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Sample records for sands missile range

  1. Optics At White Sands Missile Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczek, Ron C.; Hayslett, Charles R.

    1985-11-01

    We present an overview of the optics and optical data gathering programs conducted at White Sands Missile Range. Activities at White Sands Missile Range have always been diverse - the first test conducted there was the world's first nuclear explosion. In the forty years since that event the range has hosted a large assortment of vehicles including V2, Nike, Aerobee, Space Shuttle, Cruise, and the Copperhead. The last three of these devices illustrate the difficulty of the White Sands optical data gathering task. One is acquired in orbit, one as it crosses through a mountain pass, and one as it issues from the muzzle of a cannon. A combination of optical, radar, video, computer, and communications technology has produced a versatile system that can satisfy the data gathering requirements of most range users. Another example of the diverse optics programs at the range is the development of the High Energy Laser Systems Test Facility (HELSTF). Because of the nature of the systems being tested, the HELSTF is full of optics and optical systems including the TRW MIRACL laser and the Hughes SEA LITE Beam Director.

  2. THE WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE PULSED REACTOR FACILITY, MAY 1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Robert L.; Boor, R.A.; Cole, W.M.; Elder, G.E.

    1963-05-15

    A brief statement of the mission of the White Sands Missile Range Nuclear Effects Laboratory is given. The new Nuclear Effects Laboratory Facility is described. This facility consists of two buildings-a laboratory and a reactor building. The White Sands Missile Range bare critical assembly, designated as the MoLLY-G, is described. The MoLLY-G, an unreflected, unmoderated right circular cylinder of uranium-molybdenum alloy designed for pulsed operation, will have a maximum burst capability of approximately 2 x 10/sup 17/ fissions with a burst width of 50 microseconds. The reactor construction and operating procedures are described. As designed, the MoLLY-G will provide an intense source of pulsed neutron and gamma radiation for a great variety of experimental and test arrangements. (auth)

  3. Renewable Energy Opportunities at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvala, William D.; Solana, Amy E.; States, Jennifer C.; Warwick, William M.; Weimar, Mark R.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2008-09-01

    The document provides an overview of renewable resource potential at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) based primarily upon analysis of secondary data sources supplemented with limited on-site evaluations. The effort was funded by the U.S. Army Installation Management Command (IMCOM) as follow-on to the 2005 DoD Renewable Energy Assessment. This effort focuses on grid-connected generation of electricity from renewable energy sources and also ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) for heating and cooling buildings, as directed by IMCOM.

  4. 78 FR 39198 - Pacific Ocean Off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... Part 334 Pacific Ocean Off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii... of the Pacific Ocean off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii... Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii by increasing the water area...

  5. White Sands Missile Range Urban Study: Flow and Stability Around a Single Building Part 1: Background and Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaucher, Gail

    2006-01-01

    ...) is the primary work environment for an Army Soldier. Characterizing this atmospheric surface layer was the focus of five field studies conducted between fiscal years 2001 2005 at White Sands Missile Range, NM...

  6. Analysis of the Dryden Wet Bulb GLobe Temperature Algorithm for White Sands Missile Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaQuay, Ryan Matthew

    2011-01-01

    In locations where workforce is exposed to high relative humidity and light winds, heat stress is a significant concern. Such is the case at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. Heat stress is depicted by the wet bulb globe temperature, which is the official measurement used by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists. The wet bulb globe temperature is measured by an instrument which was designed to be portable and needing routine maintenance. As an alternative form for measuring the wet bulb globe temperature, algorithms have been created to calculate the wet bulb globe temperature from basic meteorological observations. The algorithms are location dependent; therefore a specific algorithm is usually not suitable for multiple locations. Due to climatology similarities, the algorithm developed for use at the Dryden Flight Research Center was applied to data from the White Sands Missile Range. A study was performed that compared a wet bulb globe instrument to data from two Surface Atmospheric Measurement Systems that was applied to the Dryden wet bulb globe temperature algorithm. The period of study was from June to September of2009, with focus being applied from 0900 to 1800, local time. Analysis showed that the algorithm worked well, with a few exceptions. The algorithm becomes less accurate to the measurement when the dew point temperature is over 10 Celsius. Cloud cover also has a significant effect on the measured wet bulb globe temperature. The algorithm does not show red and black heat stress flags well due to shorter time scales of such events. The results of this study show that it is plausible that the Dryden Flight Research wet bulb globe temperature algorithm is compatible with the White Sands Missile Range, except for when there are increased dew point temperatures and cloud cover or precipitation. During such occasions, the wet bulb globe temperature instrument would be the preferred method of measurement. Out of the 30

  7. Application of boost guidance to NASA sounding rocket launch operations at the White Sands Missile Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, W. H.; Detwiler, D. F., Jr.; Hall, L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper addresses the unique problems associated with launching the Black Brant V, VIII, and IX sounding rocket vehicles at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) and the significance of the introduction of the S19 to the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Wallops Flight Facility sounding rocket program in terms of launch flexibility, improved impact dispersion, higher flight reliability, and reduced program costs. This paper also discusses salient flight results from NASA 36.011UL (the first S19 guided Black Brant launched at WSMR) and the NASA Comet Halley missions (36.010DL and 36.017DL).

  8. Dust Plume Modeling from Ranges and Maneuver Areas on Fort Bliss and the White Sands Missile Range: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Elaine G.; Barnard, James C.; Rutz, Frederick C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Shaw, William J.

    2009-05-04

    The potential for air quality impacts from heavy mechanized vehicles operating on and between the unpaved main supply routes at Fort Bliss and White Sands Missile Range was investigated. This report details efforts by the staff of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the Fort Bliss Directorate of Environment in this investigation. Dust emission and dispersion from typical move-out activities occurring on the installations were simulated using the atmospheric modeling system DUSTRAN. Major assumptions associated with designing the modeling scenarios are summarized and results of simulations conducted under these assumptions are presented for four representative meteorological periods.

  9. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Activities on White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. Volume 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ...) activities at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico. It addresses future DTRA testing activities and expands on the current testing parameters addressed in existing National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents...

  10. MX Siting Investigation. Geotechnical Report. Volume IIB. Gila Bend Group and White Sands Missile Range Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-07

    taken to be the San Andreas, Sand Hills, and Algodones faults. Recorded seismicity within the zone adjacent the study area includes many earthquakes of...earthquakes with 8+ magnitudes. Therefore, the San Andreas, Sand Bills, and Algodones faults have been considered capable of producing an earthquake of

  11. 33 CFR 165.1406 - Safety Zone: Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Range Facility (PMRF), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii. 165.1406 Section 165.1406 Navigation and...), Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii. (a) Location. The following area is established as a safety zone during launch operations at PMRF, Kauai, Hawaii: The waters bounded by the following coordinates: (22°01...

  12. All Prime Contract Awards by State or Country, Place and Contractor. Part 12. (Amherst, New Hampshire-White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Hampshire-White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico ) 6. AUTHOR(S) 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND/A-DDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION WH-1S...000D 5.->.0ON4D ZON 01( w 41of1 I M 0 10O w 0aCo C 4m(1 m cI) 1 00 on mm N-I VINO ~-00N-NN0 NOW 14-4 NN-4 x3i cI 10c of 1-40 ZWOO- 4rN OW(DWO.0111iNN-)1

  13. The development of an information system master plan for the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Barking Sands, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollo, Rolando A.; Bennett, Paul D.

    1992-03-01

    This thesis provides a general description of the communication facilities and systems currently used by the Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF). The system interface requirements to support current range operations are identified and a description of current communications system shortfalls is provided along with recommendations for short-term improvements. A vision of the future is also provided. It suggests that PMRF adopt a coordinated, integrated, and centralized approach to range communications. Current and future communications system technologies such as digital communications, applicability of different transmission media, and application of the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) are mentioned as avenues for implementing a fully integrated data, voice, and video real-time information network that will support future PMRF users' requirements.

  14. Radiological survey and evaluation of the fallout area from the Trinity test: Chupadera Mesa and White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, W.R.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1985-06-01

    Current radiological conditions were evaluated for the site of the first nuclear weapons test, the Trinity test, and the associated fallout zone. The test, located on White Sands Missile Range, was conducted as part of the research with nuclear materials for the World War II Manhattan Engineer District atomic bomb project. Some residual radioactivity attributable to the test was found in the soils of Ground Zero on White Sands Missile Range and the areas that received fallout from the test. The study considered relevant information including historical records, environmental data extending back to the 1940s, and new data acquired by field sampling and measurements. Potential exposures to radiation were evaluated for current land uses. Maximum estimated doses on Chupadera Mesa and other uncontrolled areas are less than 3% of the DOE Radiation Protection Standards (RPSs). Radiation exposures during visits to the US Army-controlled Ground Zero area are less than 1 mrem per annual visit or less than 0.2% of the RPS for a member of the public. Detailed data and interpretations are provided in appendixes. 14 figs., 45 tabs.

  15. Countering short range ballistic missiles

    OpenAIRE

    Conner, George W.; Ehiers, Mark A.; Marshall, Kneale T.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Concepts commonly found in ASW search are used to model the flow and detection of mobile launchers for short range ballistic missiles. Emphasis is on detection and destruction of the launcher before launch. The benefit of pre-hostility intelligence and pre-missile-launch prosecution, the backbone of successful ASW, is revealed through the analysis of a circulation model which reflects the standard operations of a third world mobile mi...

  16. 78 FR 76060 - Pacific Ocean off the Pacific Missile Range Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... Facility at Barking Sands, Island of Kauai, Hawaii; Danger Zone. AGENCY: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD..., Hawaii. The U.S. Navy conducts weapon systems testing and other military testing and training activities... Kauai, Hawaii. The proposed rule was published in the July 1, 2013 issue of the Federal Register (78 FR...

  17. The Development of an Information System Master Plan for the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Barking Sands, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    1 -0 0- "SANDS KAUAI NOTE (AENA PT.’ . KUALALONO _hIOAHUA P0RT PARK ALLEN CA WEL A IERtCA MT KAALA Are * (MAR61 ICANEOHE~1AAAA MACAS IAAUNA KAPU 0...DOD will be the watchword. The consolidation of functions and the reduction in services will lead the way. PMRF will not be immune to the effects of...meet both of these requirements. It will also provide a channel that is immune to electromagnetic interference. This fiber also will provide

  18. Final Environmental Assessment of the Joint Air-to-Surface Stand-Off Missile (JASSM) Development and Evaluation Testing, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Pip ito fuscus) ; white- crowned (Zonotrichia feucophrys) and vesper sparrows (Pooecetes gramineus); and house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus). Other...Organ Mtns. Colorado chipmunk (Tamias quadrivittatus australis,) lucifer hummingbird (Calothorax lucifer) Violet- crowned hummingbird (Amazi lia...servants and contractor staff. t N I Legend Las Crue <!!s NORTriERN CAU.-UP AREA (FIX) Stallion Range Center ~ 30, 50. 70. & 90 M;le Impact

  19. Geochemical Trends and Natural Attenuation of RDX, Nitrate, and Perchlorate in the Hazardous Test Area Fractured-Granite Aquifer, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, 1996-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langman, Jeff B.; Robertson, Andrew J.; Bynum, Jamar; Gebhardt, Fredrick E.

    2008-01-01

    A fractured-granite aquifer at White Sands Missile Range is contaminated with the explosive compound RDX, nitrate, and perchlorate (oxidizer associated with rocket propellant) from the previous use of the Open Burn/Open Detonation site at the Hazardous Test Area. RDX, nitrate, and perchlorate ground-water concentrations were analyzed to examine source characteristics, spatial and temporal variability, and the influence of the natural attenuation processes of dilution and degradation in the Hazardous Test Area fractured-granite aquifer. Two transects of ground-water wells from the existing monitoring-site network - one perpendicular to ground-water flow (transect A-A') and another parallel to ground-water flow (transect B-B') - were selected to examine source characteristics and the spatial and temporal variability of the contaminant concentrations. Ground-water samples collected in 2005 from a larger sampling of monitoring sites than the two transects were analyzed for various tracers including major ions, trace elements, RDX degradates, dissolved gases, water isotopes, nitrate isotopes, and sulfate isotopes to examine the natural attenuation processes of dilution and degradation. Recharge entrains contaminants at the site and transports them downgradient towards the Tularosa Basin floor through a poorly connected fracture system(s). From 1996 to 2006, RDX, nitrate, and perchlorate concentrations in ground water downgradient from the Open Burn/Open Detonation site have been relatively stable. RDX, nitrate, and perchlorate in ground water from wells near the site indicate dispersed contaminant sources in and near the Open Burn/Open Detonation pits. The sources of RDX and nitrate in the pit area have shifted with time, and the shift correlates with the regrading of the south and east berms of each pit in 2002 and 2003 following closure of the site. The largest RDX concentrations were in ground water about 0.1 mile downgradient from the pits, the largest perchlorate

  20. Computation of the Different Errors in the Ballistic Missiles Range

    OpenAIRE

    Abd El-Salam, F. A.; Abd El-Bar, S. E.

    2011-01-01

    The ranges of the ballistic missile trajectories are very sensitive to any kind of errors. Most of the missile trajectory is a part of an elliptical orbit. In this work, the missile problem is stated. The variations in the orbital elements are derived using Lagrange planetary equations. Explicit expressions for the errors in the missile range due to the in-orbit plane changes are derived. Explicit expressions for the errors in the missile range due to the out-of-orbit plane changes are derive...

  1. Passive ranging of boost-phase missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawks, Michael; Perram, Glen

    2007-04-01

    The depth of absorption bands in observed spectra of distant, bright sources can be used to estimate range to the source. Previous efforts in this area relied on Beer's Law to estimate range from observations of infrared CO II bands, with disappointing results. A modified approach is presented that uses band models and observations of the O II absorption band near 762 nm. This band is spectrally isolated from other atmospheric bands, which enables direct estimation of molecular absorption from observed intensity. Range is estimated by comparing observed values of band-average absorption, (see manuscript), against predicted curves derived from either historical data or model predictions. Accuracy of better than 0.5% has been verified in short-range (up to 3km) experiments using a Fourier transform interferometer at 1cm -1 resolution. A conceptual design is described for a small, affordable passive ranging sensor suitable for use on tactical aircraft for missile attack warning and time-to-impact estimation. Models are used to extrapolate experimental results (using 1 cm -1 resolution data) to analyze expected performance of this filter-based system.

  2. Launch velocity requirements for interceptors of short range ballistic missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Geoffrey S.

    The problem of estimating the performance requirements for interceptors of short range (less than 500 nm) ballistic missiles is addressed. Classical orbit determination methods are used to parametrically study the impulsive interceptor launch velocities required to intercept incoming ballistic missiles. Atmospheric and planetary rotational effects are neglected. Dependent variables include the relative positions of the interceptor and ballistic missile launch sites to the target point, interceptor acquisition delay time and depressed ballistic missile trajectories. The resulting data is reduced to a series of curves highlighting the relative impact of each parameter. Factors limiting the interceptor time of flight are shown to have the strongest influence on interceptor launch velocity requirements.

  3. The expectation of applying IR guidance in medium range air-to-air missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijuan; Liu, Ke

    2016-10-01

    IR guidance has been widely used in near range dogfight air-to-air missiles while radar guidance is dominant in medium and long range air-to-air missiles. With the development of stealth airplanes and advanced electronic countermeasures, radar missiles have met with great challenges. In this article, the advantages and potential problems of applying IR guidance in medium range air-to-air missiles are analyzed. Approaches are put forward to solve the key technologies including depressing aerodynamic heating, increasing missiles' sensitivity and acquiring target after launch. IR medium range air-to-air missiles are predicted to play important role in modern battle field.

  4. Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for Airborne Laser Program at Kirtland Air Force Base (AFB) and White Sands Missile Range/Holloman AFB, NM, and Edwards AFB and Vandenberg AFB, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Executive Committee Mescalero Apache Tribe P.O. Box 227 Mescalero. NM 88340 Chairman Gene Maroquin Apache Tribe of Oklahoma P.O. Box 1220...Sand prickly pear ( Opuntia arenaria) Sandhill goosefoot (Chenopodium cycloides) Standley whitlow-grass (Draba standleyi) 2 Lincoln Cnuntv

  5. Ballistic Missile Defense. Past and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    2 These flights took place in 2000, and the destruction was done by the tactical high-energy laser (THEL) at White Sands, New Mexico ...Defense Agency and the U.S. Navy launched a prototype Standard Missile-2 Bloc IVA from the “Desert Ship” complex at White Sands Missile Range, NM, on

  6. White Sands Missile Range Overview & Introduction: Test Capabilities Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    Certified Chemistry Lab  Capabilities • Conformance Testing of materials • Toxic Gas testing of rocket/motor exhaust • Explosives Analysis...the explosion; and the McDonald ranch house, where the plutonium core to the bomb was assembled. The site is open to visitors twice a year on the

  7. White Sands Missile Range 2011 Drinking Water Quality Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    disinfection. Contaminants MCLG MCL Main Post Year Violation Typical Source Total Coliform (positive samples/month) 0 1 1 2011 No Naturally present in the...Total Coliform (positive samples/month) 0 1 1 2011 No Naturally present in the environment. Contaminants MCLG AL Main Post Year # Samples Exceeding

  8. Long-Range Ballistic Missile Defense in Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hildreth, Steven A; Ek, Carl

    2007-01-01

    ...) in Europe to defend against an Iranian missile threat. The system would include 10 interceptors in Poland, and radar in the Czech Republic. Deployment of the European GMD capability is scheduled to be completed by 2013 at a cost of $4.04 billion.

  9. Countering the third world mobile short range ballistic missile threat: an integrated approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The Persian Gulf War introduced a new, highly effective threat in the form of the mobile short range ballistic missile (SRBM). The non-guided SCUD missile proved to be most effective in the political area as Iraq continually targeted Israel in an attempt to force them into the conflict through retaliation. Although this Iraqi objective ultimately failed, a price was paid by the Coalition forces. A significant percentage of Allied ai...

  10. North slope missile testing range: a role playing approach to photoinstrumentation education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidhazy, Andrew

    1995-10-01

    The end of the cold war and the drastic downsizing of missile research along with the steady retirement of personnel versed in the technical aspects of missile performance evaluation through photographic processes have created a situation where the number of qualified individuals to provide such services is precariously low and where the technology itself is being forgotten. At the Imaging and Photographic Technology Department at the Rochester Institute of Technology we are making a small effort to teach introductory concepts often taken directly from imaging technologies associated with missile range photography. These technologies involve near-miss analysis and basic photogrammetry, streak photography for measurements of velocity, acceleration and event duration, shadowgraph and schlieren imaging, high speed flash photography of explosive events, etc. One of the methods by which a healthy dose of respect for traditional technology is taught is by setting up a mock missile range in the Department's High Speed laboratory. This project includes a missile firing control station, a photography section, a missile assembly area and other interdependent activities. Students build their own rockets, are taught the fundamental principles related to synchroballistic photography, they become range 'officers' and are never in charge of launching their own rocket and acquiring their own data but have to depend on their classmates to perform their assigned roles without error. Eventually the students then analyze the film data and report on the performance characteristics of their missiles. It is the purpose of this paper to share with professional technologists one project that is part of the Imaging and Photographic Technology curriculum at RIT designed to help preserve the technologies which provide the foundation upon which SPIE itself was founded.

  11. A method for simulating the atmospheric entry of long-range ballistic missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, A J , Jr

    1958-01-01

    It is demonstrated with the aid of similitude arguments that a model launched from a hypervelocity gun upstream through a special supersonic nozzle should experience aerodynamic heating and resulting thermal stresses like those encountered by a long-range ballistic missile entering the earth's atmosphere. This demonstration hinges on the requirements that model and missile be geometrically similar and made of the same material, and that they have the same flight speed and Reynolds number (based on conditions just outside the boundary layer) at corresponding points in their trajectories. The hypervelocity gun provides the model with the required initial speed, while the nozzle scales the atmosphere, in terms of density variation, to provide the model with speeds and Reynolds numbers over its entire trajectory. Since both the motion and aerodynamic heating of a missile tend to be simulated in the model tests, this combination of hypervelocity gun and supersonic nozzle is termed an atmosphere entry simulator.

  12. Computing The No-Escape Envelope Of A Short-Range Missile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Frank

    1991-01-01

    Method for computing no-escape envelope of short-range air-to-air missile devised. Useful for analysis of both strategies for avoidance and strategies for attack. With modifications, also useful in analysis of control strategies for one-on-one air-to-air combat, or wherever multiple control strategies considered.

  13. Passive FOG IMU for short-range missile application: from qualification toward series production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommer, Gert F.; Mueller, R.; Opitz, S.

    1996-11-01

    An inertial measurement unit (IMU) with angular rate, angular increment and linear acceleration measurement systems for short range missile application is described. It consists of a three axis fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) cluster, three linear vibrating beam accelerometers and an electronics device for signal evaluation and data transmission via a serial transputer link. The FOG cluster is realized by means of a passive all-fiber open loop configuration. Due to the inherent optical phase shift of 3 by 3 couplers, completely passive operation near the quadrature point is achieved without the need for a non- reciprocal optical phase modulation in the fiber loop. Basing on that concept more than 50 rugged IMUs have been built for implementation into a short range air to air missile. Verification tests for flight clearance with stresses simulating air carriage and missile free flight environments have been computed. The operation under extreme vibration and shock environments without the use of vibration isolator fixings due to very tight requirements on data time delay has been demonstrated. The first telemetered missile firings have been performed successfully. The line- setup for large quantity series production is progressing. The implementation of the workstations for the integration of the IMU is finished. The production equipment for calibration and acceptance testing of IMUs in parallel allowing for a rate of more than 150 unit per month has been installed and will be operational in autumn this year.

  14. Image seeker simulation for short-range surface-to-surface missile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Hun; Kang, Ho-Gyun

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents an image seeker simulation including image processing, servo control, target model, and missile trajectory. We propose a software architecture for a seeker embedded computer. It makes core processing algorithms including image processing reusable at the source level through multiple platforms. The embedded software simulator implemented in C/C++, the servo control simulator implemented in Matlab, and the integrated simulator combined the both simulators based on Windows Component Object Module (COM) technology is presented. The integrated simulation enables developers to practice an interactive study between image processing and servo control about missions including lock-on and target tracking. The implemented simulator can be operated in low cost computer systems. This can be used to algorithm development and analysis at the design, implementation, and evaluation. Simulation examples for a short range ground-to-ground missile seeker are presented.

  15. Research of Short-range Missile Motion in Terms of Different Wind Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Klishin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available When modeling the aircraft motion it is advisable to choose a particular model of the Earth, depending both on the task and on the required accuracy of calculation. The article describes various models of the Earth, such as the flat Earth with a plane-parallel field of gravity, spherical and non-rotating Earth with a plane-parallel field of gravity, spherical and non-rotating Earth with a central gravitational field, spherical and non-rotating Earth, taking into account the polar flattening of the Earth, spherical Earth based compression and polar daily rotation. The article also considers the influence of these models on the motion of the selected aircraft.To date, there is technical equipment to provide highly accurate description of the Earthshape, gravitational field, etc. The improved accuracy of the Earth model description results in more correct description of the trajectory and motion parameters of a ballistic missile. However, for short ranges (10-20 km this accuracy is not essential, and, furthermore, it increases time of calculation. Therefore, there is a problem of choosing the optimal description of the Earth parameters.The motion in the model of the Earth, which takes into account a daily rotation of the planet and polar flattening, is discussed in more detail, and the geographical latitude impact on coordinates of the points of fall of a ballistic missile is analyzed on the basis of obtained graphs.The article individually considers a problem of the wind effect on the aircraft motion and defines dependences of the missile motion on the parameters of different wind loads, such as wind speed and height of its action.A mathematical model of the missile motion was built and numerically integrated, using the Runge-Kutta 4th order method, for implementation and subsequent analysis.Based on the analysis of the calculation results in the abovementioned models of the Earth, differences in impact of these models on the parameters of the

  16. Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-24

    slab that had characteristics similar to reinforced concrete. Press reports indicate that the warhead entered the target at a 90 degree angle and... static test-firings of a prototype rocket engine in 2005. 39 According to the Defense Science Board Task Force, this missile might have delivered a 2,000... tracked the launches of hundreds of ballistic missiles over the years, and they had demonstrated the capability to “acquire sufficient data to determine

  17. Interferometric acquisition and fire control radar for short-range missile defense with optimized radar distribution (SWORD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ronald A.; Shipman, Mark; Holder, E. J.; Williams, James K.

    2002-07-01

    The United States Army Space and Missile Defense Command (USASMDC) has interest in a technology demonstration that capitalizes on investment in fire control and smart interceptor technologies that have matured beyond basic research. The concept "SWORD" (Short range missile defense With Optimized Radar Distribution) consists of a novel approach utilizing a missile interceptor and interferometric fire control radar. A hit-to-kill, closed-loop, command guidance scheme is planned that takes advantage of extremely accurate target and interceptor state vectors derived via the fire control radar. The fire control system has the capability to detect, track, and classify multiple threats in a tactical regime as well as simultaneously provide command guidance updates to multiple missile interceptors. The missile interceptor offers a cost reduction potential as well as an enhancement to the kinematics range and lethality over existing SHORAD systems. Additionally, the Radio Frequency (RF) guidance scheme offers increased battlefield weather performance. The Air Defense (AD) community, responding to current threat capabilities and trends, has identified an urgent need to have a capability to counter proliferated, low cost threats with a low cost-per-kill weapon system. The SWORD system will offer a solution that meets this need. The SWORD critical technologies will be identified including a detailed description of each. Validated test results and basic principles of operation will be presented to prove the merit of the past investments. The Deptuy Assistant Secretary of the Army for Research and Technology [DAS(R&T)] has a three-year Science and Technology Program to evaluate the errors and proposed mitigation techniques associated with target spectral dispersion and range gate straddle. Preliminary Bench-Top Experiment results will be presented in this paper.

