one culture is almost always defeated in the process. The contributions of both societies, however, coexist in the final product, whether technological, artistic, or even agricultural. I argue that mudejar in Latin America is a product of two separate transculturations: the adoption of Arab design and ornamentation by Spanish Christians, and the subsequent transference of these forms to the New World through the work of indigenous laborers.

  8. Linking geochemical processes in mud volcanoes with arsenic mobilization driven by organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chia-Chuan; Kar, Sandeep [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Jean, Jiin-Shuh, E-mail: jiinshuh@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wang, Chung-Ho [Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Yao-Chang [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Sracek, Ondra [OPV s.r.o. (Groundwater Protection Ltd.), Bělohorská 31, 169 00 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Palacký University, 17. listopadu 12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Li, Zhaohui [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Department of Geosciences, University of Wisconsin – Parkside, Kenosha, WI 53144 (United States); Bundschuh, Jochen [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Faculty of Engineering and Surveying and National Centre for Engineering in Agriculture, The University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba (Australia); Yang, Huai-Jen [Department of Earth Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Yen [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan (China)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: ► Study represents geochemical characteristics and their spatial variability among six mud volcanoes of southern Taiwan. ► Anoxic mud volcanic fluids containing high NaCl imply connate water as the possible source. ► δ{sup 18}O-rich fluids is associated with silicate and carbonate mineral released through water–rock interaction. ► High As content in mud and its sequential extraction showed mostly adsorbed As on organic and sulphidic phases. ► Organic matter specially humic acid showed redox dependence and it may play an important role in binding and mobility of arsenic. -- Abstract: The present study deals with geochemical characterization of mud fluids and sediments collected from Kunshuiping (KSP), Liyushan (LYS), Wushanting (WST), Sinyangnyuhu (SYNH), Hsiaokunshui (HKS) and Yenshuikeng (YSK) mud volcanoes in southwestern Taiwan. Chemical constituents (cations, anions, trace elements, organic carbon, humic acid, and stable isotopes) in both fluids and mud were analyzed to investigate the geochemical processes and spatial variability among the mud volcanoes under consideration. Analytical results suggested that the anoxic mud volcanic fluids are highly saline, implying connate water as the probable source. The isotopic signature indicated that δ{sup 18}O-rich fluids may be associated with silicate and carbonate mineral released through water–rock interaction, along with dehydration of clay minerals. Considerable amounts of arsenic in mud irrespective of fluid composition suggested possible release through biogeochemical processes in the subsurface environment. Sequential extraction of As from the mud indicated that As was mostly present in organic and sulphidic phases, and adsorbed on amorphous Mn oxyhydroxides. Volcanic mud and fluids are rich in organic matter (in terms of organic carbon), and the presence of humic acid in mud has implications for the binding of arsenic. Functional groups of humic acid also showed variable sources of

  9. Biogeochemical interactions among the arsenic, iron, humic substances, and microbes in mud volcanoes in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Chuan; Maity, Jyoti Prakash; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Sracek, Ondra; Kar, Sandeep; Li, Zhaohui; Bundschuh, Jochen; Chen, Chien-Yen; Lu, Hsueh-Yu

    2011-01-01

    Fluid and mud samples collected from Hsiaokunshui (HKS), Wushanting (WST), Yenshuikeng (YSK), Kunshuiping (KSP), Liyushan (LYS), and Sinyangnyuhu (SYNH) mud volcanoes of southwestern Taiwan were characterized for major ions, humic substances (HS) and trace elements concentrations. The relationship between the release of arsenic (As) and activities of sulfate-reducing bacteria has been assessed to understand relevant geochemical processes in the mud volcanoes. Arsenic (0.02-0.06 mg/L) and humic substances (4.13 × 10(-4) to 1.64 × 10(-3) mM) in the fluids of mud volcanoes showed a positive correlation (r = 0.99, p volcano. Arsenic and iron in mud sediments formed two separate groups i) high As, but low Fe in HKS, WST, and SYNH; and ii) low As, but high Fe in the YSK, KSP, and LYS mud volcanoes. The Eh(S.H.E.) values of the mud volcano liquids were characterized by mild to strongly reducing conditions. The HKS, SYNH, and WST mud volcanoes (near the Chishan Fault) belongs to strong reducing environment (-33 to -116 mV), whereas the LYS, YSK, and KSP mud volcanoes located near the coastal plain are under mild reducing environment (-11 to 172 mV). At low Eh values mud volcanoes, saturation index (SI) values of poorly crystalline phases such as amorphous ferric hydroxide indicate understaturation, whereas saturation is reached in relatively high Eh(S.H.E.) values mud volcanoes. Arsenic contents in sediments are low, presumably due to its release to fluids (As/Fe ratio in YSK, KSP, and LYS sediment: 4.86 × 10(-4)-6.20 × 10(-4)). At low Eh(S.H.E.) values (mild to strong reducing environment), arsenic may co-precipitate with sulfides as a consequence of sulfate reduction (As/Fe ratios in WST, HKS, and SYNH sediments: 0.42-0.69).

  10. Paraformaldehyde-resistant starch-fermenting bacteria in "starch-base" drilling mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MYERS, G E

    1962-09-01

    Starch-fermenting bacteria were found in each of 12 samples of nonfermenting starch-base drilling mud examined. Of the 12 samples, 3 contained very active starch-fermenting gram-positive spore-bearing bacilli closely resembling Bacillus subtilis. Similar active starch-fermenting bacteria were found in fermenting starch-base drilling mud and in corn starch and slough water used to prepare such mud. The active starch-fermenting microorganisms completely hydrolyzed 1% (w/v) corn starch within 24 hr at 37.5 C. The active starch-fermenting bacteria isolated from fermenting drilling mud were capable of surviving 12 hr of continuous exposure to 0.1% (w/w) paraformaldehyde or 1 hr of continuous exposure to 0.5% (w/w) paraformaldehyde, with no diminution in starch-fermenting ability. The same organisms fermented starch after 3 hr of continuous exposure to 0.5% (w/w) paraformaldehyde, but not after 4 hr of exposure. The phenomenon of rapid disappearance of paraformaldehyde from fermenting drilling mud was observed in the laboratory using a modified sodium sulfite test. Paraformaldehyde, initially present in a concentration of 0.192 lb per barrel of mud, completely disappeared in 9 hr at 22 to 23 C. A significant decrease in paraformaldehyde concentration was detected 0.5 hr after preparation of the mud. It is suggested that the presence of relatively high concentrations of ammonia and chloride in the mud may facilitate the disappearance of paraformaldehyde. The failure of 0.1% (w/w) paraformaldehyde to inhibit the strong starch-fermenting microorganisms isolated from fermenting drilling mud, and the rapid disappearance of paraformaldehyde from the mud, explains the fermentation of starch which occurred in this mud, despite the addition of paraformaldehyde.

  11. Cavitation Erosion of P110 Steel in Different Drilling Muds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kmieć M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The P110 steel specimens were subjected to ultrasonic cavitation erosion in different compositions of drilling muds and surfactant additive. The test procedure was based on ASTM-G-32 standard recommendations. API 5CT-P110 steel is used for pipes in oil and gas industry. The harsh environment and high velocity of flows poses corrosive and erosive threat on materials used there. The composition of drilling fluid influences its rheological properties and thus intensity of cavitation erosion. The erosion curves based on weight loss were measured.

  12. Techniques de formage et d'assemblage

    CERN Document Server

    Favre, G; CERN. Geneva. TS Department

    2004-01-01

    Les sections Techniques d'Assemblage du groupe EST/MF et Brasage du groupe EST/SM ont été groupées en un seul service dans un but de rationalisation accrue des ressources et méthodes. Ce service dispose de nombreux moyens : soudure et découpe LASER (YAG, 350 W), soudure par faisceau d'électrons (deux installations, 35 et 7.5 kW), équipements TIG orbital, jet line, MIG, soudure plasma, boîte à gants, portique de soudage trois axes multiprocédés, presses plieuses, rouleuses, moyens de repoussage, alimentation à induction 12 kW et divers fours sous vide et à air. Le service est composé de 17 personnes dont la polyvalence est encouragée. Les activités de la section seront décrites à travers quelques exemples significatifs récents, notamment : l'assemblage des amenées de courant HTS, la réalisation des chambres LSS, des tubes HET, d'enveloppes céramiques pour détecteurs PET-HPD, le brasage de RFQ, la soudure du Barrel d'ATLAS ou encore le soudage des lignes de thermalisation du toroïde d'AT...

  13. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis assemblages and sub-assemblages in symptomatic patients from Damascus city and its suburbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skhal, Dania; Aboualchamat, Ghalia; Al Mariri, Ayman; Al Nahhas, Samar

    2017-01-01

    Giardia duodenalis is one of the most important human enteric parasites worldwide and is endemic throughout the world with a vast range of mammalian hosts. However, there is limited information on the prevalent genetic variability of G. duodenalis in Syria. This study aimed to evaluate the predominance of G. duodenalis assemblages/sub-assemblages causing humans infection in the city of Damascus and its suburbs. 40 symptomatic giardiasis patients were recruited in this study. Fecal samples were genotyped using PCR/RFLP assay targeting the β-giardin and glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) genes. HaeIII, BspL1 and RsaI restriction enzymes were used to differentiate between G. duodenalis assemblages/sub-assemblages. Our data showed that 65% of isolates were of assemblage A; 45% belonged to sub-assemblage AII and 20% to sub-assemblage AI. Assemblage B was detected in 27.5% of isolates; 12.5% fit in sub-assemblage BIV, 5% fit in sub-assemblage BIII and 10.5% fit in Discordant genotype BIII/BIV. Mixed genotypes (AII+BIII and AI+BIV) were identified in 3 isolates (7.5%). Significant correlation was found between Giardia AII sub-assemblage and weight loss symptom (P-value=0.05) as well as between contact with domestic animals (cats, P-value=0.027). Moreover, a significant correlation was found between sub-assemblage AI and livestock breeding (P-value=0.000). In conclusion genotyping of human Giardia duodenalis isolates suggests anthroponotic transmission for the route of infection in Damascus and its suburbs. Further studies are needed to screen a wide geographic areas in Syria and to estimate the prevalence of G. duodenalis infection in our population.

  14. Water level response in back-barrier bays unchanged following Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Butman, Bradford; Ganju, Neil K.

    2014-01-01

    On 28–30 October 2012, Hurricane Sandy caused severe flooding along portions of the northeast coast of the United States and cut new inlets across barrier islands in New Jersey and New York. About 30% of the 20 highest daily maximum water levels observed between 2007 and 2013 in Barnegat and Great South Bay occurred in 5 months following Hurricane Sandy. Hurricane Sandy provided a rare opportunity to determine whether extreme events alter systems protected by barrier islands, leaving the mainland more vulnerable to flooding. Comparisons between water levels before and after Hurricane Sandy at bay stations and an offshore station show no significant differences in the transfer of sea level fluctuations from offshore to either bay following Sandy. The post-Hurricane Sandy bay high water levels reflected offshore sea levels caused by winter storms, not by barrier island breaching or geomorphic changes within the bays.

  15. Laboratory exposures of invertebrate and vertebrate species to concentrations of IA-35 (Petro-Canada) drill mud fluid, production water, and Hibernia mud cuttings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, J.; Fancey, L.; Andrews, C.; Meade, J.; Power, F.; Veinot, G. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, St. John' s, NF (Canada). Science Branch; Lee, K. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Mont-Joli, PQ (Canada). Maurice Lamontagne Inst.; Cook, A. [Environment Canada, Moncton, NB (Canada). Environmental Quality Laboratory

    2001-04-01

    The authors studied the short term effects on brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia franciscana), capelin larvae (Mallotus villosus), marine copepods (Calanus finmarchicus), juvenile yellowtail flounder (Limanda ferruginea) and ctenophores (Pleurobrachius pileus) of synthetic drill mud fluid, produced water and drill mud cuttings. In this report, they presented the data collected, including data on the water solubility of Petro-Canada drill mud fluid IA-35 and metal analysis of production water from the Sable Island Offshore Exploration Project. Low acute toxicity potential for drill mud fluid, production water and Hibernia drill cuttings for the species and life stages tested were revealed. The hypothesis to the effect that wastes pose very little or no risk of an acute toxic nature to the marine environment were reinforced by the results from this study. 5 refs., 25 tabs.

  16. The effects of drilling muds on marine invertebrate larvae and adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raimondi, P.T. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Barnett, A.M.; Krause, P.R. [MEC Analytical Systems, Inc., Carlsbad, CA (United States)

    1997-06-01

    A series of laboratory experiments tested the effects of drilling muds from an active platform off southern California on larvae and adults of marine invertebrates. Red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) were used to determine effects of drilling muds on fertilization, early development, survivorship, and settlement, and experiments on adult brown cup corals (Paracyathus stearnsii) tested effects on adult survivorship, viability, and tissue loss. Exposures to drilling muds did not have an effect on abalone fertilization or early development. However, several exposures to drilling muds resulted in weak, but significant, positive effects of drilling muds on settlement of competent larvae. In contrast, settlement of red abalone larvae on natural coralline algal crusts decreased with increasing concentrations of drilling muds. This suggests that drilling muds affect either the abalone`s ability to detect natural settlement inducers, or they affect the inducer itself. Exposure of brown cup corals to concentrations of drilling muds adversely impacted their survivorship and viability. These effects were likely caused by increased tissue mortality of the coral polyps.

