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Sample records for sands petroleum natural

  1. Petroleum and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    060,

    1965-02-01

    Substantial increases in demand for Canadian petroleum and natural gas in both domestic and export markets resulted in another good year throughout the main sectors of the industry. In February, production averaged 850,000 bpd, or about 8% more than 1963 output of crude oil and natural gas liquids. Construction began on the first full scale plant for the extraction of oil from the Athabasca bituminous sands. In 1964, exploratory and development drilling in western Canada increased 10% from the previous year. A total of 15.5 million ft was drilled, the largest since the record drilling year of 1956. The main oil field development areas in Alberta were the House Mountain, Deer Mountain and Goose River Fields, and the Bantry-Taber heavy oil region in southeastern Alberta. Oil reserves were increased substantially by waterflood pressure maintenance projects in many of the older oil fields. The largest oil accumulation discovered in 1964 was the Syvia-Honda Field in the Devonian Gilwood sandstone in N.-central Alberta. Two graphs illustrate the crude petroleum in Canada in millions of barrels from 1940 to 1964, and natural gas in Canada in billions of cu ft from 1950 to 1964. The outlook for the industry in 1965 is good.

  2. Recycling of petroleum-contaminated sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, R; Ba-Omar, M; Pillay, A E; Roos, G; al-Hamdi, A

    2001-08-01

    The environmental impact of using petroleum-contaminated sand (PCS) as a substitute in asphalt paving mixtures was examined. An appreciable component of PCS is oily sludge, which is found as the dregs in oil storage tanks and is also produced as a result of oil spills on clean sand. The current method for the disposal of oily sludge is land farming. However, this method has not been successful as an oil content of reuse of the sludge in asphalt paving mixtures was therefore considered as an alternative. Standard tests and environmental studies were conducted to establish the integrity of the materials containing the recycled sludge. These included physical and chemical characterization of the sludge itself, and an assessment of the mechanical properties of materials containing 0%, 5%, 22% and 50% oily sludge. The blended mixtures were subjected to special tests, such as Marshall testing and the determination of stability and flow properties. The experimental results indicated that mixtures containing up to 22% oily sludge could meet the necessary criteria for a specific asphalt concrete wearing course or bituminous base course. To maximize the assay from the recycled material, the environmental assessment was restricted to the 50% oily sludge mixture. Leachates associated with this particular mixture were assayed for total organic residue and certain hazardous metal contaminants. The results revealed that the organics were negligible, and the concentrations of the metals were not significant. Thus, no adverse environmental impact should be anticipated from the use of the recycled product. Our research showed that the disposal of oily sludge in asphalt paving mixtures could possibly yield considerable savings per tonne of asphalt concrete, and concurrently minimize any direct impact on the environment.

  3. The crude petroleum and natural gas industry, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    A compilation of data regarding the crude petroleum and natural gas industry was presented. This industry includes establishments engaged in exploration for, or production of petroleum or natural gas from wells or tar sands. Data presented in this publication include: the supply and disposition of crude oil and natural gas, operating and capital expenditures of approximately 500 companies of the oil and natural gas industry, drilling completions, and crude oil and natural gas reserves. Data about the oil sands industry is reported in another volume. Much of the data was obtained from the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers. Overall, in 1995 Canadian natural gas production rose 6.7%; exports of crude oil rose 7.7%. 8 tabs., 2 figs

  4. Sand amendment enhances bioelectrochemical remediation of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojing; Wang, Xin; Ren, Zhiyong Jason; Zhang, Yueyong; Li, Nan; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-12-01

    Bioelectrochemical system is an emerging technology for the remediation of soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons. However, performance of such systems can be limited by the inefficient mass transport in soil. Here we report a new method of sand amendment, which significantly increases both oxygen and proton transports, resulting to increased soil porosity (from 44.5% to 51.3%), decreased Ohmic resistance (by 46%), and increased charge output (from 2.5 to 3.5Cg(-1)soil). The degradation rates of petroleum hydrocarbons increased by up to 268% in 135d. The degradation of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with high molecular weight was accelerated, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed that the microbial community close to the air-cathode was substantially stimulated by the induced current, especially the hydrocarbon degrading bacteria Alcanivorax. The bioelectrochemical stimulation imposed a selective pressure on the microbial community of anodes, including that far from the cathode. These results suggested that sand amendment can be an effective approach for soil conditioning that will enhances the bioelectrochemical removal of hydrocarbons in contaminated soils. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Geochemical characteristics of oil sands fluid petroleum coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesbitt, Jake A.; Lindsay, Matthew B.J.; Chen, Ning

    2017-01-01

    The geochemical characteristics of fluid petroleum coke from the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) of northern Alberta, Canada were investigated. Continuous core samples were collected to 8 m below surface at several locations (n = 12) from three coke deposits at an active oil sands mine. Bulk elemental analyses revealed the coke composition was dominated by C (84.2 ± 2.3 wt%) and S (6.99 ± 0.26 wt%). Silicon (9210 ± 3000 mg kg"−"1), Al (5980 ± 1200 mg kg"−"1), Fe (4760 ± 1200 mg kg"−"1), and Ti (1380 ± 430 mg kg"−"1) were present in lesser amounts. Vanadium (1280 ± 120 mg kg"−"1) and Ni (230 ± 80 mg kg"−"1) exhibited the highest concentrations among potentially-hazardous minor and trace elements. Sequential extractions revealed potential for release of these metals under field-relevant conditions. Synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction revealed the presence of Si and Ti oxides, organically-complexed V and hydrated Ni sulfate, and provided information about the asphaltenic carbon matrix. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy at the V and Ni K-edges revealed that these metals were largely hosted in porphyrins and similar organic complexes throughout coke grains. Minor differences among measured V and Ni K-edge spectra were largely attributed to slight variations in local coordination of V(IV) and Ni(II) within these organic compounds. However, linear combination fits were improved by including reference spectra for inorganic phases with octahedrally-coordinated V(III) and Ni(II). Sulfur and Fe K-edge XANES confirmed that thiophenic coordination and pyritic-ilmenitic coordination are predominant, respectively. These results provide new information on the geochemical and mineralogical composition of oil sands fluid petroleum coke and improve understanding of potential controls on associated water chemistry. - Highlights: • Oil sands fluid petroleum coke contains wide range of major, minor and

  6. Petroleum and natural gas in Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Presentations made at the 7th Annual Illinois Energy Conference are compiled and reported. Specific topics include: Illinois petroleum and natural gas supply; energy use patterns for Illinois and the nation; impacts of the National Energy Act on the natural gas industry; natural gas for North America; natural gas supply under the Natural Gas Policy; US access to international oil; deregulation and its impact on the US petroleum supply; the US Energy Policy; petroleum pricing and taxation policies in Illinois; the high cost of energy and its impact on the poor; impact of increased fuel prices on Illinois' industrial future; energy prices and inflation; opportunities for energy conservation in transportaton; overview of energy and synfuels from biomass and wastes; an inventory of energy potential from biomass in Illinois; problems and potential of alcohol from agriculture; liquid and gaseous fuels from coal; and alternatives to liquid and gaseous fuels.

  7. Natural analogs in the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the use of natural analogues in petroleum exploration and includes numerous geologic model descriptions which have historically been used in the prediction of geometries and location of oil and gas accumulations. These geologic models have been passed down to and used by succeeding generations of petroleum geologists. Some examples of these geologic models include the Allan fault-plane model, porosity prediction, basin modelling, prediction of basin compartmentalization, and diagenesis

  8. Preliminary fingerprinting analysis of Alberta oil sands and related petroleum products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.; Wang, Z.D.; Hollebone, B.; Brown, C.E.; Yang, Z.Y.; Landriault, M.; Fieldhouse, B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reported on a study that presented a preliminary quantitative chemical characterization of Alberta oil sands and many other related Alberta oils such as oil sand bitumen, Cold Lake bitumen, Albian heavy synthetic crude, and Alberta Mixed sweet blend. The rapid increase in production of the Alberta oil sands has resulted in unprecedented environmental concern. The mining, extraction and production of oil sands such resulted in huge consumption of water resources, huge emission of greenhouse gas and large number of tailings ponds. In addition, accidental spills in the transportation and usage of oil sands will potentially cause considerable impact on the environment. It is therefore essential to have the ability to characterize Alberta oil sands and their oil products. The specific chemical properties of the oil sands bitumen must be known. Therefore, this study collected quantitative data on the concentration and distribution profiles of target compounds in Alberta oil sands and its petroleum products. The chemical fingerprints of 5 Alberta oil sands and their related petroleum products were studied using gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The characterized hydrocarbons were n-alkanes; target alkylated PAHs and other EPA priority PAHs; biomarker terpanes and steranes; and bicyclic sesquiterpanes. The information acquired during this study will provide the basis for oil-oil correlation and differentiation in future environmental applications relevant to oil sands. 24 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs.

  9. Natural radioactivity in petroleum residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazineu, M.H.P.; Gazineu, M.H.P.; Hazin, C.A.; Hazin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    The oil extraction and production industry generates several types of solid and liquid wastes. Scales, sludge and water are typical residues that can be found in such facilities and that can be contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (N.O.R.M.). As a result of oil processing, the natural radionuclides can be concentrated in such residues, forming the so called Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material, or T.E.N.O.R.M.. Most of the radionuclides that appear in oil and gas streams belong to the 238 U and 232 Th natural series, besides 40 K. The present work was developed to determine the radionuclide content of scales and sludge generated during oil extraction and production operations. Emphasis was given to the quantification of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K since these radionuclides,are responsible for most of the external exposure in such facilities. Samples were taken from the P.E.T.R.O.B.R.A.S. unity in the State of Sergipe, in Northeastern Brazil. They were collected directly from the inner surface of water pipes and storage tanks, or from barrels stored in the waste storage area of the E and P unit. The activity concentrations for 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K were determined by using an HP Ge gamma spectrometric system. The results showed concentrations ranging from 42.7 to 2,110.0 kBq/kg for 226 Ra, 40.5 to 1,550.0 kBq/kg for 228 Ra, and 20.6 to 186.6 kBq/kg for 40 K. The results highlight the importance of determining the activity concentration of those radionuclides in oil residues before deciding whether they should be stored or discarded to the environment. (authors)

  10. Crushed rock sand – An economical and ecological alternative to natural sand to optimize concrete mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Mundra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the use of crushed rock sand as viable alternative to Natural River sand that is being conventionally used as fine aggregate in cement concrete. Various mix designs were developed for different grades of concrete based on IS, ACI and British codes using Natural River sand and crushed rock sand. In each case, the cube compressive strength test, and beam flexure tests were conducted. The results of the study show that, the strength properties of concrete using crushed rock sand are nearly similar to the conventional concrete. The study has shown that crushed stone sand can be used as economic and readily available alternative to river sand and can therefore help to arrest the detrimental effects on the environment caused due to excessive mining of river sand.

  11. Natural gas in 1946: Petroleum in 1946. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, R B

    1949-12-31

    Part III of the annual report consists of two separate reports: Natural gas and petroleum. The natural gas report discusses production and distribution, changes and improvements; consumption and rates; gas wells and their production; and licenses issued. The logs of wells are also included, being presented alphabetically by counties, townships, and owners, respectively. The petroleum report presents information on production and drilling by township; expansion; and petroleum importation and refining operations.

  12. Natural gas in 1934: Petroleum in 1934. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, R B

    1937-12-31

    Part V of this annual report consists of two separate reports: Natural gas and petroleum. The natural gas report discusses production and distribution; changes and improvements; consumption and rates; gas wells and their production; and licenses issued. The logs of wells are also included, being presented alphabetically by counties, townships, and owners, respectively. The petroleum report presents information on production and drilling by township; expansion; and petroleum importation and refining operations.

  13. Natural gas in 1949: Petroleum in 1949. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1952-12-31

    Part III of the annual report consists of two separate reports: Natural gas and petroleum. The natural gas report discusses production and distribution, changes and improvements; consumption and rates; gas wells and their production; and licenses issued. The logs of wells are also included, being presented alphabetically by counties, townships, and owners, respectively. The petroleum report presents information on production and drilling by township; expansion; and petroleum importation and refining operations.

  14. Natural gas in 1937: Petroleum in 1937. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, R B

    1940-12-31

    Part V of this annual report consists of two separate reports, natural gas and petroleum. The natural gas report discusses production and distribution; changes and improvements; consumption and rates; gas wells and their production; and licenses issued. The logs of wells are also included, presented alphabetically by counties, townships, and owners, respectively. The petroleum report presents information on production and drilling by township; expansion; and petroleum importation and refining operations.

  15. Natural gas in 1939: Petroleum in 1939. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, R B

    1942-12-31

    Part V of this annual report consists of two separate reports, natural gas and petroleum. The natural gas report discusses production and distribution; changes and improvements; consumption and rates; gas wells and their production; and licenses issued. The logs of wells are also included, presented alphabetically by counties, townships, and owners, respectively. The petroleum report presents information on production and drilling by township; expansion; and petroleum importation and refining operations.

  16. Natural gas in 1948: Petroleum in 1948. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, R B

    1951-12-31

    Part III of the annual report consists of two separate reports: Natural gas and petroleum. The natural gas report discusses production and distribution, changes and improvements; consumption and rates; gas wells and their production; and licenses issued. The logs of wells are also included, being presented alphabetically by counties, townships, and owners, respectively. The petroleum report presents information on production and drilling by township; expansion; and petroleum importation and refining operations.

  17. Natural gas in 1943: Petroleum in 1943. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, R B

    1946-12-31

    Part V of this annual report consists of two separate reports: Natural gas and petroleum. The natural gas report discusses production and distribution; changes and improvements; consumption and rates; gas wells and their production; and licenses issued. The logs of wells are also included, being presented alphabetically by counties, townships, and owners, respectively. The petroleum report presents information on production and drilling by township; expansion; and petroleum importation and refining operations.

  18. Natural gas in 1940: Petroleum in 1940. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crozier, A R

    1944-12-31

    Part V of this annual report consists of two separate reports: Natural gas and petroleum. The natural gas report discusses production and distribution; changes and improvements; consumption and rates; gas wells and their production; and licenses issued. The logs of wells are also included, being presented alphabetically by counties, townships, and owners, respectively. The petroleum report presents information on production and drilling by township; expansion; and petroleum importation and refining operations.

  19. Natural gas in 1941: Petroleum in 1941. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crozier, A R

    1945-12-31

    Part V of this annual report consists of two separate reports: Natural gas and petroleum. The natural gas report discusses production and distribution; changes and improvements; consumption and rates; gas wells and their production; and licenses issued. The logs of wells are also included, being presented alphabetically by counties, townships, and owners, respectively. The petroleum report presents information on production and drilling by township; expansion; and petroleum importation and refining operations.

  20. Adsorption of petroleum resins and asphaltenes onto reservoir rock sands studied by near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syunyaev, R.Z.; Balabin, R.M. [Russian State Univ. of Oil and Gas, Moscow (Russian Federation). Dept. of Physics; Akhatov, I.S. [North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The presence of asphaltene and resin in crude oil is known to cause well bore plugging and pipeline deposition; stabilization of water/oil emulsions; sedimentation and plugging during crude oil storage; adsorption on refining equipment and coke formation. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of adsorption are also known to influence wettability and the capillary number. In this study, adsorption parameters of petroleum resins and asphaltenes were evaluated by Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. Fractioned quartz, dolomite, mica and kaolinite sands were used as adsorbent. The particle size distribution was evaluated using an optical microscope. Porosity and permeability of each fraction were designed and benzene was used as the solvent. Various approaches for calibrating NIR spectra-macromolecules concentration were discussed. In this study, the partial least squares (PLS) regression method was used and the Langmuir model was chosen for experimental data fitting. Kinetic and isothermic data was used to evaluate the maximal adsorbed mass density, the equilibrium constant of adsorption, and the rate constants of adsorption and desorption. The rate constants of resins adsorption and desorption depended on the concentration. A numerical algorithm was developed to estimate the diffusion coefficient and relaxation time from the experimental data.

  1. Nigeria: petroleum; natural gas and economic crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugliotta, A.

    2008-01-01

    Conflicts in Nigeria have recently deepened and they show a continuous escalation. The endless attacks against all infrastructures led to a reduction of oil production, thus effecting international oil market as well. This article provides a Nigeria's economy and energy framework. First, we will focus on troubles characterizing oil companies activities in Nigeria. Then, we will analyze how a higher exploitation of natural gas could affect Nigeria's economy, politics and society. [it

  2. The petroleum, natural gas and bio fuel transportation; O transporte de petroleo, gas natural e biocombustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Diego Varela; Campos, Carlos Hebert

    2011-01-15

    The paper expose on the activity of petroleum, natural gas and bio fuels transportation, outlining the transportation means used by the petroleum industry. After that, analyses the importance and the economic relevance of the Transpetro. Yet, proceeds an examination of the transportation activity under a constitutional optics, based on the EC 9/95; a legal optic, from the Petroleum Law (Law 9478/97) and some other legal documents related to the theme. Finally, presents the importance that the Law of Natural Gas (Law 11909/09) brought for that activity, by making possible that the natural gas transportation can also be effectuated through the Concession.

  3. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab Countries, Angola and Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes briefly main informations on petroleum prices and markets trends, production, contracts and agreements on the supply of petroleum products or natural gas and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

  4. Shear strength properties of naturally occurring bituminous sands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available because of the cohesive nature of bitumen contents. However, results from the direct shear tests were comparable to properties of oil sands reported earlier from various other laboratory tests. Based on the direct shear test results, Mohr-Coulomb failure...

  5. 76 FR 22825 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ... Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Subpart W: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems of the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule. As part of the... greenhouse gas emissions for the petroleum and natural gas systems source category of the greenhouse gas...

  6. 10 CFR 503.38 - Permanent exemption for certain fuel mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... natural gas or petroleum. 503.38 Section 503.38 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS... mixtures containing natural gas or petroleum. (a) Eligibility. Section 212(d) of the Act provides for a... proposes to use a mixture of natural gas or petroleum and an alternate fuel as a primary energy source; (2...

  7. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Joel [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The United States has more oil and gas wells than any other country. As of December 31, 2004, there were more than half a million producing oil wells in the United States. That is more than three times the combined total for the next three leaders: China, Canada, and Russia. The Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) is a partnership that includes domestic oil and gas producers, service and supply companies, trade associations, academia, the Department of Energy’s Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil (SCNGO) at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The Consortium was established in 2000. This report serves as a final technical report for the SWC activities conducted over the May 1, 2004 to December 1, 2011 timeframe. During this timeframe, the SWC worked with 173 members in 29 states and three international countries, to focus on the development of new technologies to benefit the U.S. stripper well industry. SWC worked with NETL to develop a nationwide request-for-proposal (RFP) process to solicit proposals from the U.S. stripper well industry to develop and/or deploy new technologies that would assist small producers in improving the production performance of their stripper well operations. SWC conducted eight rounds of funding. A total of 132 proposals were received. The proposals were compiled and distributed to an industry-driven SWC executive council and program sponsors for review. Applicants were required to make a formal technical presentation to the SWC membership, executive council, and program sponsors. After reviewing the proposals and listening to the presentations, the executive council made their funding recommendations to program sponsors. A total of 64 projects were selected for funding, of which 59 were fully completed. Penn State then worked with grant awardees to issue a subcontract for their approved work. SWC organized and hosted a total of 14 meetings

  8. Petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugg, W G

    1967-07-01

    This discussion of the Canadian petroleum industry for the year 1966 includes production statistics and operating procedures, reserve estimates, exploration and development, transportation, refining, and marketing. Most sectors of the Canadian industry had an excellent year in 1966, featured by continued exploration and development successes in the Rainbow Lake-Zama Lake region of northwestern Alberta and a record value of production that exceeded $900 million for all liquid hydrocarbons. Production of crude oil and natural gas liquids exceeded one million bopd. Crude oil producers supplied 58% of the total crude oil requirements for Canadian refineries. Oil reserves increased due primarily to the application of secondary recovery and the discovery of new reserves. Total pipeline construction decreased, and there was a small increase in refinery capacity.

  9. Petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Here are briefly summarized 1)the OPEC decisions and their consequences concerning the production of petroleum in the world 2)some news about the petroleum industry in Chad and in Iraq 3)some news about the new pipelines constructed or to be constructed in the world 4)some news about the LPG industry (start of a LPG extraction unit in Argentina, legislation in France for LPG vehicles) 4)and some news about the petroleum distribution in France. (O.M.)

  10. Petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Here are gathered the results of the year 1999 concerning the petroleum industry in France ('UFIP' data), the market quotations of crude oil, the prices of fuels in France and in Portugal and some news about the petroleum industry in Algeria (privatization, exploration-offshore, repurchase), in Iraq (exports, contracts with foreign companies), in Russian Federation (petroleum pipelines and oil ports constructions) and in Chad (production sharing, offshore sites discoveries). (O.M.)

  11. North American natural gas outlook : does gas remain a fuel option for oil sands?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a North America natural gas outlook from Purvin and Gertz, an international energy consulting firm that has 30 years experience in providing strategic, commercial and technical advice to the petroleum industry. In particular, this presentation focuses on natural gas market fundamentals and how they may impact on oil sands development. It includes charts and graphs depicting NYMEX natural gas outlooks to July, 2009 and examines how supply will react to major changes in Canada's supply portfolio. It was noted that oil sands development is a driver for natural gas demand in Alberta. The existing regional gas pipeline infrastructure was presented and the market impact on upgrader options was discussed. The author suggests that if gas prices are too high, there are other fuel options for steam and power generation. These include bitumen, asphalt, coke, coal and nuclear. However, these options have additional costs, uncertainties and environmental issues. A key factor for success would be to have a clear understanding of the benefits and risks between these fuel options. 1 tab., 9 figs

  12. The crude petroleum and natural gas industry : 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Statistics regarding Canada's crude oil and natural gas industry for 1996 were presented. Data presentation was in tabular form, the topics being exploration and development, synthetic crude oil reserves, crude oil production and movements by source, natural gas production, drilling completions, net cash expenditures of the petroleum industry, and total sales of natural gas by province. Some of the noteworthy highlights for 1996 were: (1) 14,600 new wells were drilled, the highest number ever recorded, (2) capital investment was over $13 billion, (3) 148 companies were involved in mergers and acquisitions, (4) value of marketable production of oil, natural gas and natural gas by-products topped $30 billion, (5) Empress pipelines began operations of the first new major oil pipeline from Western Canada in 45 years, (6) the Hibernia offshore crude oil facility was completed, (7) Sable Island offshore energy projects applications were filed, and (8) the development of the Terra Nova, Whitehorse and Hebron fields was announced. 8 tabs

  13. Interaction of petroleum mulching, vegetation restoration and dust fallout on the conditions of sand dunes in southwest of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoogh, Liela; Khalili moghadam, Bijan; Jafari, Siroos

    2018-06-01

    In the past half-century, petroleum mulching-biological fixation (PM-BF) practices have been employed to stabilize sand dunes in Iran. However, the effects of PM-BF practices on the attributes of sand dunes and the dispersion of heavy metals of mulch have been poorly understood. To this end, three regions treated with PM-BF for 5, 20, and 40 years and a control region with no PM-BF were studied. Samples of soil properties were taken at the depths of 0-10 cm and 10-50 cm, with three replications, in Khuzestan Province. The results showed that PM-BF practices promoted the restoration of vegetation cover in the sand dunes. In addition, these practices increased the deposition of dust particles, gradually increasing the magnitudes of palygorskite and smectite clays over time. The interactions between dust deposition and PM-BF practices significantly altered the chemical and physical properties of the dunes. PM-BF practices increased soil organic matter (184-287%), cation exchangeable capacity (142-209%), electrical conductivity (144-493%), clay content (134-196%), and penetration resistance (107-170%) compared to the region with no PM-BF practices. Furthermore, petroleum mulching significantly increased the amount of Ni (1.19%), Cd (1.55%), Pb (1.08%), Cu (1.34%), Zn (1.38%), Mn (1.66%), and Fe (1.15%). However, in the long term, these elements will probably leach linearly as a consequence of an increase in organic matter and soil salinity in the light texture of sand dunes.

  14. Natural radioactivity and radon specific exhalation rate of zircon sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Righi, S.; Verita, S.; Bruzzi, L.; Albertazzi, A.

    2006-01-01

    The study focuses on the radon emanation from zircon sands and their derivatives, which are widely used in many sectors of industry. In particular, the results obtained by experimental measurements on samples of zircon sands and zircon flours commonly used in Italian ceramic industries are reported. Zircon sands contain a significant concentration of natural radioactivity because Th and U may substitute zirconium in the zircon crystal lattice. The relevant routes of exposure of workers to T.E.N.O.R.M. from zircon materials are external radiation and internal exposure, either by inhalation of aerosols in dusty working conditions or by inhalation of radon in workplaces. The main objective of this investigation is to provide experimental data able to better calculate the internal exposure of workers due to radon inhalation. Zircon samples were surveyed for natural radioactivity, radon specific exhalation rate and emanation fraction. Measurements of radioactivity concentration were carried out using γ-spectrometry. Methods used for determining radon consisted in determining the 222 Rn activity accumulated in a vessel after a given accumulation build-up time. The average activity concentrations of 238 U and 232 Th in samples result about 2600 and 550 Bq kg-1, respectively; these concentrations are significantly higher than the world average noticed in soils, rocks and Earth crust. The 222 Rn specific exhalation rates result very low probably due to the low porosity of the material and the consequent difficulty for radon to be released from the zircon crystal lattice. (author)

  15. Natural gas to buoy Trinidad and Tobago petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Trinidad and Tobago's petroleum sector remains at a crossroads. While heavily reliant on oil and gas for domestic energy consumption and hard currency export earnings, the small Caribbean island nation faces some tough choices in reviving its hydrocarbon sector in the 1990s. Exploration and production of crude oil have stagnated in recent years, and domestic refinery utilization remains low at 36%. However, substantial natural gas reserves in Trinidad and Tobago offer the promise of a burgeoning natural gas based economy with an eye to liquefied natural gas and gas based petrochemical exports. Any solutions will involve considerable outlays by the government as well as a sizable infusion of capital by foreign companies. Therein lie some of the hard choices. The article describes the roles of oil and gas, foreign investment prospects, refining status, refining problems, gas sector foreign investment, and outlook for the rest of the 1990's

  16. Petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, T. R.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This review of petroleum covers: crude oil; fuels, gaseous and liquid; lubricants, oils, and greases; asphalts, bitumens, tars, and pitches; hydrocarbons; physical properties; metals in oil; nonmetallic elements and heterocompounds; and analytical methods and apparatus. (MVL)

  17. Prediction of sand production onset in petroleum reservoirs using a reliable classification approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Gharagheizi

    2017-06-01

    It is shown that the developed model can accurately predict the sand production in a real field. The results of this study indicates that implementation of LSSVM modeling can effectively help completion designers to make an on time sand control plan with least deterioration of production.

  18. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab Countries and in Angola, Ivory Coast, Iran and Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives informations about petroleum and natural gas industry, petroleum market and prices, trade and contracts, prospection, exploration and production. The american Enron Corporation has proposed the best proposal for a liquefied natural gas plant in Yemen. Negotiations have begun between several western petroleum companies and Kuwait Petroleum Corporation for exploration-production joint ventures in Kuwait. In Iran, the retrofitting of Lavan island petroleum refinery is studied. Several invitations to bid for blocks of search permits have been started in Qatar, Algeria, Morocco and in Eastern chinese sea

  19. Agricultural demands for natural gas and liquified petroleum gas in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uri, N.D.; Gill, M.

    1992-01-01

    This study endeavours to determine whether farmers adjust their consumption of natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas in response to changes in the unit price of energy. A demand model is specified and estimated. The conclusions suggest that the unit price of natural gas (liquefied petroleum gas) is a factor impacting the quantity of natural gas (liquefied petroleum gas) demanded by farmers, but there is no indication that other types of energy are substitutes for natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. Additionally, the number of acres irrigated is an important factor driving the demand for natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas. Finally, the estimated models of natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas demand were structurally stable over the period 1971-1989. (author)

  20. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab Countries, in Congo, Ethiopia, Gabon and Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives informations on petroleum and natural gas industry, petroleum market and prices, trade and contracts, prospection and investments: Portugal has retained the candidature of ten foreign companies for the introduction of natural gas in 1996 and the first enhanced recovery contract will relate to Rhourde El Baguel natural gas field (Algeria). New contracts have been signed for exploration or development of petroleum or natural gas fields in Gabon, Ethiopia and Libya. Iraq has restarted its petroleum exports and Iranian production has diminished

  1. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab Countries and in Benin, Chad Cameroon, Namibia, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives informations on petroleum and natural gas industry, petroleum market and prices, trade and contracts, prospection and production. In Saudi Arabia, Saudi Aramco has begun the works to increase the production capacity of the petroleum refinery of Ras Tanura. In Kuwait, the cost of the retrofitting and development programs for the petroleum field is evaluated to 4 milliards $. Several contracts have been signed in Tunisia and in Nigeria for the attribution of exploration permits. A cooperation agreement has been signed, in Taiwan, between Total and Chinese Petroleum Corporation, which allows the establishment of joint ventures for the development of petroleum exploration in Far East. Petroleum exploration has begun in Namibia where Norsk Hydro has achieved the interpretation of seismic studies and will drill a first exploration well. In Egypt, petroleum production is stabilized at a level of 870000 barrels per day and the transport capacity of Sumed pipeline will increase from 80 to 117 millions tons per year in 1994

  2. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab Countries, Iran, Nigeria, Ethiopia and Ivory Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes briefly main informations on petroleum production, prices and market trends, trade and contracts, petroleum exploration in Bahrain, Ethiopia, Libya, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. In Ivory Coast, a consortium led by Electricite de France and Bouygues has obtained the exploitation of Foxtrot natural gas field. Statistics on petroleum and natural gas reserves, production in the world in 1991 and 1992 are also given

  3. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab Countries, in Iraq, Nigeria and Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives informations on petroleum and natural gas industry, petroleum market and prices, trade and contracts, prospection and investments: Portugal has retained the joining to the Maghreb-Europe gas pipeline for algerian gas supply. Saudi Arabia has closed several oil fields for maintenance. New contracts have been signed for exploration or development of petroleum or natural gas fields in Nigeria, Qatar, Tunisia and Yemen

  4. Impact of Recent Discoveries on Petroleum and Natural Gas Exploration: Emphasis on India

    OpenAIRE

    Herndon, J. Marvin

    2010-01-01

    Two discoveries have greatly impacted understanding relevant to the origination and emplacement of petroleum and natural gas deposits. One discovery, pertaining to hydrocarbon formation from methane broadens significantly potential regions where abiotic petroleum and natural gas deposits might be found. The other, discovery of the physical impossibility of Earth-mantle convection, restricts the range and domain of geodynamic behavior, and leads to new insights on the formation of petroleum an...

  5. Natural gas in 1950: Petroleum in 1950: Logs of wells in 1950. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1953-12-31

    Part III of this annual report consists of three separate reports on natural gas; petroleum; and logs of wells. The natural gas report discusses production and distribution, changes and improvements; consumption and rates; and gas wells and their production. The petroleum report presents information on production and drilling by township; expansion; and petroleum importation and refining operations. The logs of wells are presented alphabetically by counties, townships, and owners, respectively.

  6. Natural gas in 1952: Petroleum in 1952: Logs of wells for 1952. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1955-12-31

    Part III of this annual report consists of three separate reports on natural gas; petroleum; and logs of wells. The natural gas report discusses production and distribution, changes and improvements; consumption and rates; and gas wells and their production. The petroleum report presents information on production and drilling by township; expansion; and petroleum importation and refining operations. The logs of wells are presented alphabetically by counties, townships, and owners, respectively.

  7. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab countries, Angola, Iran, Gabon and Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkis, N.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes briefly main informations on petroleum production, prices and markets trends, trade and contracts, petroleum and natural gas exploration in Gabon, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Egypt and Sudan. Algeria and Portugal have signed a contract for natural gas supply of 2.1 Gm 3

  8. Petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chautard, S.

    2008-01-01

    While petroleum has become an indispensable product in our everyday life, it is more and more question of an oil shortage. This book makes a status of the real situation. Starting from the industrial revolution and the history of oil exploitation, it explains the main present day stakes: the depletion of reserves, the environmental aspects and the search for alternative energy solutions. (J.S.)

  9. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab countries and in Iran, Angola, Gabon, Nigeria and Chad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes briefly main informations on petroleum prices and market trends, trade and contracts, petroleum exploration in Algeria, Chad, Gabon, Libya, Saudi Arabia and Tunisia, new crude oil discoveries in Nigeria. In Iran, a joint venture will be constituted with Gaz de France for natural gas export in Europe. In Egypt, National Bank has financed for the first time a Liquefied Petroleum Gas plant. Statistics on petroleum and natural gas reserves, production, seismic surveys, drilling operations and refining units are also given. 9 tabs

  10. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab countries and in Congo, Iran, Namibia, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives informations on petroleum and natural gas industry, petroleum market and prices, trade and contracts, prospection and production. In Saudi Arabia, Saudi Aramco has developed exploration program near Djeddah and has made a call up supply for the development of Haradh and Ghawar oil fields. In Iran, petroleum production will reach 4.5 Millions barrel per day in 1999. A new oil field has been discovered near Darkhavin and the new petroleum refinery of Ark has been inaugurated. In Yemen, Masila oil field will produce 120000 barrels per day. A new export project of liquefied natural gas is developed and will reached 5 millions of tons per year

  11. Optimization of cyclones geometry for sand pre-separation of petroleum production; Otimizacao de ciclone para a pre-separacao de areia na producao de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Aline T. de [Chemtech, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Medronho, Ricardo A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Sand production in petroleum holes is a critical problem in separation plants in petroleum platforms. Sand may cause severe erosion in valves and lines and its accumulation in main process devices may force stopping the process for cleaning. This may be responsible for huge production loses. In this work, the geometrical proportions of a cyclone with high efficiency for sand-gas separation. For that, experimental design was employed to select the geometries to be studied. The separation efficiency was obtained by Computational Fluid Dynamics technique, with the commercial software CFX, version 11.0. This tool numerically solves the conservation equations, which permits estimating fluid and particles trajectory inside the equipment. Then, it was possible to obtain a model and based on that to find the geometry that gives the best efficiency to the proposed service. (author)

  12. Natural gas in 1924 and petroleum in 1924. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, R B

    1927-12-31

    This annual report presents figures for gas consumption in Ontario, gas wells and their production, and leakage. It includes licenses issued for the year and logs of wells. Information is also given on oil production in Ontario, petroleum refining and petroleum imported into Ontario.

  13. Natural gas in 1925 and petroleum in 1925. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, R B

    1927-12-31

    This annual report presents figures for gas consumption in Ontario, gas wells and their production, and leakage. It includes licenses issued for the year and logs of wells. Information is also given on oil production in Ontario, petroleum refining and petroleum imported into Ontario.

  14. Natural gas in 1928: Petroleum in 1928. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, R B

    1931-12-31

    This annual report presents figures for gas consumption in Ontario, gas wells and their production, and leakage. It includes licenses issued for the year and logs of wells. Information is also given on oil production in Ontario, petroleum refining and petroleum imported into Ontario.

  15. Natural gas in 1935: Petroleum in 1935. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, R B

    1938-12-31

    This annual report presents figures for gas consumption in Ontario, gas wells and their production, and leakage. It includes licenses issued for the year and logs of wells. Information is also given on oil production in Ontario, petroleum refining and petroleum imported into Ontario.

  16. Natural gas in 1929: Petroleum in 1929. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, R B

    1931-12-31

    This annual report presents figures for gas consumption in Ontario, gas wells and their production, and leakage. It includes licenses issued for the year and logs of wells. Information is also given on oil production in Ontario, petroleum refining and petroleum imported into Ontario.

  17. Natural gas in 1923 and petroleum in 1923. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, R B

    1926-12-31

    This annual report presents figures for gas consumption in Ontario, gas wells and their production, and leakage. It includes licenses issued for the year and logs of wells. Information is also given on oil production in Ontario, petroleum refining and petroleum imported into Ontario.

  18. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab Countries, in Angola, Iran, Nigeria, Tanzania and Zaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives informations on petroleum and natural gas industry, petroleum market and prices, trade and contracts, prospection and production. The possible return of Iraq on the petroleum market has an influence on petroleum prices. In Algeria, Sonatrach will deliver 2.5 milliards m 3 to Portugal through the Maghreb-Europe gas pipeline. In Tunisia, a petroleum exploration permit has been attributed to Atlantic Richfield Company and Miskar natural gas field would come into production in 1995. In Saudi Arabia, Saudi Aramco has bought all the petroleum refining and distribution interests of the Saudi Arabian Marketing and Refining Company and Petromin Company and now Saudi Aramco is become a national integrated petroleum company. Petroleum exploration is going on in Caspian sea (Iran), six new oil fields have come into production in the Deir ez-Zor and Ash Sham permits (Syria) and petroleum exploration contracts have been signed in Angola, Nigeria and Zaire. In Egypt, the growth of natural gas consumption gives an indication upon the future growing deficit

  19. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab Countries, in Angola, Iran and Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives informations on petroleum and natural gas industry, petroleum market and prices, trade and contracts, prospection and investments. BEI (European Bank of Investment) has given its agreement for the financing of the Maghreb-Europe natural gas pipeline in Morocco but will not participate for the piece in Algeria. Several new petroleum or natural gas discoveries have been pointed out (Rhourde Yacoub in Algeria, Shabwa in Yemen, Port Fouad in Egypt). Shell Company has signed an agreement for the development of Pars Nord natural gas field in Iran and has obtained an exploration offshore permit in Angola

  20. Understanding the petroleum and natural gas regime in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lothian, E.C.

    1997-01-01

    Some of the legal issues relating to exploring for and operating oil and gas properties in Saskatchewan were discussed. An overview of key legislation was provided. The purpose of the Oil and Gas Conservation Act (OGCA) was explained, i.e., (1) to prevent waste, (2) to regulate all oil and gas operations to maximize ultimate recovery through prudent operations, (3) to allow each owner the opportunity to recover its share of oil or gas from a pool, (4) to develop, protect and conserve Saskatchewan's oil and gas resources, and (5) to protect the environment from the harmful effects of oil and gas operations. Legislation regarding vertical wells, horizontal wells, and horizontal well spacing was reviewed. Similar explanations were provided for the key features of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulations, the Freehold Oil and Gas Production Tax Act, the Mineral Taxation Act, the Land Titles Act, and the Builder's Lien Act. Registration issues for Crown and freehold lands, and non-contractual operator's duties were also reviewed. A brief reference was also made to a recent report entitled the 'Saskatchewan External Cost Review' which indicated that Saskatchewan had certain advantages for producing oil and gas compared to Alberta, Manitoba, British Columbia and North Dakota. Unfortunately, the report also indicated that the external costs ( crown royalties, freehold production taxes, income taxes, sales taxes, etc.), were the highest in Saskatchewan of the four jurisdictions reviewed

  1. 10 CFR 501.191 - Use of natural gas or petroleum for certain unanticipated equipment outages and emergencies...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of natural gas or petroleum for certain unanticipated... Natural Gas or Petroleum for Emergency and Unanticipated Equipment Outage Purposes § 501.191 Use of natural gas or petroleum for certain unanticipated equipment outages and emergencies defined in section...

  2. 40 CFR 1048.620 - What are the provisions for exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? 1048.620 Section 1048.620 Protection of... exempting large engines fueled by natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas? (a) If an engine meets all the... natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas. (2) The engine must have maximum engine power at or above 250 kW...

  3. Petroleum Oxidation in Marine Microcosms by Natural Microbial Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardlaw, G. D.; Reddy, C. M.; Nelson, R. K.; Ehrhardt, C. J.; Valentine, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    Millions of gallons of petroleum are emitted into marine environments each year and the oxidation of this oil by microbes is an important mechanism for mediating toxicity. In terms of quantity, petroleum is the most abundant organic pollutant impacting marine environments today. Recent advances in chromatography have led to the development of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC &GC). The acronym, GC GC, is used because orthogonal gas chromatographic separations are achieved in both analytical dimensions by using stationary phases with varying partitioning abilities and selectivity. This novel method has greatly expanded the analytical window of petroleum hydrocarbons and was used to track the loss of petroleum hydrocarbons in aerobic marine microcosm experiments. Sediment microcosms were composed of seawater and sediment collected from the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field off the coast of Santa Barbara, CA. Oil collected directly from the reservoir underlying the seep field was added to each microcosm, and samples were incubated for one year. Net metabolism was tracked by quantifying oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. The loss of petroleum components was tracked with GC GC, whereas the bacterial and archaeal community structures were tracked using T-RFLP. Results of these incubation studies will be presented.

  4. The influence of dissolved petroleum hydrocarbon residues on natural phytoplankton biomass

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shailaja, M.S.

    on phytoplankton biomass varies depending on the nature rather than the quantity of petroleum hydrocarbons present. Culture studies with unialgal Nitzschia sp. in seawater collected from selected stations in the study area as well as in artificial seawater spiked...

  5. Stakeholder Workshop on EPA GHG Data on Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page describes EPA's November 2015 stakeholder workshop on greenhouse gas data on petroleum and natural gas systems from the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program and U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Emissions and Sinks.

  6. Characterizing volumetric deformation behavior of naturally occuring bituminous sand materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available newly proposed hydrostatic compression test procedure. The test procedure applies field loading conditions of off-road construction and mining equipment to closely simulate the volumetric deformation and stiffness behaviour of oil sand materials. Based...

  7. Effects of Moisture Content on the Foundry Properties of Yola Natural Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Aondona IHOM

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of moisture content of Yola natural sand has been studied. The moisture content was varied from 1 to 9%. The effect of the moisture content on the green compression strength, green permeability and bulk density was investigated. Particle size distribution of the natural sand, the grain fineness number, average grain size, grain shape and the clay content of the natural sand were also studied. 5% moisture gave the optimum green compression strength of 118.6KN/m2. The dry compression strength increased with moisture content, an optimum value of 4000KN/m2 was obtained at 9% moisture. The Yola natural sand had a grain fineness number of 88.05AFS, average grain size of 335.78 microns and a clay content of 26%. A sand mixture containing 5% moisture was prepared and used to produce a test casting with aluminium scraps, the test casting was sound.

  8. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab countries and in Angola, Congo, Iran, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives informations on petroleum and natural gas industry, petroleum market and prices, trade and contracts, prospection and production. In Angola, in Jordan and Iran new petroleum deposits have been discovered. In Saudi Arabia, Saudi Aramco has achieved the absorption of Samarec and Petromin. In Algeria, natural gas exports have reached 35.6 milliards of M 3 in 1992. In Morocco, Alcatel and Pirelli have signed a contract of 750 millions Francs for the building of an electric power distribution network between Spain and Morocco

  9. Effect of Natural Sand Percentages on Fatigue Life of Asphalt Concrete Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla Yassub Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The design of a flexible pavement requires the knowledge of the material properties which are characterized by stiffness and fatigue resistance. The fatigue resistance relates the number of load cycles to failure with the strain level applied to the asphalt mixture. The main objective of this research is the evaluation of the fatigue life of asphalt mixtures by using two types of fine aggregate having different percentages. In this study, two types of fine aggregate were used natural sand (desert sand and crushed sand. The crushed sand was replaced by natural sand (desert sand with different percentages (0%, 25%, 75% and 100% by the weight of the sand (passing sieve No.8 and retained on sieve No.200 and one type of binder (40/50 penetration from Al-Daurah refinery. The samples of beams were tested by four point bending beam fatigue test at the control strain mode (250, 500 and 750 microstrain while the loading frequency (5Hz and testing temperature (20oC according to (AASHTO T321. The experimental work showed that fatigue life (Nf and initial flexural stiffness increased when control strain decreased for asphalt mixtures. Acceptable fatigue life at 750 microstrain was obtained with asphalt concrete mixtures containing 100% crushed sand as well as asphalt concrete contained 25% natural sand. The asphalt concrete contained 100% and 75% of natural sand exhibited high fatigue life at low level of microstrain (250. The main conclusion of this study found that best proportion of natural sand to be added to an asphaltic concrete mixture is falling within the range (0% and 25% by weight of fraction (passing No.8 and retained on No.200 sieve .

  10. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab countries and in Angola, Gabon, Iran, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives informations about petroleum and natural gas industry, petroleum market and prices, trade and contracts, prospection and production. In Saudi Arabia, the debate about the price reduction of butane used to produce methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is responsible of the cancellation of joint venture project between Mobil and Arabian Chemical Investment Corp. In Algeria, Japan brings its support to the development of Liquefied Petroleum Gases industry and has signed two exports contracts. New petroleum discoveries have been made in Oman, near Suneinah and in Egypt near Belayim offshore oil field. Petroleum production has reached 3.6 millions barrels per day in Iran, 0.35 millions barrels per day in Gabon and 0.177 millions barrels per day in Nigeria

  11. Increased petroleum and natural gas dependence between Europe and the Arab Countries. What is the role for the states?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkis, N.

    1995-01-01

    This work deals with the increased petroleum and natural gas dependence between Europe and the Arab Countries. The euro-arabian relations and the worldwide energetic market perspectives are indicated as well as the petroleum, natural gas and coal prices between the years 1990 and 2010, the worldwide petroleum supply and demand estimations between 1994 and 2010 and the petroleum estimations between 1994 and 2010. (O.L.). 7 tabs

  12. Morphological characterization of ceramic fillers made from Indonesian natural sand as restorative dental materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlina, E.; Susra, S.; Fatmala, Y.; Hartoyo, H. M.; Takarini, V.; Usri, K.; Febrida, R.; Djustiana, N.; Panatarani, C.; Joni, I. M.

    2018-02-01

    Dental composite as restorative dental materials can be reinforced using ceramic fillers. Homogeneous distribution of filler particles shall improve its mechanical properties. This paper presents the results of the preliminary study on the ZrO2-Al2O3-SiO2 ceramic fillers made from Indonesian natural sand that can increase the mechanical properties of dental composite. The synthesis was done using zirconium silicate sand (ZrSiO4) and aluminium oxide (Al2O3) precursors, which dissolved together with 70:30 weight ratios. Two types of sand were used: (1) manufactured sand (mesh #80) and (2) natural sand (mesh #400). The samples then heated in the furnace at 1100 °C for 8 hours. The morphological characterization was then evaluated using JEOL Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for the surface structure that analyze particles size and distribution. Ceramic fillers made from natural sand is homogenous, well distributed with average particle size of 5-10 µm. Comparably, ceramic filler made from the manufactured sand is heterogeneous, poorly distributed and appear as agglomerates with average particle size are 30-50 µm. The results suggest that ceramic fillers made from natural sand demonstrate better character to represent as a functional restorative dental material.

  13. Analysis of Physical Properties and Mineralogical of Pyrolysis Tires Rubber Ash Compared Natural Sand in Concrete material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamir Senin, Mohamad; Shahidan, Shahiron; Syazani Leman, Alif; Izzati Raihan Ramzi Hannan, Nurul

    2016-11-01

    Waste tires pose significant health and environmental concerns if not recycled or discarded properly. At the same time, natural sand is becoming scarcer and costlier due to its non-availability. Waste tires as fine aggregate can be an economical and sustainable alternative to the natural sand. Recent years, the interest on recycling waste tires into civil engineering applications by the researchers has increased. In this research, the chemical and physical properties of the tires rubber ash and the natural sand have been analysed. The densities of the rubber ash are lower than the natural sand. Rubber ash had finer particle size compared to the natural sand. Almost all chemical in the natural sand had in rubber ash with the additional sulphur trioxide and zinc oxide in the rubber ash, made the rubber ash better than natural sand. Rubber ash seems to be a suitable material to use in concrete as sand replacement.

  14. Petroleum production: the nature of the development activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    The French Petroleum Institute has studied not only the technological aspects of petroleum exploration and development, but also the economic and managerial aspects. The development strategy for a given company is determined by these economic and political factors: cooperation with other companies, exchange of information concerning the market, study of the economic situation in other countries, and current analysis of the available technical information. Also important are the availability of raw materials and of competent technical personnel. Beside the general field in which the company is active, the decision to undertake a given project will depend on the chances of commercialization and on the particular talents and expertise of the technical personnel. The latter can be enhanced by a development program of human resources. It should be mentioned that practically all such work requires teamwork.

  15. 75 FR 18607 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ...: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 69 / Monday, April... Natural Gas Systems AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is... natural gas systems. Specifically, the proposed supplemental rulemaking would require emissions reporting...

  16. 75 FR 74457 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ...: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 229 / Tuesday, November... Natural Gas Systems AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is... natural gas systems. This action adds this source category to the list of source categories already...

  17. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab countries, Angola, Iran and Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes briefly main informations on petroleum prices and market trends, trade and contracts, imports, demand, taxes. The Southern Oil Company has restored a production capacity of 1.8 Mb per day in the South of Iraq. In Iran, a joint venture between France and Iran (Iranian French Gas Co.) has been created and precedes the establishment of an european consortium for iranian gas import. In Jordan, in the natural gas field of Risha, a new discovery can give 633000 m 3 per day. Informations on petroleum exploration or production in Tunisia (Rhemoura oil field), in Syria (Dez ez Zor Petroleum Company), in Angola are also offered

  18. Red and blue colouration of thermoluminescence from natural quartz sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, T; Hayashi, Y; Koyanagi, A; Yokosaka, K; Kimura, K

    1986-01-01

    Quartz extracts, from a pegmatite rock, volcanic ashes and beach sands, were exposed to X-rays or gamma-rays upto 8.8kGy. The irradiated sands were observed through a thermoluminescence colour image technique (abbreviated to TLCI by the authors) using highly sensitive colour photographic system. The quartz sands from volcanic ash layers, containing ..beta..-quartz (mineralized at high temperature), always indicate a red TLCI, whereas the quartz rocks from pegmatite origin and granite strata, containing ..cap alpha..-quartz (mineralized at low temperature), gave a typical blue TLCI, being consistent with the well known quartz TL colour. Quartz fractions from the beach sands showed a mixture of both red and blue TLCI, probably reflecting the respective mixtures of ..beta..-(in their origin) and ..cap alpha..-quartz fractions along the riverside area. The search using X-ray diffractometry and instrumental neutron activation analysis proved that the cause of distinctly different colourations was attributable to the impurity atoms: light rare earth elements (Eu and/or Sm) bringing on red TLCI, while structural defects yielding the blue TLCI).

  19. Natural infection of the sand fly Phlebotomus kazeruni by Trypanosoma species in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwata Hiroyuki

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The natural infection of phlebotomine sand flies by Leishmania parasites was surveyed in a desert area of Pakistan where cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic. Out of 220 female sand flies dissected, one sand fly, Phlebotomus kazeruni, was positive for flagellates in the hindgut. Analyses of cytochrome b (cyt b, glycosomal glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH and small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA gene sequences identified the parasite as a Trypanosoma species of probably a reptile or amphibian. This is the first report of phlebotomine sand flies naturally infected with a Trypanosoma species in Pakistan. The possible infection of sand flies with Trypanosoma species should be taken into consideration in epidemiological studies of vector species in areas where leishmaniasis is endemic.

  20. Processing (refining) of petroleum and natural gases. Pererabotka neftyanykh i prirodnykh gazov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlin, M A; Gorechenkov, V G; Volkov, N P

    1981-01-01

    A discussion is made of the theoretical principles underlying the processes involved in the processing of natural and petroleum gases and gas condensate. Information is given on apparatus, engineering systems, and machine methods for the designing of gas refining plants. The book is intended for engineers and operation personnel of gas refining plants, and might also be useful to senior undergraduates at chemistry and petroleum institutes of higher learning. 278 references, 54 tables.