  18. Ground Based Free Electron Laser Technology Integration Experiment, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Vehicular Noise 95 30725 PO Vehicular Noise 95 34210 PO1 Vehicular Noise 95 SR680 Commissary Meat Saws 96 TT1848 Packing and Crating Various Saws 90-118...carnivores, including the raptors discussed previously. Numerous species, such as Ord’s and Merriam’s kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ordii and D. merriami

  19. Analysis of Boundary Layer Meteorological Data Collected at the White Sands Missile Range

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Brien, Sean; Tofsted, David; Yarbrough, Jimmy; Elliott, D. S; Quintis, David

    2007-01-01

    During the late spring and summer of 2007, a series of near-surface measurements of winds, temperature, radiative fluxes and absolute humidity were collected at an observing site located on the White...

  20. High Resolution Results and Scalability of Numerical Modeling of Wind Flow at White Sands Missile Range

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haines, Patrick A; Grove, David J; Sun, Wen-Yih; Hsu, Wu-Ron

    2004-01-01

    ...) and large scale turbulence scale (20 m to 200 m). It is a fully explicit, compressible three-dimensional code and has compared quite to a wide variety of known analytical solution or observed situations including the Boulder Wind Storm...

  1. White Sands Missile Range 2007 Urban Study: Data Processing - Volume DP-2 (Main Dataset)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    were downloaded onto a thumb drive and sneaker -netted to a dedicated Excel spreadsheet for processing. Each of the resulting two datasets will be...Count Number Number List Tower Height (m AGL) Tower/Tripod Status 1 12 0637 NW 5 center NIST Calib 2 12 0638 NW 2.5 west NIST Calib 3 2 1330 SS 10 west

  2. Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-03

    mid-1990s. In August 1995 it launched an ICBM armed with a “pointy” front end (and no explosive warhead) against a granite slab that had...ballistic missile (SLIRBM). It requested industry participation in the study in mid-2003, and planned to conduct two static test-firings of a...eliminate pursuit of the program. The study noted that the United States and Russia had monitored and tracked the launches of hundreds of ballistic

  3. Conventional Prompt Global Strike and Long-Range Ballistic Missiles: Background and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    intelligence demands of the PGS mission. The Obama Administration’s description of the prompt global strike mission focuses more on regional than...www.stratcom.mil/factsheets/gs/. 15A description of some of these scenarios can be found in the National Academies Study on Prompt Global Strike. See...DOD conducted a second test of the HTV-2 vehicle on August 10, 2011. According to DARPA, the Minotaur missile successfully boosted the HPV -2 vehicle

  4. Ballistic missile defense effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, George N.

    2017-11-01

    The potential effectiveness of ballistic missile defenses today remains a subject of debate. After a brief discussion of terminal and boost phase defenses, this chapter will focus on long-range midcourse defenses. The problems posed by potential countermeasures to such midcourse defenses are discussed as are the sensor capabilities a defense might have available to attempt to discriminate the actual missile warhead in a countermeasures environment. The role of flight testing in assessing ballistic missile defense effectiveness is discussed. Arguments made about effectiveness by missile defense supporters and critics are summarized.

  5. Automated acoustic localization and call association for vocalizing humpback whales on the Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helble, Tyler A; Ierley, Glenn R; D'Spain, Gerald L; Martin, Stephen W

    2015-01-01

    Time difference of arrival (TDOA) methods for acoustically localizing multiple marine mammals have been applied to recorded data from the Navy's Pacific Missile Range Facility in order to localize and track humpback whales. Modifications to established methods were necessary in order to simultaneously track multiple animals on the range faster than real-time and in a fully automated way, while minimizing the number of incorrect localizations. The resulting algorithms were run with no human intervention at computational speeds faster than the data recording speed on over forty days of acoustic recordings from the range, spanning multiple years. Spatial localizations based on correlating sequences of units originating from within the range produce estimates having a standard deviation typically 10 m or less (due primarily to TDOA measurement errors), and a bias of 20 m or less (due primarily to sound speed mismatch). An automated method for associating units to individual whales is presented, enabling automated humpback song analyses to be performed.

  6. A Feasibility Study of the Flare-Cylinder Configuration as a Reentry Body Shape for an Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, B. J.; Hall, J. R.

    1958-01-01

    A study has been made of a flare-cylinder configuration to investigate its feasibility as a reentry body of an intermediate range ballistic missile. Factors considered were heating, weight, stability, and impact velocity. A series of trajectories covering the possible range of weight-drag ratios were computed for simple truncated nose shapes of varying pointedness, and hence varying weight-drag ratios. Four trajectories were chosen for detailed temperature computation from among those trajectories estimated to be possible. Temperature calculations were made for both "conventional" (for example, copper, Inconel, and stainless steel) and "unconventional" (for example, beryllium and graphite) materials. Results of the computations showed that an impact Mach number of 0.5 was readily obtainable for a body constructed from conventional materials. A substantial increase in subsonic impact velocity above a Mach number of 0.5 was possible without exceeding material temperature limits. A weight saving of up to 134 pounds out of 822 was possible with unconventional materials. This saving represents 78 percent of the structural weight. Supersonic impact would require construction of the body from unconventional materials but appeared to be well within the range of attainability.

  7. The North Korean Missile Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David

    2001-04-01

    In recent years, the development of ballistic missiles by North Korea has been a key motivation for US efforts to stem missile proliferation and to develop defenses against intermediate and long-range missiles. In the 1980s, North Korea reverse-engineered short-range Soviet Scud missiles and began to produce and sell them. In 1993, it flight-tested a missile reported to have a range of up to 1,300 kilometers, which would allow it to target most of Japan. In 1998, it launched a multi-stage missile over Japan; it later announced that the launch had been an attempt to place a satellite in orbit. An important question is what these tests imply for its current capability and its possible future missile development. Since North Korea has sold missiles to countries in the Middle East and South Asia and is reported to be assisting Iran's missile development program, understanding its capabilities is relevant to security concerns in several parts of the world. In this talk I will discuss my analysis of the publicly available information about North Korea's missile tests, and my conclusions about possible future developments. This includes estimates of ranges and payloads of its next potential generation of missiles, and comments about their potential military utility.

  8. 75 FR 27997 - Record of Decision (ROD) for the Development and Implementation of Range-Wide Mission and Major...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Monte Marlin, Public Affairs Office, Building 1782, Headquarters Avenue, White Sands Missile Range, NM 88002; (575) 678-1134; or e-mail monte.marlin@us.army.mil...

  9. Amplitude equation and long-range interactions in underwater sand ripples in one dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnipper, Teis; Mertens, Keith; Ellegaard, Clive

    2008-01-01

    ) which, due to the first term, is neither completely local (it has long-range coupling through the average height (h) over bar) nor has local sand conservation. We argue that this is reasonable and show that the equation compares well with experimental observations in narrow channels. We focus...... in particular on the so-called doubling transition, a secondary instability caused by the sudden decrease in the amplitude of the water motion, leading to the appearance of a new ripple in each trough. This transition is well reproduced for sufficiently large delta (asymmetry between trough and crest). We...

  10. Detection of Salmonella enterica Serovar Montevideo and Newport in Free-ranging Sea Turtles and Beach Sand in the Caribbean and Persistence in Sand and Seawater Microcosms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, A-K; Antaki, E; Stewart, K; Francis, S; Jay-Russell, M T; Sithole, F; Kearney, M T; Griffin, M J; Soto, E

    2017-09-01

    Salmonellae are Gram-negative zoonotic bacteria that are frequently part of the normal reptilian gastrointestinal flora. The main objective of this project was to estimate the prevalence of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica in the nesting and foraging populations of sea turtles on St. Kitts and in sand from known nesting beaches. Results suggest a higher prevalence of Salmonella in nesting leatherback sea turtles compared with foraging green and hawksbill sea turtles. Salmonella was cultured from 2/9 and identified by molecular diagnostic methods in 3/9 leatherback sea turtle samples. Salmonella DNA was detected in one hawksbill turtle, but viable isolates were not recovered from any hawksbill sea turtles. No Salmonella was detected in green sea turtles. In samples collected from nesting beaches, Salmonella was only recovered from a single dry sand sample. All recovered isolates were positive for the wzx gene, consistent with the O:7 serogroup. Further serotyping characterized serovars Montevideo and Newport present in cloacal and sand samples. Repetitive-element palindromic PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprint analysis and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of the 2014 isolates from turtles and sand as well as archived Salmonella isolates recovered from leatherback sea turtles in 2012 and 2013, identified two distinct genotypes and four different pulsotypes, respectively. The genotyping and serotyping were directly correlated. To determine the persistence of representative strains of each serotype/genotype in these environments, laboratory-controlled microcosm studies were performed in water and sand (dry and wet) incubated at 25 or 35°C. Isolates persisted for at least 32 days in most microcosms, although there were significant decreases in culturable bacteria in several microcosms, with the greatest reduction in dry sand incubated at 35°C. This information provides a better understanding of the epizootiology of Salmonella in free-ranging marine reptiles and the potential

  11. White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. Revised Uniform Summary of Surface Weather Observations. Parts A-F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    90.3 9O.3 90.3 90.3 90.3 90 9 0 3 . LE 50001 1. 72.7 93.3 93.8 93.8 93.8 96.2 91.2 91.2 96.2 96.2 96.2 96.2 96.2 96.2 91.2 SE 5C3| 91.9 93.l 93.8...eb. 87.3 87.5 88., 88.5 88.5 88.8 88.8 88.8 88.8 80.8 88.8 88.8 88.8 88.8 88.8 G.E ISO 86.7 87.5 67.8 88.2 89.8 88.8 89.1 89.1 89.1 89.1 89.1 89.1...88.9 89.8 89.9 90.1 91.0 91.2 91.2 91.5 91.5 91.5 91.5 91.5 91.5 91.5 tiE 50001 66.4 89.2 90.1 90.9 91.0 91.2 92.2 92.3 92.3 92.7 92.7 92.7 92.7 92.7

  12. High Resolution Stratospheric Winds from Chemical Smoke Trail Experiments at White Sands Missile Range and Wallops Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-30

    Dwe REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Ehvou wiu m 1.RPR UMBE ACCESMURDER * AFGL-TR-82-0209 4. TITLE (dad Ssbilds) S. TYP" FR TIPO COVER"i HIGH RESOLUTION...describes some recent improvements in the hardware and software used to measure photographic images of chemical smoke trails. It also presents...75-0451, ADA019655. 7. Trowbridge, C.A. (1982) Identification of Requirements for Atmospheric Data, AFGL-TR-82-0015, ADA113640. 10 software needed to

  13. MANPRINT Support of the Non-Line-Of-Sight Fiber Optic Guided Missile System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    through 22 May 1989 at the North Oscura Range area of White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. The FDTE employed a single preproduction prototype NLOS...gear: Each gunner wore BDU’s, kevlar helmet, web gear, two canteens (empty) on a belt. For MOPP4 trials gunners wore MOPP4 overgarment, mask/hood...gloves, overboots, web gear, canteens on a belt. Gunners did not wear a flack jacket. MOPP4 trials for the two crewmen evaluated in the afternoon were

  14. Feature extraction of micro-motion frequency and the maximum wobble angle in a small range of missile warhead based on micro-Doppler effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; Jiang, Y. S.

    2014-11-01

    Micro-Doppler effect is induced by the micro-motion dynamics of the radar target itself or any structure on the target. In this paper, a simplified cone-shaped model for ballistic missile warhead with micro-nutation is established, followed by the theoretical formula of micro-nutation is derived. It is confirmed that the theoretical results are identical to simulation results by using short-time Fourier transform. Then we propose a new method for nutation period extraction via signature maximum energy fitting based on empirical mode decomposition and short-time Fourier transform. The maximum wobble angle is also extracted by distance approximate approach in a small range of wobble angle, which is combined with the maximum likelihood estimation. By the simulation studies, it is shown that these two feature extraction methods are both valid even with low signal-to-noise ratio.

  15. Strategic Missile Defense & Nuclear Deterrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grego, Laura

    The United States has pursued defenses against nuclear-armed long-range ballistic missiles since at least the 1950s. At the same time, concerns that missile defenses could undermine nuclear deterrence and potentially spark an arms race led the United States and Soviet Union to negotiate limits on these systems. The 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty constrained strategic missile defenses for thirty years. After abandoning the treaty in 2002, President George W. Bush began fielding the Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD) homeland missile defense system on an extremely aggressive schedule, nominally to respond to threats from North Korea and Iran. Today, nearly fifteen years after its initial deployment, the potential and the limits of this homeland missile defense are apparent. Its test record is poor and it has no demonstrated ability to stop an incoming missile under real-world conditions. No credible strategy is in place to solve the issue of discriminating countermeasures. Insufficient oversight has not only exacerbated the GMD system's problems, but has obscured their full extent, which could encourage politicians and military leaders to make decisions that actually increase the risk of a missile attack against the United States. These are not the only costs. Both Russia and China have repeatedly expressed concerns that U.S. missile defenses adversely affect their own strategic capabilities and interests, particularly taken in light of the substantial US nuclear forces. This in turn affects these countries' nuclear modernization priorities. This talk will provide a technical overview of the US strategic missile defense system, and how it relates to deterrence against non-peer adversaries as well as how it affects deterrence with Russia and China and the long-term prospects for nuclear reductions

  16. Two-colour infrared missile warning sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neele, F.

    2005-01-01

    Current missile-warning sensors on aircraft mostly operate in the ultraviolet wavelength band. Aimed primarily at detecting short-range, shoulder-fired surface-to-air missiles, the detection range of the sensors is of the same order as the threat range, which is 3-5 km. However, this range is only

  17. Two-colour infrared missile warning sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Neele, F.

    2005-01-01

    Current missile-warning sensors on aircraft mostly operate in the ultraviolet wavelength band. Aimed primarily at detecting short-range, shoulder-fired surface-to-air missiles, the detection range of the sensors is of the same order as the threat range, which is 3-5 km. However, this range is only attained against older missiles, with bright exhaust flames. Modern missile developments include the use of new propellants, which generate low-intensity plumes. These threats are detected at much s...

  18. Frantic Third World quest for ballistic missiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karp, A.

    1988-06-01

    Belatedly, Western Nations are trying to staunch the flow of technology that has helped create a number of new ballistic missile forces in the Third World. Ballistic missiles already are being used in one Third World conflict. Since the end of February, Iran and Iraq have fired more than 100 short-range, inaccurate missiles at each other's cities, causing thousands of casualties. These events illustrate that ballistic missiles are becoming an ominous reality in the Third World. Indeed, 20 Third World countries, including Israel and Brazil, currently possess ballistic missiles or are striving to develop them. On one level, these missiles - which are propelled by rockets into the upper atmosphere, travel in a ballistic trajectory, and are pulled by gravity to their targets - are for these nations a logical step in building up their military forces. While the missiles vary in range and accuracy, they can reach many targets in regional conflicts. Unlike manned aircraft, the do not require large, vulnerable bases. They are not as easily intercepted as slow bombers. And they are easier to develop because they are less sophisticated than modern cruise missiles such as the U.S. air-launched cruise missiles. In terms of global security, the most worrisome aspect of Third World ballistic missiles is their potential as nuclear weapons delivery systems.

  19. Missile Defense: Ballistic Missile Defense System Testing Delays Affect Delivery of Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-28

    enemy missiles of various ranges , speeds, sizes, and performance characteristics in different phases of flight.3 Once an enemy missile has been...BMD SM-3 Block IB features capabilities to identify, discriminate, and track objects during flight to defend against short - and medium- range ballistic... missiles threats. • Aegis BMD SM-3 Block IIA Aegis BMD SM-3 Block IIA has increased range , more sensitive seeker technology, and an advanced

  20. Association of Sand Dust Particles with Pulmonary Function and Respiratory Symptoms in Adult Patients with Asthma in Western Japan Using Light Detection and Ranging: A Panel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanari Watanabe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Light detection and ranging (LIDAR can estimate daily volumes of sand dust particles from the East Asian desert to Japan. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between sand dust particles and pulmonary function, and respiratory symptoms in adult patients with asthma. One hundred thirty-seven patients were included in the study. From March 2013 to May 2013, the patients measured their morning peak expiratory flow (PEF and kept daily lower respiratory symptom diaries. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the correlation of the median daily levels of sand dust particles, symptoms scores, and PEF. A heavy sand dust day was defined as an hourly concentration of sand dust particles of >0.1 km−1. By this criterion, there were 8 heavy sand dust days during the study period. Elevated sand dust particles levels were significantly associated with the symptom score (0.04; 95% confidence interval (CI; 0.03, 0.05, and this increase persisted for 5 days. There was no significant association between PEF and heavy dust exposure (0.01 L/min; 95% CI, −0.62, 0.11. The present study found that sand dust particles were significantly associated with worsened lower respiratory tract symptoms in adult patients with asthma, but not with pulmonary function.

  1. Association of Sand Dust Particles with Pulmonary Function and Respiratory Symptoms in Adult Patients with Asthma in Western Japan Using Light Detection and Ranging: A Panel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Masanari; Noma, Hisashi; Kurai, Jun; Shimizu, Atsushi; Sano, Hiroyuki; Kato, Kazuhiro; Mikami, Masaaki; Ueda, Yasuto; Tatsukawa, Toshiyuki; Ohga, Hideki; Yamasaki, Akira; Igishi, Tadashi; Kitano, Hiroya; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) can estimate daily volumes of sand dust particles from the East Asian desert to Japan. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between sand dust particles and pulmonary function, and respiratory symptoms in adult patients with asthma. One hundred thirty-seven patients were included in the study. From March 2013 to May 2013, the patients measured their morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) and kept daily lower respiratory symptom diaries. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the correlation of the median daily levels of sand dust particles, symptoms scores, and PEF. A heavy sand dust day was defined as an hourly concentration of sand dust particles of >0.1 km−1. By this criterion, there were 8 heavy sand dust days during the study period. Elevated sand dust particles levels were significantly associated with the symptom score (0.04; 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.03, 0.05), and this increase persisted for 5 days. There was no significant association between PEF and heavy dust exposure (0.01 L/min; 95% CI, −0.62, 0.11). The present study found that sand dust particles were significantly associated with worsened lower respiratory tract symptoms in adult patients with asthma, but not with pulmonary function. PMID:26501307

  2. Hyper Velocity Missiles For Defence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faqir Minhas

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the history of technical development in the field of hypervelocity missiles. It highlights the fact that the development of anti-ballistic systems in USA, Russia, France, UK, Sweden, and Israel is moving toward the final deployment stage; that USA and Israel are trying to sell PAC 2 and Arrow 2 to India; and that India’s Agni and Prithvi missiles have improved their accuracy, with assistance from Russia. Consequently, the paper proposes enhanced effort for development in Pakistan of a basic hypersonic tactical missile, with 300 KM range, 500 KG payload, and multi-rolecapability. The author argues that a system, developed within the country, at the existing or upgraded facilities, will not violate MTCR restrictions, and would greatly enhance the country’s defense capability. Furthermore, it would provide high technology jobs toPakistani citizens. The paper reinforces the idea by suggesting that evolution in the field of aviation and electronics favors the development of ballistic, cruise and guided missile technologies; and that flight time of short and intermediate range missiles is so short that its interception is virtually impossible.

  3. Trajectory optimization of a deflectable nose missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-yong Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The deflectable nose missile has a longer range by deflecting its nose to improve its aerodynamic feature. Based on detached eddy simulation (DES, the supersonic flow fields of a missile with deflectable nose are simulated numerically and its aerodynamic force coefficients are calculated under the condition of the deflection angles vary from 0° to 8°, angles of attack, 0°–8°, and mach numbers, 2 to 5. Coupling these aerodynamic coefficients with the plumb plane ballistic equations, the extended flight range has been calculated. Furthermore, the genetic algorithm (GA is employed for the solution of maximum range of the deflected missile.

  4. Advanced Missile Signature Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Missile Signature Center (AMSC) is a national facility supporting the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) and other DoD programs and customers with analysis,...

  5. Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hichkad, Ravi R; Bolkcom, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload...

  6. Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hichkad, Ravi R; Bolkcom, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Congress has expressed interest in cruise missile defense for years. Cruise missiles (CMs) are essentially unmanned attack aircraft -- vehicles composed of an airframe, propulsion system, guidance system, and weapons payload...

  7. Air Drag Effects on the Missile Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Abd El-Salam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The equations of motion of a missile under the air drag effects are constructed. The modified TD88 is surveyed. Using Lagrange's planetary equations in Gauss form, the perturbations, due to the air drag in the orbital elements, are computed between the eccentric anomalies of the burn out and the reentry points [Ebo,2π−Ebo], respectively. The range equation is expressed as an infinite series in terms of the eccentricity e and the eccentric anomaly E. The different errors in the missile-free range due to the drag perturbations in the missile trajectory are obtained.

  8. Two-color infrared missile warning sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neele, Filip

    2005-05-01

    Current missile-warning sensors on aircraft mostly operate in the ultraviolet wavelength band. Aimed primarily at detecting short-range, shoulder-fired surface-to-air missiles, the detection range of the sensors is of the same order as the threat range, which is 3-5 km. However, this range is only attained against older missiles, with bright exhaust flames. Modern missile developments include the use of new propellants, which generate low-intensity plumes. These threats are detected at much shorter ranges by current ultraviolet warning sensors, resulting in short reaction times. Infrared sensors are able to detect targets at a much longer range. In contrast with the ultraviolet band, in which a target is observed against an almost zero background, infrared sensors must extract targets from a complex background. This leads to a much higher false-alarm rate, which has thus far prevented the deployment of infrared sensors in a missile warning system. One way of reducing false-alarms levels is to make use of the spectral difference between missile plumes and the background. By carefully choosing two wavelength bands, the contrast between missile plume and background can be maximised. This paper presents a method to search for the best possible combination of two bands in the mid-wave infrared, that leads to the longest detection ranges and that works for a wide range of missile propellants. Detection ranges predicted in the infrared will be compared with those obtained in the ultraviolet, to demonstrate the increased range and, therefore, the increased reaction time for the aircraft.

  9. Ballistic Missile Defense: A National Priority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    N. Lewis and Theodore A. Postol , “European Missile Defense: The Technologi­ cal Basis of Russian Concerns,” Arms Control Today 37, no. 8 (October...PAC-3), and the Theater High-Altitude Area Defense ( THAAD ) system. As General Obering recently testified: “None of this capability existed as...East. PAC-3 and THAAD are theater defense systems, providing protection against short- and some medium-range missiles. PAC-3 engages short- range

  10. Transactions of the Conference of Army Mathematicians (21st) Held at White Sands Missile Range, N. Mex. on 14-16 May 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-02-01

    C7 ~ a 8· ID.- 8•0 W 0 _0.. mgCJ -0 WC𔃾 r.- tD -.J"’:w CJ UJ ~~lL -0 ::sg 0 UJ • 0 w og ~g-l’:> 0) ::::l L\\1 ......- . f---’ _at- ~~I- -1 ILl + a: o I...AT O,OOlSCM) IN FRONT OF THE MUZZLE, ~ (I) ...... E ~ >- I-..... U l!:I -l .j:>. ILl --’ :>- W HBR [lONTAl VEl~CrTY 3000. ....-.-,.--r-.....----,-..,-r

  11. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) database for White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, Parts of Dona Ana, Lincoln, Otero, Sierra and Socorro Counties

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set is a digital soil survey and generally is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The...

