WorldWideScience

Sample records for sandwich structured cp2bzsc2

  1. Structural and failure mechanics of sandwich composites

    CERN Document Server

    Carlsson, LA; Carlsson, Leif A

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on important deformation and failure modes of sandwich structures, this volume describes the mechanics behind fracture processes. The text also reviews test methods developed for the cr, structural integrity, and failure mechanisms of sandwich structures.

  2. High temperature structural sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Christos G.

    High strength composites are being used for making lightweight structural panels that are being employed in aerospace, naval and automotive structures. Recently, there is renewed interest in use of these panels. The major problem of most commercial available sandwich panels is the fire resistance. A recently developed inorganic matrix is investigated for use in cases where fire and high temperature resistance are necessary. The focus of this dissertation is the development of a fireproof composite structural system. Sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices have an excellent potential for use in applications where exposure to high temperatures or fire is a concern. Commercial available sandwich panels will soften and lose nearly all of their compressive strength temperatures lower than 400°C. This dissertation consists of the state of the art, the experimental investigation and the analytical modeling. The state of the art covers the performance of existing high temperature composites, sandwich panels and reinforced concrete beams strengthened with Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP). The experimental part consists of four major components: (i) Development of a fireproof syntactic foam with maximum specific strength, (ii) Development of a lightweight syntactic foam based on polystyrene spheres, (iii) Development of the composite system for the skins. The variables are the skin thickness, modulus of elasticity of skin and high temperature resistance, and (iv) Experimental evaluation of the flexural behavior of sandwich panels. Analytical modeling consists of a model for the flexural behavior of lightweight sandwich panels, and a model for deflection calculations of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with FRP subjected to fatigue loading. The experimental and analytical results show that sandwich panels made with polysialate matrices and ceramic spheres do not lose their load bearing capability during severe fire exposure, where temperatures reach several

  3. New "sandwich" structures conformed from three dimensional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba, Juan J.

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available Poor interlaminar properties as well as poor-skin-to-core adhesion properties are very often the common existing problems we find when designing with "sandwich" structures. A new type of 3D-fabric "sandwich" structure is being developed in order to avoid these problems. Although the manufacturing process is very simple, a very complex "sandwich" structure is obtained as a result of the complexity of the 3D-fabric used. This 3D-fabric is a 3D woven glass fabric produced on velvet weaving machines with glass yarns. It is an integrally woven "sandwich" laminate for all kinds of composite products. The strength of the vertical fibers makes, that also after impregnation with a resin matrix, the "sandwich" structure is maintained. The result is a laminate with high strength and stiffness and low weight. On each side of this "sandwich" laminate additional reinforcement materials can be laminated and a synthetic foam can be injected in the hollow structure. This will allow to establish the mechanical properties of a finished product.

    Las pobres propiedades, tanto interlaminares como de adhesión entre piel y núcleo, constituyen uno de los grandes problemas cuando se diseñan estructuras utilizando paneles tipo "sandwich". Un nuevo tipo de panel "sandwich", configurado a partir de tejidos tridimensionales, está siendo desarrollado en la actualidad con el objetivo de eliminar esos problemas. Aunque el proceso de fabricación es muy simple, el panel "sandwich" obtenido es de estructura compleja, como resultado de la complejidad del tejido tridimensional utilizado. Este tejido tridimensional (3D es un tejido de fibra de vidrio producido en máquinas de tejer especializadas. La resistencia de las fibras verticales hace que, después de la impregnación con una resina, se mantenga la configuración tipo "sandwich". El resultado es un laminado de alta resistencia, gran rigidez y bajo peso. Sobre cada uno de los lados del panel "sandwich" se pueden

  4. Vibro-acoustics of lightweight sandwich structures

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Tianjian

    2014-01-01

    Vibro-Acoustics of Lightweight Sandwich Structures introduces the study of the coupled vibration and acoustic behavior of lightweight sandwich structures in response to harmonic force and sound pressure. This book focuses on the theoretical modeling and experimental investigation of lightweight sandwich structures in order to provide a predictive framework for vibro-acoustic characteristics of typical engineering structures. Furthermore, by developing solution tools, it concentrates on the influence of key systematic parameters leading to effective guidance for optimal structure design toward lightweight, high-stiffness and superior sound insulation capability. This book is intended for researchers, scientists, engineers and graduate students in mechanical engineering especially in structural mechanics, mechanics and acoustics. Fengxian Xin and Tianjian Lu both work at the School of Aerospace, Xi’an Jiaotong University.

  5. Energy Dissipation in Sandwich Structures During Axial Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the energy dissipation in sandwich structures during axial crushing. Axial crushing tests on six sandwich elements are described. The sandwich elements consist of a polyurethane core and E-glass/Polyester skin. The elements compare to full-scale structu......The purpose of this paper is to investigate the energy dissipation in sandwich structures during axial crushing. Axial crushing tests on six sandwich elements are described. The sandwich elements consist of a polyurethane core and E-glass/Polyester skin. The elements compare to full...

  6. Dynamic Failure of Composite and Sandwich Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Abrate, Serge; Rajapakse, Yapa D S

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a broad view of the current state of the art regarding the dynamic response of composite and sandwich structures subjected to impacts and explosions. Each chapter combines a thorough assessment of the literature with original contributions made by the authors.  The first section deals with fluid-structure interactions in marine structures.  The first chapter focuses on hull slamming and particularly cases in which the deformation of the structure affects the motion of the fluid during the water entry of flexible hulls. Chapter 2 presents an extensive series of tests underwater and in the air to determine the effects of explosions on composite and sandwich structures.  Full-scale structures were subjected to significant explosive charges, and such results are extremely rare in the open literature.  Chapter 3 describes a simple geometrical theory of diffraction for describing the interaction of an underwater blast wave with submerged structures. The second section addresses the problem of...

  7. Low Velocity Impact Properties of Aluminum Foam Sandwich Structural Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Jin-hua

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich structural composites were prepared by aluminum foam as core materials with basalt fiber(BF and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene(UHMWPE fiber composite as faceplate. The effect of factors of different fiber type faceplates, fabric layer design and the thickness of the corematerials on the impact properties and damage mode of aluminum foam sandwich structure was studied. The impact properties were also analyzed to compare with aluminum honeycomb sandwich structure. The results show that BF/aluminum foam sandwich structural composites has bigger impact damage load than UHMWPE/aluminum foam sandwich structure, but less impact displacement and energy absorption. The inter-layer hybrid fabric design of BF and UHMWPE has higher impact load and energy absorption than the overlay hybrid fabric design faceplate sandwich structure. With the increase of the thickness of aluminum foam,the impact load of the sandwich structure decreases, but the energy absorption increases. Aluminum foam sandwich structure has higher impact load than the aluminum honeycomb sandwich structure, but smaller damage energy absorption; the damage mode of aluminum foam core material is mainly the fracture at the impact area, while aluminum honeycomb core has obvious overall compression failure.

  8. Design and manufacturing of bio-based sandwich structures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    John, Maya J

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this chapter is to discuss the design and manufacturing of bio-based sandwich structures. As the economic advantages of weight reduction have become mandatory for many advanced industries, bio-based sandwich panels have emerged...

  9. Stiff, Strong Splice For A Composite Sandwich Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaling, D.

    1991-01-01

    New type of splice for composite sandwich structure reduces peak shear stress in structure. Layers of alternating fiber orientation interposed between thin ears in adhesive joint. Developed for structural joint in spar of helicopter rotor blade, increases precision of control over thickness of adhesive at joint. Joint easy to make, requires no additional pieces, and adds little weight.

  10. Nanocrystalline Aluminum Truss Cores for Lightweight Sandwich Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaedler, Tobias A.; Chan, Lisa J.; Clough, Eric C.; Stilke, Morgan A.; Hundley, Jacob M.; Masur, Lawrence J.

    2017-12-01

    Substitution of conventional honeycomb composite sandwich structures with lighter alternatives has the potential to reduce the mass of future vehicles. Here we demonstrate nanocrystalline aluminum-manganese truss cores that achieve 2-4 times higher strength than aluminum alloy 5056 honeycombs of the same density. The scalable fabrication approach starts with additive manufacturing of polymer templates, followed by electrodeposition of nanocrystalline Al-Mn alloy, removal of the polymer, and facesheet integration. This facilitates curved and net-shaped sandwich structures, as well as co-curing of the facesheets, which eliminates the need for extra adhesive. The nanocrystalline Al-Mn alloy thin-film material exhibits high strength and ductility and can be converted into a three-dimensional hollow truss structure with this approach. Ultra-lightweight sandwich structures are of interest for a range of applications in aerospace, such as fairings, wings, and flaps, as well as for the automotive and sports industries.

  11. Identification of material properties of sandwich structure with piezoelectric patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemčík R.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The work focuses on light-weight sandwich structures made of carbon-epoxy skins and foam core which have unique bending stiffness compared to conventional materials. The skins are manufactured by vacuum autoclave technology from unidirectional prepregs and the sandwich is then glued together. The resulting material properties of the structure usually differ from those provided by manufacturer or even those obtained from experimental tests on separate materials, which makes computational models unreliable. Therefore, the properties are identified using the combination of experimental analysis of the sandwich with attached piezoelectric transducer and corresponding static and modal finite element analyses. Simple mathematical optimization with repetitive finite element solution is used. The model is then verified by transient analysis when the piezoelectric patch is excited by harmonic signals covering the first two eigen-frequencies and the induced oscillations are measured by laser sensor.

  12. Flexural Behavior of Aluminum Honeycomb Core Sandwich Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Vidyasagar; Kumar, J. Suresh; Venkataraviteja, Duddu; Reddy, Guggulla Bharath Kumar

    2017-05-01

    This project is concerned with the fabrication and flexural testing of aluminium honey comb sandwich structure which is a special case of composite materials that is fabricated by attaching two thin but stiff skins to a light weight but thick core. The core material is normally low density material but its high thickness provide the sandwich composite with high bonding stiffness. Honeycomb core are classified into two types based on the materials and structures. Hexagonal shape has a unique properties i.e has more bonding strength and less formation time based on the cell size and sheet thickness. Sandwich structure exhibit different properties such as high load bearing capacity at low weight and has excellent thermal insulation. By considering the above properties it has tendency to minimize the structural problem. So honey comb sandwich structure is choosed. The core structure has a different applications such as aircraft, ship interiors, construction industries. As there is no proper research on strength characteristics of sandwich structure. So, we use light weight material to desire the strength. There are different parameters involved in this structure i.e cell size, sheet thickness and core height. In this project we considered 3 level of comparison among the 3 different parameters cell size of 4, 6 and 8 mm, sheet thickness of 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 mm, and core height of 20,25 and 30 mm. In order to reduce the number of experiment we use taguchi design of experiment, and we select the L8 orthogonal array is the best array for this type of situation, which clearly identifies the parameters by independent of material weight to support this we add the minitab software, to identify the main effective plots and regression equation which involves the individual response and corresponding parameters. Aluminium material is used for the fabrication of Honeycomb sandwich structure among the various grades of aluminium we consider the AL6061 which is light weight material

  13. Buckling analysis of SMA bonded sandwich structure – using FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katariya, Pankaj V.; Das, Arijit; Panda, Subrata K.

    2018-03-01

    Thermal buckling strength of smart sandwich composite structure (bonded with shape memory alloy; SMA) examined numerically via a higher-order finite element model in association with marching technique. The excess geometrical distortion of the structure under the elevated environment modeled through Green’s strain function whereas the material nonlinearity counted with the help of marching method. The system responses are computed numerically by solving the generalized eigenvalue equations via a customized MATLAB code. The comprehensive behaviour of the current finite element solutions (minimum buckling load parameter) is established by solving the adequate number of numerical examples including the given input parameter. The current numerical model is extended further to check the influence of various structural parameter of the sandwich panel on the buckling temperature including the SMA effect and reported in details.

  14. Application of fibre reinforced plastic sandwich structures for automotive crashworthiness applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukaszewicz, D.; Blok, L.G.; Kratz, J.; Ward, C.; Kassapoglou, C.; Elmarakbi, A.; Araújo, A.L.

    2016-01-01

    In this work the application of fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) sandwich
    structures
    , with particular focus on aramid fibre tufted sandwiches is being studied for
    automotive crashworthiness applications using impact testing and numerical simulation.

  15. Generation of Elliptically Polarized Terahertz Waves from Antiferromagnetic Sandwiched Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sheng; Zhang, Qiang; Fu, Shu-Fang; Wang, Xuan-Zhang; Song, Yu-Ling; Wang, Xiang-Guang; Qu, Xiu-Rong

    2018-04-01

    The generation of elliptically polarized electromagnetic wave of an antiferromagnetic (AF)/dielectric sandwiched structure in the terahertz range is studied. The frequency and external magnetic field can change the AF optical response, resulting in the generation of elliptical polarization. An especially useful geometry with high levels of the generation of elliptical polarization is found in the case where an incident electromagnetic wave perpendicularly illuminates the sandwiched structure, the AF anisotropy axis is vertical to the wave-vector and the external magnetic field is pointed along the wave-vector. In numerical calculations, the AF layer is FeF2 and the dielectric layers are ZnF2. Although the effect originates from the AF layer, it can be also influenced by the sandwiched structure. We found that the ZnF2/FeF2/ZnF2 structure possesses optimal rotation of the principal axis and ellipticity, which can reach up to about thrice that of a single FeF2 layer.

  16. Gravity sag of sandwich panel assemblies as applied to precision cathode strip chamber structural design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, J.

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between gravity sag of a precision cathode strip chamber and its sandwich panel structural design is explored parametrically. An algorithm for estimating the dominant component of gravity sag is defined. Graphs of normalized gravity sag as a function of gap frame width and material, sandwich core edge filler width and material, panel skin thickness, gap height, and support location are calculated using the gravity sag algorithm. The structural importance of the sandwich-to-sandwich ''gap frame'' connection is explained

  17. Sandwich-structured hollow fiber membranes for osmotic power generation

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Feng Jiang; Zhang, Sui; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a novel sandwich-structured hollow fiber membrane has been developed via a specially designed spinneret and optimized spinning conditions. With this specially designed spinneret, the outer layer, which is the most crucial part of the sandwich-structured membrane, is maintained the same as the traditional dual-layer membrane. The inner substrate layer is separated into two layers: (1) an ultra-thin middle layer comprising a high molecular weight polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) additive to enhance integration with the outer polybenzimidazole (PBI) selective layer, and (2) an inner-layer to provide strong mechanical strength for the membrane. Experimental results show that a high water permeability and good mechanical strength could be achieved without the expensive post treatment process to remove PVP which was necessary for the dual-layer pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) membranes. By optimizing the composition, the membrane shows a maximum power density of 6.23W/m2 at a hydraulic pressure of 22.0bar when 1M NaCl and 10mM NaCl are used as the draw and feed solutions, respectively. To our best knowledge, this is the best phase inversion hollow fiber membrane with an outer selective PBI layer for osmotic power generation. In addition, this is the first work that shows how to fabricate sandwich-structured hollow fiber membranes for various applications. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Sandwich-structured hollow fiber membranes for osmotic power generation

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Feng Jiang

    2015-11-01

    In this work, a novel sandwich-structured hollow fiber membrane has been developed via a specially designed spinneret and optimized spinning conditions. With this specially designed spinneret, the outer layer, which is the most crucial part of the sandwich-structured membrane, is maintained the same as the traditional dual-layer membrane. The inner substrate layer is separated into two layers: (1) an ultra-thin middle layer comprising a high molecular weight polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) additive to enhance integration with the outer polybenzimidazole (PBI) selective layer, and (2) an inner-layer to provide strong mechanical strength for the membrane. Experimental results show that a high water permeability and good mechanical strength could be achieved without the expensive post treatment process to remove PVP which was necessary for the dual-layer pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) membranes. By optimizing the composition, the membrane shows a maximum power density of 6.23W/m2 at a hydraulic pressure of 22.0bar when 1M NaCl and 10mM NaCl are used as the draw and feed solutions, respectively. To our best knowledge, this is the best phase inversion hollow fiber membrane with an outer selective PBI layer for osmotic power generation. In addition, this is the first work that shows how to fabricate sandwich-structured hollow fiber membranes for various applications. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Sandwich Structured Composites for Aeronautics: Methods of Manufacturing Affecting Some Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Krzyżak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich panels are composites which consist of two thin laminate outer skins and lightweight (e.g., honeycomb thick core structure. Owing to the core structure, such composites are distinguished by stiffness. Despite the thickness of the core, sandwich composites are light and have a relatively high flexural strength. These composites have a spatial structure, which affects good thermal insulator properties. Sandwich panels are used in aeronautics, road vehicles, ships, and civil engineering. The mechanical properties of these composites are directly dependent on the properties of sandwich components and method of manufacturing. The paper presents some aspects of technology and its influence on mechanical properties of sandwich structure polymer composites. The sandwiches described in the paper were made by three different methods: hand lay-up, press method, and autoclave use. The samples of sandwiches were tested for failure caused by impact load. Sandwiches prepared in the same way were used for structural analysis of adhesive layer between panels and core. The results of research showed that the method of manufacturing, more precisely the pressure while forming sandwich panels, influences some mechanical properties of sandwich structured polymer composites such as flexural strength, impact strength, and compressive strength.

  20. Fluid Structure Interaction Effect on Sandwich Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    far back as ancient Egyptian times in the use of straw and bricks, or more recently in the last century with the use of steel rebar in concrete ...construction of sandwich composites; however, this particular material was selected for its uniform pattern and translucent qualities after it is wetted out...excellent fire retardant and corrosion resistant qualities making it a natural selection for shipboard applications. The same translucent qualities

  1. Blast-Resistant Improvement of Sandwich Armor Structure with Aluminum Foam Composite

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Shu; Qi, Chang

    2013-01-01

    Sandwich armor structures with aluminum foam can be utilized to protect a military vehicle from harmful blast load such as a landmine explosion. In this paper, a system-level dynamic finite element model is developed to simulate the blast event and to evaluate the blast-resistant performance of the sandwich armor structure. It is found that a sandwich armor structure with only aluminum foam is capable of mitigating crew injuries under a moderate blast load. However, a severe blast load causes...

  2. Active structural health monitoring of composite plates and sandwiches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadílek P.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of presented work is to design, assemble and test a functional system, that is able to reveal damage from impact loading. This is done by monitoring of change of spectral characteristics on a damaged structure that is caused by change of mechanical properties of material or by change of structure’s geometry. Excitation and monitoring of structures was done using piezoelectric patches. Unidirectional composite plate was tested for eigenfrequencies using chirp signal. The eigenfrequencies were compared to results from experiments with an impact hammer and consequently with results from finite element method. Same method of finding eigenfrequencies was used on a different unidirectional composite specimen. Series of impacts were performed. Spectrum of eigenfrequencies was measured on undamaged plate and then after each impact. Measurements of the plate with different level of damage were compared. Following experiments were performed on sandwich materials where more different failures may happen. Set of sandwich beams (cut out from one plate made of two outer composite layers and a foam core was investigated and subjected to several impacts. Several samples were impacted in the same manner to get comparable results. The impacts were performed with growing impact energy.

  3. High renewable content sandwich structures based on flax-basalt hybrids and biobased epoxy polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomina, S.; Boronat, T.; Fenollar, O.; Sánchez-Nacher, L.; Balart, R.

    2014-05-01

    In the last years, a growing interest in the development of high environmental efficiency materials has been detected and this situation is more accentuated in the field of polymers and polymer composites. In this work, green composite sandwich structures with high renewable content have been developed with core cork materials. The base resin for composites was a biobased epoxy resin derived from epoxidized vegetable oils. Hybrid basalt-flax fabrics have been used as reinforcements for composites and the influence of the stacking sequence has been evaluated in order to optimize the appropriate laminate structure for the sandwich bases. Core cork materials with different thickness have been used to evaluate performance of sandwich structures thus leading to high renewable content composite sandwich structures. Results show that position of basalt fabrics plays a key role in flexural fracture of sandwich structures due to differences in stiffness between flax and basalt fibers.

  4. Measuring Cohesive Laws for Interfaces in Sandwich Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard-Larsen, Christian; Sørensen, Bent F.; Berggreen, Carl Christian

    2006-01-01

    mixities. The sandwich specimens consists of glass fiber faces and Divinycell H200 foam core with a pre-crack between face and core made with teflon film. Arbitrary stiffening of the sandwich faces with steel bars adhered to the faces reduces rotations and ensures that the method is useable for a wide...

  5. Behaviour of glued fibre composite sandwich structure in flexure: Experiment and Fibre Model Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manalo, Allan; Aravinthan, Thiru

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fibre Model Analysis is used to examine the flexural behaviour of sandwich beams. ► Theoretical prediction using FMA is in good agreement with the experiment. ► Using the constituent materials in FMA predicted accurately the beam’s behaviour. ► FMA can be used for analysing sandwich beams with high-strength core in flexure. -- Abstract: The behaviour of glued composite sandwich beams in flexure was investigated with a view of using this material for structural and civil engineering applications. The building block of this glue-laminated beam is a new generation composite sandwich structure made up of glass fibre reinforced polymer skins and a high strength phenolic core material. A simplified Fibre Model Analysis (FMA) usually used to analyse a concrete beam section is adopted to theoretically describe the flexural behaviour of the innovative sandwich beam structure. The analysis included the flexural behaviour of the glued sandwich beams in the flatwise and the edgewise positions. The FMA accounted for the non-linear behaviour of the phenolic core in compression, the cracking of the core in tension and the linear elastic behaviour of the fibre composite skin. The results of the FMA showed a good agreement with the experimental data showing the efficiency and practical applications of the simplified FMA in analysing and designing sandwich structures with high strength core material.

  6. Effect of varying geometrical parameters of trapezoidal corrugated-core sandwich structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid N.Z.M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich structure is an attractive alternative that increasingly used in the transportation and aerospace industry. Corrugated-core with trapezoidal shape allows enhancing the damage resistance to the sandwich structure, but on the other hand, it changes the structural response of the sandwich structure. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of varying geometrical parameters of trapezoidal corrugated-core sandwich structure under compression loading. The corrugated-core specimen was fabricated using press technique, following the shape of trapezoidal shape. Two different materials were used in the study, glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP and carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP. The result shows that the mechanical properties of the core in compression loading are sensitive to the variation of a number of unit cells and the core thickness.

  7. Design Considerations for Thermally Insulating Structural Sandwich Panels for Hypersonic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blosser, Max L.

    2016-01-01

    Simplified thermal/structural sizing equations were derived for the in-plane loading of a thermally insulating structural sandwich panel. Equations were developed for the strain in the inner and outer face sheets of a sandwich subjected to uniaxial mechanical loads and differences in face sheet temperatures. Simple equations describing situations with no viable solution were developed. Key design parameters, material properties, and design principles are identified. A numerical example illustrates using the equations for a preliminary feasibility assessment of various material combinations and an initial sizing for minimum mass of a sandwich panel.

  8. Effects of Core Softness and Bimodularity of Fibreglass Layers on Flexural Stiffness of Polymer Sandwich Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuba Oldřich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of the flexural stiffness of the sandwich structures based on fibreglass and polymeric foams. The influence of geometrical and material parameters on the resulting effective flexural stiffness of the sandwich structure is being studied experimentally, analytically and by using FEM models. The effective modulus of elasticity of the sandwich-structured element is being studied and its theoretical and model dependencies on the flexibility of the foam core and bimodularity of the fibreglass layers are being investigated. The achieved results are compared with the experimentally observed values. This study shows that it is necessary to pay special attention to the issue of flexural stiffness of the walls when designing sandwich shell products in order to prevent possible failures in the practical applications of these types of structures.

  9. High performance sandwich structured Si thin film anodes with LiPON coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xinyi; Lang, Jialiang; Lv, Shasha; Li, Zhengcao

    2018-04-01

    The sandwich structured silicon thin film anodes with lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) coating are synthesized via the radio frequency magnetron sputtering method, whereas the thicknesses of both layers are in the nanometer range, i.e. between 50 and 200 nm. In this sandwich structure, the separator simultaneously functions as a flexible substrate, while the LiPON layer is regarded as a protective layer. This sandwich structure combines the advantages of flexible substrate, which can help silicon release the compressive stress, and the LiPON coating, which can provide a stable artificial solidelectrolyte interphase (SEI) film on the electrode. As a result, the silicon anodes are protected well, and the cells exhibit high reversible capacity, excellent cycling stability and good rate capability. All the results demonstrate that this sandwich structure can be a promising option for high performance Si thin film lithium ion batteries.

  10. The dynamic properties of sandwich structures based on metal-ceramic foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The present research program has studied the fracture properties of closed pore metal-ceramic foams for their potential applications as core systems in sandwich structures. The composite foams were created at Fireline, Inc. (Youngstown, OH) using the...

  11. Experimental investigation on sandwich structure ring-type ultrasonic motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Taijiang; Shi, Hongyan; Liang, Xiong; Luo, Feng; Wu, Xiaoyu

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a manufacture method for a sandwich structure Ultrasonic Motor (USM) and experiment. Two pieces of rotor clamped on a stator, and a stainless steel disk-spring is bonded on the hollow rotor disk to provide the press by a nut assembled on the shaft. The stator is made of a double-side Printed-Circuit Board (PCB) which is sawed out the ring in the center and connected on the board with three legs. On each side of the ring surface, there are electrodes connected at the same position via through hole. The three layer drive circuit for sine, cosine, and ground signal is connected on the board through each leg. There are many piezoelectric components (PZT) bonded between two electrodes and fill soldering tin on each electrode. Then PZT is welded on PCB by reflow soldering. Finally, rub the gibbous soldering tin down to the position of PZT surface makes sure the surface contacts with rotor evenly. The welding process can also be completed by Surface Mounted Technology (SMT). A prototype motor is manufactured by this method. Two B03 model shapes of the stator are obtained by the finite element analysis and the optimal frequency of the motor is 56.375 kHz measured by impedance instrument. The theoretical analysis is conducted for the relationship between the revolving speed of the USM and thickness of stator ring, number of the travelling waves, PZT amplitude, frequency and the other parameters. The experiment result shows that the maximum revolving speed is 116 RPM and the maximum torque is 25 N mm, when the actuate voltage is 200 VAC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Enhanced Performance of Sandwich Structures by Improved Damage Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martakos, Georgios

    are embedded in both sandwich beam and panel specimens. The experimental observations form the basis for evaluating the efficiency of the proposed crack stopping inserts. For the experiments, Digital Image Correlation (DIC) was used to characterize the measure the local strain fields and overall deformation...... behaviour around the new crack stopper elements. In support for the experimental investigations, a Finite Element (FE) analysis based methodology, including fracture mechanics analysis and the so-called ‘cycle jump’ technique, was developed to predict the progression of damage in sandwich specimens...... concentrations in the foam core material on the back side of the peel stopper. By use of the developed numerical fracture mechanics based modelling tools, both fatigue crack growth and crack arrest in the specimens were simulated. It was shown that the strains responsible for crack re-initiation can...

  13. Effect of Different Concentration of Sodium Hydroxide [NaOH] on Kenaf Sandwich Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, M.; Halim, Z.; Othman, M.

    2018-01-01

    Sandwich panels are structures that made of three layers, low-density core inserted in between thin skin layers. This structures allow the achievement of excellent mechanical performance with low weight, thus this characteristic fulfil requirement to be use in aircraft application. In recent time, sandwich structures have been studied due to it has multifunction properties and lightweight. The aim of this study is to fabricate a composite sandwich structures with biodegradable material for face sheet [skin] where the fibre being treat with different concentration of sodium hydroxide [NaOH] with 10 and 20 hours of soaking time. Kenaf fibre [treated] reinforced epoxy will be used as skins and Nomex honeycomb is chosen to perform as core for this sandwich composite structure. The mechanical properties that are evaluated such as flexural strength and impact energy of kenaf fibre-reinforced epoxy sandwich structures. For flexural test, the optimum flexural strength is 13.4 MPa and impact strength is 18.3 J.

  14. Insert Design and Manufacturing for Foam-Core Composite Sandwich Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lares, Alan

    Sandwich structures have been used in the aerospace industry for many years. The high strength to weight ratios that are possible with sandwich constructions makes them desirable for airframe applications. While sandwich structures are effective at handling distributed loads such as aerodynamic forces, they are prone to damage from concentrated loads at joints or due to impact. This is due to the relatively thin face-sheets and soft core materials typically found in sandwich structures. Carleton University's Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Project Team has designed and manufactured a UAV (GeoSury II Prototype) which features an all composite sandwich structure fuselage structure. The purpose of the aircraft is to conduct geomagnetic surveys. The GeoSury II Prototype serves as the test bed for many areas of research in advancing UAV technologies. Those areas of research include: low cost composite materials manufacturing, geomagnetic data acquisition, obstacle detection, autonomous operations and magnetic signature control. In this thesis work a methodology for designing and manufacturing inserts for foam-core sandwich structures was developed. The results of this research work enables a designer wishing to design a foam-core sandwich airframe structure, a means of quickly manufacturing optimized inserts for the safe introduction of discrete loads into the airframe. The previous GeoSury II Prototype insert designs (v.1 & v.2) were performance tested to establish a benchmark with which to compare future insert designs. Several designs and materials were considered for the new v.3 inserts. A plug and sleeve design was selected, due to its ability to effectively transfer the required loads to the sandwich structure. The insert material was chosen to be epoxy, reinforced with chopped carbon fibre. This material was chosen for its combination of strength, low mass and also compatibility with the face-sheet material. The v.3 insert assembly is 60% lighter than the

  15. Application of Foldcore Sandwich Structures in Helicopter Subfloor Energy Absorption Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H. Z.; Wang, Z. J.

    2017-10-01

    The intersection element is an important part of the helicopter subfloor structure. The numerical simulation model of the intersection element is established and the crush simulation is conducted. The simulation results agree well with the experiment results. In order to improve the buffering capacity and energy-absorbing capacity, the intersection element is redesigned. The skin and the floor in the intersection element are replaced with foldcore sandwich structures. The new intersection element is studied using the same simulation method as the typical intersection element. The analysis result shows that foldcore can improve the buffering capacity and the energy-absorbing capacity, and reduce the structure mass.

  16. Application of golay complementary coded excitation schemes for non-destructive testing of sandwich structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Vanita; Mulaveesala, Ravibabu

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, InfraRed Thermography (IRT) has become a widely accepted non-destructive testing technique to evaluate the structural integrity of composite sandwich structures due to its full-field, remote, fast and in-service inspection capabilities. This paper presents a novel infrared thermographic approach named as Golay complementary coded thermal wave imaging is presented to detect disbonds in a sandwich structure having face sheets from Glass/Carbon Fibre Reinforced (GFR/CFR) laminates and core of the wooden block.

  17. On the use of a woven mat to control the crack path in composite sandwich structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard-Larsen, Christian; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2008-01-01

    tractionsbetween the separated crack surfaces [4, 5]. The outline of a crack propagating under large scale bridging in a sandwich structure can be seen in Figure 1. The fiber bridging mechanism possesses an increased potential damage tolerance capacity for the sandwich structure if it can be predicatively....... The sign of the moment ratio can be reversed by changing the mounting direction of the wire. If moments with opposite signs are applied e.g. M1/M2 = -1, crack opening in the normal direction is dominating (mode I). If moments with the same sign are applied the crack opening in the tangential direction...

  18. Thermo-Electro-Mechanical Analysis of a Curved Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Actuator with Sandwich Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Jiang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the problem of a curved functionally graded piezoelectric (FGP actuator with sandwich structure under electrical and thermal loads is investigated. The middle layer in the sandwich structure is functionally graded with the piezoelectric coefficient g31 varying continuously along the radial direction of the curved actuator. Based on the theory of linear piezoelectricity, analytical solutions are obtained by using Airy stress function to examine the effects of material gradient and heat conduction on the performance of the curved actuator. It is found that the material gradient and thermal load have significant influence on the electroelastic fields and the mechanical response of the curved FGP actuator. Without the sacrifice of actuation deflection, smaller internal stresses are generated by using the sandwich actuator with functionally graded piezoelectric layer instead of the conventional bimorph actuator. This work is very helpful for the design and application of curved piezoelectric actuators under thermal environment.

  19. Thermo-Electro-Mechanical Analysis of a Curved Functionally Graded Piezoelectric Actuator with Sandwich Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhi; Zaman, Mostafa; Jiang, Liying

    2011-12-12

    In this work, the problem of a curved functionally graded piezoelectric (FGP) actuator with sandwich structure under electrical and thermal loads is investigated. The middle layer in the sandwich structure is functionally graded with the piezoelectric coefficient g 31 varying continuously along the radial direction of the curved actuator. Based on the theory of linear piezoelectricity, analytical solutions are obtained by using Airy stress function to examine the effects of material gradient and heat conduction on the performance of the curved actuator. It is found that the material gradient and thermal load have significant influence on the electroelastic fields and the mechanical response of the curved FGP actuator. Without the sacrifice of actuation deflection, smaller internal stresses are generated by using the sandwich actuator with functionally graded piezoelectric layer instead of the conventional bimorph actuator. This work is very helpful for the design and application of curved piezoelectric actuators under thermal environment.

  20. A Study on Flexural Properties of Sandwich Structures with Fiber/Metal Laminate Face Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dariushi, S.; Sadighi, M.

    2013-10-01

    In this work, a new family of sandwich structures with fiber metal laminate (FML) faces is investigated. FMLs have benefits over both metal and fiber reinforced composites. To investigate the bending properties of sandwich beams with FML faces and compare with similar sandwich beams with fibrous composite faces, 6 groups of specimen with different layer arrangements were made and tested. Results show that FML faces have good resistance against transverse local loads and minimize stress concentration and local deformations of skin and core under the loading tip. In addition, FML faces have a good integrity even after plateau region of foam cores and prevent from catastrophic failures, which cannot be seen in fibrous composite faces. Also, FML faces are lighter than metal faces and have better connection with foam cores. Sandwich beams with FML faces have a larger elastic region because of simultaneous deformation of top and bottom faces and larger failure strain thanks to good durability of FMLs. A geometrical nonlinear classical theory is used to predict force-deflection behavior. In this model an explicit formula between symmetrical sandwich beams deflections and applied force which can be useful for designers, is derived. Good agreement is obtained between the analytical predictions and experimental results. Also, analytical results are compared with small deformation solution in a parametric study, and the effects of geometric parameters on difference between linear and nonlinear results are discussed.

  1. Analysis of Grid-Scored Sandwich Structures of Different Curvatures and Grid Sizes For Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Steffen; Thomsen, Ole Thybo; Lund, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The stress and strain field developed locally in-situ the core of grid-scored sandwich structures in wind turbine blades is investigated. Due to the many singularities occurring from the “tri-material corners”, a full 3D analysis of the sandwich structure in terms of the Finite Element Method is ...

  2. Study and Optimization of Helicopter Subfloor Energy Absorption Structure with Foldcore Sandwich Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    HuaZhi, Zhou; ZhiJin, Wang

    2017-11-01

    The intersection element is an important part of the helicopter subfloor structure. In order to improve the crashworthiness properties, the floor and the skin of the intersection element are replaced with foldcore sandwich structures. Foldcore is a kind of high-energy absorption structure. Compared with original structure, the new intersection element shows better buffering capacity and energy-absorption capacity. To reduce structure’s mass while maintaining the crashworthiness requirements satisfied, optimization of the intersection element geometric parameters is conducted. An optimization method using NSGA-II and Anisotropic Kriging is used. A significant CPU time saving can be obtained by replacing numerical model with Anisotropic Kriging surrogate model. The operation allows 17.15% reduce of the intersection element mass.

  3. Bioinspired metal-cell wall-metal sandwich structure on an individual bacterial cell scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Yu, Mei; Liu, Jianhua; Li, Songmei

    2012-08-25

    Pd nanoparticles were introduced to individual Bacillus cells and dispersedly anchored on both the inside and outside of the cell walls. The anchored nanoparticles served as "seeds" to drive the formation of double metallic layers forming a metal-cell wall-metal sandwich structure at the single-cell level.

  4. Highly efficient construction of oriented sandwich structures for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hongyun; Xu Weiqing; Xu Shuping; Zhou Ji; Lombardi, John R

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to solve the problem of low achievement in fabricating sandwich surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. We demonstrated a highly efficient sandwich structure by the oriented assembly of metal nanoparticles (NPs) on a periodic hexagonal array of metal nanoprisms with 1,4-benzenedithiol (1,4-BDT) as linkers. The metal nanoprism array was prepared by vacuum deposition of metal on a close-packed polystyrene nanosphere pre-patterned substrate. The metal nanoprism array presents different surface properties from the pits left from the removal of polystyrene nanospheres, which causes linkers to selectively adsorb on the metal nanoprism array and sequentially leads to the oriented immobilization of the second-layer metal NPs, avoiding mismatched orientation. These sandwich SERS substrates were characterized by extinction spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy and their enhancement activity was evaluated under different excitation wavelengths. The sandwich structure greatly increases the achievement of ‘hot spots’ to almost 100% of all the metal nanoprisms and enables a large amplification of SERS signals by a factor of ten. This method has the advantages of simplicity, high efficiency, high throughput, controllability and high reproducibility. It has significance in both the study of SERS substrates and the development of plasmonic devices. (paper)

  5. A chemically stable electrolyte with a novel sandwiched structure for proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs)

    KAUST Repository

    Bi, Lei; Traversa, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    A chemically stable electrolyte structure was developed for proton-conducting SOFCs by using two layers of stable BaZr0.7Pr 0.1Y0.2O3 -δ to sandwich a highly-conductive but unstable BaCe0.8Y0.2O 3 -δ electrolyte layer. The sandwiched electrolyte

  6. The equivalent thermal conductivity of lattice core sandwich structure: A predictive model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Xiangmeng; Wei, Kai; He, Rujie; Pei, Yongmao; Fang, Daining

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A predictive model of the equivalent thermal conductivity was established. • Both the heat conduction and radiation were considered. • The predictive results were in good agreement with experiment and FEM. • Some methods for improving the thermal protection performance were proposed. - Abstract: The equivalent thermal conductivity of lattice core sandwich structure was predicted using a novel model. The predictive results were in good agreement with experimental and Finite Element Method results. The thermal conductivity of the lattice core sandwich structure was attributed to both core conduction and radiation. The core conduction caused thermal conductivity only relied on the relative density of the structure. And the radiation caused thermal conductivity increased linearly with the thickness of the core. It was found that the equivalent thermal conductivity of the lattice core sandwich structure showed a highly dependent relationship on temperature. At low temperatures, the structure exhibited a nearly thermal insulated behavior. With the temperature increasing, the thermal conductivity of the structure increased owing to radiation. Therefore, some attempts, such as reducing the emissivity of the core or designing multilayered structure, are believe to be of benefit for improving the thermal protection performance of the structure at high temperatures.

  7. The degree of π electron delocalization and the formation of 3D-extensible sandwich structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Wang, Qiang; Yuan, Caixia; Zhao, Xue-Feng; Li, Jia-Jia; Li, Debao; Wu, Yan-Bo; Wang, Xiaotai

    2016-04-28

    DFT B3LYP/6-31G(d) calculations were performed to examine the feasibility of graphene-like C42H18 and starbenzene C6(BeH)6 (SBz) polymers as ligands of 3D-extensible sandwich compounds (3D-ESCs) with uninterrupted sandwich arrays. The results revealed that sandwich compounds with three or more C42H18 ligands were not feasible. The possible reason may be the localization of π electrons on certain C6 hexagons due to π-metal interactions, which makes the whole ligand lose its electronic structure basis (higher degree of π electron delocalization) to maintain the planar structure. For comparison, with the aid of benzene (Bz) molecules, the SBz polymers can be feasible ligands for designing 3D-ESCs because the C-Be interactions in individual SBz are largely ionic, which will deter the π electrons on one C6 ring from connecting to those on neighbouring C6 rings. This means that high degree of π electron delocalization is not necessary for maintaining the planarity of SBz polymers. Such a locally delocalized π electron structure is desirable for the ligands of 3D-ESCs. Remarkably, the formation of a sandwich compound with SBz is thermodynamically more favourable than that found for bis(Bz)chromium. The assembly of 3D-ESCs is largely exothermic, which will facilitate future experimental synthesis. The different variation trends on the HOMO-LUMO gaps in different directions (relative to the sandwich axes) suggest that they can be developed to form directional conductors or semiconductors, which may be useful in the production of electronic devices.

  8. Analysis of a ceramic filled bio-plastic composite sandwich structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib Ullah, M.; Islam, M. T.

    2013-01-01

    Design and analysis of a ceramic-filled bio-plastic composite sandwich structure is presented. This proposed high-dielectric structure is used as a substrate for patch antennas. A meandered-strip line-fed fractal-shape patch antenna is designed and fabricated on a copper-laminated sandwich-structured substrate. Measurement results of this antenna show 44% and 20% of bandwidths with maximum gains of 3.45 dBi and 5.87 dBi for the lower and upper bands, respectively. The half-power beam widths of 104° and 78° have been observed from the measured radiation pattern at the two resonance frequencies 0.9 GHz and 2.5 GHz

  9. Analysis of a ceramic filled bio-plastic composite sandwich structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib Ullah, M. [Institute of Space Science (ANGKASA), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi Selangor 43600 (Malaysia); Department of Electrical, Electronic and System Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600 (Malaysia); Islam, M. T. [Institute of Space Science (ANGKASA), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi Selangor 43600 (Malaysia)

    2013-11-25

    Design and analysis of a ceramic-filled bio-plastic composite sandwich structure is presented. This proposed high-dielectric structure is used as a substrate for patch antennas. A meandered-strip line-fed fractal-shape patch antenna is designed and fabricated on a copper-laminated sandwich-structured substrate. Measurement results of this antenna show 44% and 20% of bandwidths with maximum gains of 3.45 dBi and 5.87 dBi for the lower and upper bands, respectively. The half-power beam widths of 104° and 78° have been observed from the measured radiation pattern at the two resonance frequencies 0.9 GHz and 2.5 GHz.

  10. A novel sandwich differential capacitive accelerometer with symmetrical double-sided serpentine beam-mass structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, D B; Li, Q S; Hou, Z Q; Wang, X H; Chen, Z H; Xia, D W; Wu, X Z

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel differential capacitive silicon micro-accelerometer with symmetrical double-sided serpentine beam-mass sensing structure and glass–silicon–glass sandwich structure. The symmetrical double-sided serpentine beam-mass sensing structure is fabricated with a novel pre-buried mask fabrication technology, which is convenient for manufacturing multi-layer sensors. The glass–silicon–glass sandwich structure is realized by a double anodic bonding process. To solve the problem of the difficulty of leading out signals from the top and bottom layer simultaneously in the sandwich sensors, a silicon pillar structure is designed that is inherently simple and low-cost. The prototype is fabricated and tested. It has low noise performance (the peak to peak value is 40 μg) and μg-level Allan deviation of bias (2.2 μg in 1 h), experimentally demonstrating the effectiveness of the design and the novel fabrication technology. (paper)

  11. Fabrication of Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich structure thin film and its tunable energetics and tailorable optical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijin Hong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich structure thin film was fabricated. The effects of graphene oxide (GO and bimetal on the structure and optical properties of metal silver films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, optical absorption, and Raman intensity measurements, respectively. Compared to silver thin film, Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich structure composite thin films were observed with wider optical absorption peak and enhanced absorption intensity. The Raman signal for Rhodamine B molecules based on the Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich nanostructure substrate were obviously enhanced due to the bimetal layer and GO layer with tunable absorption intensity and fluorescence quenching effects.

  12. Improved tank car design development : ongoing studies on sandwich structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-02

    The Government and industry have a common interest in : improving the safety performance of railroad tank cars carrying : hazardous materials. Research is ongoing to develop strategies : to maintain the structural integrity of railroad tank cars carr...

  13. Low-Velocity Impact Behavior of Sandwich Structures with Additively Manufactured Polymer Lattice Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew J.; Al Rifaie, Mohammed; Mian, Ahsan; Srinivasan, Raghavan

    2018-05-01

    Sandwich panel structures are widely used in aerospace, marine, and automotive applications because of their high flexural stiffness, strength-to-weight ratio, good vibration damping, and low through-thickness thermal conductivity. These structures consist of solid face sheets and low-density cellular core structures, which are traditionally based upon honeycomb folded-sheet topologies. The recent advances in additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing process allow lattice core configurations to be designed with improved mechanical properties. In this work, the sandwich core is comprised of lattice truss structures (LTS). Two different LTS designs are 3D-printed using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and are tested under low-velocity impact loads. The absorption energy and the failure mechanisms of lattice cells under such loads are investigated. The differences in energy-absorption capabilities are captured by integrating the load-displacement curve found from the impact response. It is observed that selective placement of vertical support struts in the unit-cell results in an increase in the absorption energy of the sandwich panels.

  14. Hypervelocity Impact Performance of Open Cell Foam Core Sandwich Panel Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, S.; Ordonez, E.; Christiansen, E. L.; Lear, D. M.

    2010-01-01

    Open cell metallic foam core sandwich panel structures are of interest for application in spacecraft micrometeoroid and orbital debris shields due to their novel form and advantageous structural and thermal performance. Repeated shocking as a result of secondary impacts upon individual foam ligaments during the penetration process acts to raise the thermal state of impacting projectiles ; resulting in fragmentation, melting, and vaporization at lower velocities than with traditional shielding configurations (e.g. Whipple shield). In order to characterize the protective capability of these structures, an extensive experimental campaign was performed by the Johnson Space Center Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility, the results of which are reported in this paper. Although not capable of competing against the protection levels achievable with leading heavy shields in use on modern high-risk vehicles (i.e. International Space Station modules), metallic foam core sandwich panels are shown to provide a substantial improvement over comparable structural panels and traditional low weight shielding alternatives such as honeycomb sandwich panels and metallic Whipple shields. A ballistic limit equation, generalized in terms of panel geometry, is derived and presented in a form suitable for application in risk assessment codes.

  15. Low-Velocity Impact Behavior of Sandwich Structures with Additively Manufactured Polymer Lattice Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Andrew J.; Al Rifaie, Mohammed; Mian, Ahsan; Srinivasan, Raghavan

    2018-04-01

    Sandwich panel structures are widely used in aerospace, marine, and automotive applications because of their high flexural stiffness, strength-to-weight ratio, good vibration damping, and low through-thickness thermal conductivity. These structures consist of solid face sheets and low-density cellular core structures, which are traditionally based upon honeycomb folded-sheet topologies. The recent advances in additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D printing process allow lattice core configurations to be designed with improved mechanical properties. In this work, the sandwich core is comprised of lattice truss structures (LTS). Two different LTS designs are 3D-printed using acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and are tested under low-velocity impact loads. The absorption energy and the failure mechanisms of lattice cells under such loads are investigated. The differences in energy-absorption capabilities are captured by integrating the load-displacement curve found from the impact response. It is observed that selective placement of vertical support struts in the unit-cell results in an increase in the absorption energy of the sandwich panels.

  16. Fabrication of Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich structure thin film and its tunable energetics and tailorable optical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Ruijin Hong; Jialin Ji; Chunxian Tao; Daohua Zhang; Dawei Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich structure thin film was fabricated. The effects of graphene oxide (GO) and bimetal on the structure and optical properties of metal silver films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical absorption, and Raman intensity measurements, respectively. Compared to silver thin film, Au/graphene oxide/Ag sandwich structure composite thin films were observed with wider optical absorption peak and enhanced absorption intensity. The Raman signal for Rhodamine B ...

  17. Characteristics of sandwich-type structural elements built of advanced composite materials from three dimensional fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castejón, L.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich-type structures have proved to be alternatives of great success for several fields of application, and specially in the building sector. This is due to their outstanding properties of .specific rigidity and strength against bending loads and other range of advantages like fatigue and impact resistance, attainment of flat and smooth surfaces, high electric and thermal insulation, design versatility and some others. However, traditional sandwich structures present problems like their tendency towards delamination, stress concentrations in bores or screwed Joints, and pre resistance. These problems are alleviated thanks to the use of new sandwich structures built using three dimensional structures of advanced composite materials, maintaining the present advantages for more traditional sandwich structures. At this rate, these new structures can be applied in several areas where conventional sandwich structures used to be like walls, partitions, floor and ceiling structures, domes, vaults and dwellings, but with greater success.

    Las estructuras tipo sándwich han demostrado ser alternativas de gran éxito para diversos campos de aplicación y, en concreto, en el sector de la construcción, listo es gracias a sus excelentes propiedades de rigidez y resistencia específica frente a cargas de flexión y otra larga lista de ventajas, a la que pertenecen, por ejemplo, su buena resistencia a fatiga, resistencia al impacto, obtención de superficies lisas y suaves, elevado aislamiento térmico y eléctrico, versatilidad de diseño y otras. Sin embargo, las estructuras sándwich, tradicionales presentan una problemática consistente en su tendencia a la delaminación, concentraciones de tensiones ¿aparecidas ante la existencia de agujeros o uniones atornilladas y resistencia al fuego. Estos problemas son pifiados gracias a la aplicación de estructuras novedosas tipo sándwich, construidas a partir de tejidos tridimensionales de materiales

  18. ALL NATURAL COMPOSITE SANDWICH BEAMS FOR STRUCTURAL APPLICATIONS. (R829576)

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of developing an all natural composite roof for housing application,structural panels and unit beams were manufactured out of soybean oil based resinand natural fibers (flax, cellulose, pulp, recycled paper, chicken feathers)using vacuum assisted resin tran...

  19. Magnetoelectric effect in a sandwich structure of gallium arsenide–nickel–tin–nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galichyan, T. A.; Filippov, D. A.; Tihonov, A. A.; Laletin, V. M.; Firsova, T. O.; Manicheva, I. N.

    2018-04-01

    The results of investigation of the magnetoelectric effect in a nickel-tin-nickel sandwich structure obtained by galvanic deposition of gallium arsenide on a substrate are presented. The technology of constructing such structures is described and the experimental results of the frequency dependence of the effect are presented. It is shown that the use of tin as an intermediate layer reduces the mechanical stresses resulting from the incommensurability of the phases, which permits obtaining qualitative structures with the nickel thickness of about 70 μm. The resulting structures exhibit good adhesion between the layers and have a high quality factor.

  20. Oscillations in magnetoresistance and interlayer coupling in magnetic sandwich structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnas, J.; Bulka, B.

    1997-01-01

    Kubo formalism is used to calculate the magnetoresistance due to magnetization rotation in a structure consisting two magnetic films separated by nonmagnetic layer. In the approximation of an uniform relaxation time of each layer, the oscillatory term in magnetoresistance corresponds to the oscillation period which depends on the potential barriers at the interfaces. This period is longer than the oscillation period observed in the coupling parameter. (author)

  1. Nonlinear Thermo-mechanical Finite Element Analysis of Polymer Foam Cored Sandwich Structures including Geometrical and Material Nonlinearity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palleti, Hara Naga Krishna Teja; Thomsen, Ole Thybo; Taher, Siavash Talebi

    In this paper, polymer foam cored sandwich structures with fibre reinforced composite face sheets subjected to combined mechanical and thermal loads will be analysed using the commercial FE code ABAQUS® incorporating both material and geometrical nonlinearity. Large displacements and rotations...

  2. Remanent resistance changes in metal- PrCaMnO-metal sandwich structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherff, Malte; Meyer, Bjoern-Uwe; Scholz, Julius; Hoffmann, Joerg; Jooss, Christian [Institute of Materials Physics, University of Goettingen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The non-volatile electric pulse induced resistance change (EPIR) seems to be a rather common feature of oxides sandwiched by electrodes. However, microscopic mechanisms are discussed controversially. We present electrical transport measurements of sputtered Pr{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} films sandwiched by metallic electrodes with variation of electrode materials, device geometry and PCMO deposition parameters. Cross-plane transport measurements have been performed as function of temperature and magnetic field. Specifically, the transition from dynamic resistance changes due to non-linear transport to remanent switching is analyzed. By analyzing changes of magneto-resistance at low temperatures in different resistance states we aim for separation between interface and film contributions to switching. Comparing switching behavior in symmetric and asymmetric electrode configuration allows for identification of the active, single interface in the switching process and the origin of an observed switching polarity inversion. The influence of excitation field and power on the switching characteristics of different noble metal electrodes is discussed. Samples from macroscopic devices and in situ stimulated sandwich structures were studied in a transmission electron microscope in order to investigate the induced structural, chemical and electronic changes.

  3. Archetypal sandwich-structured CuO for high performance non-enzymatic sensing of glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meher, Sumanta Kumar; Rao, G. Ranga

    2013-02-01

    In the quest to enhance the selectivity and sensitivity of novel structured metal oxides for electrochemical non-enzymatic sensing of glucose, we report here a green synthesis of unique sandwich-structured CuO on a large scale under microwave mediated homogeneous precipitation conditions. The physicochemical studies carried out by XRD and BET methods show that the monoclinic CuO formed via thermal decomposition of Cu2(OH)2CO3 possesses monomodal channel-type pores with largely improved surface area (~43 m2 g-1) and pore volume (0.163 cm3 g-1). The fascinating surface morphology and pore structure of CuO is formulated due to homogeneous crystallization and microwave induced self assembly during synthesis. The cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry studies show diffusion controlled glucose oxidation at ~0.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) with extremely high sensitivity of 5342.8 μA mM-1 cm-2 and respective detection limit and response time of ~1 μM and ~0.7 s, under a wide dynamic concentration range of glucose. The chronoamperometry measurements demonstrate that the sensitivity of CuO to glucose is unaffected by the absence of dissolved oxygen and presence of poisoning chloride ions in the reaction medium, which essentially implies high poison resistance activity of the sandwich-structured CuO. The sandwich-structured CuO also shows insignificant interference/significant selectivity to glucose, even in the presence of high concentrations of other sugars as well as reducing species. In addition, the sandwich-structured CuO shows excellent reproducibility (relative standard deviation of ~2.4% over ten identically fabricated electrodes) and outstanding long term stability (only ~1.3% loss in sensitivity over a period of one month) during non-enzymatic electrochemical sensing of glucose. The unique microstructure and suitable channel-type pore architecture provide structural stability and maximum accessible electroactive surface for unimpeded mobility of glucose as well as the

  4. Manufacture of Green-Composite Sandwich Structures with Basalt Fiber and Bioepoxy Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Torres

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is a growing interest for the use and development of materials synthesized from renewable sources in the polymer composites manufacturing industry; this applies for both matrix and reinforcement components. In the present research, a novel basalt fibre reinforced (BFR bioepoxy green composite is proposed as an environmentally friendly alternative to traditional petroleum-derived composites. In addition, this material system was combined with cork as core material for the fabrication of fibre composite sandwich structures. Mechanical properties of both skin and core materials were assessed through flexural and tensile tests. Finite element (FEM simulations for the mechanical stress analysis of the sandwich material were carried out, and a maximum allowable shear stress for material failure under bending loads was established. Permeability measurements of the basalt fabrics were carried out in order to perform numerical simulations of liquid composite moulding (LCM processes on the PAM-RTM software. The proposed green-composite sandwich material was used for the fabrication of a longboard as a case study for a sports equipment application. Numerical simulations of the mould filling stage allowed the determination of an optimal mould filling strategy. Finally, the load-bearing capacity of the board was studied by means of FEM simulations, and the presented design proved to be acceptable for service.

  5. Additive-manufactured sandwich lattice structures: A numerical and experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergani, Omar; Tronvoll, Sigmund; Brøtan, Vegard; Welo, Torgeir; Sørby, Knut

    2017-10-01

    The utilization of additive-manufactured lattice structures in engineered products is becoming more and more common as the competitiveness of AM as a production technology has increased during the past several years. Lattice structures may enable important weight reductions as well as open opportunities to build products with customized functional properties, thanks to the flexibility of AM for producing complex geometrical configurations. One of the most critical aspects related to taking AM into new application areas—such as safety critical products—is currently the limited understanding of the mechanical behavior of sandwich-based lattice structure mechanical under static and dynamic loading. In this study, we evaluate manufacturability of lattice structures and the impact of AM processing parameters on the structural behavior of this type of sandwich structures. For this purpose, we conducted static compression testing for a variety of geometry and manufacturing parameters. Further, the study discusses a numerical model capable of predicting the behavior of different lattice structure. A reasonably good correlation between the experimental and numerical results was observed.

  6. Sandwich Structure Risk Reduction in Support of the Payload Adapter Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, A. T.; Jackson, J. R.; Guin, W. E.

    2018-01-01

    Reducing risk for utilizing honeycomb sandwich structure for the Space Launch System payload adapter fitting includes determining what parameters need to be tested for damage tolerance to ensure a safe structure. Specimen size and boundary conditions are the most practical parameters to use in damage tolerance inspection. The effect of impact over core splices and foreign object debris between the facesheet and core is assessed. Effects of enhanced damage tolerance by applying an outer layer of carbon fiber woven cloth is examined. A simple repair technique for barely visible impact damage that restores all compression strength is presented.

  7. Analyse des structures en sandwich de type panneaux composites renforcés en nanoparticules soumises à un impact mécanique

    OpenAIRE

    RAMAKRISHNAN , Karthik Ram

    2014-01-01

    Sandwich structures are lightweight structures composed of two thin, relatively dense, high strength facesheets that are glued on either side of a thick, low density core, such as foams or honeycombs. Sandwich panels with fibre reinforced plastic skins and core of polymer foam represent an important class of lightweight structural materials in many areas of such as aeronautics and aerospace, automotive and marine structures. However, some of these sandwich structures have very limited energy ...

  8. Characterization of dermal plates from armored catfish Pterygoplichthys pardalis reveals sandwich-like nanocomposite structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenstein, Donna; Calderon, Carlos; Troncoso, Omar P; Torres, Fernando G

    2015-05-01

    Dermal plates from armored catfish are bony structures that cover their body. In this paper we characterized structural, chemical, and nanomechanical properties of the dermal plates from the Amazonian fish Pterygoplichthys pardalis. Analysis of the morphology of the plates using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the dermal plates have a sandwich-like structure composed of an inner porous matrix surrounded by two external dense layers. This is different from the plywood-like laminated structure of elasmoid fish scales but similar to the structure of osteoderms found in the dermal armour of some reptiles and mammals. Chemical analysis performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed similarities between the composition of P. pardalis plates and the elasmoid fish scales of Arapaima gigas. Reduced moduli of P. pardalis plates measured using nanoindentation were also consistent with reported values for A. gigas scales, but further revealed that the dermal plate is an anisotropic and heterogeneous material, similar to many other fish scales and osteoderms. It is postulated that the sandwich-like structure of the dermal plates provides a lightweight and tough protective layer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Employment of a metal microgrid as a front electrode in a sandwich-structured photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junying; Cai, Chao; Pan, Feng; Hao, Weichang; Zhang, Weiwei; Wang, Tianmin

    2009-07-01

    A highly UV-transparent metal microgrid was prepared and employed as the front electrode in a sandwich-structured ultraviolet (UV) photodetector using TiO(2) thin film as the semiconductor layer. The photo-generated charger carriers travel a shorter distance before reaching the electrodes in comparison with a photodetector using large-spaced interdigitated metal electrodes (where distance between fingers is several to tens of micrometers) on the surface of the semiconductor film. This photodetector responds to UV light irradiation, and the photocurrent intensity increases linearly with the irradiation intensity below 0.2 mW/cm(2).

  10. Validation and implementation of sandwich structure bottom plate to rib weld joint in the base section of ITER Cryostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prajapati, Rajnikant, E-mail: rajnikant@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, A-29, GIDC Electronics Estate, Sector-25, Gandhinagar 382016 (India); Bhardwaj, Anil K.; Gupta, Girish; Joshi, Vaibhav; Patel, Mitul; Bhavsar, Jagrut; More, Vipul; Jindal, Mukesh; Bhattacharya, Avik; Jogi, Gaurav; Palaliya, Amit; Jha, Saroj; Pandey, Manish [ITER-India, Institute For Plasma Research, A-29, GIDC Electronics Estate, Sector-25, Gandhinagar 382016 (India); Jadhav, Pandurang; Desai, Hemal [Larsen & Toubro Limited, Heavy Engineering, Hazira Manufacturing Complex, Gujarat (India)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • ITER Cryostat base section sandwich structure bottom plate to rib weld joint is qualified through mock-up. • Established welding sequence was successfully implemented on all six sectors of cryostat base section. • Each layer liquid penetrant examination has been carried out for these weld joints and found satisfactory. - Abstract: Cryostat is a large stainless steel vacuum vessel providing vacuum environment to ITER machine components. The cryostat is ∼30 m in diameter and ∼30 m in height having variable thickness from 25 mm to 180 mm. Sandwich structure of cryostat base section withstands vacuum loading and limits the deformation under service conditions. Sandwich structure consists of top and bottom plates internally strengthened with radial and circular ribs. In current work, sandwich structure bottom plate to rib weld joint has been designed with full penetration joint as per ITER Vacuum Handbook requirement considering nondestructive examinations and welding feasibility. Since this joint was outside the scope of ASME Section VIII Div. 2, it was decided to validate through mock-up of bottom plate to rib joint. Welding sequence was established to control the distortion. Tensile test, macro-structural examination and layer by layer LPE were carried out for validation of this weld joint. However possibility of ultrasonic examination method was also investigated. The test results from the welded joint mock-up were found to confirm all code and specification requirements. The same was implemented in first sector (0–60°) of base section sandwich structure.