  1. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165.1709 Section...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a... and outbound transits through Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40′43″ N...

  2. Natural gas in 1951: Petroleum in 1951: Logs of wells for 1951. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1954-12-31

    The first part of this report summarises natural gas exploration activity, well drilling, infrastructure changes and improvements, production, distribution, consumption, and leakage during transmission or distribution of natural gas in Ontario. Includes lists of operators licensed to lease, prospect, drill or bore for, produce, and distribute natural gas in the province. The second part summarises oil industry activities, oil production, well drilling, petroleum and refined products imports, and petroleum refining operations. Relevant statistics are provided throughout both parts of the report. Also includes drillers` logs for oil and gas wells completed during the year.

  3. New engineers for the natural gas and petroleum industry; Nachwuchs fuer die Erdgas-/Erdoelindustrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinicke, K.M.; Pusch, G. [TU Clausthal (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdoel- und Erdgastechnik

    2007-09-13

    Tne natural gas and petroleum industry needs engineers. Universities are faced with the challenge of training them and ensuring their technical, communicative and personal skills. Universities are taking new strategies to do this, joining efforts with other universities and with the oil and natural gas industry. New media are employed, increasingly also for advanced training and for learning by correspondence course in order to provide students with special knowledge and facilitate career changes. The paper describes implemented and projected studies in petroleum and natural gas technology at TU Clausthal university and joint projects with partner universities and industry. (orig.)

  4. 76 FR 80553 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Technical Revisions to the Petroleum and Natural Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... permeability gas, shale gas, coal seam, or other tight reservoir rock. For example, wells producing coal bed... separation means one or more of the following processes: forced extraction of natural gas liquids, sulfur and... Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Technical Revisions to the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems...

  5. How to access and exploit natural resources sustainably: petroleum biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Angela; Andrade, Luiza; Velenturf, Anne; Christgen, Beate; Gray, Neil D; Head, Ian M

    2017-09-01

    As we transition from fossil fuel reliance to a new energy future, innovative microbial biotechnologies may offer new routes to maximize recovery from conventional and unconventional energy assets; as well as contributing to reduced emission pathways and new technologies for carbon capture and utilization. Here we discuss the role of microbiology in petroleum biotechnologies in relation to addressing UN Sustainable Development Goal 12 (ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns), with a focus on microbially-mediated energy recovery from unconventionals (heavy oil to methane), shale gas and fracking, bioelectrochemical systems for the production of electricity from fossil fuel resources, and innovations in synthetic biology. Furthermore, using wastes to support a more sustainable approach to fossil fuel extraction processes is considered as we undertake the move towards a more circular global economy. © 2017 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Natural gas and petroleum extraction by German companies at home and abroad 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamchina, E

    1977-05-01

    The annual report 1976 of the Wirtschaftsverband Erdoel- und Erdgasgewinnung e.V., Hannover (WEG) is very satisfactory on the whole. Compared with the previous year, domestic natural gas extraction has gone up again, petroleum production did not fall as much as was expected; the increased drilling output in meters shows that the increased profits since 1973 have been used sensibly. Petroleum and natural gas production abroad has also risen, though the rise is of little importance compared with international standards. In the following, the main points of the annual report are presented, the report giving inland activities in the form of statistics, and the international activities in the form of brief accounts.

  7. Foreign activities of German producers of petroleum and natural gas; Auslandsaktivitaeten deutscher Erdoel-ErdgasProduzenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-04-15

    The contribution under consideration is engaged in the foreign activities of German producers of natural gas and oil: Wintershall Holding AG (Kassel), RWE DEA AG (Hamburg), Petro Canada Germany GmbH (Essen), E.ON Ruhrgas AG (Essen), VNG Norge AG (Leipzig), Bavaria gas GmbH (Munich) and EWE AG (Oldenburg). Data according to the petroleum of petroleum and natural gas abroad are published for the period between 2007 and 2009. Besides this, the activities of these companies in individual countries are specified exactly.

  8. Occupational exposure to natural radioactivity in a zircon sand milling plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballesteros, Luisa; Zarza, Isidoro; Ortiz, Josefina; Serradell, Vicente

    2008-01-01

    Raw zirconium sand is one of the substances (naturally occurring radioactive material, NORM) which is widely used in the ceramic industry. This sand contains varying concentrations of natural radionuclides: mostly U-238 but also Th-232 and U-235, together with their daughters, and therefore may need to be regulated by Directive 96/29/EURATOM. This paper describes the method used to perform the radiological study on a zircon sand milling plant and presents the results obtained. Internal and external doses were evaluated using radioactivity readings from sand, airborne dust, intermediate materials and end products. The results on total effective dose show the need for this type of industry to be carefully controlled, since values near to 1 mSv were obtained

  9. Occupational exposure to natural radioactivity in a zircon sand milling plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, Luisa [Laboratorio de Radioactividad Ambiental, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: lballest@upvnet.upv.es; Zarza, Isidoro [Laboratorio de Radioactividad Ambiental, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: iszarpe@upvnet.upv.es; Ortiz, Josefina [Laboratorio de Radioactividad Ambiental, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: jortiz@iqn.upv.es; Serradell, Vicente [Laboratorio de Radioactividad Ambiental, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Apartado 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)], E-mail: vserradell@iqn.upv.es

    2008-10-15

    Raw zirconium sand is one of the substances (naturally occurring radioactive material, NORM) which is widely used in the ceramic industry. This sand contains varying concentrations of natural radionuclides: mostly U-238 but also Th-232 and U-235, together with their daughters, and therefore may need to be regulated by Directive 96/29/EURATOM. This paper describes the method used to perform the radiological study on a zircon sand milling plant and presents the results obtained. Internal and external doses were evaluated using radioactivity readings from sand, airborne dust, intermediate materials and end products. The results on total effective dose show the need for this type of industry to be carefully controlled, since values near to 1 mSv were obtained.

  10. Varying Inundation Regimes Differentially Affect Natural and Sand-Amended Marsh Sediments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Wigand

    Full Text Available Climate change is altering sea level rise rates and precipitation patterns worldwide. Coastal wetlands are vulnerable to these changes. System responses to stressors are important for resource managers and environmental stewards to understand in order to best manage them. Thin layer sand or sediment application to drowning and eroding marshes is one approach to build elevation and resilience. The above- and below-ground structure, soil carbon dioxide emissions, and pore water constituents in vegetated natural marsh sediments and sand-amended sediments were examined at varying inundation regimes between mean sea level and mean high water (0.82 m NAVD88 to 1.49 m NAVD88 in a field experiment at Laws Point, part of the Plum Island Sound Estuary (MA. Significantly lower salinities, pH, sulfides, phosphates, and ammonium were measured in the sand-amended sediments than in the natural sediments. In natural sediments there was a pattern of increasing salinity with increasing elevation while in the sand-amended sediments the trend was reversed, showing decreasing salinity with increasing elevation. Sulfide concentrations generally increased from low to high inundation with highest concentrations at the highest inundation (i.e., at the lowest elevations. High pore water phosphate concentrations were measured at low elevations in the natural sediments, but the sand-amended treatments had mostly low concentrations of phosphate and no consistent pattern with elevation. At the end of the experiment the lowest elevations generally had the highest measures of pore water ammonium. Soil carbon dioxide emissions were greatest in the sand-amended mesocosms and at higher elevations. Differences in coarse root and rhizome abundances and volumes among the sediment treatments were detected with CT imaging, but by 20 weeks the natural and sand-amended treatments showed similar total belowground biomass at the intermediate and high elevations. Although differences in

  11. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab Countries, in Iran, Namibia Niger and Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes briefly main informations on petroleum prices and market trends, trade and contracts, production capacity, exports, demand, exploration and new discoveries. O.P.E.C. will have to invest $147-149 milliards to increase its petroleum production capacity to 37.49-38.69 Mb per day in year 2000. Gaz de France has announced the establishment of Iran Gas Europe, a joint venture entrusted to study the import of iranian liquefied natural gas in Europe. In Algeria, exploration contract has been signed by Petro-Canada and a new petroleum discovery has been announced by Repsol, in Illizi basin. In Namibia, Niger and Nigeria, new exploration permits have been conceded to Elf and Engen co

  12. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab countries and in Angola, Iran, Nigeria, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives informations on petroleum and natural gas industry, petroleum market and prices, trade and contracts, prospection and production. In Saudi Arabia, Saudi Aramco has increased its petroleum prices to Europe but the prices of deliveries to North America stay unchanged. In Yemen, Masila oil field will produce 120000 barrels per day. In Iran, National Iranian Oil Company has reduced its exploration wells programme after the refuse of the World Bank to finance additional gas injection systems. In Algeria, Saskoil will drill its first exploration well near Hassi Dzabat in 1994 and two new exploration licences have been assigned in Tunisia. In Sudan, Arakis will begin the drilling of exploration wells in september 1994

  13. Natural gas participation on brazilian demand supply of liquefied petroleum gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas Rachid, L.B. de

    1991-01-01

    Natural Gas Liquids Production, Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) among them, has undergone a continuous growth and technological development until the first half of the eighties. This paper presents the natural gas processing activity development in Brazil, in the last 20 years, and the increasing share of LPG produced from natural gas in the supply of LPG domestic market. Possibilities of achieving greater shares are discussed, based on economics of natural gas processing projects. Worldwide gas processing installed capacity and LPG pricing tendencies, and their influence in the construction of new Natural Gas Processing Units in Brazil, are also discussed. (author)

  14. Distribution and identification of sand flies naturally infected with Leishmania from the Southeastern Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla, Victor; De Los Santos, Maxy B; Espada, Liz; Santos, Rocío Del Pilar; Fernandez, Roberto; Urquia, Albino; Stoops, Craig A; Ballard, Sarah-Blythe; Lescano, Andres G; Vásquez, Gissella M; Valdivia, Hugo O

    2017-11-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an important health problem in the New World affecting civilian and military populations that are frequently exposed in endemic settings. The Peruvian region of Madre de Dios located near the border with Brazil is one of the most endemic CL regions in South America with more than 4,451 reported cases between 2010 and 2015 according to the Peruvian epidemiology directorate. However, little is known regarding the diversity and distribution of sand fly vectors in this region. In this study, we aimed to characterize the sand fly fauna in this endemic setting and identify sand fly species naturally infected with Leishmania possibly involved in pathogen transmission. Sand fly collections were carried out during 2014 and 2015 in the communities of Flor de Acre, Villa Primavera, Mavila and Arca Pacahuara using CDC light traps and Shannon traps. Collected specimens were identified and non-blood-fed females were selected for Leishmania infection screening using kinetoplastid DNA-PCR (kDNA-PCR) and nested Real time PCR for species identification. A total of 10,897 phlebotomines belonging to the genus Lutzomyia (58 species) and Brumptomyia (2 species) were collected. Our study confirmed the widespread distribution and abundance of Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) spp. (24%), Lu. whitmani (19.4%) and Lu. yucumensis (15.8%) in the region. Analysis of Shannon diversity index indicates variability in sand fly composition across sites with Villa Primavera presenting the highest sand fly diversity and abundance. Leishmania screening by kDNA-PCR resulted in 45 positive pools collected from Flor de Acre (34 pools), Mavila (10 pools) and Arca Pacahuara (1 pool) and included 14 species: Lu. yucumensis, Lu. aragoi, Lu. sallesi, Lu. sherlocki, Lu. shawi, Lu. walkeri, Lu nevesi, Lu. migonei, Lu. davisi, Lu. carrerai, Lu. hirsuta, Lu. (Trichophoromyia) spp., Lu. llanosmartinsi and Lu. whitmani. Lutzomyia sherlocki, Lu. walkeri and Lu. llanosmartinsi had the

  15. Distribution and identification of sand flies naturally infected with Leishmania from the Southeastern Peruvian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Zorrilla

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is an important health problem in the New World affecting civilian and military populations that are frequently exposed in endemic settings. The Peruvian region of Madre de Dios located near the border with Brazil is one of the most endemic CL regions in South America with more than 4,451 reported cases between 2010 and 2015 according to the Peruvian epidemiology directorate. However, little is known regarding the diversity and distribution of sand fly vectors in this region. In this study, we aimed to characterize the sand fly fauna in this endemic setting and identify sand fly species naturally infected with Leishmania possibly involved in pathogen transmission.Sand fly collections were carried out during 2014 and 2015 in the communities of Flor de Acre, Villa Primavera, Mavila and Arca Pacahuara using CDC light traps and Shannon traps. Collected specimens were identified and non-blood-fed females were selected for Leishmania infection screening using kinetoplastid DNA-PCR (kDNA-PCR and nested Real time PCR for species identification.A total of 10,897 phlebotomines belonging to the genus Lutzomyia (58 species and Brumptomyia (2 species were collected. Our study confirmed the widespread distribution and abundance of Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia spp. (24%, Lu. whitmani (19.4% and Lu. yucumensis (15.8% in the region. Analysis of Shannon diversity index indicates variability in sand fly composition across sites with Villa Primavera presenting the highest sand fly diversity and abundance. Leishmania screening by kDNA-PCR resulted in 45 positive pools collected from Flor de Acre (34 pools, Mavila (10 pools and Arca Pacahuara (1 pool and included 14 species: Lu. yucumensis, Lu. aragoi, Lu. sallesi, Lu. sherlocki, Lu. shawi, Lu. walkeri, Lu nevesi, Lu. migonei, Lu. davisi, Lu. carrerai, Lu. hirsuta, Lu. (Trichophoromyia spp., Lu. llanosmartinsi and Lu. whitmani. Lutzomyia sherlocki, Lu. walkeri and Lu. llanosmartinsi had the

  16. Distribution and identification of sand flies naturally infected with Leishmania from the Southeastern Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorrilla, Victor; De Los Santos, Maxy B.; Espada, Liz; Santos, Rocío del Pilar; Fernandez, Roberto; Urquia, Albino; Stoops, Craig A.; Ballard, Sarah-Blythe; Lescano, Andres G.; Vásquez, Gissella M.; Valdivia, Hugo O.

    2017-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an important health problem in the New World affecting civilian and military populations that are frequently exposed in endemic settings. The Peruvian region of Madre de Dios located near the border with Brazil is one of the most endemic CL regions in South America with more than 4,451 reported cases between 2010 and 2015 according to the Peruvian epidemiology directorate. However, little is known regarding the diversity and distribution of sand fly vectors in this region. In this study, we aimed to characterize the sand fly fauna in this endemic setting and identify sand fly species naturally infected with Leishmania possibly involved in pathogen transmission. Methods Sand fly collections were carried out during 2014 and 2015 in the communities of Flor de Acre, Villa Primavera, Mavila and Arca Pacahuara using CDC light traps and Shannon traps. Collected specimens were identified and non-blood-fed females were selected for Leishmania infection screening using kinetoplastid DNA-PCR (kDNA-PCR) and nested Real time PCR for species identification. Results A total of 10,897 phlebotomines belonging to the genus Lutzomyia (58 species) and Brumptomyia (2 species) were collected. Our study confirmed the widespread distribution and abundance of Lutzomyia (Trichophoromyia) spp. (24%), Lu. whitmani (19.4%) and Lu. yucumensis (15.8%) in the region. Analysis of Shannon diversity index indicates variability in sand fly composition across sites with Villa Primavera presenting the highest sand fly diversity and abundance. Leishmania screening by kDNA-PCR resulted in 45 positive pools collected from Flor de Acre (34 pools), Mavila (10 pools) and Arca Pacahuara (1 pool) and included 14 species: Lu. yucumensis, Lu. aragoi, Lu. sallesi, Lu. sherlocki, Lu. shawi, Lu. walkeri, Lu nevesi, Lu. migonei, Lu. davisi, Lu. carrerai, Lu. hirsuta, Lu. (Trichophoromyia) spp., Lu. llanosmartinsi and Lu. whitmani. Lutzomyia sherlocki, Lu. walkeri and Lu

  17. Exploration for petroleum and natural gas in Sonai Plain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, K

    1965-09-01

    Exploration in the Sonai Plain by Sekyu Shigen Kaihatsu Kabushiki Kaisha (Oil Resources Development Corporation) since 1955 is described. The development tasks are made difficult due to the presence of permeability traps. However, 41 out of 65 wells drilled up to late March of 1965 have been successful. Quantities of crude oil and natural gas produced in 1963 were, respectively, 5 and 6 times those of 1958. The Sonai Plain is a relatively new area, and there are still many unknown factors, yet the rate of development has increased greatly. More and deeper wells are expected to be drilled with even better results.

  18. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in rocks and beach sands from Ezine region (Canakkale), Western Anatolia, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orguen, Y. [Faculty of Mines, Istanbul Technical University (ITU), Ayazaga Kampusu, 34469-Istanbul (Turkey)]. E-mail: orgun@itu.edu.tr; Altinsoy, N. [Institute of Energy, Istanbul Technical University (ITU), Ayazaga Kampusu, 34469-Istanbul (Turkey); Sahin, S.Y. [Department of Geophysics, Engineering Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Guengoer, Y. [Department of Geophysics, Engineering Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul (Turkey); Gueltekin, A.H. [Faculty of Mines, Istanbul Technical University (ITU), Ayazaga Kampusu, 34469-Istanbul (Turkey); Karahan, G. [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, P.O. Box 1, Atatuerk Airport, 34149-Istanbul (Turkey); Karacik, Z. [Faculty of Mines, Istanbul Technical University (ITU), Ayazaga Kampusu, 34469-Istanbul (Turkey)

    2007-06-15

    This paper represents the first reports on the natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in Kestanbol granitic pluton and surrounding rocks, and coastal region of the Ezine town. To assess the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity, the absorbed dose rate and the external hazard index were calculated, and in situ gamma dose rates were measured. The high-activity concentrations were measured in the pluton and sands, which was originated mainly from the pluton, due to the presence of zircon, allanite, monazite, thorite, uranothorite and apatite. The average activity concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K are 174.78, 204.69 and 1171.95 Bq kg{sup -1} for pluton, and 290.36, 532.04 and 1160.75 Bq kg{sup -1} for sands, respectively. {sup 137}Cs in Ezine region ranged from 0-6.57 Bq kg{sup -1}. The average absorbed dose rate for the granitic and sand samples were calculated to be 251.6 and 527.92 nGy h{sup -1}, respectively. The maximum contribution to the total absorbed gamma dose rate in air was due to the {sup 232}Th (52.3% for pluton and 67.1% for sands). The Raeq activities of the pluton and sands are higher than the recommended maximum value of 370 Bq kg{sup -1} criterion limit of Raeq activity for building materials.

  19. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab Countries, Cameroon, Congo, Iran and Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes briefly main informations on petroleum prices and market trends, trade and contracts, exports, supply and demand, taxes. Several projects of pipelines for oil transport between Azerbaidjan and Turkey are studied. Portugal examines three options to introduce natural gas from 1996. The Counsel of Gulf Cooperation (CGC) considers the possibilities of retaliations against future energy tax in Usa and environmental tax in Common Market

  20. Laboratory Investigation of Complex Conductivity and Magnetic Susceptibility on Natural Iron Oxide Coated Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Slater, L. D.; Day-Lewis, F. D.; Briggs, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Redox reactions occurring at the oxic/anoxic interface where groundwater discharges to surface water commonly result in iron oxide deposition that coats sediment grains. With relatively large total surface area, these iron oxide coated sediments serve as a sink for sorption of dissolved contaminants, although this sink may be temporary if redox conditions fluctuate with varied flow conditions. Characterization of the distribution of iron oxides in streambed sediments could provide valuable understanding of biogeochemical reactions and the ability of a natural system to sorb contaminants. Towards developing a field methodology, we conducted laboratory spectral induced polarization (SIP) and magnetic susceptibility (MS) measurements on natural iron oxide coated sand (Fe-sand) with grain sizes ranging from 0.3 to 2.0 mm in order to assess the sensitivity of these measurements to iron oxides in sediments. The Fe-sand was also sorted by sieving into various grain sizes to study the impact of grain size on the polarization mechanisms. The unsorted Fe-sand saturated with 0.01 S/m NaCl solution exhibited a distinct phase response ( > 4 mrad) in the frequency range from 0.001 to 100 Hz whereas regular silica sand was characterized by a phase response less than 1 mrad under the same conditions. The presence of iron oxide substantially increased MS (3.08×10-3 SI) over that of regular sand ( Laboratory results demonstrated that SIP and MS may be well suited to mapping the distribution of iron oxides in streambed sediments associated with anoxic groundwater discharge.

  1. Spatial distribution and sources of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbon in the sand flats of Shuangtaizi Estuary, Bohai Sea of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolong; Yuan, Xiutang; Zhang, Anguo; Mao, Yuze; Li, Qiang; Zong, Humin; Wang, Lijun; Li, Xiaodong

    2015-06-15

    The concentrations of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in surface sediments were investigated in the sand flats of Shuangtaizi Estuary, Bohai Sea of China in May, 2013. Ecological risk assessment indicated that most heavy metals cause low ecological risk to the estuarine environment, with the exception of Cd and Hg (considerable and moderate risk, respectively). Principal component analysis in combination with correlation analysis among heavy metals, PHCs and geological factors (e.g., granularity) was used to identify possible sources of pollutants in Shuangtaizi Estuary. Results showed that the main pollution sources of the area come from anthropogenic factors, such as sewage discharge and oil exploitation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Oblique second-order sand transport pathways on an intertidal sand flat in a natural tidal inlet system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Lefebvre, Alice; Kroon, Aart

    2013-01-01

    tide, sand is transported along ESE-oriented pathways across the intertidal flat towards the inner tidal basin. During the late stages of ebb tide, sand is transported in drainage channels (WSWoriented) from the intertidal flat towards the inlet channel. During storm events with winds from SW, wave...

  3. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of shale gas, natural gas, coal, and petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Andrew; Han, Jeongwoo; Clark, Corrie E; Wang, Michael; Dunn, Jennifer B; Palou-Rivera, Ignasi

    2012-01-17

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. It has been debated whether the fugitive methane emissions during natural gas production and transmission outweigh the lower carbon dioxide emissions during combustion when compared to coal and petroleum. Using the current state of knowledge of methane emissions from shale gas, conventional natural gas, coal, and petroleum, we estimated up-to-date life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings that need to be further addressed. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than conventional natural gas, 23% lower than gasoline, and 33% lower than coal. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas. Moreover, this life-cycle analysis, among other work in this area, provides insight on critical stages that the natural gas industry and government agencies can work together on to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  4. Soil arthropod fauna from natural ecosites and reclaimed oil sands soils in northern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battigelli, J.P.; Leskiw, L.A. [Paragon Soil and Environmental Consulting Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    An understanding of soil invertebrates may facilitate current reclamation activities in the oil sands region of Alberta. This paper presented the results of a study investigating the density, diversity, and structure of soil arthropod assemblages in natural habitats and reclaimed sites. The purpose of the study was to establish a baseline inventory of soil arthropod assemblages in order to enable long-term monitoring of soil arthropod recolonization in disturbed sites. Nine natural ecosites were sampled for the study, including peat mix over secondary material over tailing sand; direct placement over tailing sand; peat mix over secondary over overburden; direct placement over overburden; peat mix over tailing sand; and peat mix over overburden. Samples were collected from previously established long-term soil and vegetation treatment plots in both natural ecosites and reclaimed soil sites located near Fort McMurray, Alberta. Results showed that densities of mesofauna were significantly higher in samples collected from natural ecosites. Acari and Collembola represented approximately 97 to 98 per cent of the fauna collected. It was also noted that the overall structure of the soil mesofauna community differed between natural soils and reclaimed soils. A significant reduction in the abundance of oribatid mites was observed in soils that had been reclaimed for over 34 years. Changes in the soil mesofauna community structure suggested that reclaimed soils continue to represent disturbed ecosites, as was indicated by higher proportions of prostigmatid mites and some collembolan families. Differences in community structure may influence soil ecosystem functions, including decomposition rates; nutrient recycling; soil structure; and fungal and bacterial biomass. It was concluded that further research is needed to examine oribatid mites and collembolan species diversity and community structure in reclaimed soils. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab countries and in Congo, Gabon, Iran, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives informations on petroleum and natural gas industry, petroleum market and prices, trade and contracts, prospection and production. In Algeria, the american company Bechtel will lay the algerian piece of the Maghreb-Europe gas pipeline. In Saudi Arabia, Agip has signed a contract for the production and the distribution of lubricating oils and programmes of 28 milliards $ are started for the development of petroleum and petrochemical industries. Petroleum production has reached in 692000 barrels per day in 1992 in Oman, 40000 barrels per day in Masila oil field (Yemen). In Kuwait, the next petroleum production for the year 1993/1994 is estimated to 1.8 million barrels per day. In Iran, petrochemical plant of Arak has been inaugurated: the plant has a capacity of 240000 tons per year for the cracking of ethylene

  6. Additive colours approach for dental ceramics translucency characteristics made from Sumatra and Java natural sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takarini, V.; Gunawan, J.; Hasratiningsih, Z.; Rudyawan, A.

    2018-04-01

    Translucency is one of dental ceramics desirable aesthetic characteristics, which can be used as an indirect restoration. Dental ceramics can also be made using Computed Aided Design/Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) unit that can create variety blocks as an ingot into a customized restoration. This paper presents the results of self-synthesized porcelain blocks generated from natural sand of Sumatera and Java Islands to promote national independency. This research aims to determine the translucency of dental ceramics made from Indonesia’s natural sand. Six samples each of two different synthesized temperatures, 1150 °C and 1200 °C, were made. To analyse translucency of the sample, their image was taken in bright light background in a black box, then additive green and blue colours histogram channel with range 0 (opaque) to 255 (transparent) were evaluated using Matlab R2015B. The result revealed that mean of green peaks on 1150 °C has an average translucency value of 41%, compared to 34% of blue peaks. Lower percentage of translucency, 31% and 25% on the green and blue channel respectively were attained in samples synthesized in 1200 °C. These suggest that 1150 °C is the optimum temperature for translucency for these ceramic samples from natural sands as they contain leucite crystals shown by the XRD analyses as a result of silica-undersaturated mixture indicated by the Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy. SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) results show remnant of air pocket in the samples sintered at higher temperature.In conclusion, natural sand from Sumatera and Java can be considered as reliable, cheap basic material options in developing self-synthesized dental ceramics with a desirable translucency. These preliminary results indicate that better balance between strength and translucency could potentially be achieved by making nano-sized dental ceramics.

  7. Physical and mechanical properties of sand stabilized by cement and natural zeolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamatpoor, Sina; Jafarian, Yaser; Hajiannia, Alborz

    2018-05-01

    Loose sands are prone to lose their shear strength when being subjected to static or cyclic loads. To this end, there exist several methods to improve the mechanical properties of sands, but the most crucial and viable approach is the one with the lowest harmful environmental impact both in production and recycling processes. In this regard, zeolite as a natural pozzolanic additive offers an eco-friendly improvement in strength parameters of cemented sandy soils. Thereby, in this study, a series of unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests are conducted to evaluate the mechanical parameters of the zeolite-cemented sand. The results demonstrate a meaningful increase in the UCS of the treated sand samples for replacement of cement by zeolite at an optimum proportion of 40% in specimens with 14 and 28 days curing time. The effectiveness of the improvement process is demonstrated by the strength improvement ratio which was up to be 128% to 209% for the samples with 14 and 28 days curing time, respectively. With regard to the above results, zeolite can be introduced as a promising cement substitute in stabilization of sandy ground including backfills, roadbed, embankments, and other structural filling systems.

  8. Apparatus for extracting petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coogan, J

    1921-01-18

    An apparatus for extracting petroleum from petroleum bearing sand or shale is described comprising a container for liquids, the container being divided into a plurality of compartments, an agitator mounted within the container and below the liquid level and having its forward end opening into one of the compartments, means for delivering sand or shale to the forward end of the agitator, means for subjecting the sand or shale to the action of a solvent for the petroleum while the sand or shale is being agitated and is submerged, the first-mentioned compartment being adapted to receive the extracted petroleum and means for removing the treated sand or shale from adjacent the rear end of the agitator.

  9. Occupational radiological aspects related to the presence of natural radionuclides at extraction and production petroleum facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matta, Luiz Ernesto Santos de Carvalho

    2001-01-01

    This work presents an evaluation of exposure to natural radiation, after samples collected at the Campos Basin region, incurred to workers involved in the actions of exploration and production of petroleum, E and P, may be submitted to. It also evaluates the national standards of controlling and registration of practices involving radioactive and nuclear material, leading to the conclusion that it is not possible to classify the practice of exploration and production of petroleum, following the controlling criteria proposed by the standards. An occupational radiological protection program is made available to be immediately applied to E and P facilities. This program intends that in spite of the high values of activity of mass unity obtained from the samples, it is possible to maintain the occupational doses to levels lower than those proposed by the Safety Series 115. Moreover, it adds that the workers must be considered as occupationally exposed and not as member of the public. A proposal of standard so that the regulatory authority may classify and control a practice of E and P petroleum is also done. (author)

  10. Using photopigment biomarkers to quantify sub-lethal effects of petroleum pollution on natural phytoplankton assemblages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swistak, J.; Pinckney, J.; Piehler, M.; Paerl, H.

    1995-01-01

    Although much work has been undertaken to determine the toxicity of petroleum pollutants to phytoplankton, most studies have used pure cultures to monitor growth of selected phytoplankton species. Fewer have considered the net effect on entire microalgal communities. Using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to characterize diagnostic microalgal pigments, the authors were able to simultaneously assess sub-lethal pollutant effects on entire communities as well as on individual phytoplankton functional groups. Incubations of natural water samples with diesel fuel, an important contributor to coastal petroleum pollution, revealed significant changes in photopigments and relative abundance of taxonomic groups at sub-lethal concentrations. Differential rates of change of indicator pigment concentrations suggest a range of sensitivity among phytoplankton groups. In preliminary experiments, cyanobacteria exhibited the greatest overall tolerance to the diesel fuel concentrations tested, while cryptomonads displayed the most sensitivity. The authors are currently evaluating the responses of seasonal phytoplankton populations from 3 sites exposed to varied levels of petroleum pollution. HPLC will be used to characterize phytoplankton populations and to determine if the most abundant groups are also the most tolerant of diesel fuel. Preliminary experiments indicate that diesel fuel pollution may modify the structure and function of phytoplankton communities and subsequently alter the trophodynamics of impacted systems

  11. Characteristics of petroleum-contaminated groundwater during natural attenuation: a case study in northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hong; Zhang, Yuling; Wang, Jiali; Si, Chaoqun; Chen, Zaixing

    2018-01-13

    The objective of this study was to investigate a petroleum-contaminated groundwater site in northeast China. We determined the physicochemical properties of groundwater that contained total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) with a view to developing a scientifically robust strategy for controlling and remediating pollution of groundwater already contaminated with petroleum. Samples were collected at regular intervals and were analyzed for dissolved oxygen (DO), iron (Fe 3+ ), sulfate (SO 4 2- ), electrical conductivity (Eh), pH, hydrogen carbonate (HCO 3 - ), and enzyme activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (HRP), catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C12O), and catechol 2,3-dioxygenase (C23O). We used factor analysis in SPSS to determine the main environmental characteristics of the groundwater samples. The results confirmed that the study site was slightly contaminated and that TPH levels were decreasing slightly. Some of the physicochemical variables showed regular fluctuations; DO, Fe 3+ , and SO 4 2- contents decreased gradually, while the concentrations of one of the microbial degradation products, HCO 3 - , increased. Microorganism enzyme activities decreased gradually. The microbiological community deteriorated noticeably during the natural attenuation process, so microbiological degradation of pollutants receded gradually. The HCO 3 - content increased and the pH and Eh decreased gradually. The groundwater environment tended to be reducing.

  12. Remediation plan for contaminated areas by naturally occurring radioactivity materials in Syrian Petroleum Company oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.; Al-Masri, M. S.; Awad, I.

    2006-01-01

    The present report contains a detailed plan for remediation of areas contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive materials in the syrian Petroleum Company Oil fields. This plan includes a description of the contaminated areas and the procedures that will be followed before and during the execution of the project in addition to the final radiation surveys according to the Syrian regulations. In addition, responsibilities of the main personnel who will carry out the work have been defined and the future monitoring program of the remediated areas was determined. (author)

  13. Remediation plan for contaminated areas by naturally occurring radioactivity materials in Syrian petroleum company oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shwekani, R.; Al-Masri, M.S.; Awad, I.

    2005-08-01

    The present report contains a detailed plan for remediation of areas contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive materials in the Syrian petroleum company oil fields. This plan includes a description of the contaminated areas and the procedures that will be followed before and during the execution of the project in addition to the final radiation surveys according to the Syrian regulations. In addition, responsibilities of the main personnel who will carry out the work have been defined and the future monitoring program of the remediated areas was determined. (author)

  14. Profiling oil sands mixtures from industrial developments and natural groundwaters for source identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Richard A; Roy, James W; Bickerton, Greg; Rowland, Steve J; Headley, John V; Scarlett, Alan G; West, Charles E; Peru, Kerry M; Parrott, Joanne L; Conly, F Malcolm; Hewitt, L Mark

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify chemical components that could distinguish chemical mixtures in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) that had potentially migrated to groundwater in the oil sands development area of northern Alberta, Canada. In the first part of the study, OSPW samples from two different tailings ponds and a broad range of natural groundwater samples were assessed with historically employed techniques as Level-1 analyses, including geochemistry, total concentrations of naphthenic acids (NAs) and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS). While these analyses did not allow for reliable source differentiation, they did identify samples containing significant concentrations of oil sands acid-extractable organics (AEOs). In applying Level-2 profiling analyses using electrospray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS) and comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOF/MS) to samples containing appreciable AEO concentrations, differentiation of natural from OSPW sources was apparent through measurements of O2:O4 ion class ratios (ESI-HRMS) and diagnostic ions for two families of suspected monoaromatic acids (GC × GC-TOF/MS). The resemblance between the AEO profiles from OSPW and from 6 groundwater samples adjacent to two tailings ponds implies a common source, supporting the use of these complimentary analyses for source identification. These samples included two of upward flowing groundwater collected <1 m beneath the Athabasca River, suggesting OSPW-affected groundwater is reaching the river system.

  15. Naturally infected Lutzomyia sand flies in a Leishmania-endemic area of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gustavo M L; Andrade Filho, Jose D; Falcao, Alda L; Rocha Lima, Ana C V M; Gontijo, Celia M F

    2008-06-01

    In Brazil, Leishmania transmission involves several species of phlebotomine sand flies that are closely associated with different parasites and reservoirs, giving rise to different transmission cycles. The present study focused on naturally infected phlebotomines originating from Santa Luzia, a municipality near Belo Horizonte, capital of the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, in which leishmaniasis are endemic. Systematic and non systematic approaches,involving the use of light traps and direct aspiration from resting sites, respectively, were used to collect females and flies. Identification of the captured insects and determination of natural infection by Leishmania spp. were performed using both conventional dissection methods and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The dissection of 102 sand flies allowed five species of Lutzomyia to be identified, although no flagellate parasite forms were observed.In addition, 211 sand flies were identified, were separated according to species, and were combined into 11 pools of up to 20 individuals each. PCR analyses showed that two of these pools were infected with Leishmania:one pool of Lu. whitmani was infected with Le. (Viannia) spp. and another of Lu. cortelezzii was infected with Le. chagasi. This suggests that Lu. whitmani may be a possible vector of Leishmania in the study area, and more work needs to be performed to assess the role of Lu. cortelezzii as a vector.

  16. Natural gas domestic market development for total elimination of routine flares in Nigeria's upstream petroleum operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonibare, J.A.; Akeredolu, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Several research findings confirmed that gaseous emissions and thermal radiation emanate from flaring activities during separation of oil from gas in the petroleum upstream operations. This, coupled with identified degradation potential of flares, makes flaring of about 71 million m 3 /day of associated gas a great concern. In this paper, several efforts hitherto made by government and organized private sectors at monetizing associated natural gas being flared on daily basis in Nigeria were reviewed. Domestic market development, if adopted, could eliminate routine gas flaring by 2008, meeting a goal set by Nigerian Government. Various scenarios considered showed that relatively minor amounts of natural gas could be consumed domestically for cooking; the balance would be absorbed by thermal electricity generation. It could lead to total consumption of between 92 and 140 million m 3 /day of natural gas in the country, representing a fraction of the domestic energy market

  17. New generation expandable sand screens

    OpenAIRE

    Syltøy, Christer

    2014-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum engineering This thesis aims to give a general insight into sand control and various sorts of sand control measures and applications of sand control tools. Special focus will be given to expandable sand screens – a technology which came about in the late 1990’s through the use of flexible, expandable tubulars as base pipe in sand screens. More specifically Darcy’s Hydraulic Endurance Screens, a compliant sand screen system using hydraulic activation, and the fu...

  18. Natural and human controls of the Holocene evolution of the beach, aeolian sand and dunes of Caesarea (Israel)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskin, J.; Sivan, D.; Shtienberg, G.; Roskin, E.; Porat, N.; Bookman, R.

    2015-12-01

    The study focuses on the Holocene appearance, chronology and drivers of beach sand deposition and inland aeolian sand transport around the Roman-Byzantine ruins of Caesarea, Israel. Beach sand, sand sheets, nebkha, linear and transverse dunes as well as parabolic and transverse interdunes along two transects were sampled in the current study down to their substrate. Sixteen new optically stimulated luminescence ages cluster at ∼5.9-3.3 ka, ∼1.2-1.1 ka (800-900 AD) and ∼190-120 years ago (1825-1895 AD) indicating times of middle and late Holocene sand sheet depositions and historical dune stabilization. The first age cluster indicates that beach sand accumulated when rates of global sea level rise declined around 6-5 ka. Until ∼4 ka sand sheets encroached up to 2.5 km inland. Historical and archaeological evidence points to sand mobilization since the first century AD. Sand sheets dating to 1.2-1.1 ka, coevally found throughout the dunefield represent sand stabilization due to vegetation reestablishment attributed to gradual and fluctuating decline in human activity from the middle Early Islamic period until the 10th century. Historical and chronological evidence of the existence of transverse and coppice dunes from the 19th century suggest that dunes only formed in the last few centuries. The study illustrates the initial role of natural processes, in this case decline in global sea level rise and the primary and later role of fluctuating human activity upon coastal sand mobility. The study distinguishes between sand sheets and dunes and portrays them as sensors of environmental changes.

  19. Natural attenuation of petroleum hydrocarbons-a study of biodegradation effects in groundwater (Vitanovac, Serbia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marić, Nenad; Matić, Ivan; Papić, Petar; Beškoski, Vladimir P; Ilić, Mila; Gojgić-Cvijović, Gordana; Miletić, Srđan; Nikić, Zoran; Vrvić, Miroslav M

    2018-01-20

    The role of natural attenuation processes in groundwater contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is of intense scientific and practical interest. This study provides insight into the biodegradation effects in groundwater at a site contaminated by kerosene (jet fuel) in 1993 (Vitanovac, Serbia). Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), hydrochemical indicators (O 2 , NO 3 - , Mn, Fe, SO 4 2- , HCO 3 - ), δ 13 C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and other parameters were measured to demonstrate biodegradation effects in groundwater at the contaminated site. Due to different biodegradation mechanisms, the zone of the lowest concentrations of electron acceptors and the zone of the highest concentrations of metabolic products of biodegradation overlap. Based on the analysis of redox-sensitive compounds in groundwater samples, redox processes ranged from strictly anoxic (methanogenesis) to oxic (oxygen reduction) within a short distance. The dependence of groundwater redox conditions on the distance from the source of contamination was observed. δ 13 C values of DIC ranged from - 15.83 to - 2.75‰, and the most positive values correspond to the zone under anaerobic and methanogenic conditions. Overall, results obtained provide clear evidence on the effects of natural attenuation processes-the activity of biodegradation mechanisms in field conditions.

  20. Distribution of natural radionuclides in soils and beach sands of Abana-Çatalzeytin (Kastamonu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnaz, Aslı, E-mail: akurnaz@kastamonu.edu.tr; Özcan, Murat, E-mail: murat-ozcan@kastamonu.edu.tr; Çetiner, M. Atıf, E-mail: macetiner@kastamonu.edu.tr [Kastamonu University, Arts and Sciences Faculty, Department of Physics, Kastamonu (Turkey)

    2016-03-25

    A gamma spectrometric study of distribution of natural radionuclides in soil and beach sand samples collected from the terrestrial and coastal environment of Abana and Çatalzeytin counties of Kastamonu Province in Turkey was performed with the aim of estimating the radiation hazard of the tourist area and the concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were determined. The activity concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were determined in the ranges 14.95–56.0, 46.5–99.4 and 357.5–871.3 Bqkg{sup −1} for soil samples and the mean concentrations were ascertained as 42.34, 71.24 and 624.18 Bqkg{sup −1}, respectively. In sand samples, {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K contents were varied in the ranges of 13.35-41.6, 30.9-53.4 and 275.5-601.3 Bqkg{sup −1} and the mean concentrations were ascertained as 20.57, 45.05 and 411.71 Bqkg{sup −1}, respectively. The mean annual effective doses were calculated as 113.08 and 69.16 µSvy{sup −1} for the soil and sand samples, respectively.

  1. Viability of natural attenuation in a petroleum-contaminated shallow sandy aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Yong Lee; Kang Kun Lee

    2003-01-01

    This study focused on evaluating and quantifying the potential of natural attenuation of groundwater at a petroleum-contaminated site in an industrial area of a satellite city of Seoul, Korea. Groundwater at the study site was contaminated with toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (TEX). Eight rounds of groundwater sampling and subsequent chemical analyses were performed over a period of 3 years. The groundwater quality data suggest that TEX concentrations at this site have been decreasing with time and that the TEX plume is at a quasi-steady state. Trend analysis, changes in mass flux and plume area also confirmed that the TEX plume has reached a quasi-steady state. The proportion of the total attenuation attributable to biodegradation has decreased over the monitoring period while contribution of other attenuation processes, such as dilution or dispersion, has increased. Based on the calculated attenuation rates, it would take more than 20 years to clean up the site by natural attenuation alone. (author)

  2. Preparation and Characterization of Microfiltration Ceramic Membranes Based on Natural Quartz Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Ivanets

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of phase and chemical composition of natural quartz sand, binder and burnable additives was studied. The conditions of application of the membrane and biocide layers on the formation of porous ceramic and microfiltration membranes were investigated. It is shown that a crystalline oxide of Si(IV is determinant for obtaining the ceramic materials. The presence of carbonates (calcite, dolomite, aragonite, etc. and crystalline aluminosilicates (microcline, albite, phlogopit, etc. leads to a decrease in mechanical strength of ceramics. The biocide coating designed to protect the ceramic membrane surfaces from biofouling was applied and its anti-bacterial activity was shown.

  3. Natural radioactivity in sand beaches of Guarapari, Espirito Santo state, Brazil: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, Danilo C.; Pereira, Claubia; Oliveira, Arno H.; Santos, Talita O.; Reis, Patricia L.

    2011-01-01

    Using gamma ray spectrometry, the activity concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K was determined in sand beaches samples from different areas in Guarapari, Espirito Santo state, from Brazil. The absorbed dose rates and annual effective dose were calculated and the results are compared with the internationally accepted values as well as others high background radiation areas (HBRAs).The activity concentration of the 232 Th in Areia Preta as well as the absorbed dose rates and annual effective dose were higher than the others regions compared. The results show that Areia Preta in Guarapari has higher background found in beaches in world. (author)

  4. Bringing Context to the Oil Sands Debate: understanding the role of nature versus man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, J.; Gibson, J. J.; Birks, S. J.; YI, Y.; Jasechko, S.; Moncur, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Canadian oil sands represent an important resource to the national economy, and a strategic supply-line to the United States of America. These hydrocarbon deposits reside beneath a vast area in northern Alberta, and have been exposed to the environment for millennia as a result of erosion by the Athabasca River and its tributaries. Further complexity to the geochemical setting occurs due to the existence of faulted pathways extending from deeper, highly saline, Devonian intervals to surface. Situated within this natural setting are large waste management structures used to contain mine tailings and oil sands produced water. Many of these structures are situated in close proximity to aquatic receptors and have the potential to affect local water quality due to seepage losses. As such, these structures are coming under increasing scrutiny as a potential source of environmental impact. Discharge of oil sands contaminants to the rivers, and the accumulation of these materials in the Peace-Athabasca Delta, has been cited as a factor leading to adverse health effects at downstream communities. However, the role that natural discharge of contaminants plays has never been fully acknowledged. To address this critical gap, a reconnaissance of the Athabasca River was conducted. Areas of elevated terrain conductivity (detected by EM31 survey) were identified both in background locations and areas suspected of industrial releases. Water samples were collected from various sites and from multiple depth intervals (up to 3 m) within the hyporheic zone of the river sediments. This was achieved using drive-point wells. Each sample was then analyzed for a comprehensive suite of parameters including: i) major ions; ii) dissolved trace elements; iii) dissolved organics; and iv) selected stable and radiogenic isotopes. Results of the investigation identified large areas (in excess of 10km) of groundwater discharge to the Athabasca River well outside the influence of oil sands

  5. Safe Management of natural Occurring radionuclides Materials (NORM) from Petroleum Industry in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hussany, B.S.

    2015-01-01

    The isolation of radioactive waste from the environment becomes a real problem need to solve in the last half century. Waste management system is created for safe isolation of the waste. Radioactive waste management including all activities, administrative and operational, That are involved in the handling, conditioning, transport, storage and disposal of radioactive wastes. In petroleum and gas industries there are many wastes containing natural occurring radioactive waste (NORM). The concentration of NORM is increased during the different processes. Accumulation of NORM in these areas makes hazard effects on the workers and on the environment. In Egypt, there are many oil and gas industries in different areas of the republic. Most of these exploration sites containing large amounts of NORM waste. The management of this waste is remained unclear for many companies. Some companies have storage designs for the waste. Others are stored the waste on the working site on land without barriers. Additionally final destination of these wastes is not decided. The improper management of this waste lead to hazard effects to workers in the present time and to public in the future. The present work studies the NORM waste management, from petroleum industry, in Egypt. Strategy of NORM is proposed. NORM waste management steps (system) is also proposed, Incineration and deoiling processes for the treatment of NORM waste are compered. Also in this study, human intrusion scenarios were studied for two NORM storage designs, A) above-ground and B) under-ground bunkers

  6. Field Investigation of Natural Attenuation of a Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Aquifer, Gyeonggi Province, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Lee, K.; Bae, G.

    2004-12-01

    In remediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated aquifer, natural attenuation may be significant as a remedial alternative. Therefore, natural attenuation should be investigated in the field in order to effectively design and evaluate the remediation strategy at the contaminated site. This study focused on evaluating the natural attenuation for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) at a contaminated site in South Korea. At the study site, the aquifer is composed of a high permeable gravel layer and relatively low permeable sandy-silt layers. Groundwater level vertically fluctuated between 1m and 2m throughout the year (April, 2003~June, 2004) and showed direct response to rainfall events. Chemical analyses of sampled groundwater were performed to investigate the concentrations of various chemical species which are associated with the natural attenuation processes. To evaluate the degree of the biodegradation, the expressed biodegradation capacity (EBC) analysis was done using aerobic respiration, nitrate reduction, manganese reduction, ferric iron reduction, and sulfate reduction as an indicator. High EBC value of sulfate indicate that anaerobic biodegradation by sulfate reduction was a dominant process of mineralization of BTEX at this site. The EBC values decrease sensitively when heavy rainfall occurs due to the dilution and inflow of electron acceptors through a gravel layer. The first-order biodegradation rates of BTEX were estimated by means of the Buscheck and Alcantar method (1995). Results show that the natural attenuation rate of benzene was the highest among the BTEX.

  7. Natural radiation in mineral sands deposits in Vietnam and problem of radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Bui Van; Duong, Pham Van; Dien, Pham Quang; Quang, Nguyen Hao

    1993-01-01

    There are about 40 mineral sands deposits located along the Vietnamese coast between Binh Ngoc in the North to Vung Tau in the South of the country. Most of them are being exploited for both, domestic and foreign markets. It has been assessed that the natural gamma background levels over the deposits vary between 0.2 to over 10μGy/h. This wide range indicates that the level of naturally occurring radioactivity in the deposits will warrant its further investigations due to the likelihood of an occurrence of elevated radioactivity levels in mineral processing plants. This paper presents results of the following preliminary investigations: determinations of U and Th concentrations in mineral sands ore samples from several deposits, and determinations of U and Th concentrations in various ilmenite concentrate fractions and secondary separation tailings from Ha Tinh province. The radioactivity levels in the heavy minerals and the labour intensive mineral separation technology currently applied will warrant closer attention to be paid to mineral processing and waste handling in order to improve both, occupational and environmental radiological aspects of the operations. 4 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  8. Determination of Natural Radioactivity in the North East Beach Sands of Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randriamora, T.H.; Razafindramiandra, H.A.; Raoelina Andraimbololona; Ravelomanantsoa, S.D.; Ralaivelo, M.A.L.; Rasolonirina, M.; Zafimanjato, J. L. R.; Randriantseheno, H.F.

    2017-01-01

    Exploration and exploitation of radioactive ores (ilmenite, zircon and monazite) are considered as the main source of exposure to ionizing radiation of the population living in the coast of Analanjorofo Region (Fenerive-Est Districts, Rural municipality Ampasimbe Manantsatrana). Radioactivity measurements have been performed in this region. The distribution of natural radionuclide gamma-emitters ( 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K) and their respective annual effective dose rates have been determined for sand(s), water and air. The samples have been collected along and around the coast of the region. The radiation emitted from the natural radionuclide containing in the environmental samples has been determined by gamma spectrometry system and Radon meter (SARAD). Exposure dose rates at 1 m above the ground have been measured along the coast and in the villages around the exploitation sites. Dose rate measurements have been performed by Dosimeter Graetz X5DE, equipped of Geiger Muller Counter. Results have been compared with the reference values provided by IAEA (BSS 115) and UNSCEAR 2000.

  9. Assessment of radiological problems due to natural radionuclides, in units of exploration and production of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matta, Luiz E.S.C.; Godoy, Jose M.O.; Reis, Maria C.D.; Pinto, Renato S.M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the study of the occurrence of technologically enhanced natural radioactive material in petroleum offshore platforms of Campos Basin. The material found in drums that came from the platforms and scales from production tubes were analyzed for characterization and determination of its specific activity. There were made measurement of the dose rate in several platforms and radon concentration in onshore and offshore facilities. The results were compared with limits of the Brazilian legislation and international recommendations and actions were proposed to be implemented to assure the workers and environment protection. The results show that with the adequate actions the workers will not receive exposures above the public limits according international recommendations. (author)

  10. Natural radioactivity in sand used in thermal therapy at the Red Sea Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Arabi, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The development of climatotherapy in Safaga opens the field of medical tourism in Egypt, in order to detect any harmful radiation that would affect the patients during treatment and is becoming important economic resource. Studies and survey of natural radiation and radioactivity in upper Egypt conducted since 1990, included monitoring of the concentration of natural radionuclides in environmental samples. The results of the study reveals that, for all sand samples, the mean activity concentration of 40 K (618 ± 122-548 ± 82 Bq kg -1 ) are much higher than that of both 226 Ra (25.3 ± 14-20.6 ± 10 Bq kg -1 ) and 232 Th (21.4 ± 10-22.4 ± 10 Bq kg -1 ). Different radiation hazard indices were calculated, the radiation dose to which workers are subjected is not negligible (26.5-50.9 nGy h -1 ), although depending on the inhalation of dust

  11. Energy poker. How petroleum and natural gas influence the world economy; Der Energiepoker. Wie Erdoel und Erdgas die Weltwirtschaft beeinflussen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneissl, K.