  12. The GBFEL-TIE (Ground Based Free Electron Laser Technology Experiment) Sample Survey on White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico: The NASA, Stallion, and Orogrande Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-30

    types (O’Hara 1986). Although this analysis iso -surveylated several styles unique to the Tularosa Basin area and ficulties in distinguishing aceramic... 50001 -100000 - - 11 0.8 8 0.4 100001-200000 16 0.7 6 0.4 - - >200000 24 1.0 6 0.4 Orogrande Alternative Basin Floor Lower Fan Total Sites Total Sites

  13. Final Environmental Assessment for the Establishment of an Air-to-Surface Helicopter Gunnery Training Target Set at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    dominated by desert scrub and shrublands. Dominant shrub species include sandsage brush ( Artemisia filifolia), creosotebush (Larrea tridentata), and... fertility , good water-holding capacity, deep or thick effective rooting zones, and are not subject to periodic flooding. Under the Farmland Protection

  14. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Activities on White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    an insect pheromone (Andersson et al., 2000). MeS, known as Oil of Wintergreen, is closely related to salicylate , the pain reliever in aspirin . MeS...soluble in dilute alkalies, boiling alcohol, ether, dilute acids , and glacial acetic acids . It is insoluble in water, benzene, and chloroform. It...ammonium nitrate, nitric acid , and acetic acid . HMX explodes violently at high temperatures. Because of this property, HMX is used in various kinds of

  15. Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement for Airborne Laser Program at Kirtland AFB, White Sands Missile Range/ Holloman AFB, New Mexico; Edwards AFB, Vandenberg AFB, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-01

    coyote. desert kit fox, deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), grasshopper mouse (Onychomys torridus), little pocket mouse (Perognathus longimembris...msrriami), and the northern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys leucogaster). Mammal’ an predators ’oJnd i.o these grasslands include the coyote (Canis...os • dna ~o or J-ndoact oeau:r ci th~ p=oposed Glroo:c;-,e ~as~t ~""’ Document 2 af<.ftL" be1n’i’ laur.c~~d "Y~Lr.m lasef. the track >llu.r.inaco

  16. Final Environmental Impact Statement of the Proposed Ground Based Free Electron Laser Technology Integration Experiment, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    this phase to investigate solutions to key atmospheric effects such as turbulence, thermal blooming and SRS. This phase would also investigate the...comprehensive evaluation of sites was therefore done on the basis of these key factors (cost, schedule, research and test operations and environmental goals...the raptors discussed previously. Numerous species, such as Ord’s and Merriam’s kangaroo rats ( Dipodomys ordii and D. merriami, respectively

  17. An Integrated Rock Typing Approach for Unraveling the Reservoir Heterogeneity of Tight Sands in the Whicher Range Field of Perth Basin, Western Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilkhchi, Rahim Kadkhodaie; Rezaee, Reza; Harami, Reza Moussavi

    2014-01-01

    between pore system properties and depositional and diagenetic characteristics in each sand type, reservoir rock types were extracted. The identified reservoir rock types are in fact a reflection of internal reservoir heterogeneity related to pore system properties. All reservoir rock types......Tight gas sands in Whicher Range Field of Perth Basin show large heterogeneity in reservoir characteristics and production behavior related to depositional and diagenetic features. Diagenetic events (compaction and cementation) have severely affected the pore system. In order to investigate...... the petrophysical characteristics, reservoir sandstone facies were correlated with core porosity and permeability and their equivalent well log responses to describe hydraulic flow units and electrofacies, respectively. Thus, very tight, tight, and sub-tight sands were differentiated. To reveal the relationship...

  18. Proceedings of the Workshop on Millimeter and Submillimeter Atmospheric Propagation Applicable to Radar and Missile Systems, held at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, 20-22 March 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    Measurements and Theory at Millimeter Waves. BRL Rept. 1838, USA Ba.listics Research Labcratories, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Sander, J., 1975: Rain...operational suport. The research system is at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexice , currently providing the data base at the HELSTF. has...Mexico 87110 and Development Laboratory 1 Ames Research Center Commander Moffett Field, California 94035 USA OTEA ATTN: CSTE-STS-I 1 Director of

  19. Missile defence : An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Weimar, P.W.L.

    2012-01-01

    At the present day, an unparalleled number of international actors, be it national governments or non-state groups, have acquired or are seeking to acquire both weapons of mass destruction and the means to deliver them. Those means of delivery can be Ballistic Missiles that can bridge vast – even intercontinental – distances. The use of Ballistic Missiles with conventional warheads is also an evolving threat as witnessed by the Chinese anti-ship ballistic missile. The defence of land forces a...

  20. Modification of streaming potential by precipitation of calcite in a sand-water system: laboratory measurements pH range from 4 to 12

    OpenAIRE

    Guichet, Xavier; Jouniaux, Laurence; Catel, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com; We acknowledge the Geophysical Journal International, the Royal Astronomical Society and Blackwell Publishing. Full bibliographic reference is : Guichet, X., L. Jouniaux, and N. Catel, Modification of streaming potential by precipitation of calcite in a sand-water system: laboratory measurements in the pH range from 4 to 12, Geophysical Journal International, 166, 445-460, doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.2006.02922.x, 2006; Spontaneous...

  1. Historical review of tactical missile airframe developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    A comprehensive development history of missile airframe aerodynamics is presented, encompassing ground-, ground vehicle-, ship-, and air-launched categories of all ranges short of strategic. Emphasis is placed on the swift acceleration of missile configuration aerodynamics by German researchers in the course of the Second World War and by U.S. research establishments thereafter, often on the foundations laid by German workers. Examples are given of foundational airframe design criteria established by systematic researches undertaken in the 1950s, regarding L/D ratios, normal force and pitching moment characteristics, minimum drag forebodies and afterbodies, and canard and delta winged configuration aerodynamics.

  2. Pershing II - NATO's smart ballistic missile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, D.

    1981-08-01

    A description is given of the novel design features, operational capabilities and development history of the Pershing II ballistic missile, with emphasis on its updated flight sequence and reentry vehicle terminal guidance. The use of digital target data allows the missile to be switched from one target to another by a quick change of software. Extensive tests have been conducted to determine the effect of electronic countermeasures, and it has been found that the correlation process used, involving data from more than 10 sq mi of terrain, makes the terminal-homing guidance radar seeker difficult to confuse. Attention is also given to such development possibilities for the missile as active target-acquisition sensors, an earth-penetration nuclear warhead, runway-destroying submunitions and range extensions to equal that of the Soviet SS-20 IRBM.

  3. Identification of missile guidance laws for missile warning systems applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Jason F.; Smith, Moira I.; Heather, Jamie P.

    2006-05-01

    The reliable detection and tracking of missile plumes in sequences of infrared images is a crucial factor in developing infrared missile warning systems for use in military and civil aircraft. This paper discusses the development of a set of algorithms that allow missile plumes to be detected, tracked and classified according to their perceived motion in the image plane. The aim is to classify the missile motion so as to provide an indication of the guidance law which is being used and, hence, to determine the type of missile that may be present and allow the appropriate countermeasures to be deployed. The algorithms allow for the motion of the host platform and they determine the missile motion relative to the fixed background provided by the scene. The tracks produced contain sufficient information to allow good discrimination between several standard missile types.

  4. Modeling Of Ballistic Missile Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Mahmoud Attiya

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aerodynamic modeling of ballistic missile in pitch plane is performed and the open-loop transfer function related to the jet deflector angle as input and pitch rate, normal acceleration as output has been derived with certain acceptable assumptions. For typical values of ballistic missile parameters such as mass, velocity, altitude, moment of inertia, thrust, moment and lift coefficient show that, the step time response and frequency response of the missile is unstable. The steady state gain, damping ratio and undraped natural frequency depend on the missile parameters. To stabilize the missile a lead compensator must be added to the forward loop.

  5. Missile defence : An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimar, P.W.L.

    2012-01-01

    At the present day, an unparalleled number of international actors, be it national governments or non-state groups, have acquired or are seeking to acquire both weapons of mass destruction and the means to deliver them. Those means of delivery can be Ballistic Missiles that can bridge vast – even

  6. The science, technology, and politics of ballistic missile defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Philip E.

    2014-05-01

    America's missile defense systems are deployed at home and abroad. This includes the Groundbased Missile Defense (GMD) system in Alaska and California, the Phased Adaptive Approach in Europe (EPAA), and regional systems in the Middle East and Asia. Unfortunately these systems lack workable architectures, and many of the required elements either don't work or are missing. Major review and reconsideration is needed of all elements of these systems. GMD performance in tests has gotten worse with time, when it ought to be getting better. A lack of political support is not to blame as the DoD spends about 10 billion per year, and proposes to add about 5 billion over the next five years. Russia objects to the EPAA as a threat to its ICBM forces, and to the extensive deployment of U.S. military forces in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania, once part of the Soviet Union. Going forward the U.S. should keep working with Russia whose cooperation will be key to diplomatic gains in the Middle East and elsewhere. Meanwhile, America's missile defenses face an enduring set of issues, especially target discrimination in the face of attacks designed to overwhelm the defenses, stage separation debris, chaff, decoys, and stealth. Dealing with target discrimination while also replacing, upgrading, or adding to the many elements of U.S. missiles defenses presents daunting budget priorities. A new look at the threat is warranted, and whether the U.S. needs to consider every nation that possesses even short-range missiles a threat to America. The proliferation of missiles of all sizes around the world is a growing problem, but expecting U.S. missile defenses to deal with all those missiles everywhere is unrealistic, and U.S. missile defenses, effective or not, are justifying more and more offensive missiles.

  7. The science, technology, and politics of ballistic missile defense

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coyle, Philip E. [Center for Arms Control and Non-Proliferation, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-05-09

    America's missile defense systems are deployed at home and abroad. This includes the Groundbased Missile Defense (GMD) system in Alaska and California, the Phased Adaptive Approach in Europe (EPAA), and regional systems in the Middle East and Asia. Unfortunately these systems lack workable architectures, and many of the required elements either don't work or are missing. Major review and reconsideration is needed of all elements of these systems. GMD performance in tests has gotten worse with time, when it ought to be getting better. A lack of political support is not to blame as the DoD spends about $10 billion per year, and proposes to add about $5 billion over the next five years. Russia objects to the EPAA as a threat to its ICBM forces, and to the extensive deployment of U.S. military forces in countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic and Romania, once part of the Soviet Union. Going forward the U.S. should keep working with Russia whose cooperation will be key to diplomatic gains in the Middle East and elsewhere. Meanwhile, America's missile defenses face an enduring set of issues, especially target discrimination in the face of attacks designed to overwhelm the defenses, stage separation debris, chaff, decoys, and stealth. Dealing with target discrimination while also replacing, upgrading, or adding to the many elements of U.S. missiles defenses presents daunting budget priorities. A new look at the threat is warranted, and whether the U.S. needs to consider every nation that possesses even short-range missiles a threat to America. The proliferation of missiles of all sizes around the world is a growing problem, but expecting U.S. missile defenses to deal with all those missiles everywhere is unrealistic, and U.S. missile defenses, effective or not, are justifying more and more offensive missiles.

  8. Fontainebleau Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Caspar Thrane

    2006-01-01

    The report is a summary of results from laboratory tests in the geotechncial research group on Fontainebleau sand.......The report is a summary of results from laboratory tests in the geotechncial research group on Fontainebleau sand....

  9. Acquisition: Acquisition of the Evolved SEASPARROW Missile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... The Evolved SEASPARROW Missile, a Navy Acquisition Category II program, is an improved version of the RIM-7P SEASPARROW missile that will intercept high-speed maneuvering, anti-ship cruise missiles...

  10. Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    based Midcourse Defense (GMD) system to enhance our capability against Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles . We are currently sustaining 30...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-362 Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Program Name Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) DoD Component DoD Responsible Office References SAR Baseline (Planning Estimate) National Security

  11. The Effect of Air Density on Sand Transport Structures and the Adobe Abrasion Profile: A Field Wind-Tunnel Experiment Over a Wide Range of Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingjie; Qu, Jianjun; Dong, Zhibao; Zu, Ruiping; Zhang, Kecun; Wang, Hongtao; Xie, Shengbo

    2013-11-01

    Aeolian sand transport results from interactions between the surface and the airflow above. Air density strongly constrains airflow characteristics and the resulting flow of sand, and therefore should not be neglected in sand transport models. In the present study, we quantify the influence of air density on the sand flow structure, sand transport rate, adobe abrasion profiles, and abrasion rate using a portable wind-tunnel in the field. For a given wind speed, the flow's ability to transport sand decreases at low air density, so total sand transport decreases, but the saltation height increases. Thus, the damage to human structures increases compared with what occurs at lower altitudes. The adobe abrasion rate by the cloud of blowing sand decreases exponentially with increasing height above the surface, while the wind erosion and dust emission intensity both increase with increasing air density. Long-term feedback processes between air density and wind erosion suggest that the development of low-altitude areas due to long-term deflation plays a key role in dust emission, and will have a profound significance for surface Aeolian processes and geomorphology.

  12. The Threat from European Missile Defence System to Russian National Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey I. Podberezkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the political and military aspects of progress in the dialogue between Russia and the U.S./NATO on cooperation in missile defense; investigates the past experiences and current state of cooperation between Russia and the Alliance on missile defense issues; examines the technical features of American missile defence systems today; finds a solution to question whether or not the European Missile Defence Program actually threatens Russia's nuclear deterrent and strategic stability in general; identifies both potential benefits and possible losses for Russia stemming from the development of cooperation with the United States and NATO in countering ballistic missile threats, or from refusal to have such cooperation. Evidently, the initiative of creation of a missile defense in Europe surely belongs to the USA. Washington has enormous technological, financial, economic, military and institutional capabilities in the field of a missile defense, exceeding by far other NATO member-states. In February 2010, the President of the United States B. Obama adopted a project "European Phased Adaptive Approach" (EPAA as an alternative to G. Bush's global strategic missile defense plan. The first two stages of the Phased Adaptive Approach are focused on creating a system capable of intercepting small, medium and intermediate-range ballistic missiles. The possibility of intercepting long-range missiles is postponed to the third (2018 and forth phases (2020. Moscow finds especially troublesome the third and the fourth phases of Washington's project of creating a European segment of the global antiballistic missile system, considering prospective capabilities of the U.S. interceptor missiles 61 and the envisioned areas of their deployment. The U.S. counter-evidence is that phase four interceptors do not exist yet. Russia insists on getting the political and legal guarantees from the U.S. and NATO that their missile defense systems will not slash

  13. Missile Defense: Mixed Progress in Achieving Acquisition Goals and Improving Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Missile-3 THAAD Terminal High Altitude Area Defense This is a work of the U.S. government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United... THAAD ) THAAD is a mobile, ground-based missile defense system designed to defend against short- and medium-range ballistic missiles in the late...middle and end of their flight. THAAD is organized as a battery, which includes interceptors, launchers, an AN/TPY-2 radar, a fire control and

  14. Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-25

    Missile Defense Plan,” Arms Control Today, May 2010: 24-32. The quoted passage appears on p. 26. The associated white paper is George N. Lewis and...8217 new SMART -L long-range naval radar could be integrated into U.S. ballistic missile defense architectures, namely the Aegis Ashore system in Europe...upgraded and rearchitectured SMART -L D-band volume search radar that will give the ships a ballistic missile defence (BMD) early warning capability

  15. 15 CFR 742.5 - Missile technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Missile technology. 742.5 Section 742... BASED CONTROLS § 742.5 Missile technology. (a) License requirements. (1) In support of U.S. foreign... establish the existence of a contract. (d) Missile Technology Control Regime. Missile Technology Control...

  16. Aerodynamics of missiles with slotted fin configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abate, G.L.; Winchenbach, G.L. (USAF, Armament Laboratory, Eglin AFB, FL (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Subsonic and transonic aerodynamic data for missiles with solid and slotted wrap around fin configurations are presented. Free-flight aeroballistic tests to obtain this data were conducted at atmospheric pressure over a Mach number range of 0.8 to 1.6. The aerodynamic coefficients and derivatives presented were extracted from the position-attitude-time histories of the experimentally measured trajectories using non-linear numerical integration data reduction routines. Results of this testing and analysis show the static and dynamic stability variations for solid and slotted wrap around fin configurations. The presence of a side moment dependent on pitch angle, inherent to wrap around fin configurations, is measured for both configurations. Results indicate a reduction in the magnitude of this side-moment for missiles with slotted fins. Also, roll dependence with Mach number effects are not present with the slotted fin configurations. Designers should consider these factors whenever wrap around fins are utilized. 14 refs.

  17. Cost Effective Regional Ballistic Missile Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    missiles if the war had lasted six more months. With another two years, German research could have produced the first intercontinental ballistic missile ...consideration of missile defenses against strategic threats to the United States homeland (e.g. intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM)) lies...AIR WAR COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY COST EFFECTIVE REGIONAL BALLISTIC MISSILE DEFENSE by Christopher M. Ford, Colonel, U.S. Army A Research

  18. Annual Targets UAVS and Range Operations Symposium and Exhibition (48th) Held in New Orleans, Louisiana on October 19-21, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-21

    Software Mr. Stan Ulkoski J.F. Taylor, Inc. Mr. Eric Underwood Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company Mr. Joe Valenzuela DRS Technologies C3 Systems Mr...Aircraft Modifications, Ground and Flight Test Tyndall AFB Contractor Flight Testing USG DT&E, IOT &E, OperationsEglin AFB 691 ARSS Program Office White...Sands Missile Range USG IOT &E, Operations QF-16 Program Office and Engineering St. Louis, MO Program Management Support and Logistics IPT Boeing

  19. Predicted toxicity of naphthenic acids present in oil sands process-affected waters to a range of environmental and human endpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlett, Alan G; West, Charles E; Jones, David; Galloway, Tamara S; Rowland, Steven J

    2012-05-15

    Naphthenic acids (NAs) are considered to be a major toxic component of oil sands process-affected waters (OSPW) and are also widely used for industrial processes. The effects of previously identified NAs (54 in total), together with six alkylphenols, were modelled for a range of environmental and human toxicity related endpoints using ADMET predictor™ software. In addition to the models, experimental CALUX® assays were performed on seven tricyclic diamondoid acids. Most of the NAs modelled were predicted to have lethal median concentrations (LC(50)) >100 μM for the three aquatic species modelled. Polycyclic acids containing a single aromatic ring were predicted to be the most toxic to fathead minnows with LC(50)s typically ca 1 μM. Some of these compounds were also predicted to be the most carcinogenic (based on rat and mouse models), possess human estrogenic and androgenic activity and potentially disrupt reproductive processes. Some aliphatic pentacyclic acids also were predicted to exhibit androgenic activity and, uniquely amongst the compounds tested, act as substrates for the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP3A4. Consistent with the models' predictions for the tricyclic acids, no estrogenic or androgenic activity was detected by ER/AR CALUX®. Further experimental validation of the predictions should now be performed for the compounds highlighted by the models (e.g. priority should perhaps be focused on the polycyclic monoaromatic acids and the aliphatic pentacyclic acids). If shown to be accurate, these compounds can then be targeted for toxicity reduction remediation efforts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Countermeasures to the US National Missile Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronlund, Lisbeth

    2001-04-01

    One of the key technical questions about national missile defenses is whether they can be expected to work under real-world conditions if the attacker takes steps to defeat the defense. This talk will discuss steps that an emerging missile state could take to confuse, overwhelm, or otherwise defeat the planned US NMD system developed by the Clinton administration. It will consider three such ``countermeasures" that would be within the technical capability of a state that could develop and deploy a long-range missile capable of reaching the United States, which is the threat the NMD system is intended to defend against. The talk will be based on the April 2000 report ``Countermeasures: A Technical Evaluation of the Operational Effectiveness of the Planned US National Missile Defense System," which was co-authored by the speaker and 10 other physicists and engineers. Although the talk will refer to the ground-based NMD system under development, the conclusions are applicable to any mid-course NMD system using hit-to-kill infrared-homing interceptors, regardless of their basing mode. The three countermeasures considered are: (1) biological weapons deployed on 100 or more small bomblets, or submunitions, that would be released shortly after the boost phase; (2) nuclear warheads with anti-simulation balloon decoys, in which the attacker disguises the warhead by enclosing it in an aluminum-coated mylar balloon and releasing it along with a large number of otherwise similar but empty balloons; and (3) nuclear warheads with cooled shrouds, in which the attacker foils the kill vehicle's homing process by covering each nuclear warhead with a double-walled cone containing liquid nitrogen.

  1. Computational Fluid Dynamics for Missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    MISSILES by J. Hodges November 1989 DL~M* !7!J’nTMN A Approv"d ir public teleaol Distnution Ur- datod Procurement Executive, Ministry of Defence...large computer resources. These methods depend on experimental data- bases as input to a simple theoretical framework. The more comprehensive the...practical difficulties of providing an experimental data- base covering all possible missile configurations, all semi-empirical methods are restricted to a

  2. Standard Missile-6 (SM-6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    completed in order to validate deficiency discovered during IOT &E and support for FOC declaration in 2017. There are no significant software-related...General Notes The SM-6 Development was funded under PE 0604366N - Project 3092. The FY 2017 PB includes RDT&E funding for other STANDARD Missile...Spares are included in BLI 6120 P1-35. RDT&E Appn BA PE Navy 1319 05 0604366N Project Name 3092 Standard Missile 6 Program (Shared) (Sunk

  3. European Missile Defense and Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Russian of meeting between then Prime Minister Putin and defence experts in Sarov, Russia , February 24, 2012. 64. Viktor Yesin and Yevgeniy Savostyanov... Putin Letter to Obama to Address Missile Defense, Security,” RIA-Novosti, May 15, 2013, available from en.rian.ru/ russia /20130515/181170446.html...UNITED STATES · ARMY WAR COLLEGE PRESS Carlisle Barrac , ’A STR KNG T H ..,... WI SDOM EUROPEAN MISSILE DEFENSE AND RUSSIA Keir Giles with

  4. Cooled and uncooled infrared detectors for missile seekers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraenkel, Rami; Haski, Jacob; Mizrahi, Udi; Shkedy, Lior; Shtrichman, Itay; Pinsky, Ephi

    2014-06-01

    Electro-optical missile seekers pose exceptional requirements for infrared (IR) detectors. These requirements include: very short mission readiness (time-to-image), one-time and relatively short mission duration, extreme ambient conditions, high sensitivity, fast frame rate, and in some cases small size and cost. SCD is engaged in the development and production of IR detectors for missile seeker applications for many years. 0D, 1D and 2D InSb focal plane arrays (FPAs) are packaged in specially designed fast cool-down Dewars and integrated with Joule-Thomson (JT) coolers. These cooled MWIR detectors were integrated in numerous seekers of various missile types, for short and long range applications, and are combat proven. New technologies for the MWIR, such as epi-InSb and XBn-InAsSb, enable faster cool-down time and higher sensitivity for the next generation seekers. The uncooled micro-bolometer technology for IR detectors has advanced significantly over the last decade, and high resolution - high sensitivity FPAs are now available for different applications. Their much smaller size and cost with regard to the cooled detectors makes these uncooled LWIR detectors natural candidates for short and mid-range missile seekers. In this work we will present SCD's cooled and uncooled solutions for advanced electro-optical missile seekers.

  5. Tangential low-velocity missile wound of the head with acute subdural hematoma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadas, N; Schiffer, J; Rogev, M; Shperber, Y

    1990-03-01

    Tangential missile wounds of the head without skull fracture are a known entity. Usually, references in the literature indicate that this type of injury results from a high-velocity missile impact. We present a case of a tangential missile head wound caused by a low-velocity missile. As the range of fire was short, the quantity of energy that might be released could be equated with that released by a high-velocity missile fired from a much longer range. This possibility should be brought to the attention of clinicians as an essential element in this pre-treatment clinical evaluation. We propose a pathomechanical explanation for the development of the clinical state.

  6. Modeling Jamming Effects on Rolling Airframe Missile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yen, Chia-Chun

    2001-01-01

    .... This thesis describes the use of microelectronic-miniature (MEM) technologies to measure the strap down rates experienced by a rolling airframe missile and the model required to effectively determine the missile's attitude during its flight...

  7. Game theoretic target assignment approach in ballistic missile defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mo; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Wu, Yingli

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, both Pareto game theory and learning theory algorithms are utilized in a resource management module for a practical missile interception system. The resource management module will determine how many and which antimissiles will be launched for interception. Such interception decisions are based on the number of invading missiles, availability of antimissiles, special capability of antimissiles, and realistic constraints on the movements of both invading missiles and antimissiles such as minimum turning radius, maximum velocity, fuel range, etc. Simulations demonstrate performance improvements when compared to existing strategies (i.e. random assignment), independent of guidance laws (i.e. Proportional Navigation (PN) or the Differential-Game-based Guidance Law (DGL) guidance laws) under end-game interception cases or midcourse interception situations.

  8. Navy Columbia Class (Ohio Replacement) Ballistic Missile Submarine (SSBN[X]) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-25

    nuclear deterrent force, or “triad,” which also includes land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) and land-based long-range bombers. At any...any vessel owned, operated, or controlled by the Department of Defense that carries operational intercontinental ballistic missiles . Precedents for...Navy Columbia Class (Ohio Replacement) Ballistic Missile Submarine (SSBN[X]) Program: Background and Issues for Congress Ronald O’Rourke

  9. The Impact of Missile Threats on the Reliability of U.S. Overseas Bases: A Framework for Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    including long-range bombers and cruise missiles. The current Air Force concept for achieving this type of capability is the Global Strike Task Force ( GSTF ... GSTF is centered on early insertion of B-2 bombers equipped with conventional bombs, supported by F-22 escorts and advanced ISR to identify enemy...conventional cruise missiles. Plans to re- christen these ballistic missile submarines as SSGNs are underway, and may complement the GSTF program well

  10. 77 FR 3514 - Protection Against Turbine Missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... No: 2012-1335] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2009-0481] Protection Against Turbine Missiles... Against Turbine Missiles.'' This guide describes methods acceptable to the NRC staff for protecting safety-related structures, systems, and components against missiles resulting from turbine failure by the...

  11. Data fusion: applications to the tracking and guidance of defense missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltese, Dominique; Lucas, Andre

    2005-05-01

    Nowadays, Combat Systems have to counter different kinds of threats including surface targets and air targets. In that last case, fast-moving incoming missiles such as BUNT missiles turn out to be the most threatening ones. Indeed, their maneuver capabilities are difficult to be managed by tracking processes. Plus, when a defense missile launched by the fire system is remote conrolled, threat maneuvers may decrease the interception capabilities of the Combat System i.e. the Probability to Kill (PK). The article addresses this situation. A practical aglorithm of data fusion is presented; the case studied is a short-range fire control platform. The Combat System features a dual-sensor system that combines a Track Radar and a Thermal Imager while a Missile Guidance Unit (MGU) takes into account the incoming target and the Defense Missile tracks to remote control the missile towards its target. Then, statistic results of tracking performances and interception sequences are given for different incoming missile scenarios and sensors suites (radar-alone configuration, combination of the active sensor with a Thermal Imager). They highlight how data fusion reacts with the overall anti-missiles fire system performances and especially its miss distance.