  11. Thermal radiative properties of a photonic crystal structure sandwiched by SiC gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Weijie; Fu, Ceji; Tan, Wenchang

    2014-01-01

    Spectral and directional control of thermal emission holds substantial importance in applications where heat transfer is predominantly by thermal radiation. In this work, we investigate the spectral and directional properties of thermal emission from a novel structure, which is constituted with a photonic crystal (PC) sandwiched by SiC gratings. Numerical results based on the RCWA algorithm reveal that greatly enhanced emissivity can be achieved in a broad frequency band and in a wide range of angle of emission. This promising emission feature is found to be caused by excitation of surface phonon polaritons (SPhPs), PC mode, magnetic polaritons (MPs) and Fabry–Pérot resonance from high order diffracted waves, as well as the coupling between different resonant modes. We show that the broad enhanced emissivity band can be manipulated by adjusting the dimensional parameters of the structure properly. -- Highlights: ► We propose a novel structure made of a photonic crystal sandwiched by SiC gratings. ► High emissivity can be achieved in a broad spectral band and angle range. ► We explain the result by excitation of multiple excited modes and their coupling

  12. Laser cutting sandwich structure glass-silicon-glass wafer with laser induced thermal-crack propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yecheng; Wang, Maolu; Zhang, Hongzhi; Yang, Lijun; Fu, Xihong; Wang, Yang

    2017-08-01

    Silicon-glass devices are widely used in IC industry, MEMS and solar energy system because of their reliability and simplicity of the manufacturing process. With the trend toward the wafer level chip scale package (WLCSP) technology, the suitable dicing method of silicon-glass bonded structure wafer has become necessary. In this paper, a combined experimental and computational approach is undertaken to investigate the feasibility of cutting the sandwich structure glass-silicon-glass (SGS) wafer with laser induced thermal-crack propagation (LITP) method. A 1064 nm semiconductor laser cutting system with double laser beams which could simultaneously irradiate on the top and bottom of the sandwich structure wafer has been designed. A mathematical model for describing the physical process of the interaction between laser and SGS wafer, which consists of two surface heating sources and two volumetric heating sources, has been established. The temperature stress distribution are simulated by using finite element method (FEM) analysis software ABAQUS. The crack propagation process is analyzed by using the J-integral method. In the FEM model, a stationary planar crack is embedded in the wafer and the J-integral values around the crack front edge are determined using the FEM. A verification experiment under typical parameters is conducted and the crack propagation profile on the fracture surface is examined by the optical microscope and explained from the stress distribution and J-integral value.

  13. The structure of a conserved Piezo channel domain reveals a novel beta sandwich fold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamajaya, Aron; Kaiser, Jens; Lee, Jonas; Reid, Michelle; Rees, Douglas C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Piezo has recently been identified as a family of eukaryotic mechanosensitive channels composed of subunits containing over 2000 amino acids, without recognizable sequence similarity to other channels. Here, we present the crystal structure of a large, conserved extramembrane domain located just before the last predicted transmembrane helix of C. elegans PIEZO, which adopts a novel beta sandwich fold. The structure was also determined of a point mutation located on a conserved surface at the position equivalent to the human PIEZO1 mutation found in Dehydrated Hereditary Stomatocytosis (DHS) patients (M2225R). While the point mutation does not change the overall domain structure, it does alter the surface electrostatic potential that may perturb interactions with a yet-to-be identified ligand or protein. The lack of structural similarity between this domain and any previously characterized fold, including those of eukaryotic and bacterial channels, highlights the distinctive nature of the Piezo family of eukaryotic mechanosensitive channels. PMID:25242456

  14. Sandwich node architecture for agile wireless sensor networks for real-time structural health monitoring applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi; Pakzad, Shamim; Cheng, Liang

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, wireless sensor network (WSN), as a powerful tool, has been widely applied to structural health monitoring (SHM) due to its low cost of deployment. Several commercial hardware platforms of wireless sensor networks (WSN) have been developed and used for structural monitoring applications [1,2]. A typical design of a node includes a sensor board and a mote connected to it. Sensing units, analog filters and analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are integrated on the sensor board and the mote consists of a microcontroller and a wireless transceiver. Generally, there are a set of sensor boards compatible with the same model of mote and the selection of the sensor board depends on the specific applications. A WSN system based on this node lacks the capability of interrupting its scheduled task to start a higher priority task. This shortcoming is rooted in the hardware architecture of the node. The proposed sandwich-node architecture is designed to remedy the shortcomings of the existing one for task preemption. A sandwich node is composed of a sensor board and two motes. The first mote is dedicated to managing the sensor board and processing acquired data. The second mote controls the first mote via commands. A prototype has been implemented using Imote2 and verified by an emulation in which one mote is triggered by a remote base station and then preempts the running task at the other mote for handling an emergency event.

  15. Study of Ag/RGO/ITO sandwich structure for resistive switching behavior deposited on plastic substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Rajdeep; Rag, Adarsh; De, Shounak; Bhat, Somashekhara

    2018-05-01

    We report here the use of facile and environmentally benign way synthesized reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for low-voltage non-volatile memory device as charge storing element. The RGO solutions have been synthesized using electrochemical exfoliation of battery electrode. The solution processed based RGO solution is suitable for large area and low-cost processing on plastic substrate. Room-temperature current-voltage characterisation has been carried out in Ag/RGO/ITO PET sandwich configuration to study the type of trap distribution. It is observed that in the low-voltage sweep, ohmic current is the main mechanism of current flow and trap filled/assisted conduction is observed at high-sweep voltage region. The Ag/RGO/ITO PET sandwich structure showed bipolar resistive switching behavior. These mechanisms can be analyzed based on oxygen availability and vacancies in the RGO giving rise to continuous least resistive path (conductive) and high resistance path along the structure. An Ag/RGO/ITO arrangement demonstrates long retention time with low operating voltage, low set/reset voltage, good ON/OFF ratio of 103 (switching transition between lower resistance state and higher resistance state and decent switching performance. The RGO memory showed decent results with an almost negligible degradation in switching properties which can be used for low-voltage and low-cost advanced flexible electronics.

  16. Enhancing the imaging quality and fabrication efficiency of bionic compound eyes using a sandwich structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jiasai; Guo, Yongcai; Wang, Xin

    2018-06-01

    This paper puts forward a novel method for fabrication of sandwich-structured BCE using a detachable micro-hole array (MHA) prepared by 3D printing. Compared with most traditional methods, 3D printing enables effective implementation of direct micro-fabrication for curved BCE without the pattern transfer and substrate reshaping process. This 3D fabrication method allows rapid fabrication of the curved BCE and automatic assembly of the detachable MHA using a custom-built mold under negative pressure. The formation of a multi-focusing micro-lens array (MLA) was realized by adjusting the parameters of the curved detachable MHA. The imaging performance was effectively enhanced by the sandwich structure that consist of the multi-focusing MLA, the outer detachable MHA and the inner solidified MHA. This method is suitable for mass production due to its advantages as a time-saving, cost-effective and simple process. Optical design software was used to analyze the optical properties, and an imaging simulation was performed.

  17. Permeability and flammability study of composite sandwich structures for cryogenic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubacz, Monika

    Fiber reinforced plastics offer advantageous specific strength and stiffness compared to metals and has been identified as candidates for the reusable space transportation systems primary structures including cryogenic tanks. A number of carbon and aramid fiber reinforced plastics have been considered for the liquid hydrogen tanks. Materials selection is based upon mechanical properties and containment performance (long and short term) and upon manufacturing considerations. The liquid hydrogen tank carries shear, torque, end load, and bending moment due to gusts, maneuver, take-off, landing, lift, drag, and fuel sloshing. The tank is pressurized to about 1.5 atmosphere (14.6psi or 0.1 MPa) differential pressure and on ascent maintains the liquid hydrogen at a temperature of 20K. The objective of the research effort into lay the foundation for developing the technology required for reliable prediction of the effects of various design, manufacturing, and service parameters on the susceptibility of composite tanks to develop excessive permeability to cryogenic fuels. Efforts will be expended on developing the materials and structural concepts for the cryogenic tanks that can meet the functional requirements. This will include consideration for double wall composite sandwich structures, with inner wall to meet the cryogenic requirements. The structure will incorporate nanoparticles for properties modifications and developing barriers. The main effort will be extended to tank wall's internal skin design. The main requirements for internal composite stack are: (1) introduction of barrier film (e.g. honeycomb material paper sheet) to reduce the wall permeability to hydrogen, (2) introduction of nanoparticles into laminate resin to prevent micro-cracking or crack propagation. There is a need to characterize and analyze composite sandwich structural damage due to burning and explosion. Better understanding of the flammability and blast resistance of the composite structures

  18. Active metal brazing of titanium to high-conductivity carbon-based sandwich structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.; Morscher, Gregory N.; Shpargel, Tarah P.; Asthana, Rajiv

    2008-01-01

    Reactive brazing technology was developed and processing parameters were optimized for the bonding of titanium tubes, graphite foam, and high-conductivity carbon-carbon composite face sheets using the active braze Cusil-ABA paste and foils. The microstructure and composition of the joints, examined using scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy, showed good bonding and braze penetration in all systems when braze paste was used. The hardness values of the brazed joints were consistent for the different specimen stacking configurations. Mechanical testing of Ti tube/foam/C-C composite structures both in tension and shear showed that failure always occurred in the foam material demonstrating that the brazed joint was sufficient for these types of sandwich structures

  19. Structural performance of new thin-walled concrete sandwich panel system reinforced with bfrp shear connectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodicky, Kamil; Hulin, Thomas; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new thin-walled concrete sandwich panel system reinforced with basalt fiber-reinforced plastic (BFRP) with optimum structural performances and a high thermal resistance developed by Connovate and Technical University of Denmark. The shear connecting system made of a BFRP grid...... is described and provides information on the structural design with its advantages. Experimental and numerical investigations of the BFRP connecting systems were performed. The experimental program included testing of small scale specimens by applying shear (push-off) loading and semi-full scale specimens...... on finite element modelling showed that the developed panel system meets the objectives of the research and is expected to have promising future....

  20. Influence of reinforcement type on the mechanical behavior and fire response of hybrid composites and sandwich structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancaspro, James William

    Lightweight composites and structural sandwich panels are commonly used in marine and aerospace applications. Using carbon, glass, and a host of other high strength fiber types, a broad range of laminate composites and sandwich panels can be developed. Hybrid composites can be constructed by laminating multiple layers of varying fiber types while sandwich panels are manufactured by laminating rigid fiber facings onto a lightweight core. However, the lack of fire resistance of the polymers used for the fabrication remains a very important problem. The research presented in this dissertation deals with an inorganic matrix (Geopolymer) that can be used to manufacture laminate composites and sandwich panels that are resistant up to 1000°C. This dissertation deals with the influence of fiber type on the mechanical behavior and the fire response of hybrid composites and sandwich structures manufactured using this resin. The results are categorized into the following distinct studies. (i) High strength carbon fibers were combined with low cost E-glass fibers to obtain hybrid laminate composites that are both economical and strong. The E-glass fabrics were used as a core while the carbon fibers were placed on the tension face and on both tension and compression faces. (ii) Structural sandwich beams were developed by laminating various types of reinforcement onto the tension and compression faces of balsa wood cores. The flexural behavior of the beams was then analyzed and compared to beams reinforced with organic composite. The effect of core density was evaluated using oak beams reinforced with inorganic composite. (iii) To measure the fire response, balsa wood sandwich panels were manufactured using a thin layer of a fire-resistant paste to serve for fire protection. Seventeen sandwich panels were fabricated and tested to measure the heat release rates and smoke-generating characteristics. The results indicate that Geopolymer can be effectively used to fabricate both

  1. A chemically stable electrolyte with a novel sandwiched structure for proton-conducting solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs)

    KAUST Repository

    Bi, Lei

    2013-11-01

    A chemically stable electrolyte structure was developed for proton-conducting SOFCs by using two layers of stable BaZr0.7Pr 0.1Y0.2O3 -δ to sandwich a highly-conductive but unstable BaCe0.8Y0.2O 3 -δ electrolyte layer. The sandwiched electrolyte structure showed good chemical stability in both CO2 and H2O atmosphere, indicating that the BZPY layers effectively protect the inner BCY electrolyte, while the BCY electrolyte alone decomposed completely under the same conditions. Fuel cell prototypes fabricated with the sandwiched electrolyte achieved a relatively high performance of 185 mW cm- 2 at 700 C, with a high electrolyte film conductivity of 4 × 10- 3 S cm- 1 at 600 C. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Polarization modulation based on the hybrid waveguide of graphene sandwiched structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Junbo; Chen, Dingbo; Zhang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhaojian; Huang, Jie

    2017-09-01

    Polarization beam splitter (PBS) plays an important role to realize beam control and modulation. A novel hybrid structure of graphene sandwiched waveguide is proposed to fulfill polarization manipulation and selection based on the refractive index engineering techniques. The fundamental mode of TM cannot be supported in this case. However, both TE and TM mode are excited and transmitting in the hybrid waveguide if the design parameters, including the waveguide width and the waveguide height, are changed. The incident wavelength largely affects the effective index, which results in supporting/not supporting the TM mode. The proposed design exhibits high extinction ratio, compact in size, flexible to control, compatible with CMOS process, and easy to be integrated with other optoelectronic devices, allowing it to be used in optical communication and optical information processing.

  3. Finite element method calculations of GMI in thin films and sandwiched structures: Size and edge effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Arribas, A.; Barandiaran, J.M.; Cos, D. de

    2008-01-01

    The impedance values of magnetic thin films and magnetic/conductor/magnetic sandwiched structures with different widths are computed using the finite element method (FEM). The giant magneto-impedance (GMI) is calculated from the difference of the impedance values obtained with high and low permeability of the magnetic material. The results depend considerably on the width of the sample, demonstrating that edge effects are decisive for the GMI performance. It is shown that, besides the usual skin effect that is responsible for GMI, an 'unexpected' increase of the current density takes place at the lateral edge of the sample. In magnetic thin films this effect is dominant when the permeability is low. In the trilayers, it is combined with the lack of shielding of the central conductor at the edge. The resulting effects on GMI are shown to be large for both kinds of samples. The conclusions of this study are of great importance for the successful design of miniaturized GMI devices

  4. The Effect of Face Sheet Wrinkle Defects on the Strength of FRP Sandwich Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayman, Brian; Berggreen, Christian; Pettersson, Robert

    2007-01-01

    . In the studies reported here, the influence of wrinkle defects on the in-plane compressive strength of quasi-isotropic carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminates used in PVC foam-cored sandwich panels has been investigated by three approaches: testing of sandwich beam specimens in four-point bending...

  5. The structure of a conserved piezo channel domain reveals a topologically distinct β sandwich fold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamajaya, Aron; Kaiser, Jens T; Lee, Jonas; Reid, Michelle; Rees, Douglas C

    2014-10-07

    Piezo has recently been identified as a family of eukaryotic mechanosensitive channels composed of subunits containing over 2,000 amino acids, without recognizable sequence similarity to other channels. Here, we present the crystal structure of a large, conserved extramembrane domain located just before the last predicted transmembrane helix of C. elegans PIEZO, which adopts a topologically distinct β sandwich fold. The structure was also determined of a point mutation located on a conserved surface at the position equivalent to the human PIEZO1 mutation found in dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis patients (M2225R). While the point mutation does not change the overall domain structure, it does alter the surface electrostatic potential that may perturb interactions with a yet-to-be-identified ligand or protein. The lack of structural similarity between this domain and any previously characterized fold, including those of eukaryotic and bacterial channels, highlights the distinctive nature of the Piezo family of eukaryotic mechanosensitive channels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigation of Quasi-Static Indentation Response of Inkjet Printed Sandwich Structures under Various Indenter Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Vishwesh; Nagalingam, Arun Prasanth; Yap, Yee Ling; Sing, Swee Leong; Yeong, Wai Yee; Wei, Jun

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the quasi-static indentation response and failure mode in three-dimensional (3D) printed trapezoidal core structures, and to characterize the energy absorbed by the structures. In this work, the trapezoidal sandwich structure was designed in the following two ways. Firstly, the trapezoidal core along with its facesheet was 3D printed as a single element comprising a single material for both core and facesheet (type A); Secondly, the trapezoidal core along with facesheet was 3D printed, but with variation in facesheet materials (type B). Quasi-static indentation was carried out using three different indenters, namely standard hemispherical, conical, and flat indenters. Acoustic emission (AE) technique was used to capture brittle cracking in the specimens during indentation. The major failure modes were found to be brittle failure and quasi-brittle fractures. The measured indentation energy was at a maximum when using a conical indenter at 9.40 J and 9.66 J and was at a minimum when using a hemispherical indenter at 6.87 J and 8.82 J for type A and type B series specimens respectively. The observed maximum indenter displacements at failure were the effect of material variations and composite configurations in the facesheet. PMID:28772649

  7. The sandwich InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot structure for IR photoelectric detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldavskaya, L. D.; Vostokov, N. V.; Gaponova, D. M.; Danil'tsev, V. M.; Drozdov, M. N.; Drozdov, Yu. N.; Shashkin, V. I.

    2008-01-01

    A new possibility for growing InAs/GaAs quantum dot heterostructures for infrared photoelectric detectors by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy is discussed. The specific features of the technological process are the prolonged time of growth of quantum dots and the alternation of the low-and high-temperature modes of overgrowing the quantum dots with GaAs barrier layers. During overgrowth, large-sized quantum dots are partially dissolved, and the secondary InGaAs quantum well is formed of the material of the dissolved large islands. In this case, a sandwich structure is formed. In this structure, quantum dots are arranged between two thin layers with an increased content of indium, namely, between the wetting InAs layer and the secondary InGaAs layer. The height of the quantum dots depends on the thickness of the GaAs layer grown at a comparatively low temperature. The structures exhibit intraband photoconductivity at a wavelength around 4.5 μm at temperatures up to 200 K. At 90 K, the photosensitivity is 0.5 A/W, and the detectivity is 3 x 10 9 cm Hz 1/2 W -1

  8. Novel sandwich structure adsorptive membranes for removal of 4-nitrotoluene from water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yuexin [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); School of Pharmacy, North China University of Science and Technology, Tangshan 063000 (China); Jia, Zhiqian, E-mail: zhqjia@bnu.edu.cn [College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Novel sandwich PES-SPES/PS-PDVB/PTFE adsorptive membranes were prepared. • The removal efficiency for 4-nitrotoluene is greater than 95% after five recycles. • The membrane showed higher adsorption capacity than that of mixed matrix membrane. - Abstract: Novel sandwich PES-SPES/PS-PDVB/PTFE adsorptive membranes were prepared by a filtration/immersion precipitation method and employed for the removal of 4-nitrotoluene from water. The static adsorption thermodynamics, kinetics, dynamic adsorption/desorption and membrane reusability were investigated. The results showed that the Freundlich model describes the adsorption isotherm satisfactorily. With increased PS-PDVB content, the maximum static adsorption capacity, partition coefficient, apparent adsorption rate constant, and dynamic adsorption capacity all significantly increased. The sandwich membranes showed much higher removal efficiency and adsorption capacity than those of mixed matrix membranes. With respect to dynamics adsorption/desorption, the sandwich membranes exhibited excellent reusability, with a removal efficiency greater than 95% even after five recycles.

  9. Fabrication and Testing of Durable Redundant and Fluted-Core Joints for Composite Sandwich Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Yung; Splinter, Scott C.; Tarkenton, Chris; Paddock, David A.; Smeltzer, Stanley S.; Ghose, Sayata; Guzman, Juan C.; Stukus, Donald J.; McCarville, Douglas A.

    2013-01-01

    The development of durable bonded joint technology for assembling composite structures is an essential component of future space technologies. While NASA is working toward providing an entirely new capability for human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit, the objective of this project is to design, fabricate, analyze, and test a NASA patented durable redundant joint (DRJ) and a NASA/Boeing co-designed fluted-core joint (FCJ). The potential applications include a wide range of sandwich structures for NASA's future launch vehicles. Three types of joints were studied -- splice joint (SJ, as baseline), DRJ, and FCJ. Tests included tension, after-impact tension, and compression. Teflon strips were used at the joint area to increase failure strength by shifting stress concentration to a less sensitive area. Test results were compared to those of pristine coupons fabricated utilizing the same methods. Tensile test results indicated that the DRJ design was stiffer, stronger, and more impact resistant than other designs. The drawbacks of the DRJ design were extra mass and complex fabrication processes. The FCJ was lighter than the DRJ but less impact resistant. With barely visible but detectable impact damages, all three joints showed no sign of tensile strength reduction. No compression test was conducted on any impact-damaged sample due to limited scope and resource. Failure modes and damage propagation were also studied to support progressive damage modeling of the SJ and the DRJ.

  10. Natural Fiber Reinforced Composites: A Review on Potential for Corrugated Core of Sandwich Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jusoh A.F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers, characterized by sustainability, have gained a considerable attention in recent years, due to their advantages of environmental acceptability and commercial viability. In this paper, the characterization of natural fibers including the mechanical properties and alkalization of fibers is presented. Most recent study had gone through the mercerization process to improve the toughness of natural fibers; which is a well-known hydrophilic material. Traditional reinforcement method was commonly used to fabricate a natural fiber composite such as hand lay-up and mold press due to its convenience in terms of time and cost. Also, different kind of matrix material used in different kind of natural fibers gave high impact on the tensile and flexural test result. By selecting appropriate chemical treatment, matrix material and fabrication method, the tensile and flexural test gives different results and findings. As most researchers tend to use metals to create corrugated cores for sandwich structure, it is possible to develop this structure using natural fibers such as kenaf, wood dust, and other natural fibers.

  11. Effect of temperature on composite sandwich structures subjected to low velocity impact. [aircraft construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A. V.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of low velocity projectile impact on sandwich-type structural components was investigated. The materials used in the fabrication of the impact surface were graphite-, Kevlar-, and boron-fibers with appropriate epoxy matrices. The testing of the specimens was performed at moderately low- and high-temperatures as well as at room temperature to assess the impact-initiated strength degradation of the laminates. Eleven laminates with different stacking sequences, orientations, and thicknesses were tested. The low energy projectile impact is considered to simulate the damage caused by runway debris, the dropping of the hand tools during servicing, etc., on the secondary aircraft structures fabricated with the composite materials. The results show the preload and the impact energy combinations necessary to cause catastrophic failure in the laminates tested. A set of faired curves indicating the failure thresholds is shown separately for the tension-and compression-loaded laminates. The specific-strengths and -modulii for the various laminates tested are also given.

  12. Sandwich structure of plasma edge during transition to improved confinement regime in L-2M stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shchepetov, S V; Kholnov, Yu V; Fedyanin, O I; Kuznetsov, A B; Vasilkov, D G; Akulina, D K; Batanov, G M; Gladkov, G A; Grebenshchikov, S E; Meshcheryakov, A I

    2008-01-01

    Transitions to the regime with better confinement in the L-2M stellarator are presented. Transitions are indicated only at sufficiently high plasma densities, and for a given value of average density they appear only at higher heating powers. Each transition is easily identified by a sudden fast ( e ). In the bulk of the plasma parameters evolve slowly. Drastic changes are observed in the region close to the plasma boundary where two moderate order rational magnetic surfaces are located with the rotational transform μ taking the values 2/3 and 3/4. Relative values of plasma parameters' fluctuations and their spectrum widths decrease significantly in this region. The region has a definite sandwich structure being subdivided by the above-named moderate order rational magnetic surfaces into three smaller zones with different plasma parameter dynamics. Transition is triggered by local disturbances of plasma parameters that are caused by instabilities in the vicinity of magnetic surfaces where μ is equal to 2/3 or 3/4. Different hypotheses on the nature of the phenomenon are discussed

  13. Microscopic and macroscopic characterization of the charging effects in SiC/Si nanocrystals/SiC sandwiched structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jie; Xu, Jun; Wang, Yuefei; Cao, Yunqing; Li, Wei; Yu, Linwei; Chen, Kunji

    2014-01-01

    Microscopic charge injection into the SiC/Si nanocrystals/SiC sandwiched structures through a biased conductive AFM tip is subsequently characterized by both electrostatic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). The charge injection and retention characteristics are found to be affected by not only the band offset at the Si nanocrystals/SiC interface but also the doping type of the Si substrate. On the other hand, capacitance–voltage (C–V) measurements investigate the macroscopic charging effect of the sandwiched structures with a thicker SiC capping layer, where the charges are injected from the Si substrates. The calculated macroscopic charging density is 3–4 times that of the microscopic one, and the possible reason is the underestimation of the microscopic charging density caused by the averaging effect and detection delay in the KPFM measurements. (paper)

  14. Synthesis, structure, spectral properties and theoretical studies of two half-sandwich titanium-complexes with adamantoxy ligands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Varga, Vojtěch; Mach, Karel; Pinkas, Jiří; Kubišta, Jiří; Szarka, K.; Gyepes, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1142, AUG 2017 (2017), s. 248-254 ISSN 0022-2860 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/12/2368; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-08531S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : half-sandwich complex * ionic complex * solid-state structure Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 1.753, year: 2016

  15. Scalable Synthesis of Freestanding Sandwich-structured Graphene/Polyaniline/Graphene Nanocomposite Paper for Flexible All-Solid-State Supercapacitor

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Fei; Yang, Shengxiong; Zhang, Zheye; Liu, Hongfang; Xiao, Junwu; Wan, Lian; Luo, Jun; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Yunqi

    2015-01-01

    We reported a scalable and modular method to prepare a new type of sandwich-structured graphene-based nanohybrid paper and explore its practical application as high-performance electrode in flexible supercapacitor. The freestanding and flexible graphene paper was firstly fabricated by highly reproducible printing technique and bubbling delamination method, by which the area and thickness of the graphene paper can be freely adjusted in a wide range. The as-prepared graphene paper possesses a c...

  16. Fatigue Debond Growth in Sandwich Structures Loaded in Mixed Mode Bending (MMB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2008-01-01

    Static and cyclic debond growth in sandwich specimens loaded in mixed mode bending (MMB) is examined. The MMB sandwich specimens were manufactured using H100 PVC foam core and E-glass/polyester non-crimp quadro-axial [0/45/90/-45]s DBLT-850 face sheets. Static test were performed to determine...... the fracture toughness of the debonded sandwich specimens at different mixed mode loadings. The mixed mode ratio (mode I to mode II) was controlled by changing the lever arm distance of the MMB test rig. Compliance technique and visual inspection was employed to measure the crack length during fatigue. Fatigue...... tests were performed at 90% of the static fracture toughness at a loading ratio of R=0.1. Fatigue results revealed higher debond crack growth rates when the lever arm distance was increased. For some specimens, the crack propagated just below the face/core interface in the foam core and for others...

  17. Performance improvement of organic thin film transistors by using active layer with sandwich structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yao; Zhou, Jianlin; Kuang, Peng; Lin, Hui; Gan, Ping; Hu, Shengdong; Lin, Zhi

    2017-08-01

    We report organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) with pentacene/fluorinated copper phthalo-cyanine (F16CuPc)/pentacene (PFP) sandwich configuration as active layers. The sandwich devices not only show hole mobility enhancement but also present a well control about threshold voltage and off-state current. By investigating various characteristics, including current-voltage hysteresis, organic film morphology, capacitance-voltage curve and resistance variation of active layers carefully, it has been found the performance improvement is mainly attributed to the low carrier traps and the higher conductivity of the sandwich active layer due to the additional induced carriers in F16CuPc/pentacene. Therefore, using proper multiple active layer is an effective way to gain high performance OTFTs.

  18. Self-healing sandwich structures incorporating an interfacial layer with vascular network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chunlin; Peters, Kara; Li, Yulong

    2013-01-01

    A self-healing capability specifically targeted for sandwich composite laminates based on interfacial layers with built-in vascular networks is presented. The self-healing occurs at the facesheet–core interface through an additional interfacial layer to seal facesheet cracks and rebond facesheet–core regions. The efficacy of introducing the self-healing system at the facesheet–core interface is evaluated through four-point bend and edgewise compression testing of representative foam core sandwich composite specimens with impact induced damage. The self-healing interfacial layer partially restored the specific initial stiffness, doubling the residual initial stiffness as compared to the control specimen after the impact event. The restoration of the ultimate specific skin strength was less successful. The results also highlight the critical challenge in self-healing of sandwich composites, which is to rebond facesheets which have separated from the core material. (paper)

  19. Design of X-joints in Sandwich Structures for Naval Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayman, Brian; Berggreen, Christian; Lundsgaard-Larsen, Christian

    2007-01-01

    In many naval ships of fibre composite sandwich construction, an X-joint exists where the end bulkhead of the superstructure is attached to the deck, with an internal bulkhead placed in the same vertical plane below the deck. This joint is subjected to alternating tensile and compressive loading...

  20. Structural differences of half-sandwich complexes of scandium and yttrium containing bulky substituents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fridrichová, Adéla; Růžička, A.; Lamač, Martin; Horáček, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 76, FEB 2017 (2017), s. 62-66 ISSN 1387-7003 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/12/2368 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : scandium * yttrium * half-sandwich Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 1.640, year: 2016

  1. Application and Analysis of Sandwich Elements in the Primary Structure of Large Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, Christian; Branner, Kim; Jensen, Jacob Fisker

    2007-01-01

    The present work studies the advantages of applying a sandwich construction as opposed to traditional single skin composites in the flanges of a load carrying spar in a future 180 m wind turbine rotor. A parametric finite element model is used to analyze two basic designs with single skin...

  2. Effects of thermal annealing on electrical characteristics of Cd/CdS/n-Si/Au-Sb sandwich structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saglam, M.; Ates, A.; Guezeldir, B.; Astam, A.; Yildirim, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    In general, at the metal-semiconductor contacts, interfacial layers have been fabricated by different methods such as molecular beam epitaxy, metal organic chemical vapor deposition, sputtering and vacuum evaporation. However, all of these techniques have encountered various difficulties in the deposited films. Instead of these methods, since Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method is simple, fast, sensitive, and less costly to prepare interfacial layer, we have first employed this method in order to prepare Cd/CdS/n-Si/Au-Sb sandwich structure. For this reason, the CdS thin film has been directly formed on n-type Si substrate by means of SILAR method. The Cd/CdS/n-Si/Au-Sb sandwich structure has demonstrated clearly rectifying behaviour by the current-voltage (I-V) curves studied at room temperature. In order to observe the effect of the thermal annealing, this structure has been annealed at temperatures from 50 to 300 deg. C for 3 min in N 2 atmosphere. The characteristic parameters such as barrier height, ideality factor and series resistance of this structure have been calculated from the forward bias I-V characteristics as a function of annealing temperature with different methods. The values of n, Φ b and mean R s of the initial Cd/CdS/n-Si/Au-Sb sandwich structure were found to be 2.31, 0.790 eV and 1.86 kΩ respectively. After annealing at 300 deg. C, these values were changed to 1.89, 0.765 eV and 0.48 kΩ. It has been seen that the barrier height, ideality factor and series resistance have slightly changed with increasing annealing temperature up to 300 deg. C.

  3. Ultra-Lightweight Nanocomposite Foams and Sandwich Structures for Space Structures Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space structures that are ultra-lightweight, and have gas barrier property, space durability, radiation resistance and high impact resistance are desirable to...

  4. Ultra-Lightweight Nanocomposite Foams and Sandwich Structures for Space Structures Applications, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space structures that are ultra-lightweight, and have gas barrier property, space durability, radiation resistance, EMI shielding, and high impact resistance are...

  5. Using a silver-enhanced microarray sandwich structure to improve SERS sensitivity for protein detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xuefang; Yan, Yuerong; Jiang, Guoqing; Adkins, Jason; Shi, Jian; Jiang, Guomin; Tian, Shu

    2014-03-01

    A simple and sensitive method, based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), for immunoassay and label-free protein detection is reported. A series of bowl-shaped silver cavity arrays were fabricated by electrodeposition using a self-assembled polystyrene spheres template. The reflection spectra of these cavity arrays were recorded as a function of film thickness, and then correlated with SERS enhancement using sodium thiophenolate as the probe molecule. The results reveal that SERS enhancement can be maximized when the frequency of both the incident laser and the Raman scattering approach the frequency of the localized surface plasmon resonance. The optimized array was then used as the bottom layer of a silver nanoparticle-protein-bowl-shaped silver cavity array sandwich. The second layer of silver was introduced by the interactions between the proteins in the middle layer of the sandwich architecture and silver nanoparticles. Human IgG bound to the surface of this microcavity array can retain its recognition function. With the Raman reporter molecules labeled on the antibody, a detection limit down to 0.1 ng mL(-1) for human IgG is easily achieved. Furthermore, the SERS spectra of label-free proteins (catalase, cytochrome C, avidin and lysozyme) from the assembled sandwich have excellent reproducibility and high quality. The results reveal that the proposed approach has potential for use in qualitative and quantitative detection of biomolecules.

  6. Sandwich-structured polymer nanocomposites with high energy density and great charge–discharge efficiency at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Liu, Feihua; Yang, Tiannan; Gadinski, Matthew R.; Zhang, Guangzu; Chen, Long-Qing; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    The demand for a new generation of high-temperature dielectric materials toward capacitive energy storage has been driven by the rise of high-power applications such as electric vehicles, aircraft, and pulsed power systems where the power electronics are exposed to elevated temperatures. Polymer dielectrics are characterized by being lightweight, and their scalability, mechanical flexibility, high dielectric strength, and great reliability, but they are limited to relatively low operating temperatures. The existing polymer nanocomposite-based dielectrics with a limited energy density at high temperatures also present a major barrier to achieving significant reductions in size and weight of energy devices. Here we report the sandwich structures as an efficient route to high-temperature dielectric polymer nanocomposites that simultaneously possess high dielectric constant and low dielectric loss. In contrast to the conventional single-layer configuration, the rationally designed sandwich-structured polymer nanocomposites are capable of integrating the complementary properties of spatially organized multicomponents in a synergistic fashion to raise dielectric constant, and subsequently greatly improve discharged energy densities while retaining low loss and high charge–discharge efficiency at elevated temperatures. At 150 °C and 200 MV m−1, an operating condition toward electric vehicle applications, the sandwich-structured polymer nanocomposites outperform the state-of-the-art polymer-based dielectrics in terms of energy density, power density, charge–discharge efficiency, and cyclability. The excellent dielectric and capacitive properties of the polymer nanocomposites may pave a way for widespread applications in modern electronics and power modules where harsh operating conditions are present. PMID:27551101

  7. Quantum mechanical design and structures of hexanuclear sandwich complex and its multidecker sandwich clusters (Li6)n([18]annulene)n+1 (n = 1-3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Jian; Li, Ying; Wu, Di; Wang, Yin-Feng; Li, Zhi-Ru

    2012-09-13

    By means of density functional theory, a hexanuclear sandwich complex [18]annulene-Li6-[18]annulene which consists of a central Li6 hexagon ring and large face-capping ligands, [18]annulene, is designed and investigated. The large interaction energy and HOMO-LUMO gap suggest that this novel charge-separated complex is highly stable and may be experimentally synthesized. In addition, the stability found in the [18]annulene-Li6-[18]annulene complex extends to multidecker sandwich clusters (Li6)n([18]annulene)n+1 (n = 2-3). The energy gain upon addition of a [18]annulene-Li6 unit to (Li6)n-1([18]annulene)n is pretty large (96.97-98.22 kcal/mol), indicating that even larger multideckers will also be very stable. Similar to ferrocene, such a hexanuclear sandwich complex could be considered as a versatile building block to find potential applications in different areas of chemistry, such as nanoscience and material science.

  8. Scalable Synthesis of Freestanding Sandwich-structured Graphene/Polyaniline/Graphene Nanocomposite Paper for Flexible All-Solid-State Supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fei; Yang, Shengxiong; Zhang, Zheye; Liu, Hongfang; Xiao, Junwu; Wan, Lian; Luo, Jun; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Yunqi

    2015-03-01

    We reported a scalable and modular method to prepare a new type of sandwich-structured graphene-based nanohybrid paper and explore its practical application as high-performance electrode in flexible supercapacitor. The freestanding and flexible graphene paper was firstly fabricated by highly reproducible printing technique and bubbling delamination method, by which the area and thickness of the graphene paper can be freely adjusted in a wide range. The as-prepared graphene paper possesses a collection of unique properties of highly electrical conductivity (340 S cm-1), light weight (1 mg cm-2) and excellent mechanical properties. In order to improve its supercapacitive properties, we have prepared a unique sandwich-structured graphene/polyaniline/graphene paper by in situ electropolymerization of porous polyaniline nanomaterials on graphene paper, followed by wrapping an ultrathin graphene layer on its surface. This unique design strategy not only circumvents the low energy storage capacity resulting from the double-layer capacitor of graphene paper, but also enhances the rate performance and cycling stability of porous polyaniline. The as-obtained all-solid-state symmetric supercapacitor exhibits high energy density, high power density, excellent cycling stability and exceptional mechanical flexibility, demonstrative of its extensive potential applications for flexible energy-related devices and wearable electronics.

  9. Scalable synthesis of freestanding sandwich-structured graphene/polyaniline/graphene nanocomposite paper for flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fei; Yang, Shengxiong; Zhang, Zheye; Liu, Hongfang; Xiao, Junwu; Wan, Lian; Luo, Jun; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Yunqi

    2015-03-23

    We reported a scalable and modular method to prepare a new type of sandwich-structured graphene-based nanohybrid paper and explore its practical application as high-performance electrode in flexible supercapacitor. The freestanding and flexible graphene paper was firstly fabricated by highly reproducible printing technique and bubbling delamination method, by which the area and thickness of the graphene paper can be freely adjusted in a wide range. The as-prepared graphene paper possesses a collection of unique properties of highly electrical conductivity (340 S cm(-1)), light weight (1 mg cm(-2)) and excellent mechanical properties. In order to improve its supercapacitive properties, we have prepared a unique sandwich-structured graphene/polyaniline/graphene paper by in situ electropolymerization of porous polyaniline nanomaterials on graphene paper, followed by wrapping an ultrathin graphene layer on its surface. This unique design strategy not only circumvents the low energy storage capacity resulting from the double-layer capacitor of graphene paper, but also enhances the rate performance and cycling stability of porous polyaniline. The as-obtained all-solid-state symmetric supercapacitor exhibits high energy density, high power density, excellent cycling stability and exceptional mechanical flexibility, demonstrative of its extensive potential applications for flexible energy-related devices and wearable electronics.

  10. Elevated Temperature, Residual Compressive Strength of Impact-Damaged Sandwich Structure Manufactured Out-of-Autoclave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, Brian W.; Sutter, James K.; Burke, Eric R.; Dixon, Genevieve D.; Gyekenyesi, Thomas G.; Smeltzer, Stanley S.

    2012-01-01

    Several 1/16th-scale curved sandwich composite panel sections of a 10 m diameter barrel were fabricated to demonstrate the manufacturability of large-scale curved sections using minimum gauge, [+60/-60/0]s, toughened epoxy composite facesheets co-cured with low density (50 kilograms per cubic meters) aluminum honeycomb core. One of these panels was fabricated out of autoclave (OoA) by the vacuum bag oven (VBO) process using Cycom(Registered Trademark) T40-800b/5320-1 prepreg system while another panel with the same lay-up and dimensions was fabricated using the autoclave-cure, toughened epoxy prepreg system Cycom(Registered Trademark) IM7/977-3. The resulting 2.44 m x 2 m curved panels were investigated by non-destructive evaluation (NDE) at NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) to determine initial fabrication quality and then cut into smaller coupons for elevated temperature wet (ETW) mechanical property characterization. Mechanical property characterization of the sandwich coupons was conducted including edge-wise compression (EWC), and compression-after-impact (CAI) at conditions ranging from 25 C/dry to 150 C/wet. The details and results of this characterization effort are presented in this paper.

  11. Influence of the inter-layer adhesion on the structural strength of sandwich pipes; Influencia da adesao entre camadas na resistencia estrutural de dutos sanduiche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castello, Xavier; Estefen, Segen [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Oceanica

    2005-07-01

    Sandwich pipes composed of two steel layers separated by a polypropylene annulus can be used for the transport of oil and gas in deep waters, combining high structural resistance with thermal insulation in order to prevent blockage by paraffin and hydrates. In this work, sandwich pipes with typical inner diameters of those employed in the offshore production are analyzed numerically regarding to the influence of the inter-layer adhesion of steel pipes and polymer on the limit strength under external pressure and longitudinal bending as well as the bending and straightening process representative of the reeling installation method. The numerical model incorporates geometric and material non-linearity, which had been based on previous works of the authors. Tests of specimens under tension and segments of sandwich pipes are carried through to evaluate the maximum shear stresses of the interfaces metal-polymer. The adhesion is modeled by contact adopting a maximum shear stress value to allow the relative displacement between the layers. It was observed that the structural resistance of the sandwich pipe is strongly dependent on the shear stress acting at the interface, occurring the collapse of the pipe when the maximum shear stress is reached. The results obtained are analyzed to determine the minimum shear strength at the union which provides adequate structural resistance for the sandwich pipe under representative conditions of the installation and operation loading phases. (author)

  12. Self-healing of sandwich structures with a grid stiffened shape memory polymer syntactic foam core

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Manu; Li, Guoqiang

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, a new sandwich with an orthogrid stiffened shape memory polymer (SMP) based syntactic foam core was proposed, fabricated, programmed, impacted, healed (sealed), and compression tested, for the purposes of healing impact damage repeatedly and almost autonomously. Two prestrain levels (3% and 20%), two impact energy levels (30.0 and 53.3 J), and two recovery (healing) conditions (2D confined and 3D confined) were employed in this paper. Up to seven impact-healing cycles were conducted. Macroscopic and microscopic damage-healing observation and analysis were implemented. Residual strength was evaluated using an anti-buckling compression test fixture. It was found that the healing efficiency was over 100% for almost all the impact-healing cycles; programming using 20% prestrain led to higher residual strength than that with 3% prestrain; 3D confined recovery resulted in higher residual strength than 2D confined recovery; and as the impact energy increased, the healing efficiency slightly decreased.

  13. Solution-Processed rGO/AgNPs/rGO Sandwich Structure as a Hole Extraction Layer for Polymer Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quang Trung Tran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We found that inserting silver nanoparticles (AgNPs between two layers of reduced grapheme oxide (rGO has an effect on tailoring the work function of rGO. The utilization of rGO/AgNPs/rGO sandwich structure as the hole extraction layer in polymer solar cells is demonstrated. Solution-processable fabrication of this sandwich structure at the ITO/active layer interface facilitates the extraction of hole from active layer into ITO anode because of lowering the barrier level alignment at the interface. It results in an improvement of the short circuit current density and the overall photovoltaic performance.

  14. Development of Aircraft Sandwich Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Křena

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper shows the design and development process of sandwich parts. A spoiler plate and a main landing gear door are developed. Sandwich parts are made of C/E composite facings and a foam core. FE models have been used for optimization of structures. Emphasis has been placed on deformations of parts under a few load cases. Experimental tests have been used for a verification of structure parts loaded by concentrated forces.

  15. Influence of material non-linearity on the thermo-mechanical response of polymer foam cored sandwich structures - FE modelling and preliminary experiemntal results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palleti, Hara Naga Krishna Teja; Thomsen, Ole Thybo; Fruehmann, Richard.K

    In this paper, the polymer foam cored sandwich structures with fibre reinforced composite face sheets will be analyzed using the commercial FE code ABAQUS/Standard® incorporating the material and geometrical non-linearity. Large deformations are allowed which attributes geometric non linearity...

  16. Cycloheptatrienyl zirconium sandwich complexes with lewis basic phospholyl ligands (phosphatrozircenes): synthesis, structure, bonding and coordination chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glöckner, Andreas; Bannenberg, Thomas; Büschel, Susanne; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Jones, Peter G; Tamm, Matthias

    2011-05-23

    The transmetalation reaction between [(η(7) -C(7) H(7) )ZrCl(tmeda)] (1; tmeda=N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine) and various phospholide anions leads to a new class of mixed sandwich complexes: [(η(7)-C(7)H(7))Zr(η(5)-C(4)PMe(4))] (2), [(η(7)-C(7)H(7))Zr(η(5)-C(4)PH(2)Me(2))] (3) and [(η(7)-C(7)H(7))Zr(η(5)-C(4)PPhHMe(2))] (4). The presence of Lewis basic phosphorus atoms and Lewis acidic zirconium atoms allows ambiphilic behaviour to be observed, and X-ray diffraction analysis reveals dimeric arrangements for 2 and 3 with long intermolecular Zr-P bonds, whereas 4 remains monomeric in the solid state. DFT calculations indicate that the metal-phosphorus interaction is weak, and accordingly, complexes 2-4 act as monodentate ligands upon reaction with [W(CO)(5)(thf)]. The resulting complexes [W(CO)(5)(L)] 5-7 (L=2-4) were studied by IR spectroscopy and compared with the [W(CO)(5) ] complex 9, containing the phosphane-functionalised trozircene [(η(7)-C(7)H(7))Zr(η(5)-C(5)H(4)PPh(2))] (8). They all show a close resemblance to simple phosphanes, such as PMe(3) , although molecular orbital analysis of 2 reveals that the free electron pair in the phosphatrozircenes is not the HOMO. Four equivalents of 2 can replace 1,4-cyclooctadiene (COD) in [Ni(cod)(2)] to form the homoleptic, distorted tetrahedral complex [Ni{2}(4)] (10). Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. State recognition of the viscoelastic sandwich structure based on the adaptive redundant second generation wavelet packet transform, permutation entropy and the wavelet support vector machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Jinxiu; Zhang, Zhousuo; Guo, Ting; Luo, Xue; Sun, Chuang; Li, Bing; Wen, Jinpeng

    2014-01-01

    The viscoelastic sandwich structure is widely used in mechanical equipment, yet the structure always suffers from damage during long-term service. Therefore, state recognition of the viscoelastic sandwich structure is very necessary for monitoring structural health states and keeping the equipment running with high reliability. Through the analysis of vibration response signals, this paper presents a novel method for this task based on the adaptive redundant second generation wavelet packet transform (ARSGWPT), permutation entropy (PE) and the wavelet support vector machine (WSVM). In order to tackle the non-linearity existing in the structure vibration response, the PE is introduced to reveal the state changes of the structure. In the case of complex non-stationary vibration response signals, in order to obtain more effective information regarding the structural health states, the ARSGWPT, which can adaptively match the characteristics of a given signal, is proposed to process the vibration response signals, and then multiple PE features are extracted from the resultant wavelet packet coefficients. The WSVM, which can benefit from the conventional SVM as well as wavelet theory, is applied to classify the various structural states automatically. In this study, to achieve accurate and automated state recognition, the ARSGWPT, PE and WSVM are combined for signal processing, feature extraction and state classification, respectively. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a typical viscoelastic sandwich structure is designed, and the different degrees of preload on the structure are used to characterize the various looseness states. The test results show that the proposed method can reliably recognize the different looseness states of the viscoelastic sandwich structure, and the WSVM can achieve a better classification performance than the conventional SVM. Moreover, the superiority of the proposed ARSGWPT in processing the complex vibration response

  18. Crystal Structure of Full-length Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv Glycogen Branching Enzyme; Insights of N-Terminal [beta]-Sandwich in Sustrate Specifity and Enzymatic Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Kuntal; Kumar, Shiva; Sharma, Shikha; Garg, Saurabh Kumar; Alam, Mohammad Suhail; Xu, H. Eric; Agrawal, Pushpa; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam (NU Sinapore); (Van Andel); (IMT-India)

    2010-07-13

    The open reading frame Rv1326c of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) H37Rv encodes for an {alpha}-1,4-glucan branching enzyme (MtbGlgB, EC 2.4.1.18, Uniprot entry Q10625). This enzyme belongs to glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 13 and catalyzes the branching of a linear glucose chain during glycogenesis by cleaving a 1 {yields} 4 bond and making a new 1 {yields} 6 bond. Here, we show the crystal structure of full-length MtbGlgB (MtbGlgBWT) at 2.33-{angstrom} resolution. MtbGlgBWT contains four domains: N1 {beta}-sandwich, N2 {beta}-sandwich, a central ({beta}/{alpha}){sub 8} domain that houses the catalytic site, and a C-terminal {beta}-sandwich. We have assayed the amylase activity with amylose and starch as substrates and the glycogen branching activity using amylose as a substrate for MtbGlgBWT and the N1 domain-deleted (the first 108 residues deleted) Mtb{Delta}108GlgB protein. The N1 {beta}-sandwich, which is formed by the first 105 amino acids and superimposes well with the N2 {beta}-sandwich, is shown to have an influence in substrate binding in the amylase assay. Also, we have checked and shown that several GH13 family inhibitors are ineffective against MtbGlgBWT and Mtb{Delta}108GlgB. We propose a two-step reaction mechanism, for the amylase activity (1 {yields} 4 bond breakage) and isomerization (1 {yields} 6 bond formation), which occurs in the same catalytic pocket. The structural and functional properties of MtbGlgB and Mtb{Delta}108GlgB are compared with those of the N-terminal 112-amino acid-deleted Escherichia coli GlgB (EC{Delta}112GlgB).

  19. Enhanced electrochemical performance of sandwich-structured polyaniline-wrapped silicon oxide/carbon nanotubes for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Zou, Yongjin; Huang, Liyan; Yin, Hao; Xi, Chengqiao; Chen, Xin; Shentu, Hongwei; Li, Chao; Zhang, Jingjing; Lv, ChunJu; Fan, Meiqiang

    2018-06-01

    Sandwich-structured carbon nanotubes, silicon oxide, and polyaniline (hereafter denoted as CNTs/SiOx/PANI) were prepared by combining a sol-gel method, magnesiothermic reduction at 250 °C, and chemical oxidative polymerization. The CNTs, SiOx and PANI in the composite was 16 wt%, 51 wt% and 33 wt%, respectively. The CNTs/SiOx/PANI electrodes exhibited excellent cycle and high-rate performance as anodes in Li-ion batteries, including charge/discharge capacities of 1156/1178 mAh g-1 after 60 cycles at 0.2 A g-1 current density and 728/725 mAh g-1 at 8 A g-1 current density. The improvement was due to the synergy between CNTs and PANI. The SiOx scattered on the CNTs core and coated by PANI improved its conductivity and accommodated the volume change during repeated lithiation/delithiation cycles. This simple synthesis provided a scalable route for the large-scale production of CNTs/SiOx/PANI nanostructures, with various applications such as in Li-ion batteries.

  20. Preparation of Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene/Graphene Nanocomposite In situ Polymerization via Spherical and Sandwich Structure Graphene/Sio2 Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Enqi; Gao, Wensheng; Hu, Xinjun; Zhang, Caicai; Zhu, Bochao; Jia, Junji; Huang, Anping; Bai, Yongxiao

    2018-04-01

    Reduced graphene oxide/SiO2 (RGO/SiO2) serving as a novel spherical support for Ziegler-Natta (Z-N) catalyst is reported. The surface and interior of the support has a porous architecture formed by RGO/SiO2 sandwich structure. The sandwich structure is like a brick wall coated with a graphene layer of concreted as skeleton which could withstand external pressures and endow the structure with higher support stabilities. After loading the Z-N catalyst, the active components anchor on the surface and internal pores of the supports. When the ethylene molecules meet the active centers, the molecular chains grow from the surface and internal catalytic sites in a regular and well-organized way. And the process of the nascent molecular chains filled in the sandwich structure polymerization could ensure the graphene disperse uniformly in the polymer matrix. Compared with traditional methods, the porous spherical graphene support of this strategy has far more advantages and could maintain an intrinsic graphene performance in the nanocomposites.

  1. Facile and large-scale preparation of sandwich-structured graphene-metal oxide composites as anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Hongmei; Zhao, Li; Yue, Wenbo; Wang, Yuan; Jiang, Yang; Zhang, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Graphene-based metal oxides are desirable as potential anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) owing to their superior electrochemical properties. In this work, sandwich-structured graphene-metal oxide (ZnO, NiO) composites are facilely synthesized on a large scale through self-assembly of graphene oxide nanosheets and metal ammine complexes, and then thermal decomposition of the self-assembled products. ZnO or NiO nanoparticles with diameters of 5∼10 nm are immobilized between the layers of graphene nanosheets, which may provide the space for accommodating the volume change of metal oxides during cycles, and highly improve the electronic conductivity of the composites. Accordingly, these sandwich-structured composites exhibit enhanced electrochemical performances compared to metal oxide particles or stacked graphene nanosheets. This facile synthesis method is very suitable for the large-scale production of three-dimensional graphene-based composites as high-performance anodes for LIBs.

  2. Charge Injection and Transport in Metal/Polymer Chains/Metal Sandwich Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai-Hong, Li; Dong-Mei, Li; Yuan, Li; Kun, Gao; De-Sheng, Liu; Shi-Jie, Xie

    2008-01-01

    Using the tight-binding Su–Schrieffer–Heeger model and a nonadiabatic dynamic evolution method, we study the dynamic processes of the charge injection and transport in a metal/two coupled conjugated polymer chains/metal structure. It is found that the charge interchain transport is determined by the strength of the electric field and the magnitude of the voltage bias applied on the metal electrode. The stronger electric field and the larger voltage bias are both in favour of the charge interchain transport. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  3. Standard Test Method for Water Absorption of Core Materials for Structural Sandwich Constructions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the relative amount of water absorption by various types of structural core materials when immersed or in a high relative humidity environment. This test method is intended to apply to only structural core materials; honeycomb, foam, and balsa wood. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The inch-pound units given may be approximate. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. Automated laser-based barely visible impact damage detection in honeycomb sandwich composite structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girolamo, D.; Yuan, F. G.; Girolamo, L.

    2015-01-01

    Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) for detection and quantification of damage in composite materials is fundamental in the assessment of the overall structural integrity of modern aerospace systems. Conventional NDE systems have been extensively used to detect the location and size of damages by propagating ultrasonic waves normal to the surface. However they usually require physical contact with the structure and are time consuming and labor intensive. An automated, contactless laser ultrasonic imaging system for barely visible impact damage (BVID) detection in advanced composite structures has been developed to overcome these limitations. Lamb waves are generated by a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser, raster scanned by a set of galvano-mirrors over the damaged area. The out-of-plane vibrations are measured through a laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) that is stationary at a point on the corner of the grid. The ultrasonic wave field of the scanned area is reconstructed in polar coordinates and analyzed for high resolution characterization of impact damage in the composite honeycomb panel. Two methodologies are used for ultrasonic wave-field analysis: scattered wave field analysis (SWA) and standing wave energy analysis (SWEA) in the frequency domain. The SWA is employed for processing the wave field and estimate spatially dependent wavenumber values, related to discontinuities in the structural domain. The SWEA algorithm extracts standing waves trapped within damaged areas and, by studying the spectrum of the standing wave field, returns high fidelity damage imaging. While the SWA can be used to locate the impact damage in the honeycomb panel, the SWEA produces damage images in good agreement with X-ray computed tomographic (X-ray CT) scans. The results obtained prove that the laser-based nondestructive system is an effective alternative to overcome limitations of conventional NDI technologies

  5. ITO/Au/ITO sandwich structure for near-infrared plasmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xu; Mak, Chee Leung; Dai, Jiyan; Li, Kan; Ye, Hui; Leung, Chi Wah

    2014-09-24

    ITO/Au/ITO trilayers with varying gold spacer layer thicknesses were deposited on glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition. Transmission electron microscopy measurements demonstrated the continuous nature of the Au layer down to 2.4 nm. XRD patterns clearly showed an enhanced crystallinity of the ITO films promoted by the insertion of the gold layer. Compared with a single layer of ITO with a carrier concentration of 7.12 × 10(20) cm(-3), the ITO/Au/ITO structure achieved an effective carrier concentration as high as 3.26 × 10(22) cm(-3). Transmittance and ellipsometry measurements showed that the optical properties of ITO/Au/ITO films were greatly influenced by the thickness of the inserted gold layer. The cross-point wavelength of the trilayer samples was reduced with increasing gold layer thickness. Importantly, the trilayer structure exhibited a reduced loss (compared with plain Au) in the near-infrared region, suggesting its potential for plasmonic applications in the near-infrared range.

  6. SIGNS The sandwich sign

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sandwich sign is demonstrated on cross-sectional imaging, commonly on CT or ultrasound. It refers to homogeneous soft- tissue masses representing mesenteric lymphadenopathy as the two halves of a sandwich bun, encasing the mesenteric fat and tubular mesenteric vessels that constitute the 'sandwich filling' (Figs ...

  7. Effect of Indium nano-sandwiching on the structural and optical performance of ZnSe films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Al Garni

    Full Text Available In the current study, we attempted to explore the effects of the Indium nanosandwiching on the mechanical and optical properties of the physically evaporated ZnSe thin films by means of X-ray diffractions and ultraviolet spectrophotometry techniques. While the thickness of each layer of ZnSe was fixed at 1.0 μm, the thickness of the nanosandwiched Indium thin films was varied in the range of 25–100 nm. It was observed that the as grown ZnSe films exhibits cubic and hexagonal nature of crystallization as those of the ZnSe powders before the film deposition. The cubic phases weighs ∼70% of the structure. The analysis of this phases revealed that there is a systematic variation process presented by the decreasing of; the lattice constant, compressing strain, stress, stacking faults and dislocation intensity and increasing grain size resulted from increasing the Indium layer thickness in the range of 50–100 nm. In addition, the nanosandwiching of Indium between two layers of ZnSe is observed to enhance the absorbability of the ZnSe. Particularly, at incident photon energy of 2.38 eV the absorbability of the ZnSe films which are sandwiched with 100 nm Indium is increased by 13.8 times. Moreover, increasing the thickness of the Indium layer shrinks the optical energy band gap. These systematic variations in mechanical and optical properties are assigned to the better recrystallization process that is associated with Indium insertion which in turn allows total internal energy redistribution in the ZnSe films through the enlargement of grains. Keywords: ZnSe, Nanosandwiching, Mechanical, Optical gap

  8. Dimers of nineteen-electron sandwich compounds: crystal and electronic structures, and comparison of reducing strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Swagat K; Fonari, Alexandr; Risko, Chad; Yesudas, Kada; Moudgil, Karttikay; Delcamp, Jared H; Timofeeva, Tatiana V; Brédas, Jean-Luc; Marder, Seth R; Barlow, Stephen

    2014-11-17

    The dimers of some Group 8 metal cyclopentadienyl/arene complexes and Group 9 metallocenes can be handled in air, yet are strongly reducing, making them useful n-dopants in organic electronics. In this work, the X-ray molecular structures are shown to resemble those of Group 8 metal cyclopentadienyl/pentadienyl or Group 9 metal cyclopentadienyl/diene model compounds. Compared to those of the model compounds, the DFT HOMOs of the dimers are significantly destabilized by interactions between the metal and the central CC σ-bonding orbital, accounting for the facile oxidation of the dimers. The lengths of these CC bonds (X-ray or DFT) do not correlate with DFT dissociation energies, the latter depending strongly on the monomer stabilities. Ru and Ir monomers are more reducing than their Fe and Rh analogues, but the corresponding dimers also exhibit much higher dissociation energies, so the estimated monomer cation/neutral dimer potentials are, with the exception of that of [RhCp2 ]2 , rather similar (-1.97 to -2.15 V vs. FeCp2 (+/0) in THF). The consequences of the variations in bond strength and redox potentials for the reactivity of the dimers are discussed. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Dimers of nineteen-electron sandwich compounds: Crystal and electronic structures, and comparison of reducing strengths

    KAUST Repository

    Mohapatra, Swagat Kumar

    2014-10-03

    The dimers of some Group 8 metal cyclopentadienyl/ arene complexes and Group 9 metallocenes can be handled in air, yet are strongly reducing, making them useful n-dopants in organic electronics. In this work, the Xray molecular structures are shown to resemble those of Group 8 metal cyclopentadienyl/pentadienyl or Group 9 metal cyclopentadienyl/diene model compounds. Compared to those of the model compounds, the DFT HOMOs of the dimers are significantly destabilized by interactions between the metal and the central C-C σ-bonding orbital, accounting for the facile oxidation of the dimers. The lengths of these C-C bonds (X-ray or DFT) do not correlate with DFT dissociation energies, the latter depending strongly on the monomer stabilities. Ru and Ir monomers are more reducing than their Fe and Rh analogues, but the corresponding dimers also exhibit much higher dissociation energies, so the estimated monomer cation/neutral dimer potentials are, with the exception of that of [RhCp2]2, rather similar (-1.97 to-2.15 V vs. FeCp2 +/0 in THF). The consequences of the variations in bond strength and redox potentials for the reactivity of the dimers are discussed.