    2006-07-01

    Petroleum, coal and natural gas are dominating the energy market. All three of these fossil fuels are in short supply and thus costly. Geopolitical restrictions, speculations and market psychology define the energy market just as much as the law of supply and demand. Threshold countries like India and China with their rapidly increasing energy demand will bring about a dramatic price crisis already in the very near future. Since as long as 20 years ago, energy consumption worldwide is higher than the volume of newly developed petroleum deposits. This shortage causes problems that will have to be solved by industry and politics within the next few decades as the supply shortage is very dangerous for the international political balance. The author, Dr. Karin Kneissl, takes the reader into the world of energy markets. Interdependences between geopolitics, petroleum, natural gas and industry are explained in detail, and thre reader is given valuable aid in making his own decisions. (orig.)

  12. Natural radioactivity measurements in beach sand along the South East coast of Tamil Nadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, B.S.; Vijayakumar, B.; Ravi, P.M.

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of natural radioactivity in beach sand was carried out along the south east coast of Tamil Nadu, India, The activity concentrations of "2"3"8U, "2"3"2Th and "4"0K in beach sand ranged from 2 to 2,762 Bqkg"-"1 with a mean value of 236 Bq.kg"-"1, 7 to 30,872 Bqkg"-"1 with a mean value of 2,300 Bqkg"-"1 and 6.0 to 890 Bqkg"-"1 with a mean value of 85 Bqkg"-"1, respectively. The Radium Equivalent Activity, the external hazard index, the absorbed dose rate and the annual effective dose were assessed and compared with world average values. The results indicate that the absorbed dose rates range from 10 to 20506 nGyh"-"1 with mean value of 1545 nGy.h"-"1. The annual effective dose range between 0.01 and 25.15 mSvy"-"1, with the mean value of 1.90 mSvy"-"1. (author)

  13. Natural radioactivity dose assessment in beach sands of the Espírito Santo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontainha, C.C.P.; Santos, T.O.; Aguilar, V.J.C.; Takahashia, L.C.

    2017-01-01

    The presence of natural radionuclide contributes significantly to the environmental dose levels that the human being receives, being important to be aware of the distribution, composition and the background of these soils. In this work, the activity concentration of the natural radionuclides was determined by gamma spectrometry from the sands of eight beach from Anchieta e Guarapari, in the Espírito Santo, Brazil. The activity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K was expressed by radio equivalent activity (R aeq ), which takes into account the associated radiological risk. From these data, the annual effective dose rate for external environment (H eout ) and the radiation risk indexes (H ex ) were calculated. In the sands of Além, Coninhos, Onça, Três Praias, Morcego and Padres beaches the R aeq values ranged from 771.9 to 8743.3 Bq.kg -1 , while H ex ranged from 1.0 to 11.4 Bq.kg -1 and H eout ranged from 0.6 to 6.0 mSv.year -1 , with the lowest values being from Além and the larger ones from Padres. The Areia Vermelha beach presented higher values the others, with R aeq of 152.6 kBq.kg -1 , H ex of 2.1 Bq.kg -1 and H eout 1.0 Sv.year -1 . This evaluation is a favorable tool for radiological protection because it allows to chart the natural radioactivity to the coast of Espírito Santo, Brazil. (author)

  14. Natural radioactivity dose assessment in beach sands of the Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontainha, C.C.P.; Santos, T.O.; Aguilar, V.J.C.; Takahashia, L.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Anatomia e Imagem; Rocha, Z., E-mail: crissia@gmail.com [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The presence of natural radionuclide contributes significantly to the environmental dose levels that the human being receives, being important to be aware of the distribution, composition and the background of these soils. In this work, the activity concentration of the natural radionuclides was determined by gamma spectrometry from the sands of eight beach from Anchieta e Guarapari, in the Espírito Santo, Brazil. The activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K was expressed by radio equivalent activity (R{sub aeq}), which takes into account the associated radiological risk. From these data, the annual effective dose rate for external environment (H{sub eout}) and the radiation risk indexes (H{sub ex}) were calculated. In the sands of Além, Coninhos, Onça, Três Praias, Morcego and Padres beaches the R{sub aeq} values ranged from 771.9 to 8743.3 Bq.kg{sup -1}, while H{sub ex} ranged from 1.0 to 11.4 Bq.kg{sup -1} and H{sub eout} ranged from 0.6 to 6.0 mSv.year{sup -1}, with the lowest values being from Além and the larger ones from Padres. The Areia Vermelha beach presented higher values the others, with R{sub aeq} of 152.6 kBq.kg{sup -1}, H{sub ex} of 2.1 Bq.kg{sup -1} and H{sub eout} 1.0 Sv.year{sup -1}. This evaluation is a favorable tool for radiological protection because it allows to chart the natural radioactivity to the coast of Espírito Santo, Brazil. (author)

  15. Viability of natural attenuation in a petroleum-contaminated shallow sandy aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin-Yong; Lee, Kang-Kun

    2003-01-01

    More than 20 years would be required to clean up the site by natural attenuation alone. - This study focused on evaluating and quantifying the potential of natural attenuation of groundwater at a petroleum-contaminated site in an industrial area of a satellite city of Seoul, Korea. Groundwater at the study site was contaminated with toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (TEX). Eight rounds of groundwater sampling and subsequent chemical analyses were performed over a period of 3 years. The groundwater quality data suggest that TEX concentrations at this site have been decreasing with time and that the TEX plume is at a quasi-steady state. Trend analysis, changes in mass flux and plume area also confirmed that the TEX plume has reached a quasi-steady state. The proportion of the total attenuation attributable to biodegradation has decreased over the monitoring period while contribution of other attenuation processes, such as dilution or dispersion, has increased. Based on the calculated attenuation rates, it would take more than 20 years to clean up the site by natural attenuation alone

  16. The requirements of the petroleum and natural gas industries; Contraintes de l'industrie petroliere et gaziere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Brun, S.; Gombart, G.

    2010-09-15

    Never the European petroleum and natural gas industries have had to take up so many challenges: a vital need of new technologies to maintain and increase the reserves, to exploit them, to protect the environment, to save energy, and to apprehend the world geopolitics. (O.M.)

  17. RE: Request for Correction, Technical Support Document, Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting from the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Industrial Energy Consumers of America (IECA) joins the U.S. Chamber of Commerce in its request for correction of information developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in a background technical support document titled Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting from the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry

  18. Natural infections of man-biting sand flies by Leishmania and Trypanosoma species in the northern Peruvian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Hirotomo; Gomez, Eduardo A; Cáceres, Abraham G; Vargas, Franklin; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Yamamoto, Kento; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Korenaga, Masataka; Velez, Lenin; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2011-05-01

    The natural infection of sand flies by Leishmania species was studied in the Andean areas of Peru where cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana is endemic. Sand flies were captured by human bait and Center for Disease Control (CDC) light trap catches at Nambuque and Padregual, Department of La Libertad, Peru, and morphologically identified. Among 377 female sand flies dissected, the two dominant man-biting species were Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) peruensis (211 flies) and Lutzomyia (Helcocyrtomyia) caballeroi (151 flies). Another sand fly species captured by light trap was Warileya phlebotomanica (15 flies). The natural infection of sand flies by flagellates was detected in 1.4% of Lu. (H.) peruensis and 2.6% of Lu. (H.) caballeroi, and the parasite species were identified as Le. (V.) peruviana and Trypanosoma avium, respectively, by molecular biological methods. The results indicated that the vector species responsible for the transmission of leishmaniasis in the study areas is Lu. (H.) peruensis. In addition, the presence of Trypanosoma in man-biting sand fly species means that more careful consideration is necessary for vector research in areas of Andean Peru where leishmaniasis is endemic.

  19. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab countries, Iran, Ethiopia, Nigeria and Somalia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes briefly main informations on petroleum prices and market trends, trade and contracts, petroleum exploration and new discovery in Algeria and Libya, birth of a joint venture for the building of a gas pipeline between Ukraine and Europe. The building of another pipeline, between Algeria and Europe, will begin in April 1993. Several agreements for oil and gas fields development in Qatar, Egypt, Yemen, United Arab Emirates have been signed. Petroleum industry has criticized energy taxing project in Usa

  20. Mobility of nanosized cerium dioxide and polymeric capsules in quartz and loamy sands saturated with model and natural groundwaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petosa, Adamo Riccardo; Ohl, Carolin; Rajput, Faraz; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2013-10-01

    The environmental and health risks posed by emerging engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) released into aquatic environments are largely dependent on their aggregation, transport, and deposition behavior. Herein, laboratory-scale columns were used to examine the mobility of polyacrylic acid (PAA)-coated cerium dioxide nanoparticles (nCeO2) and an analogous nanosized polymeric capsule (nCAP) in water saturated quartz sand or loamy sand. The influence of solution ionic strength (IS) and cation type (Na(+), Ca(2+), or Mg(2+)) on the transport potential of these ENPs was examined in both granular matrices and results were also compared to measurements obtained using a natural groundwater. ENP suspensions were characterized using dynamic light scattering and nanoparticle tracking analysis to establish aggregate size, and laser Doppler electrophoresis to determine ENP electrophoretic mobility. Regardless of IS, virtually all nCeO2 particles suspended in NaNO3 eluted from the quartz sand-packed columns. In contrast, heightened nCeO2 and nCAP particle retention and dynamic (time-dependent) transport behavior was observed with increasing concentrations of the divalent salts and in the presence of natural groundwater. Enhanced particle retention was also observed in loamy sand in comparison to the quartz sand, emphasizing the need to consider the nature of the aqueous matrix and granular medium in evaluating contamination risks associated with the release of ENPs in natural and engineered aquatic environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization and removal of natural organic matter from slow sand filter effluent followed by alum coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayah, Euis Nurul; Chou, Yung-Chen; Yeh, Hsuan-Hsien

    2018-03-01

    Characterization and removal of natural organic matter, which is contained in the effluent of slow sand filters, was observed by alum coagulation under various dosages. In addition to non-purgedable dissolved organic carbon (NPDOC), trihalomethanes formation potential (THMFP) and haloacetic acid formation potential (HAAFP) measurement, high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) with ultraviolet/visible and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) detectors was used to characterize the various organic fractions contained in the water before and after coagulation. The results show that alum coagulation could effectively remove hydrophobic aromatic, which forms mainly humic substances. The reduction in THMFP was found to be higher than that of NPDOC and HAAFP under specific alum dosage, and the former was also found to be proportional to the corresponding reduction in the area of hydrophobic aromatic fraction, mostly humic subtances, as obtained from HPSEC chromatogram with peak-fitting.

  2. Intrinsic bacterial biodegradation of petroleum contamination demonstrated in situ using natural abundance, molecular-level 14C analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slater, G.F.; Nelson, R.K.; Kile, B.M.; Reddy, C.M.

    2006-01-01

    Natural abundance, molecular-level C 14 analysis was combined with comprehensive gas chromatography (GC x GC) to investigate, in situ, the role of intrinsic biodegradation in the loss of petroleum hydrocarbons from the rocky, inter-tidal zone impacted by the Bouchard 120 oil spill. GC x GC analysis indicated accelerated losses of n-alkane components of the residual petroleum hydrocarbons between day 40 and day 50 after the spill. 14 C analysis of bacterial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) from the impacted zone on day 44 showed that the polyunsaturated fatty acids attributed to the photoautotrophic component of the microbial community had the same ( 14 C as the local dissolved inorganic carbon (DIG), indicating that this DIG was their carbon source. In contrast there was significant (C depletion in the saturated and mono-unsaturated PLFA indicating incorporation of petroleum carbon. This correlation between the observed accelerated n-alkane losses and microbial incorporation of (C-depleted carbon directly demonstrated, in situ, that intrinsic biodegradation was affecting the petroleum. Since the majority of organic contaminants originate from petroleum feed-stocks, in situ molecular-level 14 C analysis of microbial PLFA can provide insights into the occurrence and pathways of biodegradation of a wide range of organic contaminants. (Author)

  3. Sulfur isotope in nature. Determination of sulfur isotope ratios in coal and petroleum by mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derda, M.

    1999-01-01

    Elementary sulfur or in chemical compounds is one of the elements widespread in the earth's crust and biosphere. Its participation in earth's crust amounts to 0.26 % by weight. Measurement of isotope composition of natural samples can deliver many information about origin, creation and transformation ranges of rocks and minerals. Sulfur isotope ratio contained in minerals is variable and for this reason investigation of isotope sulfur composition can deliver useful information about the geochemistry of each component. Therefore in the investigated sample it is necessary to determine not only the content of sulfur but also the isotope composition of each component. Differentiation of contents of sulfur-34 in natural sulfur compounds can reach up to 110 per mile. So large divergences can be explained by a kinetic effect or by bacterial reduction of sulphates. In this report a wide review of the results of investigations of isotope sulfur compositions in coal and petroleum are presented as well as the methods for the preparation of samples for mass spectrometry analysis are proposed. (author)

  4. Natural gas in 1927: Petroleum in 1927: The oil and gas fields of Ontario. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, R B

    1930-12-31

    This annual report presents figures for gas consumption in Ontario, gas wells and their production, and leakage. It includes licenses issued for the year and logs of wells. Information is also given on oil production in Ontario, petroleum refining and petroleum imported into Ontario.

  5. Groundwater contamination and natural attenuation capacity at a petroleum spilled facility in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hyun-Mi Choi; Jin-Yong Lee

    2011-01-01

    As a remedial option,the natural attenuation capacity of a petroleum contaminated groundwater at a military facility was examined.Hydrogeological conditions,such as high water level,permeable uppermost layer and frequent heavy rainfall,were favorable to natural attenuation at this site.The changes in the concentrations of electron acceptors and donors,as well as the relevant hydrochemical conditions,indicated the occurrence of aerobic respiration,denitrification,iron reduction,manganese reduction and sulfate reduction.The calculated BTEX expressed biodegradation capacity ranged between 20.52 and 33.67 mg/L,which appeared effective for the reduction of the contaminants levels.The contribution of each electron accepting process to the total biodegradation was in the order:denitrification > iron reduction > sulfate reduction > aerobic respiration > manganese reduction.The BTEX and benzene point attenuation rates were 0.0058-0.0064 and 0.0005-0.0032 day-1,respectively,and the remediation time was 0.7-1.2 and 2.5-30 years,respectively.The BTEX and benzene bulk attenuation rates were 8.69 × 10-4 and 1.05 × 10-3 day-1,respectively,and the remediation times for BTEX and benzene were 7.2 and 17.5 years,respectively.However,most of the natural attenuation occurring in this site can be attributed to dilution and dispersion.Consequently,the biodegradation and natural attenuation capacities were good enough to lower the contaminants levels,but their rates appeared to be insufficient to reach the remediation goal within a reasonable time frame.Therefore,some active remedial measures would be required.

  6. The Effects of Substitution of The Natural Sand by Steel Slag in The Properties of Eco-Friendly Concrete with The 1:2:3 Ratio Mixing Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, A.; Saputro, I. N.

    2018-03-01

    This study was motivated by the need for the development of eco-friendly concrete, and the use of large quantities of steel slag as an industrial waste which is generated from the steel manufacturers. This eco-friendly concrete was developed with steel slag as a substitute for natural sand. Properties of concrete which used waste slag as the fine aggregate with the 1 cement: 2 sand : 3 coarse aggregate ratio mixing method were examined. That ratio was in volume. Then a part of natural sand replaced with steel slag sand in six variations percentages that were 0 %, 20 %, 40 %, 60 %, 80 % and 100 %. The compressive strength, tensile strength, and flexural strength of concrete specimens were determined after curing for 28 days. The research results demonstrate that waste steel slag can increase the performance of concrete. The optimal percentage substitution natural sand by steel slag sand reached of slag on the percentage of 20 % which reached strength ratios of steel slag concrete to the strength of conventional concrete with natural sandstone were 1.37 for compressive strength and 1.13 for flexural strength. While the tensile strength reached a higher ratio of concrete with steel slag sand to the concrete with natural sand on the 80% substitution of natural sand with steel slag sand.

  7. The Transcriptome of Leishmania major Developmental Stages in Their Natural Sand Fly Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbar, Ehud; Hughitt, V Keith; Dillon, Laura A L; Ghosh, Kashinath; El-Sayed, Najib M; Sacks, David L

    2017-04-04

    The life cycle of the Leishmania parasite in the sand fly vector involves differentiation into several distinctive forms, each thought to represent an adaptation to specific microenvironments in the midgut of the fly. Based on transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) results, we describe the first high-resolution analysis of the transcriptome dynamics of four distinct stages of Leishmania major as they develop in a natural vector, Phlebotomus duboscqi The early transformation from tissue amastigotes to procyclic promastigotes in the blood-fed midgut was accompanied by the greatest number of differentially expressed genes, including the downregulation of amastins, and upregulation of multiple cell surface proteins, sugar and amino acid transporters, and genes related to glucose metabolism and cell cycle progression. The global changes accompanying post-blood meal differentiation of procyclic promastigotes to the nectomonad and metacyclic stages were less extensive, though each displayed a unique signature. The transcriptome of nectomonads, which has not been studied previously, revealed changes consistent with cell cycle arrest and the upregulation of genes associated with starvation and stress, including autophagic pathways of protein recycling. Maturation to the infective, metacyclic stage was accompanied by changes suggesting preadaptation to the intracellular environment of the mammalian host, demonstrated by the amastigote-like profiles of surface proteins and metabolism-related genes. Finally, a direct comparison between sand fly-derived and culture-derived metacyclics revealed a reassuring similarity between the two forms, with the in vivo forms distinguished mainly by a stronger upregulation of transcripts associated with nutrient stress. IMPORTANCE The life cycle of Leishmania parasites in the sand fly vector includes their growth and development as morphologically distinct forms of extracellular promastigotes found within the different microenvironments of the

  8. Simulation of petroleum recovery in naturally fractured reservoirs: physical process representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paiva, Hernani P.; Miranda Filho, Daniel N. de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Schiozer, Denis J. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The naturally fractured reservoir recovery normally involves risk especially in intermediate to oil wet systems because of the simulations poor efficiency results under waterflood displacement. Double-porosity models are generally used in fractured reservoir simulation and have been implemented in the major commercial reservoir simulators. The physical processes acting in petroleum recovery are represented in double-porosity models by matrix-fracture transfer functions, therefore commercial simulators have their own implementations, and as a result different kinetics and final recoveries are attained. In this work, a double porosity simulator was built with Kazemi et al. (1976), Sabathier et al. (1998) and Lu et al. (2008) transfer function implementations and their recovery results have been compared using waterflood displacement in oil-wet or intermediate-wet systems. The results of transfer function comparisons have showed recovery improvements in oil-wet or intermediate-wet systems under different physical processes combination, particularly in fully discontinuous porous medium when concurrent imbibition takes place, coherent with Firoozabadi (2000) experimental results. Furthermore, the implemented transfer functions, related to a double-porosity model, have been compared to double-porosity commercial simulator model, as well a discrete fracture model with refined grid, showing differences between them. Waterflood can be an effective recovery method even in fully discontinuous media for oil-wet or intermediate-wet systems where concurrent imbibition takes place with high enough pressure gradients across the matrix blocks. (author)

  9. Chronic oiling of marine birds in California by natural petroleum seeps, shipwrecks, and other sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Laird A; Nevins, Hannahrose; Martin, Marida; Sugarman, Susan; Harvey, James T; Ziccardi, Michael H

    2014-02-15

    We assessed temporal and spatial patterns of chronic oiling of seabirds in California during 2005-2010, using data on: (1) live oiled birds reported to the Oiled Wildlife Care Network (OWCN) from throughout the state, and (2) dead oiled birds found during systematic monthly beached-bird surveys in central California. A mean of 245 (± 141 SD) live miscellaneous oiled birds (not associated with known oil spills) were reported to the OWCN per year, and 0.1 oiled dead birds km(-1) per month were found on beach surveys in central California. Chemical fingerprinting of oiled feathers from a subset of these birds (n=101) indicated that 89% of samples tested were likely from natural petroleum seeps off southern and central California. There was a pronounced peak during late winter in the number of oiled birds reported in southern California, which we theorize may be related to large storm waves disturbing underwater seeps. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Managing Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials In the Petroleum Industry in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahsat, H.; Korany, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) have been known to be present in varying concentrations in hydrocarbon reservoirs. These NORM under certain reservoir conditions can reach hazardous contamination levels.the recognition of NORM as a potential source of contamination to oil and gas facilities has become widely spread and gained increased momentum from the industry. Some contamination levels may be sufficiently severe that maintenance and other personnel may be sufficiently severe that maintenance and other personnel may be exposed to hazardous concentrations. Health and environmental concerns regarding NORM have become an important safety issue in upstream petroleum industry in Egypt since the early 1990's when NORM have been detected in different gas and oil production facilities. In these facilities, radiation protection measures were taken to realize safe handling and disposal of NORM according to the applicable international standards. This paper describes the extent of the NORM contamination problem in Egypt and presents guidelines for dealing with NORM based on the latest scientific techniques and international experiences

  11. Analyzing PSU’s Performance: A Case from Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Nan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The high economic growth in the past few years and increasing industrialization coupled with a burgeoning population have created a lot of concern for India’s energy scenario. India’s crude oil production has not shown significant growth in the last 10 or more years whereas its refining capacity has grown by more than 20% over the last 5 years. Oil consumption is growing at approximately 4.1% per year and natural gas consumption is growing at 68% per year. Therefore, evaluation performances and pushing energy companies to improve become important issues. The purpose of this research is of evaluation the performance of Indian energy industry under multiple different inputs and outputs criteria. The data envelopment analysis (DEA and grey theory are used to conduct this study. There are total 14 public sector undertakings (PSUs under this industry and no any private company. However, only 10 of them are mature enough to be published in India stock markets. Therefore, the realistic data of all 10 companies are used for this evaluation. The results demonstrate that Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL, Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited (CPCL, and Oil India Limited (OIL are the top 3 of ranking influences. This integrated numerical study gives a better “past-present-future” insights into evaluation performance in India energy industry.

  12. Effect of Pore Structure and Chemistry on the Performance of Activated Oil Sands Petroleum Coke Electrodes for use in Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuliani, Jocelyn Ellen

    Electrical energy storage is a limiting barrier to widespread usage and commercialization of sustainable and renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar energy, as well as integration of electric vehicles. Electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) are a promising energy storage technology that offers the benefits of high power density, long cycle life, rapid charging rates, and moderate energy density. The energy storage mechanism of EDLCs is physical ion adsorption on the surface of porous carbon electrodes. This thesis is an investigation of three different sections relating to EDLCs: 1) techniques to properly characterize novel porous carbon electrode materials, 2) investigation of activated oil sands petroleum coke (APC) as the electrode material for EDLCs, and 3) a systematic study of the effects of porous carbon structure and chemistry on EDLC performance. In the first section, it was shown that variations in operating conditions and testing techniques can lead to discrepancies in measured and reported capacitance. Therefore, it was concluded that a standardized approach is necessary in order to properly compare different porous carbon electrodes. In the second section, APC was investigated as a novel electrode material for EDLCs. PetCoke is a carbon dense material that can be activated with potassium hydroxide to generate high surface area porous carbon materials. These materials show promising electrochemical performance in EDLCs, with capacitance values up to 400 Fg-1 in 4M potassium hydroxide aqueous electrolytes, depending on the operating conditions. Additionally, the power density of these materials is comparable to that of other carbon nanomaterials, which are more costly and challenging to produce. Finally, the third section investigates the relationship between measured capacitance, and carbon macrostructure, meso-structure, microstructure, and oxygen content. In each of these studies, the desired parameter was varied, while all others

  13. Request for Correction 12003 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting from the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Request for Correction by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce for information in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting from the Petroleum Gas Industry that regarding methane emissions, volatile organic compounds, and hazardous air pollutants.

  14. The fate of oil and gas in a constrained natural system - implications from the Bakken petroleum system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscio, G P.A.

    1995-07-01

    When petroleum is produced from its reservoir at present day, it has already been submitted to a complex array of natural processes, which have left their imprint on its chemical and physical properties. These processes involve the generation of petroleum in its source rock as a function of thermal evolution, and its migration to the reservoir. In order to achieve a better understanding of the effects that these processes have on the nature and occurrence of petroleum, it is crucial to investigate a study area that represents an integrated system encompassing all processes from the beginning of crude oil formation to entrapment. The Bakken Shale petroleum system of the Williston Basin (U.S.A./Canada) appears to fulfil these requirements as it covers a broad range of maturity incorporating all stages of catagenesis, and source and reservoir are closely associated, i.e. Bakken petroleum has not been submitted to long secondary migration routes. Combined with a basinwide uniformity in kerogen type, the latter feature constrains the broad scope of potential influences, and therefore the Bakken petroleum system is an ideal candidate to study petroleum generation, its expulsion and migration under natural conditions. By using a selected set of wells/core samples which were considered to be representative for the entire Bakken petroleum system based on comprehensive screening analyses on both kerogen and bitumen, the present study focussed on the following principal aspects: (1) Evolution of petroleum generation as a function of maturation; (2) Primary migration and distribution of crude oil in a constrained natural system; (3) Occurrence of gas in the immature zone; (4) Evaluation of the natural maturity series with simulation experiments. (orig./HS) [Deutsch] Die Prozesse und Phaenomene der natuerlichen Bildung und Migration von Erdoel und Erdgas laufen waehrend der Katagenese sowohl zeitlich als auch raeumlich zu grossen Teilen parallel zueinander ab und praegen die

  15. Leishmania infantum nicotinamidase is required for late-stage development in its natural sand fly vector, Phlebotomus perniciosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazanion, Elodie; Seblova, Veronika; Votypka, Jan; Vergnes, Baptiste; Garcia, Déborah; Volf, Petr; Sereno, Denis

    2012-04-01

    Leishmania infantum nicotinamidase, encoded by the Lipnc1 gene, converts nicotinamide into nicotinicacid to ensure Nicotinamide–Adenine–Dinucleotide (NAD+) biosynthesis. We were curious to explore the role of this enzyme during L. infantum development in its natural sand fly vector, Phlebotomus perniciosus (Diptera, Phlebotominae), using null mutants with a deleted Lipnc1 gene. The null mutants developed as well as the wild type L. infantum at the early time points post their ingestion within the bloodmeal. In contrast, once the blood meal digestion was completed, the null mutants were unable to develop further and establish late-stage infections. Data highlight the importance of the nicotinamide degradation pathway for Leishmania development in sand flies. They indicate that the endogenous nicotinamidase is essential for Leishmania development in the sand fly after the blood meal has been digested and the remnants defecated.

  16. Development of UHPC Mixtures Utilizing Natural and Industrial Waste Materials as Partial Replacements of Silica Fume and Sand

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Shamsad; Hakeem, Ibrahim; Maslehuddin, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    In the exploratory study presented in this paper, an attempt was made to develop different mixtures of ultrahigh performance concrete (UHPC) using various locally available natural and industrial waste materials as partial replacements of silica fume and sand. Materials such as natural pozzolana (NP), fly ash (FA), limestone powder (LSP), cement kiln dust (CKD), and pulverized steel slag (PSS), all of which are abundantly available in Saudi Arabia at little or no cost, were employed in the de...

  17. Demonstration of tools for evaluating the durability of natural attenuation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemoets, J.; Ceuster, T. de; Vandervelpen, B.; Gutschoven, K.

    2005-01-01

    The dominant process for natural attenuation of petroleum hydrocarbons such as BTEX or alkanes in groundwater is microbial oxidation. In many instances demonstration of natural attenuation is limited to historic trend analysis of pollutant concentrations and analyses of electron acceptors and their reduced forms as secondary evidence for NA. By doing so one can demonstrate that biodegradation processes are occurring naturally. However, this approach does not ensure that natural attenuation processes will continue to occur to the extent that is required to sustain control of the complete pollutant mass over a long time. A sufficient supply of naturally occurring oxidants (electron acceptors) is required to enable adequate microbial oxidation of hydrocarbons. Naturally occurring oxidants for microbial oxidation are oxygen, nitrate, ferric iron, manganese(IV), sulfate and carbon dioxide. At many sites iron(III) may be the most abundant electron acceptor, as it may be present in large quantities in the solid aquifer materials. However, only a fraction of it may be available for micro-organisms. Thus far this parameter is rarely analyzed during site investigation programs for MNA. Bio-available iron may also play an important role in the feasibility of complete microbial dehalogenation of chlorinated solvents. We will present results of a research project in which we have evaluated three methods for determining the quantity of bio-available ferric iron in solid aquifer material samples. These were mild acid extraction followed by spectrophotometry, redox titration with titanium(III)-EDTA and a commercially available enzymatic test kit (BAFeIII assay). The results will be compared, considering implications for practical implementation. The program is being carried out for two petrol station sites for which MNA has been applied as the groundwater remediation method. At each site three soil boring are performed across a depth trajectory below the groundwater table

  18. Demonstration of tools for evaluating the durability of natural attenuation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemoets, J.; Ceuster, T. de; Vandervelpen, B.; Gutschoven, K. [Haskoning Belgium (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    The dominant process for natural attenuation of petroleum hydrocarbons such as BTEX or alkanes in groundwater is microbial oxidation. In many instances demonstration of natural attenuation is limited to historic trend analysis of pollutant concentrations and analyses of electron acceptors and their reduced forms as secondary evidence for NA. By doing so one can demonstrate that biodegradation processes are occurring naturally. However, this approach does not ensure that natural attenuation processes will continue to occur to the extent that is required to sustain control of the complete pollutant mass over a long time. A sufficient supply of naturally occurring oxidants (electron acceptors) is required to enable adequate microbial oxidation of hydrocarbons. Naturally occurring oxidants for microbial oxidation are oxygen, nitrate, ferric iron, manganese(IV), sulfate and carbon dioxide. At many sites iron(III) may be the most abundant electron acceptor, as it may be present in large quantities in the solid aquifer materials. However, only a fraction of it may be available for micro-organisms. Thus far this parameter is rarely analyzed during site investigation programs for MNA. Bio-available iron may also play an important role in the feasibility of complete microbial dehalogenation of chlorinated solvents. We will present results of a research project in which we have evaluated three methods for determining the quantity of bio-available ferric iron in solid aquifer material samples. These were mild acid extraction followed by spectrophotometry, redox titration with titanium(III)-EDTA and a commercially available enzymatic test kit (BAFeIII assay). The results will be compared, considering implications for practical implementation. The program is being carried out for two petrol station sites for which MNA has been applied as the groundwater remediation method. At each site three soil boring are performed across a depth trajectory below the groundwater table

  19. Performance of sand and shredded rubber tire mixture as a natural base isolator for earthquake protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Srijit; Sengupta, Aniruddha; Reddy, G. R.

    2015-12-01

    The performance of a well-designed layer of sand, and composites like layer of sand mixed with shredded rubber tire (RSM) as low cost base isolators, is studied in shake table tests in the laboratory. The building foundation is modeled by a 200 mm by 200 mm and 40 mm thick rigid plexi-glass block. The block is placed in the middle of a 1m by 1m tank filled with sand. The selected base isolator is placed between the block and the sand foundation. Accelerometers are placed on top of the footing and foundation sand layer. The displacement of the footing is also measured by LVDT. The whole setup is mounted on a shake table and subjected to sinusoidal motions with varying amplitude and frequency. Sand is found to be effective only at very high amplitude (> 0.65 g) of motions. The performance of a composite consisting of sand and 50% shredded rubber tire placed under the footing is found to be most promising as a low-cost effective base isolator.

  20. Sedimentological Properties of Natural Gas Hydrates-Bearing Sands in the Nankai Trough and Mallik Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, T.; Tsuji, T.; Waseda, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Nankai Trough parallels the Japanese Island, where extensive BSRs have been interpreted from seismic reflection records. High resolution seismic surveys have definitely indicated gas hydrate distributions, and drilling the MITI Nankai Trough wells in 2000 and the METI Tokai-oki to Kumano-nada wells in 2004 have revealed subsurface gas hydrate in the eastern part of Nankai Trough. In 1998 and 2002 Mallik wells were drilled at Mackenzie Delta in the Canadian Arctic that also clarified the characteristics of gas hydrate-dominant sandy layers at depths from 890 to 1110 m beneath the permafrost zone. During the field operations, the LWD and wire-line well log data were continuously obtained and plenty of gas hydrate-bearing sand cores were recovered. Subsequence sedimentological and geochemical analyses performed on those core samples revealed the crucial geologic controls on the formation and preservation of natural gas hydrate in sediments. Pore-space gas hydrates reside in sandy sediments mostly filling intergranular porosity. Pore waters chloride anomalies, core temperature depression and core observations on visible gas hydrates confirm the presence of pore-space gas hydrates within moderate to thick sandy layers, typically 10 cm to a meter thick. Sediment porosities and pore-size distributions were obtained by mercury porosimetry, which indicate that porosities of gas hydrate-bearing sandy strata are approximately 45 %. According to grain size distribution curves, gas hydrate is dominant in fine- to very fine-grained sandy strata. Gas hydrate saturations are typically up to 80 % in pore volume throughout most of the hydrate-dominant sandy layers, which are estimated by well log analyses as well as pore water chloride anomalies. It is necessary for investigating subsurface fluid flow behaviors to evaluate both porosity and permeability of gas hydrate-bearing sandy sediments, and the measurements of water permeability for them indicated that highly saturated

  1. Assessment of natural radioactivity of sands in beaches from Great Vitoria, ES, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, Reginaldo Ribeiro de

    2010-01-01

    In this work the concentrations of natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were determined in superficial sand samples for 16 locations throughout the coast of the Great Victory, metropolitan region of the state of Espirito Santo, Southeast of Brazil. The assessed beaches were Manguinhos and Jacaraipe in Serra county, Camburi, Praia do Canto and Curva da Jurema in Vitoria county, Praia da Costa and Itapua in Vila Velha county, Setibao, Setibinha, Praia do Morro, Praia das Castanheiras and Areia Preta in Guarapari county and sand of the Paulo Cesar Vinha Reserve also located in Guarapari county. Three sand samples of each beach were sealed in 100 mL high density polyethylene flasks. After approximately 4 weeks in order to reach secular equilibrium in the 238 U and 2 '3 2 Th series, the samples were measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and the spectra analyzed with the WinnerGamma software. The self absorption correction was performed for all samples. The 226 Ra concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of 214 Pb and 21 '4Bi, the 232 Th concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of 228 Ac, 2 '1 2 Pb and 212 Bi and the concentration of 40 K is determined by its single gamma transition of 1460 keV. The radium equivalent concentration and the external hazard index where obtained from the concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 4 '0K. 226 Ra concentrations show values varying from 3 +- 1 Bq.kg-1 to 738 +- 38 Bq.kg -1 , with the highest values for the central locality of the Camburi beach. 232 Th concentrations show values varying from 7 +- 3 Bq.kg -1 to 7422 +- 526 Bq.kg -1 , with the highest values for Areia Preta beach. 40 K concentrations show values varying from 14 +- 6 Bq.kg -1 to 638 +- 232 Bq.kg -1 , with the highest values for Areia Preta beach. Calculation of the radium equivalent and the external hazard index showed two distinct groups. In the first one, for the majority of the beaches, the

  2. Factors influencing the natural regeneration of the pioneering shrub Calligonum mongolicum in sand dune stabilization plantations in arid deserts of northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Baoli; McHugh, Allen David; Guo, Shujiang; Ma, Quanlin; Zhang, Jianhui; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Weixing; Du, Juan; Yu, Qiushi; Zhao, Changming

    2018-03-01

    Calligonum mongolicum is a successful pioneer shrub to combat desertification, which is widely used for vegetation restoration in the desert regions of northwest China. In order to reveal the limitations to natural regeneration of C. mongolicum by asexual and sexual reproduction, following the process of sand dune stabilization, we assessed clonal shoots, seedling emergence, soil seed bank density, and soil physical characteristics in mobile and stabilized sand dunes. Controlled field and pot experiments were also conducted to assess germination and seedling emergence in different dune soil types and seed burial depths. The population density of mature C. mongolicum was significantly different after sand dune stabilization. Juvenile density of C. mongolicm was much lower in stabilized sand dunes than mobile sand dune. There was no significant difference in soil seed bank density at three soil depths between mobile and stabilized sand dunes, while the emergence of seedlings in stabilized dunes was much lower than emergence in mobile dunes. There was no clonal propagation found in stabilized dunes, and very few C. mongolicum seedlings were established on stabilized sand dunes. Soil clay and silt content, air-filled porosity, and soil surface compaction were significantly changed from mobile sand dune to stabilized dunes. Seedling emergence of C. mongolicm was highly dependent on soil physical condition. These results indicated that changes in soil physical condition limited clonal propagation and seedling emergence of C. mongolicum in stabilized sand dunes. Seed bank density was not a limiting factor; however, poor seedling establishment limited C. mongolicum's further natural regeneration in stabilized sand dunes. Therefore, clonal propagation may be the most important mode for population expansion in mobile sand dunes. As a pioneer species C. mongolicum is well adapted to propagate in mobile sand dune conditions, it appears unlikely to survive naturally in

  3. Study on natural breeding sites of sand flies (Diptera: Phlebotominae) in areas of Leishmania transmission in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivero, Rafael José; Torres-Gutierrez, Carolina; Bejarano, Eduar E; Peña, Horacio Cadena; Estrada, Luis Gregorio; Florez, Fernando; Ortega, Edgar; Aparicio, Yamileth; Muskus, Carlos E

    2015-02-22

    The location of the microhabitats where immature phlebotomine sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia develop is one of the least-known aspects of this group of medically important insects. For this reason strategies of source reduction approach for their control have not been possible in contrast to other insect vectors (such as mosquitoes), because their juvenile stages in terrestrial microhabitats is difficult to detect. Direct examination of soil samples, incubation of substrates and the use of emergence traps were the methods used to identify juvenile stages in 160 soil samples from urban and forest habitats within the foci of Leishmania transmission in Colombia. Immatures collected were identified subsequent from the rearing and emergence of adults using taxonomic keys or the analysis of the mitochondrial marker cytochrome oxidase I. Plant species associated with the natural breeding sites were identified and physicochemical properties of the soils were analyzed. A total of 38 (23.7%) sampling sites were identified as breeding sites, 142 phlebotomine sand flies were identified, belonging to 13 species of the genus Lutzomyia and two of Brumptomyia. The greatest numbers of immature were found within the tabular roots (51 immature sand flies from eight positive sites) and bases of trees (35 immature sand flies from 11 sites). The characterization and presence of the tree species (mainly Ceiba pentadra, Anacardium excelsum, Pseudosamanea guachapale) and the physicochemical properties (relative humidity and carbon/nitrogen ratio) of the soils associated with these breeding sites are significant factors in explaining the diversity and abundance of phlebotomine sand flies. Immature phlebotomine sand flies of the genus Lutzomyia in Colombia can be found in a wide variety of breeding sites rich in organic matter, high relative humidity and are associated with a typical vegetation of each locality. These results provide new perspectives for the study of the ecology of the

  4. Frac sand in the United States: a geological and industry overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Mary Ellen; Wilson, Anna B.; Bleiwas, Donald I.

    2015-01-01

    A new mineral rush is underway in the upper Midwest of the United States, especially in Wisconsin and Minnesota, for deposits of high-quality frac sand that the mining industry calls “Northern White” sand or “Ottawa” sand. Frac sand is a specialized type of sand that is added to fracking fluids that are injected into unconventional oil and gas wells during hydraulic fracturing (fracking or hydrofracking), a process that enhances petroleum extraction from tight (low permeability) reservoirs. Frac sand consists of natural sand grains with strict mineralogical and textural specifications that act as a proppant (keeping induced fractures open), extending the time of release and the flow rate of hydrocarbons from fractured rock surfaces in contact with the wellbore.

  5. Do we have to fear a forth petroleum crash?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jestin-Fleury, N.

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyses the worldwide energy scenarios for the forecasting of petroleum supply and demand in the year 2020: competition with natural gas industry, oil reserves, resources, production, development of new technologies, investments, fields development, drop of production costs, exploitation of tar sands, extra-heavy crudes, bituminous shales, reduction of the petroleum consumption in the transportation sector (development of LPG and electric powered vehicles, chemical conversion of natural gas, fuel cells), increase of the OPEC countries production, evolution of nuclear energy and economical impact of a serious fight against greenhouse gases emission and climate changes. (J.S.)

  6. Natural gas in 1942: Petroleum in 1942: Gravimetric and magnetic geophysical surveys in the gas fields of southwestern Ontario, 1941 and 1942. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crozier, A R; Brant, A A

    1946-12-31

    Part V of this annual report consists of three separate reports: Natural gas; petroleum; and gravimetric and magnetic geophysical surveys in the gas fields of southwestern Ontario. The natural gas report discusses production and distribution; changes and improvements; consumption and rates; and gas wells and their production. The petroleum report presents information on production and drilling by township; expansion; and petroleum importation and refining operations. The final report discusses causes of anomalies; a discussion of the gravitational results and a discussion of the magnetic results.

  7. Results of analyzing natural gas during the use of biochemical processes in a petroleum deposit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yulbarisov, E M

    1972-01-01

    Laboratory and commercial scale experiments with a geobioreagent and the Arlanskii deposit petroleum gave a sharp increase in the content of heavier hydrocarbons, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide in the gas and an increase in the yield of gasoline fraction boiling below 122/sup 0/C. The commercial scale experiments were done in a stratum 1200 m deep during waterflood recovery at 200 kg/cm/sup 2/. A substantial increase in ethane and higher hydrocarbons in the gas and increased petroleum yield were observed, especially after each waterflood. The effect of water was explained by higher activity of the bacteria at a lower concentration of rock salts.

  8. Quality management system for petroleum and natural gas suppliers; Sistema de gestao da qualidade para os fornecedores da industria do petroleo e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Oscar Felizzola [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Lab. de Tecnologia, Gestao de Negocios e Meio Ambiente (LATEC)]|[PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Costa, Stella Regina R. da [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil)]|[Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The subject of this paper is the implementation of a quality management system for suppliers of products and services for the petroleum and natural gas industry that meet the ISO TS 29001:2003 Standard requirements. This technical specification establishes supplementary requirements to ISO 9001:2000 Standard for the product and service suppliers of the petroleum and natural gas industries. It was the result of a partnership between API and ISO TC 67. It intends to become the common and unique reference for the quality management systems requirements for the industry in the world. Therefore, it helps to avoid multiple systems that ask multiple audits for the certification. The generality of the ISO 9001:2000 Standard, reference for the quality management system for any organization , independent of its size, activity and location, not always satisfies all requirements of the specific sectors. (author)

  9. Importance of evaluation of uncertainties on the measurement of natural gas and petroleum volumes; Importancia da avaliacao das incertezas na medicao dos volumes de petroleo e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Filho, Jose Alberto Pinheiro da; Oliveira, Thiago Barra Vidal de; Mata, Josaphat Dias da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: jose.pinheiro@petrobras.com.br, thiagovidal@petrobras.com.br, josaphat@petrobras.com.br; Val, Luiz Gustavo do [Instituto de Qualidade e Metrologia (IQM), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: gdoval.iqm@petrobras.com.br

    2009-07-01

    The measurement is considered as the 'cash register' of the enterprises, increasing the accuracy and the exigence at each step when come close to the delivery points, where the 0.1 % of differences are discussed. The work presents the approach used in the evaluation of measurement uncertainties in the volumes obtained of petroleum and natural gas at the processes of production in Brazil, and in the international level as well.

  10. Proposal for refining business rules for petroleum and natural gas tenure in Alberta 1999 : attachment to Mineral Rights Information Bulletin 99-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The position taken by Alberta Energy regarding petroleum and natural gas tenure is discussed. In September 1995, the Petroleum and Natural Gas Tenure Review Advisory Committee was established with representation from the Ministry of Energy and five industry associations. Since then, the Committee has published 10 proposals for industry review. The review resulted in the Mines and Minerals Amendment Act 1997, the Petroleum and Natural Gas Tenure Regulation, the Mines and Minerals Administration Regulation and the Crown Minerals Registration Regulation. The Alberta Department of Energy is committed to introducing further changes where necessary. Some of these changes are described in this proposal. They are: (1) changes to the mission of the the Department of Energy, (2) changes to the mission of the Mineral Operations Division, (3) changes to petroleum and natural gas tenure philosophies, (4) petroleum and natural gas licence administration, (5) petroleum and natural gas tenure regulations, (6) off-location wells, (7) continuations based on the Energy and Utilities Board's (EUB) approved projects, (8) changes to offset notices within the EUB approved projects, (9) serving notices on diagonally cornering spacing units, (10) offset compensation, (11) changes to applications where minister disagrees, (12) trespassing, and (13) water injection, water disposal, waster source and observation wells

  11. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographical regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US.

  12. Petroleum: the new deal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, St.; Kan, E.

    2008-01-01

    The drop of oil prices imposes a revision of development and investment strategies of petroleum and para-petroleum companies, while technologies under study try to optimize the exploration and production costs. Following the financial and economical crises, the petroleum industry is preparing its restructuring: new profitability threshold of projects, slowing down of the activity, expected surge of mergers. Despite the crisis, the R and D for the exploitation of tar sands still goes on while on the offshore side, R and D has never been so active to take up the challenge of extreme deep sea conditions. (J.S.)

  13. Elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides in heavy mineral-rich beach sands of Langkawi Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Asaduzzaman, Khandoker; Sulaiman, Abdullah Fadil Bin; Bradley, D A; Isinkaye, Matthew Omoniyi

    2018-02-01

    Study is made of the radioactivity in the beach sands of Langkawi island, a well-known tourist destination. Investigation is made of the relative presence of the naturally occurring radionuclide 40 K and the natural-series indicator radionuclides 226 Ra and 232 Th, the gamma radiation exposure also being estimated. Sample quantities of black and white sand were collected for gamma ray spectrometry, yielding activity concentration in black sands of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K from 451±9 to 2411±65Bqkg -1 (mean of 1478Bqkg -1 ); 232±4 to 1272±35Bqkg -1 (mean of 718Bqkg -1 ) and 61±6 to 136±7Bqkg -1 (mean of 103Bqkg -1 ) respectively. Conversely, in white sands the respective values for 226 Ra and 232 Th were appreciably lower, at 8.3±0.5 to 13.7±1.4Bqkg -1 (mean of 9.8Bqkg -1 ) and 4.5±0.7 to 9.4±1.0Bqkg -1 (mean of 5.9Bqkg -1 ); 40 K activities differed insubstantially from that in black sands, at 85±4 to 133±7Bqkg -1 with a mean of 102Bqkg -1 . The mean activity concentrations of 226 Ra and 232 Th in black sands are comparable with that of high background areas elsewhere in the world. The heavy minerals content gives rise to elevated 226 Ra and 232 Th activity concentrations in all of black sand samples. Evaluation of the various radiological risk parameters points to values which in some cases could be in excess of recommendations providing for safe living and working. Statistical analysis examines correlations between the origins of the radionuclides, also identifying and classifying the radiological parameters. Present results may help to form an interest in rare-earth resources for the electronics industry, power generation and the viability of nuclear fuels cycle resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Leishmania infantum nicotinamidase is required for late-stage development in its natural sand fly vector, Phlebotomus perniciosus

    OpenAIRE

    Gazanion, Elodie; Seblova, V.; Votypka, J.; Vergnes, Baptiste; Garcia, Deborah; Volf, P.; Sereno, Denis

    2012-01-01

    Leishmania infantum nicotinamidase, encoded by the Lipnc1 gene, converts nicotinamide into nicotinic acid to ensure Nicotinamide-Adenine-Dinucleotide (NAD(+)) biosynthesis. We were curious to explore the role of this enzyme during L infantum development in its natural sand fly vector, Phlebotomus perniciosus (Diptera, Phlebotominae), using null mutants with a deleted Lipnc1 gene. The null mutants developed as well as the wild type L infantum at the early time points post their ingestion withi...

  15. The splitting of P and NG and oil sands rights: an historical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, F. D. [Alberta Department of Energy, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Changes in the Mines and Minerals Act of Alberta are described to illustrate the evolution of the priorities and thinking over time that led to the present administration of oil sands and natural gas as separate minerals. Natural gas was first excluded from the definition of bituminous sands in 1955. The definition of bituminous sands was changed in 1957 to include natural gas once again. In a further change in 1978, both petroleum and natural gas were excluded from the definition of oil sands. More changes followed in 1984, when petroleum was added back into the definition, leaving natural gas as the only mineral excluded from the definition of oil sands. The 1984 change was triggered by changes in the Oil Sands Conservation Act. It is the current definition, which includes `sands and other rock materials containing crude bitumen, and any other mineral substances, other than natural gas, in association with that crude bitumen`. It was a resource conservation issue in the past, and it is a conservation issue today, although much influenced by changes in technology and increased knowledge and understanding of the relevant factors. 2 tabs.

  16. A comparative study of the adsorption of uranium on commercial and natural (Cypriot) sea sand samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria Efstathiou; Ioannis Pashalidis

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption of hexavalent uranium on two different types of sea sand [e.g. a local, Cypriot (N S S) and a commercially available marine sediment (C S S)] has been investigated as a function of pH, initial metal concentration, ionic strength and contact time under normal atmospheric conditions. Before carrying out the adsorption experiments, the sea sand samples have been characterized by XRD, XRF, N 2 -adsorption, acid/base titrations and FTIR spectroscopy. Sample characterization showed clearly that the two sea sand types differ significantly in their composition, particularly in their calcite and FeOOH content. According to experimental data obtained from acid/base titrations and adsorption batch experiments sea sand composition affects the acid/base and the adsorption properties of the adsorbents. The extraordinary high affinity of N S S for hexavalent uranium in the alkaline pH region can be attributed to the formation of mixed U(VI)-carbonato surface species on the FeOOH crystal phases present in N S S, which effectively compete the formation of U(VI)-carbonato complexes in solution. On the other hand, data obtained by adsorption experiments carried out in solution of different ionic strengths don't differ significantly from one another indicating the formation of inner-sphere complexes. Finally, the adsorption on sea sands is a relatively fast two-step process. (author)

  17. Figures of the petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The statistic tables give informations about: Reserves and production of petroleum and natural gas, supply of crude petroleum in the Federal Republic of Germany, pipelines, tanker ships, petroleum refineries, petroleum consumption, storage and distribution, automobiles, prices, taxis and energy consumption. The data compilations are primarily given for the Federal Republic of Germany.