  12. Embedded Systems - Missile Detection/Interception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Cintron

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Missile defense systems are often related to major military resources aimed at shielding a specific region from incoming attacks. They are intended to detect, track, intercept, and destruct incoming enemy missiles. These systems vary in cost, efficiency, dependability, and technology. In present times, the possession of these types of systems is associated with large capacity military countries. Demonstrated here are the mathematical techniques behind missile systems which calculate trajectories of incoming missiles and potential intercept positions after initial missile detection. This procedure involved the use of vector-valued functions, systems of equations, and knowledge of projectile motion concepts.

  13. Evaluation and Selection of Technology Concepts for a Hypersonic High Speed Standoff Missile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roth, Bryce

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the application of a method for technology concept selection to the design of a hypersonic high-speed standoff missile capable of achieving pin-point strike of long-range targets...

  14. MISSILES AND AIRCRAFT - PART 4

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    powerful weapon being rendered useless instantly. It is also not mentioned in current general literature how the electronic communi- cations (including those of RPV's)would fare if nuclear weapons were to be used.41. It would appear, however, that the Israelis consider the. American Lance surface-to-surface missiles,.

  15. On projectiles, missiles and history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnad, J.

    2002-05-01

    The trajectories of projectiles are easily calculated and the way to the trajectories of intercontinental ballistic missiles is only a little more demanding. The first can be considered as limiting cases of the second. However, at the beginning of physics the two cases were taken as completely unrelated.

  16. Sands styrke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, H. Moust; Jørgensen, Mogens B.; Poulsen, H. Serup

    1975-01-01

    På grundlag af triaxialforsøg med D=7 og 20 cm og varierende højde på løse og faste lejringer af Blokhussand kan effekten af varierende højde-breddeforhold og spændingsniveau samt skalaeffekten bestemmes. Ved sammenligning med pladeforsøg med overfladelast op til 8 t/m2 kan den almindelige fremga...... fremgangsmåde ved bæreevneberegninger på sand undersøges....

  17. sand mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačević, Lazar; Terek, Pal; Miletić, Aleksandar; Kakaš, Damir

    2014-08-01

    Interfacial heat transfer coefficient at the metal-mold interface (IHTC) was estimated by an iterative algorithm based on the function specification method. An Al-9 wt% Si alloy plate casting was made in a sand mold prepared by CO2 process. Thermal history obtained from the experiment was used to solve an inverse heat conduction problem. Acquired transient IHTC values are then given in function of the casting surface temperature at the interface. By comparing the obtained results with previous findings, the influence of grain fineness number and consequently of mold roughness on maximum IHTC values is revealed.

  18. Role of Sand Grains in Sorption Processes by Surface Layers of Components of Sand Moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaźnica N.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of researches of sorption processes of surface layers of components of sand moulds covered by protective coatings are presented in the hereby paper. Investigations comprised various types of sand grains of moulding sands with furan resin: silica sand, reclaimed sand and calcined in temperature of 700°C silica sand. Two kinds of alcoholic protective coatings were used - zirconium and zirconium - graphite. Tests were performed under condition of a constant temperature within the range 30 - 35°C and high relative air humidity 75 - 80%. To analyze the role of sand grains in sorption processes quantitavie moisture sorption with use of gravimetric method and ultrasonic method were used in measurements. The tendency to moisture sorption of surface layers of sand moulds according to the different kinds of sand grains was specified. The effectiveness of protective action of coatings from moisture sorption was analyzed as well.

  19. Atlas of Dutch drift sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riksen, Michel; Jungerius, Pieter

    2013-04-01

    The Netherlands is well known for its aeolian landscapes. Frequent storms during the High Middle Ages (1000-1300 AD) reactivated Pleistocene coversands and river dunes and are responsible for the formation of the Holocene drift sands at a scale which is unique for Europe. A hypothesized relationship with farmer practices for making plaggensoils has recently been refuted, because drift sand formation began centuries earlier. The coastal dune belt with their parabolic dunes dates from the same period as the drift sand. An estimate of the extent of drift sands can be made from soil maps: drift sands are too young to show much profile development (Regosols). With this method Koster estimated the maximum extent of Holocene drift sands in the Netherlands to be about 800 km2 (Koster 2005). Laser altimetry allows a more precise estimate of the total surface affected by wind from the characteristic relief patterns produced by the Holocene wind, which is different from the smooth surface of cover sand deposits. Laser altimetry has been used before to investigate the mechanism of drift sand formation (Jungerius & Riksen 2010). Most of the surface affected by wind is not active anymore, but the tell-tale rough surface survived ages of different landuse. The total affected surface amounts to 825 km2. It is noteworthy that both methods give comparable results. We recorded a total number of 367 of affected areas of varying shapes, ranging in size from 1.6 ha to a large complex of drif sands of 7,119.5 ha. As is to be expected from their mode of origin, most occurrences are associated with cover sands, and with river dunes along the river Meuse and smaller rivers in other parts of the country. Particularly the final phases of cover sand and river dunes that show more relief as parabolic dunes were affected. There are also small aeolian deposits at the lee side blown from fallow agricultural fields but they are (sub)recent. Most of the relief is irregular, but the larger

  20. An investigation of several aspects of LANDSAT-5 data quality. [Palmer County, Shelby, mt; White sands, NM; Great Salt Lake, UT; San Matted Bridge and Sacramento, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrigley, R. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Band-to-band registration, geodetic registration, interdector noise, and the modulation transfer function (MTE) are discussed for the Palmer County; TX scene. Band combinations for several LANDSAT 4 and LANDSAT 5 scenes; the geodetic registration test for the Sacramento, CA area; periodic noise components in TM band 5; and grey level measurements by detector for Great Salt Lake (UT) dark water forescans and backscans are considered. Results of MTF analyses of the San Mateo Bridge and of TM high resolution and aerial Daedalus scanner imagery are consistent and appear to be repeatable. An oil-on-sand target was constructed on the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. The two-image analysis procedure used is summarized.

  1. Sand Diver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Alan J.

    2005-01-01

    A few years ago, I was preparing to teach a summer enrichment program for middle school students at the University of Wisconsin-Stout. With swimming on the minds of most kids during the summer, I thought buoyancy would be a fun topic to discuss. An interesting way to introduce this concept is by discussing the beer-drinking balloonist who, in a lawn chair, floated to 11,000 feet above Los Angeles in 1997. However, I needed a hands-on project and was not about to go purchase some lawn chairs to duplicate this experiment. A simple submersible called the "Sand Diver" was designed and is now used as a hands-on activity for my introductory physics course.

  2. Fast Reaction Missile Control for Point Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    my education here in Naval Postgraduate School. vi I. INTRODUCTION The expectation of any missile system is to hit the target with high probability; in...sqrt(xm(2,i)A2+xm(4,i)-2); % Missile velocity gaia -mis(i)=atan2(xm(4,i),xm(2,i)); % Missile vel. angle sigma(l,i)=atan2((xt(3,i)-XM(3,i)),(xt(l,i)-xm

  3. Ballistic Missile Defense and the Atlantic Alliance

    OpenAIRE

    Yost, David S.

    1982-01-01

    T h e Atlantic Alliance may be at the threshold of a new debate on the implications of ballistic missile defense (BMD) for European security. Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger and several U.S. Senators and Congressmen support a thorough review of U.S. BMD options, including possible revision of the 1972 Anti- Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty and its 1974 Protocol. Although active defense of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) seems the most likely application f...

  4. Options for Deploying Missile Defenses in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    efforts at missile defense (such as the 1960s- era Nike -Zeus program) were aimed at countering the vast Soviet missile arsenal. Recent efforts are...on unclassified performance parameters for the various radars and interceptors and assumed that the systems would work “as advertised .” (A...develop defenses against ballistic missiles. Early U.S. efforts (such as the 1960s-era Nike -Zeus program) were aimed at countering the Soviet Union’s

  5. Space and Missile Systems Center Tailoring: Tailoring Instructions for MIL-STD-882E

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    Reports. l. AFSPCMAN 91-710, Range Safety User Requirements Manual – Range Safety Policies and Procedures. m. EWR 127-1, Eastern and Western Ranges...AFSPCMAN - Air Force Space Command Manual EWR – Eastern Western Range RCC – Range Commanders Council SMC - Space and Missile Systems Center

  6. Missile Electro-Optical Countermeasures Simulation Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory comprises several hardware-in-the-loop missile flight simulations designed specifically to evaluate the effectiveness of electro-optical air defense...

  7. It's in the sand

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive

    2016-01-01

    Sand is sand isn’t it? Sand gets everywhere but rather than a nuisance it is a valuable, high-purity raw material. Clive Mitchell, Industrial Minerals Specialist at the British Geological Survey (BGS), talks us through what sand is, what it can be used for and how to find it. His exploration of sand takes us from the deserts of Arabia to the damp sand pits of Mansfield!

  8. Ballistic Missile Defense Glossary Version 3.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-01

    HOST Host Installation Host Interface Host Nation Support Hostile Environment Hostile Track hp HPA HPC HPCC HPG HPI HPIR HPL HPM HQ...NL NLO NLOS NLT nm NMA NMC NMCC NMCS NMD NMD 3+3 NMD GBR NMD HPT NMDJPO NTCS Intelligence Processing Service (USN term). OBSOLETE...Range Insensitive Axes . Reverse Illuminated Blocked Impurity Transducer. Retro Intercontinental Ballistic Missile. Royal Institute of International

  9. Missile total and subsection weight and size estimation equations

    OpenAIRE

    Nowell, John B., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This study utilizes regression analysis to develop equations which relate missile overall and subsection weights and geometries, including wings and fins, to variables which are considered to be the input for a new design in the conceptual or preliminary design phase, These variables include packaging requirements such as maximum length, diameter and weight, as well as performance characteristics such as mission an range. Data for th...

  10. Comparison of gimbal approaches to decrease drag force and radar cross sectional area in missile application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakarya, Doǧan Uǧur

    2017-05-01

    Drag force effect is an important aspect of range performance in missile applications especially for long flight time. However, old fashioned gimbal approaches force to increase missile diameter. This increase has negative aspect of rising in both drag force and radar cross sectional area. A new gimbal approach was proposed recently. It uses a beam steering optical arrangement. Therefore, it needs less volume envelope for same field of regard and same optomechanical assembly than the old fashioned gimbal approaches. In addition to longer range performance achieved with same fuel in the new gimbal approach, this method provides smaller cross sectional area which can be more invisible in enemies' radar. In this paper, the two gimbal approaches - the old fashioned one and the new one- are compared in order to decrease drag force and radar cross sectional area in missile application. In this study; missile parameters are assumed to generate gimbal and optical design parameters. Optical design is performed according to these missile criteria. Two gimbal configurations are designed with respect to modeled missile parameters. Also analyzes are performed to show decreased drag force and radar cross sectional area in the new approach for comparison.

  11. Principles of Guided Missiles and Nuclear Weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naval Personnel Program Support Activity, Washington, DC.

    Fundamentals of missile and nuclear weapons systems are presented in this book which is primarily prepared as the second text of a three-volume series for students of the Navy Reserve Officers' Training Corps and the Officer Candidate School. Following an introduction to guided missiles and nuclear physics, basic principles and theories are…

  12. Sherborne Missile Fire Frequency with Unconstraint Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shaquan

    2018-01-01

    For the modeling problem of shipborne missile fire frequency, the fire frequency models with unconstant parameters were proposed, including maximum fire frequency models with unconstant parameters, and actual fire frequency models with unconstant parameters, which can be used to calculate the missile fire frequency with unconstant parameters.

  13. The Cooperative Ballistic Missile Defence Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, L.; Barros, A.I.; Monsuur, H.

    2013-01-01

    The increasing proliferation of ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction poses new risks worldwide. For a threatened nation and given the characteristics of this threat a layered ballistic missile defence system strategy appears to be the preferred solution. However, such a strategy

  14. Industrial sand and gravel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolley, T.P.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2012 was about 49.5 Mt (55 million st), increasing 13 percent compared with that of 2011. Some important end uses for industrial sand and gravel include abrasives, filtration, foundry, glassmaking, hydraulic fracturing sand (frac sand) and silicon metal applications.

  15. The art and science of missile defense sensor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, Brian K.

    2014-06-01

    A Missile Defense Sensor is a complex optical system, which sits idle for long periods of time, must work with little or no on-­board calibration, be used to find and discriminate targets, and guide the kinetic warhead to the target within minutes of launch. A short overview of the Missile Defense problem will be discussed here, as well as, the top-level performance drivers, like Noise Equivalent Irradiance (NEI), Acquisition Range, and Dynamic Range. These top-level parameters influence the choice of optical system, mechanical system, focal plane array (FPA), Read Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC), and cryogenic system. This paper will not only discuss the physics behind the performance of the sensor, but it will also discuss the "art" of optimizing the performance of the sensor given the top level performance parameters. Balancing the sensor sub-­systems is key to the sensor's performance in these highly stressful missions. Top-­level performance requirements impact the choice of lower level hardware and requirements. The flow down of requirements to the lower level hardware will be discussed. This flow down directly impacts the FPA, where careful selection of the detector is required. The flow down also influences the ROIC and cooling requirements. The key physics behind the detector and cryogenic system interactions will be discussed, along with the balancing of subsystem performance. Finally, the overall system balance and optimization will be discussed in the context of missile defense sensors and expected performance of the overall kinetic warhead.

  16. Eastern Scheldt Sand, Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. T; Madsen, E. B.; Schaarup-Jensen, A. L.

    The present data report contains data from 13 drained triaxial tests, performed on two different sand types in the Soil Mechanics Laboratory at Aalborg University in March, 1997. Two tests have been performed on Baskarp Sand No. 15, which has already ken extensively tested in the Soil Mechanics...... Laboratory. The remaining 11 triaxial tests have ben performed on Eastern Scheldt Sand, which is a material not yet investigated at the Soil Mechanics Laboratory. In the first pari of this data report, the characteristics of the two sand types in question will be presented. Next, a description...

  17. Secondary missile injury from lightning strike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Ryan

    2012-03-01

    A 48-year-old-woman was struck dead by lightning on October 24, 2010, in Pretoria, South Africa. The cause of death was due to direct lightning strike. Examination showed secondary missile injury on her legs. This secondary missile (shrapnel) injury was caused by the lightning striking the concrete pavement next to her. Small pieces of concrete were located embedded within the shrapnel wounds. This case report represents the first documented case of secondary missile formation (shrapnel injury) due to lightning strike in the literature.

  18. Missileer: The Dawn, Decline, and Reinvigoration of America’s Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Program, 1997), 117. 14 Maj Thomas J. Gosling, Maj James W. Knapp, and Maj Kenneth R. Morrison, “Future Management Applications in the Minuteman...Canada: Hole in the Head Press, 2014), 194-198. 18 Figure 2: A Growing Missile Business Source: Maj Roger Tollerud, Maj Steve Kucynda...and Maj Don Karcewski, Guide for Minuteman Missile Maintenance Managers, 1970 ca. Provided by Association of Air Force Missileers. The Titan II

  19. Study of Black Sand Particles from Sand Dunes in Badr, Saudi Arabia Using Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Abbas Khwaja

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Particulate air pollution is a health concern. This study determines the microscopic make-up of different varieties of sand particles collected at a sand dune site in Badr, Saudi Arabia in 2012. Three categories of sand were studied: black sand, white sand, and volcanic sand. The study used multiple high resolution electron microscopies to study the morphologies, emission source types, size, and elemental composition of the particles, and to evaluate the presence of surface “coatings or contaminants” deposited or transported by the black sand particles. White sand was comprised of natural coarse particles linked to wind-blown releases from crustal surfaces, weathering of igneous/metamorphic rock sources, and volcanic activities. Black sand particles exhibited different morphologies and microstructures (surface roughness compared with the white sand and volcanic sand. Morphological Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM analyses revealed that the black sand contained fine and ultrafine particles (50 to 500 nm ranges and was strongly magnetic, indicating the mineral magnetite or elemental iron. Aqueous extracts of black sands were acidic (pH = 5.0. Fe, C, O, Ti, Si, V, and S dominated the composition of black sand. Results suggest that carbon and other contaminant fine particles were produced by fossil-fuel combustion and industrial emissions in heavily industrialized areas of Haifa and Yanbu, and transported as cloud condensation nuclei to Douf Mountain. The suite of techniques used in this study has yielded an in-depth characterization of sand particles. Such information will be needed in future environmental, toxicological, epidemiological, and source apportionment studies.

  20. A Limited Study of a Hypothetical Winged Anti-ICBM Point-Defense Missile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Clarence A., Jr.; Edwards, Frederick G.

    1959-01-01

    A preliminary investigation was conducted to determine whether a warhead stage of an antimissile missile could be placed within an arbitrary 2-nautical-mile-radius maneuver cylinder around an intercontinental-ballistic-missile (ICBM) flight path above an altitude of 140,000 feet, a horizontal range of 40 nautical miles, at a flight-path angle of approximately 20 deg, and within 50 seconds after take-off using only aerodynamic forces to turn the antimissile missile. The preliminary investigation indicated that an antimissile missile using aerodynamic forces for turning was capable of intercepting the ICBM for the stated conditions of this study although the turning must be completed below an altitude of approximately 70,000 feet to insure that the antimissile missile will be at the desired flight-path angle. Trim lift coefficients on the order of 2 to 3 and a maximum normal-acceleration force of from 25g to 35g were necessary to place the warhead stage in intercept position. The preliminary investigation indicated that for the two boosters investigated the booster having a burning time of 10 seconds gave greater range up the ICBM flight path than did the booster having a burning time of 15 seconds for the same trim lift coefficient and required the least trim lift coefficient for the same range.

  1. Settling Tube Analysis of Sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geldof, H.J.; Slot, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    For various reasons particle-size analysis of sediment is used in many fields of science and technology, a.o. earth sciences, agricultural and civil engineering. Relatively coarse-grained sediment like sand, with dimensions ranging from 0.06 till 2 mm, is analyzed almost exclusively by sieving. The

  2. Investigation of air-breathing, hypersonic missile configurations within external box constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Ryan Peter

    2000-12-01

    Aspects relating to the aerodynamic, geometric, and propulsive design and analysis of missile-class, waverider-based hypersonic vehicles are explored. A quasi-one-dimensional engine model, including the effects of fuel injection, mixing, chemical production rates, heat transfer, and viscous losses is developed and utilized to assess the effects of finite rate hydrocarbon chemistry on optimized missile configurations. Resultant optimized single and double engine missile designs are shown for changes in fuel mixing length, fuel mixing efficiency, fuel injector location, and assumed fuel mass fraction. The effects of these different design conditions on the cruise range are explored, as well as perturbations around these design points for optimized vehicles. Aerodynamics are evaluated using a newly developed modified shock-expansion method. Missiles are optimized for steady-state trim conditions at the beginning of cruise using parallelized genetic algorithm optimization software developed for this study. All missile designs are assumed to reach cruising altitude and velocity through the use of an external rocket booster. The missile is geometrically constrained to fit within the 0.61 m x 0.61 m x 4.27 m [2 foot x 2 foot x 14 foot] box limits for a Naval vertical launch tube and has a desired cruise range of 750 km [400 nm] at Mach 6. Investigations are also shown for the effects of various modeling assumptions: (1) shock-expansion method versus a new modified shock-expansion aerodynamic method, (2) boundary layer assumptions, (3) assumed combustor temperature profile versus finite rate chemistry computations, and (4) ratio of specific heats assumptions. An overall analysis and optimization toolkit is developed for quick calculation of hypersonic aerodynamics and propulsion with added insight into externally constrained vehicles. Results show that the optimized combustor designs were extremely sensitive to small changes in flow conditions and that high

  3. Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Marianne; Hedegaard, Jette

    The Soil Mechanics Laboratory has started performing tests with a new sand, Baskarp No 15. Baskarp No 15 is a graded sand from Sweden. The shapes of the largest grains are round, while the small grains have sharp edges. The main part of of Baskarp No 15 is quarts, but it also contains feldspar...... and biotit. Mainly the sand will be used for tests concerning the development og the theory of building up pore pressure in sand, L. B. Ibsen 1993....

  4. Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Bødker, Lars Bødker

    The Soil Mechanics Laboratory has started performing tests with a new sand, Baskarp No 15. Baskarp No 15 is a graded sand from Sweden. The shapes of the largest grains are round, while the small grains have sharp edges. The main part of of Baskarp No 15 is quarts, but it also contains feldspar...... and biotit. Mainly the sand will be used for tests concerning the development of the theory of building up pore pressure in sand....

  5. The North Korean Ballistic Missile Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    school of natural sciences has eight departments: atomic energy, automation (computer science), biology, chemistry, geography, geology , mathematics...with 15 Hwasŏng missiles destined for Yemen .176 Coalition forces let the shipment continue because there was no legal justification for...confiscating the cargo, and Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh assured U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney that Yemen would cease its missile imports from the

  6. Lund Sand No 0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Jakobsen, Finn Rosendal

    During the last 15 years the Geotechnical Engineering Group (GEG) at Aalborg University has performed triaxial tests with a sand called Lund No 0. Lund No 0 is a graded sand from a gravel pit near Horsens in Denmark. For the classification of the sand the following tests have been performed: Sieve...

  7. Regional Missile Defense: DOD’s 2014 Report Generally Addressed Required Reporting Elements, but Excluded Additional Key Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    National Defense Authorization Act PAC-3 Patriot Advanced Capability-3 SM-3 Standard Missile-3 THAAD Terminal High Altitude Area Defense This is a...various ranges. • Terminal High Altitude Area Defense ( THAAD ): a mobile, ground- based missile defense system that includes a fire control and...providing forces and resources to support fielding the BMD systems and the specific BMD elements they operate. The Army operates the PAC-3 and THAAD

  8. Missile captive carry monitoring using a capacitive MEMS accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchell, Brian; Mauss, Fred; Santiago-Rojas, Emiliano; Amaya, Ivan; Skorpik, Jim; Silvers, Kurt; Marotta, Steve

    2010-03-01

    Military missiles are exposed to many sources of mechanical vibration that can affect system reliability, safety, and mission effectiveness. One of the most significant exposures to vibration occurs when the missile is being carried by an aviation platform, which is a condition known as captive carry. If the duration of captive carry exposure could be recorded during the missile's service life, several advantages could be realized. Missiles that have been exposed to durations outside the design envelop could be flagged or screened for maintenance or inspection; lightly exposed missiles could be selected for critical mission applications; and missile allocation to missions could be based on prior use to avoid overuse. The U. S. Army Aviation and Missile Research Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) has been developing health monitoring systems to assess and improve reliability of missiles during storage and field exposures. Under the direction of AMRDEC staff, engineers at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a Captive Carry Health Monitor (CCHM) for the HELLFIRE II missile. The CCHM is an embedded usage monitoring device installed on the outer skin of the HELLFIRE II missile to record the cumulative hours the host missile has been in captive carry mode and thereby assess the overall health of the missile. This paper provides an overview of the CCHM electrical and package design, describes field testing and data analysis techniques used to identify captive carry, and discusses the potential application of missile health and usage data for real-time reliability analysis and fleet management.

  9. Comparison of different lateral acceleration autopilots for a surface-to-surface missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo V. Ćuk

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparison of three lateral acceleration autopilots for a surface-to-surface missile: three-loop conventional acceleration autopilot, and gamma-dot and three-loop acceleration autopilot based upon the inverse-dynamic control. The surface-to-surface missile motion is described by nonlinear differential equations whose parameters change rapidly over a very wide range due to variable velocity and altitude. The requirement for the accurate controlling of the missile in such an environment represents a challenge for the autopilot designer. The brief review of the calculation of the autopilot gains is given using the concept of the 'point' stability for the linear time-varying system with 'frozen' dynamic coefficients. The method of the inverse-dynamic control is presented in the next section for two types of the autopilots: gamma-dot and acceleration autopilot. Both of them require the design of the estimators for the variables used as inputs to the control law. Finally, six-degree-of-freedom simulation results of the missile response to the demanded command on the typical ballistic trajectory are presented. The comparison of three autopilots considers the steady state errors and the sensitivity of the response to the highly variable environment. It was shown that the inverse-dynamic control can be very effective in the controlling of the surface-to-surface missile.

  10. Radar waveform requirements for reliable detection of an aircraft-launched missile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, W. Dale; Brandt-Pearce, Maite

    1996-06-01

    When tracking a manned aircraft with a phase array radar, detecting a missile launch (i.e., a target split) is particularly important because the missile can have a very small radar cross section (RCS) and drop below the horizon of the radar shortly after launch. Reliable detection of the launch is made difficult because the RCS of the missile is very small compared to that of the manned aircraft and the radar typically revisits a manned aircraft every few seconds. Furthermore, any measurements of the aircraft and missile taken shortly after the launch will be merged until the two targets are resolved in range, frequency, or space. In this paper, detection of the launched missile is addressed through the detection of the presence of target multiplicity with the in-phase and quadrature monopulse measurements. The probability of detecting the launch using monopulse processing will be studied with regard to the tracking signal-to-noise ratio and the number of pulses n the radar waveform.