  10. Dimers of nineteen-electron sandwich compounds: Crystal and electronic structures, and comparison of reducing strengths

    KAUST Repository

    Mohapatra, Swagat Kumar; Fonari, Alexandr; Risko, Chad; Yesudas, Kada; Moudgil, Karttikay; Delcamp, Jared Heath; Timofeeva, Tatiana V.; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Marder, Seth R.; Barlow, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    The dimers of some Group 8 metal cyclopentadienyl/ arene complexes and Group 9 metallocenes can be handled in air, yet are strongly reducing, making them useful n-dopants in organic electronics. In this work, the Xray molecular structures are shown to resemble those of Group 8 metal cyclopentadienyl/pentadienyl or Group 9 metal cyclopentadienyl/diene model compounds. Compared to those of the model compounds, the DFT HOMOs of the dimers are significantly destabilized by interactions between the metal and the central C-C σ-bonding orbital, accounting for the facile oxidation of the dimers. The lengths of these C-C bonds (X-ray or DFT) do not correlate with DFT dissociation energies, the latter depending strongly on the monomer stabilities. Ru and Ir monomers are more reducing than their Fe and Rh analogues, but the corresponding dimers also exhibit much higher dissociation energies, so the estimated monomer cation/neutral dimer potentials are, with the exception of that of [RhCp2]2, rather similar (-1.97 to-2.15 V vs. FeCp2 +/0 in THF). The consequences of the variations in bond strength and redox potentials for the reactivity of the dimers are discussed.

  11. Synthesis and X-ray crystal structure of the first tetrathiafulvalene-based acceptor-donor-acceptor sandwich

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Klaus B.; Thorup, Niels; Cava, Michael P.

    1998-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a bis-macrocyclic A-D-A sandwich produced in a simple one-pot reaction is reported. Only one acceptor unit participates in charge-transfer interactions with the TTF unit in the solid state....

  12. Enhanced antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles/halloysite nanotubes/graphene nanocomposites with sandwich-like structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liang; Zhang, Yatao; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Jindun

    2014-04-11

    A sandwich-like antibacterial reagent (Ag/HNTs/rGO) was constructed through the direct growth of silver nanoparticles on the surface graphene-based HNTs nanosheets. Herein, various nanomaterials were combined by adhesion effect of DOPA after self-polymerization. Ag/HNTs/rGO possess enhanced antibacterial ability against E. coli and S. aureus compared with individual silver nanoparticles, rGO nanosheets or their nanocomposites.

  13. Novel biodegradable sandwich-structured nanofibrous drug-eluting membranes for repair of infected wounds: an in vitro and in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan EC

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dave Wei-Chih Chen1,2, Jun-Yi Liao3, Shih-Jung Liu2, Err-Cheng Chan41Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, 3Graduate Institute of Medical Mechatronics, 4School of Medical Technology, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Tao-Yuan, TaiwanBackground: The purpose of this study was to develop novel sandwich-structured nanofibrous membranes to provide sustained-release delivery of vancomycin, gentamicin, and lidocaine for repair of infected wounds.Methods: To prepare the biodegradable membranes, poly(D, L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA, collagen, and various pharmaceuticals, including vancomycin, gentamicin, and lidocaine, were first dissolved in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol. They were electrospun into sandwich-structured membranes with PLGA/collagen as the surface layers and PLGA/drugs as the core. An elution method and a high-pressure liquid chromatography assay were used to characterize in vivo and in vitro drug release from the membranes. In addition, repair of infected wounds in rats was studied. Histological examination of epithelialization and granulation at the wound site was also performed.Results: The biodegradable nanofibrous membranes released large amounts of vancomycin and gentamicin (well above the minimum inhibition concentration and lidocaine in vivo for more than 3 weeks. A bacterial inhibition test was carried out to determine the relative activity of the antibiotics released. The bioactivity ranged from 40% to 100%. The nanofibrous membranes were functionally active in treating infected wounds, and were very effective as accelerators in early-stage wound healing.Conclusion: Using the electrospinning technique, we will be able to manufacture biodegradable, biomimetic, nanofibrous, extracellular membranes for long-term delivery of various drugs.Keywords: nanofibrous, sandwich-structured, drug-eluting membranes, electrospinning, release characteristics, repair, wound

  14. A folding pathway for betapep-4 peptide 33mer: from unfolded monomers and beta-sheet sandwich dimers to well-structured tetramers.

    OpenAIRE

    Mayo, K. H.; Ilyina, E.

    1998-01-01

    It was recently reported that a de novo designed peptide 33mer, betapep-4, can form well-structured beta-sheet sandwich tetramers (Ilyina E, Roongta V, Mayo KH, 1997b, Biochemistry 36:5245-5250). For insight into the pathway of betapep-4 folding, the present study investigates the concentration dependence of betapep-4 self-association by using 1H-NMR pulsed-field gradient (PFG)-NMR diffusion measurements, and circular dichroism. Downfield chemically shifted alphaH resonances, found to arise o...

  15. Design and commission of an experimental test rig to apply a full-scale pressure load on composite sandwich panels representative of an aircraft secondary structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crump, D A; Dulieu-Barton, J M; Savage, J

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a test rig, which is used to apply a representative pressure load to a full-scale composite sandwich secondary aircraft structure. A generic panel was designed with features to represent those in the composite sandwich secondary aircraft structure. To provide full-field strain data from the panels, the test rig was designed for use with optical measurement techniques such as thermoelastic stress analysis (TSA) and digital image correlation (DIC). TSA requires a cyclic load to be applied to a structure for the measurement of the strain state; therefore, the test rig has been designed to be mounted on a standard servo-hydraulic test machine. As both TSA and DIC require an uninterrupted view of the surface of the test panel, an important consideration in the design is facilitating the optical access for the two techniques. To aid the test rig design a finite element (FE) model was produced. The model provides information on the deflections that must be accommodated by the test rig, and ensures that the stress and strain levels developed in the panel when loaded in the test rig would be sufficient for measurement using TSA and DIC. Finally, initial tests using the test rig have shown it to be capable of achieving the required pressure and maintaining a cyclic load. It was also demonstrated that both TSA and DIC data can be collected from the panels under load, which are used to validate the stress and deflection derived from the FE model

  16. Sound transmission loss of composite sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ran

    Light composite sandwich panels are increasingly used in automobiles, ships and aircraft, because of the advantages they offer of high strength-to-weight ratios. However, the acoustical properties of these light and stiff structures can be less desirable than those of equivalent metal panels. These undesirable properties can lead to high interior noise levels. A number of researchers have studied the acoustical properties of honeycomb and foam sandwich panels. Not much work, however, has been carried out on foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels. In this dissertation, governing equations for the forced vibration of asymmetric sandwich panels are developed. An analytical expression for modal densities of symmetric sandwich panels is derived from a sixth-order governing equation. A boundary element analysis model for the sound transmission loss of symmetric sandwich panels is proposed. Measurements of the modal density, total loss factor, radiation loss factor, and sound transmission loss of foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels with different configurations and thicknesses are presented. Comparisons between the predicted sound transmission loss values obtained from wave impedance analysis, statistical energy analysis, boundary element analysis, and experimental values are presented. The wave impedance analysis model provides accurate predictions of sound transmission loss for the thin foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels at frequencies above their first resonance frequencies. The predictions from the statistical energy analysis model are in better agreement with the experimental transmission loss values of the sandwich panels when the measured radiation loss factor values near coincidence are used instead of the theoretical values for single-layer panels. The proposed boundary element analysis model provides more accurate predictions of sound transmission loss for the thick foam-filled honeycomb sandwich panels than either the wave impedance analysis model or the

  17. Design of Pd/PANI/Pd sandwich-structured nanotube array catalysts with special shape effects and synergistic effects for ethanol electrooxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, An-Liang; Xu, Han; Feng, Jin-Xian; Ding, Liang-Xin; Tong, Ye-Xiang; Li, Gao-Ren

    2013-07-24

    Low cost, high activity, and long-term durability are the main requirements for commercializing fuel cell electrocatalysts. Despite tremendous efforts, developing non-Pt anode electrocatalysts with high activity and long-term durability at low cost remains a significant technical challenge. Here we report a new type of hybrid Pd/PANI/Pd sandwich-structured nanotube array (SNTA) to exploit shape effects and synergistic effects of Pd-PANI composites for the oxidation of small organic molecules for direct alcohol fuel cells. These synthesized Pd/PANI/Pd SNTAs exhibit significantly improved electrocatalytic activity and durability compared with Pd NTAs and commercial Pd/C catalysts. The unique SNTAs provide fast transport and short diffusion paths for electroactive species and high utilization rate of catalysts. Besides the merits of nanotube arrays, the improved electrocatalytic activity and durability are especially attributed to the special Pd/PANI/Pd sandwich-like nanostructures, which results in electron delocalization between Pd d orbitals and PANI π-conjugated ligands and in electron transfer from Pd to PANI.

  18. Threading structural model of the manganese-stabilizing protein PsbO reveals presence of two possible beta-sandwich domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, F; Heredia, P; Valencia, A; de las Rivas, J

    2001-12-01

    The manganese-stabilizing protein (PsbO) is an essential component of photosystem II (PSII) and is present in all oxyphotosynthetic organisms. PsbO allows correct water splitting and oxygen evolution by stabilizing the reactions driven by the manganese cluster. Despite its important role, its structure and detailed functional mechanism are still unknown. In this article we propose a structural model based on fold recognition and molecular modeling. This model has additional support from a study of the distribution of characteristics of the PsbO sequence family, such as the distribution of conserved, apolar, tree-determinants, and correlated positions. Our threading results consistently showed PsbO as an all-beta (beta) protein, with two homologous beta domains of approximately 120 amino acids linked by a flexible Proline-Glycine-Glycine (PGG) motif. These features are compatible with a general elongated and flexible architecture, in which the two domains form a sandwich-type structure with Greek key topology. The first domain is predicted to include 8 to 9 beta-strands, the second domain 6 to 7 beta-strands. An Ig-like beta-sandwich structure was selected as a template to build the 3-D model. The second domain has, between the strands, long-loops rich in Pro and Gly that are difficult to model. One of these long loops includes a highly conserved region (between P148 and P174) and a short alpha-helix (between E181 and N188)). These regions are characteristic parts of PsbO and show that the second domain is not so similar to the template. Overall, the model was able to account for much of the experimental data reported by several authors, and it would allow the detection of key residues and regions that are proposed in this article as essential for the structure and function of PsbO. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Formation of CdS/Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S sandwich-structured quantum dots with high quantum efficiency in silicate glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Mengling; Liu, Chao, E-mail: hite@whut.edu.cn; Han, Jianjun; Zhao, Xiujian

    2017-06-15

    CdS/Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S sandwich-structured quantum dots (QDs) were precipitated in silicate glasses with high quantum efficiency up to 53%. The QDs were composed by a CdS core with a Cd{sub 1−x}Zn{sub x}S shell of about 1–3 nm in thickness through heat-treatment at 550 °C for 10 h. With the increased heat-treatment temperature, the intensity ratio between the intrinsic emission and the defects emission increased and the Stokes shift decreased from 84 to 4 meV, which was caused by both the increased size and passivated surface defects of the QDs.

  20. Enhanced electric polarization and breakdown strength in the all-organic sandwich-structured poly(vinylidene fluoride-based dielectric film for high energy density capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It is essential to develop the dielectric energy storage capacitor for the modern electrical and electronic equipment. Here, the all-organic sandwich-structured composite with superior breakdown strength and delayed saturation polarization is presented. Furthermore, the energy storage characteristics of the composite are enhanced by the poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene-chlorofluoroethylene fiber and the redistribution of local electric field. The dielectric permittivity of composite increases to ∼16, and the discharged energy density is high to ∼8.7 J/cm3 at 360 kV/mm, and the breakdown strength is up to ∼408 kV/mm. The excellent performance of the composite broadens the application in the field of power electronics industry.

  1. Mechanical Property Analysis on Sandwich Structured Hybrid Composite Made from Natural Fibre, Glass Fibre and Ceramic Fibre Wool Reinforced with Epoxy Resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharat, K. R.; Abhishek, S.; Palanikumar, K.

    2017-06-01

    Natural fibre composites find wide range of applications and usage in the automobile and manufacturing industries. They find lack in desired properties, which are required for present applications. In current scenario, many developments in composite materials involve the synthesis of Hybrid composite materials to overcome some of the lacking properties. In this present investigation, two sandwich structured hybrid composite materials have been made by reinforcing Aloe Vera-Ceramic Fibre Wool-Glass fibre with Epoxy resin matrix and Sisal fibre-Ceramic Fibre Wool-Glass fibre with Epoxy resin matrix and its mechanical properties such as Tensile, Flexural and Impact are tested and analyzed. The test results from the two samples are compared and the results show that sisal fibre reinforced hybrid composite has better mechanical properties than aloe vera reinforced hybrid composite.

  2. Synthesis, structure, and characterization of a new sandwich-type arsenotungstocerate, [As 2W 18Ce 3O 71(H 2O) 3] 12-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, M. H.; Eshtiagh-Hosseini, H.; Khoshnavazi, R.

    2004-01-01

    The rational synthesis of the new sandwich-type arsenotungstocerate [As 2W 18Ce 3O 71(H 2O) 3] 12- is reported for the first time by reaction of the trivacant lacunary species A-α-[AsW 9O 34] 9- with appropriate Ce IV. The single crystal structure analysis was carried out on K 7(H 3O) 5[As 2W 18Ce 3O 71(H 2O) 3]·9H 2O; H 39As 2Ce 3K 7O 88W 18; ( 2) which crystallizes in triclinic system, space group P overline1 with a=11.615(5) Å, b=17.638(7) Å, c=19.448(8) Å, α=73.643(7)°, β=88.799(7)°, γ=88.078(7)° and Z=2. The anion consists on two lacunary A-α-[AsW 9O 34] 9- Keggin moieties linked via a (H 2OCeO) 3 belt leading to a sandwich-type structure. Each cerium atom adopts tri-capped trigonal-prismatic coordination achieved by two terminal oxygen of an edge shared paired of WO 6 octahedra to each A-α-AsW 9O 349- moiety and two oxygen from the belt and the cap by one μ 3-O (As, W 2) to each A-α-AsW 9O 349- moiety and one external water ligand. The Ce-O bond lengths average in CeO 6 group, Ce-O(As, W 2) and Ce-O(nW) are 2.300(9), 2.887(3) and 2.682(5) Å, respectively. The acid/base titration curve reveals that the anion has two different titrable protons.

  3. Intercalation assembly of Li{sub 3}VO{sub 4} nanoribbons/graphene sandwich-structured composites with enhanced oxygen reduction catalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, K.; Ling, Q.N.; Huang, C.H.; Bi, K. [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications & School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Wang, W.J.; Yang, T.Z. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Lu, Y.K. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Liu, J., E-mail: liujun4982004@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Zhang, R.; Fan, D.Y.; Wang, Y.G. [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications & School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Lei, Ming, E-mail: mlei@bupt.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications & School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Novel sandwich-like nanocomposites of alternative stacked ultrathin Li{sub 3}VO{sub 4} nanoribbons and graphene sheets (LVO-G) were successfully developed by a facile intercalation assembly method with a post heating treatment. The characterization results demonstrate that the average size of the Li{sub 3}VO{sub 4} nanoribbons with a non-layered crystal structure is a few micrometers in length, 50–100 nm in width and a few atomic layers in height. The addition of graphene sheets can modify the preferred orientation of the Li{sub 3}VO{sub 4} nanoribbons from (110) to (011) plane and restrict the growth of impurity phase at the same time. In addition, EIS analysis has also verified the reduced resistance and thus the enhance conductivity of LVO-G nanocomposites compared with bare Li{sub 3}VO{sub 4} nanoribbons. What's more, the electrocatalytic performances of these novel LVO-G nanocomposites for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline solution are further investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), rotating disk electrode (RDE) and chronoamperometry test. It is found that the enhanced activity and stability of LVO-G can be attributed to the synergistic effect between the Li{sub 3}VO{sub 4} nanoribbons and graphene sheets with a larger reduction current density and a smaller onset potential value for LVO-G25 compared with LVO-G50 due to the change of components. - Highlights: • Novel sandwich-structured LVO-G by a facile intercalation assembly method. • Addition of G sheets can modify the preferred orientation of Li{sub 3}VO{sub 4} nanoribbon. • Enhanced ORR activity and stability due to synergistic effect are demonstrated.

  4. Experimental Study of Stress-Strain Behaviour of Open-Cell Aluminium Foam Sandwich Panel for Automotive Structural Part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Asmawiyah Ibrahim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Because of high stiffness and strength to weight ratio, aluminium foam sandwich (AFS has huge advantage in automotive industries in order to reduce the vehicle’s weight which consequently will reduce the fuel consumption. While reducing the weight, AFS must also maintain high strength and durability compared to other competitive materials used which perform same functionalities. AFS had been proved its suitability for industrial application by previous researchers such as in aerospace, automotive and architecture. However, there is still a gap need to be filled in order to expand the use of the AFS in another application. In this paper, the tensile strength of AFS panel made of from aluminium skin sheets and open-cell aluminium foam core with various thickness is investigated. Design of experiment was developed according to JUMP (JMP statistical software and experimental work was done using universal testing machine. The stress-strain behavior was analysed. The result shows that the effect of skin to core ratio is significant on the stress-strain behavior.

  5. Ferroelectric properties of sandwich structured (Bi, La)4T3O12/Pb(Zr, Ti)O3/ (Bi, La)4Ti3O12 thin films on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Dinghua; Wakiya, Naoki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Mizutani, Nobuyasu

    2002-01-01

    Sandwich structured (Bi, La) 4 Ti 3 O 12 /Pb(Zr, Ti)O 3 /(Bi, La) 4 Ti 3 O 12 thin films were fabricated on Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrates, with the intention of simultaneously utilizing the advantages of both (Bi, La) 4 Ti 3 O 12 (BLT) and Pb(Zr, Ti)O 3 (PZT) thin films such as non-fatigue behaviours of BLT and good ferroelectric properties of PZT. Both BLT and PZT layers were prepared by a chemical solution deposition technique. The experiments demonstrated that the sandwich structure showed fatigue-free characteristics at least up to 10 10 switching bipolar pulse cycles under 8 V and excellent retention properties. The sandwich structured thin films also exhibited well-defined hysteresis loops with a remanent polarization (2P r ) of 8.8 μC cm -2 and a coercive field (E c ) of 47 kV cm -1 . The room-temperature dielectric constant and dissipation factor were 210 and 0.031, respectively, at a frequency of 100 kHz. These results suggest that this sandwich structure is a promising material combination for ferroelectric memory applications. (author)

  6. Predicting safe sandwich production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Tina; Duan, Zhi; Møller, Cleide Oliveira de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Time and temperature control is crucial to avoid growth of pathogens during production and serving of cold ready-to-eat meals. The Danish guidelines state that chilled foods, such as sandwiches, should not be outside the cold chain for more than 3 hours including the time for preparation...... and serving. However, Danish sandwich producing companies find it challenging to comply with this and have expressed a need for more flexibility. The Danish guidelines do allow for a prolongation of the acceptable time outside the cold chain, if the safety of the specific production can be documented...

  7. Enhanced hydrogen storage in sandwich-structured rGO/Co1-xS/rGO hybrid papers through hydrogen spillover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lu; Qin, Wei; Jian, Jiahuang; Liu, Jiawei; Wu, Xiaohong; Gao, Peng; Hultman, Benjamin; Wu, Gang

    2017-08-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) based two-dimensional (2D) structures have been fabricated for electrochemical hydrogen storage. However, the effective transfer of atomic hydrogen to adjacent rGO surfaces is suppressed by binders, which are widely used in conventional electrochemical hydrogen storage electrodes, leading to a confining of the performance of rGO for hydrogen storage. As a proof of concept experiment, a novel strategy is developed to fabricate the binder-free sandwich-structured rGO/Co1-xS/rGO hybrid paper via facile ball milling and filtration process. Based on the structure investigation, Co1-xS is immobilized in the space between the individual rGO sheets by the creation of chemical "bridges" (Csbnd S bonds). Through the Csbnd S bonds, the atomic hydrogen is transferred from Co1-xS to rGO accompanying a Csbnd H chemical bond formation. When used as an electrode, the hybrid paper exhibits an improved hydrogen storage capacity of 3.82 wt% and, most importantly, significant cycling stability for up to 50 cycles. Excluding the direct hydrogen storage contribution from the Co1-xS in the hybrid paper, the hydrogen storage ability of rGO is enhanced by 10× through the spillover effects caused by the Co1-xS modifier.

  8. Robust and Air-Stable Sandwiched Organo-Lead Halide Perovskites for Photodetector Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Mohammed, Omar F.; Banavoth, Murali; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Abdelhady, Ahmed L.; Pan, Jun; Liu, Jiakai; Peng, Wei; Bakr, Osman

    2016-01-01

    We report the simplest possible method to date for fabricating robust, air-stable, sandwiched perovskite photodetectors. Our proposed sandwiched structure is devoid of electron or hole transporting layers and also the expensive electrodes

  9. X-joints in composite sandwich panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vredeveldt, A.W.; Janssen, G.Th.M.

    1998-01-01

    The small structural weight of fast large ships such as fast mono hulls or catamaran type of ships is of extreme importance to their success. One possible light weight structural solution is the sandwich panel with fibre reinforced laminates and a balsa, honeycomb or foam core. A severe obstacle for

  10. Behavior of sandwich panels in a fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelekova, Eugenia

    2018-03-01

    For the last decades there emerged a vast number of buildings and structures erected with the use of sandwich panels. The field of application for this construction material is manifold, especially in the construction of fire and explosion hazardous buildings. In advanced evacu-ation time calculation methods the coefficient of heat losses is defined with dire regard to fire load features, but without account to thermal and physical characteristics of building envelopes, or, to be exact, it is defined for brick and concrete walls with gross heat capacity. That is why the application of the heat loss coefficient expression obtained for buildings of sandwich panels is impossible because of different heat capacity of these panels from the heat capacities of brick and concrete building envelopes. The article conducts an analysis and calculation of the heal loss coefficient for buildings and structures of three layer sandwich panels as building envelopes.

  11. Salads, Sandwiches and Desserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on salads, sandwiches, and desserts is designed to provide Marine food service personnel with a general background in the proper techniques for the preparation of these items. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students and a…

  12. Three-dimensional sandwich-structured NiMn2O4@reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for highly reversible Li-ion battery anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiarui; Wang, Wei; Lin, Xirong; Gu, Cuiping; Liu, Jinyun

    2018-02-01

    A sandwich-structured NiMn2O4@reduced graphene oxide (NiMn2O4@rGO) nanocomposite consisting of ultrathin NiMn2O4 sheets uniformly anchored on both sides of a three-dimensional (3D) porous rGO is presented. The NiMn2O4@rGO nanocomposites prepared through a dipping process combining with a hydrothermal method show a good electrochemical performance including a high reversible capability of 1384 mAh g-1 at 1000 mA g-1 over 1620 cycles, and an superior rate performance. Thus, a full cell consisting of a commercial LiCoO2 cathode and the NiMn2O4@rGO anode delivers a stable capacity of about 1046 mAh g-1 (anode basis) after cycling at 50 mA g-1 for 60 times. It is demonstrated that the 3D porous composite structure accommodates the volume change during the Li+ insertion/extraction process and facilitates the rapid transport of ions and electrons. The high performance would enable the presented NiMn2O4@rGO nanocomposite a promising anode candidate for practical applications in Li-ion batteries.

  13. A Robust Multifunctional Sandwich Panel Design with Trabecular Structures by the Use of Additive Manufacturing Technology for a New De-Icing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Giovanni Ferro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anti-ice systems assure a vital on-board function in most aircraft: ice prevention or de-icing is mandatory for all aerodynamic surfaces to preserve their performance, and for all the movable surfaces to allow the proper control of the plane. In this work, a novel multi-functional panel concept which integrates anti-icing directly inside the primary structure is presented. In fact, constructing the core of the sandwich with trabecular non-stochastic cells allows the presence of a heat exchanger directly inside the structure with a savings in weight and an improvement in thermal efficiency. This solution can be realized easily in a single-piece component using Additive Manufacturing (AM technology without the need for joints, gluing, or welding. The objective of this study is to preliminarily investigate the mechanical properties of the core constructed with Selective Laser Melting (SLM; through the Design of Experiment (DOE, different design parameters were varied to understand how they affect the compression behaviour.

  14. Investigation on Bond-Slip Behavior of Z-Pin Interfaces in X-Cor® Sandwich Structures Using Z-Pin Pull-Out Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Hangying; Xiao, Jun; Chu, Qiyi

    2018-05-01

    The Z-Pin interfacial bond properties play an important role in the structural performance of X-Cor® sandwich structures. This paper presents an experimental investigation on bond-slip behavior of Z-Pin interfaces using Z-Pin pull-out test. Based on the experimental data the whole Z-Pin pull-out process consists of three stages: initial bonding, debonding and frictional sliding. Comparative experimental study on the influence of design parameters on bond-slip behavior of Z-Pin interfaces has also been performed. Numerical analyses were conducted with the ABAQUS finite element (FE) program to simulate the Z-Pins bond-slip response of the pull-out test. The Z-Pins interfacial bond-slip behavior was implemented using nonlinear spring elements characterized with the constitutive relation from experimental results. Numerical results were validated by comparison with experimental data, and reasonably good agreement was achieved between experimental and analytical pull-out force-slip curves.

  15. Sandwich structured MoO2@TiO2@CNT nanocomposites with high-rate performance for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Dandan; Yang, Wanli; Ni, Jiangfeng; Gao, Lijun

    2015-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) is an important anode candidate for Li-ion battery (LIB) due to its properties of excellent cycle, high safety and low cost. However, the poor electrical conductivity of TiO 2 presents a significant challenge hampering its practical application in LIBs. Most researches have been concentrated on developing TiO 2 composites with metals, metal oxides and carbonaceous materials to improve its conductivity. In this work, we investigated a sandwich structured MoO 2 @TiO 2 @CNT nanocomposite through a simple three-step synthesis method. The CNT and highly conductive MoO 2 under/on the TiO 2 layer are served as flexible and strong electronic paths for rapid electron and ion transport. The resulting MoO 2 @TiO 2 @CNT hybrid structures show improved specific capacity and cycling stability compared with TiO 2 @CNT. In addition, the MoO 2 @TiO 2 @CNT composites also show a favorable rate capability, demonstrating its potential as anode material for LIBs

  16. Sandwich-structured nanohybrid paper based on controllable growth of nanostructured MnO2 on ionic liquid functionalized graphene paper as a flexible supercapacitor electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yimin; Fang, Zheng; Wang, Chenxu; Ariyawansha, K R Rakhitha Malinga; Zhou, Aijun; Duan, Hongwei

    2015-05-07

    A sandwich-structured flexible supercapacitor electrode has been developed based on MnO2 nanonest (MNN) modified ionic liquid (IL) functionalized graphene paper (GP), which is fabricated by functionalizing graphene nanosheets with an amine-terminated IL (i.e., 1-(3-aminopropyl)-3-methylimidazolium bromide) to form freestanding IL functionalized GP (IL-GP), and then modifying IL-GP with a unique MNN structure via controllable template-free ultrasonic electrodeposition. The as-obtained MNN modified IL-GP (MNN/IL-GP) inherits the excellent pseudocapacity of the metal oxide, the high conductivity and electric double layer charging/discharging of IL-graphene composites, and therefore shows an enhanced supercapacitor performance. The maximum specific capacitance of 411 F g(-1) can be achieved by chronopotentiometry at a current density of 1 A g(-1). Meanwhile, the MNN/IL-GP electrode exhibits excellent rate capability and cycling stability, its specific capacitance is maintained at 70% as the current densities increase from 1 to 20 A g(-1) and 85% at a current density of 10 A g(-1) after 10 000 cycles. More importantly, the MNN/IL-GP displays distinguished mechanical stability and flexibility for device packaging, although its thickness is merely 8 μm. These features collectively demonstrate the potential of MNN/IL-GP as a high-performance paper electrode for flexible and lightweight and highly efficient electrochemical capacitor applications.

  17. Analytical analyses of active control of sound transmission through soft-core sandwich structures and double panel partitions

    OpenAIRE

    Sahu, Kiran Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Active structural acoustic control (ASAC) is a form of active noise control which focuses on the control of structural vibrations in a manner that minimizes acoustic radiation from a structure. The greatest difficulty ASAC suffers from is in finding an "optimal" error quantity, which can be easily implemented in a control algorithm. Volume velocity control (VVC) metric which is generally used in ASAC typically requires either a large number of sensors distributed across the entire structure, ...

  18. Structural and magnetic properties of Ni{sub 78}Fe{sub 22} thin films sandwiched between low-softening-point glasses and application in spin devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misawa, Takahiro; Mori, Sumito [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020 (Japan); Komine, Takashi [Faculty of Engineering, Ibaraki University, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan); Fujioka, Masaya; Nishii, Junji [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020 (Japan); Kaiju, Hideo, E-mail: kaiju@es.hokudai.ac.jp [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020 (Japan)

    2016-12-30

    Graphical abstract: This paper presents the first demonstration of the formation of Ni{sub 78}Fe{sub 22} thin films sandwiched between low-softening-point (LSP) glasses used in spin quantum cross (SQC) devices and the theoretical prediction of spin filter effect in Ni{sub 78}Fe{sub 22}-based SQC devices. The fomation of the LSP-glass/Ni{sub 78}Fe{sub 22}/LSP-glass structures was successfully demonstrated using a newly proposed thermal pressing technique. Interestingly, this technique gives rise to both a highly-oriented crystal growth in Ni{sub 78}Fe{sub 22} thin films and a 100-fold enhancement in coercivity, in contrast to those of as-deposited Ni{sub 78}Fe{sub 22} thin films. This remarkable increase in coercivity can be explained by the calculation based on two-dimensional random anisotropy model. These excellent features on structural and magnetic properties allowed us to achieve that the stray magnetic field was uniformly generated from the Ni{sub 78}Fe{sub 22} thin-film edge in the direction perpendicular to the cross section of the LSP-glass/Ni{sub 78}Fe{sub 22}/LSP-glass structures. As we calculated the stray magnetic field generated between the two edges of Ni{sub 78}Fe{sub 22} thin-film electrodes in SQC devices, a high stray field of approximately 5 kOe was generated when the gap distance between two edges of the Ni{sub 78}Fe{sub 22} thin-film electrodes was less than 5 nm and the thickness of Ni{sub 78}Fe{sub 22} was greater than 20 nm. These experimental and calculated results suggest that Ni{sub 78}Fe{sub 22} thin films sandwiched between LSP glasses can be used as electrodes in SQC devices, providing a spin-filter effect, and also our proposed techniques utilizing magnetic thin-film edges will open up new opportunities for the creation of high performance spin devices, such as large magnetoresistance devices and nanoscale spin injectors. Our paper is of strong interest to the broad audience of Applied Surface Science, as it demonstrates that the

  19. Influence of film thickness on structural and optical properties of ZnS thin films obtained by SILAR method and analysis of Zn/ZnS/n-GaAs/In sandwich structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezakin, Oguzhan; Guezeldir, Betuel; Saglam, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Science Faculty, Atatuerk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Yildirim, M. Ali [Department of Physics, Science and Art Faculty, Erzincan University, Erzincan (Turkey); Ates, Aytunc [Department of Material Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Yildirim Beyazit University, Ankara (Turkey)

    2012-04-15

    ZnS thin films were deposited on glass substrates using SILAR method at room temperature and ambient pressure. The relationship between refractive index and energy bandgap was investigated. The film thickness effect on the structural, morphological and optical properties of ZnS thin films was investigated. The crystalline and surface properties of the films improved with increasing film thickness. The energy bandgap values changed from 3.87 to 3.58 eV with increasing film thickness. The refractive index (n), high frequency dielectric constant ({epsilon}{sub {infinity}}) values were calculated by using the energy bandgap values as a function of the film thickness. Also, ZnS thin film was deposited directly on n-GaAs substrate for obtaining the Zn/ZnS/n-GaAs/In sandwich structure at room temperature. The sandwich structure demonstrated clearly rectifying behaviour by the current-voltage (I-V) curves at room temperature. From I-V characteristics n and {phi}{sub b} values were calculated as 1.894 and 0.632 eV at room temperature, respectively. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays with special surface and synergistic effects as high-performance positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Han; Zhang, Chi; Zhou, Wen; Li, Gao-Ren

    2015-10-28

    High power density, high energy density and excellent cycling stability are the main requirements for high-performance supercapacitors (SCs) that will be widely used for portable consumer electronics and hybrid electric vehicles. Here we investigate novel types of hybrid Co(OH)2/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays (SNTAs) as positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). The synthesized Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs exhibit a significantly improved specific capacity (∼1470 F g(-1) at 5 mV s(-1)) and excellent cycling stability with ∼98% Csp retention after 10 000 cycles because of the fast transport and short diffusion paths for electroactive species, the high utilization rate of electrode materials, and special synergistic effects among Co(OH)2, RGO, and NiO. The high-performance ASCs are assembled using Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs as positive electrodes and active carbon (AC) as negative electrodes, and they exhibit a high energy density (115 Wh kg(-1)), a high power density (27.5 kW kg(-1)) and an excellent cycling stability (less 5% Csp loss after 10 000 cycles). This study shows an important breakthrough in the design and fabrication of multi-walled hybrid nanotube arrays as positive electrodes for ASCs.

  1. The Influence of GI and GII on the Compression After Impact Strength of Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Laminates and Sandwich Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, A. T.; Scharber, L. L.

    2017-01-01

    This study measured the compression after impact strength of IM7 carbon fiber laminates made from epoxy resins with various mode I and mode II toughness values to observe the effects of these toughness values on the resistance to damage formation and subsequent residual compression strength-carrying capabilities. Both monolithic laminates and sandwich structure were evaluated. A total of seven different epoxy resin systems were used ranging in approximate GI values of 245-665 J/sq m and approximate GII values of 840-2275 J/sq m. The results for resistance to impact damage formation showed that there was a direct correlation between GII and the planar size of damage, as measured by thermography. Subsequent residual compression strength testing suggested that GI had no influence on the measured values and most of the difference in compression strength was directly related to the size of damage. Thus, delamination growth assumed as an opening type of failure mechanism does not appear to be responsible for loss of compression strength in the specimens examined in this study.

  2. Characteristics of multilevel storage and switching dynamics in resistive switching cell of Al2O3/HfO2/Al2O3 sandwich structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Yang, Huafeng; Ma, Zhongyuan; Chen, Kunji; Zhang, Xinxin; Huang, Xinfan; Oda, Shunri

    2018-01-01

    We reported an Al2O3/HfO2/Al2O3 sandwich structure resistive switching device with significant improvement of multilevel cell (MLC) operation capability, which exhibited that four stable and distinct resistance states (one low resistance state and three high resistance states) can be achieved by controlling the Reset stop voltages (V Reset-stop) during the Reset operation. The improved MLC operation capability can be attributed to the R HRS/R LRS ratio enhancement resulting from increasing of the series resistance and decreasing of leakage current by inserting two Al2O3 layers. For the high-speed switching applications, we studied the initial switching dynamics by using the measurements of the pulse width and amplitude dependence of Set and Reset switching characteristics. The results showed that under the same pulse amplitude conditions, the initial Set progress is faster than the initial Reset progress, which can be explained by thermal-assisted electric field induced rupture model in the oxygen vacancies conductive filament. Thus, proper combination of varying pulse amplitude and width can help us to optimize the device operation parameters. Moreover, the device demonstrated ultrafast program/erase speed (10 ns) and good pulse switching endurance (105 cycles) characteristics, which are suitable for high-density and fast-speed nonvolatile memory applications.

  3. Buckling driven debonding in sandwich columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Rasmus Christian

    2008-01-01

    results from two mechanisms: (a) interaction of local debond buckling and global buckling and (b) the development of a damaged zone at the debond crack tip. Based on the pronounced imperfection sensitivity, the author predicts that an experimental measurement of the strength of sandwich structures may......A compression loaded sandwich column that contains a debond is analyzed using a geometrically non-linear finite element model. The model includes a cohesive zone along one face sheet/core interface whereby the debond can extend by interface crack growth. Two geometrical imperfections are introduced...

  4. The Effects of Foam Thermal Protection System on the Damage Tolerance Characteristics of Composite Sandwich Structures for Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, A. T.; Hodge, A. J.; Jackson, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    For any structure composed of laminated composite materials, impact damage is one of the greatest risks and therefore most widely tested responses. Typically, impact damage testing and analysis assumes that a solid object comes into contact with the bare surface of the laminate (the outer ply). However, most launch vehicle structures will have a thermal protection system (TPS) covering the structure for the majority of its life. Thus, the impact response of the material with the TPS covering is the impact scenario of interest. In this study, laminates representative of the composite interstage structure for the Ares I launch vehicle were impact tested with and without the planned TPS covering, which consists of polyurethane foam. Response variables examined include maximum load of impact, damage size as detected by nondestructive evaluation techniques, and damage morphology and compression after impact strength. Results show that there is little difference between TPS covered and bare specimens, except the residual strength data is higher for TPS covered specimens.

  5. Fracture Analysis of Debonded Sandwich Columns Under Axial Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, A.; Avilés, F.; Berggreen, Christian

    A sandwich structure consists of two strong and stiff face sheets bonded to a weak low density core. The large separation between the face sheets provides increased bending rigidity and strength at low weight cost. Thus, sandwich structures frequently present better mechanical properties than...... monolithic structures of the same weight. The vast range of applications of such materials includes wind turbines, marine, and aerospace industries. In this work, geometrically nonlinear finite element analysis is conducted to investigate the fracture parameters and debond propagation of sandwich columns...

  6. Effect of the fabrication process on fatigue performance of U3Si2 fuel plate with sandwich structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xishu; Li Shuangshou; Wang Qingyuan; Xu Yong

    2005-01-01

    U 3 Si 2 -Al fuel plate is one of the dispersion fuel structure materials recently developed and widely used in research reactors. The mechanical properties of this structural material, especially the fatigue performance, are strongly dependent on its fabrication process. To investigate the effects of these processing technologies, the fatigue tests for the different specimens were carried out. The S-N curves indicate that the fabrication processing technologies of U 3 Si 2 fuel plate, such as the addition of U 3 Si 2 particles into aluminum powder to form the fuel meat, holding and rolling the processes of meat and cladding of 6061-Al alloy, plays an important role in improving the mechanical properties and fatigue performance of this fuel plate. In addition, some factors that influence the crack initiation and propagation are summarized based on the fatigue images that are in situ observations with SEM. The critical criterion for fatigue damage is proposed based on the fatigue data of the structural material, which were obtained at the different conditions

  7. Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays with special surface and synergistic effects as high-performance positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Han; Zhang, Chi; Zhou, Wen; Li, Gao-Ren

    2015-10-01

    High power density, high energy density and excellent cycling stability are the main requirements for high-performance supercapacitors (SCs) that will be widely used for portable consumer electronics and hybrid electric vehicles. Here we investigate novel types of hybrid Co(OH)2/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays (SNTAs) as positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). The synthesized Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs exhibit a significantly improved specific capacity (~1470 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1) and excellent cycling stability with ~98% Csp retention after 10 000 cycles because of the fast transport and short diffusion paths for electroactive species, the high utilization rate of electrode materials, and special synergistic effects among Co(OH)2, RGO, and NiO. The high-performance ASCs are assembled using Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs as positive electrodes and active carbon (AC) as negative electrodes, and they exhibit a high energy density (115 Wh kg-1), a high power density (27.5 kW kg-1) and an excellent cycling stability (less 5% Csp loss after 10 000 cycles). This study shows an important breakthrough in the design and fabrication of multi-walled hybrid nanotube arrays as positive electrodes for ASCs.High power density, high energy density and excellent cycling stability are the main requirements for high-performance supercapacitors (SCs) that will be widely used for portable consumer electronics and hybrid electric vehicles. Here we investigate novel types of hybrid Co(OH)2/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/NiO sandwich-structured nanotube arrays (SNTAs) as positive electrodes for asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). The synthesized Co(OH)2/RGO/NiO SNTAs exhibit a significantly improved specific capacity (~1470 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1) and excellent cycling stability with ~98% Csp retention after 10 000 cycles because of the fast transport and short diffusion paths for electroactive species, the high utilization rate of electrode materials, and

  8. Ni Foam-Ni3 S2 @Ni(OH)2 -Graphene Sandwich Structure Electrode Materials: Facile Synthesis and High Supercapacitor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobing; Hu, Jiangjiang; Su, Yichang; Hao, Jin; Liu, Fanggang; Han, Shuang; An, Jian; Lian, Jianshe

    2017-03-23

    A novel Ni foam-Ni 3 S 2 @Ni(OH) 2 -graphene sandwich-structured electrode (NF-NN-G) with high areal mass loading (8.33 mg cm -2 ) has been developed by sulfidation and hydrolysis reactions. The conductivity of Ni 3 S 2 and Ni(OH) 2 were both improved. The upper layer of Ni(OH) 2 , covered with a thin graphene film, is formed in situ from the surface of the lower layer of Ni 3 S 2 , whereas the Ni 3 S 2 grown on Ni foam substrate mainly acts as a rough support bridging the Ni(OH) 2 and Ni foam. The graphene stabilized the Ni(OH) 2 and the electrochemical properties were effectively enhanced. The as-synthesized NF-NN-G-5mg electrode shows a high specific capacitance (2258 F g -1 at 1 A g -1 or 18.81 F cm -2 at 8.33 mA cm -2 ) and an outstanding rate property (1010 F g -1 at 20 Ag -1 or 8.413 F cm -2 at 166.6 mA cm -2 ). This result is around double the capacitance achieved in previous research on Ni 3 S 2 @Ni(OH) 2 /3DGN composites (3DGN=three-dimensional graphene network). In addition, the as-fabricated NF-NN-G-5mg composite electrode has an excellent cycle life with no capacitance loss after 3000 cycles, indicating a potential application as an efficient electrode. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. A serials of sandwich-like trinuclear and one-dimensional chain cyanide-bridged iron(III)-copper(II) complexes: Syntheses, crystal structures and magnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jingwen; Lan, Wenlong; Ren, Yanjie; Liu, Qingyun; Liu, Hui; Dong, Yunhui; Zhang, Daopeng

    2018-04-01

    Four pyridinecarboxamide trans-dicyanideiron(III) building blocks and one macrocyclic copper(II) compound have been employed to assemble cyanide-bridged heterometallic complexes, resulting in a serials of cyanide-bridged FeIII-CuII complexes with different structure types. The series of complexes can be formulated as: {[Cu(Cyclam)][Fe(bpb)(CN)2]2}·4H2O (1), {{[Cu(Cyclam)][Fe(bpb)(CN)2]}ClO4}n·nH2O (2), and {[Cu(Cyclam)][Fe(bpmb)(CN)2]2}·4H2O (3), {[Cu(Cyclam)][Fe(bpClb)(CN)2]2}·4H2O (4) and {{[Cu(Cyclam)][Fe(bpdmb)(CN)2]}ClO4}n·2nCH3OH (5) (bpb2- = 1,2-bis(pyridine-2-carboxamido)benzenate, bpmb2- = 1,2-bis(pyridine-2-carboxamido)-4-methyl-benzenate, bpClb2- = 1,2-bis(pyridine-2-carboxamido)-4-chloro-benzenate, bpdmb2- = 1,2-bis(pyridine-2-carboxamido)-4,5-dimethyl-benzenate, Cyclam = 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane). All the complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectra and structural determination. Single X-ray diffraction analysis shows the similar neutral sandwich-like structures for complexes 1, 3 and 4, in which the two cyano precursors acting as monodentate ligand through one of their two cyanide groups were coordinated face to face to central Cu(II) ion. The complexes 2 and 5 can be structurally characterized as one-dimensional cationic single chain consisting of alternating units of [Cu(Cyclam)]2+ and [Fe(bpb/bpdmb)(CN)2]- with free ClO4- as balanced anion. Investigation over magnetic properties of the whole serials of complexes reveals the antiferromagnetic magnetic coupling between the neighboring cyanide-bridged Fe(III) and Cu(II) ions in complexes 3 and 4 and the ferromagnetic interaction in complexes 1, 2 and 5, respectively.

  10. Mechanical and vibro-acoustic aspects of composite sandwich cylinders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, C.

    2013-01-01

    Designing a fuselage involves many considerations such as strength and stability, fatigue, damage tolerance, fire and lightning resistance, thermal and acoustic insulation, production, inspection, maintenance and repair. In the background of the application of composite sandwich structures on the

  11. Trinuclear Lanthanoid Complexes of 1,3,5-Triamino-1,3,5-trideoxy-cis-inositol with a Unique, Sandwich-Type Cage Structure(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedinger, Roman; Ghisletta, Michele; Hegetschweiler, Kaspar; Tóth, Eva; Merbach, André E.; Sessoli, Roberta; Gatteschi, Dante; Gramlich, Volker

    1998-12-28

    A variety of trinuclear complexes [M(3)(H(-)(3)L)(2)](3+) [M = Y, La, Eu, Gd, Dy; L = 1,3,5-triamino-1,3,5-trideoxy-cis-inositol (taci) and 1,3,5-trideoxy-1,3,5-tris(dimethylamino)-cis-inositol (tdci)] was prepared as solid materials of the composition M(3)(H(-)(3)L)(2)X(3).pH(2)O.qEtOH (X = Cl, NO(3); 2.5 structures of [La(3)(H(-)(3)taci)(2)(H(2)O)(4)Cl]Cl(2).3H(2)O and [Gd(3)(H(-)(3)taci)(2)(H(2)O)(6)]Cl(3).3H(2)O were elucidated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The La complex crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pbca, a = 17.10(2) Å, b = 16.20(4) Å, c = 20.25(4) Å, Z = 8 for C(12)Cl(3)H(38)La(3)N(6)O(13). The Gd complex crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/n, a = 10.294(3) Å, b = 15.494(5) Å, c = 19.994(6) Å, beta = 95.36(2) degrees, Z = 4 for C(12)Cl(3)Gd(3)H(42)N(6)O(15). The two complexes exhibited a unique, sandwich-type cage structure, where the two triply deprotonated taci ligands encapsulate an equilateral triangle of the three metal centers. The metal cations are coordinated to the equatorial, terminal amino groups and are bridged by the axial &mgr;(2)-alkoxo groups. The coordination spheres are completed by additional peripheral ligands such as H(2)O or Cl(-) counterions. The coordination number of the metal cations is 8. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of the Gd complex revealed very weak antiferromagnetic coupling interactions between the three Gd centers. Complex formation and species distribution in aqueous solution was investigated by potentiometry and pD-dependent NMR spectroscopy. An exclusive formation of the [Eu(3)(H(-)(3)taci)(2)](3+) unit in solution was found in the range 7

  12. Tailoring Sandwich Face/Core Interfaces for Improved Damage Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard-Larsen, Christian; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2010-01-01

    A face/core debond in a sandwich structure may propagate in the interface or kink into either the face or core. It is found that certain modifications of the face/core interface region influence the kinking behavior, which is studied experimentally in the present paper. A sandwich double cantilever....... The transition points where the crack kinks are identified and the influence of four various interface design modifications on the propagation path and fracture resistance are investigated....

  13. Optimization of composite sandwich cover panels subjected to compressive loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Juan R.

    1991-01-01

    An analysis and design method is presented for the design of composite sandwich cover panels that include the transverse shear effects and damage tolerance considerations. This method is incorporated into a sandwich optimization computer program entitled SANDOP. As a demonstration of its capabilities, SANDOP is used in the present study to design optimized composite sandwich cover panels for for transport aircraft wing applications. The results of this design study indicate that optimized composite sandwich cover panels have approximately the same structural efficiency as stiffened composite cover panels designed to satisfy individual constraints. The results also indicate that inplane stiffness requirements have a large effect on the weight of these composite sandwich cover panels at higher load levels. Increasing the maximum allowable strain and the upper percentage limit of the 0 degree and +/- 45 degree plies can yield significant weight savings. The results show that the structural efficiency of these optimized composite sandwich cover panels is relatively insensitive to changes in core density. Thus, core density should be chosen by criteria other than minimum weight (e.g., damage tolerance, ease of manufacture, etc.).

  14. Dynamic Response of Functionally Graded Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Sandwich Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehar, Kulmani; Panda, Subrata Kumar

    2018-03-01

    In this article, the dynamic response of the carbon nanotube-reinforced functionally graded sandwich composite plate has been studied numerically with the help of finite element method. The face sheets of the sandwich composite plate are made of carbon nanotube- reinforced composite for two different grading patterns whereas the core phase is taken as isotropic material. The final properties of the structure are calculated using the rule of mixture. The geometrical model of the sandwich plate is developed and discretized suitably with the help of available shell element in ANSYS library. Subsequently, the corresponding numerical dynamic responses computed via batch input technique (parametric design language code in ANSYS) of ANSYS including Newmark’s integration scheme. The stability of the sandwich structural numerical model is established through the proper convergence study. Further, the reliability of the sandwich model is checked by comparison study between present and available results from references. As a final point, some numerical problems have been solved to examine the effect of different design constraints (carbon nanotube distribution pattern, core to face thickness ratio, volume fractions of the nanotube, length to thickness ratio, aspect ratio and constraints at edges) on the time-responses of sandwich plate.

  15. Rheological behaviour and thermal dilation effects of alumino-silicate adhesives intended for joining of high-temperature resistant sandwich structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, Martin; Chlup, Zdeněk; Strachota, Adam; Schweigstillová, Jana; Svítilová, Jaroslava; Halasová, Martina

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 5 (2017), s. 2209-2218 ISSN 0955-2219 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP107/12/2445 Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21538 Program:OPPK Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:68081723 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : Sandwich * Inorganic adhesive * Si-O-C ceramics * Ceramic foam * Ceramic fibre Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V); JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass (UFM-A) OBOR OECD: Ceramics; Polymer science (UMCH-V); Ceramics (UFM-A) Impact factor: 3.411, year: 2016

  16. Mechanical evaluation with fe analysis of sandwich panels for wind turbine blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasaswi, M.; Naveen, P.N.E.; Prasad, R.V. [GIET. Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Rajahmundry (India)

    2012-07-01

    Sandwich panels are notable for their structural efficiency and are used as load bearing components in various branches of engineering, especially in aerospace and marine industries. The objective of the present work is to perform computer-aided analysis on sandwich panels. The analysis of sandwich panel with truss core are compared with other four types of sandwich panel with continuous corrugated core, top hat core, zed core and channel core. The basic reason to use sandwich structure is to save weight, however smooth skins and excellent fatigue resistance are also attributes of a sandwich structure. A sandwich is comprised of two layered composite materials formed by bonding two or more thin facings or face sheets to relatively thick core materials. In this type of construction the facings resist nearly all of the in-plane loads and out-of-plane bending moments. The thin facings provide nearly all of the bending stiffness because they are generally of a much higher modulus material is located at a greatest distance from the neutral axis of the component. The basic concept of sandwich panel is that the facings carry the bending loads and the core carries the shear loads. The main function of the core material is to distribute local loads and stresses over large areas. From all this analysis it is concluded that the truss core Sandwich panels can be used in wind turbine blade design. (Author)

  17. Natural cork agglomerate employed as an environmentally friendly solution for quiet sandwich composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargianis, James; Kim, Hyung-ick; Suhr, Jonghwan

    2012-01-01

    Carbon fiber-synthetic foam core sandwich composites are widely used for many structural applications due to their superior mechanical performance and low weight. Unfortunately these structures typically have very poor acoustic performance. There is increasingly growing demand in mitigating this noise issue in sandwich composite structures. This study shows that marrying carbon fiber composites with natural cork in a sandwich structure provides a synergistic effect yielding a noise-free sandwich composite structure without the sacrifice of mechanical performance or weight. Moreover the cork-core sandwich composites boast a 250% improvement in damping performance, providing increased durability and lifetime operation. Additionally as the world seeks environmentally friendly materials, the harvesting of cork is a natural, renewable process which reduces subsequent carbon footprints. Such a transition from synthetic foam cores to natural cork cores could provide unprecedented improvements in acoustic and vibrational performance in applications such as aircraft cabins or wind turbine blades.

  18. ITO-TiN-ITO Sandwiches for Near-Infrared Plasmonic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chaonan; Wang, Zhewei; Wu, Ke; Chong, Haining; Xu, Zemin; Ye, Hui

    2018-05-02

    Indium tin oxide (ITO)-based sandwich structures with the insertion of ultrathin (ITO layers show TiN-thickness-dependent properties, which lead to moderate and tunable effective permittivities for the sandwiches. The surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) of the ITO-TiN-ITO sandwich at the telecommunication window (1480-1570 nm) are activated by prism coupling using Kretschmann configuration. Compared with pure ITO films or sandwiches with metal insertion, the reflectivity dip for sandwiches with TiN is relatively deeper and wider, indicating the enhanced coupling ability in plasmonic materials for telecommunications. The SPP spatial profile, penetration depth, and degree of confinement, as well as the quality factors, demonstrate the applicability of such sandwiches for NIR plasmonic materials in various devices.

  19. Thermo-mechanical interaction effects in foam cored sandwich panels-correlation between High-order models and Finite element analysis results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palleti, Hara Naga Krishna Teja; Santiuste, Carlos; Thomsen, Ole Thybo

    2010-01-01

    Thermo-mechanical interaction effects including thermal material degradation in polymer foam cored sandwich structures is investigated using the commercial Finite Element Analysis (FEA) package ABAQUS/Standard. Sandwich panels with different boundary conditions in the form of simply supported...

  20. Laser welded steel sandwich panel bridge deck development : finite element analysis and stake weld strength tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes the analysis of laser welded steel sandwich panels for use in bridge structures and : static testing of laser stake welded lap shear coupons. Steel sandwich panels consist of two face sheets : connected by a relatively low-dens...

  1. Robust and Air-Stable Sandwiched Organo-Lead Halide Perovskites for Photodetector Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Mohammed, Omar F.

    2016-02-25

    We report the simplest possible method to date for fabricating robust, air-stable, sandwiched perovskite photodetectors. Our proposed sandwiched structure is devoid of electron or hole transporting layers and also the expensive electrodes. These simpler architectures may have application in the perovskite-only class of solar cells scaling up towards commercialization.

  2. Tailoring the Dielectric Layer Structure for Enhanced Performance of Organic Field-Effect Transistors: The Use of a Sandwiched Polar Dielectric Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijiao Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the origins of hydroxyl groups in a polymeric dielectric and its applications in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs, a polar polymer layer was inserted between two polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA dielectric layers, and its effect on the performance as an organic field-effect transistor (OFET was studied. The OFETs with a sandwiched dielectric layer of poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA or poly(4-vinylphenol (PVP containing hydroxyl groups had shown enhanced characteristics compared to those with only PMMA layers. The field-effect mobility had been raised more than 10 times in n-type devices (three times in the p-type one, and the threshold voltage had been lowered almost eight times in p-type devices (two times in the n-type. The on-off ratio of two kinds of devices had been enhanced by almost two orders of magnitude. This was attributed to the orientation of hydroxyl groups from disordered to perpendicular to the substrate under gate-applied voltage bias, and additional charges would be induced by this polarization at the interface between the semiconductor and dielectrics, contributing to the accumulation of charge transfer.

  3. Hydrothermal synthesis and structural characterization of an organic–inorganic hybrid sandwich-type tungstoantimonate [Cu(en)2(H2O)]4[Cu(en)2(H2O)2][Cu2Na4(α-SbW9O33)2]·6H2O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yingjie; Cao, Jing; Wang, Yujie; Li, Yanzhou; Zhao, Junwei; Chen, Lijuan; Ma, Pengtao; Niu, Jingyang

    2014-01-01

    An organic–inorganic hybrid sandwich-type tungstoantimonate [Cu(en) 2 (H 2 O)] 4 [Cu(en) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ][Cu 2 Na 4 (α-SbW 9 O 33 ) 2 ]·6H 2 O (1) has been synthesized by reaction of Sb 2 O 3 , Na 2 WO 4 ·2H 2 O, CuCl 2 ·2H 2 O with en (en=ethanediamine) under hydrothermal conditions and structurally characterized by elemental analysis, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, IR spectrum and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. 1 displays a centric dimeric structure formed by two equivalent trivacant Keggin [α-SbW 9 O 33 ] 9− subunits sandwiching a hexagonal (Cu 2 Na 4 ) cluster. Moreover, those related hexagonal hexa-metal cluster sandwiched tungstoantimonates have been also summarized and compared. The variable-temperature magnetic measurements of 1 exhibit the weak ferromagnetic exchange interactions within the hexagonal (Cu 2 Na 4 ) cluster mediated by the oxygen bridges. - Graphical abstract: An organic–inorganic hybrid (Cu 2 Na 4 ) sandwiched tungstoantimonate [Cu(en) 2 (H 2 O)] 4 [Cu (en) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ][Cu 2 Na 4 (α-SbW 9 O 33 ) 2 ]·6H 2 O was synthesized and magnetic properties was investigated. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Organic–inorganic hybrid sandwich-type tungstoantimonate. • (Cu 2 Na 4 sandwiched) tungstoantimonate [Cu 2 Na 4 (α-SbW 9 O 33 ) 2 ] 10− . • Ferromagnetic tungstoantimonate

  4. Characterization of sandwich panels for indentation and impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shazly, M; Salem, S; Bahei-El-Din, Y

    2013-01-01

    The integrity of sandwich structures which are susceptible to impact may deteriorate significantly due to collapse of the core material and delamination of the face sheets. The integration of a thin polyurethane interlayer between the composite face sheet and foam core is known to protect the core material and substantially improve the resistance to impact. The objective of the present work is to characterize the response of sandwich panels, as well as that of the constituents to impact. In particular, the response of polyurethane and foam samples under a range of quasi-static and dynamic loading rates is determined experimentally. Furthermore, the response of sandwich panels to quasi-static indentation and low velocity impact is examined to quantify the extent of damage and how it is affected by the integration of polyurethane interlayers in their construction. This information is useful in the modelling of high velocity impact of sandwich panels; an effort which is currently underway. The results illustrate the benefit of using polyurethane interlayers within the construction of sandwich panels in enhancing their performance under quasi-static indentation and impact loads

  5. Sound-proof Sandwich Panel Design via Metamaterial Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Ni

    Sandwich panels consisting of hollow core cells and two face-sheets bonded on both sides have been widely used as lightweight and strong structures in practical engineering applications, but with poor acoustic performance especially at low frequency regime. Basic sound-proof methods for the sandwich panel design are spontaneously categorized as sound insulation and sound absorption. Motivated by metamaterial concept, this dissertation presents two sandwich panel designs without sacrificing weight or size penalty: A lightweight yet sound-proof honeycomb acoustic metamateiral can be used as core material for honeycomb sandwich panels to block sound and break the mass law to realize minimum sound transmission; the other sandwich panel design is based on coupled Helmholtz resonators and can achieve perfect sound absorption without sound reflection. Based on the honeycomb sandwich panel, the mechanical properties of the honeycomb core structure were studied first. By incorporating a thin membrane on top of each honeycomb core, the traditional honeycomb core turns into honeycomb acoustic metamaterial. The basic theory for such kind of membrane-type acoustic metamaterial is demonstrated by a lumped model with infinite periodic oscillator system, and the negative dynamic effective mass density for clamped membrane is analyzed under the membrane resonance condition. Evanescent wave mode caused by negative dynamic effective mass density and impedance methods are utilized to interpret the physical phenomenon of honeycomb acoustic metamaterials at resonance. The honeycomb metamaterials can extraordinarily improve low-frequency sound transmission loss below the first resonant frequency of the membrane. The property of the membrane, the tension of the membrane and the numbers of attached membranes can impact the sound transmission loss, which are observed by numerical simulations and validated by experiments. The sandwich panel which incorporates the honeycomb metamateiral as

  6. Porous Sandwiched Graphene/Silicon Anodes for Lithium Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Liangming; Hou, Zhongyu; Wei, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • In situ hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane within the confined galleries region of graphite oxide. • New porous sandwiched graphene/Si nanocomposites were prepared by magnesium thermal reduction. • The Si nanostructure was compactly sandwiched between two neighboring graphenes. • The Si/graphene anodes deliver large reversible capacity with excellent cycling stability. - Abstract: Porous sandwiched graphene/Si nanocomposites (PG-Si) are prepared by in situ hydrolysis of tetraethoxysilane within the confined gallery region of graphite oxide, and then magnesium thermal reduction of the intra-gallery SiO 2 to Si nanocrystals. The Si nanostructures are in situ formed within the confined gallery region of graphite, and they are compactly sandwiched between two neighboring graphene sheets. This compactly sandwiched structure affords enhanced electron conductivity, and prevents Si nanoparticles from aggregation. Meanwhile, the free voids between neighboring Si nanocrystals alleviate the volume change of Si during cycling. As a consequence, the resulting PG-Si nanocomposites are high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries which show long cycle life (>500 cycles) and high specific charge capacity (1464 mAh g −1 at a current density of 200 mA/g, 920 mAh g −1 at a current density of 1.68A/g after 500 cycles). The Li + diffusion kinetics in PG-Si is also discussed.