  18. Detoxification, endocrine, and immune responses of tree swallow nestlings naturally exposed to air contaminants from the Alberta oil sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Martinez, Luis; Fernie, Kim J; Soos, Catherine; Harner, Tom; Getachew, Fitsum; Smits, Judit E G

    2015-01-01

    Changes in environmental and wildlife health from contaminants in tailings water on the Canadian oil sands have been well-studied; however, effects of air contaminants on wildlife health have not. A field study was conducted to assess biological costs of natural exposure to oil sands-related air emissions on birds. Nest boxes for tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were erected at two sites; within 5 km of active oil sands mining and extraction, and ≥ 60 km south, at one reference site. Passive air monitors were deployed at the nest boxes to measure nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, volatile organic compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Nestlings were examined at day 9 post hatching to assess T cell function and morphometry. At day 14 post hatching, a subset of nestlings was euthanized to measure detoxification enzymes, endocrine changes, and histological alterations of immune organs. Except for ozone, all air contaminants were higher at the two oil sands sites than the reference site (up to 5-fold). Adult birds had similar reproductive performance among sites (p>0.05). Nestlings from industrial sites showed higher hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (EROD) induction (pfeather corticosterone (p>0.6), and no histological alterations in the spleen or bursa of Fabricius (p>0.05). This is the first report examining toxicological responses in wild birds exposed to air contaminants from industrial activity in the oil sands. It is also the first time that small, individual air contaminant monitors have been used to determine local contaminant levels in ambient air around nest boxes of wild birds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Oil & Natural Gas Technology A new approach to understanding the occurrence and volume of natural gas hydrate in the northern Gulf of Mexico using petroleum industry well logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Ann [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Majumdar, Urmi [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2016-03-31

    The northern Gulf of Mexico has been the target for the petroleum industry for exploration of conventional energy resource for decades. We have used the rich existing petroleum industry well logs to find the occurrences of natural gas hydrate in the northern Gulf of Mexico. We have identified 798 wells with well log data within the gas hydrate stability zone. Out of those 798 wells, we have found evidence of gas hydrate in well logs in 124 wells (15% of wells). We have built a dataset of gas hydrate providing information such as location, interval of hydrate occurrence (if any) and the overall quality of probable gas hydrate. Our dataset provides a wide, new perspective on the overall distribution of gas hydrate in the northern Gulf of Mexico and will be the key to future gas hydrate research and prospecting in the area.

  20. Study of the environmental impacts of the natural radioactivity presents in beach sand and Lake Sediment samples Idku, Behara, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmi, N.M.; El-Khatib, A.; Abd El-Salam, Y.M.; Naim, M.A.; Shalaby, M.H.; El-Gally, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    Natural radionuclides belonging to 232 Th, 238 U decay chains, 40 K and 137 Cs in contents of beach sands and bottom sediments collected at various locations over Idku coast and Idku lake, respectively have been determined using low background computerized high resolution gamma ray spectrometer. A distribution map for each radionuclide distribution was presented for idku lake as well as radium equivalent and the external hazard index which resulted from the natural radionuclides in sediments are also calculated and tabulated for the analyzed samples.

  1. Energy, petroleum, natural gas, automobiles, environment; Energie, petrole, gaz naturel, automobile, environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The IFP Group organized, for the eighth consecutive year, its international colloquium Panorama at Paris the 6 february, Lyon the 13 february and Bruxelles (Brussels) the 19 february 2003. The subject was ''the hydrocarbons reserves: abundance or penury?''. The presented allocution bring information on the reserves estimation and petroleum production forecasts, the geographical and political context instability of the energy and the fundamental question of the world resources availability. (A.L.B.)

  2. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels and identification of minerals in Brahmaputra (Jamuna) river sand and sediment, Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Md. Ibrahim; Majumder, Ratan Kumar; Kabir, Md. Zafrul; Deeba, Farah; Khan, Md. Nazrul Islam; Ali, Md. Idris; Paul, Debasish; Haydar, Md. Abu; Islam, Syed Mohammad Azharul

    2016-01-01

    Distribution of the natural radionuclides ( 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K) and their specific activities in sands and sediments of the Brahmaputra (Jamuna) river of Bangladesh together with mineral characteristics has been studied to assess the radiation levels as well as to develop a baseline database for comparison in the future in case of any change in the area under study due to anthropogenic activities. The radiological parameters of natural radioactivity were assessed calculating the radium equivalent activity, hazard index, the absorbed dose rate, and annual effective dose. The average activity concentrations of 226 Ra ( 238 U), 232 Th, and 40 K in sand and sediment were found to be 59 ± 2 and 60 ± 2 Bq/kg, 113 ± 5 and 135 ± 5 Bq/kg, and 983 ± 42 and 1002 ± 43 Bq/kg, respectively. The calculated average absorbed dose rate and annual effective dose were found to be 150 nGy/h and 0.18 mSv/year respectively. These high values are associated with mineral content of the sediment. X-ray diffraction peaks of sand and sediment samples identify quartz, feldspar, rutile, zircon, monazite, uranium fluoride, hematite, kyanite, and uranium arsenide minerals to be present in the samples. (author)

  3. Man-biting sand fly species and natural infection with the Leishmania promastigote in leishmaniasis-endemic areas of Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Eduardo A; Kato, Hirotomo; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa

    2014-12-01

    A countrywide surveillance of sand flies was performed to obtain information on their geographical distribution and natural infection by Leishmania protozoa in Ecuador. A total of 18,119 sand flies were collected by human landing collections during 32 years from 1982 to 2014, and 29 species were recognized. The most prevalent 10 species were Lutzomyia gomezi, Lu. robusta, Lu. hartmanni, Lu. shannoni, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. maranonensis, Lu. ayacuchensis, Lu. tortura and Lu. yuilli yuilli, and their topographical and vertical distributions were identified. Among all the sand flies, only 197 (1.09%) flies of four Lutzomyia species, Lu. gomezi, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. tortura and Lu. ayacuchensis, were positive for Leishmania. Endotrypanum, a flagellate parasite not pathogenic to humans, were detected in five Lutzomyia species, Lu. robusta, Lu. hartmanni, Lu. trapidoi, Lu. panamensis and Lu. yuilli yuilli, suggesting wide vector-ranges of Endotrypanum species. These data on the genus Lutzomyia and their natural infections with Leishmania and Endotrypanum will be useful for transmission studies and surveillance of leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of UHPC mixtures utilizing natural and industrial waste materials as partial replacements of silica fume and sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shamsad; Hakeem, Ibrahim; Maslehuddin, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    In the exploratory study presented in this paper, an attempt was made to develop different mixtures of ultrahigh performance concrete (UHPC) using various locally available natural and industrial waste materials as partial replacements of silica fume and sand. Materials such as natural pozzolana (NP), fly ash (FA), limestone powder (LSP), cement kiln dust (CKD), and pulverized steel slag (PSS), all of which are abundantly available in Saudi Arabia at little or no cost, were employed in the development of the UHPC mixtures. A base mixture of UHPC without replacement of silica fume or sand was selected and a total of 24 trial mixtures of UHPC were prepared using different percentages of NP, FA, LSP, CKD, and PSS, partially replacing the silica fume and sand. Flow and 28-d compressive strength of each UHPC mixture were determined to finally select those mixtures, which satisfied the minimum flow and strength criteria of UHPC. The test results showed that the utilization of NP, FA, LSP, CKD, and PSS in production of UHPC is possible with acceptable flow and strength. A total of 10 UHPC mixtures were identified with flow and strength equal to or more than the minimum required.

  5. Development of UHPC Mixtures Utilizing Natural and Industrial Waste Materials as Partial Replacements of Silica Fume and Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsad Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the exploratory study presented in this paper, an attempt was made to develop different mixtures of ultrahigh performance concrete (UHPC using various locally available natural and industrial waste materials as partial replacements of silica fume and sand. Materials such as natural pozzolana (NP, fly ash (FA, limestone powder (LSP, cement kiln dust (CKD, and pulverized steel slag (PSS, all of which are abundantly available in Saudi Arabia at little or no cost, were employed in the development of the UHPC mixtures. A base mixture of UHPC without replacement of silica fume or sand was selected and a total of 24 trial mixtures of UHPC were prepared using different percentages of NP, FA, LSP, CKD, and PSS, partially replacing the silica fume and sand. Flow and 28-d compressive strength of each UHPC mixture were determined to finally select those mixtures, which satisfied the minimum flow and strength criteria of UHPC. The test results showed that the utilization of NP, FA, LSP, CKD, and PSS in production of UHPC is possible with acceptable flow and strength. A total of 10 UHPC mixtures were identified with flow and strength equal to or more than the minimum required.

  6. Species of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) collected from natural reserves in the Pacific and Darien regions of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivero, Rafael J; Contreras, María Angélica; Suaza, Juan D; Vélez, Iván D; Porter, Charles; Uribe, Sandra

    2017-03-29

    The departments of Chocó and Antioquia in Colombia show climatic and vegetation conditions favoring the establishment of vector species of the genus Lutzomyia and the transmission of Leishmania spp. to human populations entering conserved forest environments. To report the species of Phlebotomine sandflies present in three natural reserves in the Darien and Pacific regions of Colombia. Sand flies were collected specifically in the natural reserves El Aguacate (Acandí, Chocó), Nabugá (Bahía Solano, Chocó) and Tulenapa (Carepa, Antioquia). Sand flies were collected with CDC light traps, active search in resting places and Shannon traps. The taxonomic determination of species was based on taxonomic keys. For some species of taxonomic interest, we evaluated the partial sequences of the 5' region of COI gene. A total of 611 adult sand flies were collected: 531 in Acandí, 45 in Carepa and 35 in Bahía Solano. Seventeen species of the genus Lutzomyia, three of the genus Brumptomyia and one of the genus Warileya were identified. The genetic distances (K2P) and grouping supported (>99%) in the neighbor joining dendrogram were consistent for most established molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTU) of the Aragaoi group and clearly confirmed the identity of Lu. coutinhoi. Species that have importance in the transmission of leishmaniasis in Acandí, Bahía Solano and Carepa were identified. The presence of Lu. coutinhoi was confirmed and consolidated in Colombia.

  7. Production of Natural Gas and Fluid Flow in Tight Sand Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria Cecilia Bravo

    2006-06-30

    This document reports progress of this research effort in identifying relationships and defining dependencies between macroscopic reservoir parameters strongly affected by microscopic flow dynamics and production well performance in tight gas sand reservoirs. These dependencies are investigated by identifying the main transport mechanisms at the pore scale that should affect fluids flow at the reservoir scale. A critical review of commercial reservoir simulators, used to predict tight sand gas reservoir, revealed that many are poor when used to model fluid flow through tight reservoirs. Conventional simulators ignore altogether or model incorrectly certain phenomena such as, Knudsen diffusion, electro-kinetic effects, ordinary diffusion mechanisms and water vaporization. We studied the effect of Knudsen's number in Klinkenberg's equation and evaluated the effect of different flow regimes on Klinkenberg's parameter b. We developed a model capable of explaining the pressure dependence of this parameter that has been experimentally observed, but not explained in the conventional formalisms. We demonstrated the relevance of this, so far ignored effect, in tight sands reservoir modeling. A 2-D numerical simulator based on equations that capture the above mentioned phenomena was developed. Dynamic implications of new equations are comprehensively discussed in our work and their relative contribution to the flow rate is evaluated. We performed several simulation sensitivity studies that evidenced that, in general terms, our formalism should be implemented in order to get more reliable tight sands gas reservoirs' predictions.

  8. Characterizing resilient behavior of naturally occurring bituminous sands for road construction

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available large capacity haul trucks and shovels. This paper focuses on determining in laboratory the resilient behavior of three oil sand materials with bitumen contents of 8.5, 13.3, and 14.5% by weight. The resilient modulus MR properties were obtained using a...

  9. BioTiger{sup TM} : a natural microbial product for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L.; Berry, C.J.; Milliken, C.E.; Jones, W. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This presentation discussed the feasibility of using BioTiger{sup TM} technology to increase hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands. This enhanced ex situ oil recovery processes was initially developed and used by the United States Department of Energy for bioremediation of soils contaminated with oil, but it may also be used to optimize bitumen separation. BioTiger was described as being a unique microbial consortia that has resulted from nearly a decade of extensive microbiology screening and characterization of samples collected from an old waste lagoon. The technology offers rapid and complete degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and produces new surfactants. It is tolerant of both chemical and metal toxicity and has good activity at high temperatures at extreme pH levels. A flotation test protocol with oil sands from Fort McMurray, Alberta was used for the BioTiger evaluation. A comparison of hot water extraction/flotation test of the oil sands performed with BioTiger showed a 50 per cent improvement in separation as measured by gravimetric analysis. BioTiger is well suited for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands because it performs well at high temperatures. 8 figs.

  10. BIOTIGER, A NATURAL MICROBIAL PRODUCT FOR ENHANCED HYDROCARBON RECOVERY FROM OIL SANDS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R; Topher Berry, T; Whitney Jones, W; Charles Milliken, C

    2008-05-27

    BioTiger{trademark} is a unique microbial consortia that resulted from over 8 years of extensive microbiology screening and characterization of samples collected from a century-old Polish waste lagoon. BioTiger{trademark} shows rapid and complete degradation of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, produces novel surfactants, is tolerant of both chemical and metal toxicity and shows good activity at temperature and pH extremes. Although originally developed and used by the U.S. Department of Energy for bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils, recent efforts have proven that BioTiger{trademark} can also be used to increase hydrocarbon recovery from oil sands. This enhanced ex situ oil recovery process utilizes BioTiger{trademark} to optimize bitumen separation. A floatation test protocol with oil sands from Ft. McMurray, Canada was used for the BioTiger{trademark} evaluation. A comparison of hot water extraction/floatation test of the oil sands performed with BioTiger{trademark} demonstrated a 50% improvement in separation as measured by gravimetric analysis in 4 h and a five-fold increase at 25 hr. Since BioTiger{trademark} performs well at high temperatures and process engineering can enhance and sustain metabolic activity, it can be applied to enhance recovery of hydrocarbons from oil sands or other complex recalcitrant matrices.

  11. Repellency and other biological effects of natural substances against the sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishmaniasis is an insect-borne disease caused by several protozoan species in the genus Leishmania, vectored by sand fly species in the genera Phlebotomus, Lutzomyia or others, with different species affecting different geographic ranges. Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) is a major vector of Leishma...

  12. Petroleum industry in CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaillaud, P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper gives statistical data on petroleum and natural gas industry in USSR and in Eastern Europe: crude oil and gas production, petroleum and natural gas deposits, exports, fuel consumption, pipelines network (total length, compressor or pump stations), petroleum refineries. This paper describes also air pollution (carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide) and Environmental effects of coal and lignite using in fossil power plants in Eastern Europe. 17 figs., 7 tabs

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Data presented describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States. The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  14. Remedial action in areas of enhanced natural background radiation levels (with particular emphasis in areas with mineral sand mining residues)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindon, T.N.

    1985-01-01

    In areas where individuals may receive doses from natural background sources which are higher than those received in areas of normal background radiation, it may be considered desirable that some remedial action be taken to reduce those doses. Contributions to these higher doses may be through high gamma ray fields from the ground or from the use of local building materials, the intake of food or water derived from the areas or of food covered with dust from the areas, the ingestion of dirt and the inhalation of dust, and radon or thoron. Guidelines for remedial action in areas where residues from mineral sand mining and processing have been deposited are given

  15. Methane hydrate distribution from prolonged and repeated formation in natural and compacted sand samples: X-ray CT observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, E.V.L.; Kneafsey, T.J.; Seol, Y.

    2010-07-01

    To study physical properties of methane gas hydrate-bearing sediments, it is necessary to synthesize laboratory samples due to the limited availability of cores from natural deposits. X-ray computed tomography (CT) and other observations have shown gas hydrate to occur in a number of morphologies over a variety of sediment types. To aid in understanding formation and growth patterns of hydrate in sediments, methane hydrate was repeatedly formed in laboratory-packed sand samples and in a natural sediment core from the Mount Elbert Stratigraphic Test Well. CT scanning was performed during hydrate formation and decomposition steps, and periodically while the hydrate samples remained under stable conditions for up to 60 days. The investigation revealed the impact of water saturation on location and morphology of hydrate in both laboratory and natural sediments during repeated hydrate formations. Significant redistribution of hydrate and water in the samples was observed over both the short and long term.

  16. Petroleum Supply Monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blends, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  18. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab Countries, in Congo, Ethiopia, Gabon and Iran. Economie petroliere et gaziere dans les Pays Arabes, au Congo, en Ethiopie, Gabon et Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-05-16

    This paper gives informations on petroleum and natural gas industry, petroleum market and prices, trade and contracts, prospection and investments: Portugal has retained the candidature of ten foreign companies for the introduction of natural gas in 1996 and the first enhanced recovery contract will relate to Rhourde El Baguel natural gas field (Algeria). New contracts have been signed for exploration or development of petroleum or natural gas fields in Gabon, Ethiopia and Libya. Iraq has restarted its petroleum exports and Iranian production has diminished.

  19. Distribution of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in beach sand samples from Mediterranean Coast of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özmen, S.F.; Cesur, A.; Boztosun, I.; Yavuz, M.

    2014-01-01

    Following Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, a huge amount of radionuclides were released in atmosphere and ocean. It's impact on the environment is of great concern to the good of the public at large. In this regard environmental radioactivity monitoring such as external dose rate and radioactivity measurements in environmental samples has been carried out. For this purpose, several beach sand samples were collected from south coast of the Turkey in September 2011 and radioactivity concentrations of 226 Ra ( 238 U), 228 Ac ( 232 Th), 40 K, 134 Cs and 137 Cs were determined by gamma spectrometry using a high-purity Germanium detector. The measured activity concentrations in beach sand samples ranged from 4.0±0.5 to 21.5±1.8 Bq/kg, 1.8±0.4 to 27.9±2.4 Bq/kg, 19.0±2.2 to 590.3±28.6 Bq/kg and 0.1±0.0 to 1.0±0.1 Bq/kg for 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K and 137 Cs, respectively. However there was no sign of 134 Cs in the sample spectrum after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Hence we can safely conclude that there was no significant material transfer from Fukushima to Turkey. The other activities are in good agreement with the published results of neighboring areas. The absorbed gamma dose rate (D) and the annual effective dose (AED) of beach sand samples were below the world wide average implying that the radiation hazard is insignificant. The data presented in this study would also be very useful to determine the possible future effects of the nuclear power plant to the environment. - Highlights: • Activity values of all samples are lower than the world wide average values. • Gamma dose rates of beach sand samples are in the range of 10–200 nGy/h. • Ra eq activity and AED values of samples are less than world wide average values. • No significant material transfer from Fukushima to Turkey. • Strong correlations detected in between elemental and radioactivity concentration

  20. From petroleum to natural gas. New assets in electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velona', F.

    2002-01-01

    Luigi Einaudi Foundation Group organized on November 5th 2001 a roundtable on the theme: Energy in Italy, how to change for surviving. In the congress hall in the National Federation of Italian Press, Valerio Zanone, the president, and other important persons such as Jan Keppler (Associazione Italiana Editori), Edgardo Curcio (Associazione Italiana Economisti dell'Energia), Emilio Gerelli (Pavia University) and Franco Velona' (Bari Politecnico) presented their relations on the theme of competitivity in the italian energy system, on the environmental compatibility and on the diversification sources from petroleum. Among the most interesting ones were those by ing. Machi', president of Gestore Rete Trasmissione Nazionale, by ing. Clavarino, president of Assocarboni, and by ing. Serena, president of Sondel. It seemed that the dialogue between the academies and the production system was taken again successfully [it

  1. Economic missions. Synthetic file: the petroleum sector in Brazil (exploration and production); the refining activity in Brazil; natural gas in Brazil: a fragile market, inferior to forecasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    This dossier prepared by the economic mission of the French embassy in Brazil makes a synthesis of the exploration-production and refining activities of the petroleum industry, and of the natural gas distribution market in Brazil: oil reserves and production, Petrobras company, partnership agreements with Petrobras, legal aspects, concessions, projects financing, refining capacity, refinery projects in progress or under study, para-petroleum market perspectives and opportunities, natural gas market development, pipelines network, gas utilities, privatization and foreign participation, lack of expertise and of gas infrastructures and equipments. (J.S.)

  2. The mating competence of geographically diverse Leishmania major strains in their natural and unnatural sand fly vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inbar, Ehud; Akopyants, Natalia S; Charmoy, Melanie; Romano, Audrey; Lawyer, Phillip; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin A; Kauffmann, Florence; Barhoumi, Mourad; Grigg, Michael; Owens, Katherine; Fay, Michael; Dobson, Deborah E; Shaik, Jahangheer; Beverley, Stephen M; Sacks, David

    2013-01-01

    Invertebrate stages of Leishmania are capable of genetic exchange during their extracellular growth and development in the sand fly vector. Here we explore two variables: the ability of diverse L. major strains from across its natural range to undergo mating in pairwise tests; and the timing of the appearance of hybrids and their developmental stage associations within both natural (Phlebotomus duboscqi) and unnatural (Lutzomyia longipalpis) sand fly vectors. Following co-infection of flies with parental lines bearing independent drug markers, doubly-drug resistant hybrid progeny were selected, from which 96 clonal lines were analyzed for DNA content and genotyped for parent alleles at 4-6 unlinked nuclear loci as well as the maxicircle DNA. As seen previously, the majority of hybrids showed '2n' DNA contents, but with a significant number of '3n' and one '4n' offspring. In the natural vector, 97% of the nuclear loci showed both parental alleles; however, 3% (4/150) showed only one parental allele. In the unnatural vector, the frequency of uniparental inheritance rose to 10% (27/275). We attribute this to loss of heterozygosity after mating, most likely arising from aneuploidy which is both common and temporally variable in Leishmania. As seen previously, only uniparental inheritance of maxicircle kDNA was observed. Hybrids were recovered at similar efficiencies in all pairwise crosses tested, suggesting that L. major lacks detectable 'mating types' that limit free genetic exchange. In the natural vector, comparisons of the timing of hybrid formation with the presence of developmental stages suggest nectomonads as the most likely sexually competent stage, with hybrids emerging well before the first appearance of metacyclic promastigotes. These studies provide an important perspective on the prevalence of genetic exchange in natural populations of L. major and a guide for experimental studies to understand the biology of mating.

  3. Synthesis of titanate, TiO2 (B), and anatase TiO2 nanofibers from natural rutile sand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavasupree, Sorapong; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Yoshikawa, Susumu; Kawahata, Ryoji

    2005-01-01

    Titanate nanofibers were synthesized by hydrothermal method (150 deg. C for 72 h) using natural rutile sand as the starting materials. TiO 2 (B) and anatase TiO 2 (high crystallinity) nanofibers with the diameters of 20-100 nm and the lengths of 10-100 μm were obtained by calcined titanate nanofibers for 4 h at 400 and 700 deg. C (in air), respectively. The samples characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, SAED, HRTEM, and BET surface area. This synthesis method provides a simple route to fabricate one-dimensional nanostructured TiO 2 from low cost material. -- Graphical abstract: Titanate nanofibers (b) were synthesized by hydrothermal method (150 deg. C for 72 h) using natural rutile sand (a) as the starting materials. TiO 2 (B) (c) and anatase TiO 2 (d) nanofibers with the diameters of 20-50 nm and the lengths of 10-100 μm were obtained by calcined titanate nanofibers for 4 h at 400 deg. C and 700 deg. C (in air), respectively

  4. U(VI) adsorption on natural iron-coated sands: comparison of approaches for modeling adsorption on heterogeneous environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logue, Brian A.; Smith, Robert W.; Westall, John C.

    2004-01-01

    Adsorption of U(VI) on 6 samples of natural Fe-rich sands from Oyster, VA was studied over a range of U(VI) concentrations (0.1-100 μM), pH values (3-7.6), and dithionite-citrate-bicarbonate (DCB) extractable amounts of Fe (3.1-12.3 μmol/g). Four modeling approaches were applied to represent the U(VI) adsorption data. Model I was a two-site, diffuse double layer, surface complexation model based on data for synthetic ferrihydrite [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 58 (1994) 5465-5478]. Considering the magnitude of approximations necessary for application of the laboratory-based model to natural sands, Model I was surprisingly accurate, as determined by the goodness of fit parameter, χ 2 /N of 53.1-22.2. Model II was based on the reactions and diffuse double layer treatment of Model I, but was calibrated to a portion of U(VI) adsorption data for each sand, and then used to predict adsorption data for the same sand under different experimental conditions. Model II did not increase the accuracy of the predictions made with Model I, χ 2 /N of 42.4-27.6. Models III and IV were four-site affinity spectrum models, without an explicit electric double layer model or explicit surface hydrolysis reactions. Model III was based on a discrete log K spectrum approach, and Model IV was obtained from adjusting all surface stability constants and site concentrations for all surface sites. Models III and IV represented the U(VI) adsorption data with the greatest accuracy, χ 2 /N ranged from 13.8 to 4.4. Model I provides evidence supporting the practice of using pure phase thermodynamic reaction constants for describing the adsorption characteristics of environmentally important sorbents in certain simple cases. Yet, affinity spectrum approaches (Models III and IV) become increasingly important as more accurate interpolation of adsorption data is necessary, the sorbent becomes increasingly complex, or the range of experimental conditions expands

  5. Foreign activities of German producers of petroleum and natural gas in 2011; Auslandsaktivitaeten deutscher Erdoel-Erdgas-Produzenten in 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-04-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the foreign activities of the German producers of petroleum/natural gas Wintershall Holding GmbH (Kassel), RWE DEA AG (Hamburg), E.ON Ruhrgas AG (Essen), Petro-Canada Germany GmbH (Essen), VNG Verbundnetz Gas Aktiengesellschaft (Leipzig), Bayerngas Norge AS (Oslo, Norway) und EWE Aktiengesellschaft (Oldenburg) in the year 2011. In Norway, Wintershall has more than fourty licences, around twenty of tem self-operated. RWE DEA has the operating lead at five from nine field development projects. At E.ON Ruhrgas AG, the exploration and production are a high-growth segment with good perspectives in the future. In Norway, Bayerngas Norge As promoted nearly 6.3 billion kWh gas equivalent in 2011.

  6. Natural Gas Hydrate as a Storage Mechanism for Safe, Sustainable and Economical Production from Offshore Petroleum Reserves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Kezirian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Century Fathom presents an innovative process to utilize clathrate hydrates for the production, storage and transportation of natural gas from off-shore energy reserves in deep ocean environments. The production scheme was developed by considering the preferred state of natural gas in the deep ocean and addressing the hazards associated with conventional techniques to transport natural gas. It also is designed to mitigate the significant shipping cost inherent with all methods. The resulting proposed scheme restrains transport in the hydrate form to the ocean and does not attempt to supply energy to the residential consumer. Instead; the target recipients are industrial operations. The resulting operational concept is intrinsically safer by design; environmentally sustainable and significantly cost-effective compared with currently proposed schemes for the use of natural gas hydrates and has the potential to be the optimal solution for new production of reserves; depending on the distance to shore and capacity of the petroleum reserve. A potential additional benefit is the byproduct of desalinated water.

  7. Oil and natural gas strategies for North American energy markets: a submission by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This proposal by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) focuses on improving North American energy markets and addressing the challenges involved in meeting continental energy requirements by urging a renewed policy effort to enhance the current market-based policies of free trade and competition that have already proven to respond to market changes better than command-control government policies. The proposal urges new strategies to support development of the oil and natural gas resources of North America, and the development of additional infrastructure to bring oil and natural gas supplies to market. The new strategy should be based on the success of free trade to increase non-discriminatory treatment of energy investment and trade in energy commodities, recognize resource development in North America as a policy priority, and reform regulatory practices to facilitate responsible, market-driven resource activity. The new strategy should also ensure competitive tax and royalty regimes as well as consistent and compatible environmental policies that eliminate layering and duplication and are competitive among the various jurisdictions. It should also recognize the continental and global nature of energy supply and the increasing interdependence of the partner nations' economies, encourage research and development, and ensure co-ordinated action on frontier natural gas development within a framework of inter-jurisdictional cooperation. Overall, the document is a thorough, credible presentation of the first principles of the oil and gas markets and an important first step towards influencing energy policy on a continental scale. 2 maps, 5 figs

  8. Evaluation of the natural radioactivity at sands of anomalous regions of Espirito Santo state, Brazil; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em areias de regioes anomalas do Espirito Santo, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Reginaldo Ribeiro de; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu, E-mail: raquino@ipen.b, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-10-26

    The natural radioactivity in sands of anomalous regions of the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, were calculated from the concentration of activity of {sup 40}K, {sup 225}Ra and {sup 232}Th for the places of south and central of Camburi, Curva da Jurema, Ilha do Boi, Setibinha, south and central area of Praia da Areia Preta, denominated Black Spot. The samples were sealed and measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and after a expectation time pf 30 days, until to reach a radioactive equilibrium

  9. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab Countries, Iran, Nigeria, Ethiopia and Ivory Coast. Economie petroliere et gaziere dans les pays arabes, en Iran, Nigeria, Ethiopie et Cote d'Ivoire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-16

    This paper describes briefly main informations on petroleum production, prices and market trends, trade and contracts, petroleum exploration in Bahrain, Ethiopia, Libya, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. In Ivory Coast, a consortium led by Electricite de France and Bouygues has obtained the exploitation of Foxtrot natural gas field. Statistics on petroleum and natural gas reserves, production in the world in 1991 and 1992 are also given.

  10. The regulation in the unitization process in the petroleum and natural gas exploration in Brazil; A regulacao no processo de unitization na exploracao de petroleo e gas natural no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, Felipe Alvite; Silva, Moises Espindola [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Engenharia de Petroleo; Bone, Rosemarie Broeker [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Engenharia de Producao

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents and analyses the unitization of exploration and production process of petroleum and natural gas in Brazil, focusing the regulatory aspects under the Petroleum Law 9478/97. Considering the deficiency and blanks of the existent regulation when referring the utilization, this work intends to present and discuss those non resolved points and, in concise way, to present international unitization cases, applying when possible, their resolutions to Brazil.

  11. 2002 survey - energy, petroleum, natural gas, automobile, environment; Panorama 2002 - energie, petrole, gaz naturel, automobile, environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannesini, J F [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Schweitzer, L; Fayolle, J P [Renault, 92 - Boulogne Billancourt (France); Nejat Veziroglu, T [Association Hydrogen Energy (Canada); Alleau, Th [Association Francaise de l' Hydogene, 75 - Paris (France); Gueguen, C [Totalfinaelf raffinerie de Feyzin, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2002-07-01

    The French institute of petroleum (IFP) has organized its seventh annual international 'Panorama' colloquium on the theme: fuels of the future. This document brings together the different invited talks given in Paris, Lyon and Brussels on this theme: a summary of 2001 highlights in the oil and gas industry given by J.F. Giannesini (IFP head's adviser), a prospective analysis of future automotive fuels with respect to fossil fuel reserves depletion and environmental policy constraints given by L. Schweitzer (president of Renault car making industry), a presentation of the hydrogen and synthetic fuel energy systems of the 21. century by T. Nejat Veziroglu (president of the international association for hydrogen energy), a presentation of the economical, environmental, technical and political aspects of hydrogen as a future energy vector by T. Alleau (president of the French association of hydrogen AFH2), the formulation of future automotive fuels as seen from the eye of the refinery engineer by C. Geguen (technical director of Feyzin refinery (TotalFinaElf)), and a last paper about the recent and future evolutions of diesel engines for industrial vehicles by J.P. Fayolle (director of engines R and D, Renault industrial vehicles). (J.S.)

  12. 2002 survey - energy, petroleum, natural gas, automobile, environment; Panorama 2002 - energie, petrole, gaz naturel, automobile, environnement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannesini, J.F. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Schweitzer, L.; Fayolle, J.P. [Renault, 92 - Boulogne Billancourt (France); Nejat Veziroglu, T. [Association Hydrogen Energy (Canada); Alleau, Th. [Association Francaise de l' Hydogene, 75 - Paris (France); Gueguen, C. [Totalfinaelf raffinerie de Feyzin, 69 - Lyon (France)

    2002-07-01

    The French institute of petroleum (IFP) has organized its seventh annual international 'Panorama' colloquium on the theme: fuels of the future. This document brings together the different invited talks given in Paris, Lyon and Brussels on this theme: a summary of 2001 highlights in the oil and gas industry given by J.F. Giannesini (IFP head's adviser), a prospective analysis of future automotive fuels with respect to fossil fuel reserves depletion and environmental policy constraints given by L. Schweitzer (president of Renault car making industry), a presentation of the hydrogen and synthetic fuel energy systems of the 21. century by T. Nejat Veziroglu (president of the international association for hydrogen energy), a presentation of the economical, environmental, technical and political aspects of hydrogen as a future energy vector by T. Alleau (president of the French association of hydrogen AFH2), the formulation of future automotive fuels as seen from the eye of the refinery engineer by C. Geguen (technical director of Feyzin refinery (TotalFinaElf)), and a last paper about the recent and future evolutions of diesel engines for industrial vehicles by J.P. Fayolle (director of engines R and D, Renault industrial vehicles). (J.S.)

  13. Ex-USSR: petroleum activities in 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This paper gives statistical data on economy and petroleum industry in ex-USSR: Primary energy production and consumption (coal, petroleum, natural gas, primary power), petroleum and natural gas reserves, drilling activity, exports and imports of petroleum products, refining capacity. 2 figs., 14 tabs

  14. Natural radionuclides present in the beach sands of Guarapari and Anchieta, EspÍrito Santo, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, Victor J.; Takahashi, Laura C.

    2017-01-01

    The natural radioactivity was determined in the Espírito Santo sands, in Brazil, in eight beaches from Anchieta and Guarapari. In the methodology, the sands of each beach were collected, sifted, dried in the oven, and conditioned in Marinellis. Its weight was measured on the scale, and stored for 30 days for their secular equilibrium. Then, the gamma spectrometry measurement was performed. The specific activities for each beach were calculated and the radioactive balance of the 238 U and 232 Th series was also studied. From the standard deviation of the estimated error (S), the chi-square distribution parameter (R 2 ), the coefficient of determination R 2 , R-sq, and the adjusted R 2 , R-sq (adj) was studied. In the results, a regression curve (fitted line plot) was performed on the quality adjustment with a 95% confidence interval for the values found in Neptune, Além, Coninhos, Onça, Três Praias, Morcego and Padres beaches. The R 2 measured presented values close to 1. The beach Areia Vermelha presented a specific activity with a percentage of 98.41% in relation to the other beaches and very high activity compared to the world average. (author)

  15. Natural radionuclides present in the beach sands of Guarapari and Anchieta, EspÍrito Santo, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, Victor J.; Takahashi, Laura C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Anatomia e Imagem; Fontainha, Críssia C.P.; Santos, Talita O.; Rocha, Zildete, E-mail: crissia@gmail.com, E-mail: zildete@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The natural radioactivity was determined in the Espírito Santo sands, in Brazil, in eight beaches from Anchieta and Guarapari. In the methodology, the sands of each beach were collected, sifted, dried in the oven, and conditioned in Marinellis. Its weight was measured on the scale, and stored for 30 days for their secular equilibrium. Then, the gamma spectrometry measurement was performed. The specific activities for each beach were calculated and the radioactive balance of the {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series was also studied. From the standard deviation of the estimated error (S), the chi-square distribution parameter (R{sub 2}), the coefficient of determination R{sub 2}, R-sq, and the adjusted R{sub 2}, R-sq (adj) was studied. In the results, a regression curve (fitted line plot) was performed on the quality adjustment with a 95% confidence interval for the values found in Neptune, Além, Coninhos, Onça, Três Praias, Morcego and Padres beaches. The R{sub 2} measured presented values close to 1. The beach Areia Vermelha presented a specific activity with a percentage of 98.41% in relation to the other beaches and very high activity compared to the world average. (author)

  16. Preparation of Fe3O4/Bentonite Nanocomposite from Natural Iron Sand by Co-precipitation Method for Adsorbents Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebayang, Perdamean; Kurniawan, Candra; Aryanto, Didik; Arief Setiadi, Eko; Tamba, Konni; Djuhana; Sudiro, Toto

    2018-03-01

    An adsorption method is one of the effective ways to filter the heavy metals wastes in aqueous system. In this paper, the Fe3O4/bentonite nanocomposites were successfully prepared from natural iron sand by co-precipitation method. The chemical process was carried out by dissolving and hot stirring the milled iron sand and bentonite in acid solution and precipitating it by NH4OH. The sediment was then washed using distilled water to neutralize pH and dried at 100 °C for 5 hours to produce Fe3O4/bentonite powders. The samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR, BET, TEM, VSM and AAS. All samples were composed by Fe3O4 single phase with a spinnel structure and lattice parameter of 8.373 Å. The transmittance peak of FTIR curve proved that the Fe3O4 particles and bentonite had a molecular bonding. The addition of bentonite to Fe3O4 nanoparticles generally reduced the magnetic properties of Fe3O4/bentonite nanocomposites. The optimum condition of 30 wt% bentonite resulted 105.9 m2/g in surface area, 14 nm in an average particle size and 3.2 nm in pore size. It can be used as Cu and Pb adsorbent materials.

  17. Local enhancement of the natural radionuclides in beach sand in Al-ar ish, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddek, M.K.; Ragab, H.S.; Sharshar, T.; Mahmoud, K.R.; Badran, H.M.; Elnimr, T.

    2005-01-01

    Radionuclidic concentrations in Al-Arish city area, north Sinai, Egypt, were measured. The activities of the 232 Th and 238 U series in soil samples from two locations in harbor area and a location ∼ 3 km east the harbor were higher than those from other sites, with activities of 81.610.7, 50.6 ± 0.5, and 24.8 ± 0.4 Bq/kg 228 ,for ' Rn and 98.9 ± 1.3, 67.2±1.1, and 52.2±0.8 Bq/kg for 8 Ac. The average contents for the other sites were 8. 7.2 and 7.5 ± 6.7 Bq/kg for 222 Rn and 228 Ac, respectively. No significant difference in the 40 K activity was found between these two groups. The measured depth profiles in the site with the highest activity are studied. Samples with the smallest grain size (<0.2 mrr) were found to contain the highest level of activities, due to its high content of black sand

  18. Case study: dynamic modulus characterization of naturally occurring bituminous sands for sustainable pavement applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available .3 10.5 208.9 42.2 285.0 12.6 209.9 40.6 287.8 11.0 5 208.9 39.5 411.5 12.5 208.9 41.1 313.8 14.4 209.9 40.3 305.7 12.5 10 208.9 40.4 502.5 14.7 208.9 39.3 343.2 18.4 210.0 38.9 334.3 12.0 Table 3. Dynamic Modulus Test Results for Oil Sand Samples....8 111.6 29.7 140.4 40.1 110.0 30.1 2 208.9 40.1 311.4 17.0 209.7 42.8 100.1 18.3 209.9 40.5 108.4 16.1 5 209.6 38.5 340.0 16.3 208.9 40.7 152.8 18.3 209.9 39.2 154.5 17.7 10 208.9 39.4 414.2 16.7 208.9 41.2 240.8 18.8 209.9 36.6 233.2 17.3 increase...

  19. Observations on sediment sources in the Lower Athabasca River basin: implications of natural hydrocarbons inputs from oil sands deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conly, F.M.

    1999-01-01

    Government, industry and public concern exists over the environmental consequences of the development of the oil sand deposits in the McMurray Formation in the lower Athabasca River basin, Alberta. The impact of this development is unclear and is undergoing investigation. Investigations to date have focussed on the nature of the effluent produced by the extraction industry and its effect on biotic systems, and on the spatial distribution of hydrocarbon contaminants associated with deposited fluvial sediments. Natural hydrocarbon outcrops may be responsible for observed biomarker responses in areas not exposed to industrial effluent. Given this source of hydrocarbons and doubt concerning its environmental impact, it is difficult to ascertain the impact of oil extraction activities within a fluvial system. A study was conducted to determine the nature and extent of natural hydrocarbon releases within the context of the sediment regime of the lower Athabasca River basin. A description is included of observations from the field and a context is set up for assessing sediment-bound hydrocarbon contaminants in the lower Athabasca River basin. Abstract only included

  20. Support to the electric power, natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document brings together the different financial incentives proposed to the acquisition and utilization of electric power, natural gas or LPG vehicles. The financial assistance of the ADEME, the fiscal incentives and other proposals are detailed. (A.L.B.)

  1. Metrological evaluation of petroleum, his derivatives, natural gas and alcohol flow computers; Avaliacao metrologica de computadores de vazao de petroleo, seus derivados, gas natural e alcool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlando, A.F.; Callegario, E. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC/Rio), RJ (Brazil)], Emails: afo@puc-rio.br, callegario@puc-rio.br; Ferreira, A.; Pinheiro, J.A.; Oliveira, T.B.V. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: andref@petrobras.com.br, jose.pinheiro@petrobras.com.br, thiagovidal@petrobras.com.br

    2009-07-01

    This work presents results of petroleum flow computers, his derivatives, natural gas and alcohol, used on fiscal measurements, appropriation and custodial transfer system. It is intended that the used proceed give subsides for the model approval and verify initially the flow computers, besides the periodic verification of installed flow computers. The test procedures are focused at the algorithm deviations, at the A/D (analog - digital) and D/D (digital-digital)conversion deviations, simulating static pressure transmitters, pressure differential, temperature, specific mass, BSW (Basic Sediment and Waste), and at the pulse counting deviations of the flow computer. The presented methodology is based on specific document for certification and initial verification of flow computers for the WELMEC (European Cooperation in Legal Metrology), and improved to attend the measurement requirements in Brazil. The test show various no conformities among the performance of tested flow computers compared with allowed values by the developed procedure.

  2. Biomarker chemistry and flux quantification methods for natural petroleum seeps and produced oils, offshore southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, T.D.; Leifer, Ira; Wong, Florence L.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Campbell, Pamela L.; Lam, Angela; Hostettler, Frances D.; Greinert, Jens; Finlayson, David P.; Bradley, Eliza S.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.

    2011-01-01

    Sustained, natural oil seepage from the seafloor is common off southern California, and is of great interest to resource managers, who are tasked with distinguishing natural from anthropogenic oil sources. The major purpose of this study was to build upon the work previously funded by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that has refined the oil-fingerprinting process to enable differentiation of the highly similar Monterey Formation oils from Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) production and adjacent natural seeps. In these initial studies, biomarker and stable carbon isotope ratios were used to infer the age, lithology, organic-matter input, and depositional environment of the source rocks for 388 samples of produced crude oil, seep oil, and tarballs mainly from coastal California. The analysis resulted in a predictive model of oil source families that could be applied to samples of unknown origin.

  3. experimental studies of sand production from unconsolidated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    aDepartment of Chemical Engineering, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria. bDepartment of Petroleum ... as risk of well failure, erosion of pipelines and surface facilities, sand separa- ... ment, theoretical and numerical analysis have lead to the ...

  4. Fuel options for oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation examined fuel options in relation to oil sands production. Options include steam and hydrogen (H 2 ) for upgrading; natural gas by pipeline; bitumen; petroleum coke; and coal. Various cost drivers were also considered for each of the fuel options. It was noted that natural gas has high energy value but the capital cost is low, and that coke's energy value is very low but the capital cost is high. A chart forecasting energy prices was presented. The disposition of Western Canada's northern gas situation was presented. Issues concerning rail transportation for coal were considered. Environmental concerns were also examined. A chart of typical gas requirements for 75,000 B/D oil sands projects was presented. Issues concerning steam generation with gas and mining cogeneration with gas fuel and steam turbines were discussed, as well as cogeneration and H 2 with gas fuels and steam turbines. Various technology and fuel utility options were examined, along with details of equipment and processes. Boiler technologies were reviewed by type as well as fuel and steam quality and pressure. Charts of cogeneration with gas turbine and circulation fluid bed boilers were presented. Gasification processes were reviewed and a supply cost basis was examined. Cost drivers were ranked according to energy, operating considerations and capital investment. Results indicated that fuel costs were significant for gas and coal. Capital costs and capital recovery charge was most significant with coal and gasification technology. Without capital recovery, cash costs favour the use of bitumen and coke. Gasification would need lower capital and lower capital recovery to compete with direct burning. It was concluded that direct burning of bitumen can compete with natural gas. With price volatility anticipated, dual fuel capability for bitumen and gas has merit. Petroleum coke can be produced or retrieved from stockpiles. Utility supply costs of direct burning of coke is

  5. Radiological dose assessment related to management of naturally occurring radioactive materials generated by the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.P.; Blunt, D.L.; Williams, G.P.; Tebes, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary radiological dose assessment related to equipment decontamination, subsurface disposal, landspreading, equipment smelting, and equipment burial was conducted to address concerns regarding the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials in production waste streams. The assessment evaluated the relative dose of these activities and included a sensitivity analysis of certain input parameters. Future studies and potential policy actions are recommended

  6. 77 FR 11039 - Proposed Confidentiality Determinations for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Source Category...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... liquids (NGLs) or non-methane gases from produced natural gas, or the separation of NGLs into one or more... than or reveal the composition of the hydrocarbon equal to 10 barrels per liquid or the reporter's... composition of the hydrocarbon equal to 10 barrels per liquid or the reporter's productivity. Data on day...

  7. Sand flies naturally infected by Leishmania (L.) mexicana in the peri-urban area of Chetumal city, Quintana Roo, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Laura; Berzunza-Cruz, Miriam; Becker-Fauser, Ingeborg; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A

    2010-06-01

    The surveillance of prevalent Leishmania sand fly vectors is an important issue for epidemiological studies in populated areas where leishmaniasis is endemic. In this study, we collected sand flies from a peri-urban area in the southeast of Mexico. Natural infection with Leishmania (L.) mexicana was studied by PCR using a Leishmania internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal RNA gene for amplification. Infected Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca, Lu. shannoni and Lu. cruciata sand flies were collected mainly during the high transmission season (November to March), coinciding with the highest sand fly densities. Additionally, positive specimens of Lu. olmeca olmeca were also captured during July and August. The infected sand flies were from primary forest (subperennial forest) and secondary forest (18-25 years old and 10-15 years old respectively). Sand flies collected with Disney and Shannon traps were the ones found to be infected with L. (L.) mexicana. We conclude that the high-risk period in which L. (L.) mexicana is transmitted in the peri-urban area of Chetumal City is from July to March and that transmission is associated with both the subperennial forest and the secondary forest. 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The comparison of properties and cost of material use of natural rubber and sand in manufacturing cement mortar for construction sub-base layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, R.; Nemmang, M. S.; Hazurina, Nor; Shahidan, S.; Khairul Tajuddin Jemain, Raden; Abdullah, M. E.; Hassan, M. F.

    2017-11-01

    The main issue related to this research was to examine the feasibility of natural rubber SMR 20 in the manufacturing of cement mortar for sub-base layer construction. Subbase layers have certain functions that need to be fulfilled in order to assure strong and adequate permeability of pavement performance. In a pavement structure, sub-base is below the base and serves as the foundation for the overall pavement structure, transmitting traffic loads to the sub-grade and providing drainage. Based on this research, the natural rubber, SMR 20 was with the percentages of 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% to mix with sand in the manufacture of the cement mortar. This research describes some of the properties and cost of the materials for the natural rubber and sand in cement mortar manufacturing by laboratory testing. Effects of the natural rubber replacement on mechanical properties of mortar were investigated by laboratory testing such as compressive strength test and density. This study obtained the 5% of natural rubber replaced in sand can achieved the strength of normal mortar after 7 days and 28 days. The strength of cement mortar depends on the density of cement mortar. According to the cost of both materials, sand shows the lower cost in material for the cement mortar manufacturing than the uses of natural rubber. Thus, the convectional cement mortar which used sand need lower cost than the modified rubber cement mortar and the most economical to apply in industrial. As conclusion, the percentage of 5% natural rubber in the cement mortar would have the same with normal cement mortar in terms of the strength. However, in terms of the cost of the construction, it will increase higher than cost of normal cement mortar production. So that, this modified cement mortar is not economical for the road sub-base construction.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-26

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  10. Influence of NORMs on the natural background radiation level in petroleum-producing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) which are found in the Earth's crust, in the form of 226 Ra and 228 Ra and their associated radionuclides, are brought to the surface of the ground as a result of oil production processes, and are known under the name of technologically enhanced natural radioactivity (TENR). These represent a potential hazard of significant scale. 226 Ra, an α emitter, represents a potential internal radiation exposure hazard to both workers and members of the public, arising from the inhalation and ingestion of the dust produced during cleaning operations for the descaling of pipes and separator tanks. In addition to this, a higher than normal background γ exposure rate is to be observed both around and directly at the areas where the mud from the separator tanks and pipe cleaning operations was routinely dumped. Therefore, the aim of this work was to present the data on radiation levels measured in contaminated areas located near to a number of oilfields in Egypt and in Syria. The decontamination processes undertaken and the precautions necessary to ensure elimination of the possible transport mechanisms for contaminated dust into public areas by wind are presented. (orig.)

  11. Natural radioactivity of beach sand samples in Port Sudan, red sea state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambal, Wala Haider Hussein

    2015-01-01

    Natural radioactivity is a source of continuous exposure to human beings. In Port Sudan city, the main port of Sudan, data on the levels of natural radioactivity in soil is required. The aim of this study was to measure the activity concentration as well as the absorbed dose and annual effective dose of the naturally occurring radionuclides 238 U, 232 Th, and 40 K in soil samples collected from different locations around Red Sea costa areas in Port Sudan city. Activity concentrations were measured using gamma ray spectrometry (Nal) detector. Results showed that the average activity concentration of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K were found to be 21.86, 17.55, 85.50 Bqkg 1 , respectively, with an average absorbed dose of 10.42, 9.40 and 3.57 nGyh 1 , respectively. The average annual effective dose values were found to be 11.89, 11.54 and 4.37 μSvy 1 for 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively. The measured values were comparable with other global radioactivity measurements and found to be safe for public and environment.(Author)

  12. Application of coal petrographic methods in petroleum and natural gas exploration. Anwendung kohlenpetrographischer Methoden bei der Erdoel- und Erdgasprospektion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teichmueller, M.

    1971-02-15

    The relationship that exists between coalification and the formation of liquid petroleum and natural gas depends entirely upon the temperature in the earth's crust and the duration of heating. The degree of coalification can be determined by reflectivity measurements on very small vitrinitic (huminitic) inclusions in sedimentary rocks, because a satisfactory correlation has been established between mean reflectivity (R/sub m Oil/) and different parameters of chemical rank using 900 vitrites of different rank. This paper reports the considerable experience obtained with this method using cores and cuttings from boreholes of the German oil industry. Subsequently, examples from other countries are described which confirm the applicability of the method. Results obtained so far suggest that oil deposits may occur when the reflectivity (R/sub m Oil/) of the vitrinite lies between 0.3 and 1.0% (brown coal to high-volatile bituminous stage), whereas economic gas deposits may be found when R/sub m Oil/ extends from 0.7 to 2.0% (high-low volatile bituminous stage).

  13. An In-Depth Investigation into the Physicochemical, Thermal, Microstructural, and Rheological Properties of Petroleum and Natural Asphalts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nader Nciri

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, unexpected and sudden pavement failures have occurred in several provinces in South Korea. Some of these failures remain unexplained, further illustrating the gaps in our knowledge about binder chemistry. To prevent premature pavement distress and enhance road performance, it is imperative to provide an adequate characterization of asphalt. For this purpose, the current research aims at inspecting the chemistry, microstructure, thermal, and physico-rheological properties of two types of asphalt, namely petroleum asphalt (PA and natural asphalt (NA. The binders were extensively investigated by using elemental analysis, thin-layer chromatography with flame ionization detection (TLC-FID, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-fight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF-MS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy (RS, Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-NMR, ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, penetration, softening point, ductility, and viscosity tests. The findings of this research have revealed the distinct variations between the chemical compositions, microstructures, and thermo-rheological properties of the two asphalts and provided valuable knowledge into the characteristics of the binders. Such insight has been effective in predicting the performance or distress of road pavement. This paper will, therefore, be of immediate interest to materials engineers in state highway agencies and asphalt industries.

  14. Logistics aspects of petroleum pipeline operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Pienaar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper identifies, assesses and describes the logistics aspects of the commercial operation of petroleum pipelines. The nature of petroleum-product supply chains, in which pipelines play a role, is outlined and the types of petroleum pipeline systems are described. An outline is presented of the nature of the logistics activities of petroleum pipeline operations. The reasons for the cost efficiency of petroleum pipeline operations are given. The relative modal service effectiveness of petroleum pipeline transport, based on the most pertinent service performance measures, is offered. The segments in the petroleum-products supply chain where pipelines can play an efficient and effective role are identified.