  11. Use of a neural network to extract a missile flight model for simulation purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Danny; Volckaert, Guy

    1996-03-01

    A neural network is used to extract the flight model of guided, short to medium range, tripod and shoulder-fired missile systems which is then integrated into a training simulator. The simulator uses injected video to replace the optical sight and is fitted with a multi-axis positioning system which senses the gunner's movement. The movement creates an image shift and affects the input data to the missile control algorithm. Accurate flight dynamics are a key to efficient training, particularly in the case of closed loop guided systems. However, flight model data is not always available, either because it is proprietary, or because it is too complex to embed in a real time simulator. A solution is to reverse engineer the flight model by analyzing the missile's response when submitted to typical input conditions. Training data can be extracted from either recorded video or from a combination of weapon and missile positioning data. The video camera can be located either on the weapon or attached to a through-sight adapter. No knowledge of the missile flight transfer function is used in the process. The data is fed to a three-layer back-propagation type neural network. The network is configured within a standard spreadsheet application and is optimized with the built-in solver functions. The structure of the network, the selected inputs and outputs, as well as training data, output data after training, and output data when embedded in the simulator are presented.

  12. North Korean Ballistic Missile Threat to the United States

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hildreth, Steven A

    2007-01-01

    ... so. The Administration will ask the 110th Congress to fund a National Missile Defense (NMD) site in Europe, which some analysts argue is needed because of the threat of North Korean ballistic missiles to Europe...

  13. Fort Greely Missile Range Reference Atmosphere. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-07-10

    38500 35357.3 22.13 - .- 82058 3027-785- 38750 35604.9 220.27 3.0&19032 4.642213? 302.881 -3--39000 38852;4r 3925u 39190.0 225.50 2.8247$53 4.3067220...296#496 38500 38357.3 219.17 2.9280668 4,6542304 296.776 38750 38604.9 219.58 2.1173257 4.4697921 297.055 39000 38852.4 219.99 2.7109?72 462930014...I-25g2&2 It fill =33500 33401.9 232,26 7#2209$36 10.8309906 305.510 -1’*o &.- 232" ?t ’a£mo.* U ISO ins-al 34000 1369T.8 233.17 6*713964, 10.031005

  14. Computer modeling of jamming effects on roll stabilized missiles

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Craig Alan.

    2000-01-01

    Development of countermeasures against infrared missiles is enhanced by an ability to quantify the effects of the countermeasure. Analysts must be capable of accurately determining the attitude of the missile throughout its flight. This thesis describes the use of micro-miniature technologies to measure the rates experienced by a missile and the model required to effectively determine the missile's attitude. The Applied Technology Associates ARS-04E and the Tokin America CG-16D sensors were e...

  15. NATO and U.S. Ballistic Missile Defense Programs: Divergent or Convergent Paths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    making framework. It is common for TMD systems to be developed and deployed via bilateral negotiations. The only TMD project that has been subject to...sol-air moyenne portée- terrestre , that is, a ground based surface- to-air medium-range missile. 52 “Aster 30 SAMP/T – Surface-to-Air Missile Platform...alone rather than via a joint development with Alliance members that have expressed interest. Additionally, some European members of the Alliance

  16. Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty: Is it Still Relevant? A Primer on the Systems and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    online: http://www.armscontrol.org/ACT/sep97/focsept.htm]. Lewis, George N. and Postol , Theodore A., �Future challenges to Ballistic Missile Defense...systems ( THAAD and Navy Theater-Wide) are capable of defending large areas from missiles with ranges up to 3,500 km. Lewis and Yingbo note that the...6. 13 The Army�s Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3); the Theater High-Altitude Area Defense ( THAAD ); the Navy Area Defense; and the Navy Theater

  17. Supersonic aerodynamic characteristics of a tail-control cruciform maneuverable missile with and without wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, M. L.; Fournier, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics for a winged and a wingless cruciform missile are examined. The body was an ogive-cylinder with a 3.5 caliber forebody; an overall length-to-diameter ratio of 11.667; and has cruciform tails that were trapexoidal in planform. Tests were made both with and without 72.9 deg cruciform delta wings. The investigation was made for Mach numbers from 1.50 to 4.63, roll attitudes of 0 and 45 deg, angles of attack from -40 to 22 deg, and tail control deflections from 10 to -40 deg. The purpose is to determine the influence of the aerodynamic behavior on the design choice for maneuverable missiles intended primarily for air-to-air or surface-to-surface missions. The results indicate that the winged missile with its more linear aerodynamic characteristics and higher lift-curve slope, should provide the highest maneuverability over a large operational range.

  18. 2015 Assessment of the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Director, Operational Test and Evaluation 2015 Assessment of the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS...Evaluation (DOT&E) as they pertain to the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS). Congress specified these requirements in the fiscal year 2002 (FY02...systems are the Ground-based Midcourse Defense (GMD), Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (Aegis BMD), Terminal High-Altitude Area Defense (THAAD), and

  19. Trident II (D-5) Sea-Launched Ballistic Missile UGM 133A (Trident II Missile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Guidance Only Flight Test (DASO- 24) N/A AUG 2012 FEB 2013 APR 2013 1 (Ch-1) First Missile Electronics Flight Test ( PTM - 1/DASO-25) N/A SEP 2013 MAR 2014...Program Manager was able to pull ahead the First Missile Electronics Flight Test ( PTM -1) flight that had been previously scheduled for DASO-25 (September...the First Missile Electronics Flight Test ( PTM -1) flight that had been previously scheduled for DASO-25 (September 2013) so that it was able to occur

  20. Missile Defense: Assessment of DODs Reports on Status of Efforts and Options for Improving Homeland Missile Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-17

    a limited intercontinental ballistic missile attack from countries such as North Korea and Iran. According to recent testimony from senior DOD...officials, the warfighter remains confident in its ability to protect the nation from a limited intercontinental ballistic missile attack.6 However...Defense The Missile Defense Agency (MDA) is developing the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) to defend the U.S. homeland and U.S. regional

  1. A Low-Visibility Force Multiplier: Assessing China’s Cruise Missile Ambitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    foreign systems and assistance to complement its own indige - nous LACM efforts. It has received Harpy antiradiation drones with stand-off ranges of... indig - enous technologies, components, and weapons (for example, the Type 1474 serial radar system and PL-12 air-to-air missiles).21 Russian

  2. The Future of the Ballistic Missile Submarine Force in the Russian Nuclear Triad

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    financial setbacks, missile technology failures, and the Kursk sinking in 2000, the SSBN force has slipped back to a lesser prominence.9 B. MAJOR...range category. In the battle for survival, the SLBMs and ALCMs are the most likely potential losers. When the two platforms – submarines and

  3. Navy Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-17

    continued) IOT &E With A Bang, Full-Rate Production Review,” Inside the Navy, October 7, 2013. 85...absence of adequate sensors/Ballistic Missile C3 to overcome this. The fact that this form of EI is not viable in shorter-range regional applications

  4. Influence green sand system by core sand additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Špirutová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, about two thirds of iron alloys casting (especially for graphitizing alloys of iron are produced into green sand systems with usually organically bonded cores. Separation of core sands from the green sand mixture is very difficult, after pouring. The core sand concentration increase due to circulation of green sand mixture in a closed circulation system. Furthermore in some foundries, core sands have been adding to green sand systems as a replacement for new sands. The goal of this contribution is: “How the green sand systems are influenced by core sands?”This effect is considered by determination of selected technological properties and degree of green sand system re-bonding. From the studies, which have been published yet, there is not consistent opinion on influence of core sand dilution on green sand system properties. In order to simulation of the effect of core sands on the technological properties of green sands, there were applied the most common used technologies of cores production, which are based on bonding with phenolic resin. Core sand concentration added to green sand system, was up to 50 %. Influence of core sand dilution on basic properties of green sand systems was determined by evaluation of basic industrial properties: moisture, green compression strength and splitting strength, wet tensile strength, mixture stability against staling and physical-chemistry properties (pH, conductivity, and loss of ignition. Ratio of active betonite by Methylene blue test was also determined.

  5. Evaluation of wind/tornado-generated missile impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, M.K.; Walls, J.C.

    1993-09-01

    Simplified empirical formulae and some tabular data for the design/evaluation of structure barriers to resist wind/tornado generated missiles impact are presented in this paper. The scope is limited to the missiles defined by UCRL-15910 which are to be considered for moderate and high hazard facilities only. The method presented herein are limited to consideration of local effects on the barrier, i.e., the barrier must be capable of stopping the missile, and the barrier must no cause the generation of secondary missiles due to scabbing. Overall structural response to missile impact and structural effects derived from wind pressure are not addressed in this paper.

  6. Prediction of sand transport over immobile gravel from supply limited to capacity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prediction of the transport of sand in armored gravel reaches downstream of dams is complicated by variable bed conditions ranging from sand transported through gravel to sand in transport over buried gravel. Knowledge of the rate of sand transport in these conditions, however, is necessary for...

  7. A Simplified Guidance for Target Missiles Used in Ballistic Missile Defence Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, N.; Kumar, I. D.; Tata, S. K.; Vaithiyanathan, V.

    2013-01-01

    A simplified guidance scheme for the target missiles used in Ballistic Missile Defence is presented in this paper. The proposed method has two major components, a Ground Guidance Computation (GGC) and an In-Flight Guidance Computation. The GGC which runs on the ground uses a missile model to generate attitude history in pitch plane and computes launch azimuth of the missile to compensate for the effect of earth rotation. The vehicle follows the pre launch computed attitude (theta) history in pitch plane and also applies the course correction in azimuth plane based on its deviation from the pre launch computed azimuth plane. This scheme requires less computations and counters In-flight disturbances such as wind, gust etc. quite efficiently. The simulation results show that the proposed method provides the satisfactory performance and robustness.

  8. Modelling sand wave variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterlini-Van der Meer, Fenneke

    2009-01-01

    The sea floor of shallow seas is rarely flat and often dynamic. A widely occurring bedform type is the sand wave. Sand waves form more or less regular wavelike patterns on the seabed with crests up to one third of the water depth, wave lengths of hundreds of metres and a migration rate of metres up

  9. Sands cykliske styrke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1992-01-01

    Sands cykliske styrke kan beskrives ved Cyclic Liquefaction, Mobilisering, Stabilization og Instant Stabilization. I artiklen beskrives hvorfor Stabilization og Instant Stabilization ikke observeres, når sands udrænede styrke undersøges i triaxial celler, der anvender prøver med dobbelt prøvehøjde....

  10. Asian ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction: The impact of missile defense

    OpenAIRE

    Møller, Bjørn

    2005-01-01

    The paper analyses critically the threat perceptions of the West, and especially the United States, regarding ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction in the hands of Asian states. Reviewing Southwest, South and Northeast Asia it finds these regions to be more stable as commonly assumed and little evidence to support the assumption that the states in these regions are undeterrable. A deployment by the United States of ballistic missile defences is thus found to be both superfluous a...

  11. Storage Reliability of Missile Materiel Program. Missile Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems Actuator Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    RELIABILITY OF / MISSILE MATERIEL PROGRANI MISSILE gYDRAULIC AND NEUMATIC SYSTEMS ACTUATOR ANALYSIS .. 7 ." Joe C. Mitchell Approved by: Donald R. Earles...amplifier. 3-5 - M77777,77-7WT7 SECTION 4 ACTUATOR CLASSIFICATION Actuators have been classified in accordance with the mechanism and type. Figure 4-1...definition of the data already on hdrnd. More detailed identification of those units classified only by their generic names should be attempted. A more

  12. Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    program will integrate the Patriot and Improved Sentinel components to support the engagement of air breathing targets, cruise missiles, unmanned aerial...was to demonstrate a 2013 “ snap -shot” of development efforts focused on achieving common AAMDC capability from the Brigade Combat Teams Air Defense Air

  13. Sustainability Of The 21M Missile Maintainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    PROFESSIONAL STUDIES PAPER: SUSTAINABILITY OF THE 21M MISSILE MAINTAINER LIEUTENANT COLONEL DAVID S. MILLER AIR...of the health and sustainability of the ICBM maintenance officer career field will reveal conclusions and recommendations that could assist the...maintenance career field as healthy and sustainable , and ready to flourish. However, the evidence presented in this paper will show otherwise. To

  14. Missile flight control using active flexspar actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Ronald M.; Gross, R. Steven; Brozoski, Fred

    1995-05-01

    A new type of subsonic missile flight control surface using piezoelectric flexspar actuators is presented. The flexspar design uses an aerodynamic shell which is pivoted at the quarter-chord about a graphite main spar. The shell is pitched up and down by a piezoelectric bender element which is rigidly attached to a base mount and allowed to rotate freely at the tip. The element curvature, shell pitch deflection and torsional stiffness are modeled using laminated plate theory. A one-third scale TOW 2B missile model was used as a demonstration platform. A static wing of the missile was replaced with an active flexspar wing. The 1' X 2.7' active flight control surface was powered by a bi-morph bender with 5-mil PZT-5H sheets. Bench and wind tunnel testing showed good correlation between theory and experiment and static pitch deflections in excess of +/- 14 degree(s). A natural frequency of 78.5 rad/s with a break frequency of 157 rad/s was measured. Wind tunnel tests revealed no flutter or divergence tendencies. Maximum changes in lift coefficient were measured at (Delta) CL equals +/- .73 which indicates that terminal and initial missile load factors may be increased by approximately 3.1 and 12.6 g's respectively, leading to a greatly reduced turn radius of only 2,400 ft.

  15. Remote video assessment for missile launch facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, G.G.; Stewart, W.A.

    1995-07-01

    The widely dispersed, unmanned launch facilities (LFs) for land-based ICBMs (intercontinental ballistic missiles) currently do not have visual assessment capability for existing intrusion alarms. The security response force currently must assess each alarm on-site. Remote assessment will enhance manpower, safety, and security efforts. Sandia National Laboratories was tasked by the USAF Electronic Systems Center to research, recommend, and demonstrate a cost-effective remote video assessment capability at missile LFs. The project`s charter was to provide: system concepts; market survey analysis; technology search recommendations; and operational hardware demonstrations for remote video assessment from a missile LF to a remote security center via a cost-effective transmission medium and without using visible, on-site lighting. The technical challenges of this project were to: analyze various video transmission media and emphasize using the existing missile system copper line which can be as long as 30 miles; accentuate and extremely low-cost system because of the many sites requiring system installation; integrate the video assessment system with the current LF alarm system; and provide video assessment at the remote sites with non-visible lighting.

  16. The Evolution of the Cruise Missile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    Systems Company patented a system called TERCOM* as part of the " fingerprint " guidance for Chance Vought’s strategic attack missile called SLAM...Force Base, New York. USAF selected it because of its location relative to Soviet targets and initial TERCOM nmapping restrictions. The unit received

  17. High velocity missile injuries of the liver

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    exsanguination six hours after surgery. The second patient died of septicaemia on the fifth postoperative clay (Table 111). TABLE Ill Outcome of treatment of patients with high velocity missile injuries of the liver. Discussion. The diagnosis of penetrating abdominal injury is usually straightforward. Injury to the liver m:ly be.

  18. Integrated CLOS and PN Guidance for Increased Effectiveness of Surface to Air Missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binte Fatima Tuz ZAHRA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel approach has been presented to integrate command to line-of-sight (CLOS guidance and proportional navigation (PN guidance in order to reduce miss distance and to increase the effectiveness of surface to air missiles. Initially a comparison of command to line-of-sight guidance and proportional navigation has been presented. Miss distance, variation of angle-of-attack, normal and lateral accelerations and error of missile flight path from direct line-of-sight have been used as noteworthy criteria for comparison of the two guidance laws. Following this comparison a new approach has been proposed for determining the most suitable guidance gains in order to minimize miss distance and improve accuracy of the missile in delivering the warhead, while using CLOS guidance. This proposed technique is based on constrained nonlinear minimization to optimize the guidance gains. CLOS guidance has a further limitation of significant increase in normal and lateral acceleration demands during the terminal phase of missile flight. Furthermore, at large elevation angles, the required angle-of-attack during the terminal phase increases beyond design specifications. Subsequently, a missile with optical sensors only and following just the CLOS guidance has less likelihood to hit high speed targets beyond 45º in elevation plane. A novel approach has thus been proposed to overcome such limitations of CLOS-only guidance for surface to air missiles. In this approach, an integrated guidance algorithm has been proposed whereby the initial guidance law during rocket motor burnout phase remains CLOS, whereas immediately after this phase, the guidance law is automatically switched to PN guidance. This integrated approach has not only resulted in slight increase in range of the missile but also has significantly improved its likelihood to hit targets beyond 30 degrees in elevation plane, thus successfully overcoming various limitations of CLOS

  19. Protivoklopni vođeni projektili zapadne Evrope, Izraela i Indije / Anti-tank guided missiles of western Europe, Israel and India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran M. Lazić

    2010-10-01

    countries, France included. It is one of the best missiles of its generation. SS.10 preceded the ENTAC system. Its country of origin is the same (France, and it has been in the operational use since 1950. The SS.11 is a modification of the SS.10 system, used for launching from helicopters. The second generation of anti-tank guided missiles is designated by the abbreviation SACLOS (Semi-Automatic Command to Line of Sight and represents a semiautomatic guidance of missiles in line. Generally, there are two SACLOS operating principles: - Wire and Radio guided SACLOS - Beam -Riding SACLOS ERYX is a short-range portable SACLOS produced by France and Canada. HOT, existing in three variations (HOT1, HOT 2, HOT 3, is one of the best projectiles of this generation, created as a product of cooperation of Germany and France. Milan (Missile d'Infanterie Léger Antichar is a European leader escadrille SACLOS missile system. PBS 56 BILL 1 (Bofors, Infantry, Light and Lethal is an anti-tank guided missile of the Swedish Army. BILL 2 is the heir of the BILL 1 system. LAHAT (Laser Homing Attack or Laser Homing Anti-Tank is an anti-tank guided missile of low gravity, developed in 1992. Its country of origin is Israel. MAPTS (Man Portable Anti-Tank System is an anti-tank guided missile with Beam-Riding SACLOS guidance. The country of origin is also Israel. NIMROD is a long-range anti-tank guided missile, created as a project of the Israel Aerospace Industries. Most technologically advanced and the last generation of antitank guided missiles is the third generation. These are the best technological and operational missiles currently available on the world market. This generations fully relies on lasers, electro-optical imagers or W-band radar seekers in the nose of the missile. MTBLAW is the third generation of anti-tank guided missiles developed by Sweden and Great Britain. The warhead and a part of the missile guidance system are based on BILL 2. PARS 3 LR, known also as TRIGAT-LR, is along-range

  20. Exposure to ICBM (intercontinental ballistic missiles) and SLBM (Soviet Launched Ballistic Missiles) trajectories to sunlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Thomas S.

    1989-01-01

    Due to the cost and complexity of infrared and radar sensors, visible sensors could be a useful alternative for strategic defense surveillance systems, provided the threat is exposed to sunlight for a significant portion of its trajectory. This paper examines the exposure of ballistic missile trajectories to sunlight as a function of solar latitude (time of year) and launch time. Nine representative trajectories were chosen to illustrate the effects of range, apogee, and maximum latitude on sunlight exposure. It was found that certain Soviet-to-CONUS trajectories would be completely in the Earth's shadow only when launched during a brief time window on or near the winter solstice. Certain SLBM trajectories had full-shadow launch windows from late fall to early spring. However, trajectories representing those of SS-18's flew very close to the pole, exposing most of their paths to sunlight regardless of launch time or solar latitude. Weighting the trajectories to represent aggregates of a Soviet spike attack, at least 69 percent of the threat was exposed to sunlight for at least 500 seconds on the winter solstice, and at least 95 percent was exposed on the spring/fall equinoxes. These percentages exceed the JCS requirements of a Phase One Strategic Defense System, particularly because of the susceptibility of SS-18 trajectories to sunlight exposure.

  1. Missile-Borne SAR Raw Signal Simulation for Maneuvering Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijie Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SAR raw signal simulation under the case of maneuver and high-speed has been a challenging and urgent work recently. In this paper, a new method based on one-dimensional fast Fourier transform (1DFFT algorithm is presented for raw signal simulation of maneuvering target for missile-borne SAR. Firstly, SAR time-domain raw signal model is given and an effective Range Frequency Azimuth Time (RFAT algorithm based on 1DFFT is derived. In this algorithm, the “Stop and Go” (SaG model is adopted and the wide radar scattering characteristic of target is taken into account. Furthermore, the “Inner Pulse Motion” (IPM model is employed to deal with high-speed case. This new RFAT method can handle the maneuvering cases, high-speed cases, and bistatic radar cases, which are all possible in the missile-borne SAR. Besides, this raw signal simulation adopts the electromagnetic scattering calculation so that we do not need a scattering rate distribution map as the simulation input. Thus, the multiple electromagnetic reflections can be considered. Simulation examples prove the effectiveness of our method.

  2. Passive millimetre wave imaging for ballistic missile launch detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Christopher J.; Salmon, Neil A.

    2008-10-01

    QinetiQ has used a suite of modelling tools to predict the millimetric plume signatures from a range of ballistic missile types, based on the accepted theory that Bremsstrahlung emission, generated by the collision of free electrons with neutral species in a rocket motor plume, is the dominant signature mechanism. Plume signatures in terms of radiation temperatures varied from a few hundred Kelvin to over one thousand Kelvin, and were predicted to be dependent on emission frequency, propellant type and missile thrust. Two types of platform were considered for the passive mmw imager launch detection system; a High Altitude Platform Station (HAPS) and a satellite based platform in low, mid and geosynchronous earth orbits. It was concluded that the optimum operating frequency for a HAPS based imager would be 35GHz with a 4.5m aperture and a sensitivity of 20mK providing visibility through 500 vertical feet of cloud. For a satellite based platform with a nadir view, the optimum frequency is 220 GHz. With such a system, in a low earth orbit at an altitude of 320km, with a sensitivity of 20mK, a 29cm aperture would be desirable.

  3. Sand and Gravel Deposits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a statewide polygon coverage of sand, gravel, and stone resources. This database includes the best data available from the VT Agency of Natural...

  4. Vestled - Hvide Sande

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel-Christiansen, Carsten; Hesselbjerg, Marianne; Schønherr, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Værket Vestled i Hvide Sande præsenteret i sammenhæng af 1000 nutidige landskabsarkitektoniske arbejder fra hele verden, hvor hvert værk vises på én side......Værket Vestled i Hvide Sande præsenteret i sammenhæng af 1000 nutidige landskabsarkitektoniske arbejder fra hele verden, hvor hvert værk vises på én side...

  5. MECHANICAL REGENERATION OF SAND WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Gnir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental activation of the sand regenerator of the firm SINTO is carried out at ОАО “MZOO". It is shown that sand grains are cleared from films of binding agents, that allows to use the treated sand for preparation of agglutinant and core sands.

  6. Detection technique of targets for missile defense system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hua-ling; Deng, Jia-hao; Cai, Ke-rong

    2009-11-01

    Ballistic missile defense system (BMDS) is a weapon system for intercepting enemy ballistic missiles. It includes ballistic-missile warning system, target discrimination system, anti-ballistic-missile guidance systems, and command-control communication system. Infrared imaging detection and laser imaging detection are widely used in BMDS for surveillance, target detection, target tracking, and target discrimination. Based on a comprehensive review of the application of target-detection techniques in the missile defense system, including infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPA), ground-based radar detection technology, 3-dimensional imaging laser radar with a photon counting avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays and microchip laser, this paper focuses on the infrared and laser imaging detection techniques in missile defense system, as well as the trends for their future development.

  7. Vehicle concept for a robotic missile launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evces, C. R.; Fearing, P. D.

    1983-05-01

    This report presents preliminary work on the vehicle concept for a robotic missile launcher. A computerized literature search is documented, and important mobility and control concepts from the search are discussed. A survey of commercially available roving vehicles, both remotely and manually controlled, is also presented. Design concepts are evaluated for application to a robotic missile launcher vehicle based on constraining design criteria. Conceptual designs are based on a commercially available vehicle (the Emerson Electric Fast Attack Vehicle), and a proposed special purpose vehicle are presented. Recommendations are made for further research and/or testing in the areas of feasibility of candidate control links and payloads, maneuverability versus armor, cost versus survivability, and applications in reconnaissance.

  8. Ballistic Missile Silo Door Monitoring Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EDENBURN,MICHAEL W.; TROST,LAWRENCE C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper compares the cost and effectiveness of several potential options that may be used to monitor silo-based ballistic missiles. Silo door monitoring can be used to verify that warheads removed to deactivate or download silo-based ballistic missiles have not been replaced. A precedent for monitoring warhead replacement using reentry vehicle on site inspections (RV-OSIs) and using satellites has been established by START-I and START-II. However, other monitoring options have the potential to be less expensive and more effective. Three options are the most promising if high verification confidence is desired: random monitoring using door sensors; random monitoring using manned or unmanned aircraft; and continuous remote monitoring using unattended door sensors.

  9. Ballistic Missile Defense: New Plans, Old Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Zolotukhina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On September 17, 2009—the 70th anniversary of the Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939 that marked the beginning of World War II—the Obama Administration announced its intention to shelve plans for the U.S. Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD that had been developed under former President George W. Bush. Pointing to a new intelligence assessment, President Obama argued that his predecessor's plan to deploy an X-band radar station outside of Prague, Czech Republic, and 10 two-stage interceptor missiles in Poland would not adequately protect America and its European allies from the Iranian threat and reiterated his opposition to utilizing unproven technology in any European BMD architecture.