  17. Safety evaluation of traces of nickel and chrome in cosmetics: The case of Dead Sea mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma'or, Ze'evi; Halicz, Ludwik; Portugal-Cohen, Meital; Russo, Matteo Zanotti; Robino, Federica; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera

    2015-12-01

    Metal impurities such as nickel and chrome are present in natural ingredients-containing cosmetic products. These traces are unavoidable due to the ubiquitous nature of these elements. Dead Sea mud is a popular natural ingredient of cosmetic products in which nickel and chrome residues are likely to occur. To analyze the potential systemic and local toxicity of Dead Sea mud taking into consideration Dead Sea muds' natural content of nickel and chrome. The following endpoints were evaluated: (Regulation No. 1223/20, 21/12/2009) systemic and (SCCS's Notes of Guidance) local toxicity of topical application of Dead Sea mud; health reports during the last five years of commercial marketing of Dead Sea mud. Following exposure to Dead Sea mud, MoS (margin of safety) calculations for nickel and chrome indicate no toxicological concern for systemic toxicity. Skin sensitization is also not to be expected by exposure of normal healthy skin to Dead Sea mud. Topical application, however, is not recommended for already nickel-or chrome-sensitized persons. As risk assessment of impurities present in cosmetics may be a difficult exercise, the case of Dead Sea mud is taken here as an example of a natural material that may contain traces of unavoidable metals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of Copper Scavenging Capacity between Two Different Red Mud Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingqun Ma

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A batch experiment was conducted to compare the Cu scavenging capacity between two different red mud types: the first one was a highly basic red mud derived from a combined sintering and Bayer process, and the second one was a seawater-neutralized red mud derived from the Bayer process. The first red mud contained substantial amounts of CaCO3, which, in combination with the high OH− activity, favored the immobilization of water-borne Cu through massive formation of atacamite. In comparison, the seawater-neutralized red mud had a lower pH and was dominated by boehmite, which was likely to play a significant role in Cu adsorption. Overall, it appears that Cu was more tightly retained by the CaCO3-dominated red mud than the boehmite-dominated red mud. It is concluded that the heterogeneity of red mud has marked influences on its capacity to immobilize water-borne Cu and maintain the long-term stability of the immobilized Cu species. The research findings obtained from this study have implications for the development of Cu immobilization technology by using appropriate waste materials generated from the aluminium industry.

  19. Novel applications of red mud as coagulant, adsorbent and catalyst for environmentally benign processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaobin; Ang, H M; Tadé, M O

    2008-08-01

    Red mud (RM) is a by-product of bauxite processing via the Bayer process. Its disposal remains an issue of great importance with significant environmental concerns. In the past decades, a lot of research has been done to utilize red mud for environmental-benign applications such as a building material additive and for metal recovery. In recent years, red mud has also been explored for gas cleaning and wastewater treatment. In this paper, we review varying novel applications of red mud as a coagulant and adsorbent for water and gas treatment as well as catalyst for some industrial processes. The environmental compatibility of red mud is discussed. Some directions of future research are also proposed. Red mud presents a promising application in water treatment for removal of toxic heavy metal and metalloid ions, inorganic anions such as nitrate, fluoride, and phosphate, as well as organics including dyes, phenolic compounds and bacteria. In addition, red mud can also be employed as catalysts for hydrogenation, hydrodechlorination and hydrocarbon oxidation. Moreover, leaching and eco-toxicological tests indicate that red mud does not present high toxicity to the environment before or after reuse.

  20. Radiological characterization of clay mixed red mud in particular as regards its leaching features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegedűs, Miklós; Sas, Zoltán; Tóth-Bodrogi, Edit; Szántó, Tamás; Somlai, János; Kovács, Tibor

    2016-10-01

    The reuse of industrial by-products such as red mud is of great importance. In the case of the building material industry the reuse of red mud requires a cautious attitude, since the enhanced radionuclide content of red mud can have an effect on human health. The natural radionuclide content of red mud from the Ajka red mud reservoir and the clay sample from a Hungarian brick factory were determined by gamma spectrometry. It was found that maximum 27.8% red mud content can be added to fulfil the conditions of the EU-BSS. The effect of heat treatment was investigated on a red mud-clay mixture and it was found that in the case of radon and thoron exhalation the applied heat reduced remarkably the exhalation capacities. The leaching features of red mud and different mixtures were studied according to the MSZ-21470-50 Hungarian standard, the British CEN/TS 14429 standard and the Tessier sequential extraction method. The Tessier method and the MSZ-21470-50 standard are suitable for the characterization of materials; however, they do not provide enough information for waste deposition purposes. To this end, we propose using the CEN/TS 14429 method, because it is easy to use, and gives detailed information about the material's behaviour under different pH conditions, however, further measurements are necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of Copper Scavenging Capacity between Two Different Red Mud Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingqun; Si, Chunhua; Lin, Chuxia

    2012-01-01

    A batch experiment was conducted to compare the Cu scavenging capacity between two different red mud types: the first one was a highly basic red mud derived from a combined sintering and Bayer process, and the second one was a seawater-neutralized red mud derived from the Bayer process. The first red mud contained substantial amounts of CaCO3, which, in combination with the high OH− activity, favored the immobilization of water-borne Cu through massive formation of atacamite. In comparison, the seawater-neutralized red mud had a lower pH and was dominated by boehmite, which was likely to play a significant role in Cu adsorption. Overall, it appears that Cu was more tightly retained by the CaCO3-dominated red mud than the boehmite-dominated red mud. It is concluded that the heterogeneity of red mud has marked influences on its capacity to immobilize water-borne Cu and maintain the long-term stability of the immobilized Cu species. The research findings obtained from this study have implications for the development of Cu immobilization technology by using appropriate waste materials generated from the aluminium industry.

  2. Red mud as secondary source for critical raw materials - extraction study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ujaczki, Éva; Zimmermann, Yannick S.; Gasser, Christoph A.; Molnár, Mónika; Feigl, Viktória; Lenz, Markus

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Red mud is a by-product of alumina extraction from bauxite by the Bayer process produced in the billion tons scale worldwide. Red muds, or more generally bauxite residues, are regarded as waste, but may potentially be valuable sources of critical raw materials (CRM). In the present study

  3. Acute and physical effects of water-based drilling mud in the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Julia; Yvonne Bådsvik, Camilla; Altin, Dag; Nordtug, Trond; Olsen, Anders Johny; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik

    2017-09-11

    The aim of this study was to investigate impacts of fine particulate fraction of a commonly used barite-containing drilling mud on the pelagic filter feeding copepod Calanus finmarchicus. The results show that the tested drilling mud had a low acute toxicity on C. finmarchicus (LC50 > 320 mg/L) and that the observed toxicity was likely caused by dissolved constituents in the mud and not the particle phase containing the weighting agent barite. Further, animals were exposed to drilling mud at a concentration of 10 mg/L for 168 hr followed by a 100 hr recovery phase. A rapid uptake of drilling mud particles was observed, while the excretion was slow and incomplete even after 100 hr recovery in clean seawater. The uptake of drilling mud particles caused a significant increase in sinking velocity of copepods, indicating that uptake of drilling mud particles affected their buoyancy. Long-term exposure to low concentrations of drilling mud could therefore cause physical effects such as impacts on the animal's buoyancy which may affect the energy budget of the copepods.

  4. Online Media Use and Adoption by Hurricane Sandy Affected Fire and Police Departments

    OpenAIRE

    Chauhan, Apoorva

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis work, I examine the use and adoption of online communication media by 840 fire and police departments that were affected by the 2012 Hurricane Sandy. I began by exploring how and why these fire and police departments used (or did not use) online media to communicate with the public during Hurricane Sandy. Results show that fire and police departments used online media during Hurricane Sandy to give timely and relevant information to the public about things such as evacuations, ...

  5. Morphology of rain water channelization in systematically varied model sandy soils

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Y.; Cejas, C. M.; Barrois, R.; Dreyfus, R.; Durian, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    We visualize the formation of fingered flow in dry model sandy soils under different raining conditions using a quasi-2d experimental set-up, and systematically determine the impact of soil grain diameter and surface wetting property on water channelization phenomenon. The model sandy soils we use are random closely-packed glass beads with varied diameters and surface treatments. For hydrophilic sandy soils, our experiments show that rain water infiltrates into a shallow top layer of soil and...

  6. OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE--A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnis Judzis

    2004-07-01

    This document details the progress to date on the ''OPTIMIZATION OF MUD HAMMER DRILLING PERFORMANCE--A PROGRAM TO BENCHMARK THE VIABILITY OF ADVANCED MUD HAMMER DRILLING'' contract for the quarter starting April 2004 through June 2004. The DOE and TerraTek continue to wait for Novatek on the optimization portion of the testing program (they are completely rebuilding their fluid hammer). The latest indication is that the Novatek tool would be ready for retesting only 4Q 2004 or later. Smith International's hammer was tested in April of 2004 (2Q 2004 report). Accomplishments included the following: (1) TerraTek re-tested the ''optimized'' fluid hammer provided by Smith International during April 2004. Many improvements in mud hammer rates of penetration were noted over Phase 1 benchmark testing from November 2002. (2) Shell Exploration and Production in The Hague was briefed on various drilling performance projects including Task 8 ''Cutter Impact Testing''. Shell interest and willingness to assist in the test matrix as an Industry Advisor is appreciated. (3) TerraTek participated in a DOE/NETL Review meeting at Morgantown on April 15, 2004. The discussions were very helpful and a program related to the Mud Hammer optimization project was noted--Terralog modeling work on percussion tools. (4) Terralog's Dr. Gang Han witnessed some of the full-scale optimization testing of the Smith International hammer in order to familiarize him with downhole tools. TerraTek recommends that modeling first start with single cutters/inserts and progress in complexity. (5) The final equipment problem on the impact testing task was resolved through the acquisition of a high data rate laser based displacement instrument. (6) TerraTek provided Novatek much engineering support for the future re-testing of their optimized tool. Work was conducted on slip ring [electrical] specifications and tool collar sealing in the

  7. Environmental isotopes to test hypotheses for fluid mud (mud bank) generation mechanisms along the southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jacob, N.; Ansari, M.A.; Revichandran, C.

    further towards the shore and localized by the com- bined action of waves and currents. The fluid mud slide back to the offshore when the waves subside at the end of monsoon. Tatavarti and Narayana (2006) reported that the far infra-gravity waves (10�3e10... chemical parameters like water temper- ature, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, alkalinity etc. weremeasured in-situ. Water temperature, EC and pH were measured by Eutech made multi-parameter probe. Alkalinity of water samples were measured by the titration...

  8. Review of The Architecture of Mud and Qudad DVDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Enrico Fodde

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This superb documentary by Caterina Borelli is a study of the craftsmanship involved in the construction of the mud brick architecture of the Hadramaut and Do'an valleys of the Yemen, and the cultural aspects of a traditional architecture which incorporates an understanding of buildings which dates back centuries. Expanding the existing knowledge of these earthen heritage properties, examining their behaviour in the local climate and the preservation of traditional craftsmanship as part of a sustainable conservation future are the other prominent concerns of this work. The traditional heritage of the Hadramaut and Do'an regions in the south east of the Yemen are entirely constructed from loam. Throughout the centuries, the population has developed very sophisticated building techniques, and created a unique architectural environment. Spectacular structures such as ten-story mud brick tower houses rise up from green valleys that are surrounded by arid mountains. As in other parts of the world, with the advent of modern materials such as cement, indigenous construction and conservation practices carried out by craftsmen are rendered intellectually invisible by a process similar to the drawing of a veil. The elimination of these practices equals the erosion of centuries of building and conservation culture. As this heritage is rapidly disappearing, as shown by these obsolete construction techniques, this documentary is an excellent archive for future generations.

  9. Evaluation of older bay mud sediment from Richmond Harbor, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinza, M.R.; Mayhew, H.L.; Word, J.Q.

    1996-09-01

    The older, bay mud (OBM) unit predates modem man and could act as a barrier to the downward transport of contaminants from the younger bay mud (YBM) because of its hard-packed consistency. However, its chemical and biological nature have not been well characterized. Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory (MSL) conducted three independent studies of OBM sediment in January 1993, January 1994, and October 1994. These studies evaluated potential chemical contamination and biological effects of OBM that could occur as a result of dredging and disposal activities. These evaluations were performed by conducting chemical analysis, solid-phase toxicity tests, suspended- particulate-phase (SPP) toxicity tests, and bioaccumulation tests on the OBM sediment. If the sediment chemistry and toxicity results showed no or minimal contamination and toxicological responses, then either the OBM could be left exposed in Richmond Harbor after dredging the YBM without leaving a source of contamination, or if the project depths necessitate, the OBM would be acceptable for disposal at an appropriate disposal site.

  10. Induction of fish biomarkers by synthetic-based drilling muds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthe Monique Gagnon

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effects of chronic exposure of pink snapper (Pagrus auratus Forster, to synthetic based drilling muds (SBMs. Fish were exposed to three mud systems comprised of three different types of synthetic based fluids (SBFs: an ester (E, an isomerized olefin (IO and linear alpha olefin (LAO. Condition factor (CF, liver somatic index (LSI, hepatic detoxification (EROD activity, biliary metabolites, DNA damage and stress proteins (HSP-70 were determined. Exposure to E caused biologically significant effects by increasing CF and LSI, and triggered biliary metabolite accumulation. While ester-based SBFs have a rapid biodegradation rate in the environment, they caused the most pronounced effects on fish health. IO induced EROD activity and biliary metabolites and LAO induced EROD activity and stress protein levels. The results demonstrate that while acute toxicity of SBMs is generally low, chronic exposure to weathering cutting piles has the potential to affect fish health. The study illustrates the advantages of the Western Australian government case-by-case approach to drilling fluid management, and highlights the importance of considering the receiving environment in the selection of SBMs.

  11. On the hindered settling of sand-mud suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, Jeremy; Manning, Andrew J.

    2017-04-01

    Hindered settling, the process by which the settling of sediment particles becomes impeded due to the proximity of other sediment particles, can be an important process for the coastal modeller, especially in highly muddy environments. It is also a significant process in other disciplines such as chemical engineering, the modelling of debris flow, the study of turbidites, piping of slurries and the understanding of processes occurring within a dredger hopper. This study first examines the hindered settling behaviour of monodisperse suspensions in order to create a framework for polydisperse hindered settling that works for both non-cohesive and cohesive suspensions. The Richardson-Zaki equation is adapted to make it compatible with the changes with viscosity that occur near the point at which suspensions become solid. The modified monodisperse settling equation is then compared to data for hindered settling of cohesive suspensions and shown to be consistent with the transition between hindered settling and the initial permeability phase of consolidation. Based on the monodisperse framework developed initially, this paper proposes a hindered settling model for sand/mud mixtures which is based on a modification of the Masliyah (1979) and Lockett and Bassoon (1979) hindered settling equation. The model is shown to reproduce the hindered settling of a variety of different sediment mixtures whilst reducing the extent of empiricism often associated with the modelling of polydisperse hindered settling of mud/sand mixtures.