  15. Substitution of petroleum liquefied gas for natural gas in a metallurgical industry: a case study; Substituicao de gas liquefeito de petroleo por gas natural em uma siderurgica: um estudo de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Isac Quintao; Miranda, Luciano Lellis; Fullin Junior, Benjamin; Rodrigues, Henrique de Castro; Manella, Roberto [Aperam South America, Timoteo, MG (Brazil). Utilidades e Eficiencia Energetica; Lins, Vanessa de Freitas Cunha [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2011-12-21

    Minas Gerais is a State where there is no production of natural gas. Aiming to increase the consumption of natural gas in Minas Gerais, PETROBRAS increase the network of gas natural distribution in the State of Minas Gerais and the State concessionaire (GASMIG) installed the Project of Natural Gas Valley. The case study is associated to an enterprise that firmed contract for supplying of natural gas. The fuel to be substituted is the Liquefied Petroleum Gas and the results of the substitution were shown. The advantages of the substitution were related to costs, and environmental aspects with the reduction of CO{sub 2} production. The natural gas contains a lower content of impurities and is operated with higher safety than the petroleum liquefied gas. (author)

  16. Mesocosm trials of bioremediation of contaminated soil of a petroleum refinery: comparison of natural attenuation, biostimulation and bioaugmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, M Nazaré P F S; Monteiro, Emanuela; Vasconcelos, M Teresa S D

    2010-08-01

    Contamination with petroleum hydrocarbons (PHC) is a global problem with environmental implications. Physico-chemical treatments can be used for soil cleanup, but they are expensive, and can have implications for soil structure and environment. Otherwise, biological remediation treatments are cost-effective and restore soil structure. Several remediation experiments have been carried out in the lab and in the field; however, there is the challenge to achieve as good or better results in the field as in the laboratory. In the ambit of a project aiming at investigating suitable biological remediation approaches for recovering a refinery contaminated soil, we present here results obtained in bioremediation trials. The approaches biostimulation and bioaugmentation were tested, in parallel, and compared with natural attenuation. For this purpose, mesocosm experiments were carried out inside the refinery area, which constitutes a real asset of this work. Soil contaminated with crude oil was excavated, re-contaminated with turbine oil, homogenised and used to fill several 0.5 m(3) high-density polyethylene containers. The efficiency of procedures as follows: (1) natural attenuation; (2) manual aeration; (3) biostimulation by adding (3.1) only nutrients; and (3.2) nutrients and a non-ionic surfactant; and (4) bioaugmentation in the presence of added (4.1) nutrients or (4.2) nutrients and a non-ionic surfactant were evaluated after a 9-month period of experiment. For bioaugmentation, a commercial bacterial product was used. In addition to physico-chemical characterization, initial and final soil contents in total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) (by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry) and the total number of bacteria (by total cell counts) were carried out. For TPH degradation evaluation the soil was divided in four fractions corresponding to different depths: 0-5; 5-10; 10-15; and 15-20 cm. Mean values of percentages of PHC degradation varied between 20 and 50% at

  17. Radiological dose assessment related to management of naturally occurring radioactive materials generated by the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, K.P.; Blunt, D.L.; Williams, G.P.

    1996-09-01

    A preliminary radiological dose assessment of equipment decontamination, subsurface disposal, landspreading, equipment smelting, and equipment burial was conducted to address concerns regarding the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in production waste streams. The assessment estimated maximum individual dose equivalents for workers and the general public. Sensitivity analyses of certain input parameters also were conducted. On the basis of this assessment, it is concluded that (1) regulations requiring workers to wear respiratory protection during equipment cleaning operations are likely to result in lower worker doses, (2) underground injection and downhole encapsulation of NORM wastes present a negligible risk to the general public, and (3) potential doses to workers and the general public related to smelting NORM-contaminated equipment can be controlled by limiting the contamination level of the initial feed. It is recommended that (1) NORM wastes be further characterized to improve studies of potential radiological doses; (2) states be encouraged to permit subsurface disposal of NORM more readily, provided further assessments support this study; results; (3) further assessment of landspreading NORM wastes be conducted; and (4) the political, economic, sociological, and nonradiological issues related to smelting NORM-contaminated equipment be studied to fully examine the feasibility of this disposal option

  18. Crude petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Crude petroleum statistics by country of production, export values and import values from 1983 to 1988 are given. Table A.1 of the Annex includes free market prices and price indices for crude petroleum based on average of Dubai, United Kingdom Brent and Alaska N Slope crude prices (price expressed in dollars/barrel). The data sources are: Crude petroleum United Nations Statistical Office; OPEC Annual Statistical Bulletin, and Petroleum Economist. For trade the sources of data are: National trade statistics; United Nations international trade statistics; International Moneytary Fund (IMF); Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC); UNCTAD secretariat estimates. Tabs

  19. Papers of a Canadian Institute conference : Tapping into new opportunities in oil sands supply and infrastructure : natural gas, diluent, pipelines, cogeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Participants at this conference were provided the opportunity to hear various views of several industry leaders on topics related to oil sands supply and infrastructure. Some of the issues addressed were: the latest project developments and pipeline infrastructure expansion initiatives in the oil sands industry; the growing natural gas supply requirements for oil sands production; how to effectively manage stakeholder issues in the context of rapid growth; an update on the supply and demand balance for diluent; demand for cogeneration and the implications of transmission system congestion; and, market development prospects for heavy crude and the need for additional refinery capacity. The Minister of Alberta Economic Development also made a special presentation. There were fifteen presentations made at the conference, of which nine were indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  20. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells PART 3 OF 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Joel [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The United States has more oil and gas wells than any other country. As of December 31, 2004, there were more than half a million producing oil wells in the United States. That is more than three times the combined total for the next three leaders: China, Canada, and Russia. The Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) is a partnership that includes domestic oil and gas producers, service and supply companies, trade associations, academia, the Department of Energy’s Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil (SCNGO) at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The Consortium was established in 2000. This report serves as a final technical report for the SWC activities conducted over the May 1, 2004 to December 1, 2011 timeframe. During this timeframe, the SWC worked with 173 members in 29 states and three international countries, to focus on the development of new technologies to benefit the U.S. stripper well industry. SWC worked with NETL to develop a nationwide request-for-proposal (RFP) process to solicit proposals from the U.S. stripper well industry to develop and/or deploy new technologies that would assist small producers in improving the production performance of their stripper well operations. SWC conducted eight rounds of funding. A total of 132 proposals were received. The proposals were compiled and distributed to an industrydriven SWC executive council and program sponsors for review. Applicants were required to make a formal technical presentation to the SWC membership, executive council, and program sponsors. After reviewing the proposals and listening to the presentations, the executive council made their funding recommendations to program sponsors. A total of 64 projects were selected for funding, of which 59 were fully completed. Penn State then worked with grant awardees to issue a subcontract for their approved work. SWC organized and hosted a total of 14 meetings

  1. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells PART 2 OF 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Joel [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The United States has more oil and gas wells than any other country. As of December 31, 2004, there were more than half a million producing oil wells in the United States. That is more than three times the combined total for the next three leaders: China, Canada, and Russia. The Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) is a partnership that includes domestic oil and gas producers, service and supply companies, trade associations, academia, the Department of Energy’s Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil (SCNGO) at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The Consortium was established in 2000. This report serves as a final technical report for the SWC activities conducted over the May 1, 2004 to December 1, 2011 timeframe. During this timeframe, the SWC worked with 173 members in 29 states and three international countries, to focus on the development of new technologies to benefit the U.S. stripper well industry. SWC worked with NETL to develop a nationwide request-for-proposal (RFP) process to solicit proposals from the U.S. stripper well industry to develop and/or deploy new technologies that would assist small producers in improving the production performance of their stripper well operations. SWC conducted eight rounds of funding. A total of 132 proposals were received. The proposals were compiled and distributed to an industrydriven SWC executive council and program sponsors for review. Applicants were required to make a formal technical presentation to the SWC membership, executive council, and program sponsors. After reviewing the proposals and listening to the presentations, the executive council made their funding recommendations to program sponsors. A total of 64 projects were selected for funding, of which 59 were fully completed. Penn State then worked with grant awardees to issue a subcontract for their approved work. SWC organized and hosted a total of 14 meetings

  2. Parasite load in the blood and skin of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania infantum is correlated with their capacity to infect sand fly vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Lairton Souza; Sousa, Orlando Marcos Farias de; Solcà, Manuela da Silva; Bastos, Leila Andrade; Bordoni, Marcelo; Magalhães, Jairo Torres; Larangeira, Daniela Farias; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares

    2016-10-15

    The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is primarily responsible for the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the New World, and dogs are considered to be the main urban reservoir of this disease. In order to improve the efficacy of control measures, it is essential to assess the transmission capacity of Leishmania infantum to the sand fly vector by naturally infected dogs. The present study investigated the existence of correlations between canine clinical presentation and the intensity of parasite load in the blood, skin and spleen of naturally infected dogs. In addition, we also attempted to establish correlations between the intensity of parasite load in canine tissue and the parasite load detected in sandflies five days after feeding on naturally infected dogs. A total of 23 dogs were examined and classified according to clinical manifestation of canine VL. Blood samples, splenic aspirate and skin biopsies were collected and parasite DNA was quantified by qPCR. Canine capacity to infect Lu. longipalpis with parasites was evaluated by xenodiagnosis and parasite loads were measured five days after feeding. No significant differences were observed with respect to canine clinical manifestation and the parasite loads detected in the blood, skin and spleen samples obtained from naturally infected dogs. Regardless of clinical canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) presentation and the degree of parasite burden, almost half of the dogs successfully infected sandflies with parasites, albeit to a low number of sandflies with correspondingly low parasite loads. Parasite loads in both canine blood and skin were shown to be positively correlated with the canine infectiousness to the sand fly vector, and positive correlations were also observed with respect to these tissues and the sand fly infection rate, as well as the parasite load detected in sandflies following xenodiagnosis. In conclusion, this indicates that parasite loads in both blood and skin can function as

  3. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-06-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe (PSM) the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply.'' Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  4. Natural silica sand modified by calcium oxide as a new adsorbent for uranyl ions removal from aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elhefnawy, O.A.; Elabd, A.A. [Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority (NRRA), Cairo (Egypt). Nuclear Safeguards and Physical Protection Dept.

    2017-07-01

    Calcium oxide modified El-Zafarana silica sand (CMZS) was prepared as a new adsorbent for U(VI) removal from aqueous solutions in a series of batch experiments. The new adsorbent CMZS was characterized by different analysis techniques SEM, EDX, XRD, and FTIR. The influence of many parameters on the removal process like; effect of pH, contact time, U(VI) initial concentration and temperature on U(VI) removal were investigated. Kinetic experiments showed that U(VI) removal on CMZS followed pseudo-second-order kinetics model appropriately and the equilibrium data agreed well with the Langmuir isotherm model. Kinetics and isothermal data reveal the chemisorption process of U(VI) on CMZS. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH {sup circle}, ΔS {sup circle}, ΔG {sup circle}) were evaluated from temperature dependent adsorption data and the U(VI) removal on CMZS was found to be endothermic and spontaneous in nature. U(VI) desorption from CMZS was studied by a simple acid treatment. The results indicate that CMZS is an effective adsorbent for U(VI) from aqueous solutions.

  5. Plant Community and Nitrogen Deposition as Drivers of Alpha and Beta Diversities of Prokaryotes in Reconstructed Oil Sand Soils and Natural Boreal Forest Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Cindy E.; Renaut, Sébastien; Terrat, Yves; Grayston, Sue J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Athabasca oil sand deposit is one of the largest single oil deposits in the world. Following surface mining, companies are required to restore soil-like profiles that can support the previous land capabilities. The objective of this study was to assess whether the soil prokaryotic alpha diversity (α-diversity) and β-diversity in oil sand soils reconstructed 20 to 30 years previously and planted to one of three vegetation types (coniferous or deciduous trees and grassland) were similar to those found in natural boreal forest soils subject to wildfire disturbance. Prokaryotic α-diversity and β-diversity were assessed using massively parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The β-diversity, but not the α-diversity, differed between reconstructed and natural soils. Bacteria associated with an oligotrophic lifestyle were more abundant in natural forest soils, whereas bacteria associated with a copiotrophic lifestyle were more abundant in reconstructed soils. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea were most abundant in reconstructed soils planted with grasses. Plant species were the main factor influencing α-diversity in natural and in reconstructed soils. Nitrogen deposition, pH, and plant species were the main factors influencing the β-diversity of the prokaryotic communities in natural and reconstructed soils. The results highlight the importance of nitrogen deposition and aboveground-belowground relationships in shaping soil microbial communities in natural and reconstructed soils. IMPORTANCE Covering over 800 km2, land disturbed by the exploitation of the oil sands in Canada has to be restored. Here, we take advantage of the proximity between these reconstructed ecosystems and the boreal forest surrounding the oil sand mining area to study soil microbial community structure and processes in both natural and nonnatural environments. By identifying key characteristics shaping the structure of soil microbial communities, this study improved our understanding of

  6. Plant Community and Nitrogen Deposition as Drivers of Alpha and Beta Diversities of Prokaryotes in Reconstructed Oil Sand Soils and Natural Boreal Forest Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, Jacynthe; Prescott, Cindy E; Renaut, Sébastien; Terrat, Yves; Grayston, Sue J

    2017-05-01

    The Athabasca oil sand deposit is one of the largest single oil deposits in the world. Following surface mining, companies are required to restore soil-like profiles that can support the previous land capabilities. The objective of this study was to assess whether the soil prokaryotic alpha diversity (α-diversity) and β-diversity in oil sand soils reconstructed 20 to 30 years previously and planted to one of three vegetation types (coniferous or deciduous trees and grassland) were similar to those found in natural boreal forest soils subject to wildfire disturbance. Prokaryotic α-diversity and β-diversity were assessed using massively parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The β-diversity, but not the α-diversity, differed between reconstructed and natural soils. Bacteria associated with an oligotrophic lifestyle were more abundant in natural forest soils, whereas bacteria associated with a copiotrophic lifestyle were more abundant in reconstructed soils. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea were most abundant in reconstructed soils planted with grasses. Plant species were the main factor influencing α-diversity in natural and in reconstructed soils. Nitrogen deposition, pH, and plant species were the main factors influencing the β-diversity of the prokaryotic communities in natural and reconstructed soils. The results highlight the importance of nitrogen deposition and aboveground-belowground relationships in shaping soil microbial communities in natural and reconstructed soils. IMPORTANCE Covering over 800 km 2 , land disturbed by the exploitation of the oil sands in Canada has to be restored. Here, we take advantage of the proximity between these reconstructed ecosystems and the boreal forest surrounding the oil sand mining area to study soil microbial community structure and processes in both natural and nonnatural environments. By identifying key characteristics shaping the structure of soil microbial communities, this study improved our understanding of how

  7. Source and distribution of naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater from Alberta’s Southern Oil Sands Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moncur, Michael C.; Paktunc, Dogan; Jean Birks, S.; Ptacek, Carol J.; Welsh, Brent; Thibault, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Widespread naturally occurring As in groundwater with concentrations up to 179 μg/L. • 50% of the 816 water wells sampled exceeded 10 μg/L of As. • As(III) was the dominant species in 74% of the groundwater samples. • Shallow groundwater As is derived from arsenian pyrite oxidation. • In deeper sediments, As release is associated with Fe(III) reduction. - Abstract: Arsenic (As) concentrations as high as 179 μg/L have been observed in shallow groundwater in the Alberta’s Southern Oil Sand Regions. The geology of this area of Alberta includes a thick cover (up to 200 m) of unconsolidated glacial deposits, with a number of regional interglacial sand and gravel aquifers, underlain by marine shale. Arsenic concentrations observed in 216 unconsolidated sediment samples ranged from 1 and 17 ppm. A survey of over 800 water wells sampled for As in the area found that 50% of the wells contained As concentrations exceeding drinking water guidelines of 10 μg/L. Higher As concentrations in groundwater were associated with reducing conditions. Measurements of As speciation from 175 groundwater samples indicate that As(III) was the dominant species in 74% of the wells. Speciation model calculations showed that the majority of groundwater samples were undersaturated with respect to ferrihydrite, suggesting that reductive dissolution of Fe-oxyhydroxides may be the source of some As in groundwater. Detailed mineralogical characterization of sediment samples collected from two formations revealed the presence of fresh framboidal pyrite in the deeper unoxidized sediments. Electron microprobe analysis employing wavelength dispersive spectrometry indicated that the framboidal pyrite had variable As content with an average As concentration of 530 ppm, reaching up to 1840 ppm. In contrast, the oxidized sediments did not contain framboidal pyrite, but exhibited spheroidal Fe-oxyhydroxide grains with elevated As concentrations. The habit and composition suggest

  8. Contributions of natural and anthropogenic sources to ambient ammonia in the Athabasca Oil Sands and north-western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Cynthia H.; Makar, Paul A.; Shephard, Mark W.; Zhang, Leiming; Zhang, Junhua; Zheng, Qiong; Akingunola, Ayodeji; Wentworth, Gregory R.; Murphy, Jennifer G.; Kharol, Shailesh K.; Cady-Pereira, Karen E.

    2018-02-01

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) is a short-lived pollutant that plays an important role in aerosol chemistry and nitrogen deposition. Dominant NH3 emissions are from agriculture and forest fires, both of which are increasing globally. Even remote regions with relatively low ambient NH3 concentrations, such as northern Alberta and Saskatchewan in northern Canada, may be of interest because of industrial oil sands emissions and a sensitive ecological system. A previous attempt to model NH3 in the region showed a substantial negative bias compared to satellite and aircraft observations. Known missing sources of NH3 in the model were re-emission of NH3 from plants and soils (bidirectional flux) and forest fire emissions, but the relative impact of these sources on NH3 concentrations was unknown. Here we have used a research version of the high-resolution air quality forecasting model, GEM-MACH, to quantify the relative impacts of semi-natural (bidirectional flux of NH3 and forest fire emissions) and direct anthropogenic (oil sand operations, combustion of fossil fuels, and agriculture) sources on ammonia volume mixing ratios, both at the surface and aloft, with a focus on the Athabasca Oil Sands region during a measurement-intensive campaign in the summer of 2013. The addition of fires and bidirectional flux to GEM-MACH has improved the model bias, slope, and correlation coefficients relative to ground, aircraft, and satellite NH3 measurements significantly.By running the GEM-MACH-Bidi model in three configurations and calculating their differences, we find that averaged over Alberta and Saskatchewan during this time period an average of 23.1 % of surface NH3 came from direct anthropogenic sources, 56.6 % (or 1.24 ppbv) from bidirectional flux (re-emission from plants and soils), and 20.3 % (or 0.42 ppbv) from forest fires. In the NH3 total column, an average of 19.5 % came from direct anthropogenic sources, 50.0 % from bidirectional flux, and 30.5 % from forest fires. The

  9. Contributions of natural and anthropogenic sources to ambient ammonia in the Athabasca Oil Sands and north-western Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Whaley

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric ammonia (NH3 is a short-lived pollutant that plays an important role in aerosol chemistry and nitrogen deposition. Dominant NH3 emissions are from agriculture and forest fires, both of which are increasing globally. Even remote regions with relatively low ambient NH3 concentrations, such as northern Alberta and Saskatchewan in northern Canada, may be of interest because of industrial oil sands emissions and a sensitive ecological system. A previous attempt to model NH3 in the region showed a substantial negative bias compared to satellite and aircraft observations. Known missing sources of NH3 in the model were re-emission of NH3 from plants and soils (bidirectional flux and forest fire emissions, but the relative impact of these sources on NH3 concentrations was unknown. Here we have used a research version of the high-resolution air quality forecasting model, GEM-MACH, to quantify the relative impacts of semi-natural (bidirectional flux of NH3 and forest fire emissions and direct anthropogenic (oil sand operations, combustion of fossil fuels, and agriculture sources on ammonia volume mixing ratios, both at the surface and aloft, with a focus on the Athabasca Oil Sands region during a measurement-intensive campaign in the summer of 2013. The addition of fires and bidirectional flux to GEM-MACH has improved the model bias, slope, and correlation coefficients relative to ground, aircraft, and satellite NH3 measurements significantly.By running the GEM-MACH-Bidi model in three configurations and calculating their differences, we find that averaged over Alberta and Saskatchewan during this time period an average of 23.1 % of surface NH3 came from direct anthropogenic sources, 56.6 % (or 1.24 ppbv from bidirectional flux (re-emission from plants and soils, and 20.3 % (or 0.42 ppbv from forest fires. In the NH3 total column, an average of 19.5 % came from direct anthropogenic sources, 50.0 % from bidirectional flux, and 30

  10. Sand and Gravel Deposits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a statewide polygon coverage of sand, gravel, and stone resources. This database includes the best data available from the VT Agency of Natural...

  11. Fontainebleau Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Caspar Thrane

    2006-01-01

    The report is a summary of results from laboratory tests in the geotechncial research group on Fontainebleau sand.......The report is a summary of results from laboratory tests in the geotechncial research group on Fontainebleau sand....

  12. Petroleum Supply Monthly, July 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-28

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  13. Molecular detection and identification of Leishmania infection in naturally infected sand flies in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es-Sette, Nargys; Ajaoud, Malika; Laamrani-Idrissi, Abderrahman; Mellouki, Fouad; Lemrani, Meryem

    2014-07-02

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by various species of the flagellate protozoan Leishmania. During the past 20 years, cutaneous leishmaniasis has emerged as a major public health threat in Morocco. The main objective of this study was to study the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and to identify sand fly blood meal sources in an endemic locality of cutaneous leishmaniasis within Sefrou province, where the vectors of leishmaniasis were still unknown. 2650 sand flies were collected using CDC miniature light traps and identified morphologically. The identified sand flies were tested for Leishmania infection by nested PCR. The source of blood meal of 10 freshly engorged females: 6 Phlebotomus longicuspis and 4 Phlebotomus sergenti, was determined using the Cyt b sequence. The collected sand flies consisted of 10 species, seven of which belonged to the genus Phlebotomus and three to the genus Sergentomyia. The most abundant species was P. longicuspis, accounting for 72% of the total sand flies collected. In females of three P. longicuspis and four P. sergenti, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania tropica DNA was detected, respectively.The source of blood meal of engorged females showed that all sand flies tested fed on humans. We report for the first time the natural infection of P. longicuspis with L. infantum in Morocco. The high frequency of this species in this region, in addition to its anthropophilic character make P. longicuspis the putative vector of L. infantum in this cutaneous leishmaniasis focus where L. tropica is confirmed as the causative agent of the disease and P. sergenti as its vector. The presence of L. infantum, and its presumed vector in this area, makes this a site of high risk of visceral leishmaniasis, mostly because of the proximity of a focus of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis.

  14. Oil and natural gas prospects in South America: Can the petroleum industry pave the way for renewables in Brazil?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, José; Schaeffer, Roberto; Szklo, Alexandre; Lucchesi, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    A large share of Brazil's current investments is concentrated in the development of petroleum resources in new frontiers. Perspectives for large offshore pre-salt fields are particularly good. However, challenges are also huge. On one hand, pre-salt resources development will draw vast amounts of economic and human resources and pose significant macroeconomic risks. On the other hand, the petroleum industry can generate multiplicative effects into the country's economy and, even more importantly, generate rents that can be diverted towards the promotion of renewable energy sources. This paper simulates the rent generation of Brazil's petroleum development up to 2030 according to: the country's current fiscal regime, projections of petroleum supply and a probability analysis of Brent price evolution, and assesses how these economic resources, if properly allocated, can pave the way for an increased use of renewables in Brazil. Findings show that an ambitious energy innovation program based on a target-oriented agency plus a program for solar development would cost less than half the minimum average annual petroleum rent free for investing in renewables between 2013 and 2030. The remaining budget could improve the security of ethanol fuel supply, by avoiding the negative impacts of sugar prices spikes on Brazil's ethanol production. - Highlights: • Nowadays, Brazil´s investments are concentrated in new frontier areas of the petroleum industry. • Rents from this industry can generate multiplicative effects into the country´s economy. • Part of these rents should be diverted to the promotion of renewable energy. • A major energy innovation program based on a target-oriented agency should be funded. • The security of ethanol fuel supply can be improved from these rents as well

  15. Natural gas in 1936: Petroleum in 1936: The gas and oil fields in the Guelph and Medina (Grimsby) formations: Appendix, the Brownsville Gas Field: Gas and oil in eastern Ontario. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, R B; Evans, C S

    1938-12-31

    Part V of this annual report consists of four separate reports: Natural gas, petroleum, gas and oil fields in the Guelph and Medina (Grimsby) formations, and gas and oil in eastern Ontario. The natural gas report discusses production and distribution; changes and improvements; consumption and rates; gas wells and their production; and licenses issued. The logs of wells are also included, being presented alphabetically by counties, townships, and owners, respectively. The petroleum report presents information on production and drilling by township; expansion; and petroleum importation and refining operations.

  16. Modeling elk and bison carrying capacity for Great Sand Dunes National Park, Baca National Wildlife Refuge, and The Nature Conservancy's Medano Ranch, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wockner, Gary; Boone, Randall; Schoenecker, Kathryn A.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.

    2015-01-01

    Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve and the neighboring Baca National Wildlife Refuge constitute an extraordinary setting that offers a variety of opportunities for outdoor recreation and natural resource preservation in the San Luis Valley of Colorado. Adjacent to these federal lands, the Nature Conservancy (TNC) manages the historic Medano Ranch. The total land area of these three conservation properties is roughly 121,500 hectares (ha). It is a remote and rugged area in which resource managers must balance the protection of natural resources with recreation and neighboring land uses. The management of wild ungulates in this setting presents challenges, as wild ungulates move freely across public and private landscapes.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-15

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-26

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  19. Petroleum Supply Monthly, August 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) district movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-30

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of three publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other two publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR) and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administrations for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics. 65 tabs.

  1. Characterization of the National Petroleum Reserve No. 3 (NPR-3) Site for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material(NORM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J; Rood, A.S.

    1999-01-21

    The National Petroleum Reserve No. 3 site (NPR-3) near Casper, Wyoming is being prepared for transfer to private industry. Remediation of the NPR-3 site has already begun in anticipation of this transfer. This document describes the characterization of the NPR-3 site for Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Data generated on radionuclide concentrations and radon emanation may be used to determine disposal options and the need for remediation at this site. A preliminary gamma survey of the NPR-3 site was conducted to identify areas of potential NORM contamination. Based on these gamma surveys, two general areas of NORM contamination were found: the North Water Flood area and the BTP-10 produced water discharge steam. A maximum surface exposure rate of 120 {micro}R h{sup -1} was observed in the North Water Flood area, with the highest readings found along the drainage channel from the area. Exposure rates dropped to background quickly with increasing distance from the center of the drainage. The maximum observed exposure rate in the BTP-10 produced water drainage was 40 {micro}R h{sup -1}. Soil and sediment sampling were concentrated in these two areas. All samples were analyzed for concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, and {sup 40}K. Maximum {sup 226}Ra concentrations observed in the samples collected were 46 pCi g{sup -1} for soil and 78 pCi g{sup -1} for sediment. Concentrations in most samples were considerably lower than these values. Radon emanation fraction was also measured for a randomly selected fraction of the samples. The mean Rn emanation fraction measured was 0.10, indicating that on average only 10 percent of the Rn produced is released from the medium. Based on the results of these analyses, NORM contamination at the NPR-3 site is minimal, and appears to be restricted to the two general areas sampled. Concentrations of NORM radionuclides found soils and sediments in these two locations do not justify remedial actions at present

  2. Petroleum price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, B.

    2009-01-01

    The 'AFTP' conference on 'petroleum prices' organized by Total last March, tries to explain the different aspects of the crisis we undergo for July 2007 and its consequential effects on the petroleum markets (supply, demand evolvements, impacts on reserves, prices, refining...). (O.M.)

  3. Assessment of natural radioactivity of sands in beaches from Great Vitoria, ES, Brazil; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em areias das praias da Grande Vitoria, ES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Reginaldo Ribeiro de

    2010-07-01

    In this work the concentrations of natural radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were determined in superficial sand samples for 16 locations throughout the coast of the Great Victory, metropolitan region of the state of Espirito Santo, Southeast of Brazil. The assessed beaches were Manguinhos and Jacaraipe in Serra county, Camburi, Praia do Canto and Curva da Jurema in Vitoria county, Praia da Costa and Itapua in Vila Velha county, Setibao, Setibinha, Praia do Morro, Praia das Castanheiras and Areia Preta in Guarapari county and sand of the Paulo Cesar Vinha Reserve also located in Guarapari county. Three sand samples of each beach were sealed in 100 mL high density polyethylene flasks. After approximately 4 weeks in order to reach secular equilibrium in the {sup 238}U and {sup 2}'3{sup 2}Th series, the samples were measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and the spectra analyzed with the WinnerGamma software. The self absorption correction was performed for all samples. The {sup 226}Ra concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 21}'4Bi, the {sup 232}Th concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 228}Ac, {sup 2}'1{sup 2}Pb and {sup 212}Bi and the concentration of {sup 40}K is determined by its single gamma transition of 1460 keV. The radium equivalent concentration and the external hazard index where obtained from the concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 4}'0K. {sup 226}Ra concentrations show values varying from 3 +- 1 Bq.kg-1 to 738 +- 38 Bq.kg{sup -1}, with the highest values for the central locality of the Camburi beach. {sup 232}Th concentrations show values varying from 7 +- 3 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 7422 +- 526 Bq.kg{sup -1}, with the highest values for Areia Preta beach. {sup 40}K concentrations show values varying from 14 +- 6 Bq.kg{sup -1} to 638 +- 232 Bq.kg{sup -1}, with the highest values for Areia Preta beach

  4. Beyond Naphthenic Acids: Environmental Screening of Water from Natural Sources and the Athabasca Oil Sands Industry Using Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Mark P; Peru, Kerry M; Fahlman, Brian; Hewitt, L Mark; Frank, Richard A; Headley, John V

    2015-09-01

    There is a growing need for environmental screening of natural waters in the Athabasca region of Alberta, Canada, particularly in the differentiation between anthropogenic and naturally-derived organic compounds associated with weathered bitumen deposits. Previous research has focused primarily upon characterization of naphthenic acids in water samples by negative-ion electrospray ionization methods. Atmospheric pressure photoionization is a much less widely used ionization method, but one that affords the possibility of observing low polarity compounds that cannot be readily observed by electrospray ionization. This study describes the first usage of atmospheric pressure photoionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (in both positive-ion and negative-ion modes) to characterize and compare extracts of oil sands process water, river water, and groundwater samples from areas associated with oil sands mining activities. When comparing mass spectra previously obtained by electrospray ionization and data acquired by atmospheric pressure photoionization, there can be a doubling of the number of components detected. In addition to polar compounds that have previously been observed, low-polarity, sulfur-containing compounds and hydrocarbons that do not incorporate a heteroatom were detected. These latter components, which are not amenable to electrospray ionization, have potential for screening efforts within monitoring programs of the oil sands.

  5. Dosimetry evaluation of the potential exposure bound to uranium and thorium natural accumulation in the sand of some beaches of the Camargue littoral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this report is the assessment of potential exposure to radioactive sands discovered in 2000 in two points of the coast of the Camargue (East of Beauduc and Espiguette lighthouses), where specific activity can reach up several thousands of Bq.kg -1 for radionuclides of U 238 and Th 232 radioactive families, and environmental dose rate up to ten times of usual natural background. The excess of radioactivity is carried by small particles of sand (apatites and zircons less than 100 μm). First chapter focuses on radioactivity of the coast of the Golfe du lion and of the Camargue, and more particularly on these two points (cartography, measure, radionuclide identification, mineralogical characterization of particles). This chapter concludes the excess of radioactivity is natural; particles come from several massifs of the Rhone basin, transported by the river and re-distributed on the coast. Second chapter focuses on dosimetric assessment, using reasonable scenarios for the frequenting of these sites by persons of the public in one hand, and drawing up the sizing of the sands and their solubility in gastric and intestinal fluids in an other hand. the annual effective dose, carefully calculated, is about 1 mSv, mainly due to external exposure to gamma rays. such a dose, of same levels as the dose received for 17 months of residence in Paris for example, does not involve any particular action. (authors)

  6. Environmental Impacts of Sand Exploitation. Analysis of Sand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Dan Gavriletea

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sand is an indispensable natural resource for any society. Despite society’s increasing dependence on sand, there are major challenges that this industry needs to deal with: limited sand resources, illegal mining, and environmental impact of sand mining. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to present an overview of the sand market, highlighting the main trends and actors for production, export and import, and to review the main environmental impacts associated with sand exploitation process. Based on these findings, we recommend different measures to be followed to reduce negative impacts. Sand mining should be done in a way that limits environmental damage during exploitation and restores the land after mining operations are completed.

  7. The participation of the production sector in the research projects financed by CTPETRO - National Brazilian Plan in Science and Technology for Petroleum and Natural Gas; A participacao do setor produtivo nos projetos financiados pelo CTPETRO - Plano Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Petroleo e Gas Natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Fabiana; Pereira, Newton Mueller [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Politica Cientifica e Tecnologica]. E-mail: fabiana@ige.unicamp.br; newpe@ige.unicamp.br

    2002-07-01

    This paper emphasizes the participation of the equipment and services suppliers for the petroleum sector in the projects financially supported by CTPETRO (National Brazilian Plan in Science and Technology for Petroleum and Natural Gas), according to the edit 03/2000.

  8. Strategic human resources study of the upstream petroleum industry : the decade ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    This report presents the results of a 10 month study of the human resources issues in Canada's upstream petroleum industry. The study identifies workforce demographics, skills, and supply and demand. It also discusses the impact of technology and other key challenges facing human resources issues. The upstream petroleum industry includes exploration and production, service industries, pipeline transmission, natural gas processing, and heavy oil and bitumen extracting and upgrading. The study defined four regions in Canada: Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, the oil sands, the north, and the east coast. The main influences on the management practices within the upstream petroleum industry are: globalization; cyclical economic conditions; operational excellence business models; government regulatory requirements; stakeholder expectations for involvement; technological advances; changing demographics, and workplace skills. The study also presented suggestions for changes in best practices to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of product and service delivery. refs., tabs., figs

  9. Development of soil-cement blocks with three interventions: natural soil, soil corrected with sand and soil more phase change materials (PCMs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Valter Bezerra; Gomes, Uilame Umbelino; Reis, Edmilson Pedreira; Valcacer, Samara Melo; Silva, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the results of characterization tests of soil samples collected in Mossoro-RN, UFERSA-RN Campus, located approximately 20 meters high, and "5 ° 12'34.68 south latitude and 37 ° 19'5.74 "west longitude, with the purpose of producing soil-cement for the manufacture of pressed blocks with good resistance to compression and thermal stability. The following tests were performed: granulometry, plasticity limit, liquidity limit, particle size correction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence. In this soil, based on the results of the granulometric analysis, 10% of medium sand with 3% and 5% of eicosane paraffin and 10% of medium sand with 3% and 5% of paraffin 120 / 125F were added, forming analysis compositions, standard soil-cement block and natural soil-cement block with addition of 10% medium sand and 0% paraffin. Paraffins are referred to as PCMs (Phase Change Material). The contrasting effect between the different dosages on the compressive strength values of the soil-cement blocks was observed. The objective is to create new materials that give the block quality equal to or higher than the recommendations of ABNT norms, and that offer greater thermal comfort in the constructions. Soil particles of different sizes were added to 8% (by weight) of cement, and about 9.20% of water added to the mixture

  10. Assessment of natural radioactivity and gamma-ray dose in monazite rich black Sand Beach of Penang Island, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaibu, Hauwau Kulu; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Alrefae, Tareq; Bradley, D A

    2017-06-15

    Activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in sand samples collected from the coastal beaches surrounding Penang Island have been measured using conventional γ-ray spectrometry, while in-situ γ-ray doses have been measured through use of a portable radiation survey meter. The mean activity concentrations for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K at different locations were found to be less than the world average values, while the Miami Bay values for 226 Ra and 232 Th were found to be greater, at 1023±47 and 2086±96Bqkg ̶ 1 respectively. The main contributor to radionuclide enrichment in Miami Bay is the presence of monazite-rich black sands. The measured data were compared against literature values and also recommended limits set by the relevant international bodies. With the exception of Miami Bay, considered an elevated background radiation area that would benefit from regular monitoring, Penang island beach sands typically pose no significant radiological risk to the local populace and tourists visiting the leisure beaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular characterization of leishmania infection from naturally infected sand flies caught in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (eastern iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Akhoundi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major is a serious and increasing problem affecting many rural areas of 17 out of 31 provinces in Iran. Little is known about sand fly fauna and leishmaniases in Eastern Iran and no study has been carried out in Sarbisheh County. The aim of this study was to determine sand flies composition and probable Leishmania infection to find the probable vectors of leishmaniasis in Sarbisheh district.Sand flies were caught using both sticky papers and CDC light traps in August 2010. They were identified morphologically and analyzed for Leishmania infection by amplification of ITS-rDNA.Totally, 842 specimens were caught and 8 species recorded. They belonged to the genera Phlebotomus and Sergentomyia: P. (Phlebotomus papatasi, P. (Paraphlebotomus sergenti, P. (Pa. caucasicus, P. (Pa. mongolensis, P. (Pa. jacusieli, S. (Sergentomyia dentata, S. (Se. sintoni and S. (Sintonius clydei. All collected females were processed for Leishmania DNA detection by PCR amplifying of Internal Transcribed Spacer1 (partial sequence, 5.8S (complete sequence and ITS2 (partial sequence fragments. Thirteen females were positive for Leishmania DNA. The sequencing of the 430 bp amplicons indicated that 9 P. papatasi and 3 females belonging to the Caucasicus group carried L. major DNA whereas one P. sergenti carried L. tropica DNA.Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti are, like in several places, the probable vectors of cutaneous leishmaniases in this emerging or unknown focus of cutaneous leishmaniases.

  12. Saltation of non-spherical sand particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengshi Wang

    Full Text Available Saltation is an important geological process and the primary source of atmospheric mineral dust aerosols. Unfortunately, no studies to date have been able to precisely reproduce the saltation process because of the simplified theoretical models used. For example, sand particles in most of the existing wind sand movement models are considered to be spherical, the effects of the sand shape on the structure of the wind sand flow are rarely studied, and the effect of mid-air collision is usually neglected. In fact, sand grains are rarely round in natural environments. In this paper, we first analyzed the drag coefficients, drag forces, and starting friction wind speeds of sand grains with different shapes in the saltation process, then established a sand saltation model that considers the coupling effect between wind and the sand grains, the effect of the mid-air collision of sand grains, and the effect of the sand grain shape. Based on this model, the saltation process and sand transport rate of non-spherical sand particles were simulated. The results show that the sand shape has a significant impact on the saltation process; for the same wind speed, the sand transport rates varied for different shapes of sand grains by as much as several-fold. Therefore, sand shape is one of the important factors affecting wind-sand movement.

  13. Appalachian basin oil and natural gas: stratigraphic framework, total petroleum systems, and estimated ultimate recovery: Chapter C.1 in Coal and petroleum resources in the Appalachian basin: distribution, geologic framework, and geochemical character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Robert T.; Milici, Robert C.; Swezey, Christopher S.; Trippi, Michael H.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Ryder, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    The most recent U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Appalachian basin was completed in 2002 (Milici and others, 2003). This assessment was based on the total petroleum system (TPS), a concept introduced by Magoon and Dow (1994) and developed during subsequent studies such as those by the U.S. Geological Survey World Energy Assessment Team (2000) and by Biteau and others (2003a,b). Each TPS is based on specific geologic elements that include source rocks, traps and seals, reservoir rocks, and the generation and migration of hydrocarbons. This chapter identifies the TPSs defined in the 2002 Appalachian basin oil and gas assessment and places them in the context of the stratigraphic framework associated with regional geologic cross sections D–D′ (Ryder and others, 2009, which was re-released in this volume, chap. E.4.1) and E–E′ (Ryder and others, 2008, which was re-released in this volume, chap. E.4.2). Furthermore, the chapter presents a recent estimate of the ultimate recoverable oil and natural gas in the basin.

  14. Comparative bioremediation of heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons co-contaminated soil by natural attenuation, phytoremediation, bioaugmentation and bioaugmentation-assisted phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnello, A C; Bagard, M; van Hullebusch, E D; Esposito, G; Huguenot, D

    2016-09-01

    Biological remediation technologies are an environmentally friendly approach for the treatment of polluted soils. This study evaluated through a pot experiment four bioremediation strategies: a) natural attenuation, b) phytoremediation with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), c) bioaugmentation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and d) bioaugmentation-assisted phytoremediation, for the treatment of a co-contaminated soil presenting moderate levels of heavy metals (Cu, Pb and Zn at 87, 100 and 110mgkg(-1) DW, respectively) and petroleum hydrocarbons (3800mgkg(-1) DW). As demonstrated by plant biomass and selected physiological parameters alfalfa plants were able to tolerate and grow in the co-contaminated soil, especially when soil was inoculated with P. aeruginosa, which promoted plant growth (56% and 105% increase for shoots and roots, respectively) and appeared to alleviate plant stress. The content of heavy metals in alfalfa plants was limited and followed the order: Zn>Cu>Pb. Heavy metals were mainly concentrated in plant roots and were poorly translocated, favouring their stabilization in the root zone. Bioaugmentation of planted soil with P. aeruginosa generally led to a decrease of plant metal concentration and translocation. The highest degree of total petroleum hydrocarbon removal was obtained for bioaugmentation-assisted phytoremediation treatment (68%), followed by bioaugmentation (59%), phytoremediation (47%) and natural attenuation (37%). The results of this study demonstrated that the combined use of plant and bacteria was the most advantageous option for the treatment of the present co-contaminated soil, as compared to natural attenuation, bioaugmentation or phytoremediation applied alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Synchrotron WAXS and XANES studies of silica (SiO2) powders synthesized from Indonesian natural sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchlis, Khairanissa; Fauziyah, Nur Aini; Pratapa, Suminar; Soontaranon, Siriwat; Limpirat, Wanwisa

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we have investigated polymorphic silica (SiO 2 ) powders using, Wide Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS) and X-Ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), laboratory X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) instruments. The WAXS and XANES spectra were collected using synchrotron radiation at Synchrotron Light Research Institute (SLRI), Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand. The silica powders were obtained by processing silica sand from Tanah Laut, South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Purification process of silica sand was done by magnetic separation and immersion with HCl. The purification step was needed to reduce impurity or undesirable non Si elements. Three polymorphs of silica were produced, i.e. amorphous phase (A), quartz (B), and cristobalite (C). WAXS profile for each phase was presented in terms of intensity vs. 2θ prior to analyses. Both XRD (λ CuKα =1.54056 Å) and WAXS (λ=1.09 Å) patttern show that (1) A sample contains no crystallites, (2) B sample is monophasic, contains only quartz, and (3) C sample contains cristobalite and trydimite. XRD quantitative analysis using Rietica gave 98,8 wt% cristobalite, while the associated WAXS data provided 98.7 wt% cristobalite. Si K-edge XANES spectra were measured at energy range 1840 to 1920 eV. Qualitatively, the pre-edge and edge features for all phases are similar, but their main peaks in the post-edge region are different. (paper)

  16. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-30

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas -- the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  17. Petroleum hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrington, J.W.; Teal, J.M.; Parker, P.L.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons in marine samples are presented. Types of hydrocarbons present and their origins are discussed. Principles and methods of analysis are outlined. Infrared spectrometry, uv spectrometry, gas chromatography, mass spectroscopy, and carbon 14 measurements are described

  18. Distribution of natural radioactive and trace elements in the soils and sands from the high radiation coastal belt of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, V.V.; Pillai, T.N.V.; Ganguly, A.K.

    1974-01-01

    A brief introduction of the work, already done in connection with the radioactivity present in soils in India, is given. Thorium daughter product activity is estimated in samples collected from monazite area, using gamma spectrometry. The activity is estimated quantitatively and the external dose as well as the genetically significant dose are calculated. Labile components in field soils and beach sands are estimated and the elements are analysed. The experimental procedure adopted is also described. The physico-chemical investigations carried out are explained with reference to the base exchange capacity, loss on ignition, particle size analysis, etc. The results have been presented in the form of tables and they are discussed in detail. (K.B.)

  19. A review of the nature of naphthenic acid occurrence, toxicity, and fate in refinery and oil sands extraction wastewaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eickhoff [Maxxam, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation evaluated the occurrence, toxicity and fate of naphthenic acids (NA) in refinery and oil sands extraction waste waters. The chemistry of NA was reviewed. Factors affecting the aquatic toxicity of NA were discussed, and modes of toxicity were outlined. NA residues in fish were evaluated. Issues concerning the biodegradation, photolysis, and phytodegradation of NA were reviewed. Various phytoremediation techniques were presented. Results of the study indicated that acute toxicity to aquatic organisms was caused by narcosis. Sublethal impacts of NA included changes to growth, fertilization, reproduction, development, and hormone modifications. Varying rates of toxicity were observed in different NA, based on their size and molecular structure. While biodegradation can reduce the toxicity of NA, higher molecular weight NA can resist degradation and cause toxicity. tabs., figs.

  20. Selective catalytic oxidation: a new catalytic approach to the desulfurization of natural gas and liquid petroleum gas for fuel cell reformer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, J.

    In both natural gas and liquid petroleum gas (LPG), sulfur degrades the performance of the catalysts used in fuel reformers and fuel cells. In order to improve system performance, the sulfur must be removed to concentrations of less than 200 ppbv (in many applications to less than 20 ppbv) before the fuel reforming operation. Engelhard Corporation presents a unique approach to the desulfurization of natural gas and LPG. This new method catalytically converts the organic and inorganic sulfur species to sulfur oxides. The sulfur oxides are then adsorbed on a high capacity adsorbent. The sulfur compounds in the fuel are converted to sulfur oxides by combining the fuel with a small amount of air. The mixture is then heated from 250 to 270 °C, and contacted with a monolith supported sulfur tolerant catalyst at atmospheric pressure. When Engelhard Corporation demonstrated this catalytic approach in the laboratory, the result showed sulfur breakthrough to be less than 10 ppbv in the case of natural gas, and less than 150 ppbv for LPG. We used a simulated natural gas and LPG mixture, doped with a 50-170 ppmv sulfur compound containing equal concentrations of COS, ethylmercaptan, dimethylsulfide, methylethylsulfide and tetrahydrothiophene. There is no need for recycled H 2 as in the case for hydrodesulfurization.

  1. Phlebotomine Sand Fly Fauna and Leishmania Infection in the Vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park, a Natural Brazilian Heritage Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Silva Lana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the New World, the leishmaniases are primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of Leishmania-infected Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae phlebotomine sand flies. Any or both of two basic clinical forms of these diseases are endemic to several cities in Brazil—the American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL and the American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL. The present study was conducted in the urban area of a small-sized Brazilian municipality (Jaboticatubas, in which three cases of AVL and nine of ACL have been reported in the last five years. Jaboticatubas is an important tourism hub, as it includes a major part of the Serra do Cipó National Park. Currently, no local data is available on the entomological fauna or circulating Leishmania. During the one-year period of this study, we captured 3,104 phlebotomine sand flies belonging to sixteen Lutzomyia species. In addition to identifying incriminated or suspected vectors of ACL with DNA of the etiological agent of AVL and vice versa, we also detected Leishmania DNA in unexpected Lutzomyia species. The expressive presence of vectors and natural Leishmania infection indicates favorable conditions for the spreading of leishmaniases in the vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park.

  2. Phlebotomine Sand Fly Fauna and Leishmania Infection in the Vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park, a Natural Brazilian Heritage Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lana, Rosana Silva; Michalsky, Érika Monteiro; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; França-Silva, João Carlos; Lara-Silva, Fabiana de Oliveira; Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano da Rocha; Moreira de Avelar, Daniel; Martins, Juliana Cristina Dias; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2015-01-01

    In the New World, the leishmaniases are primarily transmitted to humans through the bites of Leishmania-infected Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae) phlebotomine sand flies. Any or both of two basic clinical forms of these diseases are endemic to several cities in Brazil—the American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) and the American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). The present study was conducted in the urban area of a small-sized Brazilian municipality (Jaboticatubas), in which three cases of AVL and nine of ACL have been reported in the last five years. Jaboticatubas is an important tourism hub, as it includes a major part of the Serra do Cipó National Park. Currently, no local data is available on the entomological fauna or circulating Leishmania. During the one-year period of this study, we captured 3,104 phlebotomine sand flies belonging to sixteen Lutzomyia species. In addition to identifying incriminated or suspected vectors of ACL with DNA of the etiological agent of AVL and vice versa, we also detected Leishmania DNA in unexpected Lutzomyia species. The expressive presence of vectors and natural Leishmania infection indicates favorable conditions for the spreading of leishmaniases in the vicinity of the Serra do Cipó National Park. PMID:25793193

  3. Petroleum product market outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    The influence of petroleum market disturbances on price increases was discussed with particular reference to Hurricane Katrina and the loss of refinery production and damage to oil infrastructure in the United States. The supply of petroleum products in Canada will be very tight heading into the winter of 2006, despite the fact that Canadian refineries are operating at full capacity to ensure an adequate supply of gasoline and diesel fuel for consumers. In addition to refinery production, petroleum supplies are also determined by the adequacy of inventories and the efficiency of the infrastructure in place to deliver products to where they are needed. The lack of spare capacity has reduced the flexibility of the North American refining system to respond to further disruptions. Refiners were asked to provide information on 4 areas of their operations in order for Natural Resources Canada to analyze the short-term outlook for petroleum products markets. The 4 areas included refinery utilization rates and capability to increase production; any planned refinery turnaround that would affect petroleum product supplies; inventory levels compared to levels in previous years; and, any logistical problems that could affect product distribution. A graph depicting the relationship between Canadian production of gasoline and domestic sales clearly illustrated the seasonal nature of gasoline consumption and that production in Canada is much higher than consumption. Canada exports large volumes of gasoline, primarily to the United States eastern seabord from refineries in Atlantic Canada. The trend is similar for diesel fuel. Demand for both gasoline and diesel is expected to continue to grow in 2005 as high prices have had a limited impact on demand growth. In general, the Ontario/Quebec region is short of gasoline and must import gasoline during the summer months to cover the shortfall. It was noted that motorists and homeowners who heat with oil will bear the burden of higher

  4. Petroleum apocalypse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochet, Y.

    2005-09-01

    Oil prices are increasing while current explanations for this phenomenon are no longer satisfactory. The cheap petroleum era is ending and this problem can seriously convulse our lifestyles. Transports, agriculture, plastics, clothes, medicines: petroleum is everywhere. This is why the rise of hydrocarbons price will not be a simple economic shock but the end of the world like the one we know. However, it is still possible to postpone this event to a later date and to limit its effects by the implementation of a new oil sobriety era. This implies to already organize the decay of materials and energy consumption, together with keeping solidarity, democracy and peace up. In this condition only the transition will be less painful. (J.S.)