  10. 76 FR 14589 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Repeal of Restriction on Ballistic Missile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-17

    ... Regulation Supplement; Repeal of Restriction on Ballistic Missile Defense Research, Development, Test, and... Ballistic Missile Defense research, development, test, and evaluation from foreign sources. DATES: Effective...) repealed the restriction from foreign sources of acquisition of Ballistic Missile Defense research...

  11. Generic Surface-to-Air Missile Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    types of aircraft sensors are considered: radar, launch and missile approach detectors. Their limits are also defined by geometric shapes within the...E FOIZC OPLP- IZELE’A% Q CLAST D 6 I AQ3 f v r RATE Commeme I Lj%-vljtK EVA- CoMMMLF 51 ok) MA Lsu- A vwwov GV A Vc-k I m4uE A FIGURE 3-22 erVAD 3

  12. Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-205 Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...Mission and Description 6 Executive Summary 7 Threshold Breaches 8 Schedule 9 Performance 10 Track to Budget 15 Cost and...Funding 16 Low Rate Initial Production 24 Foreign Military Sales 25 Nuclear Costs 25 Unit Cost 26 Cost Variance 29 Contracts 32

  13. MissileLab User’s Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT RDMR-SS-12-08 MISSILELAB USER’S GUIDE Lamar M. Auman System Simulation and Development Directorate...MissileLab User’s Guide 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Lamar M. Auman and Kristina Kirby-Brown 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...of the user-defined body point cells are colored yellow, while some are colored white . Yellow shaded cells indicate points that do not have a

  14. Air Force Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Fuze Modernization (ICBM Fuze Mod)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-498 Air Force Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Fuze Modernization (ICBM Fuze Mod) As of FY...Assigned: June 27, 2013 Program Information Program Name Air Force Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Fuze Modernization (ICBM Fuze Mod) DoD...in a memo dated August 18, 2013, titled "Air Force Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Fuze Program Phase 6.3 Development Engineering Authorization

  15. Accomplishing the mission of National Missile Defense with current technology

    OpenAIRE

    Criss, Michael.

    2000-01-01

    The Purpose of this thesis is to evaluate the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization's proposals for a National Missile Defense (NMD). This thesis compares the costs of missile systems that will provide a NMD, such as Patriot Advanced Capability - 3 (PAC-3), Navy Area (SM-2 Block WA), Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD), Navy Theater-Wide (SM-3), and the Ground-Based Interceptor (GBI). The data gathered for this thesis included unclassified performance data and the gross cost data rele...

  16. The Phantom Menace: Ballistic Missile Defense in Congress

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis, Matthew

    2001-01-01

    Recent successful tests of the Theater High-Altitude Air Defense System (THAAD) and the Exoatmospheric Kill Vehicle (EKV) against simulated incoming ballistic missiles have again thrust the issue of ballistic missile defense (BMD) into the policy spotlight. Scholars have typically included defense spending in studies of distributive politics. This paper studies the determinants of ballistic missile policy in Congress, distinguishing between the public sphere of floor voting and less-visible...

  17. Qualitative risk assessment of Sandia`s rocket preparation and launch facility at Barking Sands, Kauai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahn, J.A.

    1997-12-31

    This paper demonstrates the application of a qualitative methodology for performing risk assessments using the consequence and probability binning criteria of DOE Order 5481.1B. The particular application that is the subject of this paper is a facility risk assessment conducted for Sandia National Laboratories` Kauai Test Facility (KTF). The KTF is a rocket preparation and launch facility operated by Sandia National Laboratories for the Department of Energy and is located on the US Navy`s Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF) at Barking Sands on the western side of the island of Kauai, Hawaii. The KTF consists of an administrative compound and main launch facility located on the north end of the PMRF, as well as the small Kokole Point launch facility located on the south end of the PMRF. It is classified as a moderate hazard facility in accordance with DOE Order 5481.1B. As such, its authorization basis for operations necessitates a safety/risk assessment. This paper briefly addresses the hazards associated with KTF operations and the accidents selected for evaluation, introduces the principal elements of the accident assessment methodology, presents analysis details for two of the selected accidents, and provides a summary of results for all of the accidents evaluated.

  18. Narrowband Angular Reflectance Properties of the Alkali Flats at White Sands, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Charles H.; LeCroy, Stuart R.; Wheeler, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    Results from helicopter measurements of the angular properties of surface reflectance for the alkali flats regions of the White Sands Missile Range are presented for the wavelength interval of 0.4 to 0.85 microns. This work was performed to allow accurate radiative transfer calculations over the region. Detailed tables and interpolation equations are given that permit other investigators to perform satellite calibrations over the alkali flats site. The effects of wavelength and soil moisture on narrowband angular reflectance are also investigated. Although there is a spectral variation in surface albedo, there is little spectral effect in Anisotropic Factor except in the forward scattering peak at solar zenith angles greater than 60 deg. The magnitude of the forward-scattering peak is also sensitive to soil moisture, with wet conditions causing a larger peak. The significance of this result is that angular reflectance properties at the center of the alkali flats usually will be different than those at the flats edge because moisture differences typically exist.

  19. Acceleration effects on missile aerodynamics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gledhill, Irvy MA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available approach 500 g. In the design of an aircraft, prediction of the aerodynamic forces to appropriate accuracy is vital. Experimental and numerical methods are applicable over many ranges of parameter space which are of practical importance for aircraft...

  20. Cost of Space-Based Laser Ballistic Missile Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, George; Spergel, David

    1986-03-01

    Orbiting platforms carrying infrared lasers have been proposed as weapons forming the first tier of a ballistic missile defense system under the President's Strategic Defense Initiative. As each laser platform can destroy a limited number of missiles, one of several methods of countering such a system is to increase the number of offensive missiles. Hence it is important to know whether the cost-exchange ratio, defined as the ratio of the cost to the defense of destroying a missile to the cost to the offense of deploying an additional missile, is greater or less than 1. Although the technology to be used in a ballistic missile defense system is still extremely uncertain, it is useful to examine methods for calculating the cost-exchange ratio. As an example, the cost of an orbiting infrared laser ballistic missile defense system employed against intercontinental ballistic missiles launched simultaneously from a small area is compared to the cost of additonal offensive missiles. If one adopts lower limits to the costs for the defense and upper limits to the costs for the offense, the cost-exchange ratio comes out substantially greater than 1. If these estimates are confirmed, such a ballistic missile defense system would be unable to maintain its effectiveness at less cost than it would take to proliferate the ballistic missiles necessary to overcome it and would therefore not satisfy the President's requirements for an effective strategic defense. Although the method is illustrated by applying it to a space-based infrared laser system, it should be straightforward to apply it to other proposed systems.

  1. IR sensor design insight from missile-plume prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapanotti, John L.; Gilbert, Bruno; Richer, Guy; Stowe, Robert

    2002-08-01

    Modern anti-tank missiles and the requirement of rapid deployment have significantly reduced the use of passive armour in protecting land vehicles. Vehicle survivability is becoming more dependent on sensors, computers and countermeasures to detect and avoid threats. An analysis of missile propellants suggests that missile detection based on plume characteristics alone may be more difficult than anticipated. Currently, the passive detection of missiles depends on signatures with a significant ultraviolet component. This approach is effective in detecting anti-aircraft missiles that rely on powerful motors to pursue high-speed aircraft. The high temperature exhaust from these missiles contains significant levels of carbon dioxide, water and, often, metal oxides such as alumina. The plumes emits strongest in the infrared, 1 to 5micrometers , regions with a significant component of the signature extending into the ultraviolet domain. Many anti-tank missiles do not need the same level of propulsion and radiate significantly less. These low velocity missiles, relying on the destructive force of shaped-charge warhead, are more difficult to detect. There is virtually no ultraviolet component and detection based on UV sensors is impractical. The transition in missile detection from UV to IR is reasonable, based on trends in imaging technology, but from the analysis presented in this paper even IR imagers may have difficulty in detecting missile plumes. This suggests that the emphasis should be placed in the detection of the missile hard body in the longer wavelengths of 8 to 12micrometers . The analysis described in this paper is based on solution of the governing equations of plume physics and chemistry. These models will be used to develop better sensors and threat detection algorithms.

  2. Cost of space-based laser ballistic missile defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, G; Spergel, D

    1986-03-21

    Orbiting platforms carrying infrared lasers have been proposed as weapons forming the first tier of a ballistic missile defense system under the President's Strategic Defense Initiative. As each laser platform can destroy a limited number of missiles, one of several methods of countering such a system is to increase the number of offensive missiles. Hence it is important to know whether the cost-exchange ratio, defined as the ratio of the cost to the defense of destroying a missile to the cost to the offense of deploying an additional missile, is greater or less than 1. Although the technology to be used in a ballistic missile defense system is still extremely uncertain, it is useful to examine methods for calculating the cost-exchange ratio. As an example, the cost of an orbiting infrared laser ballistic missile defense system employed against intercontinental ballistic missiles launched simultaneously from a small area is compared to the cost of additional offensive missiles. If one adopts lower limits to the costs for the defense and upper limits to the costs for the offense, the cost-exchange ratio comes out substantially greater than 1. If these estimates are confirmed, such a ballistic missile defense system would be unable to maintain its effectiveness at less cost than it would take to proliferate the ballistic missiles necessary to overcome it and would therefore not satisfy the President's requirements for an effective strategic defense. Although the method is illustrated by applying it to a space-based infrared laser system, it should be straightforward to apply it to other proposed systems.

  3. Using normal ranges for interpreting results of monitoring and tiering to guide future work: A case study of increasing polycyclic aromatic compounds in lake sediments from the Cold Lake oil sands (Alberta, Canada) described in Korosi et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkittrick, Kelly R; Arciszewski, Tim J

    2017-12-01

    Since the publishing of the Kelly et al. papers (2009, 2010) describing elevated contaminants in snow near the Alberta oil sands, there has been a significant expansion of monitoring efforts, enhanced by $50M a year contributed by industry to a regional Joint Oil Sands Monitoring (JOSM) program. In parallel to the intensification of research and monitoring efforts, including expansion of measured indicators, techniques for chemical analysis have also become more sensitive. Both factors contribute to the increased sensitivity and power, and improve our capacity to detect any change. The increase in capability requires a counterbalance to account for trivial change. This can be done using an interpretative approach that requires contextualization of differences to meaningfully inform environmental monitoring programs and provide focus for action. Experience obtained through 25 years of involvement with Canada's Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) program has shown that a tiered program informed by triggers can provide the context to make decisions about monitoring priorities. Here we provide a potential interpretation framework using a case study around the Korosi et al. (2016) study which found recent increases in alkylated polycyclic aromatic compounds (aPACs) in the Cold Lake in situ oil sands area. Public contaminant profiles from the JOSM studies in the oil sands region are used to evaluate the changes using an interpretation framework based on estimated normal ranges using existing data for site-specific, local and regional (distant) levels that was modelled after the tiered Canadian EEM design. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Provenance of coastal dune sands along Red Sea, Egypt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The average CIA values in SF and QS coastal dune sands are low relative to the range of the PAAS, suggesting an arid climate and a low intensity of chemical weathering. The SF and QS coastal dune sand samples are plotted in the recycled orogen and partly in craton interior fields suggesting recycled older sedimentary ...

  5. Modeling the dynamics of offshore tidal sand ridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, B.

    2017-01-01

    Tidal sand ridges are large-scale bedforms with horizontal dimensions of several kilometers and heights of tens of meters. They occur in the offshore area of shelf seas that have a wide range of water depths (10-200 m). Based on their present-day behavior, ridges are classified as `active' (sand

  6. Ballistic Missile Defense in the European Theater: Political, Military and Technical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-15

    in a ground-based system, called the Sol-Air Moyen Portee/ Terrestre (SAMP/T) that uses the Aster 15 and the Aster 30 missiles with a range of up to...development processes “ via a spiral pathway culminating in an operator-in-the- 107 COL Tim Polaske Chief...Reentry Vehicle SAMP/T Sol-Air Moyen Portee/ Terrestre SBI Space Based Interceptor SBIRS Space Based Infrared Satellite SHAPE

  7. Missile Defense Agency (MDA) Annual Small Business Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    global norm or treaty banning trade in ballistic missiles (the function of the Missile Technology Control Regime is to facilitate ad hoc coordination...No “one size fits all” – tailor your marketing literature to the prospective customer • Target your market within the Agency and do your homework

  8. Aerodynamic performances of cruise missile flying above local terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, A.; Saad, M. R.; Che Idris, A.; Rahman, M. R. A.; Sujipto, S.

    2016-10-01

    Cruise missile can be classified as a smart bomb and also Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) due to its ability to move and manoeuvre by itself without a pilot. Cruise missile flies in constant velocity in cruising stage. Malaysia is one of the consumers of cruise missiles that are imported from other nations, which can have distinct geographic factors including their local terrains compared to Malaysia. Some of the aerodynamic performances of missile such as drag and lift coefficients can be affected by the local geographic conditions in Malaysia, which is different from the origin nation. Therefore, a detailed study must be done to get aerodynamic performance of cruise missiles that operate in Malaysia. The effect of aerodynamic angles such as angle of attack and side slip can be used to investigate the aerodynamic performances of cruise missile. Hence, subsonic wind tunnel testings were conducted to obtain the aerodynamic performances of the missile at various angle of attack and sideslip angles. Smoke visualization was also performed to visualize the behaviour of flow separation. The optimum angle of attack found was at α=21° and side slip, β=10° for optimum pitching and yawing motion of cruise missile.

  9. Civilian casualties of Iraqi ballistic missile attack to

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaji Ali

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To determine the pattern of causalities of Iraqi ballistic missile attacks on Tehran, the capital of Iran, during Iraq-Iran war. Methods: Data were extracted from the Army Staff Headquarters based on daily reports of Iranian army units during the war. Results: During 52 days, Tehran was stroked by 118 Al-Hussein missiles (a modified version of Scud missile. Eighty-six missiles landed in populated areas. During Iraqi missile attacks, 422 civilians died and 1 579 injured (4.9 deaths and 18.3 injuries per missile. During 52 days, 8.1 of the civilians died and 30.4 injured daily. Of the cases that died, 101 persons (24% were excluded due to the lack of information. Among the remainders, 179 (55.8% were male and 142 (44.2% were female. The mean age of the victims was 25.3 years±19.9 years. Our results show that the high accuracy of modified Scud missiles landed in crowded ar-eas is the major cause of high mortality in Tehran. The pres-ence of suitable warning system and shelters could reduce civilian casualties. Conclusion: The awareness and readiness of civilian defense forces, rescue services and all medical facilities for dealing with mass casualties caused by ballistic missile at-tacks are necessary. Key words: Mortality; War; Mass casualty incidents; Wounds and injuries

  10. Sand (CSW4)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Estuarine and Coastal Research Unit

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available This report is one of a series on Cape Estuaries being published under the general title "The Estuaries of the Cape, Part 2". The report provides information on sand estuary: historical background, abiotic and biotic characteristics. It is pointed...

  11. Virksomhedens sande ansigt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundholt, Marianne Wolff

    2017-01-01

    Er modhistorier en byrde eller en styrke i forandringsprocesser? Hvad stiller vi op, når adgangen til organisationens sande identitet går gennem medarbejdernes modhistorier? Når vi sammenholder denne erkendelse med vores viden om, at medarbejdere helt naturligt afholder sig fra at videregive disse...

  12. Speleothems and Sand Castles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hance, Trevor; Befus, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The idea of building sand castles evokes images of lazy summer days at the beach, listening to waves crash, enjoying salty breezes, and just unplugging for a while to let our inner child explore the wonderful natural toys beneath our feet. The idea of exploring caves might evoke feelings and images of claustrophobia or pioneers and Native…

  13. Sand Filter Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    EXWC) performed the evaluation at the Naval Air Station Lemoore, CA . The two year evaluation period began with one year of sand filter operation...appear dirty? If you answered “ yes ” to the first question and “ yes ” to either of the other questions, investigate this technology for your

  14. Building with Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Children playing in damp sand invariably try to make a tower or a tunnel. By providing experiences with a variety of materials, alone and together, teachers set up the conditions for children to learn through their senses and ensure that a class approaches a topic with a common set of experiences to build on. Learning about the properties of…

  15. Effect of substrate size on sympatric sand darter benthic habitat preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Patricia A.; Welsh, Stuart A.; Rizzo, Austin A.; Smith, Dustin M.

    2017-01-01

    The western sand darter, Ammocrypta clara, and the eastern sand darter, A. pellucida, are sand-dwelling fishes that have undergone range-wide population declines, presumably owing to habitat loss. Habitat use studies have been conducted for the eastern sand darter, but literature on the western sand darter remains sparse. To evaluate substrate selection and preference, western and eastern sand darters were collected from the Elk River, West Virginia, one of the few remaining rivers where both species occur sympatrically. In the laboratory, individuals were given the choice to bury into five equally available and randomly positioned substrates ranging from fine sand to granule gravel (0.12–4.0 mm). The western sand darter selected for coarse and medium sand, while the eastern sand darter was more of a generalist selecting for fine, medium, and coarse sand. Substrate selection was significantly different (p = 0.02) between species in the same environment, where the western sand darter preferred coarser substrate more often compared to the eastern sand darter. Habitat degradation is often a limiting factor for many species of rare freshwater fish, and results from this study suggest that western and eastern sand darters may respond differently to variations in benthic substrate composition.

  16. Estimation of ICBM (intercontinental ballistic missile) performance parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpton, Kenneth S.

    1986-12-01

    The estimation of launch vehicle performance parameters was explored through the use of a Bayes Filter. The missile dynamics were modeled using a seven state system consisting of the vehicle position and velocity vectors, and the acceleration due to thrust. An assumed solution was used in the model obviating the need for a numerical integration subroutine. The filter was run with two different missile flight profiles. The program produced good approximations of the missile thrust acceleration even through staging events. The results of the Bayes filter were improved with the use of fading memory. The fading memory values were adjusted until the filter closely approximated the missile acceleration values. The filter was able to handle the second missile flight profile without any adjustment in the fading memory and with no degradation of results.

  17. Triaxial tests in Fontainebleau sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latini, Chiara; Zania, Varvara

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this internal report is to examine the influence of relative density on the strength and deformation characteristics of Fontainebleau sand. Compression triaxial tests were performed on saturated sand samples with different densities and initial confining pressure. Note...

  18. Northern Sand Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form. This VIS image was taken at 82 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. The image is completely dominated by dunes. In sand seas, it is very common for a single type of dune to occur, and for a single predominate wind to control the alignment of the dunes. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.2, Longitude 152.5 East (207.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Ballistic Missile Proliferation: An Emerging Threat 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    1,500 Afghanistan* Scud B USSR Argentina Alacran Condor 2 Indigenous Brazil MB/EE-150 MB/EE-300 MB/EE-600 MB/EE-1000 Indigenous SS-150 SS-300 SS-1000...aroad-mobile Scud B deriv- dor program. The Alacran is a single-stage, solid- ative for which Avibras is receiving technical as- propellant missile that...Avibras has also been working sile is the Condor 2. since 1960 on the solid-propellant motors for the The Alacran is believed to be about 6.9 m long Sonda

  20. Pathology of experimental traumatic craniocerebral missile injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnie, J W

    1993-01-01

    The neuropathological alterations in sheep associated with head wounds inflicted by a .22 calibre rifle are reported. Brain damage was manifest as a permanent haemorrhagic wound cavity produced by crushing and laceration of tissue during missile penetration, secondary tracks due to bone and bullet fragments, widely distributed stretch injuries to blood vessels, nerve fibres and neurons as a consequence of the radial forces of the temporary cavity which develops as a bullet penetrates tissue, marked subarachnoid and intraventricular haemorrhage, and distortion and displacement of the brain.

  1. Attacking the Mobile Ballistic Missile Threat in the Post-Cold War Environment. New Rules to an Old Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    was established, and Korolev was named its chief constructor for long-range ballistic missiles. His col- league Glushko, who was now serving as...provoking concept, see John W. Kingdon, Agendas , Alternatives, and Public Policies (New York: Long- man Press, 1995), 172–73. 45. Armacost, The

  2. Sand control systems used in completing wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Wittenberger

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Expandable Tubular Technology is transforming the face of well completion and construction. This technology provides: a substantially higher hydrocarbon production rates from the reservoir, a reduced well drilling and construction costs, new possibilities for previously unreachable or uneconomic reservoirs, and step a change towards the single diameter well. ESS (Expandable Sand Screen has an unrivalled performance worldwide for delivering a reliable sand control in a wide range of applications. Well costs typically cut by over 20 %, and the productivity increases up to 70 %.

  3. Ballistic Missile Defense System Transition and Transfer Process from Missile Defense Agency to the Army - Innovative or Dysfunctional?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    learned after the war that the Nazis had also completed fabrication of a container to transport V-2s across the Atlantic, towed by snorkel-equipped U-Boats...2002). 2 ―Missile Defense: The First Sixty Years.‖ (Washington, DC: Missile Defense Agency, August 15, 2008), 1. 3 ― V2 ,‖ in Wikipedia. 2010. http

  4. Effectiveness of Protective Action of Coatings from Moisture Sorption into Surface Layer of Sand Moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaźnica N.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the sorption process of surface layers of sand moulds covered by zirconium and zirconium - graphite alcohol coatings are presented in the paper. Investigations comprised two kinds of sand grains (silica sand and reclaimed sand of moulding sand with furan resin. Tests were performed under conditions of a high relative air humidity 75 - 85% and a constant temperature within the range 28 – 33°C. To evaluate the effectiveness of coatings protective action from moisture penetration into surface layers of sand moulds gravimetric method of quantitavie moisture sorption and ultrasonic method were applied in measurements.

  5. On Pluvial Compaction of Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Moust

    At the Institute of Civil Engineering in Aalborg model tests on dry sand specimens have been carried out during the last five years. To reduce deviations in test results, the sand laying technique has been carefully studied, and the sand mass spreader constructed. Preliminary results have been...

  6. Environmental Impacts of Sand Exploitation. Analysis of Sand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Dan Gavriletea

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sand is an indispensable natural resource for any society. Despite society’s increasing dependence on sand, there are major challenges that this industry needs to deal with: limited sand resources, illegal mining, and environmental impact of sand mining. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to present an overview of the sand market, highlighting the main trends and actors for production, export and import, and to review the main environmental impacts associated with sand exploitation process. Based on these findings, we recommend different measures to be followed to reduce negative impacts. Sand mining should be done in a way that limits environmental damage during exploitation and restores the land after mining operations are completed.

  7. Provenance of coastal dune sands along Red Sea, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Samir M.

    2017-06-01

    Texture, mineralogy, and major and trace element geochemistry of 26 coastal dune sand samples were studied to determine the provenance and tectonic environment of two dune fields close to the beaches of Safaga (SF) and Quseir (QS) at the Egyptian Red Sea coast. Onshore winds generate fine, moderate, moderately-well to well-sorted, coarse-skewed to near-symmetrical dune sands with mesokurtic distributions. Winds pick up and transport grains from nearby beach sands and alluvial deposits into a wide Red Sea coastal plain at the border of the beach. The mineralogical (Qt-Ft-Lt) and geochemical composition of the sands, indicate that SF and QS coastal dune sands are mature and influenced by quartz-rich sands. The average CIA values in SF and QS coastal dune sands are low relative to the range of the PAAS, suggesting an arid climate and a low intensity of chemical weathering. The SF and QS coastal dune sand samples are plotted in the recycled orogen and partly in craton interior fields suggesting recycled older sedimentary and partly metamorphic-plutonic sources. The high content of quartz with shell debris and carbonates in coastal dune sands support the recycled sedimentary beach and alluvial sand sources. The dominance of heavy minerals like amphiboles (hornblende) and biotite in the coastal dune sands also supports the effect of metamorphic-plutonic source rocks. The new tectonic discriminant-function diagrams suggest that the coastal dune sands were deposited in a passive margin of a synrift basin. The results provide a good evidence for the extension in the Red Sea rift system during Oligocene-post Pliocene, which is consistent with the general geology of Egypt.

  8. Modelling cavitating flow around underwater missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Petitpas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The diffuse interface model of Saurel et al. (2008 is used for the computation of compressible cavitating flows around underwater missiles. Such systems use gas injection and natural cavitation to reduce drag effects. Consequently material interfaces appear separating liquid and gas. These interfaces may have a really complex dynamics such that only a few formulations are able to predict their evolution. Contrarily to front tracking or interface reconstruction method the interfaces are computed as diffused numerical zones, that are captured in a routinely manner, as is done usually with gas dynamics solvers for shocks and contact discontinuity. With the present approach, a single set of partial differential equations is solved everywhere, with a single numerical scheme. This leads to very efficient solvers. The algorithm derived in Saurel et al. (2009 is used to compute cavitation pockets around solid bodies. It is first validated against experiments done in cavitation tunnel at CNU. Then it is used to compute flows around high speed underwater systems (Shkval-like missile. Performance data are then computed showing method ability to predict forces acting on the system.