  12. Induction of fish biomarkers by synthetic-based drilling muds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marthe Monique; Bakhtyar, Sajida

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of chronic exposure of pink snapper (Pagrus auratus Forster), to synthetic based drilling muds (SBMs). Fish were exposed to three mud systems comprised of three different types of synthetic based fluids (SBFs): an ester (E), an isomerized olefin (IO) and linear alpha olefin (LAO). Condition factor (CF), liver somatic index (LSI), hepatic detoxification (EROD activity), biliary metabolites, DNA damage and stress proteins (HSP-70) were determined. Exposure to E caused biologically significant effects by increasing CF and LSI, and triggered biliary metabolite accumulation. While ester-based SBFs have a rapid biodegradation rate in the environment, they caused the most pronounced effects on fish health. IO induced EROD activity and biliary metabolites and LAO induced EROD activity and stress protein levels. The results demonstrate that while acute toxicity of SBMs is generally low, chronic exposure to weathering cutting piles has the potential to affect fish health. The study illustrates the advantages of the Western Australian government case-by-case approach to drilling fluid management, and highlights the importance of considering the receiving environment in the selection of SBMs.

  13. Meandering worms: mechanics of undulatory burrowing in muds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgan, Kelly M; Law, Chris J; Rouse, Greg W

    2013-04-22

    Recent work has shown that muddy sediments are elastic solids through which animals extend burrows by fracture, whereas non-cohesive granular sands fluidize around some burrowers. These different mechanical responses are reflected in the morphologies and behaviours of their respective inhabitants. However, Armandia brevis, a mud-burrowing opheliid polychaete, lacks an expansible anterior consistent with fracturing mud, and instead uses undulatory movements similar to those of sandfish lizards that fluidize desert sands. Here, we show that A. brevis neither fractures nor fluidizes sediments, but instead uses a third mechanism, plastically rearranging sediment grains to create a burrow. The curvature of the undulating body fits meander geometry used to describe rivers, and changes in curvature driven by muscle contraction are similar for swimming and burrowing worms, indicating that the same gait is used in both sediments and water. Large calculated friction forces for undulatory burrowers suggest that sediment mechanics affect undulatory and peristaltic burrowers differently; undulatory burrowing may be more effective for small worms that live in sediments not compacted or cohesive enough to extend burrows by fracture.

  14. A Numerical Study on Wave-Mud Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dao-hua; NG Chiu-on

    2006-01-01

    Presented in this paper is a numerical study on the interaction of progressive waves propagating in a body of water overlying a layer of viscous fluid mud on the bottom, with emphasis placed on the induced oscillatory motion of the water-mud interface. The fully nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations with the complete set of viscous boundary conditions are solved numerically by a finite difference method that is based on a time-dependent boundary-fitted curvilinear coordinate system, for the simulation of wave motion in the two-layer viscous fluid system. Waves of moderate wavelength are generated in the upper water layer by a numerical flap-type wavemaker. The dynamic pressure due to the surface wave is transmitted downward onto the lower layer, generating wave motion on the interface. On mimicking some reported experimental conditions, the ratio of interfacial to surface wave amplitudes is evaluated and the results are found to compare more favorably with the experimental data than the prediction by a linear theory.

  15. Increasing arsenic sorption on red mud by phosphogypsum addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, G; Guilherme, L R G; Costa, E T S; Curi, N; Penha, H G V

    2013-11-15

    Mining by-products have been tested as adsorbents for arsenic in order to reduce As bioavailability. This study evaluated a red mud (RM) treated with or without phosphogypsum (G) in order to improve its As retention. Red mud and G samples and their mixtures were chemically and mineralogically characterized to gather information concerning their composition, which is key for a better understanding of the adsorbent properties. Phosphogypsum was added to RM in the following proportions: 0, 1, 2, 5, 10, and 25% by weight. These mixtures were subjected to As adsorption and desorption and tested for their maximum adsorption capacity of As (AsMAC). Arsenic adsorption increased upon increasing the proportion of G added to RM. The AsMAC at pure RM reached 909 mg kg(-1), whereas the 75%-RM+25%-G mixture sorbed up to 3333 mg kg(-1) of As, i.e., a 3.5-fold increase in AsMAC. Using G in mixtures with RM increases the efficiency of As adsorption due to the presence of Ca(2+), which alters the charge balance of the adsorbent, leading to the formation of ternary complexes. Addition of G to RM is thus a promising technique to improve As retention, while providing additional value to both by-products, G and RM.

  16. Experimental study and mechanism analysis of modified limestone by red mud for improving desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hongtao; Han, Kuihua; Niu, Shengli; Lu, Chunmei; Liu, Mengqi; Li, Hui [Shandong Univ., Jinan (China). School of Energy and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Red mud is a type of solid waste generated during alumina production from bauxite, and how to dispose and utilize red mud in a large scale is yet a question with no satisfied answer. This paper attempts to use red mud as a kind of additive to modify the limestone. The enhancement of the sulfation reaction of limestone by red mud (two kinds of Bayer process red mud and one kind of sintering process red mud) are studied by a tube furnace reactor. The calcination and sulfation process and kinetics are investigated in a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer. The results show that red mud can effectively improve the desulfurization performance of limestone in the whole temperature range (1,073-1,373K). Sulfur capacity of limestone (means quality of SO{sub 2} which can be retained by 100mg of limestone) can be increased by 25.73, 7.17 and 15.31% while the utilization of calcium can be increased from 39.68 to 64.13%, 60.61 and 61.16% after modified by three kinds of red mud under calcium/metallic element (metallic element described here means all metallic elements which can play a catalytic effect on the sulfation process, including the Na, K, Fe, Ti) ratio being 15, at the temperature of 1,173K. The structure of limestone modified by red mud is interlaced and tridimensional which is conducive to the sulfation reaction. The phase composition analysis measured by XRD of modified limestone sulfated at high temperature shows that there are correspondingly more sulphates for silicate and aluminate complexes of calcium existing in the products. Temperature, calcium/metallic element ratio and particle diameter are important factors as for the sulfation reaction. The optimum results can be obtained as calcium/metallic element ratio being 15. Calcination characteristic of limestone modified by red mud shows a migration to lower temperature direction. The enhancement of sulfation by doping red mud is more pronounced once the product layer has been formed and consequently the promoting

  17. Gypsum addition to soils contaminated by red mud: implications for aluminium, arsenic, molybdenum and vanadium solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoux, Alizée P; Lockwood, Cindy L; Mayes, William M; Stewart, Douglas I; Mortimer, Robert J G; Gruiz, Katalin; Burke, Ian T

    2013-10-01

    Red mud is highly alkaline (pH 13), saline and can contain elevated concentrations of several potentially toxic elements (e.g. Al, As, Mo and V). Release of up to 1 million m(3) of bauxite residue (red mud) suspension from the Ajka repository, western Hungary, caused large-scale contamination of downstream rivers and floodplains. There is now concern about the potential leaching of toxic metal(loid)s from the red mud as some have enhanced solubility at high pH. This study investigated the impact of red mud addition to three different Hungarian soils with respect to trace element solubility and soil geochemistry. The effectiveness of gypsum amendment for the rehabilitation of red mud-contaminated soils was also examined. Red mud addition to soils caused a pH increase, proportional to red mud addition, of up to 4 pH units (e.g. pH 7 → 11). Increasing red mud addition also led to significant increases in salinity, dissolved organic carbon and aqueous trace element concentrations. However, the response was highly soil specific and one of the soils tested buffered pH to around pH 8.5 even with the highest red mud loading tested (33 % w/w); experiments using this soil also had much lower aqueous Al, As and V concentrations. Gypsum addition to soil/red mud mixtures, even at relatively low concentrations (1 % w/w), was sufficient to buffer experimental pH to 7.5-8.5. This effect was attributed to the reaction of Ca(2+) supplied by the gypsum with OH(-) and carbonate from the red mud to precipitate calcite. The lowered pH enhanced trace element sorption and largely inhibited the release of Al, As and V. Mo concentrations, however, were largely unaffected by gypsum induced pH buffering due to the greater solubility of Mo (as molybdate) at circumneutral pH. Gypsum addition also leads to significantly higher porewater salinities, and column experiments demonstrated that this increase in total dissolved solids persisted even after 25 pore volume replacements. Gypsum

  18. Longitudinal Impact of Hurricane Sandy Exposure on Mental Health Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Schwartz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hurricane Sandy hit the eastern coast of the United States in October 2012, causing billions of dollars in damage and acute physical and mental health problems. The long-term mental health consequences of the storm and their predictors have not been studied. New York City and Long Island residents completed questionnaires regarding their initial Hurricane Sandy exposure and mental health symptoms at baseline and 1 year later (N = 130. There were statistically significant decreases in anxiety scores (mean difference = −0.33, p < 0.01 and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD scores (mean difference = −1.98, p = 0.001 between baseline and follow-up. Experiencing a combination of personal and property damage was positively associated with long-term PTSD symptoms (ORadj 1.2, 95% CI [1.1–1.4] but not with anxiety or depression. Having anxiety, depression, or PTSD at baseline was a significant predictor of persistent anxiety (ORadj 2.8 95% CI [1.1–6.8], depression (ORadj 7.4 95% CI [2.3–24.1 and PTSD (ORadj 4.1 95% CI [1.1–14.6] at follow-up. Exposure to Hurricane Sandy has an impact on PTSD symptoms that persists over time. Given the likelihood of more frequent and intense hurricanes due to climate change, future hurricane recovery efforts must consider the long-term effects of hurricane exposure on mental health, especially on PTSD, when providing appropriate assistance and treatment.

  19. Bioleaching of rare earth and radioactive elements from red mud using Penicillium tricolor RM-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yang; Lian, Bin

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate biological leaching of rare earth elements (REEs) and radioactive elements from red mud, and to evaluate the radioactivity of the bioleached red mud used for construction materials. A filamentous, acid-producing fungi named RM-10, identified as Penicillium tricolor, is isolated from red mud. In our bioleaching experiments by using RM-10, a total concentration of 2% (w/v) red mud under one-step bioleaching process was generally found to give the maximum leaching ratios of the REEs and radioactive elements. However, the highest extraction yields are achieved under two-step bioleaching process at 10% (w/v) pulp density. At pulp densities of 2% and 5% (w/v), red mud processed under both one- and two-step bioleaching can meet the radioactivity regulations in China.

  20. Removal of Pb ion from water samples using red mud (bauxite ore processing waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghorbani A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presented the use of red mud (bauxite ore processing waste in removal of lead ions in water samples. For this 0.1 g of red mud has been used as adsorbent which suspended in 10 ml of lead solution with the concentration of 50 mg l-1 for about 1 h. After that the lead concentration in the samples taken from the red mud treated lead solution measured with atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS. The effect of some parameter which is important in adsorption of lead on red mud such as suitable adsorbent dosage, pH and contact time of solution and adsorbent was investigated. The result shows that red mud as solid waste and low-cost adsorbent can be successfully used for the removal of lead ion from aqueous solution.

  1. Effect of self-glazing on reducing the radioactivity levels of red mud based ceramic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shuo; Wu, Bolin

    2011-12-30

    Self-glazing red mud based ceramic materials (RMCM) were produced by normal pressure sintering process using the main raw materials of red mud. The properties of the RMCM samples were investigated by the measurements of mechanical properties, radiation measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the self-glazing RMCM have good mechanical properties (water absorption and apparent porosity approached zero; bulk density, 2.94 g/cm(3); compressive strength, 78.12 MPa). The radiation level has clear change regularity that the radioactivity levels of red mud (6360 Bq) is obvious declined, and can be reduced to that of the natural radioactive background of Guilin Karst landform, China (3600 Bq). It will not only consume large quantities of red mud, but also decrease the production cost of self-glazing RMCM. And the statement of this paper will offer effective ways to reduce the radioactivity level of red mud.

  2. Pilot-Scale Test of Dephosphorization in Steelmaking Using Red Mud-Based Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengshan; Zhang, Yanling; Guo, Zhancheng

    2017-09-01

    Bayer red mud is characterized by its highly oxidizing nature and high alkalinity. It can act as an ideal flux and dephosphorizer in steelmaking. In this study, pilot-scale tests applying the Bayer red mud-based flux in steelmaking have been conducted in a 200-kg, medium-frequency induction furnace. Good slag fluidity and no rephosphorization phenomena are observed. High dephosphorization rates ( 90%) and low final [P] (red mud-based slag can reach as high as 34.05 wt.%, far higher than the 6.73 wt.% in ordinary industrial slag. This suggests that the Al2O3, TiO2 in Bayer red mud can enhance the solid solubility of phosphorus in the P-rich phase. The data obtained are important for promoting the large-scale application of red mud in steelmaking.

  3. Responses of macrobenthos colonizing estuarine sediments contaminated with drilling mud containing diesel oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagatz, M.E.; Plaia, G.R.; Deans, C.H.

    1985-07-01

    Acute toxicities and sublethal effects were determined in several investigations for 11 types of drilling muds obtained from offshore drilling sites in the Gulf of Mexico, which the Petroleum Equipment Suppliers Association supplied to the Environmental Protection Agency. All were used muds that had been recycled during drilling. Those containing the highest amounts of No. 2 diesel fuel oil were the most acutely toxic to mysids (Mysidopsis bahia), grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio), quahog clams (Mercenaria mercenaria), and sand dollars (Echinarachnius parma) and elicited the greatest sublethal responses in corals (Acropora cervicornis). A lignosulfonate mud was the most toxic, followed by a lime mud containing 3.98 mg diesel/g. The present study was initiated to determine the impact of the lime mud with its diesel oil component on field colonization by macrobenthos.

  4. Emergency evacuation orders: considerations and lessons from Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Patrick D

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the problems surrounding the execution of emergency evacuation orders by evaluating Hurricane Sandy and the emergency actions taken by the State of New Jersey and the City of Atlantic City New Jersey. The analysis provides an overview of the legal authority granting emergency powers to governors and mayors to issue evacuation proclamations in addition to an evaluation of the New Jersey's emergency evacuation mandate and subsequent compliance. The article concludes with provision of planning and preparedness recommendations for public managers facing similar hazards, including a recommendation for provision of emergency shelter contingencies within the threat zone in anticipation of citizen noncompliance evacuation orders.

  5. Measured and Estimated Volatilisation of Naphthalene from a Sandy Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindhardt, Bo; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1994-01-01

    The non-steady-state fluxes of naphthalene from an artificially contaminated sandy soil at different water contents were measured in the laboratory, at 10°C. The soil contained 1.1% of organic carbon and the water content varied between 2.8 and 14% w/w. The diffusive flux of naphthalene from the ...... the fluxes by a factor of 1.5 to 6.4. The largest deviation between predicted and observed dynamic fluxes was found at high water contents. For the cover soil, half-life times of 1 to 2 days were estimated by the model for naphthalene degradation....