  7. Experimental study of the mechanical behaviour of pin reinforced foam core sandwich materials under shear load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimassi, M A; Brauner, C; Herrmann, A S

    2016-01-01

    Sandwich structures with a lightweight closed cell hard foam core have the potential to be used in primary structures of commercial aircrafts. Compared to honeycomb core sandwich, the closed cell foam core sandwich overcomes the issue of moisture take up and makes the manufacturing of low priced and highly integrated structures possible. However, lightweight foam core sandwich materials are prone to failure by localised external loads like low velocity impacts. Invisible cracks could grow in the foam core and threaten the integrity of the structure. In order to enhance the out-of-plane properties of foam core sandwich structures and to improve the damage tolerance (DT) dry fibre bundles are inserted in the foam core. The pins are infused with resin and co-cured with the dry fabric face sheets in an out-of-autoclave process. This study presents the results obtained from shear tests following DIN 53294-standard, on flat sandwich panels. All panels were manufactured with pin-reinforcement manufactured with the Tied Foam Core Technology (TFC) developed by Airbus. The effects of pin material (CFRP and GFRP) and pin volume fraction on the shear properties of the sandwich structure and the crack propagation were investigated and compared to a not pinned reference. It has been concluded that the pin volume fraction has a remarkable effect on the shear properties and damage tolerance of the observed structure. Increasing the pin volume fraction makes the effect of crack redirection more obvious and conserves the integrity of the structure after crack occurrence. (paper)

  8. CASPT2 study of inverse sandwich-type dinuclear Cr(I) and Fe(I) complexes of the dinitrogen molecule: significant differences in spin multiplicity and coordination structure between these two complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaki, Masayuki; Sakaki, Shigeyoshi

    2014-02-20

    Inverse sandwich-type complexes (ISTCs), (μ-N2)[M(AIP)]2 (AIPH = (Z)-1-amino-3-imino-prop-1-ene; M = Cr and Fe), were investigated with the CASPT2 method. In the ISTC of Cr, the ground state takes a singlet spin multiplicity. However, the singlet to nonet spin states are close in energy to each other. The thermal average of effective magnetic moments (μeff) of these spin multiplicities is close to the experimental value. The η(2)-side-on coordination structure of N2 is calculated to be more stable than the η(1)-end-on coordination one. This is because the d-orbital of Cr forms a strong dπ-π* bonding interaction with the π* orbital of N2 in molecular plane. In the ISTC of Fe, on the other hand, the ground state takes a septet spin multiplicity, which agrees well with the experimentally reported μeff value. The η(1)-end-on structure of N2 is more stable than the η(2)-side-on structure. In the η(1)-end-on structure, two doubly occupied d-orbitals of Fe can form two dπ-π* bonding interactions. The negative spin density is found on the bridging N2 ligand in the Fe complex but is not in the Cr complex. All these interesting differences between ISTCs of Cr and Fe are discussed on the basis of the electronic structure and bonding nature.

  9. Calculation of dynamic stresses in viscoelastic sandwich beams using oma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelayo, F.; Aenlle, M. L.; Ismael, G.

    2017-01-01

    The mechanical response of sandwich elements with viscoelastic core is time and temperature dependent. Laminated glass is a sandwich element where the mechanical behavior of the glass layers is usually considered linear-elastic material whereas the core is made of an amorphous thermoplastic which...... data. In simple structures, analytical mode shapes can be used alternatively to the numerical ones. In this paper, the dynamic stresses on the glass layers of a laminated glass beam have estimated using the experimental acceleration responses measured at 7 points of the beam, and the experimental mode...

  10. Sandwich or sweets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Alexandra; Piqueras-Fiszman, Betina

    2016-01-01

    Desire, purchase, and consumption of fast-moving consumer goods often follow actual motivational states instead of habitual preferences. This has led to an increasing interest within health sciences to investigate the causes for irrational eating behaviours among consumers, particularly...... manipulations and methodologies to operationalize these. Our aim with this study is to contribute to this line of research by developing a novel methodology that is based on structurally identical indirect measurement procedures. We measured explicit desire (motivation) and liking (evaluation) of two different......, the evaluative IAT-RF measure did not reflect a clear ‘‘preference” towards any of the two popular products in both groups. This research provides a potentially relevant methodology for consumer studies’ by offering a chance to differentiate between implicit motivational and evaluative concepts within consumer...

  11. Behavior of composite sandwich panels with several core designs at different impact velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiga, Gabriel; Stamin, Ştefan; Dinu, Gabriela

    2018-02-01

    A sandwich composite represents a special class of composite materials that is manufactured by bonding two thin but stiff faces to a low density and low strength but thick core. The distance between the skins given by the core increases the flexural modulus of the panel with a low mass increase, producing an efficient structure able to resist at flexural and buckling loads. The strength of sandwich panels depends on the size of the panel, skins material and number or density of the cells within it. Sandwich composites are used widely in several industries, such as aerospace, automotive, medical and leisure industries. The behavior of composite sandwich panels with different core designs under different impact velocities are analyzed in this paper by numerical simulations performed on sandwich panels. The modeling was done in ANSYS and the analysis was performed through LS-DYNA.

  12. Analysis and Behaviour of Sandwich Panels with Profiled Metal Facings under Transverse Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Budescu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich panels with thin steel facings and polyurethane core combine the load-carrying capacity of metal facings and protection functions with core properties. The core separates the two facings and keeps them in a stable condition, transmits shear between external layers, provides most of the shear rigidity and occasionally makes of useful contribution to the bending stiffness of the sandwich construction as a whole [1]. An experimental program on sandwich panels has been organized to prove that the mechanical properties of core and interface satisfy the load-carrying requirements for structural sandwich panels. The analysis of sandwich panels with deep profiles facings for cladding elements, respectively the roof constructions, has been carried out according to the European design norms [1], [5].

  13. Interfacial crack arrest in sandwich beams subjected to fatigue loading using a novel crack arresting device – Numerical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martakos, G.; Andreasen, J.H.; Berggreen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    A novel crack arresting device is implemented in foam-cored composite sandwich beams and tested using the Sandwich Tear Test (STT) configuration. A finite element model of the setup is developed, and the predictions are correlated with observations and results from a recently conducted experiment...... concept, as well as a design tool that can be used for the implementation of crack arresting devises in engineering applications of sandwich components and structures....

  14. Fracture Characterization of Sandwich Face/Core Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manca, Marcello

    of load transfer between the faces and the core layer is lost, the debonds are considered as primary damage initiators. Under fatigue loading the debonds may evolve into cracks that cause a reduction in structural performance and consequent failure. At present most structural design is based on “life-time...... of sandwich structures is defects that are introduced in the manufacturing process. It is inevitable that areas of the face sheets will not fully adhere to the core resulting in defects known as “debonds”. Debonds can also be induced in-service due to e.g. localised impact loading or overloading. As the means...... such result it is important to devise new experimental and analytical techniques to establish the multi-mode fracture characteristics of sandwich plate structures and accordingly develop methods to inhibit defect propagation. This thesis deals with characterization of fracture between face and core...

  15. Numerical comparison of patch and sandwich piezoelectric transducers for transmitting ultrasonic waves

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Loveday, PW

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available in the waveguide. Piezoelectric patch transducers are frequently employed, by researchers, for exciting waves in beam like structures. Sonar systems frequently make use of resonant transducers, such as sandwich transducers, for acoustic wave generation...

  16. Standard Test Method for Sandwich Corrosion Test

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 This test method defines the procedure for evaluating the corrosivity of aircraft maintenance chemicals, when present between faying surfaces (sandwich) of aluminum alloys commonly used for aircraft structures. This test method is intended to be used in the qualification and approval of compounds employed in aircraft maintenance operations. 1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information. 1.3 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Specific hazard statements appear in Section 9.

  17. Assessment of foam fracture in sandwich beams using thermoelastic stress analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dulieu-Barton, J.M.; Berggreen, Christian; Mettemberg, C.

    2009-01-01

    Thermoelastic Stress Analysis (TSA) has been well established for determining crack-tip parameters in metallic materials. This paper examines its ability to determine accurately the crack-tip parameters for PVC foam used in sandwich structures.......Thermoelastic Stress Analysis (TSA) has been well established for determining crack-tip parameters in metallic materials. This paper examines its ability to determine accurately the crack-tip parameters for PVC foam used in sandwich structures....

  18. Investigation on Wall Panel Sandwiched With Lightweight Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmikandhan, K. N.; Harshavardhan, B. S.; Prabakar, J.; Saibabu, S.

    2017-08-01

    The rapid population growth and urbanization have made a massive demand for the shelter and construction materials. Masonry walls are the major component in the housing sector and it has brittle characteristics and exhibit poor performance against the uncertain loads. Further, the structure requires heavier sections for carrying the dead weight of masonry walls. The present investigations are carried out to develop a simple, lightweight and cost effective technology for replacing the existing wall systems. The lightweight concrete is developed for the construction of sandwich wall panel. The EPS (Expanded Polystyrene) beads of 3 mm diameter size are mixed with concrete and developed a lightweight concrete with a density 9 kN/m3. The lightweight sandwich panel is cast with a lightweight concrete inner core and ferrocement outer skins. This lightweight wall panel is tested for in-plane compression loading. A nonlinear finite element analysis with damaged plasticity model is carried out with both material and geometrical nonlinearities. The experimental and analytical results were compared. The finite element study predicted the ultimate load carrying capacity of the sandwich panel with reasonable accuracy. The present study showed that the lightweight concrete is well suitable for the lightweight sandwich wall panels.

  19. Impact damage in aircraft composite sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordasky, Matthew D.

    An experimental study was conducted to develop an improved understanding of the damage caused by runway debris and environmental threats on aircraft structures. The velocities of impacts for stationary aircraft and aircraft under landing and takeoff speeds was investigated. The impact damage by concrete, asphalt, aluminum, hail and rubber sphere projectiles was explored in detail. Additionally, a kinetic energy and momentum experimental study was performed to look at the nature of the impacts in more detail. A method for recording the contact force history of the impact by an instrumented projectile was developed and tested. The sandwich composite investigated was an IM7-8552 unidirectional prepreg adhered to a NOMEXRTM core with an FM300K film adhesive. Impact experiments were conducted with a gas gun built in-house specifically for delivering projectiles to a sandwich composite target in this specic velocity regime (10--140 m/s). The effect on the impact damage by the projectile was investigated by ultrasonic C-scan, high speed camera and scanning electron and optical microscopy. Ultrasonic C-scans revealed the full extent of damage caused by each projectile, while the high speed camera enabled precise projectile velocity measurements that were used for striking velocity, kinetic energy and momentum analyses. Scanning electron and optical images revealed specific features of the panel failure and manufacturing artifacts within the lamina and honeycomb core. The damage of the panels by different projectiles was found to have a similar damage area for equivalent energy levels, except for rubber which had a damage area that increased greatly with striking velocity. Further investigation was taken by kinetic energy and momentum based comparisons of 19 mm diameter stainless steel sphere projectiles in order to examine the dominating damage mechanisms. The sandwich targets were struck by acrylic, aluminum, alumina, stainless steel and tungsten carbide spheres of the

  20. Advanced Mechanical Testing of Sandwich Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayman, Brian; Berggreen, Christian; Jenstrup, Claus

    2008-01-01

    An advanced digital optical system has been used to measure surface strains on sandwich face and core specimens tested in a project concerned with improved criteria for designing sandwich X-joints. The face sheet specimens were of glass reinforced polyester and were tested in tension. The core sp...

  1. Reversed Cherenkov emission of terahertz waves from an ultrashort laser pulse in a sandwich structure with nonlinear core and left-handed cladding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakunov, M I; Mikhaylovskiy, R V; Bodrov, S B; Luk'yanchuk, B S

    2010-01-18

    We propose a scheme for an experimental verification of the reversed Cherenkov effect in left-handed media. The scheme uses optical-to-terahertz conversion in a planar sandwichlike structure that consists of a nonlinear core cladded with a material that exhibits left-handedness at terahertz frequencies. The focused into a line femtosecond laser pulse propagates in the core and emits Cherenkov wedge of terahertz waves in the cladding. We developed a theory that describes terahertz generation in such a structure and calculated spatial distribution of the generated terahertz field, its energy spectrum, and optical-to-terahertz conversion efficiency. The proposed structure can be a useful tool for characterization of the electromagnetic properties of metamaterials in the terahertz frequency range.

  2. Synthesis, molecular and electronic structure of a stacked half-sandwich dititanium complex incorporating a cyclic p-faced bridging ligand

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gyepes, R.; Pinkas, Jiří; Císařová, I.; Kubišta, Jiří; Horáček, Michal; Mach, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 96 (2016), s. 94149-94159 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/12/2368 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : atoms * carbon * electronic structure Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.108, year: 2016

  3. A materials selection procedure for sandwiched beams via parametric optimization with applications in automotive industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, Mohamed F.; Hamza, Karim T.; Farag, Mahmoud M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Sandwich panels optimization model. • Sandwich panels design procedure. • Study of sandwich panels for automotive vehicle flooring. • Study of sandwich panels for truck cabin exterior. - Abstract: The future of automotive industry faces many challenges in meeting increasingly strict restrictions on emissions, energy usage and recyclability of components alongside the need to maintain cost competiveness. Weight reduction through innovative design of components and proper material selection can have profound impact towards attaining such goals since most of the lifecycle energy usage occurs during the operation phase of a vehicle. In electric and hybrid vehicles, weight reduction has another important effect of extending the electric mode driving range between stops or gasoline mode. This paper adopts parametric models for design optimization and material selection of sandwich panels with the objective of weight and cost minimization subject to structural integrity constraints such as strength, stiffness and buckling resistance. The proposed design procedure employs a pre-compiled library of candidate sandwich panel material combinations, for which optimization of the layered thicknesses is conducted and the best one is reported. Example demonstration studies from the automotive industry are presented for the replacement of Aluminum and Steel panels with polypropylene-filled sandwich panel alternatives

  4. Sandwich-panels based on penopolisocyanurate and mineral wool

    OpenAIRE

    Burtzeva M.; Mednikova E.

    2017-01-01

    Sandwich panel is a self-supporting structure consisting of two steel zinc-coated profiles with a layer of heat retainer. It is used as roofing and walling material. Widely is used in industrial construction, shopping centres, sports complexes, chilling and freezing chambers, storage buildings and quickly erectable housing. The classical basis of heat-insulating layer (core panel) products is used mineral wool insulation materials. This material is resistant to deformation, non-flammable,...

  5. Synthesis, Molecular Structure and Cytotoxicity of Molecular Materials Based on Water Soluble Half-Sandwich Rh(III) and Ir(III) Tetranuclear Metalla-Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Gajendra; Murray, Benjamin S.; Dyson, Paul J.; Therrien, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    The neutral dinuclear complexes [(η5-C5Me5)2Rh2(μ-dhnq)Cl2] (1) and [(η5-C5Me5)2Ir2(μ-dhnq)Cl2] (2) (dhnqH2 = 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone) were obtained from the reaction of [(η5-C5Me5)M(μ-Cl)Cl]2 (M = Rh, Ir) with dhnqH2 in the presence of CH3COONa. Treatment of 1 or 2 in methanol with linear ditopic ligands L (L = pyrazine, 4,4′-bipyridine or 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene), in the presence of AgCF3SO3, affords the corresponding tetranuclear metalla-rectangles [(η5-C5Me5)4M4(μ-dhnq)2(μ-L)2]4+ (L = pyrazine, M = Rh, 3; M = Ir, 4; L = 4,4′-bipyridine, M = Rh, 5; M = Ir, 6; L = 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethylene, M = Rh, 7; M = Ir, 8). All complexes were isolated as their triflate salts and were fully characterized by infrared, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and some representative complexes by single-crystal X-ray structure analysis. The X-ray structures of 3, 5 and 6 confirm the formation of the tetranuclear metalla-cycles, and suggest that complexes 5 and 6 possess a cavity of sufficient size to encapsulate small guest molecules. In addition, the antiproliferative activity of the metalla-cycles 3–8 was evaluated against the human ovarian A2780 (cisplatin sensitive) and A2780cisR (cisplatin resistant) cancer cell lines and on non-tumorigenic human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells. All cationic tetranuclear metalla-rectangles were found to be highly cytotoxic, with IC50 values in the low micromolar range. PMID:28788394

  6. Synthesis, Molecular Structure and Cytotoxicity of Molecular Materials Based on Water Soluble Half-Sandwich Rh(III and Ir(III Tetranuclear Metalla-Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajendra Gupta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The neutral dinuclear complexes [(η5-C5Me52Rh2(μ-dhnqCl2] (1 and [(η5-C5Me52Ir2(μ-dhnqCl2] (2 (dhnqH2 = 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone were obtained from the reaction of [(η5-C5Me5M(μ-ClCl]2 (M = Rh, Ir with dhnqH2 in the presence of CH3COONa. Treatment of 1 or 2 in methanol with linear ditopic ligands L (L = pyrazine, 4,4′-bipyridine or 1,2-bis(4-pyridylethylene, in the presence of AgCF3SO3, affords the corresponding tetranuclear metalla-rectangles [(η5-C5Me54M4(μ-dhnq2(μ-L2]4+ (L = pyrazine, M = Rh, 3; M = Ir, 4; L = 4,4′-bipyridine, M = Rh, 5; M = Ir, 6; L = 1,2-bis(4-pyridylethylene, M = Rh, 7; M = Ir, 8. All complexes were isolated as their triflate salts and were fully characterized by infrared, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, and some representative complexes by single-crystal X-ray structure analysis. The X-ray structures of 3, 5 and 6 confirm the formation of the tetranuclear metalla-cycles, and suggest that complexes 5 and 6 possess a cavity of sufficient size to encapsulate small guest molecules. In addition, the antiproliferative activity of the metalla-cycles 3–8 was evaluated against the human ovarian A2780 (cisplatin sensitive and A2780cisR (cisplatin resistant cancer cell lines and on non-tumorigenic human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells. All cationic tetranuclear metalla-rectangles were found to be highly cytotoxic, with IC50 values in the low micromolar range.

  7. Sandwich panels with high performance concrete thin plates at elevated temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulin, Thomas; Hodicky, Kamil; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2015-01-01

    concerned HMT modelling and elastic stress analysis with nonlinear temperature effects of a full size loaded sandwich wall, qualitatively assessing the location of critically stressed zones. Modelling output was compared to published experimental results. The model reproduced experimental temperature...... recordings satisfactorily, except phase changes of water at low heating rates. It was suggested that the function governing moisture evolution with temperature and pressure should be updated for HPC. Pore pressure was found critical for sandwich structures due their higher temperatures. Adding polypropylene...

  8. Modeling of Sensor Placement Strategy for Shape Sensing and Structural Health Monitoring of a Wing-Shaped Sandwich Panel Using Inverse Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Kefal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effect of sensor density and alignment for three-dimensional shape sensing of an airplane-wing-shaped thick panel subjected to three different loading conditions, i.e., bending, torsion, and membrane loads. For shape sensing analysis of the panel, the Inverse Finite Element Method (iFEM was used together with the Refined Zigzag Theory (RZT, in order to enable accurate predictions for transverse deflection and through-the-thickness variation of interfacial displacements. In this study, the iFEM-RZT algorithm is implemented by utilizing a novel three-node C°-continuous inverse-shell element, known as i3-RZT. The discrete strain data is generated numerically through performing a high-fidelity finite element analysis on the wing-shaped panel. This numerical strain data represents experimental strain readings obtained from surface patched strain gauges or embedded fiber Bragg grating (FBG sensors. Three different sensor placement configurations with varying density and alignment of strain data were examined and their corresponding displacement contours were compared with those of reference solutions. The results indicate that a sparse distribution of FBG sensors (uniaxial strain measurements, aligned in only the longitudinal direction, is sufficient for predicting accurate full-field membrane and bending responses (deformed shapes of the panel, including a true zigzag representation of interfacial displacements. On the other hand, a sparse deployment of strain rosettes (triaxial strain measurements is essentially enough to produce torsion shapes that are as accurate as those of predicted by a dense sensor placement configuration. Hence, the potential applicability and practical aspects of i3-RZT/iFEM methodology is proven for three-dimensional shape-sensing of future aerospace structures.

  9. The Response of Clamped Shallow Sandwich Arches with Metallic Foam Cores to Projectile Impact Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Fan

    Full Text Available Abstract The dynamic response and energy absorption capabilities of clamped shallow sandwich arches with aluminum foam core were numerically investigated by impacting the arches at mid-span with metallic foam projectiles. The typical deformation modes, deflection response, and core compression of sandwich arches obtained from the tests were used to validate the computation model. The resistance to impact loading was quantified by the permanent transverse deflection at mid-span of the arches as a function of projectile momentum. The sandwich arches have a higher shock resistance than the monolithic arches of equal mass, and shock resistance could be significantly enhanced by optimizing geometrical configurations. Meanwhile, decreasing the face-sheet thickness and curvature radius could enhance the energy absorption capability of the sandwich arches. Finite element calculations indicated that the ratio of loading time to structural response time ranged from 0.1 to 0.4. The projectile momentum, which was solely used to quantify the structural response of sandwich arches, was insufficient. These findings could provide guidance in conducting further theoretical studies and producing the optimal design of metallic sandwich structures subjected to impact loading.

  10. Finite element simulation of low velocity impact loading on a sandwich composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwas M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich structure offer more advantage in bringing flexural stiffness and energy absorption capabilities in the application of automobile and aerospace components. This paper presents comparison study and analysis of two types of composite sandwich structures, one having Jute Epoxy skins with rubber core and the other having Glass Epoxy skins with rubber core subjected to low velocity normal impact loading. The behaviour of sandwich structure with various parameters such as energy absorption, peak load developed, deformation and von Mises stress and strain, are analyzed using commercially available analysis software. The results confirm that sandwich composite with jute epoxy skin absorbs approximately 20% more energy than glass epoxy skin. The contact force developed in jute epoxy skin is approximately 2.3 times less when compared to glass epoxy skin. von Mises stress developed is less in case of jute epoxy. The sandwich with jute epoxy skin deforms approximately 1.6 times more than that of same geometry of sandwich with glass epoxy skin. Thus exhibiting its elastic nature and making it potential candidate for low velocity impact application.

  11. Theoretical prediction on corrugated sandwich panels under bending loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Chengfu; Hou, Shujuan

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, an aluminum corrugated sandwich panel with triangular core under bending loads was investigated. Firstly, the equivalent material parameters of the triangular corrugated core layer, which could be considered as an orthotropic panel, were obtained by using Castigliano's theorem and equivalent homogeneous model. Secondly, contributions of the corrugated core layer and two face panels were both considered to compute the equivalent material parameters of the whole structure through the classical lamination theory, and these equivalent material parameters were compared with finite element analysis solutions. Then, based on the Mindlin orthotropic plate theory, this study obtain the closed-form solutions of the displacement for a corrugated sandwich panel under bending loads in specified boundary conditions, and parameters study and comparison by the finite element method were executed simultaneously.

  12. Experimental formability analysis of bondal sandwich sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kami, Abdolvahed; Banabic, Dorel

    2018-05-01

    Metal/polymer/metal sandwich sheets have recently attracted the interests of industries like automotive industry. These sandwich sheets have superior properties over single-layer metallic sheets including good sound and vibration damping and light weight. However, the formability of these sandwich sheets should be enhanced which requires more research. In this paper, the formability of Bondal sheet (DC06/viscoelastic polymer/DC06 sandwich sheet) was studied through different types of experiments. The mechanical properties of Bondal were determined by uniaxial tensile tests. Hemispherical punch stretching and hydraulic bulge tests were carried out to determine the forming limit diagram (FLD) of Bondal. Furthermore, cylindrical and square cup drawing tests were performed in dry and oil lubricated conditions. These tests were conducted at different blank holding forces (BHFs). An interesting observation about Bondal sheet deep drawing was obtaining of higher drawing depths at dry condition in comparison with oil-lubricated condition.

  13. Natural fabric sandwich laminate composites: development and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3Department of Production Technology, MIT Campus, Anna University, Chennai 600044, India. MS received ... In this work, eco-friendly natural fabric sandwich laminate (NFSL) composites are formulated using ... and eco-friendly quality [22].

  14. Adhesion aspects of polyurethane foam sandwich panels.

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Simon L.

    2016-01-01

    Sandwich panels, polyurethane foam sandwiched between two sheets of steel, form the walls and roofs in the construction of buildings. ArcelorMittal is a manufacturer of the steel as well as these finished panels. For this project they combined with a supplier of the polyurethane foams, Huntsman Polyurethanes, to joint-fund a research project investigating the fundamental mechanisms of adhesion, as well as the causes of failures in the product which manifests primarily in two different ways...

  15. 3D Energy Absorption Diagram Construction of Paper Honeycomb Sandwich Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper honeycomb sandwich panel is an environment-sensitive material. Its cushioning property is closely related to its structural factors, the temperature and humidity, random shocks, and vibration events in the logistics environment. In order to visually characterize the cushioning property of paper honeycomb sandwich panel in different logistics conditions, the energy absorption equation of per unit volume of paper honeycomb sandwich panel was constructed by piecewise function. The three-dimensional (3D energy absorption diagram of paper honeycomb sandwich panel was constructed by connecting the inflexion of energy absorption curve. It takes into account the temperature, humidity, strain rate, and characteristics of the honeycomb structure. On the one hand, this diagram breaks through the limitation of the static compression curve of paper honeycomb sandwich panel, which depends on the test specimen and is applicable only to the standard condition. On the other hand, it breaks through the limitation of the conventional 2D energy absorption diagram which has less information. Elastic modulus was used to normalize the plateau stress and energy absorption per unit volume. This makes the 3D energy absorption diagram universal for different material sandwich panels. It provides a new theoretical basis for packaging optimized design.

  16. Impact properties of aluminium - glass fiber reinforced plastics sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathivanan Periasamy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium - glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP sandwich panels are hybrid laminates consisting of GFRP bonded with thin aluminum sheets on either side. Such sandwich materials are increasingly used in airplane and automobile structures. Laminates with varying aluminium thickness fractions, fiber volume fractions and orientation in the layers of GFRP were fabricated by hand lay up method and evaluated for their impact performance by conducting drop weight tests under low velocity impacts. The impact energy required for initiating a crack in the outer aluminium layer as well as the energy required for perforation was recorded. The impact load-time history was also recorded to understand the failure behavior. The damage depth and the damage area were measured to evaluate the impact resistance. Optical photography and scanning electron micrographs were taken to visualize the crack and the damage zone. The bidirectional cross-ply hybrid laminate (CPHL has been found to exhibit better impact performance and damage resistance than the unidirectional hybrid laminate (UDHL. Increase in aluminium thickness fraction (Al tf and fiber volume fraction (Vf resulted in an increase in the impact energy required for cracking and perforation. On an overall basis, the sandwich panels exhibited better impact performance than the monolithic aluminium.

  17. Photocatalytic perfermance of sandwich-like BiVO{sub 4} sheets by microwave assisted synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Suqin, E-mail: liusuqin888@126.com [Department of Chemical engineering and Food Science, Hubei University of arts and science, Xiangyang 441053 (China); Hubei Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Optoelectronic Materials and Devices, Xiangyang 441053 (China); Tang, Huiling; Zhou, Huan [Department of Chemical engineering and Food Science, Hubei University of arts and science, Xiangyang 441053 (China); Dai, Gaopeng, E-mail: dgp2000@126.com [Department of Chemical engineering and Food Science, Hubei University of arts and science, Xiangyang 441053 (China); Wang, Wanqiang [Department of Chemical engineering and Food Science, Hubei University of arts and science, Xiangyang 441053 (China)

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Sandwich-like BiVO{sub 4} sheets were successfully synthesized via a facile microwave-assisted method. The as-prepared samples exhibit a high activity for the degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation. - Highlights: • Sandwich-like BiVO{sub 4} sheets were synthesized by a facile microwave-assisted method. • The presence of PEG-10000 plays a critical role in the formation of BiVO{sub 4} sheets. • Ostwald ripening is the primary driving force for the formation of sandwich-like BiVO{sub 4}. • The sandwich-like BiVO{sub 4} sheets exhibit a high visible-light photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Sandwich-like BiVO{sub 4} sheets were successfully synthesized in an aqueous solution containing bismuth nitrate, ammonium metavanadate and polyethylene glycol with a molecular weight of 10,000 (PEG-10000) using a facile microwave-assisted method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results show that the presence of PEG-10000 plays a critical role in the formation of BiVO{sub 4} sheets, and Ostwald ripening is the primary driving force for the formation of sandwich-like structures. The sandwich-like BiVO{sub 4} sheets exhibit a high activity for the degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation (λ ≥ 420 nm). The enhancement of photocatalytic activity of sandwich-like BiVO{sub 4} sheets can be attributed to its large surface area over the irregular BiVO{sub 4} particles.

  18. Photocatalytic perfermance of sandwich-like BiVO_4 sheets by microwave assisted synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Suqin; Tang, Huiling; Zhou, Huan; Dai, Gaopeng; Wang, Wanqiang

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Sandwich-like BiVO_4 sheets were successfully synthesized via a facile microwave-assisted method. The as-prepared samples exhibit a high activity for the degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation. - Highlights: • Sandwich-like BiVO_4 sheets were synthesized by a facile microwave-assisted method. • The presence of PEG-10000 plays a critical role in the formation of BiVO_4 sheets. • Ostwald ripening is the primary driving force for the formation of sandwich-like BiVO_4. • The sandwich-like BiVO_4 sheets exhibit a high visible-light photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Sandwich-like BiVO_4 sheets were successfully synthesized in an aqueous solution containing bismuth nitrate, ammonium metavanadate and polyethylene glycol with a molecular weight of 10,000 (PEG-10000) using a facile microwave-assisted method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, N_2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The results show that the presence of PEG-10000 plays a critical role in the formation of BiVO_4 sheets, and Ostwald ripening is the primary driving force for the formation of sandwich-like structures. The sandwich-like BiVO_4 sheets exhibit a high activity for the degradation of methyl orange under visible light irradiation (λ ≥ 420 nm). The enhancement of photocatalytic activity of sandwich-like BiVO_4 sheets can be attributed to its large surface area over the irregular BiVO_4 particles.

  19. Study of interfacial reactions in Sn-3.5Ag-3.0Bi and Sn-8.0Zn-3.0Bi sandwich structure solder joint with Ni(P)/Cu metallization on Cu substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Peng; Andersson, Cristina; Wei, Xicheng; Cheng, Zhaonian; Shangguan, Dongkai; Liu, Johan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the coupling effect in Sn-3.5Ag-3.0Bi and Sn-8.0Zn-3.0Bi solder joint with sandwich structure by long time reflow soldering was studied. It was found that the interfacial compound at the Cu substrate was binary Cu-Sn compound in Sn-Ag-Bi solder joint and Cu 5 Zn 8 phase in Sn-Zn-Bi solder joint. The thickness of the Cu-Zn compound layer formed at the Cu substrate was greater than or equal to that of Cu-Sn compound layer, although the reflow soldering temperature of Sn-Zn-Bi (240 o C) was lower than that of Sn-Ag-Bi (250 o C). The stable Cu-Zn compound was the absolute preferential phase in the interfacial layer between Sn-Zn-Bi and the Cu substrate. The ternary (Cu, Ni) 6 Sn 5 compound was formed at the Sn-Ag-Bi/Ni(P)-Cu metallization interface, and a complex alloy Sn-Ni-Cu-Zn was formed at the Sn-Zn-Bi/Ni(P)-Cu metallization interface. It was noted that Cu atoms could diffuse from the Cu substrate through the solder matrix to the Ni(P)-Cu metallization within 1 min reflow soldering time for both solder systems, indicating that just 30 s was long enough for Cu to go through 250 μm diffusion length in the Sn-Ag-Bi solder joint at 250 o C. The coupling effect between Ni(P)/Cu metallization and Cu substrate was confirmed as the type of IMCs at Ni(P) layer had been changed from Ni-Sn system to Cu-Sn system apparently by the diffusion effect of Cu atoms. The (Cu, Ni) 6 Sn 5 layer at the Ni(P)/Cu metallization grew significantly and its thickness was even greater than that of the Cu-Sn compound on the opposite side, however the growth of the complex alloy including Sn, Ni, Cu and Zn on the Ni(P)/Cu metallization was suppressed

  20. Analysis of syntactic foam – GFRP sandwich composites for flexural loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Daniel; Velmurugan, R.; Jayaganthan, R.; Gupta, N. K.; Manzhirov, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    The use of glass microballoon (GMB) — epoxy syntactic foams as a sandwich core material is studied. The skins and foam core are fabricated and joined instantaneously unlike the procedures followed in the previous studies. Each successive layer of the sandwich is fabricated when the previous layer is in a semi-gelled state. These sandwich samples are characterized for their properties under flexural loading. The failure modes and mechanical properties are carefully investigated. The change in fabrication technique results in a significant increase in the load bearing pattern of the sandwich. In earlier studies, debonding was found to occur prematurely since the bonding between the skins and core is the weakest plane. Using the current technique, core cracking occurs first, followed by skin fiber breaking and debonding happens at the end. This ensures that the load carrying phase of the structure is extended considerably. The sandwich is also analytically studied using Reddy’s higher order shear deformation theory. A higher order theory is selected as the sandwich can no longer be considered as a thin beam and thus shear effects also need to be considered in addition to bending effects.

  1. Analysis of Stainless Steel Sandwich Panels with a Metal Foam Care for Lightweight Fan Blade Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, James B.; Ghosn, Louis J.; Lerch, Bradley A.; Raj, Sai V.; Holland, Frederic A., Jr.; Hebsur, Mohan G.

    2004-01-01

    The quest for cheap, low density and high performance materials in the design of aircraft and rotorcraft engine fan and propeller blades poses immense challenges to the materials and structural design engineers. Traditionally, these components have been fabricated using expensive materials such as light weight titanium alloys, polymeric composite materials and carbon-carbon composites. The present study investigates the use of P sandwich foam fan blade made up of solid face sheets and a metal foam core. The face sheets and the metal foam core material were an aerospace grade precipitation hardened 17-4 PH stainless steel with high strength and high toughness. The stiffness of the sandwich structure is increased by separating the two face sheets by a foam core. The resulting structure possesses a high stiffness while being lighter than a similar solid construction. Since the face sheets carry the applied bending loads, the sandwich architecture is a viable engineering concept. The material properties of 17-4 PH metal foam are reviewed briefly to describe the characteristics of the sandwich structure for a fan blade application. A vibration analysis for natural frequencies and P detailed stress analysis on the 17-4 PH sandwich foam blade design for different combinations of skin thickness and core volume %re presented with a comparison to a solid titanium blade.

  2. Density functional study of isoguanine tetrad and pentad sandwich complexes with alkali metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael; Steinke, Thomas; Sühnel, Jürgen

    2007-02-01

    Isoguanine tetraplexes and pentaplexes contain two or more stacked polyads with intercalating metal ions. We report here the results of a density functional study of sandwiched isoguanine tetrad and pentad complexes consisting of two polyads with Na(+), K(+) and Rb(+) ions at the B3LYP level. In comparison to single polyad metal ion complexes, there is a trend towards increased non-planarity of the polyads in the sandwich complexes. In general, the pentad sandwiches have relatively planar polyad structures, whereas the tetrad complexes contain highly non-planar polyad building blocks. As in other sandwich complexes and in metal ion complexes with single polyads, the metal ion-base interaction energy plays an essential role. In iG sandwich structures, this interaction energy is slightly larger than in the corresponding guanine sandwich complexes. Because the base-base interaction energy is even more increased in passing from guanine to isoguanine, the isoguanine sandwiches are thus far the only examples where the base-base interaction energy is larger than the base-metal ion interaction energy. Stacking interactions have been studied in smaller models consisting of two bases, retaining the geometry from the complete complex structures. From the data obtained at the B3LYP and BH&H levels and with Møller-Plesset perturbation theory, one can conclude that the B3LYP method overestimates the repulsion in stacked base dimers. For the complexes studied in this work, this is only of minor importance because the direct inter-tetrad or inter-pentad interaction is supplemented by a strong metal ion-base interaction. Using a microsolvation model, the metal ion preference K(+) approximately Rb(+) > Na(+) is found for tetrad complexes. On the other hand, for pentads the ordering is Rb(+) > K(+) > Na(+). In the latter case experimental data are available that agree with this prediction.

  3. The comparison of numerical models of a sandwich panel in the context of the core deformations at the supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozorska, Jolanta; Pozorski, Zbigniew

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the problem of static structural behavior of sandwich panels at the supports. The panels have a soft core and correspond to typical structures applied in civil engineering. To analyze the problem, five different 3-D numerical models were created. The results were compared in the context of core compression and stress redistribution. The numerical solutions verify methods of evaluating the capacity of the sandwich panel that are known from the literature.

  4. Precast concrete sandwich panels subjected to impact loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Matthew W.

    Precast concrete sandwich panels are a relatively new product in the construction industry. The design of these panels incorporates properties that allow for great resilience against temperature fluctuation as well as the very rapid and precise construction of facilities. The concrete sandwich panels investigated in this study represent the second generation of an ongoing research and development project. This second generation of panels have been engineered to construct midsized commercial buildings up to three stories in height as well as residential dwellings. The panels consist of a double-tee structural wythe, a foam core and a fascia wythe, joined by shear connectors. Structures constructed from these panels may be subjected to extreme loading including the effects of seismic and blast loading in addition to wind. The aim of this work was to investigate the behaviour of this particular sandwich panel when subjected to structural impact events. The experimental program consisted of fourteen concrete sandwich panels, five of which were considered full-sized specimens (2700 mm X 1200mm X 270 mm) and nine half-sized specimens (2700mm X 600mm X 270 mm) The panels were subjected to impact loads from a pendulum impact hammer where the total energy applied to the panels was varied by changing the mass of the hammer. The applied loads, displacements, accelerations, and strains at the mid-span of the panel as well as the reaction point forces were monitored during the impact. The behaviour of the panels was determined primarily from the experimental results. The applied loads at low energy levels that caused little to no residual deflection as well as the applied loads at high energy levels that represent catastrophic events and thus caused immediate failure were determined from an impact on the structural and the fascia wythes. Applied loads at intermediate energy levels representing extreme events were also used to determine whether or not the panels could withstand

  5. Buckling Analysis of Edge Cracked Sandwich Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Mohammed Hussein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents mainly the buckling load of sandwich plates with or without crack for different cases. The buckling loads are analyzed experimentally and numerically by using ANSYS 15. The experimental investigation was to fabricate the cracked sandwich plate from stainless steel and PVC to find mechanical properties of stainless steel and PVC such as young modulus. The buckling load for different aspect ratio, crack length, cracked location and plate without crack found. The experimental results were compared with that found from ANSYS program. Present of crack is decreased the buckling load and that depends on crack size, crack location and aspect ratio.

  6. AA, sandwich line with magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    The magnetic horn, focusing the antiprotons emanating from the target, was affixed to a sandwich line through which the 150 kA pulses were supplied. Expecting to have to change from time to time the fragile horn (inner conductor only 0.7 mm thick), the assembly was designed for quick exchange. At the lower end of the sandwich line we see the connectors for the high-current cables, at the upper end the magnet horn. It has just been lifted from the V-supports which held it aligned downstream of the target. Continue with 8010293.

  7. Long sandwich modules for photon veto detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yershov, N.; Khabibullin, M.; Kudenko, Yu.; Littenberg, L.; Mayatski, V.; Mineev, O.

    2005-01-01

    Long lead-scintillator sandwich modules developed for the BNL experiment KOPIO are described. The individual 4 m long module consists of 15 layers of 7 mm thick extruded scintillator and 15 layers of 1 mm lead absorber. Readout is implemented via WLS fibers glued into grooves in a scintillator with 7 mm spacing and viewed from both ends by the phototubes. Time resolution of 300 ps for cosmic MIPs was obtained. Light output stability monitored for 2 years shows no degradation beyond the measurement errors. A 4 m long C-bent sandwich module was also manufactured and tested

  8. Magnetic-property changes in epitaxial metal-film sandwiches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, M.B.

    1982-08-01

    Epitaxial metal-film sandwiches (EMFS) containing Pd or Cr, have been prepared between single-crystal Ag or Au. The modified Pd/Cr show major changes in physical properties. Pd has a stretched lattice parameter in Au-Pd-Au, which combines with a tetragonal distortion to cause exchange enhancements up to 28,000 and spin-fluctuation temperatures of 1 to 10 K. In Au-Cr-Au, Cr takes up the fcc structure, leading to superconductivity due to a high N(E/sub F/). These results are contrasted to data for Ag-Pd-Ag and Ag-Cr-Ag EMFS

  9. A three-dimensional carbon nanotube/graphene sandwich and its application as electrode in supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Zhuangjun; Yan, Jun; Wei, Tong; Feng, Jing; Zhang, Milin [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China); Zhi, Linjie [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of China, Beijing (China); Zhang, Qiang; Qian, Weizhong; Wei, Fei [Beijing Key Laboratory of Green Chemical Reaction Engineering and Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2010-09-01

    Three-dimensional carbon nanotube/graphene sandwich structures with CNT pillars grown in between the graphene layers have been developed by chemical vapor deposition. The special structure endows the high-rate transportation of electrolyte ions and electrons throughout the electrode matrix, resulting in excellent electrochemical performance of this hybrid material. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Flexural wave attenuation in a sandwich beam with viscoelastic periodic cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhiwei; Sheng, Meiping; Pan, Jie

    2017-07-01

    The flexural-wave attenuation performance of traditional constraint-layer damping in a sandwich beam is improved by using periodic constrained-layer damping (PCLD), where the monolithic viscoelastic core is replaced with two periodically alternating viscoelastic cores. Closed-form solutions of the wave propagation constants of the infinite periodic sandwich beam and the forced response of the corresponding finite sandwich structure are theoretically derived, providing computational support on the analysis of attenuation characteristics. In a sandwich beam with PCLD, the flexural waves can be attenuated by both Bragg scattering effect and damping effect, where the attenuation level is mainly dominated by Bragg scattering in the band-gaps and by damping in the pass-bands. Affected by these two effects, when the parameters of periodic cores are properly selected, a sandwich beam with PCLD can effectively reduce vibrations of much lower frequencies than that with traditional constrained-layer damping. The effects of the parameters of viscoelastic periodic cores on band-gap properties are also discussed, showing that the average attenuation in the desired frequency band can be maximized by tuning the length ratio and core thickness to proper values. The research in this paper could possibly provide useful information for the researches and engineers to design damping structures.

  11. Evaluation of the Impact Resistance of Various Composite Sandwich Beams by Vibration Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Shahdin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact resistance of different types of composite sandwich beams is evaluated by studying vibration response changes (natural frequency and damping ratio. This experimental works will help aerospace structural engineer in assess structural integrity using classification of impact resistance of various composite sandwich beams (entangled carbon and glass fibers, honeycomb and foam cores. Low velocity impacts are done below the barely visible impact damage (BVID limit in order to detect damage by vibration testing that is hardly visible on the surface. Experimental tests are done using both burst random and sine dwell testing in order to have a better confidence level on the extracted modal parameters. Results show that the entangled sandwich beams have a better resistance against impact as compared to classical core materials.

  12. Radiant heating tests of several liquid metal heat-pipe sandwich panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarda, C.J.; Basiulis, A.

    1983-08-01

    Integral heat pipe sandwich panels, which synergistically combine the thermal efficiency of heat pipes and the structural efficiency of honeycomb sandwich construction, were conceived as a means of alleviating thermal stress problems in the Langley Scramjet Engine. Test panels which utilized two different wickable honeycomb cores, facesheets with screen mesh sintered to the internal surfaces, and a liquid metal working fluid (either sodium or potassium) were tested by radiant heating at various heat load levels. The heat pipe panels reduced maximum temperature differences by 31 percent with sodium working fluid and 45 percent with potassium working fluid. Results indicate that a heat pipe sandwich panel is a potential, simple solution to the engine thermal stress problem. Other interesting applications of the concept include: cold plates for electronic component and circuit card cooling, radiators for large space platforms, low distortion large area structures (e.g., space antennas) and laser mirrors

  13. Compressive and bending behavior of sandwich panels with Octet truss core fabricated from wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Ji Hyun; Nah, Seong Jun; Kang, Ki Ju; Koo, Man Hoe

    2005-01-01

    Ultra light metal structures have been studied for several years because of their superior specific stiffness, strength and potential of multi functions. Many studies have been focused on how to manufacture ultra light metal structures and optimize them. In this study, we introduced a new idea to make sandwich panels having Octet truss cores. Wires bent in a shape of triangular wave were assembled to construct an Octet truss core and it was bonded with two face sheets to be a sandwich panel. The bending and compressive strength and stiffness were estimated through elementary mechanics for the sandwich specimens with two kinds of face sheets and the results were compared with the ones measured by experiments. Some aspects of assembling and mechanical behavior were discussed compared with Kagome core fabricated from wire, which had been introduced in the authors' previous work

  14. Compressive properties of sandwiches with functionally graded

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The compressive behaviour of a new class of sandwich composite made up of jute fiber reinforced epoxy skins and piece-wise linear fly ash reinforced functionally graded (FG) rubber core is investigated in flat-wise mode. FG samples are prepared using conventional casting technique. Presence of gradation is quantified ...

  15. AA, sandwich line with magnetic horn

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    Continuation from 8010293: Finally, the sandwich line with the horn is placed on the ground, for the horn to be inspected and, if needed, exchanged for a new one. The whole procedure was trained with several members of the AA team, for quick and safe handling, and to share the radiation dose amongst them.

  16. Energy absorption capabilities of composite sandwich panels under blast loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar Ray, Tirtha

    As blast threats on military and civilian structures continue to be a significant concern, there remains a need for improved design strategies to increase blast resistance capabilities. The approach to blast resistance proposed here is focused on dissipating the high levels of pressure induced during a blast through maximizing the potential for energy absorption of composite sandwich panels, which are a competitive structural member type due to the inherent energy absorption capabilities of fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites. Furthermore, the middle core in the sandwich panels can be designed as a sacrificial layer allowing for a significant amount of deformation or progressive failure to maximize the potential for energy absorption. The research here is aimed at the optimization of composite sandwich panels for blast mitigation via energy absorption mechanisms. The energy absorption mechanisms considered include absorbed strain energy due to inelastic deformation as well as energy dissipation through progressive failure of the core of the sandwich panels. The methods employed in the research consist of a combination of experimentally-validated finite element analysis (FEA) and the derivation and use of a simplified analytical model. The key components of the scope of work then includes: establishment of quantified energy absorption criteria, validation of the selected FE modeling techniques, development of the simplified analytical model, investigation of influential core architectures and geometric parameters, and investigation of influential material properties. For the parameters that are identified as being most-influential, recommended values for these parameters are suggested in conceptual terms that are conducive to designing composite sandwich panels for various blast threats. Based on reviewing the energy response characteristic of the panel under blast loading, a non-dimensional parameter AET/ ET (absorbed energy, AET, normalized by total energy

  17. 3D FDM production and mechanical behavior of polymeric sandwich specimens embedding classical and honeycomb cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brischetto, Salvatore; Ferro, Carlo Giovanni; Torre, Roberto; Maggiore, Paolo

    2018-04-01

    Desktop 3D FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling) printers are usually employed for the production of nonstructural objects. In recent years, the present authors tried to use this technology also to produce structural elements employed in the construction of small UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles). Mechanical stresses are not excessive for small multirotor UAVs. Therefore, the FDM technique combined with polymers, such as the ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) and the PLA(Poly Lactic Acid), can be successfully employed to produce structural components. The present new work is devoted to the production and preliminary structural analysis of sandwich configurations. These new lamination schemes could lead to an important weight reduction without significant decreases of mechanical properties. Therefore, it could be possible, for the designed application (e.g., a multifunctional small UAV produced via FDM), to have stiffener and lighter structures easy to be manufactured with a low-cost 3D printer. The new sandwich specimens here proposed are PLA sandwich specimens embedding a PLA honeycomb core produced by means of the same extruder, multilayered specimens with ABS external layers and an internal homogeneous PLA core using different extruders for the two materials, sandwich specimens with external ABS skins and an internal PLA honeycomb core using different extruders for the two materials, and sandwich specimens where two different extruders have been employed for PLA material used for skins and for the internal honeycomb core. For all the proposed configurations, a detailed description of the production activity is given.Moreover, several preliminary results about three-point bending tests, different mechanical behaviors and relative delamination problems for each sandwich configuration will be discussed in depth.

  18. Vibration and bending analyses of magneto-electro-thermo-elastic sandwich microplates resting on viscoelastic foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefi, Mohammad; Zenkour, Ashraf M.

    2017-08-01

    Magneto-electro-thermo-mechanical bending and free vibration analysis of a sandwich microplate using strain gradient theory is expressed in this paper. The sandwich plate is made of a core and two integrated piezo-magnetic face sheets. The structure is subjected to electric and magnetic potentials, thermal loadings, and resting on Pasternak's foundation. Electro-magnetic equations are developed by considering the variation form of Hamilton's principle. The effects of important parameters of this problem such as applied electric and magnetic potentials, direct and shear parameter of foundation, three microlength-scale parameters, and two parameters of temperature rising are investigated on the vibration and bending results of problem.

  19. Face/core interface fracture characterization of mixed mode bending sandwich specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    and PVC H45, H100 and H250 foam core materials were evaluated. A methodology to perform precracking on fracture specimens in order to achieve a sharp and representative crack front is outlined. The mixed mode loading was controlled in the mixed mode bending (MMB) test rig by changing the loading......Debonding of the core from the face sheets is a critical failure mode in sandwich structures. This paper presents an experimental study on face/core debond fracture of foam core sandwich specimens under a wide range of mixed mode loading conditions. Sandwich beams with E‐glass fibre face sheets...... application point (lever arm distance). Finite element analysis was performed to determine the mode‐mixity at the crack tip. The results showed that the face/core interface fracture toughness increased with increased mode II loading. Post failure analysis of the fractured specimens revealed that the crack...

  20. Analytical/Empirical Study on Indentation Behavior of Sandwich Plate with Foam Core and Composite Face Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Dariushi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich structures are widely used in aerospace, automobile, high speed train and civil applications. Sandwich structures consist of two thin and stiff skins and a thick and light weight core. In this study, the obligatory mandate of a sandwich plate contact constitutes a flexible foam core and composite skins with a hemispherical rigid punch has been studied by an analytical/empirical method. In sandwich structures, calculation of force distribution under the punch nose is complicated, because the core is flexible and the difference between the modulus of elasticity of skin and core is large. In the present study, an exponential correlation between the contact force and indentation is proposed. The coefficient and numerical exponent were calculated using the experimental indentation results. A model based on a high-order sandwich panel theory was used to study the bending behavior of sandwich plate under hemispherical punch load. In the first method, the force distribution under the punch nose was calculated by the proposed method and multiplied to deformation of related point in the loading area to calculate the potential energy of the external loads. In the second method, the punch load was modeled as a point force and multiplied to deformation of maximum indented point. The results obtained from the two methods were compared with the experimental results. Indentation and bending tests were carried out on sandwich plates with glass/epoxy skins and a styrene/acrylonitrile foam core. In the bending test, a simply support condition was set and in the indentation test the sandwich specimens were put on a rigid support. Indeed, in this position the punch movement was equal the indentation. The comparison between the analytical and experimental results showed that the proposed method significantly improved the accuracy of analysis.

  1. Numerical simulation of the hole-flanging process for steel-polymer sandwich sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griesel, Dominic; Keller, Marco C.; Groche, Peter

    2018-05-01

    In light of increasing demand for lightweight structures, hybrid materials are frequently used in load-optimized parts. Sandwich structures like metal-polymer sandwich sheets provide equal bending stiffness as their monolithic counterparts at a drastically reduced weight. In addition, sandwich sheets have noise-damping properties, thus they are well-suited for a large variety of parts, e.g. façade and car body panels, but also load-carrying components. However, due to the creep tendency and low heat resistance of the polymer cores, conventional joining technologies are only applicable to a limited degree. Through hole-flanging it is possible to create branches in sandwich sheets to be used as reinforced joints. While it is state of the art for monolithic materials, hole-flanging of sandwich sheets has not been investigated yet. In order to simulate this process for different material combinations and tool geometries, an axisymmetric model has been developed in the FE software Abaqus/CAE. In the present paper, various modeling strategies for steel-polymer sandwich sheets are examined, including volume elements, shell elements and combinations thereof. Different methods for joining the distinct layers in the FE model are discussed. By comparison with CT scans and optical 3D measurements of experimentally produced hole-flanges, the feasibility of the presented models is evaluated. Although a good agreement of the numerical and experimental results has been achieved, it becomes clear that the classical forming limit diagram (FLD) does not adequately predict failure of the steel skins.

  2. A More Sustainable Way for Producing RC Sandwich Panels On-Site and in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Graziani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to assess if traditionally used welded connectors for joining the two skins of reinforced concrete (RC sandwich panels, used as structural walls and horizontal structural elements, can be substituted with bent ones. In this way, the scope of the effort is to reduce drastically the energy required during manufacturing, thus having a much more sustainable building product. Wire mesh on site production, in fact, requires a large amount of energy for the welding process, as stated by several Environmental Product Declaration (EPD. In addition, the production of sandwich panels with bent connectors requires a low level of automation and no qualified labor allowing the diffusion in developing countries. The procedures used to execute the work were both experimental and numerical. Structural performances were examined by testing full-scale sandwich panels under (axial and eccentric compression and flexural loads. Additionally, a Finite Element (FE study was developed to investigate and to optimize the dimension of welded mesh and the number of connectors. The major findings show that it is possible to substitute welded connectors with bent ones without compromising the structural performance of the tested RC sandwich panels, thus having a more sustainable way for producing these last ones.

  3. Sandwiched confinement of quantum dots in graphene matrix for efficient electron transfer and photocurrent production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Nan; Zheng, Kaibo; J. Karki, Khadga

    2015-01-01

    matrix via interfacial self-assembly, leading to the formation of sandwiched hybrid QD-graphene nanofilms. We have explored structural features, electron transfer kinetics and photocurrent generation capacity of such hybrid nanofilms using a wide variety of advanced techniques. Graphene nanosheets...

  4. Effects of debonds and face sheet damage in GRP sandwich panels in naval ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayman, B.; Berggreen, Christian; Quispitupa, Amilcar

    2009-01-01

    Sandwich construction with face sheets of fibre-reinforced plastics (FRP) and a core of polymer foam or balsa wood offer a lightweight construction that is well suited to naval and other vessels for high-speed operation or where payload considerations require that the structural weight be minimised...

  5. Buckling tests of sandwich cylindrical shells with and without cut-outs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisagni, C.; Davidson, B.D.; Czabaj, M.W.; Ratcliffe, J.G.

    2016-01-01

    The results of buckling tests performed during the project DESICOS funded by the European Commission in the FP7 Programme are here presented. The tested structures are sandwich cylindrical shells that consist of reduced models of a component of the Ariane 5 launcher: the Dual Launch System. In

  6. The Fluid-Solid Interaction Dynamics between Underwater Explosion Bubble and Corrugated Sandwich Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight sandwich structures with highly porous 2D cores or 3D (three-dimensional periodic cores can effectively withstand underwater explosion load. In most of the previous studies of sandwich structure antiblast dynamics, the underwater explosion (UNDEX bubble phase was neglected. As the UNDEX bubble load is one of the severest damage sources that may lead to structure large plastic deformation and crevasses failure, the failure mechanisms of sandwich structures might not be accurate if only shock wave is considered. In this paper, detailed 3D finite element (FE numerical models of UNDEX bubble-LCSP (lightweight corrugated sandwich plates interaction are developed by using MSC.Dytran. Upon the validated FE model, the bubble shape, impact pressure, and fluid field velocities for different stand-off distances are studied. Based on numerical results, the failure modes of LCSP and the whole damage process are obtained. It is demonstrated that the UNDEX bubble collapse jet local load plays a more significant role than the UNDEX shock wave load especially in near-field underwater explosion.

  7. Sandwich veto detector at COMPASS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Calcutta-COMPASS group

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the newly build Sandwich Detector for 190 GeV hadron run of COMPASS Experiment at CERN. The technical details and the testing procedures are included to highlight the physics objective of the installation. Single electron detection techniques has been developed and used to scale the performance of the detector. This analysis can predict the number of single electrons per MIP at the scintillation detector. (author)

  8. Failure modes of composite sandwich beams

    OpenAIRE

    Gdoutos E.; Daniel I.M.

    2008-01-01

    A thorough investigation of failure behavior of composite sandwich beams under three-and four-point bending was undertaken. The beams were made of unidirectional carbon/epoxy facings and a PVC closed-cell foam core. The constituent materials were fully characterized and in the case of the foam core, failure envelopes were developed for general two-dimensional states of stress. Various failure modes including facing wrinkling, indentation failure and core failure were observed and compared wit...

  9. Sandwich design for ships and railway wagons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, K.-A. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Aeronautics

    2000-07-01

    In Sweden we have long experience of different types of vehicles and ships in sandwich construction, especially for Navy ships, such as minesweepers, mine-counter-measure-vessels and corvettes. As face materials mostly GRP and FRP have been used, but also metallic materials of Al-alloys, coated carbon steel and stainless steel. Core materials have usually been cellular plastic foams of cross-linked PVC, but also extruded PS, PUR, PEI and PMI. A lot of different continuous and discontinuous manufacturing processes are used. Vacuum assisted infusion is used in the last years, because it is a closed process, gives high fibre content and a good quality of the laminates. Sandwich design has mainly been used in the transportation area, where lightweight design is needed to give higher performance and load bearing capacity. The use of sandwich will give high stiffness- and strength-to weight ratio. These are in most cases not enough from economic point of view, but even other integrated functions must be considered, i.e. insulation, energy consumption, damping, less components, lower manufacturing costs, low maintenance, signature effects (military) etc. (orig.)

  10. Effects of the [OC6F5] moiety upon structural geometry: crystal structures of half-sandwich tantalum(V) aryloxide complexes from reaction of Cp*Ta(N(t)Bu)(CH2R)2 with pentafluorophenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jacqueline M; Chan, Michael C W; Gibson, Vernon C; Howard, Judith A K

    2011-10-01

    The synthesis, chemical and structural characterization of a series of pentamethylcyclopentadienyl (Cp*) tantalum imido complexes and aryloxide derivatives are presented. Specifically, the imido complexes Cp*Ta(N(t)Bu)(CH(2)R)(2), where R = Ph [dibenzyl(tert-butylamido) (η(5)-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)tantalum(IV) (1)], Me(2)Ph [tert-butylamido)bis(2-methyl-2-phenylpropyl) (η(5)-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)tantalum(IV) (2)], CMe(3) [(tert-butylamido)bis(2,2-dimethylpropyl) (η(5)-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)tantalum(IV) (3)], are reported. The crystal structure of (3) reveals α-agostic interactions with the Ta atom. The resulting increase in the tantalum core coordination improves electronic stability. As such it does not react with pentafluorophenol, in contrast to the other two reported imido complexes [(1) and (2)]. Addition of C(6)F(5)OH to (1) yields a dimeric aryl-oxide derivative, [Cp*Ta(CH(2)Ph)(OC(6)H(5))(μ-O)](2) [di-μ-oxido-bis[benzyl(pentafluorophenolato) (η(5)-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)tantalum(V)] (4)]. Its crystal structure reveals long Ta-O(C(6)H(5)) bonds but short oxo-bridging Ta-O bonds. This is explained by accounting for the fierce electronic competition for the vacant d(π) orbitals of the electrophilic Ta(V) centre. Steric congestion around each metal is alleviated by a large twist angle (77.1°) between the benzyl and pentafluorophenyl ligands and the ordering of each of these groups into stacked pairs. The imido complex (2) reacts with C(6)F(5)OH to produce a mixture of Cp*Ta(OC(6)F(5))(4) [tetrakis(pentafluorophenolato)(η(5)-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)tantalum(V) (5)] and [Cp*Ta(OC(6)F(5))(2)(μ-O)](2) [di-μ-oxido-bis[bis(pentafluorophenolato)(η(5)-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)tantalum(V)] (6)]. Steric congestion is offset in both cases by the twisting of its pentafluorophenyl ligands. Particularly strong electronic competition for the empty d(π) metal orbitals in (6) is reflected in its bond geometry, and owes itself to the

  11. Thermal conductivity of newspaper sandwiched aerated lightweight concrete panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Soon-Ching; Low, Kaw-Sai [Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Genting Kelang, Setapak, 53300 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan (Malaysia)

    2010-12-15

    Investigation on the thermal conductivity of newspaper sandwiched aerated lightweight concrete (ALC) panels is the main purpose of this study. Various densities of ALC panels ranging from 1700, 1400 and 1100 kg/m{sup 3} with three different aerial intensities of newspaper sandwiched were produced. Investigation was limited to the effect of aerial intensity of newspaper sandwiched and the effect of density of ALC on thermal conductivity. It is found that the thermal conductivity of newspaper sandwiched ALC panels reduced remarkably compared to control ALC panels. The reduction was recorded at 18.0%, 21.8% and 20.7% correspond to densities of 1700, 1400 and 1100 kg/m{sup 3} with just a mere 0.05 g/cm{sup 2} aerial intensity of newspaper sandwiched. Newspaper sandwiched has a significant impact on the performance of thermal conductivity of ALC panels based on regression analysis. (author)

  12. Creep of sandwich beams with metallic foam cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesler, O.; Crews, L.K.; Gibson, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    The steady state creep deflection rates of sandwich beams with metallic foam cores were measured and compared with analytical and numerical predictions of the creep behavior. The deflection rate depends on the geometry of the sandwich beam, the creep behavior of the foam core and the loading conditions (stress state, temperature). Although there was a considerable scatter in the creep data (both of the foams and of the sandwich beams made using them), the data for the sandwich beams were fairly well described by the analysis

  13. Creep of sandwich beams with metallic foam cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesler, O.; Crews, L.K.; Gibson, L.J

    2003-01-20

    The steady state creep deflection rates of sandwich beams with metallic foam cores were measured and compared with analytical and numerical predictions of the creep behavior. The deflection rate depends on the geometry of the sandwich beam, the creep behavior of the foam core and the loading conditions (stress state, temperature). Although there was a considerable scatter in the creep data (both of the foams and of the sandwich beams made using them), the data for the sandwich beams were fairly well described by the analysis.