  9. Beam characteristics of short-pulse radiation with electromagnetic missile effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Wang, Wen Bing; Liang, Chang Hong

    1998-05-01

    Beam characteristics such as beamwidth and beam intensity of short-pulse radiation with electromagnetic missile effect, not restricted to the electromagnetic missile, are generally range dependent in pulse propagation. An effective measure to study such beam characteristics is to investigate the local drop rate of the energy pattern in the beam profile and the local decay rate of energy in the pulse beam. It is shown that both the energy decay rate and the energy drop rate are definitely determined by the time-space source parameters so that the beam characteristics can be readily evaluated and properly controlled. Moreover, the underlying relation between the slow decay rate and the energy drop rate are constructed, which shows perfect harmony in achieving slower-energy decay and higher-energy concentration in the beam.

  10. Aerodynamic testing model guided missiles with jets simulations in the T-35 wind tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocokoljić Goran J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Testing of the Anti-Tank Missile with jets simulations in the T-35 wind tunnel is part of the development program of short range anti-tank system. The main task of this experiment was to provide an experimental data base for estimation of real jets influence. Analysis was presented for Mach number 0.2, model configurations with and without jets, and three jet tabs positions: tabs out of the jets, upper or lower tabs in the jets. Missile model designed that instead of the products of combustion through nozzles allow high pressure air corresponding mass flow. In additional to the wind tunnel test results the paper, also presents the results of CFD simulations. The results are presented by normal force and pitching moment coefficients.

  11. A new guidance law for a tactical surface-to-surface missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo V. Ćuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern tactical surface-to-surface missiles, equipped with strapdown inertial navigation systems, achieve very good accuracy compared with free-flight rockets. The probable range dispersion mainly depends on instruments errors and longitudinal disturbances such as rocket motor total-impulse deviation as well as differences between the estimated and actual values of the axial force and head wind. This paper gives an extension of the correlated velocity concept for surface-to-surface missiles without a thrust-terminating mechanism. The calculated parameters of the correlated velocity are stored into the memory of an onboard guidance computer. On the basis of the correlated velocity concept, the modified proportional navigation with the adjustment of the time-to-go of the missile to the target was proposed. It is shown that the new guidance law can compensate for the longitudinal disturbances of different levels successfully. The effectiveness of the proposed guidance method was confirmed by means of the calculated probable range and lateral dispersion for the anticipated disturbances in the guidance system.

  12. Theater Missile Defense Extended Test Range Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement - Eglin Gulf Test Range. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Boatsafe, 1998. BoatSafe.com and Boat Safe Kids , [Online]. Available: http://www.boatsafe.com, [9 June]. Bohnsack, J. A., D.E. Harper, and D.B...Florida, and Gary Cornell, EDAW, Inc., regarding unique visual features of the Florida Keys, 4 February. Kochman, H.I., 1978. “Eastern Indigo Snake...Exercise: “Standard EIGER” (U), N00014-94-C-0061, 27 July. Steiner, T.M., O.L. Bass, Jr., and J.A. Kushlan, 1983. Status of the Eastern Indigo Snake

  13. Moving sand dunes

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    In several desert areas, the slow motion of sand dunes can be a challenge for modern human activities and a threat for the survival of ancient places or archaeological sites. However, several methods exist for surveying the dune fields and estimate their migration rate. Among these methods, the use of satellite images, in particular of those freely available on the World Wide Web, is a convenient resource for the planning of future human settlements and activities.

  14. Thermal Conductivity of Compacted Bentonite and Bentonite-Sand Mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Jin; Lee, Jae Owan; Kwon, Sang Ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    For the Kyungju bentonite which is considered as a candidate material for the buffer and backfill in the high-level waste repository, the thermal conductivities of compacted bentonite and a bentonite-sand mixture were measured. The thermal conductivities of the compacted bentonite with a dry density of 1.2 to 1.8 Mg/m{sup 3}and the bentonite-sand mixture with a dry density of 1.6 and 1.8 Mg/m{sup 3} were measured within the gravimetric water content range of 10wt% to 20wt% and the sand fraction range of 10 to 30wt%. The thermal conductivity of compacted bentonite and a bentonite-sand mixture increases with increasing dry density and sand weight fraction in the case of constant water weight fraction, and increases with increasing water weight fraction and sand weight fraction in the case of constant dry density. The empirical correlations to describe the thermal conductivity of compacted bentonite and a bentonite-sand mixture as a function of water fraction at each dry density were suggested. These correlations can predict the thermal conductivities of bentonite and a bentonite-sand mixture with a difference below 10%.

  15. Time-to-impact estimation in passive missile warning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahıngıl, Mehmet Cihan

    2017-05-01

    A missile warning system can detect the incoming missile threat(s) and automatically cue the other Electronic Attack (EA) systems in the suit, such as Directed Infrared Counter Measure (DIRCM) system and/or Counter Measure Dispensing System (CMDS). Most missile warning systems are currently based on passive sensor technology operating in either Solar Blind Ultraviolet (SBUV) or Midwave Infrared (MWIR) bands on which there is an intensive emission from the exhaust plume of the threatening missile. Although passive missile warning systems have some clear advantages over pulse-Doppler radar (PDR) based active missile warning systems, they show poorer performance in terms of time-to-impact (TTI) estimation which is critical for optimizing the countermeasures and also "passive kill assessment". In this paper, we consider this problem, namely, TTI estimation from passive measurements and present a TTI estimation scheme which can be used in passive missile warning systems. Our problem formulation is based on Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The algorithm uses the area parameter of the threat plume which is derived from the used image frame.

  16. Innovation in Aerodynamic Design Features of Soviet Missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, M. Leroy

    2006-01-01

    Wind tunnel investigations of some tactical and strategic missile systems developed by the former Soviet Union have been included in the basic missile research programs of the NACA/NASA. Studies of the Soviet missiles sometimes revealed innovative design features that resulted in unusual or unexpected aerodynamic characteristics. In some cases these characteristics have been such that the measured performance of the missile exceeds what might have been predicted. In other cases some unusual design features have been found that would alleviate what might otherwise have been a serious aerodynamic problem. In some designs, what has appeared to be a lack of refinement has proven to be a matter of expediency. It is a purpose of this paper to describe some examples of unusual design features of some Soviet missiles and to illustrate the effectiveness of the design features on the aerodynamic behavior of the missile. The paper draws on the experience of the author who for over 60 years was involved in the aerodynamic wind tunnel testing of aircraft and missiles with the NACA/NASA.

  17. High performance dash on warning air mobile, missile system. [intercontinental ballistic missiles - systems analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, A. D.; Castellano, C. R.; Hague, D. S.

    1975-01-01

    An aircraft-missile system which performs a high acceleration takeoff followed by a supersonic dash to a 'safe' distance from the launch site is presented. Topics considered are: (1) technological feasibility to the dash on warning concept; (2) aircraft and boost trajectory requirements; and (3) partial cost estimates for a fleet of aircraft which provide 200 missiles on airborne alert. Various aircraft boost propulsion systems were studied such as an unstaged cryogenic rocket, an unstaged storable liquid, and a solid rocket staged system. Various wing planforms were also studied. Vehicle gross weights are given. The results indicate that the dash on warning concept will meet expected performance criteria, and can be implemented using existing technology, such as all-aluminum aircraft and existing high-bypass-ratio turbofan engines.

  18. Booming Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, Nathalie

    "Booming" sand dunes are able to produce low-frequency sound that resembles a pure note from a music instrument. The sound has a dominant audible frequency (70-105 Hz) and several higher harmonics and may be heard from far distances away. A natural or induced avalanche from a slip face of the booming dune triggers the emission that may last for several minutes. There are various references in travel literature to the phenomenon, but to date no scientific explanation covered all field observations. This thesis introduces a new physical model that describes the phenomenon of booming dunes. The waveguide model explains the selection of the booming frequency and the amplification of the sound in terms of constructive interference in a confined geometry. The frequency of the booming is a direct function of the dimensions and velocities in the waveguide. The higher harmonics are related to the higher modes of propagation in the waveguide. The experimental validation includes quantitative field research at the booming dunes of the Mojave Desert and Death Valley National Park. Microphone and geophone recordings of the acoustic and seismic emission show a variation of booming frequency in space and time. The analysis of the sensor data quantifies wave propagation characteristics such as speed, dispersion, and nonlinear effects and allows the distinction between the source mechanism of the booming and the booming itself. The migration of sand dunes results from a complicated interplay between dune building, wind regime, and precipitation. The morphological and morphodynamical characteristics of two field locations are analyzed with various geophysical techniques. Ground-penetrating radar images the subsurface structure of the dunes and reveal a natural, internal layering that is directly related to the history of dune migration. The seismic velocity increases abruptly with depth and gradually increases with downhill position due to compaction. Sand sampling shows local

  19. Protective properties of a missile enclosure against electromagnetic influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fisahn

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict the immunity of a generic missile (GENEC, not only the electronic system but also the enclosure has to be taken into consideration. While a completely closed metallic missile enclosure shows a high electric shielding effectiveness, it is decreased substantially by apertures which could not be avoided by different reasons. The shielding effectiveness of the generic missile could be investigated by means of a hollow cylinder equipped with different apertures. Numerical simulations and measurements of this hollow cylinder will be carried out and analyzed.

  20. Laboratory singing sand avalanches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagois-Bohy, Simon; Ngo, Sandrine; du Pont, Sylvain Courrech; Douady, Stéphane

    2010-02-01

    Some desert sand dunes have the peculiar ability to emit a loud sound up to 110 dB, with a well-defined frequency: this phenomenon, known since early travelers (Darwin, Marco Polo, etc.), has been called the song of dunes. But only in late 19th century scientific observations were made, showing three important characteristics of singing dunes: first, not all dunes sing, but all the singing dunes are composed of dry and well-sorted sand; second, this sound occurs spontaneously during avalanches on a slip face; third this is not the only way to produce sound with this sand. More recent field observations have shown that during avalanches, the sound frequency does not depend on the dune size or shape, but on the grain diameter only, and scales as the square root of g/d--with g the gravity and d the diameter of the grains--explaining why all the singing dunes in the same vicinity sing at the same frequency. We have been able to reproduce these singing avalanches in laboratory on a hard plate, which made possible to study them more accurately than on the field. Signals of accelerometers at the flowing surface of the avalanche are compared to signals of microphones placed above, and it evidences a very strong vibration of the flowing layer at the same frequency as on the field, responsible for the emission of sound. Moreover, other characteristics of the booming dunes are reproduced and analyzed, such as a threshold under which no sound is produced, or beats in the sound that appears when the flow is too large. Finally, the size of the coherence zones emitting sound has been measured and discussed.

  1. Status of the intercontinental ballistic missile modernization program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    The Department of Defense is taking three major actions to modernize the intercontinental ballistic missile component of the U.S. strategic forces. Specifically, DOD is: (1) developing a small ICBM and its hard mobile launcher, (2) researching other basing technology, and (3) deploying Peacekeeper (MX) missiles in Minuteman silos. Potential major issues of the small ICBM can now be identified. For instance, for a 500 missile force on hard mobile launchers: (1) life cycle cost would be about $44 billion in 1982 dollars, (2) personnel requirements would be about 20,000 people, and (3) up to 28,000 square miles of land would be required for wartime operations. The Peacekeeper program is in production while development testing continues. Results to date have been positive. Current congressional action to limit the number of missiles deployed will affect program cost and schedule.

  2. Health Management Issues and Strategy for Air Force Missiles (POSTPRINT)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ruderman, Gregory

    2005-01-01

    As so-called "wooden rounds," which are intended to sit stably in storage for extended periods and then function precisely as desired, at a moment's notice, Air Force missiles would appear to be an...

  3. Design and Manufacturing Process for a Ballistic Missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharia Sebastian Marian

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Designing a ballistic missile flight depends on the mission and the stress to which the missile is subject. Missile’s requests are determined by: the organization of components; flight regime type, engine configuration and aerodynamic performance of the rocket flight. In this paper has been developed a ballistic missile with a smooth fuselage type, 10 control surfaces, 8 directional surfaces for cornering execution, 2 for maneuvers of execution to change the angle of incidence and 4 stabilizers direction. Through the technology of gluing and clamping of the shell and the use of titanium components, mass of ballistic missile presented a significant decrease in weight and a structure with high strength.

  4. "Head, Not Tails:" How Best to Engage Theater Ballistic Missiles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wiegand, Ronald C

    2006-01-01

    .... Heads, not tails sounds a call to the Missile Defense Agency, Strategic Command and all Services to commit to producing BPI capability (first kinetic, then directed energy), ahead of other systems and upgrades.

  5. Anti-Ship Missile Defense and the Free Electron Laser

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herbert, Paul

    1998-01-01

    In order to improve ship self-defense against sea-skimming missiles, several concepts, such as the free electron laser, high-power microwaves, and the Phalanx gun system are reviewed and evaluated in this thesis...

  6. 22 CFR 121.16 - Missile Technology Control Regime Annex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... missile systems, see § 121.1, Cat. VIII (a), target drones and reconnaissance drones (see § 121.1, Cat...) or terrain characteristics (see § 121.1, Category XI(b) and (d)); (c) Global Positioning System (GPS...

  7. Applying the "Principles of War" to Cruise Missile Defense

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carney, Robert

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. military must assume its future adversaries will possess arsenals that include sophisticated cruise missiles capable of being launched from multiple platforms and engaging both land and sea targets...

  8. Fortune Cookie Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-432, 25 July 2003This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a field of small barchan sand dunes in the north polar region near 71.7oN, 51.3oW. Some of them are shaped like fortune cookies. The message these dunes provide: winds blow through this region from the lower right toward the upper left. The steep slip face slopes of these dunes, which point toward the upper left, indicate the wind direction. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper right. The image is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  9. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Bradley E. (Air Force Research Laboratory, Eglin, FL); Kabir, Md. E. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2010-04-01

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  10. Incipient Motion of Sand and Oil Agglomerates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, T. R.; Dalyander, S.; Jenkins, R. L., III; Penko, A.; Long, J.; Frank, D. P.; Braithwaite, E. F., III; Calantoni, J.

    2016-12-01

    Weathered oil mixed with sediment in the surf zone in the northern Gulf of Mexico after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, forming large mats of sand and oil. Wave action fragmented the mats into sand and oil agglomerates (SOAs) with diameters of about 1 to 10 cm. These SOAs were transported by waves and currents along the Gulf Coast, and have been observed on beaches for years following the spill. SOAs are composed of 70%-95% sand by mass, with an approximate density of 2107 kg/m³. To measure the incipient motion of SOAs, experiments using artificial SOAs were conducted in the Small-Oscillatory Flow Tunnel at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory under a range of hydrodynamic forcing. Spherical and ellipsoidal SOAs ranging in size from 0.5 to 10 cm were deployed on a fixed flat bed, a fixed rippled bed, and a movable sand bed. In the case of the movable sand bed, SOAs were placed both proud and partially buried. Motion was tracked with high-definition video and with inertial measurement units embedded in some of the SOAs. Shear stress and horizontal pressure gradients, estimated from velocity measurements made with a Nortek Vectrino Profiler, were compared with observed mobility to assess formulations for incipient motion. For SOAs smaller than 1 cm in diameter, incipient motion of spherical and ellipsoidal SOAs was consistent with predicted critical stress values. The measured shear stress at incipient motion of larger, spherical SOAs was lower than predicted, indicating an increased dependence on the horizontal pressure gradient. In contrast, the measured shear stress required to move ellipsoidal SOAs was higher than predicted, even compared to values modified for larger particles in mixed-grain riverine environments. The laboratory observations will be used to improve the prediction of incipient motion, transport, and seafloor interaction of SOAs.

  11. The Joint Cruise Missiles Project: An Acquisition History

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    information presented in this report. Xi . ....... --------- GLOSSARY ABL Armored box launcher ACE Alternate cruise engine ACSM Advanced conventional... guidelines previously provided to the DMA by letter of June 30, 1977, for the generation of data bases required by land-attack cruise missiles that...of Air Force and Navy studies, including the Air Force Strike Options Comparison Study and the Advanced Conventional Standoff Missile ( ACSM ) Study

  12. Nuclear dynamics in a multipolar strategic ballistic missile defense world

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, Charles D.; MacDonald, Bruce W.

    2017-01-01

    We are focused on understanding the nuclear dynamics of a world in which more than one nation is developing and deploying ballistic missile defense systems for strategic purposes. Strategic purposes could mean for defense of a national territory, defending command and control centers, protecting nuclear-armed ballistic missiles to help ensure retaliatory forces, or providing political cover for development of anti-satellite weapons that could target strategic military communications as well ...

  13. Veiled normalization the implications of Japanese missile defense

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Timothy L.

    2008-01-01

    Japan's development of a missile defense system has been accompanied by the acquisition of potentially offensive military assets, an increased command and control capability, significant restructuring of the collective defense establishment, and doctrinal changes that allow pre-emption should an attack be deemed imminent. Regardless of the long-standing Japanese debate on the constitutionality of the use of force, the introduction of missile defense has institutionalized key structural el...

  14. FAILURE OF NUCLEAR DETERRENCE IN THE CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    Malmstrom AFB, Montana in June 2017. iv Abstract Most of the attention and scholarly analysis of the Cuban Missile Crisis focuses on 13 days...their constituents by accurately articulating what is an existential threat to a nation that spans approximately 3.8 million square miles with over...to violate it. Most of the attention and scholarly analysis of the Cuban Missile Crisis focuses on 13 days, specifically 16-28 October 1962. However

  15. Quantifying Counterforce and Active Defense in Countering Theater Ballistic Missiles

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Kneale T.

    1994-01-01

    This paper contains the formulation and analysis of a model to measure, compare, and contrast the effects of counterforce (pre-launch attack) and active defense (post-launch attack) against tactical ballistic missiles (TBM's). It is shown that without counterforce an active defense system could require an impractical number of weapons to counter incoming missiles and/or their warheads. This number is shown to decrease geometrically as effective counterforce is...

  16. High Temperature Thermal Properties of Bentonite Foundry Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krajewski P.K.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of measuring thermal conductivity and heat capacity of bentonite foundry sand in temperature range ambient - 900­­°C. During the experiments a technical purity Cu plate was cast into the green-sand moulds. Basing on measurements of the mould temperature field during the solidification of the casting, the temperature relationships of the measured properties were evaluated. It was confirmed that water vaporization strongly influences thermal conductivity of the moulding sand in the first period of the mould heating by the poured casting.

  17. Microbes in Beach Sands: Integrating Environment, Ecology and Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Richard; Harwood, Valerie J.; Edge, Thomas A.; Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Brandão, João; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Alm, Elizabeth Wheeler; Crowe, Allan; Ferguson, Donna; Ge, Zhongfu; Halliday, Elizabeth; Kinzelman, Julie; Kleinheinz, Greg; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Staley, Christopher; Staley, Zachery; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa (micropsammon). The apparently inhospitable conditions of beach sand environments belie the thriving communities found there. Physical factors, such as water availability and protection from insolation; biological factors, such as competition, predation, and biofilm formation; and nutrient availability all contribute to the characteristics of the micropsammon. Sand microbial communities include autochthonous species/phylotypes indigenous to the environment. Allochthonous microbes, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and waterborne pathogens, are deposited via waves, runoff, air, or animals. The fate of these microbes ranges from death, to transient persistence and/or replication, to establishment of thriving populations (naturalization) and integration in the autochthonous community. Transport of the micropsammon within the habitat occurs both horizontally across the beach, and vertically from the sand surface and ground water table, as well as at various scales including interstitial flow within sand pores, sediment transport for particle-associated microbes, and the large-scale processes of wave action and terrestrial runoff. The concept of beach sand as a microbial habitat and reservoir of FIB and pathogens has begun to influence our thinking about human health effects associated with sand exposure and recreational water use. A variety of pathogens have been reported from beach sands, and recent epidemiology studies have found some evidence of health risks associated with sand exposure. Persistent or replicating populations of FIB and enteric pathogens have consequences for watershed/beach management strategies and regulatory standards for safe beaches. This review summarizes our understanding of the community structure, ecology, fate, transport, and public health implications of microbes in beach sand. It concludes with recommendations for future

  18. Microbes in Beach Sands: Integrating Environment, Ecology and Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Richard; Harwood, Valerie J; Edge, Thomas A; Nevers, Meredith; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Vijayavel, Kannappan; Brandão, João; Sadowsky, Michael J; Alm, Elizabeth Wheeler; Crowe, Allan; Ferguson, Donna; Ge, Zhongfu; Halliday, Elizabeth; Kinzelman, Julie; Kleinheinz, Greg; Przybyla-Kelly, Kasia; Staley, Christopher; Staley, Zachery; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M

    2014-09-01

    Beach sand is a habitat that supports many microbes, including viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa (micropsammon). The apparently inhospitable conditions of beach sand environments belie the thriving communities found there. Physical factors, such as water availability and protection from insolation; biological factors, such as competition, predation, and biofilm formation; and nutrient availability all contribute to the characteristics of the micropsammon. Sand microbial communities include autochthonous species/phylotypes indigenous to the environment. Allochthonous microbes, including fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and waterborne pathogens, are deposited via waves, runoff, air, or animals. The fate of these microbes ranges from death, to transient persistence and/or replication, to establishment of thriving populations (naturalization) and integration in the autochthonous community. Transport of the micropsammon within the habitat occurs both horizontally across the beach, and vertically from the sand surface and ground water table, as well as at various scales including interstitial flow within sand pores, sediment transport for particle-associated microbes, and the large-scale processes of wave action and terrestrial runoff. The concept of beach sand as a microbial habitat and reservoir of FIB and pathogens has begun to influence our thinking about human health effects associated with sand exposure and recreational water use. A variety of pathogens have been reported from beach sands, and recent epidemiology studies have found some evidence of health risks associated with sand exposure. Persistent or replicating populations of FIB and enteric pathogens have consequences for watershed/beach management strategies and regulatory standards for safe beaches. This review summarizes our understanding of the community structure, ecology, fate, transport, and public health implications of microbes in beach sand. It concludes with recommendations for future work in

  19. Namibia : triaxial test on sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfelt, Jørgen S.; Jacobsen, Kim P.

    In connection with a harbour project the friction angle of a fine sand is required. On Friday 13 March 1998 the Danish Geotechnical Institute (DGI) delivered app. 2.5 kg sand for testing at the Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University. The present Data Report summarises the results...

  20. 2010 oil sands performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of traditional energy resources and the rising demand for energy, oil sands have become an important energy resource for meeting energy needs. Oil sands are a mixture of water, sand, clay and bitumen which is recovered either through open pit mining or in situ drilling techniques. The bitumen is then converted into syncrude or sold to refineries for the production of gasoline, diesel or other products. Shell has oil sands operations in Alberta and the aim of this report is to present its 2010 performance in terms of CO2, water, tailings, land, and reclamation and engagement. This document covers several of Shell's operations in the Muskeg River and Jackpine mines, Scotford upgrader, Peace River, Orion, Seal, Cliffdale and Chipmunk. It provides useful information on Shell's oil sands performance to governments, environmental groups, First Nations, local communities and the public.

  1. The proliferation of missiles: Problems, prospects for control, and research agendas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domke, W.K. (ed.) (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Krantz, S. (comp.) (California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (USA)); Stulberg, A. (comp.) (Rand Corp., Santa Monica, CA (USA))

    1989-01-01

    This report is an overview of the discussions and papers given at a workshop and brainstorming secession on missile proliferation. The relationship between missiles and nuclear and chemical weapons are also discussed. (JEF)

  2. Optimal Fixed-Interval Integrated Guidance-Control Laws for Hit-to-Kill Missiles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Menon, P. K; Sweriduk, G. D; Ohlmeyer, E. J

    2003-01-01

    Due to their potential for reducing the weapon size and efficiency, design methods for realizing hit-to- kill capabilities in missile systems are of significant research interest in the missile flight control community...

  3. Theater ballistic missile defense: low- and high-resolution multispectral phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Clifford A.

    1998-09-01

    The U.S. Navy has been requested to provide insightful responses to questions regarding low and high resolution target discrimination and target classification capabilities for short medium range ballistic missiles (SRBM/MRBM). Specific targets studied for this paper include foreign solid booster exhaust plume and hardbody systems (PHS). Target gradient edge intensities were extracted for aimpoint selection and will be added to the pattern referencing library database at NSWC Dahlgren Division. The results of this study indicate an increasing requirement for advanced image processing on the focal plane array of a LEAP (light exoatmospheric projectile) type kill kinetic vehicle (KKV) in order to implement effective correlation matching routines.

  4. Analysis of the SA-N-1 GOA. The Most Common Missile on Soviet Ships (Analisi dell’ SA-N-1 GOA. Il piu’ Diffuso Missile Imbarcato della Marina Sovietica),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-02

    range system. Western observers /84 were surprised when a KOTLIN -Clas𔄁 destroyer, the BRAVYY, made a June 1962 deployment to the Baltic displaying a...experimental version, which was only confirmed five years later, when missiles began appearing on several KOTLIN -Class ships with similar modifications...most notable characteristic. On theseldestroyers the SA-N-I became a fully operational system of undisputed capability. In 1967 the remaining KOTLIN

  5. [Ballistic approach in head injuries caused by missiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdan, P; Billant, J B; Desgeorges, M

    1989-01-01

    If the missile head injury treatment is relatively well codified, wound ballistic, on the other hand, is not well known of neurosurgeons. Different means of study and tissue simulants are being listed. In face of numerous contradictory results, we shall only retain the M.L. Fackler method with 10% gelatin. Experimental results will depend on: 1. Missile parameters. For instance, in soft homogeneous tissue, one can discern shells with an uncertain path, full jacketed bullets which tumble after a variable "neck", and non jacketed missiles which cause wound through "mushrooming" and/or fragmentation effect. Buckshot wounds obey the rule "all or none". 2. Body reactions, particularly the clash with a hard material like bone, which can overturn everything described in soft tissues. These wound ballistic notions have lead us to formulate two pathogenic hypothesizes, allowing us to understand sometime case reports which had first seemed paradoxical: the brain structure, enclosed in the skull will not able to survive any major temporary cavity, the more or less deep missile pathway through the skull will be very different according to the type and energy of the missile, and to the hardness of pierced bone.