  6. Uncertainties in sandy shorelines evolution under the Bruun rule assumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonéri eLe Cozannet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the current practice of sandy shoreline change assessments, the local sedimentary budget is evaluated using the sediment balance equation, that is, by summing the contributions of longshore and cross-shore processes. The contribution of future sea-level-rise induced by climate change is usually obtained using the Bruun rule, which assumes that the shoreline retreat is equal to the change of sea-level divided by the slope of the upper shoreface. However, it remains unsure that this approach is appropriate to account for the impacts of future sea-level rise. This is due to the lack of relevant observations to validate the Bruun rule under the expected sea-level rise rates. To address this issue, this article estimates the coastal settings and period of time under which the use of the Bruun rule could be (invalidated, in the case of wave-exposed gently-sloping sandy beaches. Using the sedimentary budgets of Stive (2004 and probabilistic sea-level rise scenarios based on IPCC, we provide shoreline change projections that account for all uncertain hydrosedimentary processes affecting idealized coasts (impacts of sea-level rise, storms and other cross-shore and longshore processes. We evaluate the relative importance of each source of uncertainties in the sediment balance equation using a global sensitivity analysis. For scenario RCP 6.0 and 8.5 and in the absence of coastal defences, the model predicts a perceivable shift toward generalized beach erosion by the middle of the 21st century. In contrast, the model predictions are unlikely to differ from the current situation in case of scenario RCP 2.6. Finally, the contribution of sea-level rise and climate change scenarios to sandy shoreline change projections uncertainties increases with time during the 21st century. Our results have three primary implications for coastal settings similar to those provided described in Stive (2004 : first, the validation of the Bruun rule will not necessarily be

  7. Remediation of Diesel Fuel Contaminated Sandy Soil using Ultrasonic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulandari P.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic cleaning has been used in industry for some time, but the application of ultrasonic cleaning in contaminated soil is just recently received considerable attention, it is a very new technique, especially in Indonesia. An ultrasonic cleaner works mostly by energy released from the collapse of millions of microscopic cavitations near the dirty surface. This paper investigates the use of ultrasonic wave to enhance remediation of diesel fuel contaminated sandy soil considering the ultrasonic power, soil particle size, soil density, water flow rate, and duration of ultrasonic waves application.

  8. Genetic exchange within and between assemblages of Giardia duodenalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasek-Nesselquist, Erica; Welch, David Mark; Thompson, Richard Christopher Andrew; Steuart, Robert F; Sogin, Mitchell L

    2009-01-01

    Meiotic sex evolved early in the history of eukaryotes. Giardia duodenalis (syn. Giardia lamblia, Giardia intestinalis), a parasitic protist belonging to an early diverging lineage of eukaryotes, shows no cytological or physiological evidence of meiotic or sexual processes. Recent molecular analyses challenge the idea that G. duodenalis is a strictly clonal organism by providing evidence of recombination between homologous chromosomes within one subgroup (Assemblage A) of this species as well as genetic transfer from one subgroup to another (Assemblage A-B). Because recombination is not well documented and because it is not known whether the observed inter-assemblage transfer represents true reciprocal genetic exchange or a non-sexual process, we analyzed genic sequences from all major subgroups (Assemblages A-G) of this species. For all assemblages, we detected molecular signatures consistent with meiotic sex or genetic exchange, including low levels of heterozygosity, as indicated by allelic sequence divergence within isolates, and intra- and inter-assemblage recombination. The identification of recombination between assemblages suggests a shared gene pool and calls into question whether it is appropriate to divide the genetically distinct assemblages of G. duodenalis into a species complex.

  9. RNA assemblages orchestrate complex cellular processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Hansen, Heidi Theil; Christiansen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Eukaryotic mRNAs are monocistronic, and therefore mechanisms exist that coordinate the synthesis of multiprotein complexes in order to obtain proper stoichiometry at the appropriate intracellular locations. RNA-binding proteins containing low-complexity sequences are prone to generate liquid...... droplets via liquid-liquid phase separation, and in this way create cytoplasmic assemblages of functionally related mRNAs. In a recent iCLIP study, we showed that the Drosophila RNA-binding protein Imp, which exhibits a C-terminal low-complexity sequence, increases the formation of F-actin by binding to 3......' untranslated regions of mRNAs encoding components participating in F-actin biogenesis. We hypothesize that phase transition is a mechanism the cell employs to increase the local mRNA concentration considerably, and in this way synchronize protein production in cytoplasmic territories, as discussed...

  10. Phylogenetic and functional diversity in large carnivore assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalerum, F

    2013-06-07

    Large terrestrial carnivores are important ecological components and prominent flagship species, but are often extinction prone owing to a combination of biological traits and high levels of human persecution. This study combines phylogenetic and functional diversity evaluations of global and continental large carnivore assemblages to provide a framework for conservation prioritization both between and within assemblages. Species-rich assemblages of large carnivores simultaneously had high phylogenetic and functional diversity, but species contributions to phylogenetic and functional diversity components were not positively correlated. The results further provide ecological justification for the largest carnivore species as a focus for conservation action, and suggests that range contraction is a likely cause of diminishing carnivore ecosystem function. This study highlights that preserving species-rich carnivore assemblages will capture both high phylogenetic and functional diversity, but that prioritizing species within assemblages will involve trade-offs between optimizing contemporary ecosystem function versus the evolutionary potential for future ecosystem performance.

  11. Meiofaunal assemblages associated with native and non-indigenous macroalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Puri; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel; Rubal, Marcos

    2016-07-01

    Meiofauna is a useful tool to detect effects of different disturbances; however, its relevance in the frame of biological invasions has been almost fully neglected. Meiofaunal assemblages associated with the invasive macroalga Sargassum muticum were studied and compared with those associated with two native macroalgae (Bifurcaria bifurcata and Chondrus crispus). We used a linear mixed model to determine the influence of habitat size (i.e. macroalgal biomass) in shaping meiofaunal assemblages. Results showed that habitat size (i.e. macroalgal biomass) shaped meiofaunal assemblages influencing its abundance, richness and structure. However, the identity of macroalga (i.e. species) appears also to play a significant role, particularly the differences of complexity among the studied species may shape their meiofaunal assemblages. Finally, the invasive macroalga appears to influence positively species richness. Our results highlight the need of including different faunal components to achieve a comprehensive knowledge on effects of invasive macroalgae and that meiofaunal assemblages may be a valuable tool to examine them.

  12. Effect of self-glazing on reducing the radioactivity levels of red mud based ceramic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Shuo [College of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China); Wu, Bolin, E-mail: wubolin3211@gmail.com [College of Material Science and Engineering, Guilin University of Technology, Guilin, Guangxi 541004 (China)

    2011-12-30

    Graphical abstract: Self-glazing red mud based ceramic materials (RMCM) were produced by normal pressure sintering process using the main raw materials of red mud. The properties of the RMCM samples were investigated by the measurements of mechanical properties, radiation measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the self-glazing RMCM have good mechanical properties (water absorption and apparent porosity approached zero; bulk density, 2.94 g/cm{sup 3}; compressive strength, 78.12 MPa). The radiation level has clear change regularity that the radioactivity levels of red mud (6360 Bq) are obvious declined, and can be reduced to that of the natural radioactive background of Guilin Karst landform, China (3600 Bq). It will not only consume large quantities of red mud, but also decrease the production cost of self-glazing RMCM. And the statement of this paper will offer effective ways to reduce the radioactivity level of red mud. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The self-glazing phenomenon in red mud system was first discovered in our research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Radiation levels of red mud can be reduced efficiently by self-glazing layer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Red mud based ceramic materials will not cause harm to environment and humans. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This research possesses important economic significances to aluminum companies. - Abstract: Self-glazing red mud based ceramic materials (RMCM) were produced by normal pressure sintering process using the main raw materials of red mud. The properties of the RMCM samples were investigated by the measurements of mechanical properties, radiation measurement, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the self-glazing RMCM have good mechanical properties (water absorption and apparent porosity approached zero; bulk density, 2.94 g/cm{sup 3}; compressive strength, 78.12 MPa). The radiation

  13. Mental health outcomes at the Jersey Shore after Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarino, Joseph A; Hoffman, Stuart N; Kirchner, H Lester; Erlich, Porat M; Adams, Richard E; Figley, Charles R; Solhkhah, Ramon

    2013-01-01

    On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy made landfall in the most densely populated region in the US. In New Jersey, thousands of families were made homeless and entire communities were destroyed in the worst disaster in the history of the state. The economic impact of Sandy was huge, comparable to Hurricane Katrina. The areas that sustained the most damage were the small- to medium-sized beach communities along New Jersey's Atlantic coastline. Six months following the hurricane, we conducted a random telephone survey of 200 adults residing in 18 beach communities located in Monmouth County. We found that 14.5% (95% CI = 9.9-20.2) of these residents screened positive for PTSD and 6.0% (95% CI = 3.1-10.2) met criteria for major depression. Altogether 13.5% (95% CI = 9.1-19.0) received mental health counseling and 20.5% (95% CI = 15.1-26.8) sought some type of mental health support in person or online, rates similar to those reported in New York after the World Trade Center disaster In multivariate analyses, the best predictors of mental health status and service use were having high hurricane exposure levels, having physical health limitations, and having environmental health concerns. Research is needed to assess the mental health status and service use of Jersey Shore residents over time, to evaluate environmental health concerns, and to better understand the storm's impact among those with physical health limitations.

  14. The bioremediation potential of marine sandy sediment microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Răzvan POPOVICIU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The natural microbiota from marine sandy sediments on the Romanian sea coast was tested for resilience in case of hydrocarbon contamination, for estimating the number of (culturable hydrocarbon and lipid oil-degrading microorganisms and for determining the influence of inorganic nitrate and phosphate nutrients on hydrocarbon spill bioremediation process, by microcosm experiments.Results show that hydrocarbon contamination affects the bacteriobenthos both in terms of cell numbers and composition. Bacterial numbers showed a rapid decrease (28% in four days, followed by a relatively fast recovery (two weeks. The pollution favoured the increase of Gram-positive bacterial proportion (from around 25% to 33%Sandy sediment microbiota in both sites studied contained microorganisms able to use mineral or lipid oils as sole carbon sources, usually around 103-104/cm3, with variations according to the sediment grain size and substrate used.The biostimulation experiments showed that, in absence of water dynamism (and, implicitly, an efficient oxygenation, the addition of nitrogen and phosphorus can be ineffective and even inhibit the remediation process, probably due to eutrophication.

  15. Trophic niche shifts driven by phytoplankton in sandy beach ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamino, Leandro; Martínez, Ana; Han, Eunah; Lercari, Diego; Defeo, Omar

    2016-10-01

    Stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) together with chlorophyll a and densities of surf diatoms were used to analyze changes in trophic niches of species in two sandy beaches of Uruguay with contrasting morphodynamics (i.e. dissipative vs. reflective). Consumers and food sources were collected over four seasons, including sediment organic matter (SOM), suspended particulate organic matter (POM) and the surf zone diatom Asterionellopsis guyunusae. Circular statistics and a Bayesian isotope mixing model were used to quantify food web differences between beaches. Consumers changed their trophic niche between beaches in the same direction of the food web space towards higher reliance on surf diatoms in the dissipative beach. Mixing models indicated that A. guyunusae was the primary nutrition source for suspension feeders in the dissipative beach, explaining their change in dietary niche compared to the reflective beach where the proportional contribution of surf diatoms was low. The high C/N ratios in A. guyunusae indicated its high nutritional value and N content, and may help to explain the high assimilation by suspension feeders at the dissipative beach. Furthermore, density of A. guyunusae was higher in the dissipative than in the reflective beach, and cell density was positively correlated with chlorophyll a only in the dissipative beach. Therefore, surf diatoms are important drivers in the dynamics of sandy beach food webs, determining the trophic niche space and productivity. Our study provides valuable insights on shifting foraging behavior by beach fauna in response to changes in resource availability.

  16. High resolution infrared acquisitions droning over the LUSI mud eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Felice, Fabio; Romeo, Giovanni; Di Stefano, Giuseppe; Mazzini, Adriano

    2016-04-01

    The use of low-cost hand-held infrared (IR) thermal cameras based on uncooled micro-bolometer detector arrays became more widespread during the recent years. Thermal cameras have the ability to estimate temperature values without contact and therefore can be used in circumstances where objects are difficult or dangerous to reach such as volcanic eruptions. Since May 2006 the Indonesian LUSI mud eruption continues to spew boiling mud, water, aqueous vapor, CO2, CH4 and covers a surface of nearly 7 km2. At this locality we performed surveys over the unreachable erupting crater. In the framework of the LUSI Lab project (ERC grant n° 308126), in 2014 and 2015, we acquired high resolution infrared images using a specifically equipped remote-controlled drone flying at an altitude of m 100. The drone is equipped with GPS and an autopilot system that allows pre-programming the flying path or designing grids. The mounted thermal camera has peak spectral sensitivity in LW wavelength (μm 10) that is characterized by low water vapor and CO2 absorption. The low distance (high resolution) acquisitions have a temperature detail every cm 40, therefore it is possible to detect and observe physical phenomena such as thermodynamic behavior, hot mud and fluids emissions locations and their time shifts. Despite the harsh logistics and the continuously varying gas concentrations we managed to collect thermal images to estimate the crater zone spatial thermal variations. We applied atmosphere corrections to calculate infrared absorption by high concentration of water vapor. Thousands of images have been stitched together to obtain a mosaic of the crater zone. Regular monitoring with heat variation measurements collected, e.g. every six months, could give important information about the volcano activity estimating its evolution. A future data base of infrared high resolution and visible images stored in a web server could be a useful monitoring tool. An interesting development will be