  14. Damage Tolerance of Resin Transfer Molded Composite Sandwich Constructions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaidya, U

    1999-01-01

    .... The sandwich composite concepts considered in this study possessed the feasibility to improve the transverse stiffness, provide enhanced damage resistance/tolerance to impact and functionality...

  15. Transmission loss optimization in acoustic sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, S. E.; Dym, C. L.; MacGregor Smith, J.

    1986-06-01

    Considering the sound transmission loss (TL) of a sandwich panel as the single objective, different optimization techniques are examined and a sophisticated computer program is used to find the optimum TL. Also, for one of the possible case studies such as core optimization, closed-form expressions are given between TL and the core-design variables for different sets of skins. The significance of these functional relationships lies in the fact that the panel designer can bypass the necessity of using a sophisticated software package in order to assess explicitly the dependence of the TL on core thickness and density.

  16. Failure modes of composite sandwich beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gdoutos E.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A thorough investigation of failure behavior of composite sandwich beams under three-and four-point bending was undertaken. The beams were made of unidirectional carbon/epoxy facings and a PVC closed-cell foam core. The constituent materials were fully characterized and in the case of the foam core, failure envelopes were developed for general two-dimensional states of stress. Various failure modes including facing wrinkling, indentation failure and core failure were observed and compared with analytical predictions. The initiation, propagation and interaction of failure modes depend on the type of loading, constituent material properties and geometrical dimensions.

  17. Experimental investigations of sandwich panels using high performance concrete thin plates exposed to fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulin, Thomas; Hodicky, Kamil; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2015-01-01

    Structural sandwich panels using thin high performance concrete (HPC) plates offer a possibility to address the modern environmental challenges faced by the construction industry. Fire resistance is a major necessity in structures using HPC. This paper presents experimental studies at elevated...... temperatures for panels with 30 mm thick plates stiffened by structural ribs, thick insulation layers, and steel shear connecting systems. Parametric variation assessing the role of each component of the sandwich structure was performed on unloaded specimens of reduced size. Full size walls were tested...... with load. Tests were performed in standard furnaces, following the conditions of REI certification tests. Unloaded specimens successfully passed tests. Loaded specimens met the R and I requirements, failing E due to sustained flaming of the insulation. They exhibited multiple cracking of their exposed...

  18. Morphology Analysis of Cu Film Fractures in Sandwiched Methylmethacrylate Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Fidani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of Cu were evaporated on solid plates of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA. A polymerization process was made to realize sandwiched structure to protect the Cu films. Fracturing of the metal film surface was observed with several morphologies showing two different fracture systems. Surface film morphology was analysed in terms of the distribution area of the islands and contour fractal dimension. The island areas showed a maximum corresponding to 42 nm of the Cu thickness, it was also the threshold to observe the second fracture system. The fractures pattern resulted to be scale invariant with fractal dimensions between 1.55 and 1.7. The minimum fractal dimension also occurred at the film thickness corresponding to the maximum island area. The reported effects can be understood on the basis of different thermal expansion coefficients of the two materials and their thermally induced adhesion.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.2.6518

  19. Vibration Control of Sandwich Beams Using Electro-Rheological Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikantha Phani, A.; Venkatraman, K.

    2003-09-01

    Electro-rheological (ER) fluids are a class of smart materials exhibiting significant reversible changes in their rheological and hence mechanical properties under the influence of an applied electric field. Efforts are in progress to embed ER fluids in various structural elements to mitigate vibration problems. The present work is an experimental investigation of the behaviour of a sandwich beam with ER fluid acting as the core material. A starch-silicone-oil-based ER fluid is used in the present study. Significant improvements in the damping properties are achieved in experiments and the damping contributions by viscous and non-viscous forces are estimated by force-state mapping (FSM) technique. With the increase in electric field across the ER fluid from 0 to 2 kV, an increase of 25-50% in equivalent viscous damping is observed. It is observed that as concentration of starch is increased, the ER effect grows stronger but eventually is overcome by applied stresses.

  20. Dispersion of Lamb waves in a honeycomb composite sandwich panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baid, Harsh; Schaal, Christoph; Samajder, Himadri; Mal, Ajit

    2015-02-01

    Composite materials are increasingly being used in advanced aircraft and aerospace structures. Despite their many advantages, composites are often susceptible to hidden damages that may occur during manufacturing and/or service of the structure. Therefore, safe operation of composite structures requires careful monitoring of the initiation and growth of such defects. Ultrasonic methods using guided waves offer a reliable and cost effective method for defects monitoring in advanced structures due to their long propagation range and their sensitivity to defects in their propagation path. In this paper, some of the useful properties of guided Lamb type waves are investigated, using analytical, numerical and experimental methods, in an effort to provide the knowledge base required for the development of viable structural health monitoring systems for composite structures. The laboratory experiments involve a pitch-catch method in which a pair of movable transducers is placed on the outside surface of the structure for generating and recording the wave signals. The specific cases considered include an aluminum plate, a woven composite laminate and an aluminum honeycomb sandwich panel. The agreement between experimental, numerical and theoretical results are shown to be excellent in certain frequency ranges, providing a guidance for the design of effective inspection systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Numerical Study for Compressive Strength of Basalt Composite Sandwich Infill Panel

    OpenAIRE

    Viriyavudh Sim; Jung Kyu Choi; Yong Ju Kwak; Oh Hyeon Jeon; Woo Young Jung

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the buckling performance of basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP) sandwich infill panels. Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) is a major evolution for energy dissipation when used as infill material of frame structure, a basic Polymer Matrix Composite (PMC) infill wall system consists of two FRP laminates surrounding an infill of foam core. Furthermore, this type of component is for retrofitting and strengthening frame structure to withstand the seismic disaster. In...

  2. Changing Welfare States and the “Sandwich Generation” : Increasing Burden for the Next Generation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Künemund

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The burden placed on individuals aged 40 to 59 – especially on women – by competing demands from work and both older and younger family members is often addressed using the metaphor of the „sandwich gen-eration“. Based on a systematization of the definitions used in the litera-ture, empirical evidence on the frequency of such generational constella-tions and on their impact on the well-being of sandwiched adults will be presented. Analysing the second wave of the German Aging Survey shows that being sandwiched – defined as a generational constellation – is very common, but simultaneous care activities for both older and younger family members are rare, especially in combination with labour force participation, and that life satisfaction is not systematically related to being sandwiched. Implications for further research and future devel-opments will be discussed, especially with respect to changes in family structure (e.g. the beanpole family and changes in the amount of welfare state spending for the aged.

  3. A numerical simulation of metallic cylindrical sandwich shells subjected to air blast loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jing

    Full Text Available The dynamic response of cylindrical sandwich shells with aluminum foam cores subjected to air blast loading was investigated numerically in this paper. According to KNR theory, the nonlinear compressibility of the air and finite shock conditions were taken into account in the finite element model. Numerical simulation results show that the compression strain, which plays a key role on energy absorption, increases approximately linearly with normalized impulse, and reduces with increasing relative density or the ratio of face-sheet thickness and core thickness. An increase of the impulse will delay the equalization of top and bottom face-sheet velocities of sandwich shell, but there is a maximum value in the studied bound. A limited study of weight optimization was carried out for sandwich shells with respect to the respective geometric parameters, including face-sheet thickness, core thickness and core relative density. These numerical results are of worth to theoretical prediction and engineering application of cellular metal sandwich structures.

  4. Modal analysis and acoustic transmission through offset-core honeycomb sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathias, Adam Dustin

    The work presented in this thesis is motivated by an earlier research that showed that double, offset-core honeycomb sandwich panels increased thermal resistance and, hence, decreased heat transfer through the panels. This result lead to the hypothesis that these panels could be used for acoustic insulation. Using commercial finite element modeling software, COMSOL Multiphysics, the acoustical properties, specifically the transmission loss across a variety of offset-core honeycomb sandwich panels, is studied for the case of a plane acoustic wave impacting the panel at normal incidence. The transmission loss results are compared with those of single-core honeycomb panels with the same cell sizes. The fundamental frequencies of the panels are also computed in an attempt to better understand the vibrational modes of these particular sandwich-structured panels. To ensure that the finite element analysis software is adequate for the task at hand, two relevant benchmark problems are solved and compared with theory. Results from these benchmark results compared well to those obtained from theory. Transmission loss results from the offset-core honeycomb sandwich panels show increased transmission loss, especially for large cell honeycombs when compared to single-core honeycomb panels.

  5. Vibration Characteristics of Axially Moving Titanium- Polymer Nanocomposite Faced Sandwich Plate Under Initial Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghorbanpour Arani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, vibration and instability of axially moving sandwich plate made of soft core and composite face sheets under initial tension is investigated. Single-walled carbon nano-tubes (SWCNTs are selected as a reinforcement of composite face sheets inside Poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA matrix. Higher order shear deformation theory (HSDT is utilized due to its accuracy of polynomial functions than other plate theories. Based on extended rule of mixture, the structural properties of composite face sheets are taken into consideration. Motion equations are obtained by means of Hamilton’s principle and solved analytically. Influences of various parameters such as axially moving speed, volume fraction of CNTs, pre-tension, thickness and aspect ratio of sandwich plate on the vibration characteristics of moving system are discussed in details. The results indicated that the critical speed of moving sandwich plate is strongly dependent on the volume fraction of CNTs. Therefore, the critical speed of moving sandwich plate can be improved by adding appropriate values of CNTs. The results of this investigation can be used in design and manufacturing of marine vessels and aircrafts.

  6. Testing of the scintillation sandwich prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vashkevich, V.

    1995-06-01

    The 3 m 2 prototype of the surface detector using optical fiber readout was completely prepared for testing measurements in February 1995 at Fermilab. Two 25 mm thick, 3 m 2 acrylic scintillation plates (1.2 x 2.5 m 2 ) are used for light collection in the upper (above the 25 mm steel plate) and lower (below the steel) counters of the sandwich. The light is collected with the help of 1 mm diameter wavelength shifter fiber loops 3 m long inserted in the grooves on the top surface of the scintillator, 3 fibers per groove. We used Kurary Y11, 200 ppm of shifter dye, and double clad fibers. 1.5 m of clear fibers spliced to each end of the shifter fiber transport the light to the phototube. Spacing between the grooves is 5 cm. The counter's edges were painted with BICRON (BC620) white reflective paint. The scintillation plates were wrapped with Dupont Tyvek. The glued bundle of fibers is connected to an EMI-9902KB 38 mm phototube through the simple light mixer bar. Used PM has a ''green extended'' rubidium bialkali photocathode. The report contains information on the testing of the scintillation sandwich

  7. Design and test of lightweight sandwich T-joint for naval ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, H.; Lystrup, Aa.

    2005-01-01

    Within the EUCLID project, 'Survivability, Durability and Performance of Naval Composite Structures', one task is to develop improved fibre composite joints for naval ship super structures. One type of joint in such a super structure is a T-joint between sandwich panels. An existing design consists...... of panels joined by filler and overlaminates of the same thickness as the skin laminates. Various improved T-joints have been designed and investigated. Some with focus on improved strength (survivability), and others with focus on reduced weight. This paper describes the design and test of a sandwich T...... triangles). A method for a finite element (FE) parameter study is developed and used for selection of a promising (strong) configuration of the T-joint. Tensile (pull-out) tests are performed to load the core triangles and filler in tension and the strength and failure mode are compared both with the FE...

  8. Test and Analysis of a Buckling-Critical Large-Scale Sandwich Composite Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Marc R.; Sleight, David W.; Gardner, Nathaniel W.; Rudd, Michelle T.; Hilburger, Mark W.; Palm, Tod E.; Oldfield, Nathan J.

    2018-01-01

    Structural stability is an important design consideration for launch-vehicle shell structures and it is well known that the buckling response of such shell structures can be very sensitive to small geometric imperfections. As part of an effort to develop new buckling design guidelines for sandwich composite cylindrical shells, an 8-ft-diameter honeycomb-core sandwich composite cylinder was tested under pure axial compression to failure. The results from this test are compared with finite-element-analysis predictions and overall agreement was very good. In particular, the predicted buckling load was within 1% of the test and the character of the response matched well. However, it was found that the agreement could be improved by including composite material nonlinearity in the analysis, and that the predicted buckling initiation site was sensitive to the addition of small bending loads to the primary axial load in analyses.

  9. Non-linear Behavior of Curved Sandwich Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, Carl Christian; Jolma, P.; Karjalainen, J. P.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the non-linear behavior of curved sandwich panels is investigated both numerically and experimentally. Focus is on various aspects of finite element modeling and calculation procedures. A simply supported, singly curved, CFRP/PVC sandwich panel is analyzed under uniform pressure loa...

  10. The sandwich sign | Mahomed | SA Journal of Radiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sandwich sign refers to the sandwiching of mesenteric vessels and fat by enlarged mesenteric nodes on cross-sectional imaging, commonly occurring in lymphoma, but not specific to lymphoma. The sign is radiologically indistinguishable from post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders. The radiological significance ...

  11. Design Analysis of the Mixed Mode Bending Sandwich Specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2010-01-01

    A design analysis of the mixed mode bending (MMB) sandwich specimen for face–core interface fracture characterization is presented. An analysis of the competing failure modes in the foam cored sandwich specimens is performed in order to achieve face–core debond fracture prior to other failure modes...... for the chosen geometries and mixed mode loading conditions....

  12. Application of Load Carrying Sandwich Elements in Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Fisker; Schultz, Jacob Pagh; Berggreen, Carl Christian

    2005-01-01

    The present work investigates the possibilities and drawbacks when applying sandwich as opposed to single skin composites in the flanges of the load carrying spar in a future 180 m wind turbine rotor. FEA is applied to investigate two basic designs with single skin and sandwich flanges respectively...

  13. Ultra-tiny ZnMn2O4 nanoparticles encapsulated in sandwich-like carbon nanosheets for high-performance supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yongxin; Feng, Yangyang; Mu, Yanping; Fang, Ling; Zhang, Huijuan; Wang, Yu

    2016-11-01

    Known as an excellent energy storage material, ZnMn2O4 has a wide range of applications in supercapacitors. In this report, a special sandwich-like structure of ZnMn2O4/C has been first designed and synthesized via a simple hydrothermal method and subsequent calcinations. The designed special sandwich-like structure can benefit ion exchange and remit the probable volume changes during a mass of electrochemical reactions. Furthermore, the porous carbon nanosheets, derived from low-cost glucose, can effectively increase ion flux. Therefore, the novel sandwich-like ZnMn2O4 nanoparticles encapsulated in carbon nanosheets can undoubtedly demonstrate an exceptional electrochemical performance for SCs. In this work, the composite material with porous sandwich-like structure exhibits excellent cyclic stability for 5000 cycles (˜5% loss) and high specific capacitance of 1786 F g-1.

  14. Hyperglucagonaemia analysed by glucagon sandwich ELISA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Nicolai Jacob Wewer; Hartmann, Bolette; Veedfald, Simon

    2014-01-01

    the extent to which the hyperglucagonaemia measured in clinical samples was caused by authentic glucagon. METHODS: We examined the performance of three commercial glucagon 'sandwich' ELISAs. The ELISA with the best overall performance was selected to compare glucagon measurements in clinical samples...... sensitivity for glucagon in plasma (>10-20 pmol/l). Thus, only the third assay was suitable for measuring glucagon concentrations in clinical samples. The ELISA and RIA measured similar glucagon levels in healthy individuals. Measurements of samples from individuals with abnormally high (type 2 diabetes...... or obese) or very elevated (post vagotomy with pyloroplasty, post-RYGB) glucagon levels were also similar in both assays. However, glucagon levels in participants with ESRD were much lower when measured by ELISA than by RIA, indicating that the apparent hyperglucagonaemia is not caused by fully processed...

  15. Sound Transmission Loss Through a Corrugated-Core Sandwich Panel with Integrated Acoustic Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Noah H.; Allen, Albert R.; Zalewski, Bart F; Beck, Benjamin S.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study is to better understand the effect of structurally integrated resonators on the transmission loss of a sandwich panel. The sandwich panel has facesheets over a corrugated core, which creates long aligned chambers that run parallel to the facesheets. When ports are introduced through the facesheet, the long chambers within the core can be used as low-frequency acoustic resonators. By integrating the resonators within the structure they contribute to the static load bearing capability of the panel while also attenuating noise. An analytical model of a panel with embedded resonators is derived and compared with numerical simulations. Predictions show that acoustic resonators can significantly improve the transmission loss of the sandwich panel around the natural frequency of the resonators. In one configuration with 0.813 m long internal chambers, the diffuse field transmission loss is improved by more than 22 dB around 104 Hz. The benefit is achieved with no added mass or volume relative to the baseline structure. The embedded resonators are effective because they radiate sound out-of-phase with the structure. This results in destructive interference, which leads to less transmitted sound power.

  16. Axial Compression Behavior of a New Type of Prefabricated Concrete Sandwich Wall Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qun, Xie; Shuai, Wang; Chun, Liu

    2018-03-01

    A novel type of prefabricated concrete sandwich wall panel which could be used as a load-bearing structural element in buildings has been presented in this paper. Compared with the traditional sandwich panels, there are several typical characteristics for this wall system, including core columns confined by spiral stirrup along the cross-section of panel with 600mm spacing, precast foamed concrete block between two structural layers as internal insulation part, and a three-dimensional (3D) steel wire skeleton in each layer which is composed of two vertical steel wire meshes connected by horizontally short steel bar. All steel segments in the panel are automatically prefabricated in factory and then are assembled to form steel system in site. In order to investigate the structural behavior of this wall panel, two full-scale panels have been experimentally studied under axial compressive load. The test results show that the wall panel presents good load-bearing capacity and integral stiffness without out-of-plane flexural failure. Compared to the panel with planar steel wire mesh in concrete layer, the panel with 3D steel wire skeleton presents higher strength and better rigidity even in the condition of same steel ratio in panels which verifies that the 3D steel skeleton could greatly enhance the structural behavior of sandwich panel.

  17. Sandwich-type tetrakis(phthalocyaninato) dysprosium-cadmium quadruple-decker SMM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailong; Qian, Kang; Wang, Kang; Bian, Yongzhong; Jiang, Jianzhuang; Gao, Song

    2011-09-14

    Homoleptic tetrakis[2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octa(butyloxy)phthalocyaninato] dysprosium-cadmium quadruple-decker complex 1 was isolated in relatively good yield of 43% from a simple one-pot reaction. This compound represents the first sandwich-type tetrakis(phthalocyaninato) rare earth-cadmium quadruple-decker SMM that has been structurally characterized. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  18. Detecting and identifying damage in sandwich polymer composite by using acoustic emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGugan, M.; Soerensen, Bent F.; Oestergaard, R.; Bech, T.

    2006-12-15

    Acoustic emission is a useful monitoring tool for extracting extra information during mechanical testing of polymer composite sandwich materials. The study of fracture mechanics within test specimens extracted from wind turbine blade material is presented. The contribution of the acoustic emission monitoring technique in defining different failure modes identified during the testing is discussed. The development of in-situ structural monitoring and control systems is considered. (au)

  19. One-pot synthesis of Ag-SiO2-Ag sandwich nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chaorong; Mei Jie; Li Shuwen; Lu Nianpeng; Wang Lina; Chen Benyong; Dong Wenjun

    2010-01-01

    Ag-SiO 2 -Ag sandwich nanostructures were prepared by a facile one-pot synthesis method. The Ag core, SiO 2 shell and Ag nanoparticle shell were all synthesized with polyvinylpyrrolidone, catalysed by ammonia, in the one-pot reaction. The polyvinylpyrrolidone, acting as a smart reducing agent, reduced the Ag + to Ag cores and Ag shells separately. Furthermore, the polyvinylpyrrolidone served as a protective agent to prevent the silver cores from aggregating. The SiO 2 shell and outer layer Ag nanoparticles were obtained when tetraethyl orthosilicate and ammonia were added to the silver core solution. Ammonia, acting as the catalyst, accelerated the hydrolysis of the tetraethyl orthosilicate to SiO 2 , which coated the silver cores. Furthermore, Ag(NH 3 ) 2 + ions were formed when aqueous ammonia was added to the solution, which increased the reduction capability. Then the polyvinylpyrrolidone reduced the Ag(NH 3 ) 2 + ions to small Ag nanoparticles on the surface of the Ag-SiO 2 and formed Ag-SiO 2 -Ag sandwich structures with a standard deviation of less than 4%. This structure effectively prevented the Ag nanoparticles on the silica surface from aggregating. Furthermore, the Ag-SiO 2 -Ag sandwich structures showed good catalysis properties due to the large surface area/volume value and activity of surface atoms of Ag particles.

  20. Investigation of Energy Absorption in Aluminum Foam Sandwich Panels By Drop Hammer Test: Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nouri Damghani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The sandwich panel structures with aluminum foam core and metal surfaces have light weight with high performance in dispersing energy. This has led to their widespread use in the absorption of energy. The cell structure of foam core is subjected to plastic deformation in the constant tension level that absorbs a lot of kinetic energy before destruction of the structure. In this research, by making samples of aluminum foam core sandwich panels with aluminum surfaces, experimental tests of low velocity impact by a drop machine are performed for different velocities and weights of projectile on samples of sandwich panels with aluminum foam core with relative density of 18%, 23%, and 27%. The output of device is acceleration‐time diagram which is shown by an accelerometer located on the projectile. From the experimental tests, the effect of weight, velocity and energy of the projectile and density of the foam on the global deformation, and energy decrease rate of projectile have been studied. The results of the experimental testes show that by increasing the density of aluminum foam, the overall impression is reduced and the slop of energy loss of projectile increases. Also by increasing the velocity of the projectile, the energy loss increases.

  1. A Debonded Sandwich Specimen Under Mixed Mode Bending (MMB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2008-01-01

    Face/core interface crack propagation in sandwich specimens is analyzed. A thorough analysis of the typical failure modes in sandwich composites was performed in order to design the MMB specimen to promote face/core debond fracture. Displacement, compliance and energy release rate expressions...... for the MMB specimen were derived from a superposition analysis. An experimental verification of the methodology proposed was performed using MMB sandwich specimens with H100 PVC foam core and E-glass/polyester non-crimp quadro-axial [0/45/90/-45]s DBLT-850 faces. Different mixed mode loadings were applied...

  2. Periodicity effects on compound waves guided by a thin metal slab sandwiched between two periodically nonhomogeneous dielectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiadini, Francesco; Fiumara, Vincenzo; Scaglione, Antonio; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2017-10-01

    Surface-plasmon-polariton waves can be compounded when a sufficiently thin metal layer is sandwiched between two half spaces filled with dissimilar periodically nonhomogeneous dielectric materials. We solved the boundary-value problem for compound waves guided by a layer of a homogeneous and isotropic metal sandwiched between a structurally chiral material (SCM) and a periodically multilayered isotropic dielectric (PMLID) material. We found that the periodicities of the PMLID material and the SCM are crucial to excite a multiplicity of compound guided waves arising from strong coupling between the two interfaces.

  3. Sandwiched Thin-Film Anode of Chemically Bonded Black Phosphorus/Graphene Hybrid for Lithium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanwen; Zou, Yuqin; Tao, Li; Ma, Zhaoling; Liu, Dongdong; Zhou, Peng; Liu, Hongbo; Wang, Shuangyin

    2017-09-01

    A facile vacuum filtration method is applied for the first time to construct sandwich-structure anode. Two layers of graphene stacks sandwich a composite of black phosphorus (BP), which not only protect BP from quickly degenerating but also serve as current collector instead of copper foil. The BP composite, reduced graphene oxide coated on BP via chemical bonding, is simply synthesized by solvothermal reaction at 140 °C. The sandwiched film anode used for lithium-ion battery exhibits reversible capacities of 1401 mAh g -1 during the 200th cycle at current density of 100 mA g -1 indicating superior cycle performance. Besides, this facile vacuum filtration method may also be available for other anode material with well dispersion in N-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Multiobjective optimization for design of multifunctional sandwich panel heat pipes with micro-architected truss cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roper, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    A micro-architected multifunctional structure, a sandwich panel heat pipe with a micro-scale truss core and arterial wick, is modeled and optimized. To characterize multiple functionalities, objective equations are formulated for density, compressive modulus, compressive strength, and maximum heat flux. Multiobjective optimization is used to determine the Pareto-optimal design surfaces, which consist of hundreds of individually optimized designs. The Pareto-optimal surfaces for different working fluids (water, ethanol, and perfluoro(methylcyclohexane)) as well as different micro-scale truss core materials (metal, ceramic, and polymer) are determined and compared. Examination of the Pareto fronts allows comparison of the trade-offs between density, compressive stiffness, compressive strength, and maximum heat flux in the design of multifunctional sandwich panel heat pipes with micro-scale truss cores. Heat fluxes up to 3.0 MW/m 2 are predicted for silicon carbide truss core heat pipes with water as the working fluid.

  5. Fracture Characterization of PVC Foam Core Sandwich Specimen Using the DCB-UBM Test Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saseendran, Vishnu; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    coupled with experimental validation is paramount to determine the fracture resistance of the face/core interface. In this paper, the test-rig exploiting the double cantilever beam with uneven bending moments (DCB-UBM) concept is used to determine the fracture toughness of PVC foam core sandwich......Face/core debond failure in sandwich composites is a critical failure mode. Lack of cohesion between face and core will lead to loss of structural integrity. The estimation of interface fracture toughness especially at the face/core interface is extremely challenging, provided the dissimilarity...... composites. The DCB-UBM test enables fracture testing over a large range of mode-mixities as expressed by a phase angle (ψ) which is a measure of the amount of shear loading at the crack tip. A desired phase angle may be achieved by changing the moment-ratio (MR = Md/Ms)....

  6. Localized Effects in the Nonlinear Behavior of Sandwich Panels with a Transversely Flexible Core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frostig, Y.; Thomsen, Ole Thybo

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation of the role of localized effects within the geometrically nonlinear domain on structural sandwich panels with a "compliant" core. Special emphasis is focused on the nonlinear response near concentrated loads and stiffened core regions. The adopted...... nonlinear analysis approach incorporates the effects of the vertical flexibility of the core, and it is based on the approach of the High-order Sandwich Panel Theory (HSAPT). The results demonstrate that the effects of localized loads, when taken into the geometrically nonlinear domain, change the response...... of the panel from a strength problem controlled by stress constraints into a stability problem with unstable limit point behavior when force-controlled loads are applied. The stability problem emerge as the nonlinear response develops with the formation of a small number of buckling waves in the compressed...

  7. Smart FRP Composite Sandwich Bridge Decks in Cold Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    In this study, new and integrated Smart honeycomb Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (S-FRP) : sandwich materials for various transportation construction applications, with particular emphasis : on highway bridge decks in cold regions, were developed and teste...

  8. A Sandwiched/Cracked Flexible Film for Multi-Thermal Monitoring and Switching Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong; Chen, Tao; Lubineau, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based flexible films have substantiated advantages in various sensing applications. Here, we demonstrate the highly sensitive and programmable thermal-sensing capability (thermal index, B, up to 126 × 103 K) of flexible films with tunable sandwiched microstructures (PDMS/cracked single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) film/PDMS) when a thermal stimulus is applied. We found that this excellent performance results from the following features of the film's structural and material design: (1) the sandwiched structure allows the film to switch from a three-dimensional to a two-dimensional in-plane deformation and (2) the stiffness of the SWCNT film is decreased by introducing microcracks that make deformation easy and that promote the macroscopic piezoresistive behavior of SWCNT crack islands and the microscopic piezoresistive behavior of SWCNT bundles. The PDMS layer is characterized by a high coefficient of thermal expansion (α = 310 × 10-6 K-1) and low stiffness (∼2 MPa) that allow for greater flexibility and higher temperature sensitivity. We determined the efficacy of our sandwiched, cracked, flexible films in monitoring and switching flexible devices when subjected to various stimuli, including thermal conduction, thermal radiation, and light radiation.

  9. A Sandwiched/Cracked Flexible Film for Multi-Thermal Monitoring and Switching Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong

    2017-08-30

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based flexible films have substantiated advantages in various sensing applications. Here, we demonstrate the highly sensitive and programmable thermal-sensing capability (thermal index, B, up to 126 × 103 K) of flexible films with tunable sandwiched microstructures (PDMS/cracked single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) film/PDMS) when a thermal stimulus is applied. We found that this excellent performance results from the following features of the film\\'s structural and material design: (1) the sandwiched structure allows the film to switch from a three-dimensional to a two-dimensional in-plane deformation and (2) the stiffness of the SWCNT film is decreased by introducing microcracks that make deformation easy and that promote the macroscopic piezoresistive behavior of SWCNT crack islands and the microscopic piezoresistive behavior of SWCNT bundles. The PDMS layer is characterized by a high coefficient of thermal expansion (α = 310 × 10-6 K-1) and low stiffness (∼2 MPa) that allow for greater flexibility and higher temperature sensitivity. We determined the efficacy of our sandwiched, cracked, flexible films in monitoring and switching flexible devices when subjected to various stimuli, including thermal conduction, thermal radiation, and light radiation.

  10. Anomalous photoluminescence thermal quenching of sandwiched single layer MoS_2

    KAUST Repository

    Tangi, Malleswararao; Shakfa, Mohammad Khaled; Mishra, Pawan; Li, Ming-Yang; Chiu, Ming-Hui; Ng, Tien Khee; Li, Lain-Jong; Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-01-01

    We report an unusual thermal quenching of the micro-photoluminescence (µ-PL) intensity for a sandwiched single-layer (SL) MoS2. For this study, MoS2 layers were chemical vapor deposited on molecular beam epitaxial grown In0.15Al0.85N lattice matched templates. Later, to accomplish air-stable sandwiched SL-MoS2, a thin In0.15Al0.85N cap layer was deposited on the MoS2/In0.15Al0.85N heterostructure. We confirm that the sandwiched MoS2 is a single layer from optical and structural analyses using µ-Raman spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy, respectively. By using high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, no structural phase transition of MoS2 is noticed. The recombination processes of bound and free excitons were analyzed by the power-dependent µ-PL studies at 77 K and room temperature (RT). The temperature-dependent micro photoluminescence (TDPL) measurements were carried out in the temperature range of 77 – 400 K. As temperature increases, a significant red-shift is observed for the free-exciton PL peak, revealing the delocalization of carriers. Further, we observe unconventional negative thermal quenching behavior, the enhancement of the µ-PL intensity with increasing temperatures up to 300K, which is explained by carrier hopping transitions that take place between shallow localized states to the band-edges. Thus, this study renders a fundamental insight into understanding the anomalous thermal quenching of µ-PL intensity of sandwiched SL-MoS2.

  11. Anomalous photoluminescence thermal quenching of sandwiched single layer MoS_2

    KAUST Repository

    Tangi, Malleswararao

    2017-09-22

    We report an unusual thermal quenching of the micro-photoluminescence (µ-PL) intensity for a sandwiched single-layer (SL) MoS2. For this study, MoS2 layers were chemical vapor deposited on molecular beam epitaxial grown In0.15Al0.85N lattice matched templates. Later, to accomplish air-stable sandwiched SL-MoS2, a thin In0.15Al0.85N cap layer was deposited on the MoS2/In0.15Al0.85N heterostructure. We confirm that the sandwiched MoS2 is a single layer from optical and structural analyses using µ-Raman spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy, respectively. By using high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, no structural phase transition of MoS2 is noticed. The recombination processes of bound and free excitons were analyzed by the power-dependent µ-PL studies at 77 K and room temperature (RT). The temperature-dependent micro photoluminescence (TDPL) measurements were carried out in the temperature range of 77 – 400 K. As temperature increases, a significant red-shift is observed for the free-exciton PL peak, revealing the delocalization of carriers. Further, we observe unconventional negative thermal quenching behavior, the enhancement of the µ-PL intensity with increasing temperatures up to 300K, which is explained by carrier hopping transitions that take place between shallow localized states to the band-edges. Thus, this study renders a fundamental insight into understanding the anomalous thermal quenching of µ-PL intensity of sandwiched SL-MoS2.

  12. Effect of nanomodified polyester resin on hybrid sandwich laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anbusagar, NRR.; Giridharan, P.K.; Palanikumar, K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of nanomodified polyester resin on hybrid sandwich laminates is evaluated. • The hybrid sandwich laminates are fabricated with varying wt% of nanoclay. • Flexural, impact and moisture absorbtion properties are evaluated for hybrid composites. • Scanning electron microscopy is utilized to analyze the dispersion of clay and fractured surfaces of the nanocomposites. - Abstract: Effect of nanoclay modified polyester resin on flexural, impact, hardness and water absorption properties of untreated woven jute and glass fabric hybrid sandwich laminates have been investigated experimentally. The hybrid sandwich laminates are prepared by hand lay-up manufacturing technique (HL) for investigation. All hybrid sandwich laminates are fabricated with a total of 10 layers, by varying the extreme layers and wt% of nanoclay in polyester resin so as to obtain four different combinations of hybrid sandwich laminates. For comparison of the composite with hybrid composite, jute fiber reinforced composite laminate also fabricated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results obtained from samples with nanoclay indicated that intergallery spacing of the layered clay increases with matrix. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gave a morphological picture of the cross-sections and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) allowed investigating the elemental composition of matrix in composites. The testing results indicated that the flexural properties are greatly increased at 4% of nanoclay loading while impact, hardness and water absorption properties are increased at 6% of nanoclay loading. A plausible explanation for high increase of properties has also been discussed

  13. The Bending Strength, Internal Bonding and Thickness Swelling of a Five Layer Sandwiched Bamboo Particleboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaludin, M. A.; Bahari, S. A.; Nordin, K.; Soh, T. F. T.

    2010-03-01

    The demand for wood based material is increasing but the supply is decreasing. Therefore the price of these raw materials has increased. Bamboo provides an economically feasible alternative raw material for the wood based industry. Its properties are comparable to wood. It is also compatible with the existing processing technology. Bamboo is in abundance, easy to propagate and of short maturation period. Bamboo provides a cheaper alternative resource for the wood based industry. The development of new structural components from bamboo will widen its area of application from handicrafts to furniture and building components. In this study, five layer sandwiched bamboo particleboard were manufactured. The sandwiched Bamboo PB consists of a bamboo PB core, oil palm middle veneers and thin meranti surface veneers. The physical and mechanical properties of the bamboo sandwiched particleboards were tested in accordance to the BS-EN 317:1993 [1] and BS-EN 310:1993 [2], respectively. All the samples passed the standards. The modulus of elasticity was about 352% higher than the value specified in the BS standard, BS-EN 312-4:1996 [3]. The Internal bonding was about 23% higher than the general requirements specified in the standard. On the other hand, the thickness swelling was about 6% lower than the standard. No glue line failure was observed in the strength tests. Critical failures in the IB tests were observed in the particleboards. Tension failures were observed in the surface veneers in the bending tests. The five layer sandwiched bamboo particleboard can be used for light weight construction such as furniture, and wall and door panels in buildings.

  14. Feasibility study of a SiC sandwich neutron spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jian, E-mail: caepwujian@163.com [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, Sichuan Province (China); Lei, Jiarong, E-mail: jiarong_lei@163.com [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, Sichuan Province (China); Jiang, Yong; Chen, Yu; Rong, Ru; Zou, Dehui; Fan, Xiaoqiang [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, Sichuan Province (China); Chen, Gang; Li, Li; Bai, Song [Nanjing Electronic Devices Institute, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2013-04-21

    Semiconductor sandwich neutron spectrometers are suitable for in-pile measurements of fast reactor spectra thanks to their compact and relatively simple design. We have assembled and tested a sandwich neutron spectrometer based on 4H-silicon carbide (4H-SiC) Schottky diodes. The SiC diodes detect neutrons via neutron-induced charged particles (tritons and alpha particles) produced by {sup 6}Li(n,α){sup 3}H reaction. {sup 6}LiF neutron converter layers are deposited on the front surface of Schottky diodes by magnetron sputtering. The responses of SiC diodes to charged particles were investigated with an {sup 241}Am alpha source. A sandwich neutron spectrometer was assembled with two SiC Schottky diodes selected based on the charged-particle-response experimental results. The low-energy neutron response of the sandwich spectrometer was measured in the neutron field of the Chinese Fast Burst Reactor-II (CFBR-II). Spectra of alpha particles and tritons from {sup 6}Li(n,α){sup 3}H reaction were obtained with two well-resolved peaks. The energy resolution of the sum spectrum was 8.8%. The primary experimental results confirmed the 4H-SiC sandwich neutron spectrometer's feasibility. -- Highlights: ► Sandwich neutron spectrometer employing 4H-SiC as a detecting material has been developed for the first time. ► {sup 6}LiF neutron converter has been deposited on the surface of 4H-SiC Schottky diode. ► Preliminary testing results obtained with the 4H-SiC sandwich neutron spectrometer are presented.

  15. A Refined Zigzag Beam Theory for Composite and Sandwich Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessler, Alexander; Sciuva, Marco Di; Gherlone, Marco

    2009-01-01

    A new refined theory for laminated composite and sandwich beams that contains the kinematics of the Timoshenko Beam Theory as a proper baseline subset is presented. This variationally consistent theory is derived from the virtual work principle and employs a novel piecewise linear zigzag function that provides a more realistic representation of the deformation states of transverse-shear flexible beams than other similar theories. This new zigzag function is unique in that it vanishes at the top and bottom bounding surfaces of a beam. The formulation does not enforce continuity of the transverse shear stress across the beam s cross-section, yet is robust. Two major shortcomings that are inherent in the previous zigzag theories, shear-force inconsistency and difficulties in simulating clamped boundary conditions, and that have greatly limited the utility of these previous theories are discussed in detail. An approach that has successfully resolved these shortcomings is presented herein. Exact solutions for simply supported and cantilevered beams subjected to static loads are derived and the improved modelling capability of the new zigzag beam theory is demonstrated. In particular, extensive results for thick beams with highly heterogeneous material lay-ups are discussed and compared with corresponding results obtained from elasticity solutions, two other zigzag theories, and high-fidelity finite element analyses. Comparisons with the baseline Timoshenko Beam Theory are also presented. The comparisons clearly show the improved accuracy of the new, refined zigzag theory presented herein over similar existing theories. This new theory can be readily extended to plate and shell structures, and should be useful for obtaining relatively low-cost, accurate estimates of structural response needed to design an important class of high-performance aerospace structures.

  16. Experimental and Numerical Study of Interface Crack Propagation in Foam Cored Sandwich Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, Carl Christian; Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Borum, Kaj Kvisgård

    2007-01-01

    application example is to tear off one of the face laminates from the sandwich. This configuration can be found in many applications but is considered here to be occurring in a ship structure, particularly at the hard spot where the superstructure meets the deck. Face tearing experiments are carried out...... experiments and theory. For cores with higher density, the crack tends to propagate in the laminate itself with extensive fiber bridging leading to rather conservative numerical predictions. However, for structural configurations where LEFM can be applied, the presented procedure is sufficiently robust...... and accurate to be used in a number of important engineering applications, for example risk-based inspection and repair schemes....

  17. Sandwich mapping of schistosomiasis risk in Anhui Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Bergquist, Robert; Lynn, Henry; Gao, Fenghua; Wang, Qizhi; Zhang, Shiqing; Li, Rui; Sun, Liqian; Xia, Congcong; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Jiang, Qingwu

    2015-06-03

    Schistosomiasis mapping using data obtained from parasitological surveys is frequently used in planning and evaluation of disease control strategies. The available geostatistical approaches are, however, subject to the assumption of stationarity, a stochastic process whose joint probability distribution does not change when shifted in time. As this is impractical for large areas, we introduce here the sandwich method, the basic idea of which is to divide the study area (with its attributes) into homogeneous subareas and estimate the values for the reporting units using spatial stratified sampling. The sandwich method was applied to map the county-level prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica in Anhui Province, China based on parasitological data collected from sample villages and land use data. We first mapped the county-level prevalence using the sandwich method, then compared our findings with block Kriging. The sandwich estimates ranged from 0.17 to 0.21% with a lower level of uncertainty, while the Kriging estimates varied from 0 to 0.97% with a higher level of uncertainty, indicating that the former is more smoothed and stable compared to latter. Aside from various forms of reporting units, the sandwich method has the particular merit of simple model assumption coupled with full utilization of sample data. It performs well when a disease presents stratified heterogeneity over space.

  18. Sandwich mapping of schistosomiasis risk in Anhui Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis mapping using data obtained from parasitological surveys is frequently used in planning and evaluation of disease control strategies. The available geostatistical approaches are, however, subject to the assumption of stationarity, a stochastic process whose joint probability distribution does not change when shifted in time. As this is impractical for large areas, we introduce here the sandwich method, the basic idea of which is to divide the study area (with its attributes into homogeneous subareas and estimate the values for the reporting units using spatial stratified sampling. The sandwich method was applied to map the county-level prevalence of schistosomiasis japonica in Anhui Province, China based on parasitological data collected from sample villages and land use data. We first mapped the county-level prevalence using the sandwich method, then compared our findings with block Kriging. The sandwich estimates ranged from 0.17 to 0.21% with a lower level of uncertainty, while the Kriging estimates varied from 0 to 0.97% with a higher level of uncertainty, indicating that the former is more smoothed and stable compared to latter. Aside from various forms of reporting units, the sandwich method has the particular merit of simple model assumption coupled with full utilization of sample data. It performs well when a disease presents stratified heterogeneity over space.

  19. DFT Simulation of Structural and Optical Properties of 9-Aminoacridine Half-Sandwich Ru(II), Rh(III), and Ir(III) Antitumoral Complexes and Their Interaction with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerón-Carrasco, José Pedro; Ruiz, José; Vicente, Consuelo; de Haro, Concepción; Bautista, Delia; Zúñiga, José; Requena, Alberto

    2017-08-08

    In this work, we use DFT-based methods to simulate the chemical structures, optical properties, and interaction with DNA of a recently synthesized chelated C^N 9-aminoacridine arene Ru(II) anticancer agent and two new closely related Rh(III) and Ir(III) complexes using DFT-based methods. Four chemical models and a number of theoretical approaches, which representatively include the PBE0, B97D, ωB97X, ωB97X-D, M06, and M06-L density functionals and the LANL2DZ, def2-SVP, and def2-TZVP basis sets, are tested. The best overall accuracy/cost performance for the optimization process is reached at the ωB97X-D/def2-SVP and M06/def2-SVP levels of theory. Inclusion of explicit solvent molecules (CHCl 3 ) further refines the geometry, while taking into account the crystal network gives no significant improvements of the computed bond distances and angles. The analysis of the excited states reveals that the M06 level matches better the experimental absorption spectra, compared to ωB97X-D. The use of the M06/def2-SVP approach is therefore a well-balanced method to study theoretically the bioactivity of this type of antitumoral complexes, so we couple this TD-DFT approach to molecular dynamics simulations in order to assess their reactivity with DNA. The reported results demonstrate that these drugs could be used to inject electrons into DNA, which might broaden their applications in photoactivated chemotherapy and as new materials for DNA-based electrochemical nanodevices.

  20. Tailoring Sandwich Face/Core Interfaces for Improved Damage Tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard-Larsen, Christian; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2010-01-01

    Various modifications of the face/core interface in foam core sandwich specimens are examined in a series of two papers. This paper constitutes part I and describes the finite element analysis of a sandwich test specimen, i.e. a DCB specimen loaded by uneven bending moments (DCB-UBM). Using...... this test almost any mode-mixity between pure mode I and mode II can be obtained. A cohesive zone model of the mixed mode fracture process involving large-scale bridging is developed. Results from the analysis are used in Part II, which describes methods and results of a series of experiments....

  1. Friction stir welding (FSW of aluminium foam sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bušić

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the influence of welding speed and tool tilt angle upon the mechanical properties at the friction stir welding of aluminium foam sandwich panels. Double side welding was used for producing butt welds of aluminium sandwich panels applying insertion of extruded aluminium profile. Such insertion provided lower pressure of the tool upon the aluminium panels, providing also sufficient volume of the material required for the weldment formation. Ultimate tensile strength and flexural strength for three-point bending test have been determined for samples taken from the welded joints. Results have confirmed anticipated effects of independent variables.

  2. Au Nanoparticle Sub-Monolayers Sandwiched between Sol-Gel Oxide Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Gaspera, Enrico; Menin, Enrico; Sada, Cinzia

    2018-01-01

    Sub-monolayers of monodisperse Au colloids with different surface coverage have been embedded in between two different metal oxide thin films, combining sol-gel depositions and proper substrates functionalization processes. The synthetized films were TiO2, ZnO, and NiO. X-ray diffraction shows the crystallinity of all the oxides and verifies the nominal surface coverage of Au colloids. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the metal nanoparticles is affected by both bottom and top oxides: in fact, the SPR peak of Au that is sandwiched between two different oxides is centered between the SPR frequencies of Au sub-monolayers covered with only one oxide, suggesting that Au colloids effectively lay in between the two oxide layers. The desired organization of Au nanoparticles and the morphological structure of the prepared multi-layered structures has been confirmed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyses that show a high quality sandwich structure. The multi-layered structures have been also tested as optical gas sensors. PMID:29538338

  3. A honeycomb sandwich structure vacuum jacket for cryogenic targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, M.; Kasai, S.; Kato, S.

    1988-11-01

    Cryogenic targets (H 2 , D 2 and 4 He) have been built for use in the study of photonuclear reactions with π sr spectrometer, TAGX at the 1.3 GeV Tokyo electron synchrotron. A new type of vacuum jacket fabricated from plastic honeycomb core and Mylar skins has been used in the target system for more than 5000 hours. The average radiation thickness and the average density of this jacket are measured to be 3.3 x 10 -3 X 0 and 0.15 g/cm 3 , respectively. (author)

  4. Double side electroplating for applying beta voltaic with sandwich structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sang Moo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Kim, Jong Bum; Kim, Jin Joo; Park, Jong Han

    2015-01-01

    As a result, a variety of nuclear-based small-scale power sources have been developed with varying degrees of success and maturity. A nuclear battery with diode junction is a device that converts nuclear radiation directly to electric power. The mechanism of a nuclear battery is same as the P-N junction diode for solar cell application. The photovoltaic is operated by converted photons to electrical energy in the junction. In betavoltaic battery, beta particles are collected and converted to electrical energy as similar principle as photovoltaic. A very low current, order of nano or micro amperes, is generated in devices. The difference of the short circuit current between the pre-deposition and post deposition of Ni-63 was found to be 5 nA. This value is very low to apply device junction. To fabricate betavoltaic, Ni-63 should be coated on the double side of substrate. The bath was primarily composed of 0.2 M Ni ions, prepared by dissolving Ni metal particles in HCl. The prototype for electroplating radioactive Ni-63 on double side has been established

  5. Double side electroplating for applying beta voltaic with sandwich structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sang Moo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Kim, Jong Bum; Kim, Jin Joo; Park, Jong Han [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    As a result, a variety of nuclear-based small-scale power sources have been developed with varying degrees of success and maturity. A nuclear battery with diode junction is a device that converts nuclear radiation directly to electric power. The mechanism of a nuclear battery is same as the P-N junction diode for solar cell application. The photovoltaic is operated by converted photons to electrical energy in the junction. In betavoltaic battery, beta particles are collected and converted to electrical energy as similar principle as photovoltaic. A very low current, order of nano or micro amperes, is generated in devices. The difference of the short circuit current between the pre-deposition and post deposition of Ni-63 was found to be 5 nA. This value is very low to apply device junction. To fabricate betavoltaic, Ni-63 should be coated on the double side of substrate. The bath was primarily composed of 0.2 M Ni ions, prepared by dissolving Ni metal particles in HCl. The prototype for electroplating radioactive Ni-63 on double side has been established.

  6. Composite Sandwich Structures for Shock Mitigation and Energy Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-28

    MTS 831 servo -hydraulic machine was used to determine stress-strain curves of the PVC HI 00 foam using the apparatus shown in Fig. 30. The I inx I inx...Cambridge University Press , Cambridge, pp. 287- 303 , 1963. [ 11 ] Chen, L. and Hoo Fatt, M. S. , "Transversely Isotropic Mechanical Properties of PVC

  7. LiFePO4 nanoparticles enveloped in freestanding sandwich-like graphitized carbon sheets as enhanced remarkable lithium-ion battery cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Xiao; Xu, Haitao; Wang, Yu

    2016-04-15

    A novel nanostructure where LiFePO4 nanoparticles are enveloped in sandwich-like carbon sheets as an enhanced cathode in lithium-ion batteries has successfully been synthesized for the first time. Compared to previous carbon-based nanocomposites, the achieved sandwich-like LiFePO4 nanocomposites exhibit totally different architecture, in which LiFePO4 nanoparticles are tightly entrapped between two carbon layers, instead of being anchored on the carbon sheet surfaces. In other words, the achieved sandwich-like LiFePO4 nanocomposite carbon layers are actually freestanding and can be operated and separated from each other. This is a great breakthrough in the design and synthesis of carbon-based functional materials. The obtained sandwich-like LiFePO4 nanocomposites present excellent electrochemical performance, which is rationally ascribed to the superb and unique structure and architecture. Of particular note is that the freestanding sandwich-like LiFePO4 nanocomposites exhibit enhanced cyclability and rate capability. At a high current density of 0.1 A g(-1), a stable specific capacity of approximately 168.5 mAh g(-1) can be delivered over 1000 cycles, and when the charge-discharge rates increase to 0.6, 2, 5 and 10 A g(-1), the specific capacities still survive at 149, 129, 114 and 91 mAh g(-1), respectively. Meanwhile, the sandwiched nanocomposite demonstrates a significantly improved low-temperature electrochemical energy storage performance. With respect to the excellent Li storage performance, and facility and reliability of production, the freestanding sandwich-like LiFePO4 nanocomposites are reasonably believed to have a great potential for multiple electrochemical energy storage applications.

  8. Fatigue failure of sandwich beams with face sheet wrinkle defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, Martin Klitgaard; Hvejsel, C.F.; Thomsen, Ole Thybo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents experimental fatigue results for GFRP face sheet/balsa core sandwich beams with face sheet wrinkle defects, subjected to fully reversed in-plane fatigue loading. An estimate of the fatigue design limit is presented, based on static test results, finite element analyses and app...

  9. Compressive Behaviour and Energy Absorption of Aluminium Foam Sandwich

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endut, N. A.; Hazza, M. H. F. Al; Sidek, A. A.; Adesta, E. T. Y.; Ibrahim, N. A.

    2018-01-01

    Development of materials in automotive industries plays an important role in order to retain the safety, performance and cost. Metal foams are one of the idea to evolve new material in automotive industries since it can absorb energy when it deformed and good for crash management. Recently, new technology had been introduced to replace metallic foam by using aluminium foam sandwich (AFS) due to lightweight and high energy absorption behaviour. Therefore, this paper provides reliable data that can be used to analyze the energy absorption behaviour of aluminium foam sandwich by conducting experimental work which is compression test. Six experiments of the compression test were carried out to analyze the stress-strain relationship in terms of energy absorption behavior. The effects of input variables include varying the thickness of aluminium foam core and aluminium sheets on energy absorption behavior were evaluated comprehensively. Stress-strain relationship curves was used for energy absorption of aluminium foam sandwich calculation. The result highlights that the energy absorption of aluminium foam sandwich increases from 12.74 J to 64.42 J respectively with increasing the foam and skin thickness.

  10. Outcome of the TURP-TUVP sandwich procedure for minimally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bladder neck stenosis occurred in 3 patients and was successfully treated with bladder neck incision. Conclusions: The sandwich combination of TURP and TUVP for the surgical treatment of BPH with volume larger than 40cc had satisfactory patient safety profile and resulted in significant improvement in IPSS, Qmax and ...

  11. Acoustic wave spread in superconducting-normal-superconducting sandwich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urushadze, G.I.

    2004-01-01

    The acoustic wave spread, perpendicular to the boundaries between superconducting and normal metals in superconducting-normal-superconducting (SNS) sandwich has been considered. The alternate current flow sound induced by the Green function method has been found and the coefficient of the acoustic wave transmission through the junction γ=(S 1 -S 2 )/S 1 , (where S 1 and S 2 are average energy flows formed on the first and second boundaries) as a function of the phase difference between superconductors has been investigated. It is shown that while the SNS sandwich is almost transparent for acoustic waves (γ 0 /τ), n=0,1,2, ... (where τ 0 /τ is the ratio of the broadening of the quasiparticle energy levels in impurity normal metal as a result of scattering of the carriers by impurities 1/τ to the spacing between energy levels 1/τ 0 ), γ=2, (S 2 =-S 1 ), which corresponds to the full reflection of the acoustic wave from SNS sandwich. This result is valid for the limit of a pure normal metal but in the main impurity case there are two amplification and reflection regions for acoustic waves. The result obtained shows promise for the SNS sandwich as an ideal mirror for acoustic wave reflection

  12. Examination of Sandwich Materials Using Air-Coupled Ultrasonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borum, K.K.; Berggreen, Carl Christian

    2004-01-01

    The air-coupled ultrasonic techniques have been improved drastically in recent years. Better equipment has made this technique much more useful. This paper focuses on the examination of sandwich materials used in naval ships. It is more convenient to be able to make the measurements directly...

  13. Effect of microencapsulated phase change material in sandwich panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellon, Cecilia; Medrano, Marc; Roca, Joan; Cabeza, Luisa F. [GREA Innovacio Concurrent, Edifici CREA, Universitat de Lleida, Pere de Cabrera s/n, 25001 Lleida (Spain); Navarro, Maria E.; Fernandez, Ana I. [Departamento de Ciencias de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Lazaro, Ana; Zalba, Belen [Instituto de Investigacion en Ingenieria de Aragon, I3A, Grupo de Ingenieria Termica y Sistemas Energeticos (GITSE), Dpto. Ingenieria Mecanica, Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Universidad de Zaragoza, Campus Politecnico Rio Ebro, Edificio ' ' Agustin de Betancourt,' ' Maria de Luna s/n, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    Sandwich panels are a good option as building materials, as they offer excellent characteristics in a modular system. The goal of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using the microencapsulated PCM (Micronal BASF) in sandwich panels to increase their thermal inertia and to reduce the energy demand of the final buildings. In this paper, to manufacture the sandwich panel with microencapsulated PCM three different methods were tested. In case 1, the PCM was added mixing the microencapsulated PCM with one of the components of the polyurethane. In the other two cases, the PCM was added either a step before (case 2) or a step after (case 3) to the addition of the polyurethane to the metal sheets. The results show that in case 1 the effect of PCM was overlapped by a possible increase in thermal conductivity, but an increase of thermal inertia was found in case 3. In case 2, different results were obtained due to the poor distribution of the PCM. Some samples showed the effect of the PCM (higher thermal inertia), and other samples results were similar to the conventional sandwich panel. In both cases (2 and 3), it is required to industrialize the process to improve the results. (author)

  14. Damage assessment of compression loaded debond damaged sandwich panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moslemian, Ramin; Berggreen, Christian; Quispitupa, Amilcar

    2010-01-01

    with an implanted circular face/core debond. Compression tests were conducted on intact sandwich panels and panels with an implanted circular face/core debond with three different types of foam core materials (PVC H130, PVC H250 and PMI 51-IG). The strains and out-of-plane displacements of the debonded region were...

  15. An Assessment of the Speed Reading Ability of Sandwich Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses the concept and usefulness of rapid reading. It also reports a study in which the Faculty of Education, University of Lagos, Nigeria Sandwich students formed the subjects. Their pre-training reading speed and comprehension scores were determined through a pre-test, after which they were subjected to ...

  16. Enhanced detection levels in a semi-automated sandwich ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A peptide nucleic acid (PNA) signal probe was tested as a replacement for a typical DNA oligonucleotidebased signal probe in a semi-automated sandwich hybridisation assay designed to detect the harmful phytoplankton species Alexandrium tamarense. The PNA probe yielded consistently higher fluorescent signal ...

  17. Nonglobal proof of the thin--sandwich conjecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, C.M.

    1981-01-01

    A gravitational thin--sandwich conjecture was first proposed by Wheeler and coworkers during the period 1962--4. The present paper contains a proof of the nonglobal form of this gravitational thin--sandwich conjecture. The proof (a) applies for arbitrary choices of the spatial metric and its time derivative; and (b) demonstrates the existence on a spacelike three-surface of solutions which satisfy conditions of continuity known to be sufficient to obtain existence and uniqueness of solutions to Einstein's equations off the three-surface and existence and uniqueness of geodesics. Riquier's existence theorem plays an important role in the proof. The relationship of the present results to previous work is discussed. Some global questions associated with the thin--sandwich conjecture are clarified. Some aspects of the relationship of the thin--sandwich conjecture to the problem of the quantization of the gravitational field are noted. Both the vacuum case and the case of a nonviscous fluid are included. The discussion allows for an arbitrary equation of state p = p

  18. Residual Strength of In-plane Loaded Debonded Sandwich Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, Carl Christian; Simonsen, Bo Cerup

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a FEM based numerical model for prediction of residual strength of damaged sandwich panels. As demonstrated, the model can predict the maximum load carrying capacity of real-life panels with debond damages, where the failure is governed by face-sheet buckling followed by debond...

  19. Numerical and Experimental Low-Velocity Impact Behaivor of Sandwich Plates with Viscoelastic Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroush Sadeghnejad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A numerical and experimental low-velocity impact behavior of sandwich plates have been presently studied with regard to the compressibility and viscoelasticity features of their cores. Face sheets were assumed to be anisotropic composites or isotropic aluminum materials and a viscoelastic behavior has been considered for core. The boundary conditions are assumed to be simply supported or rigid. Abaqus, as FEM software, and its python script programming feature, have been used to model the specimens. To model hyper-viscoelastic nonlinear behavior of the core, Ogden hyper-foam elasticity and Prony series approach are manipulated. To solve the numerical problem, dynamic explicit solver option with sufficient solving amplitude has been used. Prony series have been used to model the core time-dependent behavior. In conjunction with a simple indentation experiment, FEM used to formulate a novel method for finding the Prony series coefficients. By performing some low-velocity impact experiments, the impact force and displacement of the composite sandwich plates have been investigated. The results indicate that increasing the structural damping increases the contact time and missing energy and decreases the stored energy of the system. The structures with composite face sheets have a minimum ratio of upper face sheet displacement to lower face sheet displacement in comparison to those with the isotropic face sheets. Impact behavior of isotropic face sheet specimens are more flattened than that of the composite face sheets. In addition, the specific energy stored in the sandwich plates with composite face sheets, on different supports, is greater than that stored in the aluminum face sheets.

  20. Interfacial Crack Arrest in Sandwich Panels with Embedded Crack Stoppers Subjected to Fatigue Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martakos, G.; Andreasen, J. H.; Berggreen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    A novel crack arresting device has been implemented in sandwich panels and tested using a special rig to apply out-of-plane loading on the sandwich panel face-sheets. Fatigue crack propagation was induced in the face-core interface of the sandwich panels which met the crack arrester. The effect o...