  5. China's petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boykiw, A.; Katsuris, D.

    1997-01-01

    Petroleum and natural gas resources, industry organization, production, pipeline construction and other transportation issues, refining and business aspects of the Chinese petroleum and natural gas industries were reviewed. The need for large amounts of foreign capital and western technology to stem the deficit in domestic hydrocarbon supply were emphasized as being responsible for the creation in China of favourable conditions for foreign participation in oil and gas exploration, and for the growing confidence for Western investment in China. The most important considerations for successful participation in the economic development of China include: understanding the roles of networking, cultural affinity and reciprocity; hands-on management; finding an appropriate business partner, agent/distributor, or joint venture partner; and understanding local peculiarities and customs. 3 refs

  6. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab countries, Iran, Ethiopia, Nigeria and Somalia. Economie petroliere et gaziere dans les pays arabes, en Iran, Ethiopie, Nigeria, et en Somalie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This paper describes briefly main informations on petroleum prices and market trends, trade and contracts, petroleum exploration and new discovery in Algeria and Libya, birth of a joint venture for the building of a gas pipeline between Ukraine and Europe. The building of another pipeline, between Algeria and Europe, will begin in April 1993. Several agreements for oil and gas fields development in Qatar, Egypt, Yemen, United Arab Emirates have been signed. Petroleum industry has criticized energy taxing project in Usa.

  7. Oil sands tax expenditures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchum, K; Lavigne, R.; Plummer, R.

    2001-01-01

    The oil sands are a strategic Canadian resource for which federal and provincial governments provide financial incentives to develop and exploit. This report describes the Oil Sands Tax Expenditure Model (OSTEM) developed to estimate the size of the federal income tax expenditure attributed to the oil sands industry. Tax expenditures are tax concessions which are used as alternatives to direct government spending for achieving government policy objectives. The OSTEM was developed within the business Income Tax Division of Canada's Department of Finance. Data inputs for the model were obtained from oil sands developers and Natural Resources Canada. OSTEM calculates annual revenues, royalties and federal taxes at project levels using project-level projections of capital investment, operating expenses and production. OSTEM calculates tax expenditures by comparing taxes paid under different tax regimes. The model also estimates the foregone revenue as a percentage of capital investment. Total tax expenditures associated with investment in the oil sands are projected to total $820 million for the period from 1986 to 2030, representing 4.6 per cent of the total investment. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  8. An Examination of the Nature of Sand Harvesting Conflicts and Their Influence on Poverty Alleviation Initiatives in Makueni County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthomi, Simon; Okoth, Pontian; Were, Edmond; Vundi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Though natural resources play an important role in the economies of many countries, conflicts associated with their access continue to contribute to poverty in many African countries. While studies confirm conflict-poverty nexus for high value natural resources, scanty information is available on the low value resources. This study, therefore,…

  9. Leishmania infantum proteophosphoglycans regurgitated by the bite of its natural sand fly vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis, promote parasite establishment in mouse skin and skin-distant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Matthew Edward; Corware, Karina; Müller, Ingrid; Bates, Paul Andrew

    2010-10-01

    We demonstrate that a proteophosphoglycan-rich gel secreted by Leishmania infantum inside the midgut of Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies (promastigote secretory gel) is regurgitated along with an average dose of 500 L. infantum metacyclic promastigotes per infected bite. Using both low (10³) and high (10⁵) doses of parasites in the ears of BALB/c mice we show that the infections benefit from the presence of vector saliva and parasite gel in the skin. However, chronic infection of the spleen was only enhanced in high dose co-infections with gel. These results provide the framework for a more natural experimental model of visceral leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  10. Petroleum Supply Monthly, September 1990. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whited, D.; Jacobus, P. (eds.)

    1990-11-28

    Data presented in this PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 46 tabs.

  11. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1991. [Contains glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-30

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importer, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data are divided into two sections (1) the Summary Statistics and (2) the Detailed Statistics 14 figs., 56 tabs.

  12. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1990. [Contains Glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-27

    Data presented in this report describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in Primary Supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. 12 figs., 54 tabs.

  13. Methodology for applying monitored natural attenuation to petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated ground-water systems with examples from South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Frank H.; Robertson, John F.; Landmeyer, James E.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2000-01-01

    Natural attenuation processes such as dispersion, advection, and biogradation serve to decrease concentrations of disssolved contaminants as they are transported in all ground-water systems.  However, the efficiency of these natural attenuation processes and the degree to which they help attain remediation goals, varies considerably from site to site.  This report provides a methodology for quantifying various natural attenuation mechanisms.  This methodology incorporates information on (1) concentrations of contaminants in space and/or time; (2) ambient reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions; (3) rates and directions of ground-water flow; (4) rates of contaminant biodegradation; and (5) demographic considerations, such as the presence of nearby receptor exposure points or property boundaries.  This document outlines the hydrologic, geochemical, and biologic data needed to assess the efficiency of natural attenuation, provides a screening tool for making preliminary assessments, and provides examples of how to determine when natural attenuation can be a useful component of site remediation at leaking underground storage tank sites.

  14. Laboratory Constraints on the Stability of Petroleum at Elevated Temperatures: Implications for the Origin of Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seewald, Jeffrey, S.

    2011-03-14

    Results of prior DOE supported research conducted at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution have demonstrated the participation of sedimentary minerals and water as reactants and catalysts in chemical transformations associated with the degradation of oil and the formation of low molecular weight organic compounds. The occurrence of such processes in natural environments can be difficult to recognize because the composition of organic alteration products may not be substantially different than those produced by thermal cracking. The goals of this study were the development of diagnostic tools based on hydrogen and carbon isotopes that can be used to identify geochemical processes responsible for the formation of thermogenic natural gas. In addition, our activities were expanded to include experimental investigation of CO2 reduction in aqueous systems at elevated temperature and pressures and an assessment of microbial activity in relatively low temperature (<70°C) natural gas reservoirs in southeastern Oklahoma. Specific objectives included: A laboratory investigation of geochemical processes that regulate the hydrogen isotope composition of low molecular weight hydrocarbons in natural gas at elevated temperatures and pressures. A laboratory investigation of factors that regulate the carbon isotope composition of organic acids in basinal brines. A laboratory assessment of the role of methanol during reduction of CO2 to CH4 under hydrothermal conditions. Characterization of microbial ecosystems in coproduced fluids from the Potato Hills gas field to assess the role of microbes in the generation of natural gas.

  15. Petroleum. [Venezuela

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    An introductory chapter of world wide petroleum history is followed by a comprehensive record of the petroliferous basins of Venezuela. Exploration, productivity, production statistics, reserves, geologic structures, and the distribution of oil and gas fields are described separately for the Maracaibo-Falcon basin, Apure-Barinas basin, E. Venezuela basin, and Tuy-Cariaco basin. The descriptions include geographic distribution, geomorphologic outline of the basins, lithology and thickness of sediments, structural development, present structural conditions in which oil and gas fields occur, and their distribution in the basins. Economic factors are discussed in an appendix. 145 references.

  16. Study of the levels of natural radiation in sand samples of the city of Rio das Ostras the coast of Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leal, Teresa C. dos Santos; Kelecom, Alphonse; Frota, Marcos; Silva, Ademir X.; Godoy, Jose M.; Conti, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In the present study, samples have been collected along the coast of Rio de Janeiro, at Rio das Ostras, in order to determine the concentrations of natural radionuclides and to record their spectra, aiming the verification of local natural radioactivity levels. The distribution of natural radionuclide γ-ray activities and their respective annual effective dose rates, produced by 40 K, 235 U and 232 Th, were determined for sand samples collected along the coast. The determination of environmental radioactivity levels is of basic importance to estimate the radiation levels to which man is directly or indirectly exposed. The recognition of increased risks to our society has strengthened the debate and favored the communication of such risks. Thus, the health effects of low doses of ionizing radiation are being widely and controversially discussed, and represent an acute problem of public concern. The gamma spectrometers have been used for a panoramic determination of this region. From these results, calculations of annual dose of radiation (ADR) for each sample will be carried out, allowing to estimate the dose contribution to which individuals of the public (e.g. residents) are submitted, and to predict eventual health damage. These results will be compared with the limits established by the Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN). (author)

  17. Sand consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spain, H H

    1965-01-21

    In a sand consolidation method in which there is injected a mixture of resin-forming liquids comprising an aryl-hydroxy low molecular weight compound, a water- soluble aldehyde, and a catalyst, an improvement is claimed which comprises diluting the resin-forming liquids with a diluent and with water so that the yield of the resin is sufficient to consolidate the sand particles with the minimum desirable pressure. The diluent may be mutually soluble in water and in the resin-forming liquids, and does not affect the setting time of the polymer. The aldehyde and the aryl-hydroxy compound may be in ratio of 5:1, and the diluent, methyl alcohol, is present in a ratio of 2:1 with reference to the water.

  18. Petroleum industry in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document presents a detailed outlook of the petroleum industry in the world and more particularly in France in 2005: evolution of crude oil prices; petroleum exploration and production in the world and in France; the French para-petroleum and petroleum industry; the oil supplies; the refining activities; the evolution of products quality and the substitution fuels; the domestic transports, the storage and consumption of petroleum products; the fiscality, prices and distribution of petroleum products. (J.S.)

  19. Natural gas: which growth and which markets in a context of high petroleum prices?; Le gaz naturel: quelle croissance, quels marches dans un conteste de prix eleves du petrole?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appert, O. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil Malmaison (France); Chabrelie, M.F. [CEDIGAZ, 92 - Rueil Malmaison (France); Zofrea, F.; Bellussi, G. [EniTecnologie (Italy); Dauger, J.M. [Gaz de France (GDF), 75 - Paris (France); Bigeard, P.H. [Institut Francais du Petrole, 69 - Vernaison (France); Courtois, A.; Renaudie, Th. [Gaz de France, 26 - Valence (France); Cervantes, V. [IRISBUS / Iveco (France); Buffet, P. [Groupe Suez (France)

    2006-07-01

    Beyond the technological stakes linked with the use of natural gas, a new geopolitical equilibrium is coming due to the different geographical distribution of gas and petroleum reserves. New countries and new markets are entering the game and may change the worldwide balance of energy powers. At the occasion of its annual 'Panorama' colloquium, the French institute of petroleum (IFP) tackles the question of the crucial role that natural gas will play in a context of high petroleum prices. Natural gas has serious economical and environmental advantages and already occupies an important position in the residential, industrial and power generation sectors and should become a major fuel for tomorrows' transportation systems. This document gathers 10 presentations (article and transparencies) given at the colloquium and dealing with: the 2005 world energy outlook: analyses and impacts (O. Appert); the future of natural gas in Europe (M.F. Chabrelie); the perspectives and new openings for LNG in a changing market (P. Buffet); the perspectives of the gas-to-liquid (GTL) industry (F. Zofrea); the opening of the natural gas market in Europe (J.M. Dauger); a presentation of natural gas (P.H. Bigeard); the 2005 world energy outlook: analyses and impacts (O. Appert); the new synthetic fuels from the GTL industry (G. Bellussi); the successes and perspectives of natural gas in the transportation sector (A. Courtois); the urban natural gas-fueled captive fleets: point of view of a car-maker (V. Cervantes). A press kit with 11 synthetic notes written by IFP's experts complete the preceding presentations, they treat of: activities and markets in exploration-production, refining and petrochemistry, natural gas industry at the 2020 prospects, petroleum supply and demand, gas reserves, discoveries and production, strategy of the European gas market actors, gas markets liberalization in Europe, natural gas for vehicles, perspectives of development of the GTL

  20. Critic to the science and technology activities in the CTPETRO, Brazil, natural gas sector (National Plan of Science end Technology of the Petroleum and Natural Gas Sector); Critica as atividades de C and T na area de gas natural do CTPETRO (Plano Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do Setor de Petroleo e Gas Natural)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Edmilson Moutinho dos; Faga, Murilo Tadeu Wenerck [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Grupo de Energia]. E-mails: edsantos@iee.usp.br; Poulallion, Paul; Correa Neto, Vicente [SINDE - Sinergia e Desenvolvimento S/C Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    This paper performs an evaluation of the science and technology activities for the natural gas area at the CTPETRO - National Plan of Science and Technology for the Petroleum and Natural Gas Sector. The paper discuss the insufficiency of the present technological efforts in Brazil, aiming the increasing of the natural gas participation in the brazilian energy matrix. The work shows the great distance among those efforts and the national policy for the natural gas. Last, the paper discusses the necessity of a review in the science and technology activities in the gas sector, and makes some considerations on the great potential in the gas industry for employment generation, for new business and the increasing in the national competitiveness.

  1. In vitro photooxidation of a crude Iranian petroleum maltenic fraction as a film over seawater in natural simulated conditions and identification of photoproducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahri-Niknafs, B.; Ghotbesharif, S.J.; Taghvaei, S.; Rustayian, A.H.

    2004-01-01

    Photooxidation is a transformation pathway for oil spilled in the marine environment. Most crude oils spilled at sea spread rapidly to form slicks over a large surface areas. Oil entering the seas can have a harmful impact on marine ecosystems and on the commercial and recreation resources of coastal areas. The spilled oil undergoes physical changes such as dispersion, photooxidation, evaporation, and dissolution. These changes are accompanied by changes in density, viscosity and interfacial tension. It is important to understand the effect petroleum photooxidation and degradation in order to determine the fate of the spilled oil in a marine environment. This study presents a reliable method for examining the nature of the photoproducts and the composition of the residual hydrocarbons on an oil film over seawater. In this study, the maltenic fraction of Iranian oil was exposed to sunlight as a film of oil over seawater. The authors examined the effect of ultraviolet illumination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and Fourier Transform Infrared analytical methods. The study revealed that the saturated hydrocarbons were resistant, but the aromatic hydrocarbons were found to be sensitive to photochemical degradation. The sensitivity of aromatic compounds to photooxidation was increased by increasing the size and alkyl substitution. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  2. Petroleum geophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-07-01

    The book is compiled from a series of e-learning modules. GeoCLASS is an e-learning system with contents from petroleum geophysics. It is the result of collaboration between professors at the University of Bergen and the University of Oslo, and its material has been used as curriculum in master program courses at these universities for several years. Using a unique feature to GeoCLASS, these advanced scientific topics are presented on multiple levels. The introductions open the door to this vast pool of knowledge, accessible even for high school students. Enter the door, and you enter the modules. Various levels of content are presented, and the more advanced levels can be shielded from the regular user, and only accessed by those with particular interest. The chapters in the book are: Elastic waves; Survey planning; Seismic acquisition; Basic seismic signal theory and processing; Seismic imaging; Seismic attributes; Rock physics; Reservoir monitoring. (AG)

  3. The dependence of luminescence lifetimes on additive irradiation in natural sedimentary quartz: sands from Santa Elina, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chithambo, M.L. [Department of Physics and Electronics, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); Ogundare, F.O. [Department of Physics, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria); Feathers, J. [Department of Anthropology, University of Washington, P.O. Box 353100, Seattle, WA 98195-3100 (United States); Hong, D.G. [Department of Physics, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Kangwon-Do 200-701 (Korea)

    2008-07-01

    Time-resolved luminescence and its component lifetimes have been measured from natural quartz in order to interpret the associated dynamics of luminescence emission. The influence of beta irradiation, and measurement temperature on the lifetimes have been investigated and parameters of the kinetics involved calculated. The results are explained by considering the extent of non-radiative processes and the role of charge transfer between several types of luminescence centres. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. The dependence of luminescence lifetimes on additive irradiation in natural sedimentary quartz: sands from Santa Elina, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chithambo, M.L.; Ogundare, F.O.; Feathers, J.; Hong, D.G.

    2008-01-01

    Time-resolved luminescence and its component lifetimes have been measured from natural quartz in order to interpret the associated dynamics of luminescence emission. The influence of beta irradiation, and measurement temperature on the lifetimes have been investigated and parameters of the kinetics involved calculated. The results are explained by considering the extent of non-radiative processes and the role of charge transfer between several types of luminescence centres. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Mineral sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an outlook of the Australian mineral sand industry and covers the major operators. It is shown that conscious of an environmentally minded public, the Australian miners have led the way in the rehabilitation of mined areas. Moreover the advanced ceramic industry is generating exciting new perspectives for zircon producers and there is a noticeable growth in the electronic market for rare earths, but in long term the success may depend as much on environmental management and communication skills as on mining and processing skills

  6. Effect of manufactured sand on the durability characteristics of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. SARAVANAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is the most sought after material due to increase in construction activities and infrastructural developments. Availability of natural sand is decreasing thereby increase in the cost of construction. In the present work undertaken, an attempt has been made to give an alternative to natural sand. Optimization of replacement of natural sand with manufactured sand in concrete, durability studies such as water absorption, rapid chloride permeability test, sorptivity, acid resistance, alkaline resistance, impact resistance and abrasion resistance of M40 and M50 grades of concrete have been studied with manufactured sand as fine aggregate and compared the results with the conventional sand concrete. The results shows that there is an increase in the durability properties up to 70 % level of replacements of sand with manufactured sand as fine aggregate and for 100 % use of manufactured sand also gives the better durability than the conventional sand concrete.

  7. Assessment of Natural Radioactivity and radiation hazards in beach sand samples from Kanyakumari District, TamilNadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajithra, A. K.; Shanthi, G.

    2016-07-01

    Natural radionuclides of terrestrial origin have very long half - lives or driven from very long - lived parent radionuclides, which have been created in stellar processes before the earth formation. The study of natural radioactivity in marine and coastal environments is of significant importance for better understanding of oceanographic and sedimentological processes. The sampling sites are selected to cover randomly to cover the southern part. The soil samples have been collected in beach sides. In situ gamma measurements were conducted using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector (coaxial cylinder of 50.1 mm in diameter and 44 mm in length) with a relative efficiency of 50% and an energy resolution (FWHM) of 1.8 keV at the 1.33 MeV reference transition of 60Co. The measurements shows that the values of the absorbed dose rates in air in the investigated area are lower than the recommended limit by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effect of Atomic Radiation.

  8. Preliminary results on effect of H2S on P265GH commercial material for natural gases and petroleum transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, Marius Gabriel; Stanciu, Sergiu; Cimpoesu, Ramona; Ionita, Iulian; Cimpoesu, Nicanor

    2018-04-01

    A commercial Fe-C material (P265GH) used for natural gas delivery and transportation systems was analyzed in H2S atmosphere in order to establish the corrosion resistance. In most of the industrial processes for gas purification the corrosion rate is speed up by the presence of sulphur (S) especially as ions (HS-, SO32-) or different species like H2S. The H2S (hydrogen sulphide) is, beside a very toxic compound, a very active element in the acceleration of metallic materials deterioration. For experiments we used a three electrodes cell with Na2SO4 + Na2S solution at pH 3 for two different temperatures, room temperature ∼ 25 °C (sample 1) and at 60 (sample 2) ±1 °C in order to realize EIS (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) and potentiodynamic polarization. After electro-chemical tests and corrosion resistance characterisation the material surface was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS).

  9. Petroleum 2006. Statistical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-06-01

    This document gathers in 5 parts, the main existing statistical data about petroleum industry in France and in the rest of the world, together with an insight on other energy sources: 1 - petroleum in the French economy (petroleum and other energies, petroleum and transports, petroleum and energy in the industry, the residential and tertiary sectors, environment: 42 pages); 2 - the French petroleum industry (exploration, production, foreign trade, transports, refining, storage, petrochemistry: 66 pages); 3 - the French market of petroleum products (evolution of sales by product and detail by region for the past year: 38 pages); 4 - prices and taxes of petroleum products (world prices and rates for crude and refined products, evolution of fret rates, retail prices and French taxes: 28 pages); 5 - petroleum in the world (world energy production and consumption, detailed petroleum activity by main areas and for the main countries: 112 pages). (J.S.)

  10. Petroleum and natural gas in the Federal Republic of Germany 2001; Erdoel und Erdgas in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasternak, M.; Kosinowski, M.; Loesch, J.; Messner, J.; Sedlacek, R.

    2002-07-01

    to 46.8 million tons. Contrary to the trend of the last years the total remaining proven and probable natural gas reserves (raw gas) dropped by 34.4 billion cubic metres to 342.9 billion cubic metres due to production and the reassessment of existing fields. Reserve figures were 9% below the value of the preceding year. The gas production amounted to 21.5 billion cubic metres and equals the previous year value. The growth in underground gas storage continued. As in the preceding year 23 gas storage facilities in porous rocks and 19 gas storage facilities in salt caverns were in operation. The working gas volume increased by 0.5 billion cubic metres to 19.1 billion cubic metres. At present it is planned to raise the working gas volume by 4.4 billion cubic metres by building new storage facilities respectively by extension of existing facilities. (orig.)

  11. Petroleum supply monthly with data from January 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  12. Petroleum supply monthly with data for March 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  13. Comparative study of activated carbon, natural zeolite, and green sand supports for CuOX and ZnO sites as ozone decomposition catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhariyah, A. S.; Pradyasti, A.; Dianty, A. G.; Bismo, S.

    2018-03-01

    This research was based on ozone decomposition in industrial environment. Ozone is harmful to human. Therefore, catalysts were made as a mask filter to decompose ozone. Comparison studies of catalyst supports were done using Granular Activated Carbon (GAC), Natural Zeolite (NZ), and Green Sand (GS). GAC showed the highest catalytic activity compared to other supports with conversion of 98%. Meanwhile, the conversion using NZ was only 77% and GS had been just 27%. GAC had the highest catalytic activity because it had the largest pore volume, which is 0.478 cm3/g. So GAC was used as catalyst supports. To have a higher conversion in ozone decomposition, GAC was impregnated with metal oxide as the active site of the catalyst. Active site comparison was made using CuOX and ZnO as the active site. Morphology, composition, and crystal phase were analyzed using SEM-EDX, XRF, and XRD methods. Mask filter, which contained catalysts for ozone decomposition, was tested using a fixed bed reactor at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The result of conversion was analyzed using iodometric method. CuOX/GAC and ZnO/GAC 2%-w showed the highest catalytic activity and conversion reached 100%. From the durability test, CuOX/GAC 2%-w was better than ZnO/GAC 2%-w because the conversion of ozone to oxygen reached 100% with the lowest conversion was 70% for over eight hours.

  14. Technical review comments on the environmental impact statement for the proposed Lone Pine Resources Ltd. Great Sand Hills Natural Gas Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Lone Pine Resources is proposing to construct and operate a natural gas production and transportation system in the Freefight Lake area of the Great Sand Hills in Saskatchewan. The initial development proposal consists of 58 gas wells at 160-acre spacing, with associated infrastructure. After drilling, completion, and tie-ins, the wells would be operated for an estimated 25 y. Following completion of construction, disturbed well sites and some pipeline rights of way would be fenced off and necessary reclamation, erosion control, and revegetation measures would be implemented and continued until revegetation standards are met. The thin vegetation, poorly developed soils, and wind exposure renders the project area vulnerable to disturbance, and the area's terrain, plant communities, wildlife, and surface and ground water are subject to potential biophysical impacts. About 4.6% of the total project area is expected to be affected temporarily by construction of the project. Although the project area is formally designated as a critical wildlife habitat, it is believed that the proposed project can be constructed and operated with only minor impacts on wildlife. Groundwater contamination will be avoided by enforcing strict drilling regulations, including containment of all drilling fluids. If approved, the project would create economic benefits to the Fox Valley-Maple Creek area, mainly during construction. Potential impacts on the esthetic character of the area are considered to be minor

  15. Synthesized of PEG-6000 coated MgFe2O4 nanoparticles based on natural iron sand by co-precipitation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiadi, E. A.; Simbolon, S.; Saputra, A. S. P.; Marlianto, E.; Djuhana; Kurniawan, C.; Yunus, M.; Sebayang, P.

    2018-02-01

    The polymer coated Magnesium Ferrite nanoparticles (MgFe2O4) based on natural iron sand, Mg(CH3COO)2.4H2O, and PEG-6000 have been successfully prepared by co-precipitation method. The mass variation of PEG-6000 content was from 0 to 12 gram. It was prepared at synthesize temperature of 70°C. The PEG coating reduced the effect of agglomeration, so the coercivity value can be closed to soft magnets. The nanoparticle of synthesized has MgFe2O4 single phase and cubic spinel structure. The bonding of MgFe2O4 and PEG-6000 as a coating material was confirmed by FTIR curve. The MgFe2O4 density decreased with the increasing of PEG 6000 content. On the other hand, the coercivity value was slightly reduced as the addition of PEG-6000, with the lowest value was obtained on 8 gram PEG content. The optimum condition is obtained at addition of 8 gram PEG 6000 to MgFe2O4, with coercivity, saturation, and remanence are 198.41 Oe, 52.53 emu/g, and 8.51 emu/g, respectively. So that, the sample is widely used as absorbance material of heavy metal.

  16. Figures on petroleum 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This table taken out from the 1981 annual report 1981 contains an introductory remark on the reorganization of mineral oil statistics up to January 82. It is followed by the tables ranged as follows: refinery capacity and production, crude oil supply, GDR-coverings, import of petroleum products, petroleum consumption, export of petroleum products, transport, oil storage tanks, motor vehicle stock, taxes and tariffs, petroleum export trade, energy consumption and world petroleum numbers. In parts the tables contain comparative figures back to 1950.

  17. Canadian petroleum industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagher, J.H.

    1969-12-01

    This study covers the following Canadian petroleum industry categories: (1) a brief history; (2) the demand for Alberta crude; (3) U.S. oil policies; (4) overseas exploration; (5) the national oil policy; (6) the Montreal pipeline and its targets; (7) a continental oil policy; and (8) the impact of Arctic reserves. It is noted that large potential benefits will improve from the Manhattan navigating the Northwest Passage. Without prejudging the analysis now applied to the information gathered on this voyage, the Manhattan has greatly contributed to the solution of the problem of access to the Arctic islands. The picture for natural gas is less fraught with uncertainties. Unlike oil, where domestic and international considerations may weigh in U.S. policy decision, Canadian natural gas is likely to be allowed to enjoy its full economic potential in bridging the foreseeable U.S. supply gap and, inasmuch as this potential is ultimately tied with that for crude oil markets, the anticipated U.S. needs for Canadian natural gas may be expected to enhance U.S. interest in the overall well-being of the Canadian petroleum industry.

  18. Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    During fiscal year 1992, the reserves generated $473 million in revenues, a $181 million decrease from the fiscal year 1991 revenues, primarily due to significant decreases in oil and natural gas prices. Total costs were $200 million, resulting in net cash flow of $273 million, compared with $454 million in fiscal year 1991. From 1976 through fiscal year 1992, the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves generated more than $15 billion in revenues and a net operating income after costs of $12.5 billion. In fiscal year 1992, production at the Naval Petroleum Reserves at maximum efficient rates yielded 26 million barrels of crude oil, 119 billion cubic feet of natural gas, and 164 million gallons of natural gas liquids. From April to November 1992, senior managers from the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves held a series of three workshops in Boulder, Colorado, in order to build a comprehensive Strategic Plan as required by Secretary of Energy Notice 25A-91. Other highlights are presented for the following: Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1--production achievements, crude oil shipments to the strategic petroleum reserve, horizontal drilling, shallow oil zone gas injection project, environment and safety, and vanpool program; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2--new management and operating contractor and exploration drilling; Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 3--steamflood; Naval Oil Shale Reserves--protection program; and Tiger Team environmental assessment of the Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves in Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

  19. Uranium content of petroleum by fission track technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Mafra, O.Y.; Oliveira, C.A.N. de; Pinto, L.R.

    1981-03-01

    The feasibility of the fission track registration technique to investigate the natural uranium concentration in petroleum is examined. The application of this technique to petroleum is briefly described and discussed critically. The results obtained so far indicate uranium concentrations in samples of Brazilian petroleum which are over the detect ion limit of fission track technique. (Author) [pt

  20. 49 CFR 192.11 - Petroleum gas systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petroleum gas systems. 192.11 Section 192.11... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 192.11 Petroleum gas systems. (a) Each plant that supplies petroleum gas by pipeline to a natural gas distribution system must meet the requirements...

  1. Microbial enhanced separation of oil from a petroleum refinery sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, P J; Joseph, Ammini

    2009-01-15

    Petroleum refineries around the world have adopted different technological options to manage the solid wastes generated during the refining process and stocking of crude oil. These include physical, chemical and biological treatment methods. In this investigation bacterial mediated oil separation is effected. Two strains of Bacillus were isolated from petroleum-contaminated soils, and inoculated into slurry of sludge, and sludge-sand combinations. The bacteria could effect the separation of oil so as to form a floating scum within 48h with an efficiency of 97% at < or =5% level of sludge in the sludge-sand mixture. The activity was traced to the production of biosurfactants by bacteria.

  2. Biological Remediation of Petroleum Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhad, Ramesh Chander; Gupta, Rishi

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are generated in the form of oily sludges and contaminated soils during crude oil transportation and processing. Although many physical, chemical and biological treatment technologies are available for petroleum contaminants petroleum contaminants in soil, biological methods have been considered the most cost-effective. Practical biological remediation methods typically involve direct use of the microbes naturally occurring in the contaminated environment and/or cultured indigenous or modified microorganisms. Environmental and nutritional factors, including the properties of the soil, the chemical structure of the hydrocarbon(s), oxygen, water, nutrient availability, pH, temperature, and contaminant bioavailability, can significantly affect the rate and the extent of hydrocarbon biodegradation hydrocarbon biodegradation by microorganisms in contaminated soils. This chapter concisely discusses the major aspects of bioremediation of petroleum contaminants.

  3. Natural and anthropogenic variations in the N cycle - A perspective provided by nitrogen isotopes in trees near oil-sand developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savard, M. M.; Bégin, C.; Marion, J.; Smirnoff, A.

    2011-12-01

    Nitrogen stable isotopes of tree-ring series have been recently used to detect past air pollution effects on forests in the contexts of point sources, highways or peri-urban regions. Here, we want to assess their potential to understand changes in soil processes and reveal perturbations of the N cycle. Our approach involves combining tree-ring N, C and O stable isotope series with statistical modelling to distinguish the responses of trees due to natural (climatic) conditions from the ones potentially caused by emissions from the Athabasca oil-sand developments where truck fleets, oil upgraders, desulphurization and hydrogen plants, boilers, heaters and turbines have been active since 1967. Three white spruce trees [Picea glauca (Moench)] 165 years or older, were selected in a well drained brunisolic site, at 55 km from the heart of the development operations (white and black spruce trees from other sites are currently being investigated). Their growth rings were dated and separated at a time resolution of 1 or 2 years for the 1880-2009 period. The average oxygen isotope ratios of cellulose do not show long-term anomalies and reflect climatic conditions. The average C isotope ratios of cellulose covering the 1880-1965 period show short-term variations mostly explained by local climatic conditions, whereas the 1966-1995 series presents similar short-term variations superimposed on a long-term isotopic increase significantly departing from the oxygen isotope curve. Most importantly, the nitrogen isotope series of treated wood shows an average decrease of 1.0% during the 1970-2009 period. The statistical links between the variations of the regional drought index and the isotopic C and N responses during the pre-operation period allows to develop predictive climatic models. When we apply these models to predict the natural isotopic behaviour of the recent period, the measured isotopic trends of the operation period depart from the modelled curves. In contrast, using

  4. Aspects of the ecology of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the Private Natural Heritage Reserve Sanctuary Caraça.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonelli, Gabriel Barbosa; Tanure, Aline; Rêgo, Felipe Dutra; Carvalho, Gustavo Mayr de Lima; Simões, Taynãna César; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando

    2017-01-01

    Leishmaniases are a set of parasitic diseases of zoonotic origin that are transmitted by sandfly vectors in wild, rural and urban environments. Their distribution is dependent not only the distribution of vectors, but also on the distribution of mammalian reservoirs. Only by understanding the transmission cycle of these diseases, such as knowing the participating vectors and reservoirs, can one can understand the epidemiology and ecological relationships of leishmaniases. Ecotourism has become an important area of economic growth in Brazil. One of the most visited tourist attractions in the state of Minas Gerais, the Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Santuário do Caraça (RPPNSC) is located in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. The aim of this study was to contribute to the control of leishmaniasis among tourists of the RPPNPC by surveying its sand fly fauna and testing for the presence of Leishmania DNA in females. Twenty-five CDC light traps were exposed on 7 trails of the RPPNPC where samples were collected bimonthly for a year, starting in June 2013. A total of 376 specimens of 18 species and 10 genera of sandflies were captured. The predominant species were Psychodopygus lloydi (72.34%) and Pintomyia monticola (5.59%). HaeIII restriction enzyme detected and characterized Leishmania braziliensis DNA in 2 of the samples for an infection rate of 0.7% (2/266). Recent studies found specimens of Ps. lloyd infected with Leishmania braziliensis elsewhere in Minas Gerais, which may be an indication that this species is involved in the transmission of Leishmania in this state.

  5. Aspects of the ecology of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae in the Private Natural Heritage Reserve Sanctuary Caraça.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Barbosa Tonelli

    Full Text Available Leishmaniases are a set of parasitic diseases of zoonotic origin that are transmitted by sandfly vectors in wild, rural and urban environments. Their distribution is dependent not only the distribution of vectors, but also on the distribution of mammalian reservoirs. Only by understanding the transmission cycle of these diseases, such as knowing the participating vectors and reservoirs, can one can understand the epidemiology and ecological relationships of leishmaniases. Ecotourism has become an important area of economic growth in Brazil. One of the most visited tourist attractions in the state of Minas Gerais, the Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Santuário do Caraça (RPPNSC is located in the Quadrilátero Ferrífero. The aim of this study was to contribute to the control of leishmaniasis among tourists of the RPPNPC by surveying its sand fly fauna and testing for the presence of Leishmania DNA in females. Twenty-five CDC light traps were exposed on 7 trails of the RPPNPC where samples were collected bimonthly for a year, starting in June 2013. A total of 376 specimens of 18 species and 10 genera of sandflies were captured. The predominant species were Psychodopygus lloydi (72.34% and Pintomyia monticola (5.59%. HaeIII restriction enzyme detected and characterized Leishmania braziliensis DNA in 2 of the samples for an infection rate of 0.7% (2/266. Recent studies found specimens of Ps. lloyd infected with Leishmania braziliensis elsewhere in Minas Gerais, which may be an indication that this species is involved in the transmission of Leishmania in this state.

  6. Booming Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, Nathalie

    "Booming" sand dunes are able to produce low-frequency sound that resembles a pure note from a music instrument. The sound has a dominant audible frequency (70-105 Hz) and several higher harmonics and may be heard from far distances away. A natural or induced avalanche from a slip face of the booming dune triggers the emission that may last for several minutes. There are various references in travel literature to the phenomenon, but to date no scientific explanation covered all field observations. This thesis introduces a new physical model that describes the phenomenon of booming dunes. The waveguide model explains the selection of the booming frequency and the amplification of the sound in terms of constructive interference in a confined geometry. The frequency of the booming is a direct function of the dimensions and velocities in the waveguide. The higher harmonics are related to the higher modes of propagation in the waveguide. The experimental validation includes quantitative field research at the booming dunes of the Mojave Desert and Death Valley National Park. Microphone and geophone recordings of the acoustic and seismic emission show a variation of booming frequency in space and time. The analysis of the sensor data quantifies wave propagation characteristics such as speed, dispersion, and nonlinear effects and allows the distinction between the source mechanism of the booming and the booming itself. The migration of sand dunes results from a complicated interplay between dune building, wind regime, and precipitation. The morphological and morphodynamical characteristics of two field locations are analyzed with various geophysical techniques. Ground-penetrating radar images the subsurface structure of the dunes and reveal a natural, internal layering that is directly related to the history of dune migration. The seismic velocity increases abruptly with depth and gradually increases with downhill position due to compaction. Sand sampling shows local

  7. Petroleum Sector (NAICS 324)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find relevant environmental regulations for the petroleum industry (NAICS 324), including National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)s for petroleum refineries and gasoline dispensing & effluent guidelines for oil and gas extraction

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, November 1996 with data for September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    Data presented in this report describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products fin the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly: September 1996, with data for July 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Data presented in this report describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 56 tabs.

  10. Petroleum supply monthly, December 1998 with data for October 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. 82 tabs.

  11. The petroleum industry in 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This 2004 edition of the petroleum industry activities presents results and data concerning the crude oil prices evolution, the petroleum exploration and production in france and in the world, the para-petroleum industry, the hydrocarbons supplies, the refining, the quality evolution of the substitution products and fuels, the internal transports of petroleum products, the petroleum products storage, the petroleum products consumption, the petroleum products prices and taxation, the petroleum products distribution. (A.L.B.)

  12. The world petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mons, L.

    2005-01-01

    This study proposes a global vision of the petroleum industry, a precise and well argued state of the art of the petroleum markets. It defines the strategical challenges which the petroleum companies are exposed and allows to anticipate the sector evolutions. It details the key acts of the last three years, the financial performances of the companies. (A.L.B.)

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data.

  14. Petroleum fiscality indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-02-01

    This document presents the different taxes imposed to petroleum products in France: domestic tax on petroleum products (TIPP) and added value tax (TVA). A comparison is made with the fiscality into effect in other European countries for some petroleum products. Then, the fiscality is detailed for the different petroleum products and automotive fuels with its regional modulations. Finally, the fiscal measures adopted in 2007 are detailed. They concern the transposition of the European directive 2003-96/CE into French right and some fiscal regime changes given to some economical sectors particularly penalized by the rise of petroleum energy prices in 2007. (J.S.)

  15. Petroleum industry 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A survey on petroleum industry activities in France and in the world in 1996 is presented. The different parts and themes of the study are: evolution of the petroleum market (international and French markets, supply and demand, prices, mark-up and taxation in France and in Europe); activities in the petroleum industries (exploration and production, maritime transportation, inland transportation and storage, refining, quality of petroleum products and substitution fuels, oil distribution); environment and safety (refining, distribution and evolution of products, pipeline and maritime transportation, exploration and production); situation of the sector's companies (oil groups, para-petroleum French industry, scientific and technical research)

  16. The influence of managed versus natural hydrologic regimes on the hydrochemical patterns in a constructed wetland in the Athabasca oil sands region, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagi, K.; Oswald, C.; Nicholls, E.; Carey, S.

    2017-12-01

    Bitumen extraction via surface mining in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) results in permanent alteration of the landscape once rich in boreal forest and wetlands. As part of their legal requirements, oil companies must reclaim disturbed landscapes into functioning ecosystems, and to date only two pilot wetland-peatland systems have been constructed. Peatland reclamation is challenging as they must be completely reconstructed with few guidelines or previous work in this region. Furthermore, the variable sub-humid climate and salinity of waste-materials are obstacles to the success of peatland creation. In 2012, Syncrude Canada Ltd. constructed a 52 ha upland-wetland system, the Sandhill Fen Watershed (SFW), which was designed with a pump and underdrain system to provide freshwater and enhance drainage to limit salinization from underlying waste materials that have elevated electrical conductivity (EC) and Na+. The objective of this research is to understand the hydrochemical response of a constructed wetland to variations in hydrological management with respect to sources, flow pathways and major chemical transformations of water in the three years following commissioning. EC, major ions and stable isotopes were collected using a combination of high frequency and discrete water sampling from 2013-2015. Results indicate that high activity of both inflow and outflow pumps in 2013 kept the EC relatively low, with most wetland sites 1000 µS/cm in 2014 and >2000 µS/cm in 2015. Most wetland sites remained Ca+2 dominant where Ca+2 and Na+ averaged 200 and 130 mg/L, respectively. However, the most notable change in 2014 and 2015 was the emergence of several Na+ "hotspots" in the margins where Na+ concentrations averaged 450 mg/L while Ca+2 averaged 250 mg/L. Stable isotope data confirm that the "hotspots" match the underlying waste water and provide evidence of its upward transport and seepage under a natural hydrologic regime. Minimizing salinization is critical

  17. Natural Leishmania (Viannia) spp. infections in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) from the Brazilian Amazon region reveal new putative transmission cycles of American cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Adelson Alcimar Almeida; dos Santos, Thiago Vasconcelos; Jennings, Yara Lúcia Lins; Ishikawa, Edna Aoba Yassui; Barata, Iorlando da Rocha; Silva, Maria das Graças Soares; Lima, José Aprígio Nunes; Shaw, Jeffrey; Lainson, Ralph; Silveira, Fernando Tobias

    2016-01-01

    In Amazonian Brazil the etiological agents of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) belong to at least seven Leishmania species but little is known about the putative phlebotomine sand fly vectors in different biomes. In 2002–2003 a survey of the phlebotomine fauna was undertaken in the “Floresta Nacional do Tapajós”, Belterra municipality, in the lower Amazon region, western Pará State, Brazil, where we recently confirmed the presence of a putative hybrid parasite, L. (V.) guyanensis × L. (V.) shawi shawi. Sand flies were collected from Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, Shannon traps and by aspiration on tree bases. Females were dissected and attempts to isolate any flagellate infections were made by inoculating homogenized midguts into Difco B45 medium. Isolates were characterized by monoclonal antibodies and isoenzyme electrophoresis. A total of 9,704 sand flies, belonging to 68 species or subspecies, were collected. Infections were found in the following sand flies: L. (V.) naiffi with Psychodopygus hirsutus hirsutus (1) and Ps. davisi (2); and L. (V.) shawi shawi with Nyssomyia whitmani (3) and Lutzomyia gomezi (1). These results provide strong evidence of new putative transmission cycles for L. (V.) naiffi and L. (V.) s. shawi. PMID:27235194

  18. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-24

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date.

  19. Petroleum marketing annual 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysis, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the fob and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Annual. For this production, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication date

  20. Ecology, feeding and natural infection by Leishmania spp. of phlebotomine sand flies in an area of high incidence of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in the municipality of Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ávila, Márcia Moreira; Brilhante, Andreia Fernandes; de Souza, Cristian Ferreira; Bevilacqua, Paula Dias; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2018-01-26

    Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) are insects of medical importance due to their involvement in the zoonotic transmission of Leishmania spp. to vertebrates. The aim of this work was to study the ecology of the sand fly fauna of two types of environments, a rural environment (the Transacreana Road) and an urban park (Horto Florestal Park), both located in the municipality of Rio Branco in the state of Acre, Brazil. Additionally, this study intended to investigate Leishmania infection and blood meal sources of these sand flies using molecular techniques. The sand fly fauna was studied in different environments (i.e. forest and peridomestic environments in a rural area, and an urban forest) using Shannon traps and HP light traps to collect sand fly specimens over 13 consecutive months (December 2014 to January 2016). For investigating natural infection by Leishmania and the source of sand fly blood meals, DNA samples were extracted from female sand flies and subjected to polymerase chain reaction targeting ITS1 and cytb genes. DNA sequencing was subsequently used to identify species of Leishmania and the source of blood meals. A total of 2515 individual sand flies of 43 species were collected and identified, Trichophoromyia auraensis (839; 33.35%), Trichophoromyia spp. (537; 21.35%) and Evandromyia saulensis (187; 7.43%) were more abundant in the rural area (S = 41 species) than in the urban forest. No significant differences were found in species richness between forest and peridomestic environments in the rural area (H = 0.04; P > 0.05), but a larger number of species was found in the forest. Leishmania DNA was sequenced in 13 samples, confirming the presence of L. (V.) braziliensis in Th. auraensis (n = 1), Ev. saulensis (n = 2), Ev. walkeri (n = 1), Ps. llanosmartinsi (n = 1), Pi. nevesi (n = 2), Ps. davisi (n = 1), Ps. ayrozai (n = 1), Pa. aragaoi (n = 1), Ny. antunesi (n = 1) and Ev. infraspinosa (n

  1. Study of Black Sand Particles from Sand Dunes in Badr, Saudi Arabia Using Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Abbas Khwaja

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Particulate air pollution is a health concern. This study determines the microscopic make-up of different varieties of sand particles collected at a sand dune site in Badr, Saudi Arabia in 2012. Three categories of sand were studied: black sand, white sand, and volcanic sand. The study used multiple high resolution electron microscopies to study the morphologies, emission source types, size, and elemental composition of the particles, and to evaluate the presence of surface “coatings or contaminants” deposited or transported by the black sand particles. White sand was comprised of natural coarse particles linked to wind-blown releases from crustal surfaces, weathering of igneous/metamorphic rock sources, and volcanic activities. Black sand particles exhibited different morphologies and microstructures (surface roughness compared with the white sand and volcanic sand. Morphological Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM analyses revealed that the black sand contained fine and ultrafine particles (50 to 500 nm ranges and was strongly magnetic, indicating the mineral magnetite or elemental iron. Aqueous extracts of black sands were acidic (pH = 5.0. Fe, C, O, Ti, Si, V, and S dominated the composition of black sand. Results suggest that carbon and other contaminant fine particles were produced by fossil-fuel combustion and industrial emissions in heavily industrialized areas of Haifa and Yanbu, and transported as cloud condensation nuclei to Douf Mountain. The suite of techniques used in this study has yielded an in-depth characterization of sand particles. Such information will be needed in future environmental, toxicological, epidemiological, and source apportionment studies.

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1999, with data for January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four petroleum supply publications produced by the Petroleum Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  3. The petroleum industry in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document provides information on the petroleum industry for the year 2005. It discusses the world gas and petroleum markets, the world and french petroleum exploration and production, the petroleum and byproducts industry in France, the hydrocarbons supplying, the refining in France, the evolution of the products and fuels substitution quality, the internal transports of petroleum products, the storage consumption and taxes of petroleum products, the prices and distribution of the petroleum products. (A.L.B.)

  4. The petroleum economy of the Congo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gualbert-Brice Massengo, Ph.D.

    2005-01-01

    The author aims to explain the petroleum phenomena in Congo as a contribution to the truth. The Congo petroleum experience can be seen as a lesson for the next generations and for the other african countries. The Congo Brazzaville, a little country by its population and well equipped in natural and human resources, is become meanwhile a non security area for its inhabitants because of a decreasing economy and a continuous political crisis. (A.L.B.)

  5. Evaporation of petroleum products from contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    Bioremediation can remove petroleum products from soil that has been contaminated by leaking underground storage tanks, but abiotic processes such as evaporation can contribute significantly to the overall removal process. The mathematical model described in this paper was developed to predict the evaporation rate of volatile liquids from petroleum-contaminated sand. The model is based on simple concepts relating to molecular diffusion embodied in the theory underlying the estimation of binary diffusivities using measurements made with an Arnold diffusion cell. The model in its simplified form indicates that the rate of evaporation for a particular volatile liquid is proportional to the square root of the product of diffusivity and partial pressure divided by the molecular weight of the liquid. This in part explains why evaporative losses from sand are so much higher for gasoline than for diesel fuel. The model also shows that the time for evaporation is directly proportional to the square of the depth dried out and inversely proportional to the vapor pressure of the volatile liquid. The model was tested using gravimetric measurements of the evaporation of n-heptane, unleaded gasoline, and diesel fuel from sand under laboratory conditions

  6. Molecular detection and identification of Leishmania infection in naturally infected sand flies in a focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Es-Sette, Nargys; Ajaoud, Malika; Laamrani-Idrissi, Abderrahman; Mellouki, Fouad; Lemrani, Meryem

    2014-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by various species of the flagellate protozoan Leishmania. During the past 20 years, cutaneous leishmaniasis has emerged as a major public health threat in Morocco. The main objective of this study was to study the occurrence of Leishmania infection in vectors and to identify sand fly blood meal sources in an endemic locality of cutaneous leishmaniasis within Sefrou province, where the vectors of leishmaniasis were still unkno...

  7. Construction of an Environmentally Sustainable Development on a Modified Coastal Sand Mined and Landfill Site—Part 2. Re-Establishing the Natural Ecosystems on the Reconstructed Beach Dunes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Laure Markovina

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Mimicking natural processes lead to progressive colonization and stabilization of the reconstructed beach dune ecosystem, as part of the ecologically sustainable development of Magenta Shores, on the central coast of New South Wales, Australia. The retained and enhanced incipient dune formed the first line of storm defence. Placement of fibrous Leptospermum windrows allowed wind blown sand to form crests and swales parallel to the beach. Burial of Spinifex seed head in the moist sand layer achieved primary colonization of the reconstructed dune and development of a soil fungal hyphae network prior to introduction of secondary colonizing species. Monitoring stakes were used as roosts by birds, promoting re-introduction of native plant species requiring germination by digestive tract stimulation. Bush regeneration reduced competition from weeds, allowing native vegetation cover to succeed. On-going weeding and monitoring are essential at Magenta Shores until bitou bush is controlled for the entire length of beach. The reconstructed dunes provide enhanced protection from sand movement and storm bite, for built assets, remnant significant vegetation and sensitive estuarine ecosystems.

  8. Evaluation of quicklime mixing for the remediation of petroleum contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifano, V; Macleod, C; Hadlow, N; Dudeney, R

    2007-03-15

    Quicklime mixing is an established solidification/stabilization technique to improve mechanical properties and immobilise contaminants in soils. This study examined the effects of quicklime mixing on the concentrations and leachability of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds, in two natural soils and on a number of artificial sand/kaolinite mixtures. Several independent variables, such as clay content, moisture content and quicklime content were considered in the study. After mixing the soils with the quicklime, pH, temperature, moisture content, Atterberg limits and concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds were determined on soil and leachate samples extracted from the treated soils. Significant decreases in concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbon compounds were measured in soils and leachates upon quicklime mixing, which may be explained by a number of mechanisms such as volatilization, degradation and encapsulation of the hydrocarbon compounds promoted by the quicklime mixing. The increase in temperature due to the exothermic hydration reaction of quicklime when in contact with porewater helps to volatilize the light compounds but may not be entirely responsible for their concentration decreases and for the decrease of heavy aliphatics and aromatics concentrations.

  9. Energy revolution: Fracking. In booming speed back to petroleum and natural gas; Energierevolution: Fracking. Im Boomtempo zurueck zu Oel und Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mardo, Dietrich

    2013-06-06

    Fracking is the extraction of petroleum and shale gas from deep layers of earth. This technology is not new, as it was already used in the year 1940 and is comparable to geothermal drilling. In the United State of America as well as in the People's Republic of China fracking experiences an economic boom. The deposits are large. However, fracking can be a deathblow for the German energy policy turnaround. In this regard, the contribution under consideration reports on the developments.

  10. Interleukin 10–Dominant Immune Response and Increased Risk of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis After Natural Exposure to Lutzomyia intermedia Sand Flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Augusto M.; Cristal, Juqueline R.; Muniz, Aline C.; Carvalho, Lucas P.; Gomes, Regis; Miranda, José C.; Barral, Aldina; Carvalho, Edgar M.; de Oliveira, Camila I.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Leishmaniasis is caused by parasites transmitted to the vertebrate host by infected sand flies. During transmission, the vertebrate host is also inoculated with sand fly saliva, which exerts powerful immunomodulatory effects on the host's immune response. Methods. We conducted a prospective cohort analysis to characterize the human immune response to Lutzomyia intermedia saliva in 264 individuals, from an area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania braziliensis. Results. Antibodies were found in 150 individuals (56.8%); immunoglobulin G1 and G4 were the predominant subclasses. Recall responses to salivary gland sonicate showed elevated production of interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin 13, interferon γ, CXCL9, and CCL2 compared with controls. CD4+CD25+ T cells, including Foxp3+ cells, were the main source of IL-10. L. braziliensis replication was increased (P intermedia sand flies skews the human immune response, facilitating L. braziliensis survival in vitro, and increases the risk of developing CL. PMID:25596303

  11. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PPM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o. b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  13. Petroleum marketing monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, March 1995 with data for January 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-30

    Data presented in this report for March 1995, describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  15. Laws of the electrochemical soils remediation from petroleum pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolev, V.A. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    The man-caused petroleum pollution of humus and soils in places of oil production, and also the pollution of geological environment by petroleum is carried out in growing scales. Very much frequently of ground and soils become soiled by petroleum at failures during transportation of petroleum. The humus and clay soils polluted by petroleum causes destruction ecosystems and landscapes. Therefore finding - out of the nature and mechanisms of interaction water-saturated dispersed soils with the liquid hydrocarbons becomes one of priority problems in the field of ecological geology. The development of methods of electrochemical clearing soils from the liquid hydrocarbons pollution is the important task too. Therefore, the study of dependences of a double electrical layer (DEL) parameters of the water-petroleum-saturated caolinite clay and electrochemical migration in it of petroleum was the purpose of the present work. (orig.)