  17. A Coordinated USGS Science Response to Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, S.; Buxton, H. T.; Andersen, M.; Dean, T.; Focazio, M. J.; Haines, J.; Hainly, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    In late October 2012, Hurricane Sandy came ashore during a spring high tide on the New Jersey coastline, delivering hurricane-force winds, storm tides exceeding 19 feet, driving rain, and plummeting temperatures. Hurricane Sandy resulted in 72 direct fatalities in the mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States, and widespread and substantial physical, environmental, ecological, social, and economic impacts estimated at near $50 billion. Before the landfall of Hurricane Sandy, the USGS provided forecasts of potential coastal change; collected oblique aerial photography of pre-storm coastal morphology; deployed storm-surge sensors, rapid-deployment streamgages, wave sensors, and barometric pressure sensors; conducted Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) aerial topographic surveys of coastal areas; and issued a landslide alert for landslide prone areas. During the storm, Tidal Telemetry Networks provided real-time water-level information along the coast. Long-term networks and rapid-deployment real-time streamgages and water-quality monitors tracked river levels and changes in water quality. Immediately after the storm, the USGS serviced real-time instrumentation, retrieved data from over 140 storm-surge sensors, and collected other essential environmental data, including more than 830 high-water marks mapping the extent and elevation of the storm surge. Post-storm lidar surveys documented storm impacts to coastal barriers informing response and recovery and providing a new baseline to assess vulnerability of the reconfigured coast. The USGS Hazard Data Distribution System served storm-related information from many agencies on the Internet on a daily basis. Immediately following Hurricane Sandy the USGS developed a science plan, 'Meeting the Science Needs of the Nation in the Wake of Hurricane Sandy-A U.S. Geological Survey Science Plan for Support of Restoration and Recovery'. The plan will ensure continuing coordination of internal USGS activities as well as

  18. No correlation between the diversity and productivity of assemblages: evidence from the phytophage and predator assemblages in various cotton agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Men, XingYuan; Ge, Feng

    2014-09-01

    Biodiversity research has shown that primary productivity increases with plant species number, especially in many experimental grassland systems. Here, we assessed the correlation between productivity and diversity of phytophages and natural enemy assemblages associated with planting date and intercropping in four cotton agroecosystems. Twenty-one pairs of data were used to determine Pearson correlations between species richness, total number of individuals, diversity indices and productivity for each assemblage every five days from 5 June to 15 September 2012. At the same trophic level, the productivity exhibited a significant positive correlation with species richness of the phytophage or predator assemblage. A significant correlation was found between productivity and total number of individuals in most cotton fields. However, no significant correlations were observed between productivity and diversity indices (including indices of energy flow diversity and numerical diversity) in most cotton fields for either the phytophage or the predator assemblages. Species richness of phytophage assemblage and total individual numbers were significantly correlated with primary productivity. Also, species richness of natural enemy assemblage and total number of individuals correlated with phytophage assemblage productivity. A negative but not significant correlation occurred between the indices of numerical diversity and energy flow diversity and lower trophic-level productivity in the cotton-phytophage and phytophage-predator assemblages for most intercropped cotton agroecosystems. Our results clearly showed that there were no correlations between diversity indices and productivity within the same or lower trophic levels within the phytophage and predator assemblages in cotton agroecosystems, and inter-cropped cotton fields had a stronger ability to support the natural enemy assemblage and potentially to reduce phytophages.

  19. In-Situ Observation of Fluid Mud in the North Passage of Yangtze Estuary, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jiu-fa(李九发); WAN Xin-ning(万新宁); HE Qing(何青); YING Ming(应铭); SHI Lian-qiang(时连强); S.M.Hutchinson

    2004-01-01

    Observations of fluid mud were made in the lower North Passage of the Yangtze Estuary in February 2000, on 10 ~11 August 2000, on 30~ 31 August 2000 (after two strong typhoons), on 21 ~ 24 August 2000 (neap tide) and on 3 ~6 September 2000 (mean tide) respectively. In situ data show that the fluid mud in this area consists of fine cohesive sediment (median size 7.23μm). The formation and movement of fluid mud varied during the neap-spring and flood-ebb tidal cycle. Observations suggest that fluid mud phenomena in this area may be categorised in a three-fold manner as slack water, storm and saltwedge features. The thickness of the fluid mud layer of slack water during the neap tide ranged from 0.2 to 0.96 m, whereas during the mean tide, the thickness ranged from 0.17 to 0.73 m, and the thickness of the fluid mud layer was larger during slack water than at the flood peak. Shoals cover an area of 800 km2 with a water depth smaller than 5 m. Erosion of these extensive intertidal mudflats due to storm action provides an abundant sediment source. This is particularly significant in this estuary when the tidal level is lower than 5 m. The lower North Passage is a typical zone of saltwater wedging, so the saltwedge fluid mud has the most extensive spatial range in the estuary.

  20. The Contrivance of New Mud Bricks for Restoring and Preserving the Edfa Ancient Granary - Sohag, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed EL-GOHARY

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A mud brick functions as an element of masonry structures. Being an integral part of a wall mass, it must be understood structurally and chemically. The susceptibility of a mud brick to be affected by decay agents depends on the type of raw materials used, the methods of construction, location, the microclimatic conditions, the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of the mud brick itself. In this research, mineralogical composition and granulometric distribution of ancient mud bricks were studied by using some scientific techniques such as XRD, SEM and electrical mechanical sieves, to determine the main components and characteristics, which will serve as reference for the contrivance of new mud bricks. In addition, special knowledge of the physical properties of historic mud bricks were defined by some scientific techniques to get some information about their properties, such as density, porosity, water absorption and shrinkage. Furthermore, all of those characteristics were studied in two groups of new mud bricks, to determine their properties. Finally, ourresults proved that the 6th category in the 1st group and the 10th category in the 2nd group are the most appropriate types for restoring and preserving the studied monument, due to their good physical properties, morphological appearances and their suitable characteristics.

  1. Removal of Phosphate Using Red Mud: An Environmentally Hazardous Waste By-Product of Alumina Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivkumar S. Prajapati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The industrial waste, bauxite residue generated in the Bayer chemical process of alumina production, commonly known as red mud (RM has been used as the adsorbent for selective removal of phosphate in aqueous solutions. RM collected from the storage area of alumina industry was characterized by chemical analysis and physical methods such as BET surface area, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, particle size analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD methods. Among the various red mud samples (0.2–200 μ studied, the samples treated with 1 M HCl for 2 h were found better for the selective adsorption of phosphate in comparison with untreated and heat treated RM samples. The presence of phosphate in the aqueous samples collected after adsorption studies with red mud was determined by standard spectrophotometric procedure using ammonium molybdate and ascorbic acid in nitrate medium at λmax 880 nm. The studies reported significant adsorption of phosphate on acid treated red mud in comparison with adsorption of phosphate on untreated and heat treated red mud, respectively. The adsorption of phosphate on raw red mud and activated red mud was further investigated with respect to stirring time, pH of the solution, dose of adsorbent, and varying phosphate concentration. Acid treated RM is observed as an efficient and cost-effective adsorbent for selective removal of phosphate in aqueous solutions.

  2. Effect of formulation variables on the physical properties and stability of Dead Sea mud masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin, Sawsan; Hamed, Saja; Alkhatib, Hatim S

    2015-01-01

    The physical stability of Dead Sea mud mask formulations under different conditions and their rheological properties were evaluated as a function of the type and level of thickeners, level of the humectant, incorporation of ethanol, and mode of mud treatment. Formulations were evaluated in terms of visual appearance, pH, moisture content, spreadability, extrudability, separation, rate of drying at 32 degrees C, and rheological properties. Prepared mud formulations and over-the-shelf products showed viscoplastic shear thinning behavior; satisfactory rheological behavior was observed with formulations containing a total concentration of thickeners less than 10% (w/w). Casson and Herschel-Bulkley models were found the most suitable to describe the rheological data of the prepared formulations. Thickener incorporation decreased phase separation and improved formulation stability. Bentonite incorporation in the mud prevented color changes during stability studies while glycerin improved spreadability. Addition of 5% (w/w) ethanol improved mud extrudability, slightly increased percent separation, accelerated drying at 32 degrees C, and decreased viscosity and yield stress values. Different mud treatment techniques did not cause a clear behavioral change in the final mud preparation. B10G and K5B5G were labeled as "best formulas" based on having satisfactory physical and aesthetic criteria investigated in this study, while other formulations failed in one or more of the tests we have performed.

  3. Thermal decomposition behaviour of polyacrylamidomethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride in red mud separation process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to provide references for selecting highly efficient red mud flocculants,the behaviour of polyacrylamidomethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (PATAC) in red mud separation process was investigated.PATAC was employed as a flocculant for red mud separation from the caustic aluminate liquor at 95 ℃.The used red mud was generated from Chinese diaspore bauxite in Bayer process of alumina production.And the changes of PATAC before or after being treated in caustic solution at 95 ℃ were studied by thermogravimetry (TG) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis.The results show that PATAC fails in effectively flocculating red mud and PATAC is readily converted to a quaternary ammonium hydroxide (PATAH) in caustic solution.PATAH can be decomposed to a new polymer (HPATAH) even at 95 ℃.Furthermore,there is an intramolecular hydrogen bond formed in the HPATAH polymer chain with two functional groups of -CH2-OH and -CONH2.Therefore,the poor flocculation property of PATAC for red mud separation can be attributed to the thermal decomposition of PATAC in the caustic red mud slurry at 95 ℃ and the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bond in the polymer chain of HPATAH during the thermal decomposition,which causes the absorbable functional groups of PATAC to decrease greatly.

  4. Removal of hexavalent chromium by using red mud activated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deliang; Ding, Ying; Li, Lingling; Chang, Zhixian; Rao, Zhengyong; Lu, Ling

    2015-01-01

    The removal of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from aqueous solution by using red mud activated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was studied. The optimum operation parameters, such as CTAB concentration, pH values, contact time, and initial Cr(VI) concentration, were investigated. The best concentration of CTAB for modifying red mud was found to be 0.50% (mCTAB/VHCl,0.6 mol/L). The lower pH (Red mud activated with CTAB can greatly improve the removal ratio of Cr(VI) as high as four times than that of original red mud. Adsorption equilibrium was reached within 30 min under the initial Cr(VI) concentration of 100 mg L(-1). The isotherm data were analysed using Langmuir and Freundlich models. The adsorption of Cr(VI) on activated red mud fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm model, and the maximum adsorption capacity was estimated as 22.20 mg g(-1) (Cr/red mud). The adsorption process could be well described using the pseudo-second-order model. The result shows that activated red mud is a promising agent for low-cost water treatment.

  5. Prevention and treatment technologies of railway tunnel water inrush and mud gushing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Zhao; Pengfei Li; Siming Tian

    2013-01-01

    Water inrush and mud gushing are one of the biggest hazards in tunnel construction. Unfavorable geo-logical sections can be observed in almost all railway tunnels under construction or to be constructed, and vary in extent. Furthermore, due to the different heights of mountains and the lengths of tunnels, the locations of the unfavorable geological sections cannot be fully determined before construction, which increases the risk of water inrush and mud gushing. Based on numerous cases of water inrush and mud gushing in railway tunnels, the paper tries to classify water inrush and mud gushing in railway tunnels in view of the conditions of the surrounding rocks and meteorological factors associated with tunnel excavation. In addition, the causes of water inrush and mud gushing in combination of macro-and micro-mechanisms are summarized, and site-specific treatment method is put forward. The treatment methods include choosing a method of advance geological forecast according to risk degrees of different sec-tions in the tunnel, determining the items of predictions, and choosing the appropriate methods, i.e. draining-oriented method, blocking-oriented method or draining-and-blocking method. The treatment technologies of railway water inrush and mud gushing are also summarized, including energy relief and pressure relief technology, advance grouting technology, and advance jet grouting technology associated with their key technical features and applicable conditions. The results in terms of treatment methods can provide reference to the prevention and treatment of tunnel water inrush and mud gushing.

  6. Propagation of Measurement-While-Drilling Mud Pulse during High Temperature Deep Well Drilling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal attenuates while Measurement-While-Drilling (MWD mud pulse is transmited in drill string during high temperature deep well drilling. In this work, an analytical model for the propagation of mud pulse was presented. The model consists of continuity, momentum, and state equations with analytical solutions based on the linear perturbation analysis. The model can predict the wave speed and attenuation coefficient of mud pulse. The calculated results were compared with the experimental data showing a good agreement. Effects of the angular frequency, static velocity, mud viscosity, and mud density behavior on speed and attenuation coefficients were included in this paper. Simulated results indicate that the effects of angular frequency, static velocity, and mud viscosity are important, and lower frequency, viscosity, and static velocity benefit the transmission of mud pulse. Influenced by density behavior, the speed and attenuation coefficients in drill string are seen to have different values with respect to well depth. For different circulation times, the profiles of speed and attenuation coefficients behave distinctly different especially in lower section. In general, the effects of variables above on speed are seen to be small in comparison.

  7. Meteorological Uncertainty of atmospheric Dispersion model results (MUD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havskov Sørensen, Jens; Amstrup, Bjarne; Feddersen, Henrik

    The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the 'most likely' dispersion scenario...... of the meteorological model results. These uncertainties stem from e.g. limits in meteorological obser-vations used to initialise meteorological forecast series. By perturbing the initial state of an NWP model run in agreement with the available observa-tional data, an ensemble of meteorological forecasts is produced....... However, recent developments in numerical weather prediction (NWP) include probabilistic forecasting techniques, which can be utilised also for atmospheric dispersion models. The ensemble statistical methods developed and applied to NWP models aim at describing the inherent uncertainties...

  8. Meteorological Uncertainty of atmospheric Dispersion model results (MUD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havskov Sørensen, Jens; Amstrup, Bjarne; Feddersen, Henrik

    The MUD project addresses assessment of uncertainties of atmospheric dispersion model predictions, as well as possibilities for optimum presentation to decision makers. Previously, it has not been possible to estimate such uncertainties quantitatively, but merely to calculate the ‘most likely...... uncertainties of the meteorological model results. These uncertainties stem from e.g. limits in meteorological observations used to initialise meteorological forecast series. By perturbing e.g. the initial state of an NWP model run in agreement with the available observational data, an ensemble......’ dispersion scenario. However, recent developments in numerical weather prediction (NWP) include probabilistic forecasting techniques, which can be utilised also for long-range atmospheric dispersion models. The ensemble statistical methods developed and applied to NWP models aim at describing the inherent...

  9. Bleeding Mud: The Testimonial Poetry of Hurricane Mitch in Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin S Finzer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with Rubén Darío, Nicaragua has long prided itself in being a country of poets. During the Sandinista Revolution, popular poetry workshops dispatched by Minister of Culture Ernesto Cardenal taught peasants and soldiers to write poetry about everyday life and to use poetry as a way to work through trauma from the civil war. When Hurricane Mitch--one of the first superstorms that heralded climate change--brought extreme flooding to Nicaragua in 1998, poetry again served as a way for victims to process the devastation. Examining testimonial poetry from Hurricane Mitch, this article shows how the mud and despair of this environmental disaster function as palimpsests of conquest and imperial oppression.