  1. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of 4-aminobenzenethiol sandwiched between silver nanoparticles and gold micro-powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jeong Yong; Lee, Hyang Bong; Kim, Kwan; Shin Kuan Soo

    2015-01-01

    The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of micrometer-sized gold (μAu) powders is far weaker than that of micrometer-sized silver (μAg) powders. The Raman peaks of organics assembled on μAu powders can, however, be enhanced dramatically by depositing Ag nanoparticles thereon to form the so-called sandwich structures. This is demonstrated in this work by using 4-aminobenzenthiol (4-ABT) as the prototype organic. Besides, the b_2-type bands of 4-ABT are found to be enhanced more than the a1-type band, and this is presumed to be a result of the favorable Ag-to-Au charge transfer configuration of the sandwich structure (Ag/4-ABT/μAu), associated with the chemical enhancement mechanism in SERS

  2. The Planar Sandwich and Other 1D Planar Heat Flow Test Problems in ExactPack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, Jr., Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-24

    This report documents the implementation of several related 1D heat flow problems in the verification package ExactPack [1]. In particular, the planar sandwich class defined in Ref. [2], as well as the classes PlanarSandwichHot, PlanarSandwichHalf, and other generalizations of the planar sandwich problem, are defined and documented here. A rather general treatment of 1D heat flow is presented, whose main results have been implemented in the class Rod1D. All planar sandwich classes are derived from the parent class Rod1D.

  3. Thermal Performance of Precast Concrete Sandwich Panel (PCSP) Design for Sustainable Built Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ern, Peniel Ang Soon; Ling, Lim Mei; Kasim, Narimah; Hamid, Zuhairi Abd; Masrom, Md Asrul Nasid Bin

    2017-10-01

    Malaysia’s awareness of performance criteria in construction industry towards a sustainable built environment with the use of precast concrete sandwich panel (PCSP) system is applied in the building’s wall to study the structural behaviour. However, very limited studies are conducted on the thermal insulation of exterior and interior panels in PCSP design. In hot countries such as Malaysia, proper designs of panel are important to obtain better thermal insulation for building. This study is based on thermal performance of precast concrete sandwich panel design for sustainable built environment in Malaysia. In this research, three full specimens, which are control specimen (C), foamed concrete (FC) panels and concrete panels with added palm oil fuel ash (FC+ POFA), where FC and FC+POFA sandwiched with gypsum board (G) were produced to investigate their thermal performance. Temperature difference of exterior and interior surface of specimen was used as indicators of thermal-insulating performance of PCSP design. Heat transfer test by halogen lamp was carried out on three specimens where the exterior surface of specimens was exposed to the halogen lamp. The temperature reading of exterior and interior surface for three specimens were recorded with the help of thermocouple. Other factors also studied the workability, compressive strength and axial compressive strength of the specimens. This study has shown that FC + POFA specimen has the strength nearer to normal specimen (C + FC specimen). Meanwhile, the heat transfer results show that the FC+POFA has better thermal insulation performance compared to C and FC specimens with the highest temperature difference, 3.4°C compared to other specimens. The results from this research are useful to be implemented in construction due to its benefits such as reduction of energy consumption in air-conditioning, reduction of construction periods and eco-friendly materials.

  4. Highly graphitized laterally interconnected SWCNT network synthesis via a sandwich-grown method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, I-Ju; Chen, Kai-Ling; Wang, Li-Chun; Kuo, Cheng-Tzu; Hsu, Hui-Lin; Jian, Sheng-Rui; Chen, Jung-Hsuan; Wang, Wei-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    We present a sandwich-grown method for growing laterally interconnected single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) networks with a high degree of graphitization by microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD). An Al 2 O 3 -supported Fe catalyst precursor layer deposited on an oxidized Si substrate with an upper Si cover is first pretreated in pure hydrogen, and then exposed to a gas mixture of methane/hydrogen for growth process at a lower growth temperature and a faster rate. The effects of various parameters, such as catalyst film thickness, gas flow rate, working pressure, growth time and plasma power, on the morphologies and structural characteristics of the SWCNT networks are investigated, and therefore provide the essential conditions for direct growth of laterally interconnected SWCNT networks. Analytical results demonstrate that the SWCNT-based lateral architecture comprises a mixture of graphene-sheet-wrapped catalyst particles and laterally interconnected nanotubes, isolated or branched or assembled into bundles. The results also show that the formation of the laterally interconnected SWCNT networks is related to the sandwich-like stack approach and the addition of an Al 2 O 3 layer in the MPCVD process. The successful growth of lateral SWCNT networks provides new experimental information for simply and efficiently preparing lateral SWCNTs on unpatterned substrates, and opens a pathway to create network-structured nanotube-based devices.

  5. Dynamic Response and Optimal Design of Curved Metallic Sandwich Panels under Blast Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shu; Han, Shou-Hong; Lu, Zhen-Hua

    2014-01-01

    It is important to understand the effect of curvature on the blast response of curved structures so as to seek the optimal configurations of such structures with improved blast resistance. In this study, the dynamic response and protective performance of a type of curved metallic sandwich panel subjected to air blast loading were examined using LS-DYNA. The numerical methods were validated using experimental data in the literature. The curved panel consisted of an aluminum alloy outer face and a rolled homogeneous armour (RHA) steel inner face in addition to a closed-cell aluminum foam core. The results showed that the configuration of a “soft” outer face and a “hard” inner face worked well for the curved sandwich panel against air blast loading in terms of maximum deflection (MaxD) and energy absorption. The panel curvature was found to have a monotonic effect on the specific energy absorption (SEA) and a nonmonotonic effect on the MaxD of the panel. Based on artificial neural network (ANN) metamodels, multiobjective optimization designs of the panel were carried out. The optimization results revealed the trade-off relationships between the blast-resistant and the lightweight objectives and showed the great use of Pareto front in such design circumstances. PMID:25126606

  6. Dynamic response and optimal design of curved metallic sandwich panels under blast loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chang; Yang, Shu; Yang, Li-Jun; Han, Shou-Hong; Lu, Zhen-Hua

    2014-01-01

    It is important to understand the effect of curvature on the blast response of curved structures so as to seek the optimal configurations of such structures with improved blast resistance. In this study, the dynamic response and protective performance of a type of curved metallic sandwich panel subjected to air blast loading were examined using LS-DYNA. The numerical methods were validated using experimental data in the literature. The curved panel consisted of an aluminum alloy outer face and a rolled homogeneous armour (RHA) steel inner face in addition to a closed-cell aluminum foam core. The results showed that the configuration of a "soft" outer face and a "hard" inner face worked well for the curved sandwich panel against air blast loading in terms of maximum deflection (MaxD) and energy absorption. The panel curvature was found to have a monotonic effect on the specific energy absorption (SEA) and a nonmonotonic effect on the MaxD of the panel. Based on artificial neural network (ANN) metamodels, multiobjective optimization designs of the panel were carried out. The optimization results revealed the trade-off relationships between the blast-resistant and the lightweight objectives and showed the great use of Pareto front in such design circumstances.

  7. Dynamic Response and Optimal Design of Curved Metallic Sandwich Panels under Blast Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Qi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to understand the effect of curvature on the blast response of curved structures so as to seek the optimal configurations of such structures with improved blast resistance. In this study, the dynamic response and protective performance of a type of curved metallic sandwich panel subjected to air blast loading were examined using LS-DYNA. The numerical methods were validated using experimental data in the literature. The curved panel consisted of an aluminum alloy outer face and a rolled homogeneous armour (RHA steel inner face in addition to a closed-cell aluminum foam core. The results showed that the configuration of a “soft” outer face and a “hard” inner face worked well for the curved sandwich panel against air blast loading in terms of maximum deflection (MaxD and energy absorption. The panel curvature was found to have a monotonic effect on the specific energy absorption (SEA and a nonmonotonic effect on the MaxD of the panel. Based on artificial neural network (ANN metamodels, multiobjective optimization designs of the panel were carried out. The optimization results revealed the trade-off relationships between the blast-resistant and the lightweight objectives and showed the great use of Pareto front in such design circumstances.

  8. Semi-active control of a sandwich beam partially filled with magnetorheological elastomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyniewicz, Bartłomiej; Bajkowski, Jacek M.; Bajer, Czesław I.

    2015-08-01

    The paper deals with the semi-active control of vibrations of structural elements. Elastomer composites with ferromagnetic particles that act as magnetorheological fluids are used. The damping coefficient and the shear modulus of the elastomer increases when it is exposed to an electro-magnetic field. The control of this process in time allows us to reduce vibrations more effectively than if the elastomer is permanently exposed to a magnetic field. First the analytical solution for the vibrations of a sandwich beam filled with an elastomer is given. Then the control problem is defined and applied to the analytical formula. The numerical solution of the minimization problem results in a periodic, perfectly rectangular control function if free vibrations are considered. Such a temporarily acting magnetic field is more efficient than a constantly acting one. The surplus reaches 20-50% or more, depending on the filling ratio of the elastomer. The resulting control was verified experimentally in the vibrations of a cantilever sandwich beam. The proposed semi-active control can be directly applied to engineering vibrating structural elements, for example helicopter rotors, aircraft wings, pads under machines, and vehicles.

  9. It All Starts with a Sandwich: Identification of Sialidases with Trans-Glycosylation Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordvang, Rune Thorbjørn; Nyffenegger, Christian; Holck, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    structure of two amino acids proximal to the active site of the T. cruzi trans-sialidase infers trans-sialidase activity. On this basis, four enzymes with putative trans-sialidase activity were identified through an iterative alignment from 2909 native sialidases available in GenBank, which were cloned...... and expressed in Escherichia coli. Of these, one enzyme, SialH, derived from Haemophilus parasuis had an aromatic sandwich structure on the protein surface facing the end of the catalytic site (Phe168; Trp366), and was indeed found to exhibit trans-sialidase activity. SialH catalyzed production of the human...... provided data that help understand structure-function relations of trans-sialidases....

  10. Applications of thin-film sandwich crystallization platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axford, Danny, E-mail: danny.axford@diamond.ac.uk; Aller, Pierre; Sanchez-Weatherby, Juan; Sandy, James [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-24

    Crystallization via sandwiches of thin polymer films is presented and discussed. Examples are shown of protein crystallization in, and data collection from, solutions sandwiched between thin polymer films using vapour-diffusion and batch methods. The crystallization platform is optimal for both visualization and in situ data collection, with the need for traditional harvesting being eliminated. In wells constructed from the thinnest plastic and with a minimum of aqueous liquid, flash-cooling to 100 K is possible without significant ice formation and without any degradation in crystal quality. The approach is simple; it utilizes low-cost consumables but yields high-quality data with minimal sample intervention and, with the very low levels of background X-ray scatter that are observed, is optimal for microcrystals.

  11. Structural Health Monitoring: Numerical Damage Predictor for Composite Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lannamann, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    .... Wide use of composites is found in aircraft, armored vehicles, ships and civil structures This present research demonstrates the ability to numerically detect damage in a composite sandwich structure...

  12. Outcome of the TURP-TUVP sandwich procedure for minimally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shanker

    TURP–TUVP sandwich procedure for the surgical treatment of BPH larger than 40cc in volume. 23 used was 21.5 L (SD = 4.9).The mean post-operative hospital stay was 3.5 days (range 3- 4 days). Overall,. 11 (19%) patients had blood transfusion, there was no incidence of TUR syndrome and one mortality was recorded ...

  13. Radioimmunoassays and 2-site immunoradiometric 'sandwich' assays: basic principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodbard, D

    1988-10-01

    The 'sandwich' or noncompetitive reagent-excess, 2-site immunoradiometric assay (2-site IRMA), ELISA, USERIA, and related techniques, have several advantages compared with the traditional or competitive radioimmunoassays. IRMAs can provide improved sensitivity and specificity. However, IRMAs present some practical problems with nonspecific binding, increased consumption of antibody, biphasic dose response curve, (high dose hook effect), and may require special techniques for dose response curve analysis. We anticipate considerable growth in the popularity and importance of 2-site IRMA.

  14. Radioimmunoassays and 2-site immunoradiometric "sandwich" assays: basic principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodbard, D

    1988-10-01

    The "sandwich" or noncompetitive reagent-excess, 2-site immunoradiometric assay (2-site IRMA), ELISA, USERIA, and related techniques, have several advantages compared with the traditional or competitive radioimmunoassays. IRMAs can provide improved sensitivity and specificity. However, IRMAs present some practical problems with nonspecific binding, increased consumption of antibody, biphasic dose response curve, (high dose hook effect), and may require special techniques for dose response curve analysis. We anticipate considerable growth in the popularity and importance of 2-site IRMA.

  15. Application of sandwich honeycomb carbon/glass fiber-honeycomb composite in the floor component of electric car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukmaji, I. C.; Wijang, W. R.; Andri, S.; Bambang, K.; Teguh, T.

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays composite is a superior material used in automotive component due to its outstanding mechanical behavior. The sandwich polypropylene honeycomb core with carbon/glass fiber composite skin (SHCG) as based material in a floor component of electric car application is investigated in the present research. In sandwich structure form, it can absorb noise better compare with the conventional material [1]. Also in present paper, Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of SHCG as based material for floor component of the electric car is analyzed. The composite sandwich is contained with a layer uniform carbon fiber and mixing non-uniform carbon-glass fiber in upper and lower skin. Between skins of SHCG are core polypropylene honeycomb that it have good flexibility to form following dies profile. The variables of volume fraction ratio of carbon/glass fiber in SHCG skin are 20/80%, 30/70%, and 50/50%. The specimen of SHCG is tested using the universal testing machine by three points bending method refers to ASTM C393 and ASTM C365. The cross point between tensile strength to the volume fraction the mixing carbon/glass line and ratio cost line are the searched material with good mechanical performance and reasonable cost. The point is 30/70 volume fraction of carbon/glass fiber. The result of the testing experiment is become input properties of model structure sandwich in FEA simulation. FEA simulation approach is conducted to find critical strength and factor of complex safety geometry against varied distributed passenger loads of a floor component the electric car. The passenger loads variable are 80, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 kg.

  16. Sandwiched Rényi divergence satisfies data processing inequality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beigi, Salman

    2013-01-01

    Sandwiched (quantum) α-Rényi divergence has been recently defined in the independent works of Wilde et al. [“Strong converse for the classical capacity of entanglement-breaking channels,” preprint http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1306.1586 (2013)] and Müller-Lennert et al. [“On quantum Rényi entropies: a new definition, some properties and several conjectures,” preprint http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1306.3142v1 (2013)]. This new quantum divergence has already found applications in quantum information theory. Here we further investigate properties of this new quantum divergence. In particular, we show that sandwiched α-Rényi divergence satisfies the data processing inequality for all values of α > 1. Moreover we prove that α-Holevo information, a variant of Holevo information defined in terms of sandwiched α-Rényi divergence, is super-additive. Our results are based on Hölder's inequality, the Riesz-Thorin theorem and ideas from the theory of complex interpolation. We also employ Sion's minimax theorem

  17. Harmonic Differential Quadrature Analysis of Soft-Core Sandwich Panels under Locally Distributed Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinwei Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich structures are widely used in practice and thus various engineering theories adopting simplifying assumptions are available. However, most engineering theories of beams, plates and shells cannot recover all stresses accurately through their constitutive equations. Therefore, the soft-core is directly modeled by two-dimensional (2D elasticity theory without any pre-assumption on the displacement field. The top and bottom faces act like the elastic supports on the top and bottom edges of the core. The differential equations of the 2D core are then solved by the harmonic differential quadrature method (HDQM. To circumvent the difficulties in dealing with the locally distributed load by point discrete methods such as the HDQM, a general and rigorous way is proposed to treat the locally distributed load. Detailed formulations are provided. The static behavior of sandwich panels under different locally distributed loads is investigated. For verification, results are compared with data obtained by ABAQUS with very fine meshes. A high degree of accuracy on both displacement and stress has been observed.

  18. External mean flow influence on sound transmission through finite clamped double-wall sandwich panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Catalan, Jean-Cédric

    2017-09-01

    This paper studies the influence of an external mean flow on the sound transmission through finite clamped double-wall sandwich panels lined with poroelastic materials. Biot's theory is employed to describe wave propagation in poroelastic materials and various configurations of coupling the poroelastic layer to the facing plates are considered. The clamped boundary of finite panels are dealt with by the modal superposition theory and the weighted residual (Garlekin) method, leading to a matrix equation solution for the sound transmission loss (STL) through the structure. The theoretical model is validated against existing theories of infinite sandwich panels with and without an external flow. The numerical results of a single incident wave show that the external mean flow has significant effects on the STL which are coupled with the clamped boundary effect dominating in the low-frequency range. The external mean flow also influences considerably the limiting incidence angle of the panel system and the effect of the incidence angle on the STL. However, the influences of the azimuthal angle and the external flow orientation are negligible.

  19. Amorphous Red Phosphorus Embedded in Sandwiched Porous Carbon Enabling Superior Sodium Storage Performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Liu, Zheng; Zhong, Xiongwu; Cheng, Xiaolong; Fan, Zhuangjun; Yu, Yan

    2018-03-01

    The red P anode for sodium ion batteries has attracted great attention recently due to the high theoretical capacity, but the poor intrinsic electronic conductivity and large volume expansion restrain its widespread applications. Herein, the red P is successfully encapsulated into the cube shaped sandwich-like interconnected porous carbon building (denoted as P@C-GO/MOF-5) via the vaporization-condensation method. Superior cycling stability (high capacity retention of about 93% at 2 A g -1 after 100 cycles) and excellent rate performance (502 mAh g -1 at 10 A g -1 ) can be obtained for the P@C-GO/MOF-5 electrode. The superior electrochemical performance can be ascribed to the successful incorporation of red P into the unique carbon matrix with large surface area and pore volume, interconnected porous structure, excellent electronic conductivity and superior structural stability. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Damage assessment in a sandwich panel based on full-field vibration measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguel, F.; Meruane, V.

    2018-03-01

    Different studies have demonstrated that vibration characteristics are sensitive to debonding in composite structures. Nevertheless, one of the main restrictions of vibration measurements is the number of degrees of freedom that can be acquired simultaneously, which restricts the size of the damage that can be identified. Recent studies have shown that it is possible to use high-speed three-dimensional (3-D) digital image correlation (DIC) techniques for full-field vibration measurements. With this technique, it is possible to take measurements at thousands of points on the surface of a structure with a single snapshot. The present article investigates the application of full-field vibration measurements in the debonding assessment of an aluminium honeycomb sandwich panel. Experimental data from an aluminium honeycomb panel containing different damage scenarios is acquired by a high-speed 3-D DIC system; four methodologies to compute damage indices are evaluated: mode shape curvatures, uniform load surface, modal strain energy and gapped smoothing.

  1. Optimization process for thin-walled high performance concrete sandwich panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodicky, Kamil; Hulin, Thomas; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2014-01-01

    with the specifications of the design constrains and variables. The tool integrates the processes of HPCSP design, quantity take-off and cost estimation into a single system that would provide different costs for different HPCSP designs. The proposed multi-objective optimisation scheme results into derivation of basic......A Nearly zero energy buildings are to become a requirement as part of the European energy policy. There are many ways of designing nearly zero energy buildings, but there is a lack of knowledge on optimization processes in the sense of structurally and thermally efficient design with an optimal...... economical solution. The present paper aims to provide multi-objective optimisation procedure addressed to structural precast thin-walled High Performance Concrete Sandwich Panels (HPCSP). The research aim is concerned with developing a tool that considers the cost of HPCSP materials along...

  2. Targeted synthesis of novel hierarchical sandwiched NiO/C arrays as high-efficiency lithium ion batteries anode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yangyang; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Wenxiang; Fang, Ling; Wang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution, the novel 2D sandwich-like NiO/C arrays on Ti foil are successfully designed and fabricated for the first time via simple and controllable hydrothermal process. In this strategy, we use green glucose as carbon source and ultrathin Ni(OH)2 nanosheet arrays as precursor for NiO nanoparticles and sacrificial templates for coupled graphitized carbon layers. This advanced sandwiched composite can not only provide large surface area for numerous active sites and continuous contact between active materials and electrolyte, but also protect the active nanoparticles from aggregation, pulverization and peeling off from conductive substrates. Furthermore, the porous structure derived from lots of substances loss under high-temperature calcinations can effectively buffer possible volume expansion and facilitate ion transfer. In this article, sandwiched NiO/C arrays, utilized as anode for LIBs, demonstrated high specific capacity (∼1458 mAh g-1 at 500 mA g-1) and excellent rate performance and cyclablity (∼95.7% retention after 300 cycles).

  3. A ternary functional Ag@GO@Au sandwiched hybrid as an ultrasensitive and stable surface enhanced Raman scattering platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cong-yun; Hao, Rui; Zhao, Bin; Hao, Yao-wu; Liu, Ya-qing

    2017-07-01

    The graphene-mediated surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates by virtues of plasmonic metal nanostructures and graphene or its derivatives have attracted tremendous interests which are expected to make up the deficiency of traditional plasmonic metal substrates. Herein, we designed and fabricated a novel ternary Ag@GO@Au sandwich hybrid wherein the ultrathin graphene oxide (GO) films were seamlessly wrapped around the hierarchical flower-like Ag particle core and meanwhile provided two-dimensional anchoring scaffold for the coating of Au nanoparticles (NPs). The surface coverage density of loading Au NPs could be readily controlled by tuning the dosage amount of Au particle solutions. These features endowed the sandwiched structures high enrichment capability for analytes such as aromatic molecules and astonishing SERS performance. The Raman signals were enormously enhanced with an ultrasensitive detection limit of rhodamine-6G (R6G) as low as 10-13 M based on the chemical enhancement from GO and multi-dimensional plasmonic coupling between the metal nanoparticles. In addition, the GO interlayer as an isolating shell could effectively prevent the metal-molecule direct interaction and suppress the oxidation of Ag after exposure at ambient condition which enabled the substrates excellent reproducibility with less than 6% signal variations and prolonged life-time. To evaluate the feasibility and the practical application for SERS detection in real-world samples based on GO sandwiched hybrid as SERS-active substrate, three different prohibited colorants with a series of concentrations were measured with a minimum detected concentration down to 10-9 M. Furthermore, the prepared GO sandwiched nanostructures can be used to identify different types of colorants existing in red wine, implying the great potential applications for single-particle SERS sensing of biotechnology and on-site monitoring in food security.

  4. Sound insulation of composite cylindrical shells: a comparison between a laminated and a sandwich cylinder

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Chongxin; Roozen, Bert; Bergsma, Otto; Beukers, Adriaan

    2012-01-01

    The fuselages of aircraft are modeled as a cylinder in this paper, and the sound insulations of a sandwich cylinder and a laminated cylinder are studied both experimentally and numerically. The cylinders are excited by an acoustic pressure and a mechanical force respectively. Results show that under acoustic excitation, the sandwich cylinder and the laminated one have a similar sound insulation below 3000 Hz, but the sandwich cylinder has a much larger sound insulation at higher frequencies. ...

  5. 1. Mono([8]annulene)Uranium(4) half-sandwich complexes, 2. Novel syntheses of symmetrically substituted cyclooctatetetraenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussie, T.R.

    1991-10-01

    A reproducible, high-yield synthesis of mono([8]annulene)uranium(4)dichloride (1) is reported, along with the X-ray crystal structural of the bis(pyridine) adduct. Metathesis reactions of the half-sandwich complex 1 with a variety of simple alkyl and alkoxy reagents failed to generate any isolable mono-ring complexes. Reactions of 1 with polydentate, delocalized anions did produce stable derivatives, including mono([8]annulene)uranium(4)bis(acetylacetonate) (4). An X-ray crystal structure of 4 is reported

  6. 1. Mono([8]annulene)Uranium(4) half-sandwich complexes, 2. Novel syntheses of symmetrically substituted cyclooctatetetraenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussie, Thomas Richard [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1991-10-01

    A reproducible, high-yield synthesis of mono([8]annulene)uranium(4)dichloride (1) is reported, along with the X-ray crystal structural of the bis(pyridine) adduct. Metathesis reactions of the half-sandwich complex 1 with a variety of simple alkyl and alkoxy reagents failed to generate any isolable mono-ring complexes. Reactions of 1 with polydentate, delocalized anions did produce stable derivatives, including mono([8]annulene)uranium(4)bis(acetylacetonate) (4). An X-ray crystal structure of 4 is reported.

  7. 1. Mono((8)annulene)Uranium(4) half-sandwich complexes, 2. Novel syntheses of symmetrically substituted cyclooctatetetraenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boussie, T.R.

    1991-10-01

    A reproducible, high-yield synthesis of mono((8)annulene)uranium(4)dichloride (1) is reported, along with the X-ray crystal structural of the bis(pyridine) adduct. Metathesis reactions of the half-sandwich complex 1 with a variety of simple alkyl and alkoxy reagents failed to generate any isolable mono-ring complexes. Reactions of 1 with polydentate, delocalized anions did produce stable derivatives, including mono((8)annulene)uranium(4)bis(acetylacetonate) (4). An X-ray crystal structure of 4 is reported.

  8. Combined-load buckling behavior of metal-matrix composite sandwich panels under different thermal environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, William L.; Jackson, Raymond H.

    1991-01-01

    Combined compressive and shear buckling analysis was conducted on flat rectangular sandwich panels with the consideration of transverse shear effects of the core. The sandwich panel is fabricated with titanium honeycomb core and laminated metal matrix composite face sheets. The results show that the square panel has the highest combined load buckling strength, and that the buckling strength decreases sharply with the increases of both temperature and panel aspect ratio. The effect of layup (fiber orientation) on the buckling strength of the panels was studied in detail. The metal matrix composite sandwich panel was much more efficient than the sandwich panel with nonreinforced face sheets and had the same specific weight.

  9. Sandwich Hologram Interferometry For Determination Of Sacroiliac Joint Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukicevic, S.; Vinter, I.; Vukicevic, D.

    1983-12-01

    Investigations were carried out on embalmed and fresh specimens of human pelvisis with preserved lumbar spines, hip joints and all the ligaments. Specimens were tested under static vertical loading by pulsed laser interferometry. The deformations and behaviour of particular pelvic parts were interpreted by providing computer interferogram models. Results indicate rotation and tilting of the sacrum in the dorso-ventral direction and small but significant movements in the cranio-caudal direction. Sandwich holography proved to be the only applicable method when there is a combination of translation and tilt in the range of 200 μm to 1.5 mm.

  10. FINITE ELEMENT MODELING OF THIN CIRCULAR SANDWICH PLATES DEFLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Kurachka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of a thin circular sandwich plate being under the vertical load is proposed. The model employs the finite element method and takes advantage of an axisymmetric finite element that leads to the small dimension of the resulting stiffness matrix and sufficient accuracy for practical calculations. The analytical expressions for computing local stiffness matrices are found, which can significantly speed up the process of forming the global stiffness matrix and increase the accuracy of calculations. A software is under development and verification. The discrepancy between the results of the mathematical model and those of analytical formulas for homogeneous thin circularsandwich plates does not exceed 7%.

  11. Residual Strength Prediction of Debond Damaged Sandwich Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, Carl Christian

    followed by debond growth. The developed theoretical procedure is an extension of the Crack Surface Displacement method, here denoted the Crack Surface Displacement Extrapolation method. The method is first developed in 2D and then extended to 3D by use of a number of realistic assumptions...... for the considered configurations. Comparison of the theoretical predictions to two series of large-scale experiments with loadings (uniform and non-uniform in-plane compression) comparable with real life loading scenarios for sandwich ships shows that the model is indeed able to predict the failure modes...

  12. Buckling analysis of laminated sandwich beam with soft core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Chakrabarti

    Full Text Available Stability analysis of laminated soft core sandwich beam has been studied by a C0 FE model developed by the authors based on higher order zigzag theory (HOZT. The in-plane displacement variation is considered to be cubic for the face sheets and the core, while transverse displacement is quadratic within the core and constant in the faces beyond the core. The proposed model satisfies the condition of stress continuity at the layer interfaces and the zero stress condition at the top and bottom of the beam for transverse shear. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the accuracy of the present model.

  13. Nonvolatile resistive switching in metal/La-doped BiFeO3/Pt sandwiches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mi; Zhuge, Fei; Zhu, Xiaojian; Yin, Kuibo; Wang, Jinzhi; Liu, Yiwei; He, Congli; Chen, Bin; Li, Run-Wei

    2010-10-22

    The resistive switching (RS) characteristics of a Bi(0.95)La(0.05)FeO(3) (La-BFO) film sandwiched between a Pt bottom electrode and top electrodes (TEs) made of Al, Ag, Cu, and Au have been studied. Devices with TEs made of Ag and Cu showed stable bipolar RS behaviors, whereas those with TEs made of Al and Au exhibited unstable bipolar RS. The Ag/La-BFO/Pt structure showed an on/off ratio of 10(2), a retention time > 10(5) s, and programming voltages TEs under a bias voltage. The maximum current before the reset process (on-to-off switching) was found to increase linearly with the current compliance applied during the set process (off-to-on switching).

  14. Cost optimization of load carrying thin-walled precast high performance concrete sandwich panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodicky, Kamil; Hansen, Sanne; Hulin, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    and HPCSP’s geometrical parameters as well as on material cost function in the HPCSP design. Cost functions are presented for High Performance Concrete (HPC), insulation layer, reinforcement and include labour-related costs. The present study reports the economic data corresponding to specific manufacturing......The paper describes a procedure to find the structurally and thermally efficient design of load-carrying thin-walled precast High Performance Concrete Sandwich Panels (HPCSP) with an optimal economical solution. A systematic optimization approach is based on the selection of material’s performances....... The solution of the optimization problem is performed in the computer package software Matlab® with SQPlab package and integrates the processes of HPCSP design, quantity take-off and cost estimation. The proposed optimization process outcomes in complex HPCSP design proposals to achieve minimum cost of HPCSP....

  15. Dimensional stability performance of a CFRP sandwich optical bench for microsatellite payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnoyers, N.; Goyette, P.; Leduc, B.; Boucher, M.-A.

    2017-09-01

    Microsatellite market requires high performance while minimizing mass, volume and cost. Telescopes are specifically targeted by these trade-offs. One of these is to use the optomechanical structure of the telescope to mount electronic devices that may dissipate heat. However, such approach may be problematic in terms of distortions due to the presence of high thermal gradients throughout the telescope structure. To prevent thermal distortions, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) technology can be used for the optomechanical telescope material structure. CFRP is typically about 100 times less sensitive to thermal gradients and its coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) is about 200 to 600 times lower than standard aluminum alloys according to inhouse measurements. Unfortunately, designing with CFRP material is not as straightforward as with metallic materials. There are many parameters to consider in order to reach the desired dimensional stability under thermal, moisture and vibration exposures. Designing optomechanical structures using CFRP involves many challenges such as interfacing with optics and sometimes dealing with high CTE mounting interface structures like aluminum spacecraft buses. INO has designed a CFRP sandwich telescope structure to demonstrate the achievable performances of such technology. Critical parameters have been optimized to maximize the dimensional stability while meeting the stringent environmental requirements that microsatellite payloads have to comply with. The telescope structure has been tested in vacuum from -40°C to +50°C and has shown a good fit with finite element analysis predictions.

  16. Mechanic properties analysis of quasi-square honeycomb sandwich structure′s core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan TONG

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to illustrate the relationship between the quasi-square-honeycomb structure and the hexagonal honeycomb structure, after decomposing the quasi-square honeycomb sandwich structure into unique T-shaped cell, the equivalent elastic constants equations of T-shaped cell model are derived respectively by applying Euler beam theory and energy method. At the same time, the quasi-square honeycomb's characteristic structure parameters are substituted into the equivalent elastic constants equations which are derived by the classical method of a hexagonal honeycomb core, and the same results are obtained as that of the preceding both methods. It is proved that the quasi-square-honeycomb structure is an evolution of hexagonal honeycomb. The limitations and application scope of the two classical honeycomb formulas are pointed out. The research of the structural characteristics of the square-shaped honeycomb shows that the classical cellular theoretical formula are singular and inaccurate when the feature angle values equal to zero or near zero. This study has important reference value for the subsequent research and improvement of the theories about cellular structure mechanical properties.

  17. Synthesis of Hierarchically Porous Sandwich-Like Carbon Materials for High-Performance Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiju; Chen, Chaoji; Gao, Tingting; Zhang, Dongming; Huang, Xiaomei; Pan, Yue; Ye, Ke; Cheng, Kui; Cao, Dianxue; Wang, Guiling

    2016-11-14

    For the first time, hierarchically porous carbon materials with a sandwich-like structure are synthesized through a facile and efficient tri-template approach. The hierarchically porous microstructures consist of abundant macropores and numerous micropores embedded into the crosslinked mesoporous walls. As a result, the obtained carbon material with a unique sandwich-like structure has a relatively high specific surface (1235 m 2  g -1 ), large pore volume (1.30 cm 3  g -1 ), and appropriate pore size distribution. These merits lead to a comparably high specific capacitance of 274.8 F g -1 at 0.2 A g -1 and satisfying rate performance (87.7 % retention from 1 to 20 A g -1 ). More importantly, the symmetric supercapacitor with two identical as-prepared carbon samples shows a superior energy density of 18.47 Wh kg -1 at a power density of 179.9 W kg -1 . The asymmetric supercapacitor based on as-obtained carbon sample and its composite with manganese dioxide (MnO 2 ) can reach up to an energy density of 25.93 Wh kg -1 at a power density of 199.9 W kg -1 . Therefore, these unique carbon material open a promising prospect for future development and utilization in the field of energy storage. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Cation-mediated conversion of the state of charge in uranium arene inverted-sandwich complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camp, Clement; Mougel, Victor; Pecaut, Jacques; Mazzanti, Marinella [Laboratoire de Reconnaissance Ionique et Chimie de Coordination, SCIB, UMR-E3 CEA-UJF, INAC, CEA-Grenoble (France); Maron, Laurent [LCPNO, CNRS and INSA, UPS, Universite de Toulouse (France)

    2013-12-16

    Two new arene inverted-sandwich complexes of uranium supported by siloxide ancillary ligands [K{U(OSi(OtBu)_3)_3}{sub 2}(μ-η{sup 6}:η{sup 6}-C{sub 7}H{sub 8})] (3) and [K{sub 2}{U(OSi(OtBu)_3)_3}{sub 2}(μ-η{sup 6}:η{sup 6}-C{sub 7}H{sub 8})] (4) were synthesized by the reduction of the parent arene-bridged complex [{U(OSi(OtBu)_3)_3}{sub 2}(μ-η{sup 6}:η{sup 6}-C{sub 7}H{sub 8})] (2) with stoichiometric amounts of KC{sub 8} yielding a rare family of inverted-sandwich complexes in three states of charge. The structural data and computational studies of the electronic structure are in agreement with the presence of high-valent uranium centers bridged by a reduced tetra-anionic toluene with the best formulation being U{sup V}-(arene{sup 4-})-U{sup V}, KU{sup IV}-(arene{sup 4-})-U{sup V}, and K{sub 2}U{sup IV}-(arene{sup 4-})-U{sup IV} for complexes 2, 3, and 4 respectively. The potassium cations in complexes 3 and 4 are coordinated to the siloxide ligands both in the solid state and in solution. The addition of KOTf (OTf=triflate) to the neutral compound 2 promotes its disproportionation to yield complexes 3 and 4 (depending on the stoichiometry) and the U{sup IV} mononuclear complex [U(OSi(OtBu){sub 3}){sub 3}(OTf)(thf){sub 2}] (5). This unprecedented reactivity demonstrates the key role of potassium for the stability of these complexes. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Magnetic MoS2 pizzas and sandwiches with Mnn (n = 1-4) cluster toppings and fillings: A first-principles investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Huang, Zhongjia; Wang, Xiao; Zhang, Hongyu; Li, Taohai; Wu, Zhaolong; Luo, Youhua; Cao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The inorganic layered crystal (ILC) MoS2 in low dimensions is considered as one of the most promising and efficient semiconductors. To enable the magnetism and keep intrinsic crystal structures, we carried out a first-principles study of the magnetic and semiconductive monolayer MoS2 adsorbed with the Mnn (n = 1-4) clusters, and bilayer MoS2 intercalated with the same clusters. Geometric optimizations of the Mnn@MoS2 systems show the complexes prefer to have Mnn@MoS2(M) pizza and Mnn@MoS2(B) sandwich forms in the mono- and bi-layered cases, respectively. Introductions of the clusters will enhance complex stabilities, while bonds and charge transfers are found between external Mn clusters and the S atoms in the hosts. The pizzas have medium magnetic moments of 3, 6, 9, 4 μB and sandwiches of 3, 2, 3, 2 μB following the manganese numbers. The pizzas and sandwiches are semiconductors, but with narrower bandgaps compared to their corresponding pristine hosts. Direct bandgaps were found in the Mnn@MoS2(M) (n = 1,4) pizzas, and excitingly in the Mn1@MoS2(B) sandwich. Combining functional clusters to the layered hosts, the present work shows a novel material manipulation strategy to boost semiconductive ILCs applications in magnetics.

  20. Failure of uniformly compression loaded debond damaged sandwich panels — An experimental and numerical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moslemian, Ramin; Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the failure of compression-loaded sandwich panels with an implanted circular face/core debond. Uniform compression tests were conducted on intact sandwich panels with three different types of core material (H130, H250 and PMI) and on similar panels with circular face...

  1. Failure Investigation of Debonded Sandwich Columns: An Experimental and Numerical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moslemian, Ramin; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2009-01-01

    Failure of compression loaded sandwich columns with an implanted through-width face/core debond is examined. Compression tests were conducted on sandwich columns containing implemented face/core debonds. The strains and out-of-plane displacements of the debonded region were monitored using the di...

  2. Functional grading of metal foam cores for yield-limited lightweight sandwich beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, Yves; Pollien, Arnaud; Mortensen, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    We show that grading the porosity in a bent metal skin/metal foam core sandwich can generate significant weight savings in yield-limited design when, and only when, there is a gradient in the applied moment along the sandwich beam

  3. Facile synthesis and electrochemical performances of binder-free flexible graphene/acetylene black sandwich film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Juan; Wei, Xicheng; Cao, Jianyu; Dong, Yuanzhu; Wang, Guoxin; Xue, Yufei; Wang, Wenchang; Chen, Zhidong

    2015-01-01

    Graphene/acetylene black sandwich film was fabricated by a simple vacuum filtration procedure using a stable complex suspension of graphene oxide (GO) and acetylene black followed by a hydroiodic acid (HI) immersion process to fully reduce the GO to graphene sheets. The self-restacking of individual graphene sheets were greatly alleviated and electric conductivity was obviously improved using the acetylene black nanoparticles as both effective spacers to expand the inter-layer interval of the individual graphene sheets during the film assembly course and highly conducting bridges to facilitate the electron/ion transfer between the upper and lower graphene sheets. The flexible graphene/acetylene black film was utilized as supercapacitor electrode without additional conductive additives, binders and current collectors, which achieved an obviously higher specific capacitance (ca. 136.6 F g −1 at 0.5 A g −1 ) and much better specific capacitance retention at high current densities than that of the pure graphene film electrode, indicating that such a novel sandwich film structure allows for a higher charge storage capability. More importantly, the assembled symmetric supercapacitor device displayed a satisfactory specific capacitance of 59.2 F g −1 at 0.1 A g −1 , 47.6 F g −1 at 0.5 A g −1 and 42.8 F g −1 at 1 A g −1 , and only negligible 4.05% capacitance degradation have been found after 1000 continuous charge-discharge cycles at 0.5 A g −1 , revealing outstanding rate capability, excellent electrochemical reversibility and long-term cyclability. These results proved that such a flexible and highly conductive graphene/acetylene black film can be promising electroactive materials in the development of advanced electrochemical energy storage devices

  4. A sandwiched piezoelectric transducer with flex end-caps for energy harvesting in large force environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang, Yang; Daniels, Alice; Zhu, Meiling

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a sandwiched piezoelectric transducer (SPT) for energy harvesting in large force environments with increased load capacity and electric power output. The SPT uses (1) flex end-caps to amplify the applied load force so as to increase its power output and (2) a sandwiched piezoelectric-substrate structure to reduce the stress concentration in the piezoelectric material so as to increase the load capacity. A coupled piezoelectric-circuit finite element model (CPC-FEM) was developed, which is able to directly predict the electric power output of the SPT connected to a load resistor. The CPC-FEM was used to study the effects of various parameters of the SPT on the performance to obtain an optimal design. These parameters included the substrate thickness, the end-cap material and thickness, the electrode length, the joint length, the end-cap internal angle and the PZT thickness. A prototype with optimised parameters was tested on a loading machine, and the experimental results were compared with simulation. A good agreement was observed between simulation and experiment. When subjected to a 1 kN 2 Hz sinusoidal force applied by the loading machine, the SPT produced an average power of 4.68 mW. The application of the SPT as a footwear energy harvester was demonstrated by fitting the SPT into a boot and performing the tests on a treadmill, and the SPT generated an average power of 2.5 mW at a walking speed of 4.8 km h −1 . (paper)

  5. Impact Testing and Simulation of a Sinusoid Foam Sandwich Energy Absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Fasanella, Edwin L; Littell, Justin D.

    2015-01-01

    A sinusoidal-shaped foam sandwich energy absorber was developed and evaluated at NASA Langley Research Center through multi-level testing and simulation performed under the Transport Rotorcraft Airframe Crash Testbed (TRACT) research project. The energy absorber, designated the "sinusoid," consisted of hybrid carbon- Kevlar® plain weave fabric face sheets, two layers for each face sheet oriented at +/-45deg with respect to the vertical or crush direction, and a closed-cell ELFOAM(TradeMark) P200 polyisocyanurate (2.0-lb/ft3) foam core. The design goal for the energy absorber was to achieve an average floor-level acceleration of between 25- and 40-g during the full-scale crash test of a retrofitted CH-46E helicopter airframe, designated TRACT 2. Variations in the design were assessed through quasi-static and dynamic crush testing of component specimens. Once the design was finalized, a 5-ft-long subfloor beam was fabricated and retrofitted into a barrel section of a CH-46E helicopter. A vertical drop test of the barrel section was conducted onto concrete to evaluate the performance of the energy absorber prior to retrofit into TRACT 2. Finite element models were developed of all test articles and simulations were performed using LSDYNA ®, a commercial nonlinear explicit transient dynamic finite element code. Test analysis results are presented for the sinusoid foam sandwich energy absorber as comparisons of load-displacement and acceleration-time-history responses, as well as predicted and experimental structural deformations and progressive damage for each evaluation level (component testing through barrel section drop testing).

  6. Mixed (phthalocyaninato)(Schiff-base) di-dysprosium sandwich complexes. Effect of magnetic coupling on the SMM behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hailong; Liu, Chenxi; Liu, Tao; Zeng, Suyuan; Cao, Wei; Ma, Qi; Duan, Chunying; Dou, Jianmin; Jiang, Jianzhuang

    2013-11-21

    Reaction between Schiff-base ligand and half-sandwich complex M(Pc)(acac) led to the isolation of new sandwich-type mixed (phthalocyaninato)(Schiff-base) di-lanthanide compounds M2(Pc)2(L)H2O (M = Dy, Gd) (1, 2) [H2Pc = metal free phthalocyanine, Hacac = acetylacetone, H2L = N,N'-bis(3-methyloxysalicylidene)benzene-1,2-diamine] with the triple-decker molecular structure clearly revealed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. For the comparative studies, sandwich triple-decker analogues with pure Schiff-base ligand M2(L)3H2O (M = Dy, Gd) (3, 4) were also prepared. Dynamic magnetic measurement result reveals the single-molecule magnet (SMM) nature of the di-dysprosium derivative 1, while the static magnetic investigation over both pure and the diamagnetic diluted samples of this compound discloses the interionic ferromagnetic coupling between the two dysprosium ions, which in turn effectively suppresses the QTM and enhances the energy barrier of this SMM. Nevertheless, comparative studies over the static magnetic properties of the di-dysprosium triple-decker complexes 1 and 3 indicate the stronger magnetic coupling between the two lanthanide ions in mixed (phthalocyaninato)(Schiff-base) species than in the pure Schiff-base triple-decker analogue, suggesting the special coordination sphere around the dysprosium ions in the former compound over the latter one on the more intense inter-ionic ferromagnetic coupling. As a very small step towards understanding the structure-property relationship, the present result will be surely helpful for the design and synthesis of the multinuclear lanthanide-based SMMs with good properties.

  7. In-situ sulfuration synthesis of sandwiched spherical tin sulfide/sulfur-doped graphene composite with ultra-low sulfur content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bing; Yang, Yaqing; Wang, Zhixuan; Huang, Shoushuang; Wang, Yanyan; Wang, Shanshan; Chen, Zhiwen; Jiang, Yong

    2018-02-01

    SnS is widely studied as anode materials since of its superior structural stability and physicochemical property comparing with other Sn-based composites. Nevertheless, the inconvenience of phase morphology control and excessive consumption of sulfur sources during synthesis hinder the scalable application of SnS nanocomposites. Herein, we report a facile in-situ sulfuration strategy to synthesize sandwiched spherical SnS/sulfur-doped graphene (SnS/S-SG) composite. An ultra-low sulfur content with approximately stoichiometric ratio of Sn:S can effectively promote the sulfuration reaction of SnO2 to SnS and simultaneous sulfur-doping of graphene. The as-prepared SnS/S-SG composite shows a three-dimensional interconnected spherical structure as a whole, in which SnS nanoparticles are sandwiched between the multilayers of graphene sheets forming a hollow sphere. The sandwiched sphere structure and high S doping amount can improve the binding force between SnS and graphene, as well as the structural stability and electrical conductivity of the composite. Thus, a high reversibility of conversion reaction, promising specific capacity (772 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 0.1 C) and excellent rate performance (705 and 411 mAh g-1 at 1 C and 10 C, respectively) are exhibited in the SnS/S-SG electrode, which are much higher than that of the SnS/spherical graphene synthesized by traditional post-sulfuration method.

  8. Electronic phase transitions under hydrostatic pressure in LaMnO3 (111) bilayers sandwiched between LaAlO3

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, Hassan Ali

    2016-01-13

    Using ab initio calculations, we investigate the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the electronic structure of LaMnO3 (111) bilayers sandwiched between LaAlO3. In the ideal heterostructure we observe Dirac cones at the Fermi energy. However, octahedral tiltings open a band gap and thus destroy the Dirac nature. We show that the effect of the tiltings can be suppressed by hydrostatic pressure from 40 GPa to 60 GPa. At higher pressure further phase transitions are encountered.

  9. Electronic phase transitions under hydrostatic pressure in LaMnO3 (111) bilayers sandwiched between LaAlO3

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, Hassan Ali; Cossu, Fabrizio; Singh, Nirpendra; Smith, S. C.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Using ab initio calculations, we investigate the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the electronic structure of LaMnO3 (111) bilayers sandwiched between LaAlO3. In the ideal heterostructure we observe Dirac cones at the Fermi energy. However, octahedral tiltings open a band gap and thus destroy the Dirac nature. We show that the effect of the tiltings can be suppressed by hydrostatic pressure from 40 GPa to 60 GPa. At higher pressure further phase transitions are encountered.

  10. Numerical Study on the Projectile Impact Resistance of Multi-Layer Sandwich Panels with Cellular Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Chen

    Full Text Available Abstract The projectile impact resistance of sandwich panels with cellular cores with different layer numbers has been numerically investigated by perpendicular impact of rigid blunt projectile in ABAQUS/Explicit. These panels with corrugation, hexagonal honeycomb and pyramidal truss cores are impacted at velocities between 50 m/s and 202 m/s while the relative density ranges from 0.001 to 0.15 The effects of core configuration and layer number on projectile impact resistance of sandwich panels with cellular cores are studied. At low impact velocity, sandwich panels with cellular cores outperform the corresponding solid ones and non-montonicity between relative density and projectile resistance of sandwich panels is found and analyzed. Multiplying layer can reduce the maximum central deflection of back face sheet of the above three sandwich panels except pyramidal truss ones in high relative density. Hexagonal honeycomb sandwich panel is beneficial to increasing layer numbers in lowering the contact force and prolonging the interaction time. At high impact velocity, though corrugation and honeycomb sandwich panels are inferior to the equal-weighted solid panels, pyramidal truss ones with high relative density outperform the corresponding solid panels. Multiplying layer is not the desirable way to improve high-velocity projectile resistance.

  11. Magnetic properties of sandwiches based on Nd-Co and Y-Co amorphous alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndjaka, J.M.B.; Givord, D.

    1996-01-01

    Y-Co/Nd-Co/Y-Co and Nd-Co/Y-Co/Nd-Co amorphous sandwiches have been prepared by d.c. triode sputtering. The chemical composition of the constituent layers is R 0.33 Co 0.67 (R=Y, Nd). In such systems, the Co moments are coupled parallel through the whole sandwich thickness by strong positive 3d-3d exchange interactions. But, the coercive fields of the constituent layers taken separately differ. In the sandwiches as well, the reversal of magnetization in the different layers occurs at different values of the applied magnetic field. This phenomenon has been analysed qualitatively in terms of creation and annihilation of walls at the interfaces between layers for sandwiches where the thicknesses of the constituent layers are about 1000 A. In sandwiches where the thickness of the constituent layers is 100 A, the wall width available is very weak and the value of the applied magnetic field necessary for the creation of such a wall is higher than the coercive field of the entire sandwich system. As a result, the magnetization of the sandwich system reverses as a whole like in homogeneous systems. (orig.)

  12. Shape-dependent surface-enhanced Raman scattering in gold–Raman-probe–silica sandwiched nanoparticles for biocompatible applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ming; Cushing, Scott K; Lankford, Jessica; Wu, Nianqiang; Zhang Jianming; Ma Dongling; Aguilar, Zoraida P

    2012-01-01

    To meet the requirement of Raman probes (labels) for biocompatible applications, a synthetic approach has been developed to sandwich the Raman-probe (malachite green isothiocyanate, MGITC) molecules between the gold core and the silica shell in gold–SiO 2 composite nanoparticles. The gold–MGITC–SiO 2 sandwiched structure not only prevents the Raman probe from leaking out but also improves the solubility of the nanoparticles in organic solvents and in aqueous solutions even with high ionic strength. To amplify the Raman signal, three types of core, gold nanospheres, nanorods and nanostars, have been chosen as the substrates of the Raman probe. The effect of the core shape on the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been investigated. The colloidal nanostars showed the highest SERS enhancement factor while the nanospheres possessed the lowest SERS activity under excitation with 532 and 785 nm lasers. Three-dimensional finite-difference time domain (FDTD) simulation showed significant differences in the local electromagnetic field distributions surrounding the nanospheres, nanorods, and nanostars, which were induced by the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). The electromagnetic field was enhanced remarkably around the two ends of the nanorods and around the sharp tips of the nanostars. This local electromagnetic enhancement made the dominant contribution to the SERS enhancement. Both the experiments and the simulation revealed the order nanostars > nanorods > nanospheres in terms of the enhancement factor. Finally, the biological application of the nanostar–MGITC–SiO 2 nanoparticles has been demonstrated in the monitoring of DNA hybridization. In short, the gold–MGITC–SiO 2 sandwiched nanoparticles can be used as a Raman probe that features high sensitivity, good water solubility and stability, low-background fluorescence, and the absence of photobleaching for future biological applications. (paper)

  13. Veterans' informal caregivers in the "sandwich generation": a systematic review toward a resilience model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Osborne, Alexa; Felderhoff, Brandi

    2014-01-01

    Social work theory advanced the formulation of the construct of the sandwich generation to apply to the emerging generational cohort of caregivers, most often middle-aged women, who were caring for maturing children and aging parents simultaneously. This systematic review extends that focus by synthesizing the literature on sandwich generation caregivers for the general aging population with dementia and for veterans with dementia and polytrauma. It develops potential protective mechanisms based on empirical literature to support an intervention resilience model for social work practitioners. This theoretical model addresses adaptive coping of sandwich- generation families facing ongoing challenges related to caregiving demands.

  14. Behaviour of partially composite precast concrete sandwich panels under flexural and axial loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Douglas George

    Precast concrete sandwich panels are commonly used on building exteriors. They are typically composed of two concrete wythes that surround rigid insulation. They are advantageous as they provide both structural and thermal resistance. The structural response of sandwich panels is heavily influenced by shear connectors that link the wythes together. This thesis presents a study on partially composite non-prestressed precast concrete wall panels. Nine flexure tests were conducted on a wall design incorporating 'floating' concrete studs and Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) connectors. The studs encapsulate and stiffen the connectors, reducing shear deformations. Ultimate loads increased from 58 to 80% that of a composite section as the connectors' reinforcement ratio increased from 2.6 to 9.8%. This design was optimized by reinforcing the studs and integrating them with the structural wythe; new connectors composed of angled steel or Basalt-FRP (BFRP) were used. The load-slip response of the new connector design was studied through 38 double shear push-through tests using various connector diameters and insertion angles. Larger connectors were stronger but more likely to pull out. Seven flexure tests were conducted on the new wall design reinforced with different combinations of steel and BFRP connectors and reinforcement. Composite action varied from 50 to 90% depending on connector and reinforcement material. Following this study, the axial-bending interaction curves were established for the new wall design using both BFRP and steel connectors and reinforcement. Eight panels were axially loaded to predesignated loads then loaded in flexure to failure. A technique is presented to experimentally determine the effective centroid of partially composite sections. Beyond the tension and compression-controlled failure regions of the interaction curve, a third region was observed in between, governed by connector failure. Theoretical models were developed for the bond

  15. Implementation of Fiber Optic Sensing System on Sandwich Composite Cylinder Buckling Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Francisco; Richards, W. Lance; Parker, Allen R.; Piazza, Anthony; Schultz, Marc R.; Rudd, Michelle T.; Gardner, Nathaniel W.; Hilburger, Mark W.

    2018-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Engineering and Safety Center Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor Project is a multicenter project tasked with developing new analysis-based shell buckling design guidelines and design factors (i.e., knockdown factors) through high-fidelity buckling simulations and advanced test technologies. To validate these new buckling knockdown factors for future launch vehicles, the Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor Project is carrying out structural testing on a series of large-scale metallic and composite cylindrical shells at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (Marshall Space Flight Center, Alabama). A fiber optic sensor system was used to measure strain on a large-scale sandwich composite cylinder that was tested under multiple axial compressive loads up to more than 850,000 lb, and equivalent bending loads over 22 million in-lb. During the structural testing of the composite cylinder, strain data were collected from optical cables containing distributed fiber Bragg gratings using a custom fiber optic sensor system interrogator developed at the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center. A total of 16 fiber-optic strands, each containing nearly 1,000 fiber Bragg gratings, measuring strain, were installed on the inner and outer cylinder surfaces to monitor the test article global structural response through high-density real-time and post test strain measurements. The distributed sensing system provided evidence of local epoxy failure at the attachment-ring-to-barrel interface that would not have been detected with conventional instrumentation. Results from the fiber optic sensor system were used to further refine and validate structural models for buckling of the large-scale composite structures. This paper discusses the techniques employed for real-time structural monitoring of the composite cylinder for structural load introduction and distributed bending-strain measurements over a large section of the cylinder by

  16. Assesment risk of fracture in thin-walled fiber reinforced and regular High Performance Concretes sandwich elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodicky, Kamil; Hulin, Thomas; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2013-01-01

    load. Due to structural restraints, autogenous shrinkage may lead to high self-induced stresses. Therefore autogenous shrinkage plays important role in design of HPCSE. The present paper assesses risk of fracture due to autogenous shrinkage-induced stresses in three fiber reinforced and regular High....... Finally the paper describes the modeling work with HPCSE predicting structural cracking provoked by autogenous shrinkage. It was observed that risk of cracking due to autogenous shrinkage rapidly rises after 3 days in case of regular HPC and after 7 days in case of fiber reinforced HPC.......High Performance Concrete Sandwich Elements (HPCSE) are an interesting option for future low or plus energy building construction. Recent research and development work, however, indicate that such elements are prone to structural cracking due to the combined effect of shrinkage and high temperature...

  17. Measurement of the epithermal neutron flux of the Argonauta reactor by the Sandwich method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, H.M.

    1973-01-01

    A common method of obtaining information about the neutron spectrum in the energy range of 1 eV to a few keV is by using resonance sandwich detectors. A sandwich detector is usually made up of three foils placed one on top of the other, each having the same thickness and being made of the same material which has a pronounced absorption resonance. To make an adequate evaluation, the sandwich method was compared with one using an isolated detector. The results obtained from approximate theoretical calculations were checked experimentally, using In, Au and Mn foils, in an isotropic 1/E flux in the Argonaut Reactor at I.E.N. As practical application of this method, the deviation from a 1/E spectrum of the epithermal neutron flux in the core and external graphite reflector of the Argonaut Reactor has been measured with the sandwich foils previously calibrated in a 1/E spectrum. (author)

  18. Multi-objective optimal design of sandwich panels using a genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaomei; Jiang, Yiping; Pueh Lee, Heow

    2017-10-01

    In this study, an optimization problem concerning sandwich panels is investigated by simultaneously considering the two objectives of minimizing the panel mass and maximizing the sound insulation performance. First of all, the acoustic model of sandwich panels is discussed, which provides a foundation to model the acoustic objective function. Then the optimization problem is formulated as a bi-objective programming model, and a solution algorithm based on the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II) is provided to solve the proposed model. Finally, taking an example of a sandwich panel that is expected to be used as an automotive roof panel, numerical experiments are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed model and solution algorithm. Numerical results demonstrate in detail how the core material, geometric constraints and mechanical constraints impact the optimal designs of sandwich panels.

  19. Experimental and Theoretical Deflections of Hybrid Composite Sandwich Panel under Four-point Bending Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauhar Fajrin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of theoretical and experimental deflection of a hybrid sandwich panel under four-point bending load. The paper initially presents few basic equations developed under three-point load, followed by development of model under four-point bending load and a comparative analysis between theoretical and experimental results. It was found that the proposed model for predicting the deflection of hybrid sandwich panels provided fair agreement with the experimental values. Most of the sandwich panels showed theoretical deflection values higher than the experimental values, which is desirable in the design. It was also noticed that the introduction of intermediate layer does not contribute much to reduce the deflection of sandwich panel as the main contributor for the total deflection was the shear deformation of the core that mostly determined by the geometric of the samples and the thickness of the core.

  20. Two dimensional dynamic analysis of sandwich plates with gradient foam cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Lin; Xiao, Deng Bao; Zhao, Guiping [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical structure Strength and Vibration, School of AerospaceXi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Cho, Chong Du [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Present investigation is concerned about dynamic response of composite sandwich plates with the functionally gradient foam cores under time-dependent impulse. The analysis is based on a model of the gradient sandwich plate, in which the face sheets and the core adopt the Kirchhoff theory and a [2, 1]-order theory, respectively. The material properties of the gradient foam core vary continuously along the thickness direction. The gradient plate model is validated with the finite element code ABAQUS®. And the results show that the proposed model can predict well the free vibration of composite sandwich plates with gradient foam cores. The influences of gradient foam cores on the natural frequency, deflection and energy absorbing of the sandwich plates are also investigated.

  1. ELISA with double antigen sandwich for screening specific serum anti-TP antibody in blood donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yiqing; Shi Zhixu

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To select a sensitive and specific laboratory examination suitable for screening serum anti-TP antibody in blood donors. Methods: The serum anti-TP antibody in 11271 blood donors were detected using ELISA with double antigen sandwich and the outcomes were compared with those using RPR assay. The conflicting specimen were confirmed by repeating the test with TPHA assay. Results: The positive rates of serum anti-TP antibody by ELISA with double antigen sandwich and RPR was 0.36% (41/11271) and 0.26% (29/11271), respectively. The coincidence of the detecting outcomes by ELISA with double antigen sandwich and RPR with TPHA was 97.5% (40/41) and 63.41%(26/41) respectively. Conclusion: Compared with RPR assay, ELISA with double antigen sandwich has higher sensibility and specificity for screening serum anti-TP antibody in blood donors

  2. Size-dependent analysis of a sandwich curved nanobeam integrated with piezomagnetic face-sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Zenkour

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to develop nonlocal transient magneto-electro-elastic formulation of a sandwich curved nanobeam including a nano-core and two piezo-magnetic face-sheets subjected to transverse mechanical loads and applied electric and magnetic potentials rest on Pasternak’s foundation. Nonlocal magneto-electro-elastic relations and Hamilton’s principle are used for derivation of the governing equations of motion. The analytical solution based on Fourier solution is presented for a simply-supported sandwich curved nanobeam. The numerical results are presented to investigate influence of significant parameters such as nonlocal parameter, radius of curvature, applied electric and magnetic potentials and two parameters of Pasternak's foundation on the dynamic responses of sandwich curved nanobeam. Keywords: Sandwich curved nanobeam, Dynamic responses, Piezo-magnetic face-sheets, Pasternak’s foundation, Radius of curvature, Nonlocal parameter

  3. Study of low-velocity impact response of sandwich panels with shear-thickening gel cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunpeng; Gong, Xinglong; Xuan, Shouhu

    2018-06-01

    The low-velocity impact response of sandwich panels with shear-thickening gel cores was studied. The impact tests indicated that the sandwich panels with shear-thickening gel cores showed excellent properties of energy dissipation and stress distribution. In comparison to the similar sandwich panels with chloroprene rubber cores and ethylene-propylene-diene monomer cores, the shear-thickening gel cores led to the obviously smaller contact forces and the larger energy absorptions. Numerical modelling with finite element analysis was used to investigate the stress distribution of the sandwich panels with shear-thickening gel cores and the results agreed well with the experimental results. Because of the unique mechanical property of the shear-thickening gel, the concentrated stress on the front facesheets were distributed to larger areas on the back facesheets and the peak stresses were reduced greatly.