  16. Treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted environment through bioremediation: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kriti; Chandra, Subhash

    2014-01-01

    Bioremediation play key role in the treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated environment. Exposure of petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment occurs either due to human activities or accidentally and cause environmental pollution. Petroleum hydrocarbon cause many toxic compounds which are potent immunotoxicants and carcinogenic to human being. Remedial methods for the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment include various physiochemical and biological methods. Due to the negative consequences caused by the physiochemical methods, the bioremediation technology is widely adapted and considered as one of the best technology for the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment. Bioremediation utilizes the natural ability of microorganism to degrade the hazardous compound into simpler and non hazardous form. This paper provides a review on the role of bioremediation in the treatment of petroleum contaminated environment, discuss various hazardous effects of petroleum hydrocarbon, various factors influencing biodegradation, role of various enzymes in biodegradation and genetic engineering in bioremediation.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1995 with data for June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-25

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  18. Petroleum and ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henn, N.; Train, E.; Chagnoux, H.; Heinzle, P.; Daubresse, M.; Bret-Rouzaut, N.; Fradin, J.

    2000-01-01

    7 articles in this data sheet, they concern: political stakes and stakes of the industrial petroleum sector towards ethical questions; establishment of associations attending to human and environmental questions; examples of of ethical, environmental and safety policy in an industrialized country (ExxonMobil) and in a developing country (TotalFina); synthesis of the ethical problems that the petroleum industry encounter in industrialized and developing countries; considerations on the communication stakes in petroleum companies with the general public. (O.M.)

  19. Canadian petroleum history bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cass, D.

    2003-09-27

    The Petroleum History Bibliography includes a list of more than 2,000 publications that record the history of the Canadian petroleum industry. The list includes books, theses, films, audio tapes, published articles, company histories, biographies, autobiographies, fiction, poetry, humour, and an author index. It was created over a period of several years to help with projects at the Petroleum History Society. It is an ongoing piece of work, and as such, invites comments and additions.

  20. Petroleum Business in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dublin-Green, W. F.

    1997-01-01

    The petroleum industry is vital to the health of the Nigerian economy as it accounts for over 80% of Nigeria's total export earnings and about 70% of total government revenue. Nigeria has an oil reserve base of 21 billion barrels and gas reserve of 120 trillion cubic feet. With natural gas becoming the worlds fastest growing energy resource, the Nigerian Government has put in place a program to grow her oil reserve base to over 25 billion barrels and significantly increase her gas reserves. An earlier commitment made in 1990 to increase Nigeria's oil reserve base from a level of 16 to 20 billion barrels by 1995 was achieved well ahead of time. This success was largely due to financial incentives offered investors. This healthy business climate still prevails. This paper presents the investment opportunities that Nigeria offers genuine investors in both the upstream and downstream sectors of the industry and defines the legal/regulatory requirements for doing business in Nigeria. We try to give an insight into specific government policies that help to create an enabling environment for investors in the upstream and downstream sectors of the petroleum industry. We showcase the 5 (five) major sedimentary basins with enormous oil and gas potential where exploration/exploitation risks are rated medium to low. We focus on the environment and government's efforts to enforce the rules and guidelines that govern the policy termed the Environment, Safety and Standards. We recognize that the business challenges of the third millennium will dictate new alliances and partnerships that will survive and thrive only in a climate that is safe for the investor. This is the business climate we throw open in Nigeria for investors to come in and do business with us

  1. Petroleum and geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaigneau, P.

    2004-01-01

    Todays, petroleum companies consider that despite the constant increase of petroleum consumption, petroleum will remain the main energy source for at least 40 years. However, after the Iraq conflict, new regional situations are changing. China, for instance, with its growing up demand, will change the physiognomy of the oil market. In parallel, from Indonesia to Africa, petroleum and religion interfere and explain the new conflict areas. As for the US strategy, which is not limited to the energy paradigm, it largely integrates energy in the main lines of its diplomacy, from the 'Wide Middle East' to the 'Sahel initiative', and in its position with respect to Venezuela

  2. Biosurfactants: Promising Molecules for Petroleum Biotechnology Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DARNE GERMANO DE ALMEIDA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing global demand for sustainable technologies that improves the efficiency of petrochemical processes in the oil industry has driven advances in petroleum biotechnology in recent years. Petroleum industry uses substantial amounts of petrochemical-based synthetic surfactants in its activities as mobilizing agents to increase the availability or recovery of hydrocarbons as well as many other applications related to extraction, treatment, cleaning and transportation. However, biosurfactants have several potential applications for use across the oil processing chain and in the formulations of petrochemical products such as emulsifying/demulsifying agents, anticorrosive, biocides for sulphate-reducing bacteria, fuel formulation, extraction of bitumen from tar sands and many other innovative applications. Due to their versatility and proven efficiency, biosurfactants are often presented as valuable versatile tools that can transform and modernise petroleum biotechnology in an attempt to provide a true picture of state of the art and directions or use in the oil industry. We believe that biosurfactants are going to have a significant role in many future applications in the oil industries and in this review therefore, we highlight recent important relevant applications, patents disclosures and potential future applications for biosurfactants in petroleum and related industries.

  3. Biosurfactants: Promising Molecules for Petroleum Biotechnology Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, Darne G; Soares Da Silva, Rita de Cássia F; Luna, Juliana M; Rufino, Raquel D; Santos, Valdemir A; Banat, Ibrahim M; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2016-01-01

    The growing global demand for sustainable technologies that improves the efficiency of petrochemical processes in the oil industry has driven advances in petroleum biotechnology in recent years. Petroleum industry uses substantial amounts of petrochemical-based synthetic surfactants in its activities as mobilizing agents to increase the availability or recovery of hydrocarbons as well as many other applications related to extraction, treatment, cleaning, and transportation. However, biosurfactants have several potential applications for use across the oil processing chain and in the formulations of petrochemical products such as emulsifying/demulsifying agents, anticorrosive, biocides for sulfate-reducing bacteria, fuel formulation, extraction of bitumen from tar sands, and many other innovative applications. Due to their versatility and proven efficiency, biosurfactants are often presented as valuable versatile tools that can transform and modernize petroleum biotechnology in an attempt to provide a true picture of state of the art and directions or use in the oil industry. We believe that biosurfactants are going to have a significant role in many future applications in the oil industries and in this review therefore, we highlight recent important relevant applications, patents disclosures and potential future applications for biosurfactants in petroleum and related industries.

  4. Biosurfactants: Promising Molecules for Petroleum Biotechnology Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, Darne G.; Soares Da Silva, Rita de Cássia F.; Luna, Juliana M.; Rufino, Raquel D.; Santos, Valdemir A.; Banat, Ibrahim M.; Sarubbo, Leonie A.

    2016-01-01

    The growing global demand for sustainable technologies that improves the efficiency of petrochemical processes in the oil industry has driven advances in petroleum biotechnology in recent years. Petroleum industry uses substantial amounts of petrochemical-based synthetic surfactants in its activities as mobilizing agents to increase the availability or recovery of hydrocarbons as well as many other applications related to extraction, treatment, cleaning, and transportation. However, biosurfactants have several potential applications for use across the oil processing chain and in the formulations of petrochemical products such as emulsifying/demulsifying agents, anticorrosive, biocides for sulfate-reducing bacteria, fuel formulation, extraction of bitumen from tar sands, and many other innovative applications. Due to their versatility and proven efficiency, biosurfactants are often presented as valuable versatile tools that can transform and modernize petroleum biotechnology in an attempt to provide a true picture of state of the art and directions or use in the oil industry. We believe that biosurfactants are going to have a significant role in many future applications in the oil industries and in this review therefore, we highlight recent important relevant applications, patents disclosures and potential future applications for biosurfactants in petroleum and related industries. PMID:27843439

  5. Methodology applied by the Petroleum, Natural Gas and Bio fuels National Agency for detection of cartels - their limits and perspectives; Metodology adotada pela Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis para detectecao de carteis - seus limites e perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedra, Douglas Pereira; Sales, Orlando de Araujo Vilela; Baran, Patricia Huguenin; Paiva, Rodrigo Milao de [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Regulacao de Petroleo, seus Derivados, Alcool Combustivel e Gas Natural; Bicalho, Lucia Maria de Oliveira Navegantes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the present methodology used by the Defense Competition Coordination of the Petroleum National Agency for detection of vestiges of cartels in the Brazilian fuel market, their limits, in view of the instruments presently at the disposal of the Agency and perspectives of modification from the eventual availability of new instruments.

  6. Petroleum Supply Monthly, March 1996 (with data for January 1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-04

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  7. Petroleum supply monthly, September 1995 with data for July 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-27

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  8. Petroleum supply monthly - with data for May 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. This document contains a glossary.

  9. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1995 with data for March 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-25

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics.

  10. Petroleum supply monthly with data from April 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States.

  11. Petroleum Supply Monthly, September 1998, with data for July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-28

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the suppiy and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major U.S. geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics

  12. Environmental protection systems for the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, G.B.

    1996-01-01

    The transportation of petroleum products and other chemicals can involve spillage and leaks despite being closely controlled. Human error in the loading of road tankers or consumers refuelling their vehicles at service stations can lead to spillage accidents. Seepage through permeable concrete and its expansion joints can occur for diesel underground tanks with serious environmental consequences. This article describes methods which could be adopted by the petroleum industry to prevent these accidental incidents from causing environmental pollution. Service station forecourts could be constructed, using precast concrete hexagonal blocks with dry sand between them and then have a coating of sealant to prevent spills from seeping into ground water. Secondary containment for underground tanks should be given an elastomeric membrane coating. (UK)

  13. Treatment and Reuse of Wastewaters Discharged by Petroleum Industries (HMD/Algeria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellami, MH, E-mail: sellami2000dz@gmail.com [Process Engineering Department, Laboratory of Process Engineering, Ouargla University (Algeria); Loudiyi, K [Renewable Energies Laboratory (REL) Al Akhawayne University, Ifrane (Morocco); Boubaker, MC; Habbaz, H [Process Engineering Department, Laboratory of Process Engineering, Ouargla University (Algeria)

    2015-12-23

    Industrial wastewaters discharged by petroleum industries contains: oil, heavy metals and chemicals used in the process of oil separation and treatment. These waters are a source of soil, water and air pollution, and lead a mortal danger to the ecosystem. Our aim in this work has an aspect that can contribute to the collective effort to address the enormous amount of water purges storage bins and reuse them to avoid any environmental damage. This was achieved by chemical treating of these wastewaters discharged from three different locations of Hassi Messaoud (HMD) petroleum field by flocculation with (C-5563) followed by coagulation with (C-2061) using two different acids as sequestering namely: Ascorbic and Citric acid. After experiments, the results showed that the wastewater can be treated without sequestering by adding 40 ppm of activated silicates. The best result was obtained by addition of 160 ppm of Ascorbic acid as sequestering agent and 20 ppm of activated silicates; resulting in removal of 92.81 % of suspended matter and 95.53 % of turbidity. Finally we concluded that this wastewater was satisfactorily treated and we recommend either inject it for enhanced oil recovery in industrial closest field (North field) to maintain the reservoir pressure and the improved rate recovery of oil reserves or reuse it in garden irrigation. In order to see the impact of the treated water on plants, irrigation tests have conducted on two types of plants (date palm and shaft apocalyptic) for one year. The tests showed that the thick layer of 5 cm and 0.08mm of particles diameter of dune sand removes most of remaining oil. The sand layer that fills the basin surrounding the shaft is removed and replaced every 06 months. So, Dune sand plays the role of natural filter. The garden plants appear and grow normally.

  14. Treatment and Reuse of Wastewaters Discharged by Petroleum Industries (HMD/Algeria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellami, MH; Loudiyi, K; Boubaker, MC; Habbaz, H

    2015-01-01

    Industrial wastewaters discharged by petroleum industries contains: oil, heavy metals and chemicals used in the process of oil separation and treatment. These waters are a source of soil, water and air pollution, and lead a mortal danger to the ecosystem. Our aim in this work has an aspect that can contribute to the collective effort to address the enormous amount of water purges storage bins and reuse them to avoid any environmental damage. This was achieved by chemical treating of these wastewaters discharged from three different locations of Hassi Messaoud (HMD) petroleum field by flocculation with (C-5563) followed by coagulation with (C-2061) using two different acids as sequestering namely: Ascorbic and Citric acid. After experiments, the results showed that the wastewater can be treated without sequestering by adding 40 ppm of activated silicates. The best result was obtained by addition of 160 ppm of Ascorbic acid as sequestering agent and 20 ppm of activated silicates; resulting in removal of 92.81 % of suspended matter and 95.53 % of turbidity. Finally we concluded that this wastewater was satisfactorily treated and we recommend either inject it for enhanced oil recovery in industrial closest field (North field) to maintain the reservoir pressure and the improved rate recovery of oil reserves or reuse it in garden irrigation. In order to see the impact of the treated water on plants, irrigation tests have conducted on two types of plants (date palm and shaft apocalyptic) for one year. The tests showed that the thick layer of 5 cm and 0.08mm of particles diameter of dune sand removes most of remaining oil. The sand layer that fills the basin surrounding the shaft is removed and replaced every 06 months. So, Dune sand plays the role of natural filter. The garden plants appear and grow normally

  15. Natural radionuclide content and radiological hazard associated with usage of quartzite sand samples from Ovacik-Silifke-Mersin open pit as building material in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, S; Aykamis, A S; Kiliç, A M

    2009-09-01

    Activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K in quartzite sand samples collected from the Ovacik-Silifke-Mersin open pit located in the East Mediterranean region of Turkey were determined by using a gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The mean activity concentrations of the (238)U, (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K in quartzite sand samples were found as 81.7 +/- 22.9 Bq kg(-1), 6.3 +/- 2.8 Bq kg(-1), 77.5 +/- 24.3 Bq kg(-1)and 140.0 +/- 124.1 Bq kg(-1), respectively. The gamma index (I(gamma)), the internal exposure index (I(alpha)), the indoor absorbed dose rate (D(in)) and the corresponding annual effective dose (H(in)) were evaluated for the public exposure to radiological hazard arising due to the use of quartzite sand samples as building material. The values of I(gamma), I(alpha), D(in) and H(in) ranged from 0.20 to 0.75, with a mean of 0.34 +/- 0.11, 0.23 to 0.77 with a mean of 0.39 +/- 0.12, 58.27 to 201.51 nGy h(-1) with a mean of 93.33 +/- 27.63 nGy h(-1) and 0.29 to 0.99 mSv with a mean of 0.46 +/- 0.14 mSv, respectively.

  16. Bioremediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbon Contaminated Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallgren, Paul

    2009-03-30

    Bioremediation has been widely applied in the restoration of petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated. Parameters that may affect the rate and efficiency of biodegradation include temperature, moisture, salinity, nutrient availability, microbial species, and type and concentration of contaminants. Other factors can also affect the success of the bioremediation treatment of contaminants, such as climatic conditions, soil type, soil permeability, contaminant distribution and concentration, and drainage. Western Research Institute in conjunction with TechLink Environmental, Inc. and the U.S. Department of Energy conducted laboratory studies to evaluate major parameters that contribute to the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated drill cuttings using land farming and to develop a biotreatment cell to expedite biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Physical characteristics such as soil texture, hydraulic conductivity, and water retention were determined for the petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil. Soil texture was determined to be loamy sand to sand, and high hydraulic conductivity and low water retention was observed. Temperature appeared to have the greatest influence on biodegradation rates where high temperatures (>50 C) favored biodegradation. High nitrogen content in the form of ammonium enhanced biodegradation as well did the presence of water near field water holding capacity. Urea was not a good source of nitrogen and has detrimental effects for bioremediation for this site soil. Artificial sea water had little effect on biodegradation rates, but biodegradation rates decreased after increasing the concentrations of salts. Biotreatment cell (biocell) tests demonstrated hydrocarbon biodegradation can be enhanced substantially when utilizing a leachate recirculation design where a 72% reduction of hydrocarbon concentration was observed with a 72-h period at a treatment temperature of 50 C. Overall, this study demonstrates the investigation of the effects of

  17. Eastern Scheldt Sand, Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. T; Madsen, E. B.; Schaarup-Jensen, A. L.

    The present data report contains data from 13 drained triaxial tests, performed on two different sand types in the Soil Mechanics Laboratory at Aalborg University in March, 1997. Two tests have been performed on Baskarp Sand No. 15, which has already ken extensively tested in the Soil Mechanics...... Laboratory. The remaining 11 triaxial tests have ben performed on Eastern Scheldt Sand, which is a material not yet investigated at the Soil Mechanics Laboratory. In the first pari of this data report, the characteristics of the two sand types in question will be presented. Next, a description...... will described. In this connection, the procedure for preparation of the soil specimens will be presented, and the actual performance of the tests will be briefly outlined. Finally, the procedure for processing of the measurements from the laboratory in order to obtain usable data will be described. The final...

  18. Canada's upstream petroleum industry : 1997 perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    A review of the trends and activities in the upstream petroleum industry during 1996 were presented, emphasizing the significance of the industry' contribution to Canada's economy. Among the areas included were highlights of Canada's hydrocarbon reserves, conventional production, frontier production, and non-conventional (oil sands) production. New market opportunities and activities in the pipeline transportation sector were also discussed. Environmental issues including health and safety received due attention. In this regard, the industry's efforts to work with government and other stakeholders to ensure that requirements for land use are balanced with the need to protect wilderness and wildlife habitat, received special mention. 16 figs

  19. Financing petroleum agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robson, C.J.V.

    1994-01-01

    This chapter describes the typical type of financing agreements which are currently used to finance North Sea petroleum projects whether they are in the cause of development or have been developed and are producing. It deals with the agreements which are entered into to finance borrowings for petroleum projects on a non-resource or limited resource basis. (UK)

  20. Fundamentals of Petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic information on petroleum is presented in this book prepared for naval logistics officers. Petroleum in national defense is discussed in connection with consumption statistics, productive capacity, world's resources, and steps in logistics. Chemical and geological analyses are made in efforts to familiarize methods of refining, measuring,…

  1. Petroleum systems of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doust, H.; Noble, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Indonesia contains many Tertiary basins, several of which have proven to be very prolific producers of oil and gas. The geology and petroleum systems of these productive basins are reviewed, summarized and updated according to the most recent developments. We have linked the recognized petroleum

  2. Petroleum and international policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertuzio, A.

    2002-01-01

    To illustrate the relation between the petroleum and the international policy, the author presents the place of the petroleum industry in the international relations by an analysis of the historical aspects, the states and international organizations interventions and the prices evolution. (A.L.B.)

  3. Shell petroleum handbook. [Glossary included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    The present edition has been completely updated and revised, reflecting the very great changes which have come about in the oil industry over the last 18 years, since the last edition appeared. The expressed aim of the Handbook is to combine explanations of the processes of today's petroleum industry, from crude oil exploration to product end-use, with some historical background and explanation of the economic context in which the oil, gas and petrochemical industries operate. It is therefore intended as a technical reference manual, although it will be of interest both to specialists in search of information outside their expertise and to the more general reader. Chapter 3, entitled Exploration and Production, is concerned with structural geology, exploration methods and theory, and reservoir engineering, although the economic and financial aspects of drilling, project management and communication logistics are also considered. Other chapters are devoted to the distribution, consumption and end use of natural gas and NGL, the chemistry of petroleum, the manufacture of oil products, marketing, supply and trading, petrochemicals, synfuels, R and D, environmental conservation, and introduction to the world petroleum industry, and a review of oil and gas in the centrally planned economies, although only the Soviet Union is considered in any detail.

  4. Petroleum industry: Development strategies to year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curcio, E.

    1993-01-01

    During the last two years, the petroleum industry has undergone a period of modest demand increase on the international market, normal consumption rates by consuming countries and, faced with a growing supply base, a progressive per barrel unit price depreciation. In the refinery sector, margins have been reduced due to strong petroleum products price reductions. New anti-pollution laws have necessitated substantial investment in the development of cleaner fuels and pollution control technologies. The reorganization of the former USSR petroleum and gas sector should give rise to technology transfer opportunities for Western nations and spur gradual production increases especially in natural gas. Petroleum and gas demand increases are expected due to the modernization of China's industries. While it is clear that for the next decade their won't be any shortages in supply, forecasting petroleum prices to the year 2000 will remain clouded with uncertainty until such time as the national European petroleum industries decide to go ahead with their long awaited privatization and adjustments are made to current government and private sector energy strategies

  5. Petroleum question. Die Oelfrage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mommer, B

    1983-01-01

    The author analyses the development of the world petroleum market and its pricing factors to the present on the basis of the theory of ground rent, in which the part played by absolute ground rent, differential rent, and free and national state property in the capitalist mode of production is determined. His investigation of economic policy traces the absorbing history of the petroleum production and policy of the United States of America, which for so long governed the world market, the development of Venezuela into a petroleum country (whose true history is here revealed for the first time), the penetration of the middle East by the international petroleum leaseholders' capital and their cartel, the formation of the OPEC, and finally the 'victory' of the lather over the petroleum combines in the international petroleum crisis of 1970-1973. The book closes with a survey at the start of the 80s and an outlook into the foreseeable future. What is really hidden behind the quarrels about prices, profit, taxes, royalties, franchise agreements, production quotas, nationalization and so forth and behind the economic, political, and even moral arguments of the parties concerned turns out to be the fight of the petroleum ground proprietors for the ground rent - but to win a victory in this fight means ultimately to face its limitations, too. Blindness to the economic and political importance of ground rent, right from the theoretical approach, also created a major cause of the false diagnoses and forecasts on the petroleum market western economic scientists were misled into, and thus of the surprise effect that came in the form of the petroleum crisis of the early 1970s.

  6. Supercritical solvent extraction of oil sand bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanbayev, Ye. I.; Ongarbayev, Ye. K.; Tileuberdi, Ye.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Golovko, A. K.; Rudyk, S.

    2017-08-01

    The supercritical solvent extraction of bitumen from oil sand studied with organic solvents. The experiments were performed in autoclave reactor at temperature above 255 °C and pressure 29 atm with stirring for 6 h. The reaction resulted in the formation of coke products with mineral part of oil sands. The remaining products separated into SARA fractions. The properties of the obtained products were studied. The supercritical solvent extraction significantly upgraded extracted natural bitumen.

  7. Caspian sea: petroleum challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Caspian sea is one of the world areas the most promising in terms of investments and petroleum development. This study presents the petroleum challenges generated by this hydrocarbons reserve. The first part discusses the juridical status (sea or lake), the petroleum and the gas reserves, the ecosystem and the today environment (fishing and caviar), the geostrategic situation and the transport of gas and oil. It provides also a chronology from 1729 to 2005, a selection of Internet sites, books and reports on the subject and identity sheets of the countries around the Caspian sea. (A.L.B.)

  8. Petroleum investment in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, M.

    1994-01-01

    There is no specific petroleum legislation as such in place in Kazakhstan and tax legislation is unsophisticated. Regulation of operations is subject to generally applicable legislation. A brief account of the difficulties which exist for both sides in renegotiating a contract is given. Since the competence to enter into contracts with foreign companies has not been fully defined, the first problem when applying for petroleum rights is the identification of a negotiating partner. A summary of terms and conditions and a list of the main laws applicable to petroleum operations are included. (UK)

  9. Petroleum marketing annual, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. (VC)

  10. Statistical handbook for Canada's upstream petroleum industry: '96 updates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Statistical Handbook of CAPP is an annual compilation of useful information about the Canadian petroleum and natural gas industry. It has been published since 1955, and is a key source of upstream petroleum statistics. It presents a historical summary of the petroleum industry''s progress and provides detailed statistical information on the production and consumption of petroleum, petroleum products, natural gas and natural gas liquids, imports and exports, land sales, pipelines, reserves, drilling and refinery activities, and prices in Canada. The information, mostly in tabular form, is based on the latest available data (generally up to and including 1996). For the first time in 1997, the Handbook is also made available in CD-ROM format (EXCEL 5.0). Plans are also underway to publish the Handbook on a secure site on the Internet

  11. Petroleum refining and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimbault, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper studies the methods which may be developed in petroleum refineries or during petroleum products using for air pollution abatement: petroleum products desulfurization, lead elimination in gasoline and catalytic converters to reduce sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases. Investments and costs estimation to adapt petroleum refineries for environment protection is also given. 1 ref., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Influence green sand system by core sand additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Špirutová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, about two thirds of iron alloys casting (especially for graphitizing alloys of iron are produced into green sand systems with usually organically bonded cores. Separation of core sands from the green sand mixture is very difficult, after pouring. The core sand concentration increase due to circulation of green sand mixture in a closed circulation system. Furthermore in some foundries, core sands have been adding to green sand systems as a replacement for new sands. The goal of this contribution is: “How the green sand systems are influenced by core sands?”This effect is considered by determination of selected technological properties and degree of green sand system re-bonding. From the studies, which have been published yet, there is not consistent opinion on influence of core sand dilution on green sand system properties. In order to simulation of the effect of core sands on the technological properties of green sands, there were applied the most common used technologies of cores production, which are based on bonding with phenolic resin. Core sand concentration added to green sand system, was up to 50 %. Influence of core sand dilution on basic properties of green sand systems was determined by evaluation of basic industrial properties: moisture, green compression strength and splitting strength, wet tensile strength, mixture stability against staling and physical-chemistry properties (pH, conductivity, and loss of ignition. Ratio of active betonite by Methylene blue test was also determined.

  13. Energy use in petroleum refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, V.O.

    1976-09-01

    Refining petroleum accounts for about 4 percent of the total energy consumed in the United States and about 15 percent of all industrial consumption. The kinds of energy used and the manner in which energy is used are discussed on a process-by-process basis. Emphasis is placed on existing processes to identify and quantify process and equipment substitutions which might significantly conserve energy. General industry and process information is given and estimates of potential savings are made. A few research and development opportunities are identified and nontechnical factors are discussed. Nearly one-half the energy consumed by refineries is obtained from by-product refinery gas and coke, and about one-third is supplied by natural gas. On a regional basis, refineries were found to vary by a factor of two in the amount of energy used to refine a unit of crude oil. Refineries in regions traditionally abundant in inexpensive natural gas were found to use relatively more natural gas and energy. About 36 percent of the energy used by petroleum refineries is consumed in the distillation units to separate the refinery streams into their basic components. Including energy for manufacturing hydrogen, about 24 percent of the total is used for cracking of the heavier components. Most of the remainder is used for reforming, hydrogen treating, and alkylation, distributed about 11, 17, and 6 percent respectively. Potential energy savings discussed in this report total 61 x 10/sup 13/ Btu/yr based on 1974 capacities, a figure which represents about 20 percent of the energy consumed to refine petroleum.

  14. The Role of Bituminous Sands in Extending the Petroleum Era Beyond 2000 A. D. (Summary Le rôle des sables bitumineux pour prolonger l'ère du pétrole au-delà de l'an 2000 (résumé

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrigy M.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Bituminous sand is an energy resource that is receiving increasing attention and there is a strong interest by the international community in co-operating in the development of new methods of exploration, and in the solution of common technological problems to reduce the time when oil from this enormous energy source is available. A detailed knowledge of the geological setting and the reservoir is of paramount importance to the assessment of the magnitude of the resource, its successful exploitation and to facilitate the transfer of the highly complicated recovery technology from one deposit to another. Much research also remains to be done to improve our understanding of the origin of the bitumen and the factors controlling the location of its accumulation. Based on the scant information we have, it is estimated that bituminous sand deposits contain from 5 to 10 x 10. 12 (trillion barrels of crude bitumen and are surely large enough to make a significant contribution to extending the petroleum era until alternative energy sources are developed. However, great amounts of synthetic oil from this source will probably not be brought onto the market until after the year 2000 A. D. because of the high capital cost, and large numbers of skilled technicians required to bring them into production. In the more industrialized nations where the demand for portable liquid fuel is strongest, notably Canada, Venezuela, and USA, billions of dollars are being spent on exploring and exploiting their bituminous sand resources. It is, however, in those undeveloped nations, who cannot afford to buy light crude oil, and who have bituminous deposits, where exploitation of this resource should have its greatest impact. It is therefore imperative that all geologists be aware of the new technologies that are now available to turn these low-grade hydrocarbons into high-grade products. Une attention croissante est accordée aux sables bitumineux comme source d

  15. Advanced characterisation of organic matter in oil sands and tailings sands used for land reclamation by Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS).

    OpenAIRE

    Mareike Noah; Andrea Vieth-Hillebrand; Heinz Wilkes

    2012-01-01

    The Athabasca region of northern Alberta, Canada, is home to deposits of oil sands containing vast amounts (~ 173 billion barrels) of heavily biodegraded petroleum. Oil sands are recovered by surface mining or by in situ steam injection. The extraction of bitumen from oil sands by caustic hot water processing results in large volumes of fluid tailings, which are stored in on-site settling basins. There the tailings undergo a compaction and dewatering process, producing a slowly densifying sus...

  16. Petroleum geochemical responses to reservoir rock properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, B.; Larter, S.R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Reservoir geochemistry is used to study petroleum basin development, petroleum mixing, and alterations. In this study, polar non-hydrocarbons were used as proxies for describing reservoir properties sensitive to fluid-rock interactions. A core flood experiment was conducted on a Carboniferous siltstone core obtained from a site in the United Kingdom. Core samples were then obtained from a typical upper shoreface in a North Sea oilfield. The samples were extracted with a dichloromethane and methanol mixture. Alkylcarbazoles and alkylfluorenones were then isolated from the samples. Compositional changes along the core were also investigated. Polar non hydrocarbons were studied using a wireline gamma ray log. The strongest deflections were observed in the basal coarsening upwards unit. The study demonstrated the correlations between molecular markers, and indicated that molecular parameters can be used to differentiate between clean sand units and adjacent coarsening upward muddy sand sequences. It was concluded that reservoir geochemical parameters can provide an independent response to properties defined by petrophysical methods. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Petroleum marketing annual, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates

  18. Petroleum supply annual 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1992 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1992, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary

  19. Petroleum marketing annual 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates

  20. Petroleum marketing annual 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. For this publication, all estimates have been recalculated since their earlier publication in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM). These calculations made use of additional data and corrections that were received after the PMM publication dates.

  1. Petroleum Vapor Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    One type of vapor intrusion is PVI, in which vapors from petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel enter a building. Intrusion of contaminant vapors into indoor spaces is of concern.

  2. Singing Sand Dunes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ble low-frequency (s. 75–105 Hz), that can some- times be heard up to 10 km away. Scientific in- vestigations suggest that the sustained low fre- quency sound of sand dunes that resembles a pure note from a musical instrument, is due to the synchronized motion of well-sorted dry sand grains when they spontaneously ...

  3. Photolysis of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobra, M.

    1992-05-01

    A study was conducted to examine the chemical and physical changes that occur in oils as a result of photooxidation. A literature review of recent studies in petroleum photochemistry revealed reported effects of photo-induced reactions in petroleum, including changes in color, polymerization, solidification, increases in solubility and toxicity, and changes in interfacial properties. A list of products reported as a result of photolysis of petroleum is presented, including such compounds as aldehydes, ketones, esters, and lactones. The photoreactivity of various petroleum components is discussed and mechanisms of photooxidation of petroleum are suggested. In the experimental portion of the study, a variety of crude oils and petroleum products were used to determine how different oils are affected by photolysis, and to examine the importance of photolysis as a weathering process. Photooxidation products from several oils were isolated and identified, including aliphatic and aromatic acids, alcohols, and phenols. Some physical manifestations attributed to photolysis included yellowing, formation of precipitates or crusts, increases in density and viscosity with time, increases of asphaltene content in some oils, changes in pH of the surrounding water, and emulsification. 51 refs., 38 figs., 18 tabs

  4. 76 FR 23838 - Notice Pursuant to the National Cooperative Research and Production Act of 1993-Petroleum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... Production Act of 1993--Petroleum Industry Data Exchange, Inc. Notice is hereby given that, on March 21, 2011... seq. (``the Act''), Petroleum Industry Data Exchange, Inc. (``PIDX'') has filed written notifications... organization is: Petroleum Industry Data Exchange, Inc., Houston, TX. The nature and scope of PIDX's standards...

  5. EFFECT OF HCL CONCENTRATION ON NORMAL CONCRETE AND ADMIXTURED CONCRETE MADE WITH AND WITHOUT MANUFACTURED SAND

    OpenAIRE

    K. Pradeep*, K. Ramudu

    2017-01-01

    Concrete is considered to be the most widely used and versatile material of construction all over the world. One of the important ingredients of conventional concrete is natural sand or river sand, which is on the verge of exhausting due to abundant usage. In India, the conventional concrete is produced by using natural sand obtained from riverbeds as fine aggregate. However, due to the increased use of concrete in almost all types of construction works, the demand of natural or river sand ha...

  6. Petroleum labour market information supply demand analysis 2009-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Since 2006, the petroleum industry has been interested in collaboration to determine labour demand and supply/demand gaps for the upstream petroleum industry. In 2006, the petroleum industry experienced strong employment growth and was having difficulty finding workers. Comprehensive, up-to-date labour market information and analysis are the key foundation for addressing labour supply/demand issues. This document presented labour market information on the petroleum industry in order to inform company retention and recruitment offices; government departments involved in development of labour market policies and programs; education and training institutions; guidance counsellors, employment centres and organizations that work with youth and labour supply pools; and job seekers. Specific topics that were discussed included two industry scenarios (growth and base case) in determining the petroleum industry's medium-and long-term employment needs; labour supply/demand considerations for the industry as a whole and an industry-wide cost management; and an analysis of exploration and production, oil sands, services, and pipeline sectors to 2020. It was concluded that while new employment is not expected to lead to labour shortages within the pipeline sector, attrition due to requirements almost certainly would. In the growth scenario, it is likely the pipeline sector will be challenged by competition from the other petroleum industry sectors. tabs., figs., appendices.

  7. Petroleum labour market information supply demand analysis 2009-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    Since 2006, the petroleum industry has been interested in collaboration to determine labour demand and supply/demand gaps for the upstream petroleum industry. In 2006, the petroleum industry experienced strong employment growth and was having difficulty finding workers. Comprehensive, up-to-date labour market information and analysis are the key foundation for addressing labour supply/demand issues. This document presented labour market information on the petroleum industry in order to inform company retention and recruitment offices; government departments involved in development of labour market policies and programs; education and training institutions; guidance counsellors, employment centres and organizations that work with youth and labour supply pools; and job seekers. Specific topics that were discussed included two industry scenarios (growth and base case) in determining the petroleum industry's medium-and long-term employment needs; labour supply/demand considerations for the industry as a whole and an industry-wide cost management; and an analysis of exploration and production, oil sands, services, and pipeline sectors to 2020. It was concluded that while new employment is not expected to lead to labour shortages within the pipeline sector, attrition due to requirements almost certainly would. In the growth scenario, it is likely the pipeline sector will be challenged by competition from the other petroleum industry sectors. tabs., figs., appendices.

  8. Enhanced ex situ bioremediation of crude oil contaminated beach sand by supplementation with nutrients and rhamnolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolopoulou, M; Pasadakis, N; Norf, H; Kalogerakis, N

    2013-12-15

    Mediterranean coastal regions are particularly exposed to oil pollution due to extensive industrialization, urbanization and transport of crude and refined oil to and from refineries. Bioremediation of contaminated beach sand through landfarming is both simple and cost-effective to implement compared to other treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of alternative nutrients on biodegradation of crude oil contaminated beach sand in an effort to reduce the time required for bioremediation employing only indigenous hydrocarbon degraders. A natural sandy soil was collected from Agios Onoufrios beach (Chania, Greece) and was contaminated with weathered crude oil. The indigenous microbial population in the contaminated sand was tested alone (control treatment) or in combination with inorganic nutrients (KNO3 and K2HPO4) to investigate their effects on oil biodegradation rates. In addition, the ability of biosurfactants (rhamnolipids), in the presence of organic nutrients (uric acid and lecithin), to further stimulate biodegradation was investigated in laboratory microcosms over a 45-day period. Biodegradation was tracked by GC/MS analysis of aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons components and the measured concentrations were corrected for abiotic removal by hopane normalizations. It was found that the saturated fraction of the residual oil is degraded more extensively than the aromatic fraction and the bacterial growth after an incubation period of approximately 3 weeks was much greater from the bacterial growth in the control. The results show that the treatments with inorganic or organic nutrients are equally effective over almost 30 days where C12-C35n-alkanes were degraded more than 97% and polyaromatic hydrocarbons with two or three rings were degraded more than 95% within 45 days. The results clearly show that the addition of nutrients to contaminated beach sand significantly enhanced the activity of

  9. Hydrocarbons biodegradation and evidence of mixed petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chromatographic analysis of extracts from the Cross River system show evidence of variable composition of biogenic n-alkane profile with dominance of terrigenous over aquatic organic matter present (LHC/SHC-0.36-10.57) at upstream location reflecting the natural background levels and marked levels of petroleum ...

  10. Perch population assessment in lakes reclaimed using oil-sands derived material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuvel, M.R. van den; Dixon, D.G.; Power, M.; Boerger, H.; MacKinnon, M.D.; Meer, T. van

    1995-01-01

    The mining and extraction of petroleum products from oil-sands involves large areas of land and produces enormous volumes of tailings. One possible land reclamation option is to incorporate fine-tailings material into the bottoms of constructed lakes capped with natural surface water. The wet landscape method represents potential risk to aquatic biota-naphthenic acids and PAHs elute from pore water contained in the fine-tailings substrate. In spring 1995 yellow perch were stocked into a large-scale (5ha) experimental pond that consisted of fine-tailings capped with natural water as well as into two other reclaimed ponds that were constructed with oil-sands overburden material. Prior to stocking of perch, ponds had colonized with cyprinids, macrophytes and benthic invertebrates over a two year period. Perch were sampled in fall 1995 for age, condition factor, liver size, gonad size, fecundity, stomach contents, liver mixed-function oxygenase activity (MFO), bile PAH metabolites and plasma steroid hormones. When compared to the source lake, perch in the DP did not show reduced reproductive potential. Perch in all of the reclaimed ponds demonstrated exposure to organic compounds as indicated by marginally induced MFO activity and increased liver size. Exposure to naphthenates and PAHs in water as well as ecological environmental factors will be discussed

  11. Stable carbon isotopic composition of petroleum condensate from the nile Delta and western Sinai fields and its correlation with crude oils and natural gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Samie, S.G.

    2006-01-01

    Twenty six of condensate samples from three provinces; Abu Madi (onshore NE Delta), Port Fouad (offshore) in the Mediterranean sea, and Abu Rudeis areas, were analyzed and correlated to the Nile Delta, Gulf of Suez and western desert crude oils. Different isotopic results were obtained specifying each group that reflects the depositional environment, temperature gradient and maturation level of organic matter in each area. The mean isotopic results (av. σ 13 C) of Abu Madi condensate samples reached about -26.41 close to the values of the western desert total oil, indicating thermal graded fluid and depositional environment very close to the western desert in hydrocarbon type (mainly of terrestrial sources), thermal condition and long time of deposition. The offshore Port Fouad condensate samples have relatively wide range of σ 13 C between -27.24 to -24.03% representing mixing between marine and terrestrial hydrocarbons migrated from the near shore areas of the Nile Delta to the Mediterranean sea sub-basins. Abu Rudeis condensate samples have the isotopic signature of σ 13 C = -30.09 to -29.05% close to the Gulf of Suez crude oil samples which reflect the deposition under mainly marine environment of the Red Sea basins. As petroleum condensates considered as moderate compounds between oils and gases, their isotopic contents refer to the produced oil or gas from the same sample. Though condensate samples are correlated with gases produced from the Nile Delta. Based on carbon isotopic values of methane and light gas fractions, the produced gases from the Nile Delta could be generated mainly from terrestrial sources enriched in σ 13 C of C 2 +. These gases are classified according to the thermogenic origin enriched in σ 13 C C H4 in the Nile Delta onshore fields in Abu Madi formation. In shallower formations (Kafr El Sheikh formation), isotopically light gases were found in the NE direction and appeared to be of biogenic source, whereas mixed gases were found in

  12. Assessment of the variation of natural radioactivity in sands of Camburi beach, Vitoria, Epirito Santo, Brazil with climatological and geological factors of the region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Livia Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    The main contribution to the external exposure to humans comes from gamma emitting radionuclides in soils, especially the 40 K and 238 U and 232 Th series. In this work, the activity concentrations of 226 Ra ( 238 U series), 232 Th and 40 K in surface sand monthly collected at 11 sites along the Camburi beach during the year 2011, selected to cover the entire length of the beach, were determined. The samples were hermetically sealed and measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry, after a resting time of approximately 30 days, in order to attain the radioactive equilibrium in the 238 U and 232 Th series. The activity concentration of 226 Ra was determined by the weighted average concentrations of 214 Pb and 214 Bi, the activity concentration of 232 Th by the weighted average concentrations of 212 Pb, 212 Bi and 228 Ac. The activity of 40 K was determined by its single transition of 1460,8 keV. For all samples the concentrations were corrected by self attenuation factors. From these concentrations, radiological indices like radium equivalent activity (Ra eq ), activity concentration index (I γ ), external exposure risk index (H ext ), internal exposure risk index (H int ), absorbed gamma dose rate in air (D) in nGy.h -1 and annual effective dose (E) in mSv.y -1 were evaluated. In the studied area it was realized an assessment of the correlation of the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K with the geological, geographical, climatological (rainfall and temperature) and oceanographic (tidal height variation) factors. Due to the strong presence of monazite, the concentration of 232 Th is higher than the concentration of 226 Ra and 40 K. The activity concentrations found ranged from 4 Bq.kg -1 to 1380 Bq.kg -1 for 226 Ra, from 9 Bq.kg -1 to 7453 Bq.kg -1 for 232 Th and 6 Bq.kg -1 to 504 Bq.kg -1 for 40 K. The variation of Ra eq from 20 Bq.kg -1 to 12077 Bq.kg -1 , of I γ from 0,07 to 42,08, of H ext from 0,05 to 32,61, of H int from 0,06 to 36,34 and

  13. Petroleum supply monthly, November 1998, with data for September 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the Unites States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 72 tabs.

  14. Petroleum supply monthly, December 1997 with data from October 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregates, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  15. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1999 with data for November 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 82 tabs.

  16. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1999, with data for March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary supplies of petroleum products in the US (50 states and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 72 tabs.

  17. Petroleum supply monthly, June 1999, with data for April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  18. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1999, with data for February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 72 tabs.

  19. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1997 with data from May 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  20. Petroleum supply monthly, December 1995: With data for October 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas--the US (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. 16 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Petroleum supply monthly, February 1999, with data for December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  2. Petroleum supply monthly, August 1998, with data for June 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 fig., 66 tabs.

  3. Petroleum supply monthly: July 1998, with data for May 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describes the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 56 tabs.

  4. Petroleum supply monthly, October 1998, with data for August 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the United States and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the United States (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the United States. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. A feature article, Accuracy of petroleum supply data, is also included. 72 tabs.

  5. Petroleum supply monthly, January 1997 with data for November 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  6. Petroleum supply monthly, May 1996 with data from March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    Data presented in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. 16 figs., 66 tabs.

  7. Petroleum supply monthly, July 1999, with data for May 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four petroleum supply publications produced by the Petroleum Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. The other publications are the Weekly Petroleum Status Report (WPSR), the Winter Fuels Report, and the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The Detail Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas--the US (50 States and the District of Columbia), five PAD Districts, and 12 Refining Districts. At the US and PAD District level, the total volume and the daily rate of activities are presented. The statistics are developed from monthly survey forms submitted by respondents to the EIA and from data provided from other sources.

  8. Petroleum supply monthly, April 1998, with data for February 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM) is one of a family of four publications produced by the Petroleum Supply Division within the Energy Information Administration (EIA) reflecting different levels of data timeliness and completeness. Data presented in the PSM describe the supply and disposition of petroleum products in the US and major US geographic regions. The data series describe production, imports and exports, inter-Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District movements, and inventories by the primary suppliers of petroleum products in the US (50 States and the District of Columbia). The reporting universe includes those petroleum sectors in primary supply. Included are: petroleum refiners, motor gasoline blenders, operators of natural gas processing plants and fractionators, inter-PAD transporters, importers, and major inventory holders of petroleum products and crude oil. When aggregated, the data reported by these sectors approximately represent the consumption of petroleum products in the US. Data presented in the PSM are divided into two sections: Summary Statistics and Detailed Statistics. The tables and figures in the Summary Statistics section of the PSM present a time series of selected petroleum data on a US level. Most time series include preliminary estimates for one month based on the Weekly Petroleum Supply Reporting System; statistics based on the most recent data from the Monthly Petroleum Supply Reporting System (MPSRS); and statistics published in prior issues of the PSM and PSA. The Detailed Statistics tables of the PSM present statistics for the most current month available as well as year-to-date. In most cases, the statistics are presented for several geographic areas--the US (50 States and District of Columbia), 5 PAD Districts and 12 Refining Districts. 16 figs., 56 tabs.

  9. Petroleum hydrocarbons in offshore sediments from the Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Lihaibi, S.S.; Al-Omran, Laila

    1996-01-01

    Petroleum hydrocarbons in offshore sediments from the central part of the Gulf were measured using fluorescence spectrophotometry. Concentrations varied between 4.0 and 56.2 μg/g wet sediment (expressed as Kuwait Crude Oil equivalents), with an average of 12.3 μ/g. Highest concentrations were recorded in the north-west sector, with concentrations decreasing in a south-westerly direction. No significant correlations were observed between petroleum hydrocarbons and sedimentary organic carbon (r-0.07), 'mud' content (r=0.09), 'sand' content (r= -0.08) or 'gravel' content (r= -0.12). Distributions of oil are considered to relate more closely to prevailing current and localized pollutant sources in the region. Despite the substantial inputs of oil to the Gulf, contamination can be considered comparatively low, possibly reflecting physical processes and biological degradation which accelerate removal of petroleum from this marine environment. (author)

  10. Asian interests in Alberta oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Plessis, D.; Laureshen, C.

    2004-01-01

    The growing Asian interest in Alberta's oil sands and import opportunities was discussed along with the feasibility of marketing bitumen to Asia. Asia is an obvious new market for Canadian heavy oil and bitumen due to an increasing demand for petroleum products in Japan, Korea, Taiwan and China. This paper examined the following three criteria that will determine the success of any initiative to move Canadian crude oil to Asian-Pacific markets: (1) a sustainable supply from Alberta; a pipeline to transport the crude to a deepwater port on the west coast; and, a guaranteed market at the other end. The basis for Asian interest in Alberta's oil sands is the sustainable secure supply of oil for growing Asian markets; heavy dependence on supplies from the Middle East; the desire to diversify supply sources; and, opportunities to invest in oil sands developments. Examples of Asian (Japan, Korea, Taiwan and China) missions to Alberta were presented along with the challenges of getting products to market with reference to Enbridge's new market access plan, Terasen's staged capacity expansion for heavy crudes and refined products, and sea transport from Prince Rupert. The paper also included graphs depicting world GDP; incremental increase in world primary energy demand by fuel for 2000 to 2020; world oil demand by region; oil demand by region in Asia; oil demand and supply in northeast Asia (Japan, China, Korea) and dependence level on Middle Eastern oil; oil demand and supply in China; China's petroleum production and consumption; refined products market forecast for 2000 to 2020; 2002 crude oil imports to Asia; 2004 refining capacity; product quality comparisons; cost competitive study; and energy policy objectives for China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan. 19 figs

  11. Law proposal aiming at imposing the domestic consumption tax to the natural gas used for hydrogen generation for petroleum refining purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-04-01

    In France, natural gas benefits from tax exemptions in several situations and in particular when used as raw material for hydrogen generation, which in turn, is used for crude oil refining and fuels generation. However, crude oil is cheaper when it is heavier but more hydrogen, and thus more natural gas, is needed to refine it and more CO 2 is released in the atmosphere. Therefore, refining cheap crude oil increases the refining margins of oil companies but their environmental impact as well. The aim of this law proposal is to impose the domestic consumption tax to natural gas when used in oil refining processes in order to finance the development of the renewable hydrogen industry through the creation of a High Council of Hydrogen Industry. This High Council would be in charge of promoting the development of renewable hydrogen production facilities and distribution circuits, of hydrogen-fueled vehicles, and of fuel cells. (J.S.)

  12. Petroleum marketing monthly, May 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-26

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Petroleum Marketing Monthly.

  13. Problems of radiation safety of petroleum and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibov, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Oil and gas production is the basis of economy of the Azerbaijan Republic and its cause in ecological and radioecology problems. One form this problem is the pollution by radionuclides of environment at the time of gas and petroleum production. At the time of petroleum and gas production the three-phase radionuclides are emitted in atmosphere: Emissions consisted from solid U-238, Ra-226, Th-232, K-40 discharged to atmosphere at the time of production, exploring and exploitation of petroleum and gas. They are presented in compounds of sand, clay, and petroleum residues; During the drilling and production the gross quantities of water flows out and collects. These water areas consist of radium, uranium, Th and K-40 dissolved in water salts; There are the radionuclides being in 902 condition emitted in atmosphere at the places of petroleum and gas production. The radon and its isotopes are emitted at this time; At the places of petroleum and gas production it is observed at local pollution areas polluted by solid emissions that at this territories the doze of exposition power variable 100 - 1000 micro/hour. The radioactivity at this system according to 2-1000 year/k consists from Ra, K-40, and U. At this areas the value of total background changes 5 - 1000 micro R/hour. The total radioactivity of water polls formed at the places of petroleum and gas production consisted 50 -150 Bq/L. In the case of gas the separated radionuclides are mainly consisted from Radon and its isotopes. In the compound of produced gas the concentration of radon varied 20 - 1700 Bq/m 3 . Thus, at the places of petroleum and gas production radioactive pollutants emitted to atmosphere, forms the polluted environment for working and living people at the same territory. This problem's status haven't been investigated thoroughly, the sources of pollution hasn't been uncovered concretely, the cleaning technology for polluted areas is unknown

  14. Annual report 2006 - IBP - Brazilian Institute of Petroleum and Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document the activities of Brazilian Petroleum and Gas Institute during 2004 as follows: economic and energy policy; supply, natural gas, support and services, certification, courses, events and normalization managing

  15. Our petroleum challenge : sustainability into the 21. century. 7. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, R.D.; Carson, D.M.; Henderson, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    The Canadian Centre for Energy Information provides accurate information on all aspects of Canada's energy sector. This report reviews Canada's petroleum resources and the role they play in society. In particular, it discussed the origins of crude oil and natural gas, exploration, production, processing, transportation, refining, marketing and end-use. The report is intended for a diverse audience interested in hydrocarbons, natural gas, crude oil, bitumen, gasoline, petroleum, natural gas liquids, and liquefied natural gas. The report explains the science and technology of the upstream and downstream petroleum industry. Canada's hydrocarbon legacy was described in the first section, followed by exploration, land use, seismic surveys, drilling, and production issues. The challenges and opportunities facing the industry in the twenty-first century were also discussed with reference to sustainable development. Business aspects were also outlined in terms of revenues, public interest, petroleum prices, and employment. refs., tabs., figs

  16. Natural attenuation of petroleum products in soils. Examination in an exotoxicologic test battery; Natuerliches Abbaupotential von Mineraloelprodukten in Boeden. Pruefung in einer oekotoxikologischen Testbatterie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann-Hensel, H. [Dr. Fintelmann und Dr. Meyer Handels- und Umweltschutzlaboratorien GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Ahlf, W.; Gerth, J.; Foerstner, U. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Hamburg (Germany). Arbeitsbereich Umweltschutztechnik

    1999-07-01

    Contaminated soils require an environmental assessment on the maintenance of natural functions, especially for the protection of groundwater. In case of contamination the evaluation methods, which describe the natural mechanisms in soils (unsaturated zone) due to attenuation/intrinsic remediation of hazardous substances, obtain special importance. Natural attenuation - as a strategy of remediation - uses the process in the underground, which reduce hazardous effects of contaminants in soils. As a useful observation module a biological testset is presented to characterise the remaining ecotoxicologic risk due to mineral oil hydrocarbons (MCH) in soils. Examinations of an artificially MCH contaminated soil and a real abandoned hazardous waste site validated the usefullness of the testset. The selection of methods follows the criteria: sensitivity, practicability, time-demand and the capability of standardisation. (orig.) [German] Kontaminierte Boeden erfordern eine Umweltpruefung zum Erhalt ihrer natuerlichen Funktionen, insbesondere gilt dies fuer das Schutzgut Grundwasser. Bei Schadensfaellen bekommen dadurch Bewertungsmethoden, die die natuerlichen Mechanismen des Boden (ungesaettigte Zone) zum Schadstoffabbau bzw. -rueckhalt beschreiben, eine besondere Bedeutung. Natural Attenuation (NRA) als Sanierungsstrategie nutzt die natuerlicherweise im Untergrund ablaufenden Prozesse, die Schadstoffkonzentrationen oder -wirkungen im Boden vermindern. Als ein geeigneter Ueberwachungsbaustein kann ein oekotoxikologisches Testset eingesetzt werden, um das Abbaupotential und das oekotoxikologische Restristiko von Mineraloelkohlenwasserstoffen (MKW) zu charakterisieren. Untersuchungsergebnisse an einem mit MKW kuenstlich kontaminierten Boden und an einer realen Altlast werden vorgestellt. Die Methodenauswahl des Testsets erfolgt nach den Kriterien: Sensitivitaet, Praktikabilitaet, Zeitbedarf und Standardisierbarkeit. (orig.)