  10. Ultra-Deepwater Riserless Mud Circulation with Dual Gradient Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Myers

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Drilling deep holes in very deep water presents the offshore drilling community with major wellbore stability challenges that are typically mitigated through the circulation of dense drilling mud to prevent hole collapse and to remove drilling debris (“cuttings”. This is normally accomplished through the application of a riser system (Fig. 1; however, riser lengths ; are presently limited to use in water depths of around 3047 m. In the scientific ocean drilling realm, we have been very successful in drilling relatively shallow holes (<1500 m in water depths greater than 3657 m, a range we call “hyper-deep”. Drilling in these extreme water depths requires the use of the “riserless” drilling technique (Fig. 1A which is not constrained by the length limitations of a riser system (“riser”.

  11. Members of the methanotrophic genus Methylomarinum inhabit inland mud pots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle T. Fradet

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Proteobacteria capable of converting the greenhouse gas methane to biomass, energy, and carbon dioxide represent a small but important sink in global methane inventories. Currently, 23 genera of methane oxidizing (methanotrophic proteobacteria have been described, although many are represented by only a single validly described species. Here we describe a new methanotrophic isolate that shares phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic relatedness with the marine methanotroph Methylomarinum vadi. However, the new isolate derives from a terrestrial saline mud pot at the northern terminus of the Eastern Pacific Rise (EPR. This new cultivar expands our knowledge of the ecology of Methylomarinum, ultimately towards a fuller understanding of the role of this genus in global methane cycling.

  12. PERFORMANCE OPTIMIZATION OF AN ORGANIC MUD AGITATOR SCREW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Dimitrie CAZACU

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the special performances obtained by means of the optimisation method applied to the axial runners of run-of-river hydraulic turbines and of wind turbines, as well as in the case of the screws for boat propulsion, perfected by the first of the authors [1] - [10], in this work one extend the application of this method at the case of an organic mud agitator screw for fermentation and biogas production. One presents the obtaining of the bio liquid circulation minimal velocity in the two possible cases [3]: extracting the fluid velocity from the peripheral force exerted by the runner, as well as from the mechanical power consumed for its driving. After the obtaining of the optimal relative peripheral angle one determines also the optimal incidence angles of the profile for other blade radii. This method permits in the same time to find the optimal profile, using the multitude of the profile characteristics, experimentally studied.

  13. Coastal topography–Northeast Atlantic coast, post-hurricane Sandy, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdon, Hilary F.; Doran, Kara S.; Sopkin, Kristin L.; Smith, Kathryn E.L.; Fredericks, Xan

    2013-01-01

    This Data Series contains lidar-derived bare-earth (BE) topography, dune elevations, and mean-high-water shoreline position datasets for most sandy beaches for Fire Island, New York, and from Cape Henlopen, Delaware to Cape Lookout, North Carolina. The data were acquired post-Hurricane Sandy, which made landfall as an extratropical cyclone on October 29, 2012.

  14. Abrasive wear based predictive maintenance for systems operating in sandy conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldman, M.; Tinga, T.; Heide, E. van der; Masen, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Machines operating in sandy environments are damaged by the abrasive action of sand particles that enter the machine and become entrapped between components and contacting surfaces. In the case of the military services the combination of a sandy environment and the wide range of tasks to be fulfille

  15. Heterogeneous water flow and pesticide transport in cultivated sandy soils : description of model concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leistra, M.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.

    2011-01-01

    There is ample experimental evidence that complications in water flow and pesticide transport can occur in cultivated humic-sandy and loamy-sandy soils. As a result, pesticide leaching to groundwater and water courses can be higher than expected. We made an inventory of mechanistic/deterministic mod

  16. Measuring Sandy Bottom Dynamics by Exploiting Depth from Stereo Video Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musumeci, Rosaria E.; Farinella, Giovanni M.; Foti, Enrico;

    2013-01-01

    In this paper an imaging system for measuring sandy bottom dynamics is proposed. The system exploits stereo sequences and projected laser beams to build the 3D shape of the sandy bottom during time. The reconstruction is used by experts of the field to perform accurate measurements and analysis i...

  17. Marine meiofauna, carbon and nitrogen mineralization in sandy and soft sediments of Disko Bay, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, S.; Christensen, P.B.; Sørensen, Martin Vinther

    2000-01-01

    belonging to Platyhelminthes, Rotifera, Gastrotricha, and Protodriloidae (Polychaeta) occurred only at the sandy locality, whereas Kinorhyncha, Foraminifera, and Cumacea (Crustacea) occurred only at the muddy stations. The larger number of meiofauna individuals at the sandy locality may in part be explained...

  18. Fine-scale spatial distribution of plants and resources on a sandy soil in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietkerk, M; Ouedraogo, T; Kumar, L; Sanou, S; van Langevelde, F; Kiema, A; van de Koppel, J; van Andel, J; Hearne, J; Skidmore, AK; de Ridder, N; Stroosnijder, L; Prins, HHT

    We studied fine-scale spatial plant distribution in relation to the spatial distribution of erodible soil particles, organic matter, nutrients and soil water on a sandy to sandy loam soil in the Sahel. We hypothesized that the distribution of annual plants would be highly spatially autocorrelated

  19. Fine-scale spatial distribution of plants and resources on a sandy soil in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietkerk, M.G.; Ouedraogo, T.; Kumar, L.; Sanou, S.; Langevelde, F. van; Kiema, A.; Koppel, J. van de; Andel, J. van; Hearne, J.; Skidmore, A.K.; Ridder, N. de; Stroosnijder, L.; Prins, H.H.T.

    2002-01-01

    We studied fine-scale spatial plant distribution in relation to the spatial distribution of erodible soil particles, organic matter, nutrients and soil water on a sandy to sandy loam soil in the Sahel. We hypothesized that the distribution of annual plants would be highly spatially autocorrelated

  20. Nitrate leaching to groundwater at experimental farm "De Marke" and other Dutch sandy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hack-ten Broeke, M.J.D.

    2001-01-01

    This study focuses on nitrate leaching to the groundwater as a result of the land use system of experimental farm 'De Marke', translated to other sandy soils in the Netherlands. The land use was extrapolated to five major sandy soil map units, selected from the 1: 50 000 Soil Map of the Netherlands,

  1. 33 CFR 80.170 - Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River, NJ. 80.170 Section 80.170 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.170 Sandy Hook, NJ to Tom's River...

  2. Survey of Legionella spp. in Mud Spring Recreation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, B.-M.; Ma, P.-H.; Su, I.-Z.; Chen, N.-S.

    2009-04-01

    Legionella genera are parasites of FLA, and intracellular bacterial replication within the FLA plays a major role in the transmission of disease. At least 13 FLA species—including Acanthamoeba spp., Naegleria spp., and Hartmannella spp.—support intracellular bacterial replication. In the study, Legionellae were detected with microbial culture or by direct DNA extraction and analysis from concentrated water samples or cultured free-living amoebae, combined with molecular methods that allow the taxonomic identification of these pathogens. The water samples were taken from a mud spring recreation area located in a mud-rock-formation area in southern Taiwan. Legionella were detected in 15 of the 34 samples (44.1%). Four of the 34 samples analyzed by Legionella culture were positive for Legionella, five of 34 were positive for Legionella when analyzed by direct DNA extraction and analysis, and 11 of 34 were positive for amoebae-resistant Legionella when analyzed by FLA culture. Ten samples were shown to be positive for Legionella by one analysis method and five samples were shown to be positive by two analysis methods. However, Legionella was detected in no sample by all three analysis methods. This suggests that the three analysis methods should be used together to detect Legionella in aquatic environments. In this study, L. pneumophila serotype 6 coexisted with A. polyphaga, and two uncultured Legionella spp. coexisted with either H. vermiformis or N. australiensis. Of the unnamed Legionella genotypes detected in six FLA culture samples, three were closely related to L. waltersii and the other three were closely related to L. pneumophila serotype 6. Legionella pneumophila serotype 6, L. drancourtii, and L. waltersii are noted endosymbionts of FLA and are categorized as pathogenic bacteria. This is significant for human health because these Legionella exist within FLA and thus come into contact with typically immunocompromised people.

  3. Remedial Action Work Plan Amchitka Island Mud Pit Closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-04-05

    This remedial action work plan presents the project organization and construction procedures developed for the performance of the remedial actions at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE's) sites on Amchitka Island, Alaska. During the late1960s and early 1970s, the U.S. Department of Defense and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (the predecessor agency to DOE) used Amchitka Island as a site for underground nuclear tests. A total of nine sites on the Island were considered for nuclear testing; however, tests were only conducted at three sites (i.e., Long Shot in 1965, Milrow in 1969, and Cannikin in 1971). In addition to these three sites, large diameter emplacement holes were drilled in two other locations (Sites D and F) and an exploratory hole was in a third location (Site E). It was estimated that approximately 195 acres were disturbed by drilling or preparation for drilling in conjunction with these activities. The disturbed areas include access roads, spoil-disposal areas, mud pits which have impacted the environment, and an underground storage tank at the hot mix plant which was used to support asphalt-paving operations on the island. The remedial action objective for Amchitka Island is to eliminate human and ecological exposure to contaminants by capping drilling mud pits, removing the tank contents, and closing the tank in place. The remedial actions will meet State of Alaska regulations, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service refuge management goals, address stakeholder concerns, and address the cultural beliefs and practices of the native people. The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office will conduct work on Amchitka Island under the authority of the Comprehensive Emergency Response, Compensation, and Liability Act. Field activities are scheduled to take place May through September 2001. The results of these activities will be presented in a subsequent Closure Report.

  4. STRUCTURE-PROPERTY RELATIONSHIP OF POLYELECTROLYTES AND ITS APPLICATION IN STABILIZING DRILLING-MUD IN PRESENCE OF SALTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhuomei; ZHANG Xuexin; XIE Zhiming; HUANG Yuhui

    1990-01-01

    A new polyelectrolyte (SPU) has been prepared. It can depress the water-loss of drilling-mud much more effective than the commonly used acrylic polyelectrolytes even in 30% NaCl solution.SPU has phenyl group in the backbone with -SO3- in the side chain while the acrylic polyelectrolytes have C- C and -COO- respectively. there exists an intrinsic relationship between the structure of polymer and its tolerance to salts. It has been found: 1 ) The adsorption amount of polymer on clay is related closely to the flexibility of polymer chain. 2) The salt-tolerance of -SO3-is superior to -COO-. 3) Both SPU-mud and HPAN-mud are plastic fluids. The dependence of yield point on salts relates to the molecular weight of polymer and hydration of ionogenic group,which is quite different for SPU-mud and HPAN-mud. 4) The extent of raising zeta-potential of base-mud by SPU is greater than by HPAN, but the extent of dropping zeta-potential of SPU-mud by NaCl is smaller than HPAN-mud. According to these results we suppose the salt-tolerance of SPU-mud is attributed mainly to hydration of -SO3- and that of HPAN-mud mainly to network structure formed in the drilling-mud.

  5. The fate of fresh and stored 15N-labelled sheep urine and urea applied to a sandy and a sandy loam soil using different application strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, P.; Jensen, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    .), or it was applied to ryegrass one month after sowing. In a sandy loam soil, 62% of the incorporated urine N and 78% of the incorporated urea N was recovered in three cuts of herbage after 5 months. In a sandy soil, 51-53% of the labelled N was recovered in the herbage and the distribution of labelled N in plant...... and soil was not significantly different for incorporated urine and urea. Almost all the supplied labelled N was accounted for in soil and herbage in the sandy loam soil, whereas 33-34% of the labelled N was unaccounted for in the sandy soil. When the stored urine was applied to the soil surface, 20...... unaccounted for was probably mainly lost by ammonia volatilization. Significantly more urine- than urea-derived N (36 and 19%, respectively) was immobilized in the sandy loam soil, whereas the immobilization of N from urea and urine was similar in the sandy soil (13-16%). The distribution of urine N, whether...

  6. Seasonal variation of bivalve larvae on an exposed sandy beach on Kashima-nada: Tips for the sandy beach recruitment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Hideki; Saito, Hajime; Adachi, Kumiko; Toyohara, Haruhiko

    2011-02-01

    Bivalves are often the dominant macrobenthos species in exposed sandy beach environments. However, our understanding of their recruitment processes before post-settlement stages on sandy beaches with highly energetic environments is incomplete. To clarify the characteristics of the free-swimming planktonic stage that affects recruitment efficiency in sandy shore ecosystems, we investigated the temporal (weekly-biweekly) variation of bivalve planktonic larval concentration coupled with oceanographic conditions on an exposed sandy shore on the sea of Kashima-nada, Japan, from summer 2003 to autumn 2005. Larvae were observed throughout the year, but the surge of larval concentration composed of sandy beach and sessile bivalves occurred most prominently in summer, from August to September. The peak concentration of larvae during this season was more than 1000 times higher than in other seasons. The larval concentration was positively correlated with water temperature and northward wind velocity and negatively correlated with each of the nutrient concentrations. On the other hand, chlorophyll a concentration and salinity seemed to have little effect on the larval concentration. Based on this fundamental knowledge, further investigations about planktonic larvae in sandy beaches are needed.

  7. Effect of lime on some physical properties of mud as an alternative refractory material for lining of furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsina Christopher BALA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In ceramic industries, lime or calcium oxide (CaO has been used successfully to improve the permeability of materials made from clay. This paper presents the outcome of research into the possible use of mud mixed with lime to improve the quality of mud bricks for use in lining of furnaces in the foundry. Results of the tests show that mud generally consist mainly of very fine clay and silt particles sizes less than 300 µm. It was also found that the addition of lime in mud improves the permeability with an average conductivity of 1.15 mm/s. The addition of lime also reduces the resistance of the mud to thermal resistance as the samples indicated cracks at high temperatures. The compressive strength and setting time of the mud- lime brick was found to increase progressively. The addition of lime to mud can therefore be recommended for low temperature furnace lining.

  8. Coastal Topography--Northeast Atlantic Coast, Post-Hurricane Sandy, 2012: Lidar point-cloud data (LAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Binary point-cloud data were produced for a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines, post-Hurricane Sandy (Sandy was an...

  9. Progress in sandy desertification research of China%中国沙漠化研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王涛

    2004-01-01

    Sandy desertification is land degradation characterized by wind erosion mainly resulted from the excessive human activities in arid, semiarid and part of sub-humid regions in northern China. The research on sandy desertification has experienced more than 5 decades of arduous course of the struggle along with the establishment and development of China′s desert science. Researches in this field have made a great contribution to the national economic construction, and environmental protection. This paper focuses on presenting the major progress and achievements in the sandy desertification research during the last 50 years, including the stages of study on sandy desertification,background environment of sandy desertification and its changes, the conception, causes, process,monitoring and assessment of sandy desertification, the vegetation succession, landscape ecology, plant physiology, impacts on ecosystem, high-effective use of water and land resources and sustainable development in sandy desertified regions, sandy desertification control models and techniques etc.