  4. Graphene/h-BN/GaAs sandwich diode as solar cell and photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoqiang; Lin, Shisheng; Lin, Xing; Xu, Zhijuan; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Shengjiao; Zhong, Huikai; Xu, Wenli; Wu, Zhiqian; Fang, Wei

    2016-01-11

    In graphene/semiconductor heterojunction, the statistic charge transfer between graphene and semiconductor leads to decreased junction barrier height and limits the Fermi level tuning effect in graphene, which greatly affects the final performance of the device. In this work, we have designed a sandwich diode for solar cells and photodetectors through inserting 2D hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) into graphene/GaAs heterostructure to suppress the static charge transfer. The barrier height of graphene/GaAs heterojunction can be increased from 0.88 eV to 1.02 eV by inserting h-BN. Based on the enhanced Fermi level tuning effect with interface h-BN, through adopting photo-induced doping into the device, power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.18% has been achieved for graphene/h-BN/GaAs compared with 8.63% of graphene/GaAs structure. The performance of graphene/h-BN/GaAs based photodetector is also improved with on/off ratio increased by one magnitude compared with graphene/GaAs structure.

  5. Detecting the honeycomb sandwich composite material's moisture impregnating defects by using infrared thermography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Koo Ahn; Choi, Man Yong; Park, Jeong Hak; Choi, Won Jae; Park, Hee Sang

    2017-01-01

    Many composite materials are used in the aerospace industry because of their excellent mechanical properties. However, the nature of aviation exposes these materials to high temperature and high moisture conditions depending on climate, location, and altitude. Therefore, the molecular arrangement chemical properties, and mechanical properties of composite materials can be changed under these conditions. As a result, surface disruptions and cracks can be created. Consequently, moisture-impregnating defects can be induced due to the crack and delamination of composite materials as they are repeatedly exposed to moisture absorption moisture release, fatigue environment, temperature changes, and fluid pressure changes. This study evaluates the possibility of detecting the moisture-impregnating defects of CFRP and GFRP honeycomb structure sandwich composite materials, which are the composite materials in the aircraft structure, by using an active infrared thermography technology among non-destructive testing methods. In all experiments, it was possible to distinguish the area and a number of CFRP composite materials more clearly than those of GFRP composite material. The highest detection rate was observed in the heating duration of 50 mHz and the low detection rate was at the heating duration of over 500 mHz. The reflection method showed a higher detection rate than the transmission method

  6. Elevated-Temperature Tests Under Static and Aerodynamic Conditions on Honeycomb-Core Sandwich Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groen, Joseph M.; Johnson, Aldie E., Jr.

    1959-01-01

    Stainless-steel honeycomb-core sandwich panels which differed primarily in skin thicknesses were tested at elevated temperatures under static and aerodynamic conditions. The results of these tests were evaluated to determine the insulating effectiveness and structural integrity of the panels. The static radiant-heating tests were performed in front of a quartz-tube radiant heater at panel skin temperatures up to 1,5000 F. The aerodynamic tests were made in a Mach 1.4 heated blowdown wind tunnel. The tunnel temperature was augmented by additional heat supplied by a radiant heater which raised the panel surface temperature above 8000 F during air flow. Static radiant-heating tests of 2 minutes duration showed that all the panels protected the load-carrying structure about equally well. Thin-skin panels showed an advantage for this short-time test over thick-skin panels from a standpoint of weight against insulation. Permanent inelastic strains in the form of local buckles over each cell of the honeycomb core caused an increase in surface roughness. During the aero- dynamic tests all of the panels survived with little or no damage, and panel flutter did not occur.

  7. Experimental and simulation of split semi-torus key in PVC foam core to improve the debonding resistance of composite sandwich panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliyana, M.; Santhana Krishnan, R.

    2018-02-01

    The sandwich composite panels consisting of facesheet and core material are used as a primary structural member for aerospace, civil and marine areas due to its high stiffness to weight ratio. But the debonding nature of facesheet from the foam core under shear loading conditions leads to failure of the composite structure. To inhibit the debonding, an innovative methodology of introducing semi-torus key is used in the present study. The polyvinyl chloride foam core(PVC) is grooved and filled with semi-torus shaped chopped strand prepregs which are sandwiched between alternate layers of woven roven(WR) and chopped strand mat(CSM) skins by vacuum infusion process. The sandwich panel manufactured with semi-torus keys is evaluated regarding experimental and numerical simulations under shear loading conditions. The present innovative concept delays the debonding between face-sheet and foam core with enhancement the shear load carrying capability as the initial stiffness is higher than the conventional model. Also, the shear behaviour of the proposed concept is in good agreement with experimental results. The split semi-torus keys sustain the shear failure resulting in resistance to debonding capability.

  8. Occurrence of Foodborne Pathogens in Chickens Sandwiches Distributed in Different Supermarkets of Tehran Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Zohreh Mashak; Hamidreza Sodagari; Behrooz Moraadi; Ashkan Ilkhanipour

    2014-01-01

    Background: Increasing urbanization, immigration and tourism has changed the human lifestyle. This modern lifestyle has demanded safety, quality, and fast availability of ready to eat (RTE) foods like chicken sandwiches. Objectives: For presentation of proper solutions regarding food safety, identification of pathogens in different foods is necessary. Therefore, the present study was carried out to assess the microbiological quality of chicken sandwiches distributed in Tehran provinc...

  9. Sensory Evaluation and Feasibility Report of Plantain Sandwich for Nigerian Market

    OpenAIRE

    Olu Malomo; E.O. Uche; E.A. Alamu

    2015-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition is a common nutritional disorder in developing countries and constitutes a major public health problem in young children and elderly people. This project is aimed at evaluating the acceptability of plantain-peanut sandwich and roasted at different temperatures. A plantain-peanut sandwich consists of minced protein stuffed into a carbohydrate source made into a roll as a food product. The plantain was roasted at two different temperatures than later enriched with 5%...

  10. Numerical analysis of sandwich beam with corrugated core under three-point bending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittenbeck, Leszek [Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Mathematics Piotrowo Street No. 5, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Grygorowicz, Magdalena; Paczos, Piotr [Poznan University of Technology, Institute of Applied Mechanics Jana Pawla IIStreet No. 24, 60-965 Poznan (Poland)

    2015-03-10

    The strength problem of sandwich beam with corrugated core under three-point bending is presented.The beam are made of steel and formed by three mutually orthogonal corrugated layers. The finite element analysis (FEA) of the sandwich beam is performed with the use of the FEM system - ABAQUS. The relationship between the applied load and deflection in three-point bending is considered.

  11. Electrical switching and memory phenomena observed in redox-gradient dendrimer sandwich devices

    OpenAIRE

    Li, JianChang; Blackstock, Silas C.; Szulczewski, Greg J.

    2005-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of dendrimer sandwich devices with electrical switching and memory properties. The storage media is consisted of a redox-gradient dendrimer layer sandwiched in organic barrier thin films. The dendrimer layer acts as potential well where redox-state changes and consequent electrical transitions of the embedded dendrimer molecules are expected to be effectively triggered and retained, respectively. Experimental results indicated that electrical switching could be re...

  12. Polyisocyanurate systems for insulating and sandwich elements; Polyisocyanurat-Systeme fuer Daemm- und Sandwichelemente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malotki, P. von [Elastogran GmbH, Lemfoerde (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    PUR rigid foam plates are laminated with flexible Al films, paper or glass non-wovens, or may be processed into sandwich elements with metallic top-layers via coil-coating. Dependence of heat insulation efficiency, dimensional stability and fire behavior of the foam on chemical composition and the blowing agents is considered and compared with polyisocyanurate foams. Recipes for the production of PIR heat insulation elements and sandwich elements are given.

  13. Numerical investigation of blanking for metal polymer sandwich sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutknecht Florian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal polymer sandwich sheets consist of materials with drastically different mechanical properties. Due to this fact and because of high local gradients in the cutting zone during the blanking process, traditional process strategies and empirical knowledge are difficult to apply. A finite-element simulation of the shear cutting process is used to predict the necessary force and the geometry of the cutting surface. A fully-coupled ductile damage model is used for the description of the material behaviour. This model considers the influence of shear and compression-dominated stress states on the initiation of damage. Experimental tensile and compression test data is used for the identification of material parameters. The results of the blanking simulation are compared with experimental data. Furthermore, the evolution of the stress state is analysed to gain understanding of the underlying physics. Finally this model enables the prediction of core compression and other quantities such as the acting stresses and corresponding triaxilities, which provide valuable information for the development of analytical models.

  14. Bi-layer sandwich film for antibacterial catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Gerhard; Schamberger, Florian; Zare, Hamideh Heidari; Bröskamp, Sara Felicitas; Jocham, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Background: Approximately one quarter of all nosocomial infections can be attributed to the urinary tract. The infections are supposed to be mainly caused by implantations of urethral catheters and stents. A new catheter design is introduced with the aim to lower the high number of nosocomial urethral infections. In order to avoid limitations to use, the design is first applied to conventional commercially available balloon catheters. Results: The main feature of the design is a sandwich layer on both sides of the catheter wall, which is composed of a fragmented base layer of silver capped by a thin film of poly( p -xylylene). This top layer is mainly designed to release a controlled amount of Ag + ions, which is bactericidal, but not toxic to humans. Simultaneously, the lifetime is prolonged to at least one year. The base layer is electrolessly deposited applying Tollens' reagens, the cap layer is deposited by using chemical vapor deposition. Conclusion: The three main problems of this process, electroless deposition of a fragmented silver film on the surface of an electrically insulating organic polymer, irreproducible evaporation during heating of the precursor, and exponential decrease of the layer thickness along the capillary, have been solved trough the application of a simple electrochemical reaction and two standard principles of physics: Papin's pot and the principle of Le Chatelier.

  15. Bi-layer sandwich film for antibacterial catheters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Franz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately one quarter of all nosocomial infections can be attributed to the urinary tract. The infections are supposed to be mainly caused by implantations of urethral catheters and stents. A new catheter design is introduced with the aim to lower the high number of nosocomial urethral infections. In order to avoid limitations to use, the design is first applied to conventional commercially available balloon catheters.Results: The main feature of the design is a sandwich layer on both sides of the catheter wall, which is composed of a fragmented base layer of silver capped by a thin film of poly(p-xylylene. This top layer is mainly designed to release a controlled amount of Ag+ ions, which is bactericidal, but not toxic to humans. Simultaneously, the lifetime is prolonged to at least one year. The base layer is electrolessly deposited applying Tollens’ reagens, the cap layer is deposited by using chemical vapor deposition.Conclusion: The three main problems of this process, electroless deposition of a fragmented silver film on the surface of an electrically insulating organic polymer, irreproducible evaporation during heating of the precursor, and exponential decrease of the layer thickness along the capillary, have been solved trough the application of a simple electrochemical reaction and two standard principles of physics: Papin’s pot and the principle of Le Chatelier.

  16. Simulations of backgate sandwich nanowire MOSFETs with improved device performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hengliang; Zhu Huilong; Zhong Jian; Ma Xiaolong; Wei Xing; Zhao Chao; Chen Dapeng; Ye Tianchun

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel backgate sandwich nanowire MOSFET (SNFET), which offers the advantages of ETSOI (dynamic backgate voltage controllability) and nanowire FETs (good short channel effect). A backgate is used for threshold voltage (V t ) control of the SNFET. Compared with a backgate FinFET with a punch-through stop layer (PTSL), the SNFET possesses improved device performance. 3D device simulations indicate that the SNFET has a three times larger overdrive current, a ∼75% smaller off leakage current, and reduced subthreshold swing (SS) and DIBL than those of a backgate FinFET when the nanowire (NW) and the fin are of equal width. A new process flow to fabricate the backgate SNFET is also proposed in this work. Our analytical model suggests that V t control by the backgate can be attributed to the capacitances formed by the frontgate, NW, and backgate. The SNFET devices are compatible with the latest state-of-the-art high-k/metal gate CMOS technology with the unique capability of independent backgate control for nFETs and pFETs, which is promising for sub-22 nm scaling down. (semiconductor devices)

  17. Microkeratome-assisted lamellar keratoplasty for keratoconus: stromal sandwich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, Kamil; Ozdek, Sengül C; Sari, Ayça; Hasanreisoglu, Berati

    2003-07-01

    To evaluate microkeratome-assisted lamellar keratoplasty for the treatment of keratoconus when it is not possible to correct the astigmatic ametropia with contact lenses. Ophthalmology Department, School of Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey. This prospective study comprised 9 eyes of 7 keratoconus patients with contact lens intolerance. The donor cornea was prepared with a microkeratome and punched with a 7.25 mm or 7.50 mm trephine. Following the creation of a standard 9.0 mm corneal flap in the host cornea, the donor stromal button was implanted under this corneal flap like a sandwich. Transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy or laser in situ keratomileusis was performed when the corneal topography and refraction stabilized by the end of the sixth postoperative month. Follow-up ranged from 7 to 22 months. All patients gained 5 or more lines (mean 7.2 lines +/- 1.6 [SD]), and no patient lost a line of vision. The mean corneal thickness was 432.7 +/- 36.1 micrometers preoperatively and 578.1 +/- 45.1 micrometers after refractive surgery. The early visual results of this surgical technique are promising and seem to be comparable to those with penetrating keratoplasty.

  18. Quantitative sandwich ELISA for the determination of fish in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faeste, Christiane K; Plassen, Christin

    2008-01-01

    Allergy to fish represents one of the most prevalent causes for severe food-allergic reactions. Therefore, food authorities in different countries have implemented mandatory labeling of fish in pre-packed foods. Detection of fish proteins in food has previously been based on the use of patient serum. In the present study, a novel sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the quantitation of fish in food matrixes has been developed and validated, using a polyclonal rabbit anti-cod parvalbumin antibody for capture and a biotinylated conjugate of the same antibody for detection. By employing the ubiquitous muscle protein parvalbumin as target the method succeeds to detect a variety of fish. However, the ELISA is specific for fish and does not cross-react with other species. Recoveries ranged from 68-138% in typical food matrixes, while the intra- and inter-assay precisions were parvalbumin ELISA with a limit of detection of 0.01 mg parvalbumin/kg food, about 5 mg fish/kg food, seems sufficient to detect fish protein traces in foods at levels low enough to minimize the risk for fish allergic consumers.

  19. Failure Predictions of Out-of-Autoclave Sandwich Joints with Delaminations Under Flexure Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordendale, Nikolas A.; Goyal, Vinay K.; Lundgren, Eric C.; Patel, Dhruv N.; Farrokh, Babak; Jones, Justin; Fischetti, Grace; Segal, Kenneth N.

    2015-01-01

    An analysis and a test program was conducted to investigate the damage tolerance of composite sandwich joints. The joints contained a single circular delamination between the face-sheet and the doubler. The coupons were fabricated through out-of-autoclave (OOA) processes, a technology NASA is investigating for joining large composite sections. The four-point bend flexure test was used to induce compression loading into the side of the joint where the delamination was placed. The compression side was chosen since it tends to be one of the most critical loads in launch vehicles. Autoclave cure was used to manufacture the composite sandwich sections, while the doubler was co-bonded onto the sandwich face-sheet using an OOA process after sandwich panels were cured. A building block approach was adopted to characterize the mechanical properties of the joint material, including the fracture toughness between the doubler and face-sheet. Twelve four-point-bend samples were tested, six in the sandwich core ribbon orientation and six in sandwich core cross-ribbon direction. Analysis predicted failure initiation and propagation at the pre-delaminated location, consistent with experimental observations. A building block approach using fracture analyses methods predicted failure loads in close agreement with tests. This investigation demonstrated a small strength reduction due to a flaw of significant size compared to the width of the sample. Therefore, concerns of bonding an OOA material to an in-autoclave material was mitigated for the geometries, materials, and load configurations considered.

  20. Parametric study on nonlinear vibration of composite truss core sandwich plate with internal resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jia Nen; Liu, Jun [Tianjin Key Laboratory of the Design and Intelligent Control of the Advanced Mechatronical System, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Wei; Yao, Ming Hui [College of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing (China); Sun, Min [School of Science, Tianjin Chengjian University, Tianjin (China)

    2016-09-15

    Nonlinear vibrations of carbon fiber reinforced composite sandwich plate with pyramidal truss core are investigated. The governing equation of motion for the sandwich plate is derived by using a Zig-Zag theory under consideration of geometrically nonlinear. The natural frequencies of sandwich plates with different dimensions are calculated and compared with those obtained from the classic laminated plate theory and Reddy's third-order shear deformation plate theory. The frequency responses and waveforms of the sandwich plate when 1:3 internal resonance occurs are obtained, and the characteristics of the internal resonance are discussed. The influences of layer number of face sheet, strut radius, core height and inclination angle on the nonlinear responses of the sandwich plate are analyzed. The results demonstrate that the strut radius and inclination angle mainly affect the resonance frequency band of the sandwich plate, and the layer number and core height not only influence the resonance frequency band but also significantly affect the response amplitude.

  1. Research on a Novel Exciting Method for a Sandwich Transducer Operating in Longitudinal-Bending Hybrid Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxiang Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel exciting method for a sandwich type piezoelectric transducer operating in longitudinal-bending hybrid vibration modes is proposed and discussed, in which the piezoelectric elements for the excitations of the longitudinal and bending vibrations share the same axial location, but correspond to different partitions. Whole-piece type piezoelectric plates with three separated partitions are used, in which the center partitions generate the first longitudinal vibration, while the upper and lower partitions produce the second bending vibration. Detailed comparisons between the proposed exciting method and the traditional one were accomplished by finite element method (FEM calculations, which were further verified by experiments. Compared with the traditional exciting method using independent longitudinal ceramics and bending ceramics, the proposed method achieves higher electromechanical coupling factors and larger vibration amplitudes, especially for the bending vibration mode. This novel exciting method for longitudinal-bending hybrid vibrations has not changed the structural dimensions of the sandwich transducer, but markedly improves the mechanical output ability, which makes it very helpful and meaningful in designing new piezoelectric actuators operated in longitudinal-bending hybrid vibration modes.

  2. A Multi-scale Refined Zigzag Theory for Multilayered Composite and Sandwich Plates with Improved Transverse Shear Stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iurlaro, Luigi; Gherlone, Marco; Di Sciuva, Marco; Tessler, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The Refined Zigzag Theory (RZT) enables accurate predictions of the in-plane displacements, strains, and stresses. The transverse shear stresses obtained from constitutive equations are layer-wise constant. Although these transverse shear stresses are generally accurate in the average, layer-wise sense, they are nevertheless discontinuous at layer interfaces, and thus they violate the requisite interlaminar continuity of transverse stresses. Recently, Tessler applied Reissner's mixed variational theorem and RZT kinematic assumptions to derive an accurate and efficient shear-deformation theory for homogeneous, laminated composite, and sandwich beams, called RZT(m), where "m" stands for "mixed". Herein, the RZT(m) for beams is extended to plate analysis, where two alternative assumptions for the transverse shear stresses field are examined: the first follows Tessler's formulation, whereas the second is based on Murakami's polynomial approach. Results for elasto-static simply supported and cantilever plates demonstrate that Tessler's formulation results in a powerful and efficient structural theory that is well-suited for the analysis of multilayered composite and sandwich panels.

  3. A large outbreak of salmonellosis associated with sandwiches contaminated with multiple bacterial pathogens purchased via an online shopping service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Sung-Hsi; Huang, Angela S; Liao, Ying-Shu; Liu, Yu-Lun; Chiou, Chien-Shun

    2014-03-01

    Food sold over the internet is an emerging business that also presents a concern with regard to food safety. A nationwide foodborne disease outbreak associated with sandwiches purchased from an online shop in July 2010 is reported. Consumers were telephone interviewed with a structured questionnaire and specimens were collected for etiological examination. A total of 886 consumers were successfully contacted and completed the questionnaires; 36.6% had become ill, with a median incubation period of 18 h (range, 6-66 h). The major symptoms included diarrhea (89.2%), abdominal pain (69.8%), fever (47.5%), headache (32.7%), and vomiting (17.3%). Microbiological laboratories isolated Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, Salmonella Virchow, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli from the contaminated sandwiches, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Virchow from the patients, and Salmonella Enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus from food handlers. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotyping suggested a common origin of Salmonella bacteria recovered from the patients, food, and a food handler. Among the pathogens detected, the symptoms and incubation period indicated that Salmonella, likely of egg origin, was the probable causative agent of the outbreak. This outbreak illustrates the importance of meticulous hygiene practices during food preparation and temperature control during food shipment and the food safety challenges posed by online food-shopping services.

  4. A Large Outbreak of Salmonellosis Associated with Sandwiches Contaminated with Multiple Bacterial Pathogens Purchased via an Online Shopping Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Sung-Hsi; Huang, Angela S.; Liao, Ying-Shu; Liu, Yu-Lun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Food sold over the internet is an emerging business that also presents a concern with regard to food safety. A nationwide foodborne disease outbreak associated with sandwiches purchased from an online shop in July 2010 is reported. Consumers were telephone interviewed with a structured questionnaire and specimens were collected for etiological examination. A total of 886 consumers were successfully contacted and completed the questionnaires; 36.6% had become ill, with a median incubation period of 18 h (range, 6–66 h). The major symptoms included diarrhea (89.2%), abdominal pain (69.8%), fever (47.5%), headache (32.7%), and vomiting (17.3%). Microbiological laboratories isolated Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, Salmonella Virchow, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli from the contaminated sandwiches, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Virchow from the patients, and Salmonella Enteritidis and Staphylococcus aureus from food handlers. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotyping suggested a common origin of Salmonella bacteria recovered from the patients, food, and a food handler. Among the pathogens detected, the symptoms and incubation period indicated that Salmonella, likely of egg origin, was the probable causative agent of the outbreak. This outbreak illustrates the importance of meticulous hygiene practices during food preparation and temperature control during food shipment and the food safety challenges posed by online food–shopping services. PMID:24313786

  5. Finite Element Modelling and Analysis of Damage Detection Methodology in Piezo Electric Sensor and Actuator Integrated Sandwich Cantilever Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, K. R.; Thomas, A. M.; Basker, V. T.

    2018-03-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is an essential component of futuristic civil, mechanical and aerospace structures. It detects the damages in system or give warning about the degradation of structure by evaluating performance parameters. This is achieved by the integration of sensors and actuators into the structure. Study of damage detection process in piezoelectric sensor and actuator integrated sandwich cantilever beam is carried out in this paper. Possible skin-core debond at the root of the cantilever beam is simulated and compared with undamaged case. The beam is actuated using piezoelectric actuators and performance differences are evaluated using Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) sensors. The methodology utilized is the voltage/strain response of the damaged versus undamaged beam against transient actuation. Finite element model of piezo-beam is simulated in ANSYSTM using 8 noded coupled field element, with nodal degrees of freedoms are translations in the x, y directions and voltage. An aluminium sandwich beam with a length of 800mm, thickness of core 22.86mm and thickness of skin 0.3mm is considered. Skin-core debond is simulated in the model as unmerged nodes. Reduction in the fundamental frequency of the damaged beam is found to be negligible. But the voltage response of the PVDF sensor under transient excitation shows significantly visible change indicating the debond. Piezo electric based damage detection system is an effective tool for the damage detection of aerospace and civil structural system having inaccessible/critical locations and enables online monitoring possibilities as the power requirement is minimal.

  6. Manufacturing Theory for Advanced Grid Stiffened Structures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huybrechts, Steven M; Meink, Troy E; Wegner, Peter M; Ganley, Jeff M

    2002-01-01

    Lattices of rigidly connected ribs, known as advanced grid stiffened (AGS) structures, have many advantages over traditional construction methods, which use panels, sandwich cores and/or expensive frameworks...

  7. Adjustability of resonance frequency by external magnetic field and bias electric field of sandwich magnetoelectric PZT/NFO/PZT composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ling-Fang; Feng, Xing; Sun, Kang; Liang, Ze-Yu; Xu, Qian; Liang, Jia-Yu; Yang, Chang-Ping [Hubei University, Hubei Key Laboratory of Ferro and Piezoelectric Materials and Devices, Faculty of Physics and Electronic Science, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Wuhan (China)

    2017-07-15

    Sandwich magnetoelectric composites of PZT/NFO/PZT (PNP) have been prepared by laminating PZT5, NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and PZT5 ceramics in turn with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) paste. A systematic study of structural, magnetic and ferroelectric properties is undertaken. Structural studies carried out by X-ray diffraction indicate formation of cubic perovskite phase of PZT5 ceramic and cubic spinel phase of NiFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} ceramic. As increasing the content of PZT5 phase, ferroelectric loops and magnetic loops of PNP composites showed increasing remnant electric polarizations and decreasing remnant magnetic moments separately. Both external magnetic fields and bias voltages could regulate the basal radial resonance frequency of the composites, which should be originated with the transformation and coupling of the stress between the piezoelectric phase and magnetostrictive phase. Such magnetoelectric composite provides great opportunities for electrostatically tunable devices. (orig.)

  8. A quantitative exposure model simulating human norovirus transmission during preparation of deli sandwiches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stals, Ambroos; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Baert, Leen; Van Coillie, Els; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2015-03-02

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are a major cause of food borne gastroenteritis worldwide. They are often transmitted via infected and shedding food handlers manipulating foods such as deli sandwiches. The presented study aimed to simulate HuNoV transmission during the preparation of deli sandwiches in a sandwich bar. A quantitative exposure model was developed by combining the GoldSim® and @Risk® software packages. Input data were collected from scientific literature and from a two week observational study performed at two sandwich bars. The model included three food handlers working during a three hour shift on a shared working surface where deli sandwiches are prepared. The model consisted of three components. The first component simulated the preparation of the deli sandwiches and contained the HuNoV reservoirs, locations within the model allowing the accumulation of NoV and the working of intervention measures. The second component covered the contamination sources being (1) the initial HuNoV contaminated lettuce used on the sandwiches and (2) HuNoV originating from a shedding food handler. The third component included four possible intervention measures to reduce HuNoV transmission: hand and surface disinfection during preparation of the sandwiches, hand gloving and hand washing after a restroom visit. A single HuNoV shedding food handler could cause mean levels of 43±18, 81±37 and 18±7 HuNoV particles present on the deli sandwiches, hands and working surfaces, respectively. Introduction of contaminated lettuce as the only source of HuNoV resulted in the presence of 6.4±0.8 and 4.3±0.4 HuNoV on the food and hand reservoirs. The inclusion of hand and surface disinfection and hand gloving as a single intervention measure was not effective in the model as only marginal reductions of HuNoV levels were noticeable in the different reservoirs. High compliance of hand washing after a restroom visit did reduce HuNoV presence substantially on all reservoirs. The

  9. Ballistic resistance of honeycomb sandwich panels under in-plane high-velocity impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chang; Yang, Shu; Wang, Dong; Yang, Li-Jun

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic responses of honeycomb sandwich panels (HSPs) subjected to in-plane projectile impact were studied by means of explicit nonlinear finite element simulations using LS-DYNA. The HSPs consisted of two identical aluminum alloy face-sheets and an aluminum honeycomb core featuring three types of unit cell configurations (regular, rectangular-shaped, and reentrant hexagons). The ballistic resistances of HSPs with the three core configurations were first analyzed. It was found that the HSP with the reentrant auxetic honeycomb core has the best ballistic resistance, due to the negative Poisson's ratio effect of the core. Parametric studies were then carried out to clarify the influences of both macroscopic (face-sheet and core thicknesses, core relative density) and mesoscopic (unit cell angle and size) parameters on the ballistic responses of the auxetic HSPs. Numerical results show that the perforation resistant capabilities of the auxetic HSPs increase as the values of the macroscopic parameters increase. However, the mesoscopic parameters show nonmonotonic effects on the panels' ballistic capacities. The empirical equations for projectile residual velocities were formulated in terms of impact velocity and the structural parameters. It was also found that the blunter projectiles result in higher ballistic limits of the auxetic HSPs.

  10. High sensitive photonic crystal multiplexed biosensor array using H0 sandwiched cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arafa Safia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We theoretically investigate a high sensitive photonic crystal integrated biosensor array structure which is potentially used for label-free multiplexed sensing. The proposed device consists of an array of three sandwiched H0 cavities patterned above silicon on insulator (SOI substrate; each cavity has been designed for different cavity spacing and different resonant wavelength. Results obtained by performing finite-difference time-domain (FDTD simulations, indicate that the response of each detection unit shifts independently in terms of refractive index variations. The optimized design makes possible the combination of sensing as a function of location, as well as a function of time in the same platform. A refractive index sensitivity of 520nm/RIU and a quality factor over 104 are both achieved with an accompanied crosstalk of less than -26 dB. In addition, the device presents an improved detection limit (DL of 1.24.10-6 RIU and a wide measurement range. These features make the designed device a promising element for performing label-free multiplexed detection in monolithic substrate for medical diagnostics and environmental monitoring.

  11. A study of tensile test on open-cell aluminum foam sandwich

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, N. A.; Hazza, M. H. F. Al; Adesta, E. Y. T.; Abdullah Sidek, Atiah Bt.; Endut, N. A.

    2018-01-01

    Aluminum foam sandwich (AFS) panels are one of the growing materials in the various industries because of its lightweight behavior. AFS also known for having excellent stiffness to weight ratio and high-energy absorption. Due to their advantages, many researchers’ shows an interest in aluminum foam material for expanding the use of foam structure. However, there is still a gap need to be fill in order to develop reliable data on mechanical behavior of AFS with different parameters and analysis method approach. Least of researcher focusing on open-cell aluminum foam and statistical analysis. Thus, this research conducted by using open-cell aluminum foam core grade 6101 with aluminum sheets skin tested under tension. The data is analyzed using full factorial in JMP statistical analysis software (version 11). ANOVA result show a significant value of the model which less than 0.500. While scatter diagram and 3D plot surface profiler found that skins thickness gives a significant impact to stress/strain value compared to core thickness.

  12. Localization of Transversal Cracks in Sandwich Beams and Evaluation of Their Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. R. Gillich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm to assess transversal cracks in composite structures based on natural frequency changes due to damage is proposed. The damage assessment is performed in two steps; first the crack location is found, and afterwards an evaluation of its severity is performed. The technique is based on a mathematical relation that provides the exact solution for the frequency changes of bending vibration modes, considering two terms. The first term is related to the strain energy stored in the beam, while the second term considers the increase of flexibility due to damage. Thus, it is possible to separate the problems of localization and severity assessment, which makes the localization process independent of the beams cross-section shape and boundary conditions. In fact, the process consists of comparing vectors representing the measured frequency shifts with patterns constructed using the mode shape curvatures of the undamaged beam. Once the damage is localized, the evaluation of its severity is made taking into account the global rigidity reduction. The damage identification algorithm was validated by experiments performed on numerous sandwich panel specimens.

  13. Induced magnetization spiral in a nonmagnetic metal sandwiched between two ferromagnets

    CERN Document Server

    Mathon, J; Villeret, M; Muniz, R B; Edwards, D M

    2000-01-01

    Calculation of the magnetic moment induced in a non-magnetic metal, sandwiched between two ferromagnets with magnetizations at an arbitrary angle, is reported. It is found that the induced magnetization rotates along a complex three-dimensional spiral and can undergo many complete 360 deg. rotations. A simple free-electron model is used to derive an analytic formula for the twist angle phi inside the spacer. This demonstrates that, contrary to the behavior of magnetization inside a domain wall in a ferromagnet, phi varies non-uniformly inside the spacer and exhibits plateaus of almost constant rotation separated by regions of sharp rotations by large angles. The calculation is extended to the case of a realistic Co/Cu/Co(0 0 1) trilayer described by s, p, d tight-binding bands fitted to an ab initio band structure. An analytic formula for the components of the induced moment (and hence, for phi) is derived using the stationary phase approximation. Its validity is tested against a fully numerical calculation u...

  14. Post-Buckling Analysis of Curved Honeycomb Sandwich Panels Containing Interfacial Disbonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Krivanek, Thomas K.

    2016-01-01

    A numerical study on the effect of facesheet-core disbonds on the post-buckling response of curved honeycomb sandwich panels is presented herein. This work was conducted as part of the development of a damage tolerance plan for the next-generation Space Launch System heavy lift launch vehicle payload fairing. As such, the study utilized full-scale fairing barrel segments as the structure of interest. The panels were composed of carbon fiber reinforced polymer facesheets and aluminum honeycomb core. The panels were analyzed numerically using the finite element method incorporating geometric nonlinearity. In a predetermined circular region, facesheet and core nodes were detached to simulate a disbond, between the outer mold line facesheet and honeycomb core, induced via low-speed impact. Surface-to-surface contact in the disbonded region was invoked to prevent interpenetration of the facesheet and core elements and obtain realistic stresses in the core. The diameter of this disbonded region was varied and the effect of the size of the disbond on the post-buckling response was observed. Significant changes in the slope of the edge load-deflection response were used to determine the onset of global buckling and corresponding buckling load. Finally, several studies were conducted to determine the sensitivity of the numerical predictions to refinement in the finite element mesh.

  15. Analytical modeling of a sandwiched plate piezoelectric transformer-based acoustic-electric transmission channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawry, Tristan J; Wilt, Kyle R; Scarton, Henry A; Saulnier, Gary J

    2012-11-01

    The linear propagation of electromagnetic and dilatational waves through a sandwiched plate piezoelectric transformer (SPPT)-based acoustic-electric transmission channel is modeled using the transfer matrix method with mixed-domain two-port ABCD parameters. This SPPT structure is of great interest because it has been explored in recent years as a mechanism for wireless transmission of electrical signals through solid metallic barriers using ultrasound. The model we present is developed to allow for accurate channel performance prediction while greatly reducing the computational complexity associated with 2- and 3-dimensional finite element analysis. As a result, the model primarily considers 1-dimensional wave propagation; however, approximate solutions for higher-dimensional phenomena (e.g., diffraction in the SPPT's metallic core layer) are also incorporated. The model is then assessed by comparing it to the measured wideband frequency response of a physical SPPT-based channel from our previous work. Very strong agreement between the modeled and measured data is observed, confirming the accuracy and utility of the presented model.

  16. Fabrication of multilayered-sandwich MoS2/c architectures with advanced lithium storage properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Jinlong; Yang, Zhanxu; Wang, Xiaorong; Qi, Chengyuan; Li, Yue; Mao, Wei; Qiao, Haiyan; Yu, ZongBao; Ren, Tieqiang; Qiao, Qingdong

    2017-01-01

    MoS 2 /C nanocomposite with a multilayered sandwich structure based on few-layered MoS 2 and carbon layers in an alternating sequence, was successfully synthesized through a one-step synchronized carbonization and sulfuration method. The hybrids were characterized by X-ray diffraction, High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Atomic force microscope, Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic methods. The as-obtained MoS 2 /C nanocomposite applied as lithium-ion batteries anode materials, showed a high initial discharge and charge capacities of 1678.5 and 1386.0 mAh g −1 , respectively. High specific reversible capacity is maintained at fast C rates, e.g., 1390, 1223, 1017, 566, and 450 mAh g −1 at 0.1C, 0.6C, 3C, 10C and 20C, respectively. The good performance of the composite is mainly attributed to the unique few layered composite architectures, which can improve ion/electron transportation and prevent aggregation and restacking during the lithiation/delithiation process.

  17. Enhancing Photocatalytic Activity on (MnO@TNTAs):Mn2+ with a Hierarchical Sandwich-Like Nanostructure via a Two-Step Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Junhan; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Yubo; Xia, Minghao; Wu, Xiuling; Wang, Yongqian

    2018-02-01

    Several semiconductor nanomaterial devices are increasingly being applied in a variety of fields, especially in the treating of environmental pollutants. We have fabricated (MnO@TNTAs):Mn2+ with sandwich-like nanostructures composed of TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs), Mn-doped TNTAs and MnO. The experimental procedure was a two-step synthesis: first, using anodic oxidation methods and then hydrothermal methods. We carried out many characterizations of the "sandwiches" in the nanoscale. From the field emission scanning electron microscopy images we found nanofibers lying on the highly-ordered nanotube arrays. The diameter of the nanotubes was about 50 nm but the size of the nanofibers varied. Energy dispersive spectroscopy demonstrated that the nanofibers contained a manganese element and x-ray diffraction patterns showed the peak of the manganosite phase. From ultraviolet-visible light spectra, it was found that the nanostructures had strong absorption activities under both ultraviolet and visible light radiation, while pure TNTAs had absorption only under ultraviolet light. The photodegradation experiments proved that the sandwich-like nanostructures had an excellent photocatalytic activity (92.5% after 240 min), which was a great improvement compared with pure TNTAs. In this way, the structures as a device at the nanoscale have a huge potential in controlling environmental pollution.

  18. [Sb{sub 4}Au{sub 4}Sb{sub 4}]{sup 2−}: A designer all-metal aromatic sandwich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Wen-Juan; You, Xue-Rui [Nanocluster Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Science, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Guo, Jin-Chang [Department of Chemistry, Xinzhou Teachers University, Xinzhou 034000 (China); Li, Da-Zhi, E-mail: hj.zhai@sxu.edu.cn, E-mail: ldz005@126.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Binzhou University, Binzhou 256603 (China); Wang, Ying-Jin [Nanocluster Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Science, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); Department of Chemistry, Xinzhou Teachers University, Xinzhou 034000 (China); Sun, Zhong-Ming [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Zhai, Hua-Jin, E-mail: hj.zhai@sxu.edu.cn, E-mail: ldz005@126.com [Nanocluster Laboratory, Institute of Molecular Science, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China); State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China)

    2016-07-28

    We report on the computational design of an all-metal aromatic sandwich, [Sb{sub 4}Au{sub 4}Sb{sub 4}]{sup 2−}. The triple-layered, square-prismatic sandwich complex is the global minimum of the system from Coalescence Kick and Minima Hopping structural searches. Following a standard, qualitative chemical bonding analysis via canonical molecular orbitals, the sandwich complex can be formally described as [Sb{sub 4}]{sup +}[Au{sub 4}]{sup 4−}[Sb{sub 4}]{sup +}, showing ionic bonding characters with electron transfers in between the Sb{sub 4}/Au{sub 4}/Sb{sub 4} layers. For an in-depth understanding of the system, one needs to go beyond the above picture. Significant Sb → Au donation and Sb ← Au back-donation occur, redistributing electrons from the Sb{sub 4}/Au{sub 4}/Sb{sub 4} layers to the interlayer Sb–Au–Sb edges, which effectively lead to four Sb–Au–Sb three-center two-electron bonds. The complex is a system with 30 valence electrons, excluding the Sb 5s and Au 5d lone-pairs. The two [Sb{sub 4}]{sup +} ligands constitute an unusual three-fold (π and σ) aromatic system with all 22 electrons being delocalized. An energy gap of ∼1.6 eV is predicted for this all-metal sandwich. The complex is a rare example for rational design of cluster compounds and invites forth-coming synthetic efforts.

  19. Therapeutic Results of Radiotherapy in Rectal Carcinoma -Comparison of Sandwich Technique Radiotherapy with Postoperative Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Gil Cha; Suh, Hyun Suk; Lee, Hyuk Sang; Kim, Re Hwe; Kim, Chul Soo; Kim, Hong Yong; Kim, Sung Rok

    1996-01-01

    Purpose : To evaluate the potential advantage for 'sandwich' technique radiotherapy compared to postoperative radiotherapy in respectable rectal cancer. Between January 1989 and May 1994, 60 patients with respectable rectal cancer were treated at Inje University Seoul and Sanggye Paik Hospital.Fifty one patients were available for analysis : 20 patients were treated with sandwich technique radiotherapy and 31 patients were treated with postoperative radiotherapy. In sandwich technique radiotherapy(RT), patients were treated with preoperative RT 1500 cGy/5fx followed by immediate curative resection. Patients staged as Astler-Coller B2, C were considered for postoperative RT with 2500-4500 cGy. In postoperative RT, total radiation dose of 4500-6120 cGy, 180 cGy daily at 4-6 weeks was delivered. Patients were followed for median period of 25 months. Results : The overall 5-year survival rates for sandwich technique RT group and postoperative RT group were 60% and 71%, respectively(p>0.05). The 5-year disease free survival rates for each group were 63%. There was no difference in local failure rate between two groups(11% versus 7%). Incidence of distant metastasis was 11%(2/20) in the sandwich technique RT group and 20%(6/31) in the postoperative RT group(p>0.05). The frequencies of acute and chronic complications were comparable in both groups. Conclusion : The sandwich technique radiotherapy group shows local recurrence and survival similar to those of postoperative RT alone group but reduced distant metastasis compared to postoperative RT group. But long term follow-up and large number of patients is needed to make an any firm conclusion regarding the value of this sandwich technique RT

  20. Strain Sensors Based on Sandwich Structures of Crumpled Graphene for Structural Health Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space based systems are subject to varied stresses which induce damage leading to failure, therefore it is necessary to develop an onboard system to monitor...

  1. Web buckling behavior under in-plane compression and shear loads for web reinforced composite sandwich core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toubia, Elias Anis

    Sandwich construction is one of the most functional forms of composite structures developed by the composite industry. Due to the increasing demand of web-reinforced core for composite sandwich construction, a research study is needed to investigate the web plate instability under shear, compression, and combined loading. If the web, which is an integral part of the three dimensional web core sandwich structure, happens to be slender with respect to one or two of its spatial dimensions, then buckling phenomena become an issue in that it must be quantified as part of a comprehensive strength model for a fiber reinforced core. In order to understand the thresholds of thickness, web weight, foam type, and whether buckling will occur before material yielding, a thorough investigation needs to be conducted, and buckling design equations need to be developed. Often in conducting a parametric study, a special purpose analysis is preferred over a general purpose analysis code, such as a finite element code, due to the cost and effort usually involved in generating a large number of results. A suitable methodology based on an energy method is presented to solve the stability of symmetrical and specially orthotropic laminated plates on an elastic foundation. Design buckling equations were developed for the web modeled as a laminated plate resting on elastic foundations. The proposed equations allow for parametric studies without limitation regarding foam stiffness, geometric dimensions, or mechanical properties. General behavioral trends of orthotropic and symmetrical anisotropic plates show pronounced contribution of the elastic foundation and fiber orientations on the buckling resistance of the plate. The effects of flexural anisotropy on the buckling behavior of long rectangular plates when subjected to pure shear loading are well represented in the model. The reliability of the buckling equations as a design tool is confirmed by comparison with experimental results

  2. Viewpoints of working sandwich generation women and occupational therapists on role balance strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kiah L; Girdler, Sonya J; Falkmer, Torbjorn; Richmond, Janet E; Wagman, Petra; Millsteed, Jeannine; Falkmer, Marita

    2017-09-01

    Occupational therapists need to be cognizant of evidence-based role balance advice and strategies that women with multigenerational caring responsibilities can implement independently or with minimal assistance, as role balance may not be the primary goal during many encounters with this population. Hence, this study aimed to identify the viewpoints on the most helpful role balance strategies for working sandwich generation women, both from their own perspectives and from the perspective of occupational therapists. This was achieved through a Q methodology study, where 54 statements were based on findings from interviews, sandwich generation literature and occupational therapy literature. In total, 31 working sandwich generation women and 42 occupational therapists completed the Q sort through either online or paper administration. The data were analysed using factor analysis with varimax rotation and were interpreted through collaboration with experts in the field. The findings revealed similarities between working sandwich generation women and occupational therapists, particularly in terms of advocating strategies related to sleep, rest and seeking practical assistance from support networks. Differences were also present, with working sandwich generation women viewpoints tending to emphasize strategies related to coping with a busy lifestyle attending to multiple responsibilities. In contrast, occupational therapy viewpoints prioritized strategies related to the occupational therapy process, such as goal setting, activity focused interventions, monitoring progress and facilitating sustainable outcomes.

  3. Study on the sandwich piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic transducer in thickness vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Shuyu; Tian Hua

    2008-01-01

    A sandwich piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic transducer in thickness vibration is studied. The transducer consists of front and back metal masses, and coaxially segmented, thickness polarized piezoelectric ceramic thin rings. For this kind of sandwich piezoelectric transducers in thickness vibration, it is required that the lateral dimension of the transducer is sufficiently large compared with its longitudinal dimension so that no lateral displacements in the transducer can occur (laterally clamped). In this paper, the thickness vibration of the piezoelectric ceramic stack consisting of a number of identical piezoelectric ceramic thin rings is analysed and its electro-mechanical equivalent circuit is obtained. The resonance frequency equation for the sandwich piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic transducer in thickness vibration is derived. Based on the frequency equation, two sandwich piezoelectric ceramic ultrasonic transducers are designed and manufactured, and their resonance frequencies are measured. It is shown that the measured resonance frequencies are in good agreement with the theoretical results. This kind of sandwich piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer is expected to be used in megasonic ultrasonic cleaning and sonochemistry where high power and high frequency ultrasound is needed

  4. Development of indirect sandwich ELISA for determination of excretory-secretory antigens of Fasciola hepatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libertad Alzamora-Gonzales

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a cosmopolitan parasitosis medical-veterinary importance caused by Fasciola hepatica, which affects sheep, goats and cattle; and it affects man accidentally causing an epidemic-endemic infection difficult to diagnose. The aim was to develop an indirect sandwich ELISA with 3 antibodies for detecting excretory-secretory antigens of Fasciola hepatica (ESFh. For the development of indirect sandwich ELISA were used, as capture antibody, mouse polyclonal antibodies anti ESFh and polyclonal antibodies rabbit anti-ESFh as detection antibody, at the concentrations of 10 and 5 µg/mL respectively. The conjugate used was mouse monoclonal anti- total immunoglobulins rabbit linked to peroxidase (1/1000. Were analized 31 sheep fecal samples, and the results were compared with those obtained by direct coproparasitological examination (DC and counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP. The detection limit obtained for indirect sandwich ELISA was 100 ng/mL. The test had a 100% sensitivity, 96.6% specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 50% and 96.6% respectively, in relation to DC test. Comparing with CIEP the specificity obtained for indirect sandwich ELISA was 93.5% and a negative predictive value of 100%. We concluded that indirect sandwich ELISA designed is able to detect metabolic antigens in ovine feces samples and can be used for Fasciola hepatica diagnosis.

  5. ANALISA TEKNIS DAN EKONOMIS PENGGUNAAN COREMAT UNTUK KONSTRUKSI FRP (FIBERGLASS REINFORCED PLASTIC SANDWICH PADA BADAN KAPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parlindungan Manik

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Planning of ship construction is make its having good effectivity value and efficiency. Composite as material alternative to changes of steel feedstock and wood has many applied named FRP (fiberglass reinforced plastics single skin. The weakness of this FRP was heavy construction and requires many production time. Therefore, will be checked comparison between single skin with sandwich constructions for shell. In this research, the way for making composite is hand lay up method with three various thickness of skin there are : t, t/2, and t/4. To know strength comparison from the various skin of sandwich with single skin, must be test, consist of tensile test.. The result is analyzed then compared by BKI (Biro Klasifikasi Indonesia rules for the fiberglass ship. Based on the result, indicates that optimization skin thickness of sandwich construction applies Coremat which tensile strength it is equivalent with Single Skin at 2/3t and usage of Sandwich construction causes 23,12 % lighter. In economic analyze, advantage from low weight is compensation of addition 23,12 % DWT. Material cost for Sandwich about 11,35% bigger than Single Skin construction.

  6. ANALISA TEKNIS DAN EKONOMIS PENGGUNAAN COREMAT UNTUK KONSTRUKSI FRP (FIBERGLASS REINFORCED PLASTIC SANDWICH PADA BADAN KAPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parlindungan Manik

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Planning of ship construction is make its having good effectivity value and efficiency. Composite as materialalternative to changes of steel feedstock and wood has many applied named FRP (fiberglass reinforcedplastics single skin. The weakness of this FRP was heavy construction and requires many production time.Therefore, will be checked comparison between single skin with sandwich constructions for shell.In this research, the way for making composite is hand lay up method with three various thickness of skinthere are : t, t/2, and t/4. To know strength comparison from the various skin of sandwich with single skin,must be test, consist of tensile test.. The result is analyzed then compared by BKI (Biro Klasifikasi Indonesiarules for the fiberglass ship.Based on the result, indicates that optimization skin thickness of sandwich construction applies Corematwhich tensile strength it is equivalent with Single Skin at 2/3t and usage of Sandwich construction causes23,12 % lighter. In economic analyze, advantage from low weight is compensation of addition 23,12 % DWT.Material cost for Sandwich about 11,35% bigger than Single Skin construction.

  7. Ageing tests study on wood-based sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateo, Raquel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Composite lightweight wood panels are being increasingly used in construction in Spain. Their growing use should be accompanied by necessary guarantees based on studies of their properties. As it is prescriptive and in addition to others tests, in the present work is examinated the durability of these panels when exposed to the climatic conditions, a characteristic of great importance for wood products, according to Guide ETAG 016, the current standard defining the ageing tests to be used. However, due to the use class of this material, there are indications that the testing outlined in this Guide is inappropriate for assessing the ageing of wood-based sandwich panels. Alternative tests are here proposed that recreate rather better the real conditions under which these products are used. Covering the samples in a waterproof sheeting permeable to the outward movement of water vapour, which is in fact used in the installation, provided the best procedure for testing these panels.

    Los paneles sándwich de madera son un producto de creciente aplicación en la edificación de nuestro país. Este ascendente uso del material debe estar acompañado de las garantías necesarias avaladas por un estudio previo de sus prestaciones. Como es preceptivo y entre otros, se evalúa su durabilidad frente a las condiciones climatológicas, clave en los productos derivados de la madera, acorde a la normativa actual definida con tal fin, la Guía ETAG 016. Sin embargo, debido a la clase de uso del material, se ha detectado que dicha normativa tal y como está concebida no es capaz de valorar su envejecimiento adecuadamente. En este trabajo se proponen ensayos alternativos al establecido tras exhaustivos análisis que recrean las condiciones reales de uso y más acordes a los productos de madera. Se concluye que la incorporación de una lámina impermeable pero permeable al vapor de agua hacia el exterior, como las utilizadas en el montaje, aportan el mejor

  8. Earthquake Source Depths in the Zagros Mountains: A "Jelly Sandwich" or "Creme Brulee" Lithosphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A. N.; Nyblade, A.; Brazier, R.; Rodgers, A.; Al-Amri, A.

    2006-12-01

    The Zagros Mountain Belt of southwestern Iran is one of the most seismically active mountain belts in the world. Previous studies of the depth distribution of earthquakes in this region have shown conflicting results. Early seismic studies of teleseismically recorded events found that earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains nucleated within both the upper crust and upper mantle, indicating that the lithosphere underlying the Zagros Mountains has a strong upper crust and a strong lithospheric mantle, separated by a weak lower crust. Such a model of lithospheric structure is called the "Jelly Sandwich" model. More recent teleseismic studies, however, found that earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains occur only within the upper crust, thus indicating that the strength of the Zagros Mountains' lithosphere is primarily isolated to the upper crust. This model of lithospheric structure is called the "crème brûlée" model. Analysis of regionally recorded earthquakes nucleating within the Zagros Mountains is presented here. Data primarily come from the Saudi Arabian National Digital Seismic Network, although data sources include many regional open and closed networks. The use of regionally recorded earthquakes facilitates the analysis of a larger dataset than has been used in previous teleseismic studies. Regional waveforms have been inverted for source parameters using a range of potential source depths to determine the best fitting source parameters and depths. Results indicate that earthquakes nucleate in two distinct zones. One seismogenic zone lies at shallow, upper crustal depths. The second seismogenic zone lies near the Moho. Due to uncertainty in the source and Moho depths, further study is needed to determine whether these deeper events are nucleating within the lower crust or the upper mantle.

  9. Design and Experimentation with Sandwich Microstructure for Catalytic Combustion-Type Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Tao Gu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The traditional handmade catalytic combustion gas sensor has some problems such as a pairing difficulty, poor consistency, high power consumption, and not being interchangeable. To address these issues, integrated double catalytic combustion of alcohol gas sensor was designed and manufactured using silicon micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS technology. The temperature field of the sensor is analyzed using the ANSYS finite element analysis method. In this work, the silicon oxide-PECVD-oxidation technique is used to manufacture a SiO2-Si3N2-SiO2 microstructure carrier with a sandwich structure, while wet etching silicon is used to form a beam structure to reduce the heat consumption. Thin-film technology is adopted to manufacture the platinum-film sensitive resistance. Nano Al2O3-ZrO-ThO is coated to format the sensor carrier, and the sensitive unit is dipped in a Pt-Pd catalyst solution to form the catalytic sensitive bridge arm. Meanwhile the uncoated catalyst carrier is considered as the reference unit, realizing an integrated chip based on a micro double bridge and forming sensors. The lines of the Pt thin-film resistance have been observed with an electronic microscope. The compensation of the sensitive material carriers and compensation materials have been analyzed using an energy spectrum. The results show that the alcohol sensor can detect a volume fraction between 0 and 4,500 × 10−6 and has good linear output characteristic. The temperature ranges from −20 to +40 °C. The humidity ranges from 30% to 85% RH. The zero output of the sensor is less than ±2.0% FS. The power consumption is ≤0.2 W, and both the response and recovery time are approximately 20 s.

  10. Examination of High-Torque Sandwich-Type Spherical Ultrasonic Motor Using with High-Power Multimode Annular Vibrating Stator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai Mizuno

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Spherical ultrasonic motors (SUSMs that can operate with multiple degrees of freedom (MDOF using only a single stator have high holding torque and high torque at low speed, which makes reduction gearing unnecessary. The simple structure of MDOF-SUSMs makes them useful as compact actuators, but their development is still insufficient for applications such as joints of humanoid robots and other systems that require MDOF and high torque. To increase the torque of a sandwich-type MDOF-SUSM, we have not only made the vibrating stator and spherical rotor larger but also improved the structure using three design concepts: (1 increasing the strength of all three vibration modes using multilayered piezoelectric actuators (MPAs embedded in the stator, (2 enhancing the rigidity of the friction driving portion of the stator for transmitting more vibration force to the friction-driven rotor surface, and (3 making the support mechanism more stable. An MDOF-SUSM prototype was tested, and the maximum torques of rotation around the X(Y-axis and Z-axis were measured as 1.48 N∙m and 2.05 N∙m, respectively. Moreover, the values for torque per unit weight of the stator were obtained as 0.87 N∙m/kg for the X(Y-axis and 1.20 N∙m/kg for the Z-axis. These are larger than values reported for any other sandwich-type MDOF-SUSM of which we are aware. Hence, the new design concepts were shown to be effective for increasing torque. In addition, we measured the transient response and calculated the load characteristics of rotation around the rotor’s three orthogonal axes.

  11. Synthesis and Characterization of a Heterometallic Extended Architecture Based on a Manganese(II-Substituted Sandwich-Type Polyoxotungstate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masooma Ibrahim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of [α-P2W15O56]12− with MnII and DyIII in an aqueous basic solution led to the isolation of an all inorganic heterometallic aggregate Na10(OH242[{Dy(H2O6}2Mn4P4W30O112(H2O2]·17H2O (Dy2Mn4-P2W15. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction revealed that Dy2Mn4-P2W15 crystallizes in the triclinic system with space group P 1 ¯ , and consists of a tetranuclear manganese(II-substituted sandwich-type phosphotungstate [Mn4(H2O2(P2W15O562]16− (Mn4-P2W15, Na, and DyIII cations. Compound Dy2Mn4-P2W15 exhibits a 1D ladder-like chain structure based on sandwich-type segments and dysprosium cations as linkers, which are further connected into a three-dimensional open framework by sodium cations. The title compound was structurally and compositionally characterized in solid state by single-crystal XRD, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, thermogravimetric (TGA, and elemental analyses. Further, the absorption and emission electronic spectra in aqueous solutions of Dy2Mn4-P2W15 and Mn4-P2W15 were studied. Also, magnetic properties were studied and compared with the magnetic behavior of [Mn4(H2O2(P2W15O562]16−.

  12. Optimal design of sandwich ribbed flat baffle plates of a circular cylindrical tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, Marek; Magnucki, Krzysztof

    2005-01-01

    The subject of this paper is a sandwich ribbed flat baffle plate of a circular cylindrical tank. The paper deals with a problem of optimal thickness of this construction with a soft core. The construction is distinguished by a local axisymmetric pre-springing. The mathematical description is based on the theory of shells with analysis of disturbance of the stress membrane state. The sandwich ribbed flat baffle plate divides the tank into two chambers. One of them is loaded by uniform pressure, while the other is empty and unloaded. Dimensions of ribs, faces and the entire baffle plate have been determined with a view to minimize the mass under strength constraints. The effect of optimal thickness of this sandwich plate has been examined by means of the finite element method

  13. Exploiting Nanobodies in the Detection and Quantification of Human Growth Hormone via Phage-Sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Murad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMonitoring blood levels of human growth hormone (hGH in most children with short stature deficiencies is crucial for taking a decision of treatment with extended course of daily and expensive doses of recombinant hGH (rhGH or Somatropin®. Besides, misusing of rhGH by sportsmen is banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency and thus sensitive GH-detecting methods are highly welcome in this field. Nanobodies are the tiniest antigen-binding entity derived from camel heavy chain antibodies. They were successfully generated against numerous antigens including hormones.MethodsA fully nanobody-based sandwich ELISA method was developed in this work for direct measurement of GH in biological samples.ResultsTwo major characteristics of nanobody were exploited for this goal: the robust and stable structure of the nanobody (NbGH04 used to capture hGH from tested samples, and the great ability of tailoring, enabling the display of the anti-GH detector nanobody (NbGH07 on the tip of M13-phage. Such huge, stable, and easy-to-prepare phage-Nb was used in ELISA to provide an amplified signal. Previously, NbGH04 was retrieved on immobilized hGH by phage display from a wide “immune” cDNA library prepared from a hGH-immunized camel. Here, and in order to assure epitope heterogeneity, NbGH07 was isolated from the same library using NbGH04-captured hGH as bait. Interaction of both nanobodies with hGH was characterized and compared with different anti-GH nanobodies and antibodies. The sensitivity (~0.5 ng/ml and stability of the nanobody-base sandwich ELISA were assessed using rhGH before testing in the quantification of hGH in blood sera and cell culture supernatants.ConclusionIn regard to all advantages of nanobodies; stability, solubility, production affordability in Escherichia coli, and gene tailoring, nanobody-based phage sandwich ELISA developed here would provide a valuable method for hGH detection and quantification.

  14. Effect of a magnetic field on the excess resistance of SNS sandwiches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logvenov, G.Y.; Ryazanov, V.V.

    1983-01-01

    The contribution of superconducting plates to the resistance of Ta--Cu--Ta sandwiches in the presence of a magnetic field of up to 170 Ge is investigated. Near the superconducting transition temperature T/sub c/H, the Ta used was in a mixed (vortical) state. It is shown that the presence of gradients of the order parameter near the Abrikosov vortices appreciably changes the penetration depth of a longitudinal electric field into the superconductor and leads to a corresponding change in the excess resistance of SNS sandwiches

  15. Thermal performance of capillary micro tubes integrated into the sandwich element made of concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikeska, Tomas; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    integrated into the thin plate of sandwich element made of HPC can supply the energy needed for heating and cooling. The investigations were conceived as a low temperature concept, where the difference between the temperature of circulating fluid and air in the room was kept in range of 1 to 4°C. © (2013......The thermal performance of radiant heating and cooling systems (RHCS) composed of capillary micro tubes (CMT) integrated into the inner plate of sandwich elements made of High Performance Concrete (HPC) was investigated in the article. Temperature distribution in HPC elements around integrated CMT...

  16. A J Integral Approach for Measuring Cohesive Laws Using a Modified DCB Sandwich Specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard-Larsen, Christian; Berggreen, Christian; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2007-01-01

    mode mixities. The sandwich specimen consists of glass fiber faces and Divinycell H200 foam core. Arbitrary stiffening of the sandwich specimen with steel bars adhered to the faces reduces rotations and ensures that the method is useable for a wide range of materials. The J integral is employed...... and the opening of the pre-crack tip is recorded by a commercial digital photogrammetry measurement system. Cohesive laws are extracted by differentiating J with respect to the normal and tangential opening of the pre-crack tip. Some results are presented and discussed....