  17. Sand and Gravel Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes sand and gravel operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  18. Retorting of bituminous sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaney, P E; Ince, R W; Mason, C M

    1872-09-26

    This method of recovering oil from mined tar sands involves forming compacted tar sands pieces by special conditioning treatment that provides low internal permeability. The compacted pieces are then retorted in fixed bed form. The conditioning treatment can involve rolling of preformed pellets, compaction in a mold or pressure extrusion. Substantial collapsing of the bed during retorting is avoided. (9 claims) (Abstract only - original article not available from T.U.)

  19. Development of soil-cement blocks with three interventions: natural soil, soil corrected with sand and soil more phase change materials (PCMs); Desenvolvimento de blocos solo-cimento com tres intervencoes: solo natural, solo corrigido com areia e solo mais materiais de mudanca de fase (MMFs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Valter Bezerra; Gomes, Uilame Umbelino; Reis, Edmilson Pedreira; Valcacer, Samara Melo; Silva, A.S., E-mail: valter.fisic@hotmail.com, E-mail: umbelino@dfte.ufrn.br, E-mail: pedreira.reis@ig.com.br, E-mail: gmarinho@ct.ufrn.br, E-mail: samaravalcacer@hotamil.com, E-mail: ariadness2@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (PPGCEM/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais

    2014-07-01

    In this work, the results of characterization tests of soil samples collected in Mossoro-RN, UFERSA-RN Campus, located approximately 20 meters high, and {sup 5} ° 12'34.68 south latitude and 37 ° 19'5.74 {sup w}est longitude, with the purpose of producing soil-cement for the manufacture of pressed blocks with good resistance to compression and thermal stability. The following tests were performed: granulometry, plasticity limit, liquidity limit, particle size correction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence. In this soil, based on the results of the granulometric analysis, 10% of medium sand with 3% and 5% of eicosane paraffin and 10% of medium sand with 3% and 5% of paraffin 120 / 125F were added, forming analysis compositions, standard soil-cement block and natural soil-cement block with addition of 10% medium sand and 0% paraffin. Paraffins are referred to as PCMs (Phase Change Material). The contrasting effect between the different dosages on the compressive strength values of the soil-cement blocks was observed. The objective is to create new materials that give the block quality equal to or higher than the recommendations of ABNT norms, and that offer greater thermal comfort in the constructions. Soil particles of different sizes were added to 8% (by weight) of cement, and about 9.20% of water added to the mixture.

  20. Degradation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon in Phytoremediation Using Terrestrial Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushrifah Idris

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH degradation in phytoremediation of spiked diesel in sand. The diesel was added to the sand that was planted with terrestrial plants. Four selected terrestrial plants used were Paspalum vaginatum Sw, Paspalums crobiculatum L. varbispicatum Hack, Eragrotis atrovirens (Desf. Trin. ex Steud and Cayratia trifolia (L. Domin since all the plants could survive at a hydrocarbon petroleum contaminated site in Malaysia. The samplings were carried out on Day 0, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 72. The analysis of the TPH was conducted by extracting the spiked sand using ultrasonic extraction. The determination of the TPH concentration in the sand was performed using GC-FID. The degradation of TPH depends on the plant species and time of exposure. The highest percentage degradation by P. vaginatum, P. scrobiculatum, E. atrovirens and C. trifolia were 91.9, 74.0, 68.9 and 62.9%, respectively. In conclusion, the ability to degrade TPH by plants were P. vaginatum > P. scrobiculatum > E. atrovirens> C. trifolia.

  1. Characterization and Ecophysiological Observations on Coastal Sand Dune Vegetation from Goa, Central West Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rodrigues, R.S.

    Coastal Sand Dune flora (CSD) forms a specialized group of plants commonly referred as psammophytes. Goa has limited natural resources including beaches and sand dunes. The state is globally known for its tourism activities, which pressurize...

  2. Petroleum Marketing Annual, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-18

    This report contains statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication provides statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for us by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the free-on-board (f.o.b.) and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners' acquisition cost of crude oil. Sales data for motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane are presented. 13 figs., 51 tabs.

  3. MECHANICAL REGENERATION OF SAND WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Gnir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental activation of the sand regenerator of the firm SINTO is carried out at ОАО “MZOO". It is shown that sand grains are cleared from films of binding agents, that allows to use the treated sand for preparation of agglutinant and core sands.

  4. The business of petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmetz, R.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the Business of Petroleum Exploration. The following topics are included: Petroleum business; Economic aspects of the business; Managing business; and Legal, Political, Ethical and environment aspects of the business

  5. Petroleum marketing monthly, June 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: Summary Statistics; Crude Oil Prices; Prices of Petroleum Products; Volumes of Petroleum Products; and Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Petroleum Products for Local Consumption. The feature article is entitled ``The Second Oxygenated Gasoline Season.`` 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  6. Petroleum marketing monthly, July 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) provides information and statistical data on a variety of crude oils and refined petroleum products. The publication presents statistics on crude oil costs and refined petroleum products sales for use by industry, government, private sector analysts, educational institutions, and consumers. Data on crude oil include the domestic first purchase price, the f.o.b. and landed cost of imported crude oil, and the refiners` acquisition cost of crude oil. Refined petroleum product sales data include motor gasoline, distillates, residuals, aviation fuels, kerosene, and propane. Monthly statistics on purchases of crude oil and sales of petroleum products are presented in five sections: summary statistics; crude oil prices; prices of petroleum products; volumes of petroleum products; and prime supplier sales volumes of petroleum products for local consumption. 7 figs., 50 tabs.

  7. Isotope analysis in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, R.

    1982-01-01

    The study about isotopic analysis in petroleum exploration performed at Petrobras Research Center is showed. The results of the petroleum recuperation in same Brazilian basin and shelves are comented. (L.H.L.L.) [pt

  8. The petroleum taxation in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    This document details the french specificities of taxation concerning the petroleum products: the TIPP. It shows how this policy acts upon the petroleum products consumption behavior and how it allows the financing of the decentralization. (A.L.B.)

  9. Alberta's economic development of the Athabasca oil sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Michael

    This dissertation examines the 61-year evolution of public policies pertaining to development of Alberta's non-conventional source of crude oil. The Athabasca oil sands contain an estimated 1.5 trillion barrels and provide for a safe continental supply. The Provincial Government first sponsored this undertaking in 1943. The period from then to 1971 was one of a transition from a wheat economy to a natural-resource economic base. A stable government emerged and was able to negotiate viable development policies. A second period, 1971 to 1986, was marked by unstable world conditions that afforded the Alberta government the ability to set terms of development with multi-national oil firms. A 50% profit-sharing plan was implemented, and basic 1973 terms lasted until 1996. However, 1986 was a critical year because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) reduced prices, causing the Alberta economy to lapse into recession. During a third period, 1986 to 1996, the Alberta Government was unable to adapt quickly to world conditions. A new leadership structure in 1996 made major changes to create ongoing fiscal and development policies. That history provides answers to two primary research questions: How do public policies affect the behaviors of the modern corporation and visa versa? What are the implications for development theory? Two sources of information were used for this study. First, it was possible to review the Premier's files located in the Provincial Archives. Materials from various government libraries were also examined. Some 7,000 documents were used to show the evolution of government policymaking. Second, interviews with leaders of oil companies and federal research facilities were important. Findings support the thesis that, to facilitate oil sands development, government and the private sector have closely collaborated. In particular, revenue policies have allowed for effective R&D organization. Relying on intensive technological

  10. Factors affecting the distribution of hydrocarbon contaminants and hydrogeochemical parameters in a shallow sand aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Yong; Cheon, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Kang-Kun; Lee, Seok-Young; Lee, Min-Hyo

    2001-07-01

    The distributions of hydrocarbon contaminants and hydrogeochemical parameters were investigated in a shallow sand aquifer highly contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons leaked from solvent storage tanks. For these purposes, a variety of field investigations and studies were performed, which included installation of over 100 groundwater monitoring wells and piezometers at various depths, soil logging and analyses during well and piezometer installation, chemical analysis of groundwater, pump tests, and slug tests. Continuous water level monitoring at three selected wells using automatic data-logger and manual measuring at other wells were also conducted. Based on analyses of the various investigations and tests, a number of factors were identified to explain the distribution of the hydrocarbon contaminants and hydrogeochemical parameters. These factors include indigenous biodegradation, hydrostratigraphy, preliminary pump-and-treat remedy, recharge by rainfall, and subsequent water level fluctuation. The permeable sandy layer, in which the mean water table elevation is maintained, provided a dominant pathway for contaminant transport. The preliminary pump-and-treat action accelerated the movement of the hydrocarbon contaminants and affected the redox evolution pattern. Seasonal recharge by rain, together with indigenous biodegradation, played an important role in the natural attenuation of the petroleum hydrocarbons via mixing/dilution and biodegradation. The water level fluctuations redistributed the hydrocarbon contaminants by partitioning them into the soil and groundwater. The identified factors are not independent but closely inter-correlated.

  11. Marks on the petroleum fiscality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    This document offers some marks on the petroleum fiscality in France: the taxes as the 'accises' and the 'TVA', the part of the taxes in the sale price at the service station, the comparison with other countries of Europe, the tax revenues and the Government budget. It provides also marks on the fuels prices formation (margins), the world petroleum markets (supply and demand) and the part of the petroleum companies on the petroleum market. (A.L.B.)

  12. Engaging Canadians: national oil sands dialogues - A background paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    It is expected that the world's energy demand will grow significantly between now and the year 2050. Hydrocarbons will have an important role to play in meeting this increasing demand and unconventional sources such as oil sands will become more and more important. The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) has been engaged in a dialogue process to examine the environmental, economic and social impacts of the oil sands industry and the aim of this background paper is to provide stakeholders with some context. The paper highlights the fact that although the oil sands industry gives rise to environmental issues such as greenhouse gas emissions, air pollutants, land disturbance and water use, the environmental performance of the industry has been improving in recent years thanks to new technologies.

  13. India's petroleum privatization gathering speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Privatization of India's petroleum industry is seen as inevitable, even by the staunchest supporters of the state owned sector there. What has become clear is that the huge investments required for Indian exploration, refining, and marketing are beyond the scope of even the biggest state owned firms, such as Oil and Natural Gas Commission (ONGC) and Indian Oil Corp. (IOC). A proposal was put forth last fall to offer Bombay High offshore oil fields to leading multinationals for redevelopment to stem the production slide in India's mainstay producing area. Some of those projects could entail capital outlays of as much as $1 billion. In another step to attract foreign investment to the petroleum sector, India last month decided to take steps for phased decontrol of domestic crude oil prices to bring them in line with world market levels and help set the stage for privatization of ONGC. The paper describes major projects, the slide in oil production, price changes, the need for privatization, and the lukewarm interest in exploration

  14. Bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autry, A.R.; Ellis, G.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on bioremediation, which offers a cost-competitive, effective remediation alternative for soil contaminated with petroleum products. These technologies involve using microorganisms to biologically degrade organic constituents in contaminated soil. All bioremediation applications must mitigate various environmental rate limiting factors so that the biodegradation rates for petroleum hydrocarbons are optimized in field-relevant situations. Traditional bioremediation applications include landfarming, bioreactors, and composting. A more recent bioremediation application that has proven successful involves excavation of contaminated soil. The process involves the placement of the soils into a powerscreen, where it is screened to remove rocks and larger debris. The screened soil is then conveyed to a ribbon blender, where it is mixed in batch with nutrient solution containing nitrogen, phosphorus, water, and surfactants. Each mixed soil batch is then placed in a curing pile, where it remains undisturbed for the remainder of the treatment process, during which time biodegradation by naturally occurring microorganisms, utilizing biochemical pathways mediated by enzymes, will occur

  15. SWOT ANALYSIS - CHINESE PETROLEUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article was written in early December 2013,combined with the historical development andthe latest data on the Chinese Petroleum carried SWOT- analysis. This paper discusses corporate resources, cost, management and external factorssuch as the political environment and the marketsupply and demand, conducted a comprehensiveand profound analysis.

  16. SWOT ANALYSIS - CHINESE PETROLEUM

    OpenAIRE

    Chunlan Wang; Lei Zhang; Qi Zhong

    2014-01-01

    This article was written in early December 2013, combined with the historical development and the latest data on the Chinese Petroleum carried SWOTanalysis. This paper discusses corporate resources, cost, management and external factors such as the political environment and the market supply and demand, conducted a comprehensive and profound analysis.

  17. Environmental pollution by petroleum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murata, T

    1974-06-01

    Pollution causes, cases, and remedies at various stages of petroleum production and usage are reviewed. Petroleum extraction (off-shore drilling and Arctic drilling) can be accompanied by mishaps. In 1971, IMCO (an international safety committee) proposed the partitioning of oil tanker holds into smaller compartments to minimize spillage in case of disaster. Although the solubility of oil in waste water from refineries is reckoned by ppM, the total amount dissolved is not negligible. Petroleum storage and transport on land is complicated by problems of safety in terms of population density as well as by pollution problems. Petroleum end-products such as plastic trash and automobile exhausts contribute to pollution. The role of aldehydes and peroxides in photochemical smog formation must be investigated further. Proper treatment of pollution at each specific point of occurrence, rather than at the end of a production line is recommended. Pollutant concentration for treatment, rather than pollutant dilution for dispersal, should be considered. Technology for pollution abatement is available, but not always economically feasible.

  18. Petroleum industry in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This book analyses the major facts and the numbers of 1992, in France and in foreign countries. Its purpose is to be as complete as possible and to present especially all the aspects on a national level: supply, domestic market, prices, exploration, production, stocks, petroleum refining, transports, retailing, financial data

  19. Petroleum: Price trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babusiaux, Denis; Pierru, Axel

    2010-01-01

    The Organization of Petroleum-Exporting Countries (OPEC), some political leaders and financiers have mainly attributed the price spike of oil in 2008 - followed by a just as spectacular drop in prices - to the speculative moves made by financial investors on the futures market instead of to market fundamentals

  20. Petroleum Vapor - Field Technical

    Science.gov (United States)

    The screening approach being developed by EPA OUST to evaluate petroleum vapor intrusion (PVI) requires information that has not be routinely collected in the past at vapor intrusion sites. What is the best way to collect this data? What are the relevant data quality issues and ...

  1. Non-Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    These include synthetics such as silicone fluids and tung oils, wood-derivative oils such as resin/rosin, animal fats/oil, and seed oils. Many have similar physical properties to petroleum-based, such as water insolubility and formation of slicks.

  2. Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penney, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  3. Properties of dune sand concrete containing coffee waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Guendouz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, an increase of coffee beverages consumption has been observed all over the world; and its consumption increases the waste coffee grounds which will become an environmental problems. Recycling of this waste to produce new materials like sand concrete appears as one of the best solutions for reduces the problem of pollution. This work aims to study the possibility of recycling waste coffee grounds (Spent Coffee Grounds (SCG as a fine aggregate by replacing the sand in the manufacturing of dune sand concrete. For this; sand concrete mixes were prepared with substitution of sand with the spent coffee grounds waste at different percentage (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by volume of the sand in order to study the influence of this wastes on physical (Workability, bulk density and porosity, mechanical (compressive and flexural strength and Thermal (Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity properties of dune sand concrete. The results showed that the use of spent coffee grounds waste as partial replacement of natural sand contributes to reduce workability, bulk density and mechanical strength of sand concrete mixes with an increase on its porosity. However, the thermal characteristics are improved and especially for a level of 15% and 20% of substitution. So, it is possible to obtain an insulating material which can be used in the various types of structural components. This study ensures that reusing of waste coffee grounds in dune sand concrete gives a positive approach to reduce the cost of materials and solve some environmental problems.

  4. A study of global sand seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Edwin D.

    1979-01-01

    The birth of the idea that led to this publication on "Global Sand Seas" dates back to the late 1920's. At that time I was engaged in a study of the Coconino Sandstone of Arizona's Grand Canyon. Considerable controversy existed then as to whether this sandstone was a subaqueous deposit or was composed of wind-formed dunes. It became apparent that definitive literature was sparse or lacking on types of dunes, global distribution of these types, the mechanics of their development, the precise nature of their internal structure of cross-stratificiation, and the relation of wind systems to these sand forms. Especially lacking were data on criteria that could confidently be used in the recognition of ancient dunes. The common denominator in this publication is eolian sand bodies. Although the book is concerned primarily with desert sand seas, the subject matter is not restricted to deserts; it includes many references to deposits of coastal sand and to sand bodies in humid climates. Nor does the book deal exclusively with dunes, which, according to most definitions, involve mounds or hills. Many references are made to sand sheets, sand stringers, and other types of sand deposits that have no prominent topographic expression. All sand bodies accumulated by the action of wind are discussed. Chapters A-J of this publication are primarily topical. Chapters cover the grain texture, the color, and the structure of modern dunes and other eolian sands. Special treatment is given to the relation of wind data to dune interpretation, the evolution of form in current-deposited sand bodies as determined from experimental studies, and the discriminant analysis technique for differentiating between coastal and inland desert sands. This topical part of the publication also includes an analysis of criteria used in ancient deposits to interpret their eolian genesis and a consideration of economic application of the principles described, including a discussion of potentials and problems

  5. Future petroleum energy resources of the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlbrandt, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    Is the world running out of oil? Where will future oil and gas supplies come from? To help answer these questions, in 2000 the U.S. Geological Survey completed a new world assessment, exclusive of the United States, of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources and potential additions to reserves from field growth.2 One hundred and twenty-eight provinces were assessed in a 100 man-year effort from 1995-2000. The assessed provinces included 76 priority provinces containing 95% of the world's discovered oil and gas and an additional 52 "boutique" provinces, many of which may be highly prospective. Total Petroleum Systems (TPS) were identified and described for each of these provinces along with associated Assessment Units (AU) that are the basic units for assessing undiscovered petroleum. The assessment process coupled geologic analysis with a probabilistic methodology to estimate remaining potential. Within the 128 assessed provinces were 159 TPS and 274 AU. For these provinces, the endowment of recoverable oil-which includes cumulative production, remaining reserves, reserve growth, and undiscovered resources-is estimated at about 3 trillion barrels of oil (TBO). The natural gas endowment is estimated at 2.6 trillion barrels of oil equivalent (TBOE). Oil reserves are currently 1.1 TBO; world consumption is about .028 TBO per year. Natural gas reserves are about 0.8 TBOE; world consumption is about 0.014 TBOE per year. Thus, without any additional discoveries of oil, gas or natural gas liquids, we have about 2 TBOE of proved petroleum reserves. Of the oil and gas endowment of about 5.6 TBOE, we estimate that the world has consumed about 1 TBOE, or 18%, leaving about 82% of the endowment to be utilized or found. Half of the world's undiscovered potential is offshore. Arctic basins with about 25% of undiscovered petroleum resources make up the next great frontier. An additional 279 provinces contain some oil and gas and, if considered, would increase the oil

  6. Petroleum Market Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-18

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Petroleum Market Model (PMM), describe its basic approach, and provide detail on how it works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. The PMM models petroleum refining activities, the marketing of petroleum products to consumption regions, the production of natural gas liquids in gas processing plants, and domestic methanol production. The PMM projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil, both domestic and imported; other inputs including alcohols and ethers; natural gas plant liquids production; petroleum product imports; and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM estimates domestic refinery capacity expansion and fuel consumption. Product prices are estimated at the Census division level and much of the refining activity information is at the Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District level.

  7. Bituminous sands : tax issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examined some of the tax issues associated with the production of bitumen or synthetic crude oil from oil sands. The oil sands deposits in Alberta are gaining more attention as the supplies of conventional oil in Canada decline. The oil sands reserves located in the Athabasca, Cold Lake and Peace River areas contain about 2.5 trillion barrels of highly viscous hydrocarbons called bitumen, of which nearly 315 billion barrels are recoverable with current technology. The extraction method varies for each geographic area, and even within zones and reservoirs. The two most common extraction methods are surface mining and in-situ extraction such as cyclic steam stimulation (CSS); low pressure steam flood; pressure cycle steam drive; steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD); hot water flooding; and, fire flood. This paper also discussed the following general tax issues: bituminous sands definition; bituminous sands leases and Canadian development expense versus Canadian oil and gas property expense (COGPE); Canadian exploration expense (CEE) for surface mining versus in-situ methods; additional capital cost allowance; and, scientific research and experimental development (SR and ED). 15 refs

  8. Identification of petroleum pollution sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begak, O.Yu.; Syroezhko, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    A possibility of preliminary identification of petroleum pollution sources was investigated on specimens of the Khanty-Mansi autonomous district six deposits and specimens of soil and water polluted by these petroleums. Investigations were conducted using IR Fourier spectroscopy and gamma spectrometry, as well as methods of chromato-mass spectrometry and capillary gas liquid chromatography. Every of studied samples of petroleum from different deposits have an individual radiation impression. Insignificant total content of radionuclides in samples is specific to the Khanty-Mansi petroleum region. Gamma spectrometry admits to identify potential source of petroleum pollution using radionuclides of uranium and thorium series [ru

  9. Radiation exposure to natural radioactivity in crude oil and petroleum waste from oil fields in Ghana: modelling, risk assessment and regulatory control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kpeglo, D. O.

    2015-06-01

    In this research work radiological hazards and risks to members of the public and workers from exposure to natural radioactivity as a result of crude oil production activities and waste generation from the Saltpond and Jubilee oilfields of Ghana, have been investigated via several exposure pathways using alpha spectrometry after radiochemical separation, nondestructive gamma spectrometry, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Quadrupole-Based Mass Spectrometry (ICP-QMS) and other complimentary analytical tools. Additionally, in this study a Human health risk assessment model for cancer risk associated with NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) components in produced water was developed. Characterization and determination of specific activities of 234 U, 238 U, 210 Po, 230 Th, 2 3 2 Th, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, 234 Th, 228 Ra, 228 Th, 224 Ra, and 40 K for several environmental and NORM waste samples in different matrices have been established. The elements Al, Ba, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Pb S, Si, Sr, and Zn were identified and semi qualitatively quantified by Scanning Electron Microscope for NORM waste samples. The total annual effective dose of 0.35 mSv.y -1 obtained for all exposure pathways for the public in this study was below the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommended dose limit of 1 mSv.y -1 for members of the public, whilst the total annual effective dose of 80.86 mSv.y -1 obtained in this study for workers clearly exceeded the ICRP recommended dose limit for an occupationally exposed worker of 20 mSv.y -1 , averaged over 5 years, but not exceeding 50 mSv.y -1 in any single year. The estimated total lifetime fatality cancer risk and the lifetime hereditary effect values were 1.3 x 10 -3 and 4.9 x 10 -5 for the public, and 23.2 x 10 -2 and 5.7 x 10 -3 for adult workers respectively. In conclusion, radium concentrations obtained in this study for scale, sludge and produced water from the

  10. Process for increasing the capacity and/or energetic efficiency of pressure-intensifying stations of petroleum and natural gas pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belcsak, Z.; Luptak, E.; Palfalvi, G.; Vadas, Z.; Vasvari, V.; Wenzel, B.

    1982-03-30

    The invention is used in the field of pressure-intensifying stations of natural gas and oil pipelines. The essential character of the process according to the invention is that steam is produced in a boiler heated with the outgoing flue gas of a gas turbine driving the compressor. The steam is conducted into the steam turbine for futher driving the compressor. The main feature of the equipment according to the invention is that the ratio of the simultaneously operating gas turbines and steam turbines may vary from the equivalent to triple value, the ratio is suitably double, and the stand-by machine unit is driven always by gas turbine, separate flue gas boiler is connected to each of the gas turbines, while the boilers are equipped with supplementary and/or substituting automatic heater. Advantages of the invention are that it: reduces the self-consumption by about 1/3 rd, and improves the safety of the pressure-intensification realizable in existing pressure-intensifying stations.

  11. The state civil responsibility for the concessionaire acts concerning to the environmental damages caused by the petroleum and natural gas economical exploration; A responsabilidade civil do estado pelos atos do concessionario no que tange aos danos ambientais causados pela exploracao economica do petroleo e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinho, Karoline Lins Camara [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    By means of the concession institute, the administration provides, indirectly, its originary functions gestion, acting and stimulating the development of the private activity with the exclusive attribution to the particulars, of rights and faculties, having always as a bigger aim the public interest. That being so, with the advent of the Amendment number 9 of the 1988 Federal Constitution, the State went by realizing concessions in the petroleum and natural gas field, allowing the market aperture, which was, before the amendment, monopolized by a state company - PETROBRAS. However, in spite of concede the exploration, production and transport rights of this product, the State keep itself playing the role of the collective interest prosecutor, and in such case, must be responsible for the damages that perhaps its concessionaires cause. The present research is purposed to study specifically the environment damages caused by the petroleum industry concessionaires, in what concerns to the state civil responsibility, using the many interpretative methods of the Law, like the historical, the systematic and the teleological, in the scope of contribute for a juridic culture each time stronger in the defense of the diffuse rights, in specific the environment rights. (author)

  12. Yugoslavian Petroleum Refinery development program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocic, Ozren

    1999-01-01

    This paper shows the analysis of the world petroleum industry development, being an important factor in planning the development of the Yugoslav petroleum industry and Pancevo Petroleum Refinery, as well. Then Yugoslav petroleum industry development is analysed, including the appropriate balances of crude oil production and crude oil products consumption. The way of realizing the basic targets are also proposed. Likewise, the analysis of the condition within West European refineries has been conducted, from the aspects of technology, energy consumption and environmental protection and the same analysis for Pancevo Petroleum Refinery has been presented, too. The analysis of the condition within the refineries in the European Union countries and comparing it with the condition within Pancevo Petroleum Refinery, makes it mainly possible to recognize the development programmes which should be realized in order that Pancevo Petroleum Refinery could reach the refining level of the EU countries. (Original)

  13. Environmental Impacts of Petroleum Production: Initial Results from the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research Sites, Osage County, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaka, Yousif K.; Otton, James K.

    2003-01-01

    releases from active and inactive pipes and tank batteries. The leases are typical of many depleted and aging petroleum fields in Osage County, which ranks among the top oil and gas producing counties in Oklahoma with about 39,000 wells. Oil and gas production has occurred in Osage county for over one hundred years, but current production is mainly from stripper wells (averaging ~2.8 bbl/d oil and >30 bbl/d brine) that are shallow, mostly 300-700 m in depth, and produce from several sandstones of Pennsylvanian age. Results to date show that the produced water source is a Na-Ca-Cl brine (~150,000 mg/L total dissolved solids), with relatively high concentrations of Mg, Sr, and NH4, but low SO4 and H2S. With the exception of Fe and Mn, the concentrations of trace metals are low. Results also show that some and, eventually, the bulk, of inorganic salts and some dissolved organic species in the released brine from both sites will reach Skiatook Lake. Results at the 'A' site show that the salts have essentially been removed from the sandy soil which formed in a surficial layer of eolian sand, but degraded and weathered oil persists on the surface of old oil and brine pits, close to sites of old tanks, on old channels that carried oil from tanks to the oil pits and other impacted areas. Results also show a plume of high salinity water (5,000-30,600 mg/L TDS) is present at intermediate depths that extend from below the old oil and brine pits to Skiatook Lake. No liquid petroleum was found in the contaminated groundwater, but soluble petroleum byproducts, including organic acid anions and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are present. Results to date clearly show that significant amounts of salts from produced-water releases and petroleum hydrocarbons still remain in the soils and rocks of the impacted area after more than 60 years of natural attenuation. At the 'B' site significant amounts of produced water from the two active brine pits percolate into th

  14. Sustainable water management in Alberta's oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byers, Bill; Usher, Robyn; Roach, Andrea [CH2M HILL, Englewood, CO (United States); Lambert, Gord; Kotecha, Prit [Suncor Energy Inc., Calgary (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers forecast published in 2011 predicts that oil production from oil sands will increase by 50% in the next 3 years and double by 2020. This rate of growth will result in significant pressure on water resources; water use per barrel of oil sands production is comparable to other energy resources - about 2.5 barrels of fresh water per barrel of oil produced are used by mining operations and 0.5 barrels by in-situ operations. Suncor Energy Inc. (Suncor) was the first company to develop the oil sands in northern Alberta and holds one of the largest oil sands positions in Canada. In 2010, Suncor announced plans to increase production to more than 1 million barrels of oil equivalent per day by 2020, which it plans to achieve through oil sands production growth of approximately 10% per year. Because water supply and potential impacts to water quality are critical to its future growth, in 2010-2011 Suncor conducted a risk assessment to identify water-related business risks related to its northern Alberta operations. The assessment identified more than 20 high level business risks in strategic water risk areas including water supply, water reuse, storm water management, groundwater, waste management and river water return. The risk assessment results prompted development of a strategic roadmap to guide water stewardship across Suncor's regional operations. The roadmap describes goals, objectives, and specific activities for each of six key water risk areas, and informs prioritization and selection of prospective water management activities. Suncor is not only exploring water within its own boundaries, but is also collaborating with other oil sands producers to explore ways of integrating its water systems through industry consortia; Suncor is a member of the Oil Sands Leadership Initiative and of the recently formed Canadian Oil Sands Innovation Alliance, among others. (author)

  15. Petroleum Market Model of the National Energy Modeling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Petroleum Market Model (PMM), describe its basic approach, and provide detail on how it works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. The PMM models petroleum refining activities, the marketing of petroleum products to consumption regions. The production of natural gas liquids in gas processing plants, and domestic methanol production. The PMM projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil, both domestic and imported; other inputs including alcohols and ethers; natural gas plant liquids production; petroleum product imports; and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM estimates domestic refinery capacity expansion and fuel consumption. Product prices are estimated at the Census division level and much of the refining activity information is at the Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District level. This report is organized as follows: Chapter 2, Model Purpose; Chapter 3, Model Overview and Rationale; Chapter 4, Model Structure; Appendix A, Inventory of Input Data, Parameter Estimates, and Model Outputs; Appendix B, Detailed Mathematical Description of the Model; Appendix C, Bibliography; Appendix D, Model Abstract; Appendix E, Data Quality; Appendix F, Estimation methodologies; Appendix G, Matrix Generator documentation; Appendix H, Historical Data Processing; and Appendix I, Biofuels Supply Submodule

  16. Petroleum Market Model of the National Energy Modeling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Petroleum Market Model (PMM), describe its basic approach, and provide detail on how it works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. The PMM models petroleum refining activities, the marketing of petroleum products to consumption regions. The production of natural gas liquids in gas processing plants, and domestic methanol production. The PMM projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil, both domestic and imported; other inputs including alcohols and ethers; natural gas plant liquids production; petroleum product imports; and refinery processing gain. In addition, the PMM estimates domestic refinery capacity expansion and fuel consumption. Product prices are estimated at the Census division level and much of the refining activity information is at the Petroleum Administration for Defense (PAD) District level. This report is organized as follows: Chapter 2, Model Purpose; Chapter 3, Model Overview and Rationale; Chapter 4, Model Structure; Appendix A, Inventory of Input Data, Parameter Estimates, and Model Outputs; Appendix B, Detailed Mathematical Description of the Model; Appendix C, Bibliography; Appendix D, Model Abstract; Appendix E, Data Quality; Appendix F, Estimation methodologies; Appendix G, Matrix Generator documentation; Appendix H, Historical Data Processing; and Appendix I, Biofuels Supply Submodule.

  17. Phillips Petroleum -- Capitalizing on technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdue, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Phillips Petroleum Co., one of the largest international oil companies and the largest producer of natural gas liquids in the US, recently reported that first half 1996 net income was $916 million, up from $224 million for the same period the year before. During the past 5 years, reserves have increased 11% and production by 8%. Exploration expenses are down 32% and production costs per boe are down 24%. Compared to other majors involved in worldwide E and P, Phillips has the second highest 5-year percentage of reserves replacement--117%--and the second lowest finding and development cost/boe--$3.46--in the industry. How did the company do this while decreasing headcount by 5,300? The paper discusses focused growth, paring down assets, E and P projects, research and development, and electronic document management

  18. Sand Dunes with Frost

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    9 May 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a suite of frost-covered sand dunes in the north polar region of Mars in early spring, 2004. The dunes indicate wind transport of sand from left to right (west to east). These landforms are located near 78.1oN, 220.8oW. This picture is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  19. On the Size Distribution of Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A model is presented of the development of the size distribution of sand while it is transported from a source to a deposit. The model provides a possible explanation of the log-hyperbolic shape that is frequently found in unimodal grain size distributions in natural sand deposits, as pointed out......-distribution, by taking into account that individual grains do not have the same travel time from the source to the deposit. The travel time is assumed to be random so that the wear on the individual grains vary randomly. The model provides an interpretation of the parameters of the NIG-distribution, and relates the mean...

  20. The Radar locates spills of Petroleum Sea inside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acantland Sylvie; De Biegert

    1996-01-01

    The satellite information is helping to the petroleum geologists to determine the potential of new petroleum reserves all over the world. Particularly, radar technology recently available is providing an increased dependability, an improved effectiveness of costs and a quicker access to the information that can be vital to detect and to supervise the petroleum spills that naturally happen. Several projects have been carrying out to evaluate the best use in the technology of the satellite information, specifically radar information for satellite, in sea inside exploration. The authors comment about of the kindness and benefits in the radar use

  1. Petroleum industry. 1997 activity report; L`industrie Petroliere. Rapport d`activite 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This activity report from the direction of hydrocarbons of the French general direction of energy and raw materials (ministry of economy, finances and industry) presents an economic analysis of the activities of the French petroleum industry for 1997. After a recall of the missions of the direction of hydrocarbons, the report analyses successively: 1- the evolution of the petroleum market: the international petroleum market in 1997, the hydrocarbon supplies and external trade (natural gas, crude oil, condensates), the French petroleum market (primary energy consumption, final energy consumption, French petroleum consumption, the petroleum logistics in overseas departments and territories), the prices, margins and fiscal policy in France and Europe (crude oil and refined product prices in the international market, retail prices in France and Europe, the French petroleum fiscal policy, statistics of petroleum prices in France and Europe; 2- the petroleum industry activities: exploration and production in France and worldwide, the maritime and domestic transports and the storage (French commercial fleet, domestic transports, storage facilities, strategic stocks), the refining activity and the quality of products and fuel substitutes (refining, automotive fuels quality, bio-fuels), the distribution of petroleum products (automotive and diesel fuels, LPG, aircraft fuels, lubricants); 3- the environmental and safety aspects of refining, transportation (pipelines, tanker-ships) and exploration-production; 4- the economic situation of the companies: petroleum groups, French para-petroleum industry, scientific and technical research. (J.S.)

  2. Petroleum resources assessment 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report consists of two articles. (1) Petroleum resources assessment of the Okinawa Trough: The hydrocarbon potential has been evaluated for the Tertiary strata in the northwestern margin of the Okinawa Trough on the basis of the pale-ontological, petrological, geochemical data from two wells (Nikkan 8-9 and JDZ 7-3), and geophysical data. (2) Petroliferous basin analysis in Jinju area (2): Petroleum geological studies such as stratigraphy, sedimentology, petrology and organic geochemistry were carried out in the Gyeongsang Supergroup, Junju area. Based on lithofacies and rock color, the sequence can be divided into seven formations which can be organized into two groups (Sindong Group: Nagdong, Hasandong and Jinju formations in ascending order; Hayang Group: Chilgog, Silla Conglomerate, Haman and Jindong formations). (author). 57 refs.

  3. Geopolitics of petroleum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebille-Lopez, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    The unexpected rise of oil prices since 2004 reveals some structural weaknesses of oil markets in front of the evolution of demand. It conceals considerable stakes, more political than strategic, like the securing of oil and petroleum product supplies of big consumers like the USA and China. This demand generates deep changes in the relations between the different actors, from Venezuela to Russia, from the Caspian sea to the Arab-Persian gulf, from the Mediterranean sea to the gulf of Guinea. Terrorists, who try to destabilize markets using threats on petroleum infrastructures, add-up a risk dimension to the uncertainties. The author proposes a world tour of the main production areas, along the 'oil roads' where the main strategic manoeuvres take place. He shades light on the main power stakes: pressure, tensions, threats and deals, alliances, ruptures and potential conflicts. The complex and multiple motivations are explained. (J.S.)

  4. Compressive Strength of Compacted Clay-Sand Mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faseel Suleman Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of sand to improve the strength of natural clays provides a viable alternative for civil infrastructure construction involving earthwork. The main objective of this note was to investigate the compressive strength of compacted clay-sand mixes. A natural clay of high plasticity was mixed with 20% and 40% sand (SP and their compaction and strength properties were determined. Results indicated that the investigated materials exhibited a brittle behaviour on the dry side of optimum and a ductile behaviour on the wet side of optimum. For each material, the compressive strength increased with an increase in density following a power law function. Conversely, the compressive strength increased with decreasing water content of the material following a similar function. Finally, the compressive strength decreased with an increase in sand content because of increased material heterogeneity and loss of sand grains from the sides during shearing.

  5. India's Downstream Petroleum Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This study provides a holistic examination of pricing and investment dynamics in India's downstream petroleum sector. It analyses the current pricing practices, highlights the tremendous fiscal cost of current pricing and regulatory arrangements, and examines the sectoral investment dynamics. It also looks at potential paths towards market-based reform along which the Indian government may move, while at the same time protecting energy market access for India's large poor population.

  6. Deodorizing petroleum oils, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, A

    1906-06-14

    A process of purifying and deodorizing petroleum oils, gasolines, ethers, benzines, shale oils, resins, and similar products, consisting essentially in passing the vapors of the liquids with a current of hydrogen or of gases high in hydrogen over divided metals, such as nickel, copper, cobalt, iron, platinum, etc., heated to a temperature between 100/sup 0/C and 350/sup 0/C, the vapors passing before entering the apparatus through a column of copper heated to above 350/sup 0/C.

  7. Petroleum biodegradation and oil spill bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atlas, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms are ubiquitously distributed in the marine environment following oil spills. These microorganisms naturally biodegrade numerous contaminating petroleum hydrocarbons, thereby cleansing the oceans of oil pullutants. Bioremediation, which is accomplished by adding exogenous microbial populations or stimulating indigenous ones, attempts to raise the rates of degradation found naturally to significantly higher rates. Seeding with oil degraders has not been demonstrated to be effective, but addition of nitrogenous fertilizers has been shown to increase rates of petroleum biodegradation. In the case of the Exxon Valdez spill, the largest and most thoroughly studied application of bioremediation, the application of fertilizer (slow release or oleophilic) increased rates of biodegradation 3-5 times. Because of the patchiness of oil, an internally conserved compound, hopane, was critical for demonstrating the efficacy of bioremediation. Multiple regression models showed that the effectiveness of bioremediation depended upon the amount of nitrogen delivered, the concentration of oil, and time. (author)

  8. Facts 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The petroleum sector is highly significant for the Norwegian economy. Its share of gross domestic product, exports and total government revenues has been substantial over the past two decades, reaching a particularly high level in 2000 and 2001. The principal reason why revenues were so high in these two years is a combination of high oil prices, a strong USD against the NOK and historically high petroleum production. The share of petroleum investment in total capital spending in the Norwegian economy was at its highest in the early 1990s. Total investment in the petroleum sector has been above NOK 40 bn every year since 1992, and peaked in 1998 at roughly NOK 80 bn. Capital spending declined to around NOK 56.9 bn in 2001. The government's most important revenue sources in recent years have been cash flow from the state's direct financial interest (SDFI) and from taxes. Production of crude oil has averaged around three mill barrels per day since 1996. The figure for 2001 was 3.1 mill barrels. Including natural gas liquids (NGL) and condensate raises the 2001 average to 3.4 mill barrels oe per day. At 53 mill scm oe, gas production was also high in 2001. Oil production is expected to remain more or less unchanged over the next few years, and then to go into a gradual decline. Gas output, on the other hand, should expand substantially over the coming decade and is expected to be increasingly significant in Norwegian petroleum output in future. The petroleum sector is also a substantial player internationally. Norway ranks as the world's sixth largest producer and third largest net exporter of oil. It is also the world's third largest exporter of pipeline gas, and Norwegian foreign sales of this commodity accounted for about two per cent of global consumption in 2001. Roughly 10 per cent of west European gas consumption is covered from Norway. Several changes were made to state participation in the petroleum sector during 2001. The government sold 15 per cent of the

  9. Facts 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The petroleum sector is highly significant for the Norwegian economy. Its share of gross (domestic product, exports and total government revenues has been substantial over the past two decades, reaching a particularly high level in 2000 and 2001. The principal reason why revenues were so high in these two years is a combination of high oil prices, a strong USD against the NOK and historically high petroleum production. The share of petroleum investment in total capital spending in the Norwegian economy was at its highest in the early 1990s. Total investment in the petroleum sector has been above NOK 40 bn every year since 1992, and peaked in 1998 at roughly NOK 80 bn. Capital spending declined to around NOK 56.9 bn in 2001. The government's most important revenue sources in recent years have been cash flow from the state's direct financial interest (SDFI) and from taxes. Production of crude oil has averaged around three mill barrels per day since 1996. The figure for 2001 was 3.1 mill barrels. Including natural gas liquids (NGL) and condensate raises the 2001 average to 3.4 mill barrels oe per day. At 53 mill scm oe, gas production was also high in 2001. Oil production is expected to remain more or less unchanged over the next few years, and then to go into a gradual decline. Gas output, on the other hand, should expand substantially over the coming decade and is expected to be increasingly significant in Norwegian petroleum output in future. The petroleum sector is also a substantial player internationally. Norway ranks as the world's sixth largest producer and third largest net exporter of oil. It is also the world's third largest exporter of pipeline gas, and Norwegian foreign sales of this commodity accounted for about two per cent of global consumption in 2001. Roughly 10 per cent of west European gas consumption is covered from Norway. Several changes were made to state participation in the petroleum sector during 2001. The government sold 15 per cent of the

  10. Facts 2002. The Norwegian petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The petroleum sector is highly significant for the Norwegian economy. Its share of gross domestic product, exports and total government revenues has been substantial over the past two decades, reaching a particularly high level in 2000 and 2001. The principal reason why revenues were so high in these two years is a combination of high oil prices, a strong USD against the NOK and historically high petroleum production. The share of petroleum investment in total capital spending in the Norwegian economy was at its highest in the early 1990s. Total investment in the petroleum sector has been above NOK 40 bn every year since 1992, and peaked in 1998 at roughly NOK 80 bn. Capital spending declined to around NOK 56.9 bn in 2001. The government's most important revenue sources in recent years have been cash flow from the state's direct financial interest (SDFI) and from taxes. Production of crude oil has averaged around three mill barrels per day since 1996. The figure for 2001 was 3.1 mill barrels. Including natural gas liquids (NGL) and condensate raises the 2001 average to 3.4 mill barrels oe per day. At 53 mill scm oe, gas production was also high in 2001. Oil production is expected to remain more or less unchanged over the next few years, and then to go into a gradual decline. Gas output, on the other hand, should expand substantially over the coming decade and is expected to be increasingly significant in Norwegian petroleum output in future. The petroleum sector is also a substantial player internationally. Norway ranks as the world's sixth largest producer and third largest net exporter of oil. It is also the world's third largest exporter of pipeline gas, and Norwegian foreign sales of this commodity accounted for about two per cent of global consumption in 2001. Roughly 10 per cent of west European gas consumption is covered from Norway. Several changes were made to state participation in the petroleum sector during 2001. The government sold

  11. Development tendencies of moulding and core sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw M. Dobosz1

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Further development of the technology for making moulding and core sands will be strictly limited by tough requirements due to protection of the natural environment. These tendencies are becoming more and more tense, so that we will reach a point when even processes, that from technological point of view fulfill high requirements of the foundry industry, must be replaced by more ecologically-friendly solutions. Hence, technologies using synthetic resins as binding materials will be limited. This paper presents some predictable development tendencies of moulding and core sands. The increasing role of inorganic substances will be noticed, including silicate binders with significantly improved properties, such as improved knock-out property or higher reclamation strength. Other interesting solutions might also be moulding sands bonded by geo-polymers and phosphate binders or salts and also binders based on degradable biopolymers. These tendencies and the usefulness of these binders are put forward in this paper.

  12. The world economy of petroleum products and the strategy of a petroleum company from exporting country: Cases of SONATRACH (Algeria), KPC (Kuwait), PEMEX (Mexico), PDVSA (Venezuela). First volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preure, M.

    1992-12-01

    This thesis contains 2 volumes. In this first volume, the author describes in a first part the world economy of petroleum and natural gas products: Historical aspects and relationships between the different actors; General structure of the world economy of petroleum and gas products and actual trends. In a second part, the relationships between petroleum products, national economic development and problem of technology conservation are studied. The cases of Algeria, Kuwait, Mexico and Venezuela are given. 258 refs., 103 tabs

  13. Sand (CSW4)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Estuarine and Coastal Research Unit

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available This report is one of a series on Cape Estuaries being published under the general title "The Estuaries of the Cape, Part 2". The report provides information on sand estuary: historical background, abiotic and biotic characteristics. It is pointed...

  14. Inland drift sand landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fanta, J.; Siepel, H.

    2010-01-01

    Man has had a complex relationship with inland drift sands through the ages. For some centuries these landscapes were seen as a threat to society, especially agriculture and housing. At present we conserve these landscapes as important Natura 2000 priority habitats. In this book you may find these

  15. Developing human health exposure scenarios for petroleum substances under REACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.; De Wilde, P.; Maksimainen, K.; Margary, A.; Money, C.; Pizzella, G.; Svanehav, T.; Tsang, W.; Urbanus, J.; Rohde, A.

    2012-12-15

    This report describes the approaches that were adopted by CONCAWE to prepare the human exposure estimates in the chemical safety assessments of the REACH registration dossiers for petroleum substances based on all applicable regulatory guidance. Separate exposure estimates were developed for workers and for consumers and included inhalation and dermal routes. The complex nature of petroleum substances required various scientifically justified refinements of the regulatory guidance.

  16. Weathering of a petroleum spill in a tropical mangrove swamp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, S.J.; Alexander, R.; Kagi, R.I. [Curtin Univ., Perth (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    In August 1987, an indeterminate amount of petroleum condensate was released from a buried pipe leading to contamination of a tropical mangrove swamp surrounding a tidal creek in North Western Australia. Since no bioremediation was attempted at this site, we have monitored the natural weathering of the condensate by detailed analysis of the petroleum hydrocarbons extracted from sediment samples collected on 11 occasions over a 3 year period.

  17. Relative potency estimation for synthetic petroleum skin carcinogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Holland, J M; Wolf, D A; Clark, B R

    1981-01-01

    A procedure for quantitative analysis of skin carcinogenesis data, for the purpose of establishing carcinogenic potency, has been applied to observations obtained from C3H mice exposed continuously to synthetic and natural petroleums. The importance of total polynuclear aromatic (PNA) content to the skin carcinogenic activity of the crude materials was also examined. Of three synthetic petroleums evaluated, all were shown capable of inducing skin neoplasms within a two-year exposure period. U...

  18. Sustainable use of oil sands for geotechnical construction and road building

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oil sands are natural deposits of bituminous sand materials that are mined and processed for crude oil. They are routinely used in oil sand fields for building temporary and sometimes permanent roads serving mining and hauling activities. Although...

  19. [Analysis of fluorescence spectrum of petroleum-polluted water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Miao-Fen; Song, Qing-Jun; Xing, Xu-Feng; Jian, Wei-Jun; Liu, Yuan; Zhao, Zu-Long

    2014-09-01

    In four ratio experiments, natural waters, sampled from the mountain reservoir and the sea water around Dalian city, were mixed with the sewage from petroleum refinery and petroleum exploitation plants. The fluorescence spectra of water samples containing only chromophoric dissolved organic matters(CDOM), samples containing only petroleum, and samples containing a mixture of petroleum and CDOM were analyzed, respectively. The purpose of this analysis is to provide a basis for determining the contribution of petroleum substances and CDOM to the total absorption coefficient of the petroleum-contaminated water by using fluorescence technique. The results showed that firstly, CDOM in seawater had three main fluorescence peaks at Ex: 225-230 nm/Em: 320-330 nm, Ex: 280 nm/Em: 340 nm and Ex: 225-240 nm/Em: 430-470 nm, respectively, and these may arise from the oceanic chlorophyll. CDOM in natural reservoir water had two main fluorescence peaks at EX: 240- 260 nm/Em: 420-450 nm and Ex: 310~350 nm/Em: 420--440 nm, respectively, and these may arise from the terrestrial sources; secondly, the water samples containing only petroleum extracted with n-hexane had one to three fluorescence spectral peaksat Ex: 220-240 nm/Em: 320-340 nm, Ex: 270-290 nm/Em: 310-340 nm and Ex: 220-235 nm/Em: 280-310 nm, respectively, caused by their hydrocarbon component; finally, the water samples containing both petroleum and CDOM showed a very strong fluorescence peak at Ex: 230-250 nm/Em: 320-370 nm, caused by the combined effect of CDOM and petroleum hydrocarbons.

  20. Santa Barbara Littoral Cell CRSMP Offshore Sand Sources 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Offshore sand sources exist at four known locations and potentially other yet to be explored regions within the nearshore coastal shelf. Significant reserves of fine...