  10. Coastal Topography--Northeast Atlantic Coast, Post-Hurricane Sandy, 2012: Lidar point-cloud data (LAS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Binary point-cloud data were produced for a portion of the New York, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina coastlines, post-Hurricane Sandy (Sandy was an...

  11. Ultramafic clasts from the South Chamorro serpentine mud volcano reveal a polyphase serpentinization history of the Mariana forearc mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Wolf-Achim; Jöns, Niels; Bach, Wolfgang; Klein, Frieder; Alt, Jeffrey C.

    2015-06-01

    Serpentine seamounts located on the outer half of the pervasively fractured Mariana forearc provide an excellent window into the forearc devolatilization processes, which can strongly influence the cycling of volatiles and trace elements in subduction zones. Serpentinized ultramafic clasts recovered from an active mud volcano in the Mariana forearc reveal microstructures, mineral assemblages and compositions that are indicative of a complex polyphase alteration history. Petrologic phase relations and oxygen isotopes suggest that ultramafic clasts were serpentinized at temperatures below 200 °C. Several successive serpentinization events represented by different vein generations with distinct trace element contents can be recognized. Measured in situ Rb/Cs ratios are fairly uniform ranging between 1 and 10, which is consistent with Cs mobilization from sediments at lower temperatures and lends further credence to the low-temperature conditions proposed in models of the thermal structure in forearc settings. Late veins show lower fluid mobile element (FME) concentrations than early veins, suggesting a decreasing influence of fluid discharge from the subducting slab on the composition of the serpentinizing fluids. The continuous microfabric and mineral chemical evolution observed in the ultramafic clasts may have implications as to the origin and nature of the serpentinizing fluids. We hypothesize that opal and smectite dehydration produce quartz-saturated fluids with high FME contents and Rb/Cs between 1 and 4 that cause the early pervasive serpentinization. The partially serpentinized material may then be eroded from the basal plane of the suprasubduction mantle wedge. Serpentinization continued but the interacting fluids did not carry a pronounced sedimentary signature, either because FMEs were no longer released from the slab, or due to an en route loss of FMEs. Late chrysotile veins that document the increased access of fluids in a now fluid-dominated regime are

  12. Effects of drilling muds on lobster behavior. Progress report, 1 January-1 October 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atema, J; Ashkenas, L; Beale, E

    1979-01-01

    Drilling muds, used and discarded in great quantities during the drilling phase of exploration and production of oil wells, represent an unknown threat to the marine environment. The compositions of the muds vary greatly with drilling requirements. The toxicity of their components are largely unknown, but can range from apparently harmless to immediately lethal, as found recently in toxicity tests on a number of marine animals. This report contains eight sections, each describing an aspect of studies of lobster behavior, ecology, physiology and the effects of exposure to various levels of different drilling muds.

  13. Effects of drilling muds on lobster behavior. Progress report, 1 January-1 October 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atema, J; Ashkenas, L; Beale, E

    1979-01-01

    Drilling muds, used and discarded in great quantities during the drilling phase of exploration and production of oil wells, represent an unknown threat to the marine environment. The compositions of the muds vary greatly with drilling requirements. The toxicity of their components are largely unknown, but can range from apparently harmless to immediately lethal, as found recently in toxicity tests on a number of marine animals. This report contains eight sections, each describing an aspect of studies of lobster behavior, ecology, physiology and the effects of exposure to various levels of different drilling muds.

  14. Lime-mud layers in high-energy tidal channels: a record of hurricane deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, E.A.; Steinen, R.P.; Dill, R.F.; Major, R.

    1993-01-01

    During or immediately following the transit of Hurricane Andrew (August 23-24, 1992) across the northern part of the Great Bahama Bank, thin laminated beds of carbonate mud were deposited in high-energy subtidal channels (4 m depth) through the ooid shoals of south Cat Cay and Joulters Cays. Thicker, more cohesive (and therefore older) mud beds and angular mud fragments associated with ooids from Joulters Cays have similar characteristics but lack fresh plant fragments. We infer that these older beds were similarly deposited and thus record the passage of previous hurricanes or tropical storms. -from Authors

  15. On the well-posedness of a mathematical model describing water-mud interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Escher, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we consider a mathematical model describing the two-phase interaction between water and mud in a water canal when the width of the canal is small compared to its depth. The mud is treated as a non-Netwonian fluid and the interface between the mud and fluid is allowed to move under the influence of gravity and surface tension. We reduce the mathematical formulation, for small boundary and initial data, to a fully nonlocal and nonlinear problem and prove its local well-posedness by using abstract parabolic theory.

  16. Mud Volcanoes from the Beaufort Sea to the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundsten, E. M.; Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Dallimore, S.; Melling, H.; Liu, C. S.; Anderson, K.; Gwiazda, R.

    2015-12-01

    The detailed morphology of five submarine mud volcanoes were surveyed using an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) developed at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute. Mud volcanoes are constructional features built by extrusion of gas, subsurface fluids and fine-grained sediment. Two surveys covering four submarine mud volcanoes were conducted on the CCGS Sir Wilfred Laurier in the Beaufort Sea in the Canadian Arctic. A survey of one mud volcano was conducted on the Taiwanese Ocean Research V in the South China Sea, SE of Taiwan. The AUV carried a multibeam sonar, a 1-6 kHz chirp sub-bottom profiler, and a110 kHz sidescan, and obtained overlapping multibeam bathymetric coverage at a vertical resolution of 0.15 m with a horizontal footprint of 0.9 m and chirp seismic-reflection profiles with a vertical resolution of 0.11 m. Mud volcanoes were either flat topped or conical. The conical mud volcano off Taiwan had a diameter of ~2 km and 10° side slopes; the conical feature in the Beaufort Sea had a diameter of ~1.5 km and 4° side slopes. The sides of the conical mud volcanoes were smooth, suggesting they were formed by sediment flows that emanate from a vent on their crests. The flanks of the conical mud volcanoes characteristically had very low acoustic reflectivity, but one single high reflectivity trail from the crest of the Beaufort Sea mud volcano indicates a recent flow. Three mud volcanoes in the Beaufort Sea formed circular, flat-topped plateaus that are up to ~1.1 km in diameter and elevated up to 30 m from the surrounding seafloor. The fine scale morphology and reflectivity on these plateaus show low relief, concentric, and ovoid circles that appear to be mud boils probably associated with eruptive events of varying ages at shifting vent sites. The different mud volcano shapes are attributed to variations in the viscosity of the erupting sediment slurries and may represent a sequential morphology, which is altered by shifts in venting position over

  17. Investigating the impact of drilling mud and its major components on bivalve species of Georges Bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-11-01

    The objective of this program has been to measure the response of commercially important marine bivalve molluscs to low levels of drilling muds. Because these materials are composed of several major components whose proportions vary between wells and with depth for a single well, the approach of this study has been to test the major components individually and then to test a representative synthetic mud and finally a used drilling mud from an offshore platform. In all but one of these tests the target organism has been the sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus.

  18. Faceless sex: glory holes and sexual assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Dave; O'Byrne, Patrick; Murray, Stuart J

    2010-10-01

    According to our previous research, the use of glory holes in public venues such as saunas and bathhouses is very popular. The popularity of glory holes is due in part to the anonymous sex that these architectural elements allow. This post-structuralist theoretical reflection seeks to understand the specific nature of anonymous public sex among bathhouse patrons, focusing on the links between desire-architecture-place-sexual practices. Drawing on interviews with glory hole users gathered during an ethnographic research project in bathhouses, this essay goes beyond traditional public health discourse to offer an original perspective on anonymous public sex. Utilizing the philosophy of Deleuze and Guattari's concepts of assemblages and machines, we re-theorize glory hole sex--what we call 'faceless sex'--and rethink the ways that desire is imbricated with our understanding of architecture, place, and public. Finally, we reflect upon the particular ethical challenges that are posed by these particular sexual practices, and ask whether a post-structuralist ethic might be possible.

  19. Climatic influence on a marine fish assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attrill, Martin J; Power, Michael

    2002-05-16

    Understanding the fluctuations in marine fish stocks is important for the management of fisheries, and attempts have been made to demonstrate links with oceanographic and climatic variability, including the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The NAO has been correlated with a range of long-term ecological measures, including certain fish stocks. Such environmental influences are most likely to affect susceptible juveniles during estuarine residency, as estuaries are critical juvenile nursery or over-wintering habitats. Here we show that, during a 16-year period, climatic forcing (by means of the NAO) is consistently the most important parameter explaining variation in assemblage composition, abundance and growth of juvenile marine fish during estuarine residency. A possible mechanism for the effect of the NAO is a temperature differential between estuarine and marine waters that allows fish to facultatively exploit optimal thermal habitats. The connection has potentially important implications for the size and numbers of individuals recruited to the fishery, for understanding and predicting the composition of juvenile fish stocks using estuaries, and for the appropriate conservation of estuarine systems in relation to fish stocks.

  20. Hurricane Sandy: Shared Trauma and Therapist Self-Disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Nyapati; Mehra, Ashwin

    2015-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy was one of the most devastating storms to hit the United States in history. The impact of the hurricane included power outages, flooding in the New York City subway system and East River tunnels, disrupted communications, acute shortages of gasoline and food, and a death toll of 113 people. In addition, thousands of residences and businesses in New Jersey and New York were destroyed. This article chronicles the first author's personal and professional experiences as a survivor of the hurricane, more specifically in the dual roles of provider and trauma victim, involving informed self-disclosure with a patient who was also a victim of the hurricane. The general analytic framework of therapy is evaluated in the context of the shared trauma faced by patient and provider alike in the face of the hurricane, leading to important implications for future work on resilience and recovery for both the therapist and patient.

  1. Performance of social network sensors during Hurricane Sandy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yury Kryvasheyeu

    Full Text Available Information flow during catastrophic events is a critical aspect of disaster management. Modern communication platforms, in particular online social networks, provide an opportunity to study such flow and derive early-warning sensors, thus improving emergency preparedness and response. Performance of the social networks sensor method, based on topological and behavioral properties derived from the "friendship paradox", is studied here for over 50 million Twitter messages posted before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We find that differences in users' network centrality effectively translate into moderate awareness advantage (up to 26 hours; and that geo-location of users within or outside of the hurricane-affected area plays a significant role in determining the scale of such an advantage. Emotional response appears to be universal regardless of the position in the network topology, and displays characteristic, easily detectable patterns, opening a possibility to implement a simple "sentiment sensing" technique that can detect and locate disasters.

  2. Performance of social network sensors during Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryvasheyeu, Yury; Chen, Haohui; Moro, Esteban; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Cebrian, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Information flow during catastrophic events is a critical aspect of disaster management. Modern communication platforms, in particular online social networks, provide an opportunity to study such flow and derive early-warning sensors, thus improving emergency preparedness and response. Performance of the social networks sensor method, based on topological and behavioral properties derived from the "friendship paradox", is studied here for over 50 million Twitter messages posted before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We find that differences in users' network centrality effectively translate into moderate awareness advantage (up to 26 hours); and that geo-location of users within or outside of the hurricane-affected area plays a significant role in determining the scale of such an advantage. Emotional response appears to be universal regardless of the position in the network topology, and displays characteristic, easily detectable patterns, opening a possibility to implement a simple "sentiment sensing" technique that can detect and locate disasters.

  3. Public support for policies to reduce risk after Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Michael R; Weiner, Marc D; Noland, Robert; Herb, Jeanne; Kaplan, Marjorie; Broccoli, Anthony J

    2014-06-01

    A phone survey was conducted in New Jersey in 2013 four months after the second of two major devastating tropical storms (Sandy in 2012 and Irene in 2011). The objective was to estimate public support for restricting land uses in flood zones, requiring housing to be built to resist storm waters, and otherwise increasing mitigation and resilience. Respondents who supported these mitigation and resilience policies disproportionately were concerned about global climate change, trusted climate scientists and the federal government, and were willing to contribute to a redevelopment program through taxes, bonds, and fees. They also tended to have collectivist and egalitarian worldviews. Half of the respondents supported at least four of the seven risk-reducing policies. How their support translates into public policy remains to be seen. Lack of willingness to personally fund these policies is an obstacle.

  4. Copper and zinc distribution coefficients for sandy aquifer materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Astrup, Thomas; Boddum, J. K.

    2000-01-01

    ; Zn: 6±22,800 l/kg) and correlating them to the characteristics of the aquifer material (particle size distribution, organic C content, surface area, pH) revealed good correlation with pH in the range 5.3± 8.9 (Cu: r 2=0.72; Zn: r 2=0.94). Including any other of the measured aquifer characteristics...... improved the correlation only a few percent. The results indicate that the mobility of Cu and Zn in sandy aquifers, as re¯ected in the measured Kd values, is very restricted at pH values above 6, since the relative migration velocity is less than 1%. However, at lower pH values, Zn seems to become mobile...

  5. Remediation of sandy soils using surfactant solutions and foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Hudson J B; Massarani, Guilio; Biscaia, Evaristo C; Sant'Anna, Geraldo L

    2009-05-30

    Remediation of sandy soils contaminated with diesel oil was investigated in bench-scale experiments. Surfactant solution, regular foams and colloidal gas aphrons were used as remediation fluids. An experimental design technique was used to investigate the effect of relevant process variables on remediation efficiency. Soils prepared with different average particle sizes (0.04-0.12 cm) and contaminated with different diesel oil contents (40-80 g/kg) were used in experiments conducted with remediation fluids. A mathematical model was proposed allowing for the determination of oil removal rate-constant (k(v)) and oil content remaining in the soil after remediation (C(of)) as well as estimation of the percentage of oil removed. Oil removal efficiencies obtained under the central experimental design conditions were 96%, 88% and 35% for aphrons, regular foams and surfactant solutions, respectively. High removal efficiencies were obtained using regular foams and aphrons, demanding small amounts of surfactant.