  17. Face/core debond fatigue crack growth characterization using the sandwich mixed mode bending specimen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manca, Marcello; Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Face/core fatigue crack growth in foam-cored sandwich composites is examined using the mixed mode bending (MMB) test method. The mixed mode loading at the debond crack tip is controlled by changing the load application point in the MMB test fixture. Sandwich specimens were manufactured using H45...... and H100 PVC foam cores and E-glass/polyester face sheets. All specimens were pre-cracked in order to define a sharp crack front. The static debond fracture toughness for each material configuration was measured at different mode-mixity phase angles. Fatigue tests were performed at 80% of the static...

  18. FaceSheet Push-off Tests to Determine Composite Sandwich Toughness at Cryogenic Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Thomas S.; Herring, Helen M.

    2001-01-01

    A new novel test method, associated analysis, and experimental procedures are developed to investigate the toughness of the facesheet-to-core interface of a sandwich material at cryogenic temperatures. The test method is designed to simulate the failure mode associated with facesheet debonding from high levels of gas pressure in the sandwich core. The effects of specimen orientation are considered, and the results of toughness measurements are presented. Comparisons are made between room and liquid nitrogen (-196 C) test temperatures. It was determined that the test method is insensitive to specimen facesheet orientation and strain energy release rate increases with a decrease in the test temperature.

  19. Analytical and Numerical Study of Foam-Filled Corrugated Core Sandwich Panels under Low Velocity Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nouri Damghani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Analytical and finite element simulations are used to predict the effect of core density on the energy absorption of composite sandwich panels under low-velocity impact. The composite sandwich panel contains two facesheets and a foam-filled corrugated core. Analytical model is defined as a two degree-of-freedom system based on equivalent mass, spring, and dashpot to predict the local and global deformation response of a simply supported panel. The results signify a good agreement between analytical and numerical predictions.

  20. Failure analysis of bolted joints in foam-core sandwich composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zabihpoor, M.; Moslemian, Ramin; Afshin, M.

    2008-01-01

    This study represents an effort to predict the bearing strength, failure modes, and failure load of bolted joints in foam-core sandwich composites. The studied joints have been used in a light full composite airplane. By using solid laminates, a new design for the joint zone is developed. These s......This study represents an effort to predict the bearing strength, failure modes, and failure load of bolted joints in foam-core sandwich composites. The studied joints have been used in a light full composite airplane. By using solid laminates, a new design for the joint zone is developed...

  1. Experimental investigation of interfacial crack arrest in sandwich beams subjected to fatigue loading using a novel crack arresting device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martakos, G.; Andreasen, J.H.; Berggreen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    A recently proposed face-sheet–core interface crack arresting device is implemented in sandwich beams and tested using the Sandwich Tear Test configuration. Fatigue loading conditions are applied to propagate the crack and determine the effect of the crack stopper on the fatigue growth rate and a...

  2. Development and evaluation of a sandwich ELISA for quantification of the 20S proteasome in human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutaud, Dominique; Aubry, Laurent; Henry, Laurent

    2002-01-01

    Because quantification of the 20S proteasome by functional activity measurements is difficult and inaccurate, we have developed an indirect sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for quantification of the 20S proteasome in human plasma. This sandwich ELISA uses a combination...

  3. Properties of polyurethane foam/coconut coir fiber as a core material and as a sandwich composites component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, M. A.; Abdullah, H. Z.; Idris, M. I.

    2013-12-01

    This research focuses on the fabrication and characterization of sandwich composite panels using glass fiber composite skin and polyurethane foam reinforced coconut coir fiber core. The main objectives are to characterize the physical and mechanical properties and to elucidate the effect of coconut coir fibers in polyurethane foam cores and sandwich composite panels. Coconut coir fibers were used as reinforcement in polyurethane foams in which later were applied as the core in sandwich composites ranged from 5 wt% to 20 wt%. The physical and mechanical properties found to be significant at 5 wt% coconut coir fiber in polyurethane foam cores as well as in sandwich composites. It was found that composites properties serve better in sandwich composites construction.

  4. Properties of polyurethane foam/coconut coir fiber as a core material and as a sandwich composites component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmi, M A; Abdullah, H Z; Idris, M I

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on the fabrication and characterization of sandwich composite panels using glass fiber composite skin and polyurethane foam reinforced coconut coir fiber core. The main objectives are to characterize the physical and mechanical properties and to elucidate the effect of coconut coir fibers in polyurethane foam cores and sandwich composite panels. Coconut coir fibers were used as reinforcement in polyurethane foams in which later were applied as the core in sandwich composites ranged from 5 wt% to 20 wt%. The physical and mechanical properties found to be significant at 5 wt% coconut coir fiber in polyurethane foam cores as well as in sandwich composites. It was found that composites properties serve better in sandwich composites construction

  5. Implementation of microfluidic sandwich ELISA for superior detection of plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaitrong, Numrin; Charlermroj, Ratthaphol; Himananto, Orawan; Seepiban, Channarong; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and economical screening of plant pathogens is a high-priority need in the seed industry. Crop quality control and disease surveillance demand early and accurate detection in addition to robustness, scalability, and cost efficiency typically required for selective breeding and certification programs. Compared to conventional bench-top detection techniques routinely employed, a microfluidic-based approach offers unique benefits to address these needs simultaneously. To our knowledge, this work reports the first attempt to perform microfluidic sandwich ELISA for Acidovorax citrulli (Ac), watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV), and melon yellow spot virus (MYSV) screening. The immunoassay occurs on the surface of a reaction chamber represented by a microfluidic channel. The capillary force within the microchannel draws a reagent into the reaction chamber as well as facilitates assay incubation. Because the underlying pad automatically absorbs excess fluid, the only operation required is sequential loading of buffers/reagents. Buffer selection, antibody concentrations, and sample loading scheme were optimized for each pathogen. Assay optimization reveals that the 20-folds lower sample volume demanded by the microchannel structure outweighs the 2- to 4-folds higher antibody concentrations required, resulting in overall 5-10 folds of reagent savings. In addition to cutting the assay time by more than 50%, the new platform offers 65% cost savings from less reagent consumption and labor cost. Our study also shows 12.5-, 2-, and 4-fold improvement in assay sensitivity for Ac, WSMoV, and MYSV, respectively. Practical feasibility is demonstrated using 19 real plant samples. Given a standard 96-well plate format, the developed assay is compatible with commercial fluorescent plate readers and readily amendable to robotic liquid handling systems for completely hand-free assay automation.

  6. Utilization of bagasse and coconut fibers waste as fillers of sandwich composite for bridge railway sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soehardjo, K. A.; Basuki, A.

    2017-07-01

    The bridge railway sleepers is an essential component in the construction of railways, as the foundation of the rail support in order to withstand the load a train that runs above it. Sleepers used in bridge construction are expected to have a longer service life, lighter weight and durable so that can be used more efficient. This research was carried out to create a model of bridges railway sleepers made of sandwich structured composite from fiber glass, epoxy resin with fillers waste of bagasse (sugar cane pulp mill) or coconut fiberboard (copra industry) that using polyurethane as an adhesive. The process of making was conditioned for small and medium industrial applications. Railway sleepers’ specifications adapted to meet the requirements of end user. The process steps in this research include; lay-up fiberglass combined with bagasse/coconut fiberboard (as fillers), gluing with epoxy resin, molded it with pressure to be solid, curing after solidification process. The specimens of composite, bagasse and coconut fiber board were tested for tensile and compressive strength. The prototype were tested of mechanical test: flexural moment test to the stand rail, flexural moment test to the middle of the sleepers and tensile strength test on one side of the sleepers, in accordance to SNI 11-3388-1994 Method testing of single block concrete sleepers and bearing single rail fastening systems. The results of mechanical testing all variations meet the technical specifications of end user such as test results for flexural moment on all prototypes, after load test, there is no visible crack. While in the tensile strength test, it seem the prototype with coconut fiberboard filler, shows better performance than bagasse fiberboard filler, the decisions is just depended on techno economic and lifetime.

  7. Analysis and Tests of Reinforced Carbon-Epoxy/Foam-Core Sandwich Panels with Cutouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Donald J.; Rogers, Charles

    1996-01-01

    The results of a study of a low-cost structurally efficient minimum-gage shear-panel design that can be used in light helicopters are presented. The shear-panel design is based on an integrally stiffened syntactic-foam stabilized-skin with an all-bias-ply tape construction for stabilized-skin concept with an all-bias-ply tape construction for the skins. This sandwich concept is an economical way to increase the panel bending stiffness weight penalty. The panels considered in the study were designed to be buckling resistant up to 100 lbs/in. of shear load and to have an ultimate strength of 300 lbs/in. The panel concept uses unidirectional carbon-epoxy tape on a syntactic adhesive as a stiffener that is co-cured with the skin and is an effective concept for improving panel buckling strength. The panel concept also uses pultruded carbon-epoxy rods embedded in a syntactic adhesive and over-wrapped with a bias-ply carbon-epoxy tape to form a reinforcing beam which is an effective method for redistributing load around rectangular cutout. The buckling strength of the reinforced panels is 83 to 90 percent of the predicted buckling strength based on a linear buckling analysis. The maximum experimental deflection exceeds the maximum deflection predicted by a nonlinear analysis by approximately one panel thickness. The failure strength of the reinforced panels was two and a half to seven times of the buckling strength. This efficient shear-panel design concept exceeds the required ultimate strength requirement of 300 lbs/in by more than 100 percent.

  8. Sandwich-like graphene-mesoporous carbon as sulfur host for enhanced lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ting; Li, Bin; Zhu, Mengqi; Liu, Jianhua; Li, Songmei

    2017-10-01

    Graphene-mesoporous carbon/sulfur composites (G-MPC/S) were constructed by melt-infiltration of sulfur into graphene-mesoporous carbon which was synthesized by soft template method. The SEM and BET results of the graphene-mesoporous carbon show that the as-prepared sandwich-like G-MPC composites with a unique microporous-mesoporous structure had a high specific surface area of 554.164 m2 · g-1 and an average pore size of about 13 nm. The XRD analysis presents the existence of orthorhombic sulfur in the G-MPC/S composite, which indicates the complete infiltration of sulfur into the pores of the G-MPC. When the graphene-mesoporous carbon/surfur composites (G-MPC/S) with 53.9 wt.% sulfur loading were used as the cathode for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, it exhibited an outstanding electrochemical performance including excellent initial discharge specific capacity of 1393 mAh · g-1 at 0.1 °C, high cycle stability (731 mAh · g-1 at 200 cycles) and good rate performance (1038 mAh · g-1, 770 mAh · g-1, 518 mAh · g-1 and 377 mAh · g-1 at 0.1 °C, 0.2 °C, 0.5 °C and 1 °C, respectively), which suggested the important role of the G-MPC composite in providing more electrons and ions channels, in addition, the shuttle effect caused by the dissolved polysulfide was also suppressed.

  9. Implementation of microfluidic sandwich ELISA for superior detection of plant pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Numrin Thaitrong

    Full Text Available Rapid and economical screening of plant pathogens is a high-priority need in the seed industry. Crop quality control and disease surveillance demand early and accurate detection in addition to robustness, scalability, and cost efficiency typically required for selective breeding and certification programs. Compared to conventional bench-top detection techniques routinely employed, a microfluidic-based approach offers unique benefits to address these needs simultaneously. To our knowledge, this work reports the first attempt to perform microfluidic sandwich ELISA for Acidovorax citrulli (Ac, watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV, and melon yellow spot virus (MYSV screening. The immunoassay occurs on the surface of a reaction chamber represented by a microfluidic channel. The capillary force within the microchannel draws a reagent into the reaction chamber as well as facilitates assay incubation. Because the underlying pad automatically absorbs excess fluid, the only operation required is sequential loading of buffers/reagents. Buffer selection, antibody concentrations, and sample loading scheme were optimized for each pathogen. Assay optimization reveals that the 20-folds lower sample volume demanded by the microchannel structure outweighs the 2- to 4-folds higher antibody concentrations required, resulting in overall 5-10 folds of reagent savings. In addition to cutting the assay time by more than 50%, the new platform offers 65% cost savings from less reagent consumption and labor cost. Our study also shows 12.5-, 2-, and 4-fold improvement in assay sensitivity for Ac, WSMoV, and MYSV, respectively. Practical feasibility is demonstrated using 19 real plant samples. Given a standard 96-well plate format, the developed assay is compatible with commercial fluorescent plate readers and readily amendable to robotic liquid handling systems for completely hand-free assay automation.

  10. A new type of sandwich panel with periodic cellular metal cores and its mechanical performances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Chae-Hong; Jeon, Insu; Kang, Ki-Ju

    2009-01-01

    Many studies have been performed on the mechanical properties and optimization of truss PCMs (periodic cellular metals), but those on the fabrication process, which is one of key factors determining the survivability of PCMs in the market, have been relatively limited. This study introduces a new idea on the fabrication of quasi Kagome truss cored sandwich panels, which is based on the expanded-metal process. And the mechanical behavior of the sandwich panels is to be evaluated. The mechanical strengths and failure mechanisms under compression and bending load are estimated based on elementary mechanics of materials, and the optimal design is derived. Its validity is proved by comparison with the results of experiments. The results showed that the new idea is promising with respect to all three requirements, i.e., the morphology, fabrication cost, and raw materials. The simple mechanical analysis was sufficiently effective and accurate for estimating the performance and failure mode of the sandwich panels. In the experiments, sandwich panel specimens of three different designs were compared in their bending behaviors to demonstrate sensitivity of geometric parameters. Namely, although all the designs had little difference in their load capacity-per-weight, the failure mechanisms and the behaviors after a peak load were totally different.

  11. Investigation of Sandwich Material Surface Created by Abrasive Water Jet (AWJ) via Vibration Emission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hreha, P.; Hloch, S.; Monka, P.; Monková, K.; Knapčíková, L.; Hlaváček, Petr; Zeleňák, Michal; Samardžič, I.; Kozak, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2013), s. 29-32 ISSN 0543-5846 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : sandwich material * stainless steel * abrasive water jet cutting Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 0.755, year: 2013 http://public.carnet.hr/metalurg/Metalurgija/2014_vol_53/No_1/MET_53_1_29-32_Hreha.pdf

  12. Occurrence of Foodborne Pathogens in Chickens Sandwiches Distributed in Different Supermarkets of Tehran Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Mashak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increasing urbanization, immigration and tourism has changed the human lifestyle. This modern lifestyle has demanded safety, quality, and fast availability of ready to eat (RTE foods like chicken sandwiches. Objectives: For presentation of proper solutions regarding food safety, identification of pathogens in different foods is necessary. Therefore, the present study was carried out to assess the microbiological quality of chicken sandwiches distributed in Tehran province, Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 chicken sandwich samples (chicken sausage, chicken fillet, minced chicken fillet were purchased from different supermarkets in Tehran city randomly during 2013 and transported to the laboratory of food hygiene of Islamic Azad University, Karaj branch under temperature-controlled conditions for bacteriological examination by American Public Health Association (APHA method. Results: The average count ± standard error (and percent of unacceptable samples of S. aureus, B. cereus and Coliform were 1.6 ± 0.56 (28%, 2.0 ± 0.62 (10%, 4.2 ± 1.12 (50% CFU/g, respectively. Moreover, E. coli and Salmonella spp. were identified in 21% of chicken sandwich samples. Conclusions: The large number of foodborne pathogens detected in this study, represented a potential health hazard to consumers. Thus, it is necessary to employ Good Hygiene Practices (GHP and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP in order to minimize the risk caused by secondary contamination.

  13. A phloem sandwich allowing attack and colonization by bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and associates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew D. Taylor; Jane L. Hayes; John C. Moser

    1992-01-01

    Much of the life cycles of bark beetles and their associates are spent under the bark of the host tree and are impossible to observe under completely natural conditions. To observe the behavior and development of insects in the phloem layer, phloem sandwiches have been developed, in which a piece of bark and phloem is removed from a live tree and pressed against a...

  14. The Association between Membership in the Sandwich Generation and Health Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Laurie; Macy, Jon T.; Seo, Dong-Chul; Presson, Clark C.; Sherman, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the association between membership in the sandwich generation, defined as providing care to both children and parents or in-laws, and five health behaviors: checking the food label for health value when buying foods, using a seat belt, choosing foods based on health value, exercising regularly, and cigarette smoking.…

  15. PSpice Modeling of a Sandwich Piezoelectric Ceramic Ultrasonic Transducer in Longitudinal Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyuan Wei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sandwiched piezoelectric transducers are widely used, especially in high power applications. For more convenient analysis and design, a PSpice lossy model of sandwiched piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers in longitudinal vibration is proposed by means of the one-dimensional wave and transmission line theories. With the proposed model, the resonance and antiresonance frequencies are obtained, and it is shown that the simulations and measurements have good consistency. For the purpose of further verification the accuracy and application of the PSpice model, a pitch-catch setup and an experimental platform are built. They include two sandwiched piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers and two aluminum cylinders whose lengths are 20 mm and 100 mm respectively. Based on this pitch-catch setup, the impedance and transient analysis are performed. Compared with the measured results, it is shown that the simulated results have good consistency. In addition, the conclusion can be drawn that the optimal excitation frequency for the pitch-catch setup is not necessarily the resonance frequency of ultrasonic transducers, because the resonance frequency is obtained under no load. The proposed PSpice model of the sandwiched piezoelectric transducer is more conveniently applied to combine with other circuits such as driving circuits, filters, amplifiers, and so on.

  16. Effects of face sheet damage on residual strength of GRP sandwich panels in naval ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayman, Brian; Echtermeyer, Andreas T.; Berggreen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    is represented by machined cracks and circular holes in the face laminates. Tests have been performed on laminate specimens with and without circular holes under tensile loading and on sandwich face sheets with holes, cracks and real impact damage under compressive loading. The results are compared...

  17. Fracture Behaviours in Compression-loaded Triangular Corrugated Core Sandwich Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid N.Z.M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The failure modes occurring in sandwich panels based on the corrugations of aluminium alloy, carbon fibre-reinforced plastic (CFRP and glass fibre-reinforced plastic (GFRP are analysed in this work. The fracture behaviour of these sandwich panels under compressive stresses is determined through a series of uniform lateral compression performed on samples with different cell wall thicknesses. Compression test on the corrugated-core sandwich panels were conducted using an Instron series 4505 testing machine. The post-failure examinations of the corrugated-core in different cell wall thickness were conducted using optical microscope. Load-displacement graphs of aluminium alloy, GFRP and CFRP specimens were plotted to show progressive damage development with five unit cells. Four modes of failure were described in the results: buckling, hinges, delamination and debonding. Each of these failure modes may dominate under different cell wall thickness or loading condition, and they may act in combination. The results indicate that thicker composites corrugated-core panels tend can recover more stress and retain more stiffness. This analysis provides a valuable insight into the mechanical behaviour of corrugated-core sandwich panels for use in lightweight engineering applications.

  18. Probabilistic fatigue life of balsa cored sandwich composites subjected to transverse shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Berggreen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    A probabilistic fatigue life model for end-grain balsa cored sandwich composites subjectedto transverse shear is proposed. The model is calibrated to measured three-pointbending constant-amplitude fatigue test data using the maximum likelihood method. Some possible applications of the probabilistic...

  19. Cone calorimeter testing of foam core sandwich panels treated with intumescent paper underneath the veneer (FRV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Dietenberger; Ali Shalbafan; Johannes Welling

    2017-01-01

    Surfaces of novel foam core sandwich panels were adhered with intumescent fire‐retardant paper underneath the veneers (FRV) to improve their flammability properties. The panels were evaluated by means of cone calorimeter test (ASTM E 1354). Variables tested were different surface layer treatments, adhesives used for veneering, surface layer thicknesses, and processing...

  20. A sandwich ELISA for measurement of the primary glucagon-like peptide-1 metabolite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Asmar, Ali; Jensen, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    developed a sandwich ELISA recognizing both GLP-1 9-36NH2 and nonamidated GLP-1 9-37. The ELISA was validated using analytical assay validation guidelines and by comparing it to a subtraction-based method, hitherto employed for estimation of GLP-1 9-36NH2 Its accuracy was evaluated from measurements...

  1. Development of a sandwich ELISA for quantification of immunoglobulin G in mink blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Ronja; Chriél, Mariann; Struve, T.

    2016-01-01

    early immunity and thus their resistance against pathogenic agents found in the environment. This study describes a sandwich ELISA for quantification of the concentration of total immunoglobulin G in mink blood. The ELISA was validated with serum samples from females (n=8) and their kits (litters of 4...

  2. Fatigue Failure of Sandwich Beams with Wrinkle Defects Used for Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leong, Martin Klitgaard; Hvejsel, C.F.; Lund, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Glass fiber face sheet/balsa wood core sandwich beams with out-of-plane fiber misalignments/wrinkle defects were subjected to in-plane fully reversed fatigue loading and the failure modes were documented. A fatigue life design limit was estimated using finite element analyses and the Northwestern...

  3. Modified sandwich vacuum pack technique for temporary closure of abdominal wounds: an African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van As, A B; Navsaria, P; Numanoglu, A; McCulloch, M

    2007-01-01

    South Africa has very high levels of accidental trauma as well as interpersonal violence. There are more admissions for trauma in South Africa than for any other disease; therefore it can be regarded as the Number 1 disease in the country. Complex abdominal injuries are common, requiring specific management techniques. The aim is to document our experience with the Modified Sandwich Vacuum Pack technique for temporary closure of abdominal wounds. After providing a short historical overview, we will demonstrate the technique which we carefully adapted over the last decade to the present Modified Sandwich Vacuum Pack technique. In the Last 5 years we utilized our Modified Sandwich Vacuum Pack technique 153 times in 69 patients. Five (5) patients were under the age of 12 years. In the patient group over 12 years the most common indication for using our technique were penetrating injuries (40), abdominal sepsis (28), visceral edema (10), abdominal compartment syndrome (9), abdominal packs (6),Abdominal wall defects (2). In the group under 12-years the 2 children had liver ruptures (posttraumatic) and 3 liver transplantations. The average cost for the materials used with our technique was ZAR 96. (10 Euro and 41 cents). In our experience the Modified Sandwich Vacuum Pack technique is an effective, cheap methodology to deal with open abdomens in the African setting.A drawback may be the technical expertise required, particular in centers dealing with low numbers of complex abdominal trauma.

  4. PSpice Modeling of a Sandwich Piezoelectric Ceramic Ultrasonic Transducer in Longitudinal Vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoyuan; Yang, Yuan; Yao, Wenqing; Zhang, Lei

    2017-09-30

    Sandwiched piezoelectric transducers are widely used, especially in high power applications. For more convenient analysis and design, a PSpice lossy model of sandwiched piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers in longitudinal vibration is proposed by means of the one-dimensional wave and transmission line theories. With the proposed model, the resonance and antiresonance frequencies are obtained, and it is shown that the simulations and measurements have good consistency. For the purpose of further verification the accuracy and application of the PSpice model, a pitch-catch setup and an experimental platform are built. They include two sandwiched piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers and two aluminum cylinders whose lengths are 20 mm and 100 mm respectively. Based on this pitch-catch setup, the impedance and transient analysis are performed. Compared with the measured results, it is shown that the simulated results have good consistency. In addition, the conclusion can be drawn that the optimal excitation frequency for the pitch-catch setup is not necessarily the resonance frequency of ultrasonic transducers, because the resonance frequency is obtained under no load. The proposed PSpice model of the sandwiched piezoelectric transducer is more conveniently applied to combine with other circuits such as driving circuits, filters, amplifiers, and so on.

  5. Improving Performance of Polymer Fiber Reinforced Sandwich X-Joints in Naval Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, Christian; Lundsgaard-Larsen, Christian; Karlsen, Kasper

    2007-01-01

    In many naval ships of fiber composite sandwich construction an X-joint exists where the end bulkhead of the superstructure is attached to the deck, with a bulkhead placed in the same vertical plane below the deck. As the hull girder flexes this joint is subjected to alternating tensile and compr...

  6. Buckling and Fracture Investigation of Debonded Sandwich Columns: An Experimental and Numerical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.; Avilés, F.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental and numerical study of in-plane compression of foam core sandwich columns with implanted trough width face/core debond is presented. Experiments were conducted for columns with two different face thicknesses over different cores and debond lengths. The debonded region was monitore...

  7. A novel sandwich Fe-Mn damping alloy with ferrite shell prepared by vacuum annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Bingnan; Peng, Huabei; Wen, Yuhua

    2018-04-01

    To improve the corrosion resistance of high strength Fe-Mn damping alloys, we fabricated a novel sandwich Fe-17.5Mn damping alloy with Mn-depleted ferrite shell by vacuum annealing at 1100 °C. The formation behavior of the ferrite shell obeys the parabolic law for the vacuum annealed Fe-17.5Mn alloy at 1100 °C. The sandwich Fe-17.5Mn alloy with ferrite shell exhibits not only better corrosion resistance but also higher damping capacity than the conventional annealed Fe-17.5Mn alloy under argon atmosphere. The existence of only ferrite shell on the surface accounts for the better corrosion in the sandwich Fe-17.5Mn alloy. The better damping capacity in the sandwich Fe-17.5Mn alloy is owed to more stacking faults inside both ɛ martensite and γ austenite induced by the stress from ferrite shell. Vacuum annealing is a new way to improve the corrosion resistance and damping capacity of Fe-Mn damping alloys.

  8. Electrochemical DNA sandwich assay with a lipase label for attomole detection of DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferapontova, Elena; Hansen, Majken Nørgaard; Saunders, Aaron Marc

    2010-01-01

    A fast and sensitive electrochemical lipase-based sandwich hybridization assay for detection of attomole levels of DNA has been developed. A combination of magnetic beads, used for pre-concentration and bioseparation of the analyte with a lipase catalyst label allowed detection of DNA with a limi...

  9. Enhanced electrochemical performance from 3DG/LiFePO4/G sandwich cathode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yahui; Tang, Yufeng; Chang, Chengkang

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we have successfully synthesized a three dimensional graphene/LiFePO4/graphene (3DG/LFP/G) sandwich composite by an in-situ hydrothermal method, in which chemical vapor deposited 3D graphene acts as the high conductivity supporting framework, while the LiFePO4 nanoparticles are anchored onto the 3D graphene framework covered by graphene sheets. XRD and SEM results confirmed the formation of the 3DG/LFP/G sandwich composite. Cyclic Voltammetry curve of the sandwich composite shows sharper redox peaks and reduced voltage separation when compared to the reference electrodes, suggesting high specific capacity and good rate performance. Further charge/discharge measurements presented high capacity of 164 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C and 124 mAh g-1 at 10 C (75.7% of its initial capacity) for the sandwich composite, with capacity retention of 95.7% after 100 cycles, implying potential application in lithium ion battery at high rates. The EIS investigation suggests that both the electronic conductivity and the Li ion diffusion are promoted by the underlined 3D graphene framework, which is regarded as the reason for the enhanced electrochemical performance.

  10. Development and evaluation of aerogel-filled BMI sandwich panels for thermal barrier applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dineshkumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study details a fabrication methodology envisaged to manufacture Glass/BMI honeycomb core aerogel-filled sandwich panels. Silica aerogel granules are used as core fillers to provide thermal insulation properties with little weight increase. Experimental heat transfer studies are conducted on these panels to study the temperature distribution between their two surfaces. Numerical studies are also carried out to validate the results. Despite exhibiting good thermal shielding capabilities, the Glass/BMI sandwich panels are found to oxidise at 180 ºC if exposed directly to heat. In order to increase the temperature bearing capacity and the operating temperature range for these panels, a way of coating them from outside with high temperature spray paint was tried. With a silicone-based coating, the temperature sustainability of these sandwich panels is found to increase to 350 ºC. This proved the effectiveness of the formed manufacturing process, selected high temperature coating, the coating method as well as the envisaged sandwich panel concept.

  11. Nanosecond optical limiting response of sandwich-type neodymium dyphthalocyanine in a co-polymer host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aneeshkumar, B.N.; Gopinath, P.; Thomas, J.; Vallabhan, C.P.G.; Nampoori, V.P.N.; Radhakrishnan, P.

    2004-01-01

    The nanosecond optical limiting characteristics of sandwich-type neodymium diphthalocyanine in a co-polymer matrix of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and methyl-2-cyanoacrylate have been studied for the first time. The measurements were performed using 9 ns laser pulses generated from a

  12. Sandwiched gold/PNIPAm/gold microstructures for smart plasmonics application: towards the high detection limit and Raman quantitative measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elashnikov, R; Mares, D; Podzimek, T; Švorčík, V; Lyutakov, O

    2017-08-07

    A smart plasmonic sensor, comprising a layer of a stimuli-responsive polymer sandwiched between two gold layers, is reported. As a stimuli-responsive material, a monolayer of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) crosslinked globules is used. A quasi-periodic structure of the top gold layer facilitates efficient excitation and serves as a support for plasmon excitation and propagation. The intermediate layer of PNIPAm efficiently entraps targeted molecules from solutions. The sensor structure was optimized for efficient light focusing in the "active" PNIPAm layer. The optimization was based on the time-resolved finite-element simulations, which take into account the thickness of gold layers, size of PNIPAm globules and Raman excitation wavelength (780 nm). The prepared structures were characterized using SEM, AFM, UV-Vis refractometry and goniometry. Additional AFM scans were performed in water at two temperatures corresponding to the collapsed and swollen PNIPAm states. The Raman measurements demonstrate a high detection limit and perfect reproducibility of the Raman scattering signal for the prepared sensor. In addition, the use of created SERS structures for the detection of relevant molecules in the medical, biological and safety fields was demonstrated.

  13. CeO2/rGO/Pt sandwich nanostructure: rGO-enhanced electron transmission between metal oxide and metal nanoparticles for anodic methanol oxidation of direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xue; Kuai, Long; Geng, Baoyou

    2012-09-21

    Pt-based nanocomposites have been of great research interest. In this paper, we design an efficient MO/rGO/Pt sandwich nanostructure as an anodic electrocatalyst for DMFCs with combination of the merits of rigid structure of metallic oxides (MOs) and excellent electronic conductivity of reduced oxidized graphene (rGO) as well as overcoming their shortcomings. In this case, the CeO(2)/rGO/Pt sandwich nanostructure is successfully fabricated through a facile hydrothermal approach in the presence of graphene oxide and CeO(2) nanoparticles. This structure has a unique building architecture where rGO wraps up the CeO(2) nanoparticles and Pt nanoparticles are homogeneously dispersed on the surface of rGO. This novel structure endows this material with great electrocatalytic performance in methanol oxidation: it reduces the overpotential of methanol oxidation significantly and its electrocatalytic activity and stability are much enhanced compared with Pt/rGO, CeO(2)/Pt and Pt/C catalysts. This work supplies a unique MO/rGO/Pt sandwich nanostructure as an efficient way to improve the electrocatalytic performance, which will surely shed some light on the exploration of some novel structures of electrocatalyst for DMFCs.

  14. Sequential versus "sandwich" sequencing of adjuvant chemoradiation for the treatment of stage III uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Sharon M; Chang-Halpenny, Christine; Hwang-Graziano, Julie

    2015-04-01

    To compare the efficacy and tolerance of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy delivered in sequential (chemotherapy followed by radiation) versus "sandwich" fashion (chemotherapy, interval radiation, and remaining chemotherapy) after surgery in patients with FIGO stage III uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma. From 2004 to 2011, we identified 51 patients treated at our institution fitting the above criteria. All patients received surgical staging followed by adjuvant chemoradiation (external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with or without high-dose rate (HDR) vaginal brachytherapy (VB)). Of these, 73% and 27% of patients received their adjuvant therapy in sequential and sandwich fashion, respectively. There were no significant differences in clinical or pathologic factors between patients treated with either regimen. Thirty-nine (76%) patients had stage IIIC disease. The majority of patients received 6 cycles of paclitaxel with carboplatin or cisplatin. Median EBRT dose was 45 Gy and 54% of patients received HDR VB boost (median dose 21 Gy). There were no significant differences in the estimated 5-year overall survival, local progression-free survival, and distant metastasis-free survival between the sequential and sandwich groups: 87% vs. 77% (p=0.37), 89% vs. 100% (p=0.21), and 78% vs. 85% (p=0.79), respectively. No grade 3-4 genitourinary or gastrointestinal toxicities were reported in either group. There was a trend towards higher incidence of grade 3-4 hematologic toxicity in the sandwich group. Adjuvant chemoradiation for FIGO stage III endometrioid uterine cancer given in either sequential or sandwich fashion appears to offer equally excellent early clinical outcomes and acceptably low toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Three-Dimensional Health Monitoring of Sandwich Composites, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project delivers a single-chip structural health-monitoring (SHM) system that uses the impedance method to monitor bulk interiors and wave propagation...

  16. Experimental and theoretical studies into the stress-strain state of the purlin supported by sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilov Aleksandr Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the co-authors analyze the findings of the experimental and theoretical studies into the real behaviour of a thin-walled cold-formed purlin as part of the roof structure made of sandwich panels. The roof structure fragment was tested; displacements and stresses, that the purlin was exposed to, were identified in respect of each loading increment. NASTRAN software was employed to perform the numerical analysis of the roof structure, pre-exposed to experimental tests, in the geometrically and physically non-linear setting. The finite element model, generated as a result (the numerical analysis pattern, is sufficiently well-set, given the proposed grid of elements, and it ensures reasonably trustworthy results. The diagrams describing the stress/displacement to the load ratio and obtained numerically are consistent with those generated experimentally. The gap between the critical loading values reaches 4%. Analytical and experimental findings demonstrate their close conformity, and this fact may justify the application of the numerical model, generated within the framework of this research project, in the course of any further research actions. The co-authors have identified that the exhaustion of the bearing capacity occurs due to the loss of the buckling resistance as a result of the lateral torsional buckling.

  17. Dihydroxo-bridged dimeric Cu(II) system containing sandwiched non-coordinating phenylacetate anion: Crystal structure, spectroscopic, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and DNA-binding studies of [(phen)(H2O)Cu(OH)2Cu(H2O)(phen)]2L.6H2O: (HL = phenylacetic acid; phen = 1,10-phenanthroline)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Muhammad; Ali, Saqib; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Shah, Naseer Ali

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports the synthesis, X-ray crystal structure, DNA-binding, antibacterial and antifungal studies of a rare dihydroxo-bridged dinuclear copper(II) complex including 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) ligands and phenylacetate (L) anions, [Cu2(Phen)2(OH)2(H2O)2].2L.6H2O. Structural data revealed distorted square-pyramidal geometry for each copper(II) atom with the basal plane formed by the two nitrogen atoms of the phenantroline ligand and the oxygen atoms of two bridging hydroxyl groups. The apical positions are filled by the oxygen atom from a water molecule. This forms a centrosymmetric cationic dimer where the uncoordinated phenylacetate ligands serve to balance the electrical charge. The dimers interact by means of hydrogen bonds aided by the coordinated as well as uncoordinated water molecules and phenyl-acetate moieties in the crystal lattice. The binding ability of the complex with salmon sperm DNA was determined using cyclic voltammetry and absorption spectroscopy yielding binding constants 2.426 × 104 M-1 and 1.399 × 104 M-1, respectively. The complex was screened against two Gram-positive (Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis) and one Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacterial strains exhibiting significant activity against all the three strains. The complex exhibited significant, moderate and no activity against fungal strains Mucor piriformis, Helminthosporium solani and Aspergillus Niger, respectively. These preliminary tests indicate the competence of the complex towards the development of a potent biological drug.

  18. Reduction of a cerium(III) siloxide complex to afford a quadruple-decker arene-bridged cerium(II) sandwich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Rory P.; Scopelliti, Rosario; Mazzanti, Marinella [Institut des Sciences et Ingenierie Chimiques, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Maron, Laurent [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie des Nano-objets, Institut National des Sciences Appliquees, Toulouse (France)

    2017-12-04

    Organometallic multi-decker sandwich complexes containing f-elements remain rare, despite their attractive magnetic and electronic properties. The reduction of the Ce{sup III} siloxide complex, [KCeL{sub 4}] (1; L=OSi(OtBu){sub 3}), with excess potassium in a THF/toluene mixture afforded a quadruple-decker arene-bridged complex, [K(2.2.2-crypt)]{sub 2}[{(KL_3Ce)(μ-η"6:η"6-C_7H_8)}{sub 2}Ce] (3). The structure of 3 features a [Ce(C{sub 7}H{sub 8}){sub 2}] sandwich capped by [KL{sub 3}Ce] moieties with a linear arrangement of the Ce ions. Structural parameters, UV/Vis/NIR data, and DFT studies indicate the presence of Ce{sup II} ions involved in δ bonding between the Ce cations and toluene dianions. Complex 3 is a rare lanthanide multi-decker complex and the first containing non-classical divalent lanthanide ions. Moreover, oxidation of 1 by AgOTf (OTf=O{sub 3}SCF{sub 3}) yielded the Ce{sup IV} complex, [CeL{sub 4}] (2), showing that siloxide ligands can stabilize Ce in three oxidation states. (copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. The Effect of Numerical 2D and 3D Fem Element Modelling on Strain and Stress Distributions at Laser Weld Notches in Steel Sandwich Type Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Karol

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Like other means of transport, merchant ships face the problem of increasing requirements concerning the environment protection, which, among other issues, implies the reduction of fuel consumption by the ship. Here, the conventional approach which consists in making use of higher strength steels to decrease the mass of the ship hull can be complemented by the use of new steel structures of sandwich panel type. However, the lack of knowledge and experience concerning, among other issues, fatigue strength assessment of thin-walled sandwich structures makes their use limited. Untypical welds imply the need for individual approach to the fatigue analysis. The article presents the effect of numerical FEM modelling with the aid of two-dimensional (2D and three-dimensional (3D elements on the results of strain and stress distributions in the areas of toe and root notches of the analysed laser weld. The presented results of computer simulation reveal that modelling of strain and stress states in 2D (instead of full 3D affects only the results in close vicinity of the notch, and the observed differences rapidly disappear at a distance of 0.05 mm from the bottom of the notch. The obtained results confirm the possibility of use of numerically effective 2D strain and stress state models for analysing the fatigue strength of laser weld according to local approach.

  20. Pengaruh perlakuan serat tapis kelapa terhadap kekuatan lentur skin komposit sandwich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Astika

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penggunaan serat alam sebagai penguat komposit semakin berkembang. Indonesia sebagai negara beriklim tropis menghasilkan berbagai jenis serat alami seperti rami, abaca, agave, serat sabut kelapa dan serat tapis kelapa. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menyelidiki pengaruh perlakuan alkali serat (NaOH 5% terhadap kekuatan lentur komposit sandwich serat tapis kelapa bermatrik polyester dengan core kayu albasia Bahan penelitian adalah serat tapis kelapa dengan panjang 15 mm, resin unsaturated polyester 157 BQTN, kayu albasia dan NaOH. Hardener yang digunakan adalah MEKPO dengan konsentrasi 1%. Serat tapis kelapa yang digunakan terdiri dari serat tanpa perlakuan dan dengan perlakuan alkali 2 jam. Komposit sandwich tersusun atas dua skin dengan core ditengahnya dan dibuat dengan metode cetak tekan hidrolis. Lamina komposit sebagai skin terbuat dari serat tapis kelapa-polyester dengan fraksi volume serat 30%. Spesimen dan prosedur pengujian lentur mengacu pada standar ASTM C 393. Penampang patahan dilakukan foto makro untuk mengidentifikasi pola kegagalannya.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan serat yang mendapatkan perlakuan alkali 2 jam NaOH menghasilkan kekuatan lentur yang lebih tinggi. Hal ini disebabkan karena perlakuan alkali pada serat tapis kelapa dapat membersihkan lapisan lilin (lignin dan kotoran pada permukaan serat sehingga menghasilkan mechanical interlocking yang lebih baik antara serat dengan matrik poliester. Dengan ikatan yang lebih baik maka komposit tersebut akan mampu menahan beban lentur yang lebih tinggi. Kata kunci: komposit sandwich, serat tapis kelapa, perlakuan NaOH, kekuatan lentur Abstract The use of natural fibers as reinforcement composites is growing. Indonesia as a tropical country produces various types of natural fibers like coconut filter fiber. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of alkali treatment of the fiber (5% NaOH. The research material is coconut filter fiber, 157 BQTN unsaturated

  1. Equal intensity double plasmon resonance of bimetallic quasi-nanocomposites based on sandwich geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakravadhanula, V S K; Elbahri, M; Schuermann, U; Takele, H; Greve, H; Zaporojtchenko, V; Faupel, F [Chair for Multicomponent Materials, Technical Faculty of the CAU Kiel, Kaiserstrasse 2, D-24143 Kiel (Germany)], E-mail: ff@tf.uni-kiel.de

    2008-06-04

    We report a strategy to achieve a material showing equal intensity double plasmon resonance (EIDPR) based on sandwich geometry. We studied the interaction between localized plasmon resonances associated with different metal clusters (Au/Ag) on Teflon AF (TAF) in sandwich geometry. Engineering the EIDPR was done by tailoring the amount of Au/Ag and changing the TAF thickness. The samples were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-visible spectroscopy. Interestingly, and in agreement with the dipole-surface interaction, the critical barrier thickness for an optimum EIDPR was observed at 3.3 nm. The results clearly show a plasmon sequence effect and visualize the role of plasmon decay.

  2. Characterization of compressive and short beam shear strength of bamboo opened cell foam core sandwich composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setyawan, Paryanto Dwi, E-mail: paryanto-ds@yahoo.com; Sugiman,; Saputra, Yudhi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Mataram, Mataram, West Nusa Tenggara (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    The paper presents the compressive and the short beam shear strength of a sandwich composite with opened cell foam made of bamboo fiber as the core and plywood as the skins. The core thickness was varied from 10 mm to 40 mm keeping the volume fraction of fiber constant. Several test s were carried out including the core density, flatwise compressive and the short beam shear testing in three point bending. The results show that the density of bamboo opened cell foam is comparable with commercial plastic foam, such as polyurethane foam. The compressive strength tends to increase linearly with increasing the core thickness. The short beam shear failure load of the sandwich composite increases with the increase of core thickness, however on the contrary, the short beam shear strength which tends to sharply decrease from the thickness of 10 mm to 30 mm and then becomes flat.

  3. An efficient coupled polynomial interpolation scheme for shear mode sandwich beam finite element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litesh N. Sulbhewar

    Full Text Available An efficient piezoelectric sandwich beam finite element is presented here. It employs the coupled polynomial field interpolation scheme for field variables which incorporates electromechanical coupling at interpolation level itself; unlike conventional sandwich beam theory (SBT based formulations available in the literature. A variational formulation is used to derive the governing equations, which are used to establish the relationships between field variables. These relations lead to the coupled polynomial field descriptions of variables, unlike conventional SBT formulations which use assumed independent polynomials. The relative axial displacement is expressed only by coupled terms containing contributions from other mechanical and electrical variables, thus eliminating use of the transverse displacement derivative as a degree of freedom. A set of coupled shape function based on these polynomials has shown the improvement in the convergence characteristics of the SBT based formulation. This improvement in the performance is achieved with one nodal degree of freedom lesser than the conventional SBT formulations.

  4. [A double antibody sandwich ELISA based assay for titration of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Zhang, Quan-Fu; Li, Chuan; Li, Jian-Dong; Jiang, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Fu-Shun; Wu, Wei; Liang, Mi-Fang; Li, De-Xin

    2013-06-01

    To develop an assay for titration of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV) based on double antibody sandwich ELISA. A double antibody sandwich ELISA was developed for detection of SFTSV based on SFTSV nucleocapsid (N) protein specific poly- and monoclonal antibodies, procedures were optimized and evaluated. This ELISA based titration assay was compared with fluorescence assasy and plaque assay based titration method. The results suggested that the titers obtained by ELISA based method are consistent with those obtained by IFA based method (R = 0.999) and the plaque assay titration method (R = 0.949). The novel ELISA based titration method with high sensitivity and specificity is easy to manage and perform, and can overcome the subjectivity associated with result determination of the fluorescence assay and plaque assay based methods. The novel ELISA based titration method can also be applied to high throughput detection.

  5. Absolute activity measurements with the windowless 4π-CsI(Tl)-sandwich spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denecke, B.

    1994-01-01

    The windowless 4π-CsI(Tl)-sandwich spectrometer consists of two scintillation crystals sandwiching radioactive sources deposited on thin plastic foils. This configuration has a solid angle very close to 4π sr. The detectors are sensitive to charged particles with energies > 15 keV and measure photons of 15-200 keV with a probability > 98%. Disintegration rates of samples of radionuclides with complex decay modes can be determined directly from the measured count rates with uncertainties below 0.3%. Radionuclide solutions of 57 Co, 109 Cd, 125 I, 152 Eu and 192 Ir were standardised, partly in the framework of international comparisons. A detailed description of the spectrometer and the measurement procedure is given. (orig.)

  6. Absolute activity measurements with the windowless 4π-CsI(Tl)-sandwich spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denecke, B.

    1994-01-01

    The windowless 4π-CsI(Tl)-sandwich spectrometer consists of two scintillation crystals sandwiching radioactive sources deposited on thin plastic foils. This configuration has a solid angle very close to 4π sr. The detectors are sensitive to charged particles with energies > 15 keV and measure photons of 15-200 keV with a probability > 98%. Disintegration rates of samples of radionuclides with complex decay modes can be determined directly from the measured count rates with uncertainties below 0.3%. Radionuclide solutions of 57Co, 109Cd, 125I, 152Eu and 192Ir were standardised, partly in the framework of international comparisons. A detailed description of the spectrometer and the measurement procedure is given.

  7. Equivalent parameter model of 1-3 piezocomposite with a sandwich polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Wang, Likun; Qin, Lei

    2018-06-01

    A theoretical model was developed to investigate the performance of 1-3 piezoelectric composites with a sandwich polymer. Effective parameters, such as the electromechanical coupling factor, longitudinal velocity, and characteristic acoustic impedance of the piezocomposite, were predicted using the developed model. The influences of volume fractions and components of the polymer phase on the effective parameters of the piezoelectric composite were studied. The theoretical model was verified experimentally. The proposed model can reproduce the effective parameters of 1-3 piezoelectric composites with a sandwich polymer in the thickness mode. The measured electromechanical coupling factor was improved by more than 9.8% over the PZT/resin 1-3 piezoelectric composite.

  8. Weld nugget formation in resistance spot welding of new lightweight sandwich material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sagüés Tanco, J.; Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Chergui, Azeddine

    2015-01-01

    Weldability of a new lightweight sandwich material, LITECOR®, by resistance spot welding is analyzed by experiments and numerical simulations. The spot welding process is accommodated by a first pulse squeezing out the non-conductive polymer core of the sandwich material locally to allow metal......–metal contact. This is facilitated by the use of a shunt tool and is followed by a second pulse for the actual spot welding and nugget formation. A weldability lobe in the time-current space of the second pulse reveals a process window of acceptable size for automotive assembly lines. Weld growth curves...... with experimental results in the range of welding parameters leading to acceptable weld nugget sizes. The validated accuracy of the commercially available software proves the tool useful for assisting the choice of welding parameters....

  9. A Novel Counter Sheet-flow Sandwich Cell Culture Device for Mammalian Cell Growth in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shujin; Gao, Yuxin; Shu, Nanjiang; Tang, Zemei; Tao, Zulai; Long, Mian

    2008-08-01

    Cell culture and growth in space is crucial to understand the cellular responses under microgravity. The effects of microgravity were coupled with such environment restrictions as medium perfusion, in which the underlying mechanism has been poorly understood. In the present work, a customer-made counter sheet-flow sandwich cell culture device was developed upon a biomechanical concept from fish gill breathing. The sandwich culture unit consists of two side chambers where the medium flow is counter-directional, a central chamber where the cells are cultured, and two porous polycarbonate membranes between side and central chambers. Flow dynamics analysis revealed the symmetrical velocity profile and uniform low shear rate distribution of flowing medium inside the central culture chamber, which promotes sufficient mass transport and nutrient supply for mammalian cell growth. An on-orbit experiment performed on a recovery satellite was used to validate the availability of the device.

  10. Size-dependent free vibration and dynamic analyses of piezo-electro-magnetic sandwich nanoplates resting on viscoelastic foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefi, Mohammad; Zenkour, Ashraf M.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, size-dependent free vibration analysis of a sandwich nanoplate is presented. The sandwich nanoplate is including an elastic nano core and two piezo-electro-magnetic face-sheets as sensor and actuator actuated by electric and magnetic potentials. The sandwich nanoplate is resting on visco-Pasternak's foundation. Hamilton's principle is employed to derive the governing equations of motion based on Kirchhoff plate and nonlocal elasticity theory. The numerical results are presented to study the influence of important parameters of the problem such as applied electric and magnetic potentials, nonlocal parameter and visco-Pasternak's parameters. Furthermore, the influence of various boundary conditions is discussed on the vibration characteristics of the sandwich nanoplate.

  11. Study on the performance of infrared thermal imaging light source for detection of impact defects in CFRP composite sandwich panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Sang [R and D, Korea Research Institute of Smart Material and Structures System Association, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Man Yong; Kwon, Koo Ahn; Park, Jeong Hak; Choi, Won Jae [Safety measurement center, Korea research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hyun Chul [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Recently, composite materials have been mainly used in the main wings, ailerons, and fuselages of aircraft and rotor blades of helicopters. Composite materials used in rapid moving structures are subject to impact by hail, lightning, and bird strike. Such an impact can destroy fiber tissues in the composite materials as well as deform the composite materials, resulting in various problems such as weakened rigidity of the composite structure and penetration of water into tiny cracks. In this study, experiments were conducted using a 2 kW halogen lamp which is most frequently used as a light source, a 2 kW near-infrared lamp, which is used for heating to a high temperature, and a 6 kW xenon flash lamp which emits a large amount of energy for a moment. CFRP composite sandwich panels using Nomex honeycomb core were used as the specimens. Experiments were carried out under impact damages of 1, 4 and 8 J. It was found that the detection of defects was fast when the xenon flash lamp was used. The detection of damaged regions was excellent when the halogen lamp was used. Furthermore, the near-infrared lamp is an effective technology for showing the surface of a test object.

  12. Detecting the honeycomb sandwich composite material's moisture impregnating defects by using infrared thermography technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Koo Ahn; Choi, Man Yong; Park, Jeong Hak; Choi, Won Jae [Safety Measurement Center, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee Sang [R and D, Korea Research Institute of Smart Material and Structures System Association, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Many composite materials are used in the aerospace industry because of their excellent mechanical properties. However, the nature of aviation exposes these materials to high temperature and high moisture conditions depending on climate, location, and altitude. Therefore, the molecular arrangement chemical properties, and mechanical properties of composite materials can be changed under these conditions. As a result, surface disruptions and cracks can be created. Consequently, moisture-impregnating defects can be induced due to the crack and delamination of composite materials as they are repeatedly exposed to moisture absorption moisture release, fatigue environment, temperature changes, and fluid pressure changes. This study evaluates the possibility of detecting the moisture-impregnating defects of CFRP and GFRP honeycomb structure sandwich composite materials, which are the composite materials in the aircraft structure, by using an active infrared thermography technology among non-destructive testing methods. In all experiments, it was possible to distinguish the area and a number of CFRP composite materials more clearly than those of GFRP composite material. The highest detection rate was observed in the heating duration of 50 mHz and the low detection rate was at the heating duration of over 500 mHz. The reflection method showed a higher detection rate than the transmission method.

  13. Study on the performance of infrared thermal imaging light source for detection of impact defects in CFRP composite sandwich panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Sang; Choi, Man Yong; Kwon, Koo Ahn; Park, Jeong Hak; Choi, Won Jae; Jung, Hyun Chul

    2017-01-01

    Recently, composite materials have been mainly used in the main wings, ailerons, and fuselages of aircraft and rotor blades of helicopters. Composite materials used in rapid moving structures are subject to impact by hail, lightning, and bird strike. Such an impact can destroy fiber tissues in the composite materials as well as deform the composite materials, resulting in various problems such as weakened rigidity of the composite structure and penetration of water into tiny cracks. In this study, experiments were conducted using a 2 kW halogen lamp which is most frequently used as a light source, a 2 kW near-infrared lamp, which is used for heating to a high temperature, and a 6 kW xenon flash lamp which emits a large amount of energy for a moment. CFRP composite sandwich panels using Nomex honeycomb core were used as the specimens. Experiments were carried out under impact damages of 1, 4 and 8 J. It was found that the detection of defects was fast when the xenon flash lamp was used. The detection of damaged regions was excellent when the halogen lamp was used. Furthermore, the near-infrared lamp is an effective technology for showing the surface of a test object

  14. A packaged, low-cost, robust optical fiber strain sensor based on small cladding fiber sandwiched within periodic polymer grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chia-Chin; Li, Chein-Hsing

    2014-06-02

    In the present study, a novel packaged long-period fiber grating (PLPFG) strain sensor is first presented. The MEMS process was utilized to fabricate the packaged optical fiber strain sensor. The sensor structure consisted of etched optical fiber sandwiched between two layers of thick photoresist SU-8 3050 and then packaged with poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) polymer material to construct the PLPFG strain sensor. The PDMS packaging material was used to prevent the glue effect, wherein glue flows into the LPFG structure and reduces coupling strength, in the surface bonding process. Because the fiber grating was packaged with PDMS material, it was effectively protected and made robust. The resonance attenuation dip of PLPFG grows when it is loading. This study explored the size effect of the grating period and fiber diameter of PLPFG via tensile testing. The experimental results found that the best strain sensitivity of the PLPFG strain sensor was -0.0342 dB/με, and that an R2 value of 0.963 was reached.

  15. Theoretical prediction of sandwiched two-dimensional phosphide binary compound sheets with tunable bandgaps and anisotropic physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C. Y.; Yu, M.

    2018-03-01

    Atomic layers of GaP and InP binary compounds with unique anisotropic structural, electronic and mechanical properties have been predicted from first-principle molecular dynamics simulations. These new members of the phosphide binary compound family stabilize to a sandwiched two-dimensional (2D) crystalline structure with orthorhombic lattice symmetry and high buckling of 2.14 Å-2.46 Å. Their vibration modes are similar to those of phosphorene with six Raman active modes ranging from ˜80 cm-1 to 400 cm-1. The speeds of sound in their phonon dispersions reflect anisotropy in their elastic constants, which was further confirmed by their strong directional dependence of Young’s moduli and effective nonlinear elastic moduli. They show wide bandgap semiconductor behavior with fundamental bandgaps of 2.89 eV for GaP and 2.59 eV for InP, respectively, even wider than their bulk counterparts. Such bandgaps were found to be tunable under strain. In particular, a direct-indirect bandgap transition was found under certain strains along zigzag or biaxial orientations, reflecting their promising applications in strain-induced bandgap engineering in nanoelectronics and photovoltaics. Feasible pathways to realize these novel 2D phosphide compounds are also proposed.

  16. Label-free super sandwich electrogenerated chemiluminescence biosensor for the determination of the HIV gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, Sanpeng; Li, Zhejian; Qi, Honglan; Gao, Qiang; Zhang, Chengxiao

    2014-01-01

    We describe a highly sensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL) based method for the determination of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) gene. A long-range self-assembled double strand DNA (ds-DNA) is used as a carrier, and the ruthenium complex Ru(phen) 3 2+ as an ECL indicator for signal amplification. The thiolated ss-DNA serving as a capture probe is firstly self-assembled on the surface of a gold electrode. After the target HIV-1 gene is completely hybridized with the capture probe, two previously hybridized auxiliary probes are hybridized with the target HIV-1 gene to form long-range super sandwich ds-DNA polymers on the surface of the electrode. Finally, the ECL indicator is intercalated into the super sandwich ds-DNA grooves. This results in a strongly increased ECL in tripropylamine solution because a large fraction of the intercalator is intercalated into super sandwich ds-DNA. The results showed that the increased ECL intensity is directly related to the logarithm of the concentration of the HIV-1 gene in the range from 0.1 pM to 0.1 nM, with a detection limit of 0.022 pM and using only 10 μL of analyte samples. The method can effectively discriminate target HIV-1 gene (a perfectly matched ss-DNA) from a 2-base mismatched ss-DNA. This work demonstrates that the high sensitivity and selectivity of an ECL DNA biosensor can be largely improved by using super sandwich ds-DNA along with ECL indicators. (author)

  17. An experimental investigation into nonlinear dynamics of a magneto-rheological elastomer sandwich beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, Tanju; Ghayesh, Mergen H; Li, Weihua; Alici, Gursel

    2016-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out on the nonlinear dynamics of a clamped–clamped Magneto-Rheological Elastomer (MRE) sandwich beam with a point mass when subjected to a point excitation. Three sets of experiments have been conducted namely for (i) an aluminium beam, (ii) a MRE sandwich beam in the absence of a magnetic field and (iii) a MRE sandwich beam in the presence of a magnetic field. An electrodynamic shaker was used to excite each system and the corresponding displacement of the point mass was measured: for the third experiment (iii), an array of magnets has been placed at various distances away from the centre of the point mass to investigate the effect of changing stiffness and damping properties on the nonlinear dynamical behaviour. An interesting feature for the third group is the beam point mass displacement was no longer symmetric as the stiffness and damping of the system are increased when moving towards the magnets. Both the first and second groups exhibited distinct nonlinear behaviour; however, for the third group this work shows that for a low magnetic field the sandwich beam exhibits two distinct resonance peaks, one occurring above and the other below the fundamental natural frequency of the transverse motion, with the right one larger. For a larger magnetic field, these peaks even out until the magnetic force was large enough that the hardening-type nonlinear behaviour changes to a softening-type; a significant qualitative change in the nonlinear dynamical behaviour of the system, due to the presence of the magnetic field, was observed. (paper)

  18. Fatigue behavior of wood-fiber-based tri-axial engineered sandwich composite panels (ESCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinghao Li; John F. Hunt; Shaoqin Gong; Zhiyong Cai

    2015-01-01

    The static and fatigue bending behavior of wood-fiber-based tri-axial engineered sandwich composite panels (ESCP) has been investigated by four-point bending tests. Fatigue panels and weakened panels (wESCP) with an initial interface defect were manufactured for the fatigue tests. Stress σ vs. number of cycles curves (S-N) were recorded under the different stress...

  19. Aptamer-conjugated silver nanoparticles for electrochemical dual-aptamer-based sandwich detection of staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbaspour, Abdolkarim; Norouz-Sarvestani, Fatemeh; Noori, Abolhassan; Soltani, Noushin

    2015-06-15

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most important human pathogens and causes numerous illnesses. In this study, we report a sensitive and highly selective dual-aptamer-based sandwich immunosensor for the detection of S. aureus. In this bioassay system, a biotinylated primary anti-S.aureus aptamer was immobilized on streptavidin coated magnetic beads (MB), which serves as a capture probe. A secondary anti-S.aureus aptamer was conjugated to silver nanoparticles (Apt-AgNP) that sensitively reports the detection of the target. In the presence of target bacterium, an Apt/S.aureus/apt-AgNP sandwich complex is formed on the MB surface and the electrochemical signal of AgNPs followed through anodic stripping voltammetry. The proposed sandwich assay benefits from advantageous of a sandwich assay for increased specificity, MB as carriers of affinity ligands for solution-phase recognition and fast magnetic separation, AgNPs for signal amplification, and an electrochemical stripping voltammetry read-out as a simple and sensitive detection. The electrochemical immunosensor shows an extended dynamic range from 10 to 1×10(6) cfu/mL with a low detection limit of 1.0 cfu/mL (S/N=3). Furthermore, the possible interference of other analog bacteria was studied. To assess the general applicability of this sensor, we investigated the quantification of S. aureus in real water samples. The results were compared to the experimental results obtained from a plate counting method, which demonstrated an acceptable consistency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Technological features of installation of transformable low-rise buildings from sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pleshivtsev Aleksandr Aleksandrovich

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Subject of research: organizational and technological solutions are considered in the construction of transformable low-rise residential buildings using sandwich panels. Aims: rational choice of organizational and technological solutions for the rhythmic construction of the underground and above-ground part of the transformable low-rise buildings in order to reduce labor costs and construction time. Materials and methods: methods of computer modeling of the technological processes are used to determine the duration of the construction of the low-rise buildings. Results: rational methods for erecting a complex of transformable low-rise buildings are defined, parameters of technological processes are established, an analysis of technological operations is provided for the construction of transformable low-rise residential buildings using sandwich panels. Conclusions: now organizational and technological solutions for the construction of transformable low-rise residential buildings with the use of sandwich panels reduce labour costs, increase the construction pace and as well as the using of improved technological processes in the construction of such buildings leads to a reduction in construction time.