  6. Visual Odometry for Planetary Exploration Rovers in Sandy Terrains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhui Li

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Visual odometry provides planetary exploration rovers with accurate knowledge of their position and orientation, which needs effective feature tracking results, especially in barren sandy terrains. In this paper, a stereovision based odometry algorithm is proposed for a lunar rover, which is composed of corner extraction, feature tracking and motion estimation. First, a morphology based image enhancement method is studied to guarantee enough corners are extracted. Second, a Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC algorithm is proposed to make a robust estimation of the fundamental matrix, which is the basic and critical part of feature matching and tracking. Then, the 6 degrees of freedom rover position and orientation is estimated by the RANSAC algorithm. Finally, experiments are performed in a simulated lunar surface environment using a prototype rover, which have confirmed the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Performance of Social Network Sensors during Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryvasheyeu, Yury; Chen, Haohui; Moro, Esteban; Van Hentenryck, Pascal; Cebrian, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Information flow during catastrophic events is a critical aspect of disaster management. Modern communication platforms, in particular online social networks, provide an opportunity to study such flow and derive early-warning sensors, thus improving emergency preparedness and response. Performance of the social networks sensor method, based on topological and behavioral properties derived from the “friendship paradox”, is studied here for over 50 million Twitter messages posted before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy. We find that differences in users’ network centrality effectively translate into moderate awareness advantage (up to 26 hours); and that geo-location of users within or outside of the hurricane-affected area plays a significant role in determining the scale of such an advantage. Emotional response appears to be universal regardless of the position in the network topology, and displays characteristic, easily detectable patterns, opening a possibility to implement a simple “sentiment sensing” technique that can detect and locate disasters. PMID:25692690

  8. Nematode Faunal Response to Grassland Degradation in Horqin Sandy Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The responses of soil nematode communities to grassland degradation were studied under undegraded grassland (UG),degraded grassland (DG), and improved grassland (IG), in Horqin Sandy Land, Inner Mongolia, Northeast China. Soil samples were collected at depths of 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm. Total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN)exhibited positive effects on the total number of nematodes and trophic groups. Significant treatment effects were found in the total number of nematodes, plant parasites, and omnivores-predators. Measures taken in the improved grassland could improve the number of omnivore-predators, especially in the deeper soil layers. Nematode richness was lower in the DG treatment than in the IG and UG treatments. The food web structure index (SI) was significantly higher in the UG and IG treatments than in the DG treatment. A higher SI suggested a food web with more trophic linkages and relatively healthy ecosystems.

  9. Extraction Efficiency of Belonolaimus longicaudatus from Sandy Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, R; Frederick, J J

    1991-10-01

    Numbers of Belonolaimus longicaudatus extracted from sandy soils (91-92% sand) by sieving and centrifugation were only 40-55% of those extracted by sieving and incubation on a Baermann tray. Residues normally discarded at each step of the sieving plus Baermann tray extraction procedure were examined for nematodes to obtain estimates of extraction efficiencies. For third-stage and fourth-stage juveniles, males, and females, estimates of extraction efficiency ranged from 60 to 65% in one experiment and 73 to 82% in another. Estimated extraction efficiencies for second-stage juveniles were lower (33% in one experiment, 67% in another) due to losses during sieving. When sterilized soil was seeded with known numbers of B. longicaudatus, 60% of second-stage juveniles and 68-76% of other stages were recovered. Most stages of B. longicaudatus could be extracted from these soils by sieving plus Baermann incubation with an efficiency of 60-70%.

  10. 78 FR 52560 - Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force-Rebuild-by-Design; Announcement of Selection of Design Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Hurricane Sandy Rebuilding Task Force--Rebuild-by-Design; Announcement of Selection of Design Teams AGENCY: Hurricane Sandy Task Force, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In June 2013, the Hurricane Sandy Task Force launched Rebuild by Design, a multi-stage regional design competition to...

  11. Quantifying human mobility perturbation and resilience in Hurricane Sandy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Taylor, John E

    2014-01-01

    Human mobility is influenced by environmental change and natural disasters. Researchers have used trip distance distribution, radius of gyration of movements, and individuals' visited locations to understand and capture human mobility patterns and trajectories. However, our knowledge of human movements during natural disasters is limited owing to both a lack of empirical data and the low precision of available data. Here, we studied human mobility using high-resolution movement data from individuals in New York City during and for several days after Hurricane Sandy in 2012. We found the human movements followed truncated power-law distributions during and after Hurricane Sandy, although the β value was noticeably larger during the first 24 hours after the storm struck. Also, we examined two parameters: the center of mass and the radius of gyration of each individual's movements. We found that their values during perturbation states and steady states are highly correlated, suggesting human mobility data obtained in steady states can possibly predict the perturbation state. Our results demonstrate that human movement trajectories experienced significant perturbations during hurricanes, but also exhibited high resilience. We expect the study will stimulate future research on the perturbation and inherent resilience of human mobility under the influence of hurricanes. For example, mobility patterns in coastal urban areas could be examined as hurricanes approach, gain or dissipate in strength, and as the path of the storm changes. Understanding nuances of human mobility under the influence of such disasters will enable more effective evacuation, emergency response planning and development of strategies and policies to reduce fatality, injury, and economic loss.

  12. Glider observations and modeling of sediment transport in Hurricane Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Travis; Seroka, Greg; Kohut, Josh; Schofield, Oscar; Glenn, Scott

    2015-03-01

    Regional sediment resuspension and transport are examined as Hurricane Sandy made landfall on the Mid-Atlantic Bight (MAB) in October 2012. A Teledyne-Webb Slocum glider, equipped with a Nortek Aquadopp current profiler, was deployed on the continental shelf ahead of the storm, and is used to validate sediment transport routines coupled to the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). The glider was deployed on 25 October, 5 days before Sandy made landfall in southern New Jersey (NJ) and flew along the 40 m isobath south of the Hudson Shelf Valley. We used optical and acoustic backscatter to compare with two modeled size classes along the glider track, 0.1 and 0.4 mm sand, respectively. Observations and modeling revealed full water column resuspension for both size classes for over 24 h during peak waves and currents, with transport oriented along-shelf toward the southwest. Regional model predictions showed over 3 cm of sediment eroded on the northern portion of the NJ shelf where waves and currents were the highest. As the storm passed and winds reversed from onshore to offshore on the southern portion of the domain waves and subsequently orbital velocities necessary for resuspension were reduced leading to over 3 cm of deposition across the entire shelf, just north of Delaware Bay. This study highlights the utility of gliders as a new asset in support of the development and verification of regional sediment resuspension and transport models, particularly during large tropical and extratropical cyclones when in situ data sets are not readily available.

  13. Revealing accumulation zones of plastic pellets in sandy beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Fabiana T; Balthazar-Silva, Danilo; Barbosa, Lucas; Turra, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Microplastics such as pellets are reported worldwide on sandy beaches, and have possible direct and indirect impacts on the biota and physical characteristics of the habitats where they accumulate. Evaluations of their standing stock at different spatial scales generate data on levels of contamination. This information is needed to identify accumulation zones and the specific beach habitats and communities that are likely to be most affected. Standing stocks of plastic pellets were evaluated in 13 sandy beaches in São Paulo state, Brazil. The sampling strategy incorporated across-shore transects from coastal dunes and backshores, and vertical profiles of the accumulated pellets down to 1 m depth below the sediment surface. Accumulation zones were identified at regional (among beaches) and local (between compartments) scales. At the regional scale pellet density tended to increase at beaches on the central and southwestern coast, near ports and factories that produce and transport the largest amounts of pellets in the country. At the local scale coastal dunes showed larger accumulations of pellets than backshores. For both compartments pellets tended to occur deeper in areas where standing stocks were larger. Most of the pellets were concentrated from the surface down to 0.4 m depth, suggesting that organisms inhabiting this part of the sediment column are more exposed to the risks associated with the presence of pellets. Our findings shed light on the local and regional scales of spatial variability of microplastics and their consequences for assessment and monitoring schemes in coastal compartments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Mitigation of Liquefaction in Sandy Soils Using Stone Columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, Levent; Kayabalı, Kamil

    2010-05-01

    Soil liquefaction is one of the leading causes of earthquake-induced damage to structures. Soil improvement methods provide effective solutions to reduce the risk of soil liquefaction. Thus, soil ground treatments are applied using various techniques. However, except for a few ground treatment methods, they generally require a high cost and a lot of time. Especially in order to prevent the risk of soil liquefaction, stone columns conctructed by vibro-systems (vibro-compaction, vibro-replacement) are one of the traditional geotechnical methods. The construction of stone columns not only enhances the ability of clean sand to drain excess pore water during an earthquake, but also increases the relative density of the soil. Thus, this application prevents the development of the excess pore water pressure in sand during earthquakes and keeps the pore pressure ratio below a certain value. This paper presents the stone column methods used against soil liquefaction in detail. At this stage, (a) the performances of the stone columns were investigated in different spacing and diameters of columns during past earthquakes, (b) recent studies about design and field applications of stone columns were presented, and (c) a new design method considering the relative density of soil and the capacity of drenage of columns were explained in sandy soil. Furthermore, with this new method, earthquake performances of the stone columns constructed at different areas were investigated before the 1989 Loma Prieta and the 1994 Northbridge earthquakes, as case histories of field applications, and design charts were compiled for suitable spacing and diameters of stone columns with consideration to the different sandy soil parameters and earhquake conditions. Key Words: Soil improvement, stone column, excess pore water pressure

  15. Quantifying human mobility perturbation and resilience in Hurricane Sandy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    Full Text Available Human mobility is influenced by environmental change and natural disasters. Researchers have used trip distance distribution, radius of gyration of movements, and individuals' visited locations to understand and capture human mobility patterns and trajectories. However, our knowledge of human movements during natural disasters is limited owing to both a lack of empirical data and the low precision of available data. Here, we studied human mobility using high-resolution movement data from individuals in New York City during and for several days after Hurricane Sandy in 2012. We found the human movements followed truncated power-law distributions during and after Hurricane Sandy, although the β value was noticeably larger during the first 24 hours after the storm struck. Also, we examined two parameters: the center of mass and the radius of gyration of each individual's movements. We found that their values during perturbation states and steady states are highly correlated, suggesting human mobility data obtained in steady states can possibly predict the perturbation state. Our results demonstrate that human movement trajectories experienced significant perturbations during hurricanes, but also exhibited high resilience. We expect the study will stimulate future research on the perturbation and inherent resilience of human mobility under the influence of hurricanes. For example, mobility patterns in coastal urban areas could be examined as hurricanes approach, gain or dissipate in strength, and as the path of the storm changes. Understanding nuances of human mobility under the influence of such disasters will enable more effective evacuation, emergency response planning and development of strategies and policies to reduce fatality, injury, and economic loss.

  16. Coralligenous habitat: patterns of vertical distribution of macroalgal assemblages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Piazzi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates patterns of distribution of macroalgal coralligenous assemblages in relation to depth and evaluates the role of different environmental conditions on these patterns. Two depths (30 and 40 m were investigated off small islands and off continental coasts in order to select two different environmental conditions. Results showed differences between depths in the structure of assemblages around islands, while along the continental coasts these patterns were not evident. Moreover, differences between assemblages related to different environmental conditions were more evident in the shallower zone of distribution of the coralligenous habitat. This correlative study did not allow us to identify any cause-effect relationship, but patterns we detected agree with those of other studies, suggesting that alterations in the environmental conditions may be the cause of the decrease in differences among assemblages developing at different depths and may lead to a higher spatial homogenization and an impoverishment of the whole subtidal system.

  17. Large River Monitoring Forum Fish Assemblage Database 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Large River Monitoring Forum compiled fish assemblage data for five large rivers in the U.S. as a part of a coordinated effort to compare and contract river...

  18. Global assemblages and structural models of International Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Rather than consigning assemblages to the micro-politics of international relations, the chapter argues that assemblages can also be seen to play a role in the ‘grand’ structures of international relations. Structural IR theory normally only considers how subjects are ordered – hierarchically......, anarchically, in core-periphery relations or in terms of networks. However, not only subjects but also assemblages – the bringing together of previously unconnected elements into novel constellations – play a critical role in structuring international relations. More specifically, one sub......-category of assemblages – those constructed as malleable and governable which I call ‘governance-objects’ – is central to structure in international relations. The chapter begins with standard definitions of what structures are – patterns of interaction between elements – and briefly covers the range of models currently...

  19. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages help to understand carbonate mound evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüggeberg, A.; Dorschel, B.; Dullo, C.; Hebbeln, D.; Freiwald, A.

    2003-04-01

    On- and off-mound sediment cores from Propeller Mound (Porcupine Seabight) were analysed for their benthic foraminiferal assemblages. Benthic foraminifera from the off-mound position show three different assemblages describing the Holocene, Oxygen Isotope Stage (OIS) 2 and late OIS 3. The Holocene assemblage is dominated by Uvigerina mediterranea, Trifarina angulosa, Melonis barleeanum, Hyalinea balthica, Bulimina marginata. These species are related to a higher supply of organic material. The glacial assemblage shows high abundances of Cassidulina teretis, C. reniforme, Globocassidulina subglobosa, and Cibicidoides kullenbergi, implying cold bottom waters and a reduced productivity. The lower part of late OIS 3 is dominated by Elphidium excavatum, which is displaced continuously by very high abundances of C. teretis towards the transition of OIS3/2. E. excavatum, a shallow shelf species generally reported from above 200 m water depth, and high amounts of sediment supplied to the core site points to shelf erosion related to sea level lowering (approx. 50 m). Towards OIS 2 the system returns to normal background sedimentation pattern. We transferred the established off-mound assemblages onto the on-mound core, in which the sediment sequence is incomplete characterised by numerous hiatuses. The Holocene assemblage describes almost the complete core with relative abundances of >20%, interrupted only by three sections with slightly higher amounts of the glacial assemblage, which are not comparable to abundances of >70% of the glacial assemblage found in the off-mound core. These results are in conjunction with stable oxygen isotope data indicating only interstadial values, assuming peak glacial and interglacial sediments to be removed from the mound. Another assemblage described for the on-mound core is dominated by Discanomalina coronata, Gavelinopsis translucens, Planulina ariminensis, Cibicides lobatulus and to a lower degree by Hyrrokkin sarcophaga. These species

  20. Quantifying Assemblage Turnover and Species Contributions at Ecologic Boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Hayek,Lee-Ann C.; Brent Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Not all boundaries, whether stratigraphical or geographical, are marked by species-level changes in community composition. For example, paleodata for some sites do not show readily discernible glacial-interglacial contrasts. Rather, the proportional abundances of species can vary subtly between glacials and interglacials. This paper presents a simple quantitative measure of assemblage turnover (assemblage turnover index, ATI) that uses changes in species' proportional abundances to identify i...