  6. Effect of reclaimed sand additions on mechanical properties and fracture behavior of furan no-bake resin sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-lei Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effects of reclaimed sand additions on the microstructure characteristics, mechanical properties and fracture behavior of furan no-bake resin sand have been investigated systematically within the temperature range from 25 to 600 篊. The addition of 20%-100% reclaimed sand showed dramatic strength deterioration effect at the same temperature, which is associated with the formation of bonding bridges. Both the ultimate tensile strength (UTS and compressive strength (CS of the moulding sand initially increase with the increase of temperature, and then sharply decrease with the further increase of temperature, which is attributed to the thermal decomposition of furan resin. The addition amount of reclaimed sand has a remarkable effect on the room temperature fracture mode, i.e., with the addition of 0-20% reclaimed sand, the fracture mode was mainly cohesive fracture; the fracture mode converts to be mixture fracture mode as the addition of reclaimed sand increases to 35%-70%; further increasing the addition to 100% results in the fracture mode of typical adhesive fracture. The fracture surface of the bonding bridge changes from a semblance of cotton or holes to smooth with the increase of test temperature.

  7. Biogenic crust dynamics on sand dunes

    CERN Document Server

    Kinast, Shai; Yizhaq, Hezi; Ashkenazy, Yosef

    2012-01-01

    Sand dunes are often covered by vegetation and biogenic crusts. Despite their significant role in dune stabilization, biogenic crusts have rarely been considered in studies of dune dynamics. Using a simple model, we study the existence and stability ranges of different dune-cover states along gradients of rainfall and wind power. Two ranges of alternative stable states are identified: fixed crusted dunes and fixed vegetated dunes at low wind power, and fixed vegetated dunes and active dunes at high wind power. These results suggest a cross-over between two different forms of desertification.

  8. A kinematic upgrade to an infrared air-to-air missile with dual-interrupted-thrust technology and its effect on lethality

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrei, Andrew J.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This study determines the increase in the kinematic performance and lethality of a generic Short-Range Air-to-Air Missile (SRAAM) due to the introduction of Dual-Interrupted-Thrust (DIT) technology to the missile motor. Data for this study was collected using-.the U.S. Air Force Trajectory Analysis Program (TRAP). The SRAAM modelled was similar in capability to the AIM-9 Sidewinder currently in U.S. and Canadian Forces (CF) inventorie...

  9. Spectroscopic characterization of a Nigerian standard sand: Igbokoda sand

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ojuri, OO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available the Middle Ordovician St. Peter Sandstone near Ottawa, Illinois, had been picked by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) as the reference sand to employ in testing cement and strength of concrete [9]. To the best of our knowledge... and magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques due to its importance in cement, geotechnical/geo-environmental research in Nigeria. This should halt importation of standard silica sand for mortar and concrete testing...

  10. Characterization of sand lenses embedded in tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Timo Christian; Klint, K.E.S.; Nilsson, B.

    2012-01-01

    Tills dominate large parts of the superficial sediments on the Northern hemisphere. These glacial diamictons are extremely heterogeneous and riddled with fractures and lenses of sand or gravel. The frequency and geometry of sand lenses within tills are strongly linked to glaciodynamic processes...... occurring in various glacial environments. This study specifically focuses on the appearance and spatial distribution of sand lenses in tills. It introduces a methodology on how to measure and characterize sand lenses in the field with regard to size, shape and degree of deformation. A set of geometric...... parameters is defined to allow characterization of sand lenses. The proposed classification scheme uses a stringent terminology to distinguish several types of sand lenses based on the geometry. It includes sand layers, sand sheets, sand bodies, sand pockets and sand stringers. The methodology has been...

  11. The analysis of a generic air-to-air missile simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Joseph A.; Chappell, Alan R.; Mcmanus, John W.

    1994-01-01

    A generic missile model was developed to evaluate the benefits of using a dynamic missile fly-out simulation system versus a static missile launch envelope system for air-to-air combat simulation. This paper examines the performance of a launch envelope model and a missile fly-out model. The launch envelope model bases its probability of killing the target aircraft on the target aircraft's position at the launch time of the weapon. The benefits gained from a launch envelope model are the simplicity of implementation and the minimal computational overhead required. A missile fly-out model takes into account the physical characteristics of the missile as it simulates the guidance, propulsion, and movement of the missile. The missile's probability of kill is based on the missile miss distance (or the minimum distance between the missile and the target aircraft). The problems associated with this method of modeling are a larger computational overhead, the additional complexity required to determine the missile miss distance, and the additional complexity of determining the reason(s) the missile missed the target. This paper evaluates the two methods and compares the results of running each method on a comprehensive set of test conditions.

  12. Air and Missile Defense Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (AMD IPB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    performing prelaunch missile operations (that is, launch site setup and missile erection and alignment), and degrading missile accuracy if the...employ long-term hide sites that are at greater distances from the launch areas but usually within tens of kilometers from support areas. Routine MEL

  13. 76 FR 63541 - Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ...-2010-0288] Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear... Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide provides licensees and applicants with... hurricane and design-basis hurricane-generated missiles that a nuclear power plant should be designed to...

  14. 75 FR 77849 - Closed Meeting of the Missile Defense Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... 2011 United States Ballistic Missile Defense Cooperation Study. Agenda: Topics tentatively scheduled... Portugal, announced a new Strategic Concept that focuses the Alliance on ballistic missiles. The timing of... Office of the Secretary Closed Meeting of the Missile Defense Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of...

  15. Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress Ronald O’Rourke Specialist in Naval...Affairs April 5, 2016 Congressional Research Service 7-5700 www.crs.gov R41129 Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine...Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program Congressional Research Service Contents Introduction

  16. Suitability of a South African silica sand for three-dimensional printing of foundry moulds and cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyembwe, Kasongo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Applications of three-dimensional printing (3DP to metal casting include, among other things, the direct manufacturing of foundry moulds and cores in refractory materials such as silica sand. The main properties of silica sand that are essentially related to the traditional moulding and core-making processes are: size distribution, clay content, pH, acid demand, and refractoriness. The silica sand used for 3DP must also be appropriately selected for the layer-based manufacturing process involved in 3DP. Properties such as grain size distribution, grain surface morphology, angularity, flowability, and recoating abilities have a particular importance when determining sand suitability. Because of these extra requirements, only a limited range of available foundry silica sands can be used for 3DP processes. The latter situation explains the scarcity and high cost of suitable silica sands, thus contributing to the relatively high operational costs of the 3DP processes for the production of sand moulds and cores. This research paper investigates the suitability of a locally-available silica sand for use in a Voxeljet VX1000 3DP machine. The local silica sand was assessed and compared with an imported silica sand recommended by the manufacturer of 3DP equipment in terms of foundry characteristics and recoating behaviour. The study shows that, despite the differences between the characteristics of the two silica sands, the local sand could be considered a suitable alternative to imported sand for rapid sand casting applications.

  17. Flexible missile autopilot design studies with PC-MATLAB/386

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Michael J.

    1989-01-01

    Development of a responsive, high-bandwidth missile autopilot for airframes which have structural modes of unusually low frequency presents a challenging design task. Such systems are viable candidates for modern, state-space control design methods. The PC-MATLAB interactive software package provides an environment well-suited to the development of candidate linear control laws for flexible missile autopilots. The strengths of MATLAB include: (1) exceptionally high speed (MATLAB's version for 80386-based PC's offers benchmarks approaching minicomputer and mainframe performance); (2) ability to handle large design models of several hundred degrees of freedom, if necessary; and (3) broad extensibility through user-defined functions. To characterize MATLAB capabilities, a simplified design example is presented. This involves interactive definition of an observer-based state-space compensator for a flexible missile autopilot design task. MATLAB capabilities and limitations, in the context of this design task, are then summarized.

  18. A novel navigation method used in a ballistic missile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hua-ming; Sun, Long; Cai, Jia-nan; Peng, Yu

    2013-10-01

    The traditional strapdown inertial/celestial integrated navigation method used in a ballistic missile cannot accurately estimate the accelerometer bias. It might cause a divergence of navigation errors. To solve this problem, a new navigation method named strapdown inertial/starlight refractive celestial integrated navigation is proposed. To verify the feasibility of the proposed method, a simulated program of a ballistic missile is presented. The simulation results indicated that, when multiple refraction stars are used, the proposed method can accurately estimate the accelerometer bias, and suppress the divergence of navigation errors completely. Specifically, in order to apply this method to a ballistic missile, a novel measurement equation based on stellar refraction was developed. Furthermore a method to calculate the number of refraction stars observed by the stellar sensor was given. Finally, the relationship between the number of refraction stars used and the navigation accuracy is analysed.

  19. Lateral control strategy for a hypersonic cruise missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghua Fan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hypersonic cruise missile always adopts the configuration of waverider body with the restraint of scramjet. As a result, the lateral motion exhibits serious coupling, and the controller design of the lateral lateral system cannot be conducted separately for yaw channel and roll channel. A multiple input and multiple output optimal control method with integrators is presented to design the lateral combined control system for hypersonic cruise missile. A hypersonic cruise missile lateral model is linearized as a multiple input and multiple output plant, which is coupled by kinematics and fin deflection between yaw and roll. In lateral combined controller, the integrators are augmented, respectively, into the loop of roll angle and lateral overload to ensure that the commands are tracked with zero steady-state error. Through simulation, the proposed controller demonstrates good performance in tracking the command of roll angle and lateral overload.

  20. Diagnostics in biological rapid sand filters treating groundwater – governing factors for nitrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Gülay, Arda; Smets, Barth F.

    To improve the insight in the processes in biological rapid sand filters a range of methods were developed to diagnose the microbial mediated processes – particularly nitrification.......To improve the insight in the processes in biological rapid sand filters a range of methods were developed to diagnose the microbial mediated processes – particularly nitrification....

  1. Reclaimability of the spent sand mixture – sand with bentonite – sand with furfuryl resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dańko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of new binding materials and new technologies of their hardening in casting moulds and cores production requires theapplication of reclamation methods adequate to their properties as well as special devices realizing tasks. The spent sands circulationsystem containing the same kind of moulding and core sands is optimal from the point of view of the expected reclamation results.However, in the face of a significant variability of applied technologies and related to them various reclamation methods, the need - of theobtained reclamation products assessment on the grounds of systematic criteria and uniform bases – arises, with a tendency of indicatingwhich criteria are the most important for the given sand system. The reclaimability results of the mixture of the spent moulding sand withGeko S bentonite and the spent core sand with the Kaltharz 404U resin hardened by acidic hardener 100 T3, are presented in the paper.Investigations were performed with regard to the estimation of an influence of core sands additions (10 –25% on the reclaimed materialquality. Dusts and clay content in the reclaim, its chemical reaction (pH and ignition loss were estimated. The verification of the reclaiminstrumental assessment was performed on the basis of the technological properties estimation of moulding sand with bentonite, where the reclaimed material was used as a matrix.

  2. Evaluation of Impact Force of Missile Filled with Fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyuk-Kee [Hyundai, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung-Eock [Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, the effect of the fluid on the impact force was evaluated using the commercial software LS-DYNA. In order to verify the proposed finite element (FE) models, the impact force and impulse of the missiles filled with the fluid (wet missile) were investigated, and the analysis results were compared with the force plate tests conducted by VTT laboratory in Finland. A parametric study was performed to evaluate the impulse as per the position filled with the fluid and the impact velocity. The impulses of the wet missiles obtained from the parametric study were compared with those calculated by the modified Riera function. The effect of the fluid on the impact force was evaluated in this study. Based on this study, the following conclusions have been obtained: (1) The impulse/momentum ratios of the wet missiles filled with fluid in the front part were larger than those filled with fluid in the middle part. The difference was 5.5%, 5.3%, 6.2%, 3.8%, 2.9% and 1.0% for the impact velocities of 100 m/s, 110 m/s, 120 m/s, 130 m/s, 140 m/s, and 150 m/s, respectively. (2) The impulse/momentum ratios of the wet missiles by the FE analysis was larger than those by the modified Riera function up to 23.1% and 20.8%, respectively, when the fluid was filled in the front and middle parts. The modified Riera function underestimated the impulses of the wet missiles.

  3. Wind tunnel test results for the direction controlled antitank DCAT missile at Mach numbers from 0.64 to 2.50

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T. A.; Spring, D. J.

    1973-01-01

    Wind tunnel test results are presented to show aerodynamic characteristics over the Mach number range of 0.64 to 2.50 of the DCAT missile. Data are presented showing the interference created by the rear mounted reaction control system. Two candidate fins were installed on the model during tests: a flat folding fin and a curved wrap around fin.

  4. Management recommendations: Sand Lake Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review of land management practices at the Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge, by a land use specialist. Recommendations, time frame and...

  5. Sensuous Communism: Sand with Marx

    OpenAIRE

    White, Claire

    2015-01-01

    This article reads George Sand's Le Compagnon du Tour de France (1840) alongside Karl Marx's “Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844.” It considers how these contemporaries bring to bear on their accounts of labor, estrangement, and the structures of property an attention to the fate of the senses under capitalism. Both elaborate a critique of political economy—Sand's voiced by her worker-hero—that demonstrates how the individual's sensuous life is circumscribed by the pressures of mate...

  6. The Directed Energy Program for Ballistic Missile Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, L. C.

    1986-01-01

    Directed Energy Weapons (DEW) utilize a variety of techniques to concentrate destructive levels of energy over vast distances almost instantaneously. For this reason, directed energy systems are considered to be candidate weapons for intercepting intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM's) as they are being launched, and before they are able to release their multiple, independently targeted reentry vehicles (MIRV'S bearing nuclear warheads. Considerable leverage is gained by the defense since a single missile killed during this boost phase will eliminate not only 6 to 10 RV's, but also perhaps hundreds of decoys which would otherwise be deployed to confuse and saturate subsequent defense layers.

  7. Robust control for snake maneuver design of missile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun, Ya; Chen, Xin; Li, Chuntao

    2017-01-01

    For the performance of missile with high Mach number and strongly nonlinear dynamics, this paper uses robust control to design maneuver controller. Robust servomechanism linear quadratic regulator (RSLQR) control is used to form the inner loop and proportional-plus-integral (PI) control is used to provide yawing tracking with no error. Contrast simulations under three types of deviation have been done to confirm robustness of the RSLQR-plus-PI control. Simulation results shows that RSLQR-plus-PI control would resist the disturbance and maintain the properties of the controller, guarantee the robustness and stability of missile more effectively than pure PI control.

  8. Research on image fusion of missile team based on multi-agent cooperative blackboard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Guo; Munan, Li

    The target of cooperative engagement of missile teams is to furthest improve hit rate of target according to communication and cooperation among missiles. In this paper the problems of image fusion between missile teams in complex combat environment was analyzed, after which an muti-agent blackboard cooperative model was presented and a public information platform of missile team is built according to this model. Through these, the fusion of images taken from muti-sensor of missiles can be realized and the hit rate of attacking target will be improved. At last, an simulation experiment were performed, and the feasibility of the method is proved by simulation experiment.

  9. Missiles for Asia The Need for Operational Analysis of U.S. Theater Ballistic Missiles in the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    PLA and could play a key enabling role in Chinese counter- intervention campaigns (Hagen, 2010; Vick , 2011).9 The topic holds particular importance for...capabilities ( Vick et al., 2001, pp. 57–81). A TEL can begin moving soon after it has launched a missile, meaning that the target location error...States detects a missile launch, it could be anywhere within a 35-km2 circle after 10 minutes ( Vick et al., 2001, p. 73). Even if the TEL has to wait

  10. Research on capability of detecting ballistic missile by near space infrared system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li; Sheng, Wen; Jiang, Wei; Jiang, Feng

    2018-01-01

    The infrared detection technology of ballistic missile based on near space platform can effectively make up the shortcomings of high-cost of traditional early warning satellites and the limited earth curvature of ground-based early warning radar. In terms of target detection capability, aiming at the problem that the formula of the action distance based on contrast performance ignores the background emissivity in the calculation process and the formula is only valid for the monochromatic light, an improved formula of the detecting range based on contrast performance is proposed. The near space infrared imaging system parameters are introduced, the expression of the contrastive action distance formula based on the target detection of the near space platform is deduced. The detection range of the near space infrared system for the booster stage ballistic missile skin, the tail nozzle and the tail flame is calculated. The simulation results show that the near-space infrared system has the best effect on the detection of tail-flame radiation.

  11. Quartz Sand Resources In The Santa Maria Eterna Formation, Bahia, Brazil: A Geochemical And Morphological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Marques dos Santos; Murilo Ferreira; Fujiwara; Eric; Schenkel; Egont Alexandre; Enzweiler; Jacinta; Suzuki; Carlos Kenichi

    2016-01-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the quartz sand occurrences of the Santa Maria Eterna formation, in northeastern Brazil, as a potential source of raw material for silica glass manufacturing. Samples of quartz sand were analyzed by ICP-MS to determine a range of trace elements and establish its chemical purity. The technological potential of the sand was obtained by counting the quantity of bubbles formed during flame fusion over silica plate. Both chemistry and bubble formation indicate ...

  12. A study of the effects of LCD glass sand on the properties of concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Her-Yung

    2009-01-01

    In order to study the recycling of discarded liquid crystal display (LCD) glass into concrete (LCDGC), a portion of the usual river sand was replaced by sand prepared from discarded LCD glass. Three different mix designs were regulated by the ACI method (fc(28)=21, 28, and 35MPa) with 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% LCD glass sand replacements investigated; their engineering properties were determined. Test results revealed that, when compared to the design slump of 15cm, the 20% glass sand concrete for the three different mix designs kept good slump and slump flow. Furthermore, a slump loss ranging from 7 to 11cm was observed for specimens with 60% and 80% glass sand replacement for the design strengths of 28 and 35MPa. The compressive strengths of the concrete with glass sand replacement were higher than the design strengths. Moreover, the durability of the concrete with 20% glass sand replacement was better than that of the control group. Surface resistivity for specimens with different amounts of LCD glass sand replacement was also higher than that in the control group for mid to long curing ages. The sulfate attack in concrete with different amounts of glass sand replacement caused less weight loss than in the control group. Moderate chloride ion penetration was observed for glass sand concrete. Furthermore, the measured ultrasonic pulse velocities for LCD glass sand concrete specimens were higher than 4100m/s, which qualified these specimens as good concrete. OM and SEM indicate that the dense C-S-H gel hydrate was produced at the interface between the glass sand and cement paste. The test results indicate that the addition of 20% LCD glass sand to concrete satisfies the slump requirements and improves the strength and durability of concrete. This suggests that LCD glass sand can potentially be used as a recycled material in concrete applications.

  13. Electrochemical and Dry Sand Impact Erosion Studies on Carbon Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, M Y; Ismail, N I; Sulaiman, S A; Shukrullah, S

    2015-11-12

    This study investigated the dry and aqueous erosion of mild steel using electrochemical and dry sand impact techniques. In dry sand impact experiments, mild steel was eroded with 45 μm and 150 μm sand particles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and micro-hardness techniques were used to elaborate the surface morphology of the eroded samples. The results revealed significant change in morphology of the eroded samples. In-depth analysis showed that although the metal erosion due to larger particles was significantly higher, the fines also notably damaged the metal surface. The surface damages were appreciably reduced with decrease in impact angle of the accelerated particles. The maximum damages were observed at an impact angle of 90°. The hardness of the samples treated with 45 μm and 150 μm sand remained in the range of 88.34 to 102.31 VHN and 87.7 to 97.55 VHN, respectively. In electrochemical experiments, a triple electrode probe was added into the metal treatment process. The linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurements were performed in slurries having 5% (by weight) of sand particles. LPR of the samples treated with 45 μm and 150 μm sand slurries was calculated about 949 Ω.cm(2) and 809 Ω.cm(2), respectively.

  14. Compacted sand-bentonite mixtures for hydraulic containment liners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanit Chalermyanont

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Sand is a pervious material in nature. Mixing sand with appropriate bentonite contents yields sandbentonite mixtures having low hydraulic conductivity that can be used as hydraulic containment liners. In this study, compaction tests were conducted to determine the optimum water content and maximum dry unit weight of compacted sand-bentonite mixtures. Direct shear and hydraulic conductivity tests were conducted to assess the shear strength parameters and hydraulic conductivity of compacted sand-bentonite mixtures. Test results indicate that hydraulic conductivity of mixtures decreases about four orders of magnitude when mixed with 5% bentonite or more. Mixing sand with bentonite, however, results in a decreased shear strength of the mixtures due to the swell of bentonite when soaked with water. For the mixtures with bentonite content varying from 0 to 9%, the hydraulic conductivity of the mixtures decreases from 3.60×10-5 to 4.13×10-9 cm/s; while the corresponding friction angle and swell ranges from 49 to 22 degrees and 0.85 to 10.32%, respectively. In addition, the compacted sand-bentonite mixture with 3% bentonite content could achieve low hydraulic conductivity of 1×10-7 cm/s which is a regular requirement for hydraulic containment liners, while still having relatively high shear strength.

  15. CMC occasional papers : a missile stability regime for South Asia.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Feroz Hassan (Pakistan Army, Islamabad, Pakistan); Vannoni, Michael Geoffrey; Rajen, Gaurav (Gaia Research Consulting, Albuquerque, NM)

    2004-06-01

    India and Pakistan have created sizeable ballistic missile forces and are continuing to develop and enlarge them. These forces can be both stabilizing (e.g., providing a survivable force for deterrence) and destabilizing (e.g., creating strategic asymmetries). Missile forces will be a factor in bilateral relations for the foreseeable future, so restraint is necessary to curtail their destabilizing effects. Such restraint, however, must develop within an atmosphere of low trust. This report presents a set of political and operational options, both unilateral and bilateral, that decreases tensions, helps rebuild the bilateral relationship, and prepares the ground for future steps in structural arms control. Significant steps, which build on precedents and do not require extensive cooperation, are possible despite strained relations. The approach is made up of three distinct phases: (1) tension reduction measures, (2) confidence building measures, and (3) arms control agreements. The goal of the first phase is to initiate unilateral steps that are substantive and decrease tensions, establish missiles as a security topic for bilateral discussion, and set precedents for limited bilateral cooperation. The second phase would build confidence by expanding current bilateral security agreements, formalizing bilateral understandings, and beginning discussion of monitoring procedures. The third phase could include bilateral agreements limiting some characteristics of national missile forces including the cooperative incorporation of monitoring and verification.

  16. A Potent Vector: Assessing Chinese Cruise Missile Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    of Sydney. This article draws on the authors’ book A Low-Visibility Force Multiplier: Assessing China’s Cruise Missile Ambitions (NDU Press, 2014...infrastructure; didactic PLA discussions (Modern Navy and People’s Navy); generalist deliberations on the de- velopment trajectory and operational use of

  17. Craniocerebral missile injuries in civilian Kashmir – India | Rashid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    And the situation will continue to be so unless tertiary care hospitals are set up within and around the armed and conflict zones, war torn areas and battle fields, rather than risking transportation, time of resuscitation, intervention and the results. Key words: Craniocerebral, Kashmir, Missile Injuries, Outcome.

  18. Ballistic Missile Defense Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-01

    United States began to evaluate ways to protect against ballistic missile attack. This study led to the development of the Nike- Zeus System, which...34 because they do Live o a resevation. in a VA my left temple . i believe I am part Cherokee Indian. I believe hospital, are handicapped. there was

  19. Aerodynamic heating of ballistic missile including the effects of gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aerodynamic heating of a ballistic missile due to only convection is analysed taking into consideration the effects of gravity. The amount of heat transferred to the wetted area and to the nose region has been separately determined, unlike A Miele's treatise without consideration of gravity. The peak heating ratesto the ...

  20. Aerodynamic heating of ballistic missile including the effects of gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The aerodynamic heating of a ballistic missile due to only convection is analysed taking into consideration the effects of gravity. The amount of heat transferred to the wetted area and to the nose region has been separately determined, unlike A Miele's treatise without consideration of gravity. The peak heating rates ...

  1. Missiles and aircraft - Part 4 | Meyer | Scientia Militaria: South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 4 (1979) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Missiles and aircraft - Part 4. C Meyer. Abstract.

  2. Missiles and aircraft (Part 1) | Meyer | Scientia Militaria: South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 8, No 4 (1978) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Missiles and aircraft (Part 1).

  3. Missiles and aircraft (Part 3) | Meyer | Scientia Militaria: South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 3 (1979) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Missiles and aircraft (Part 3).

  4. Missiles and aircraft (part 2) | Meyer | Scientia Militaria: South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (1979) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Missiles and aircraft (part 2).

  5. Disturbance of the inclined inserting-type sand fence to wind-sand flow fields and its sand control characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jian-jun; Lei, Jia-qiang; Li, Sheng-yu; Wang, Hai-feng

    2016-06-01

    The inclined inserting-type sand fence is a novel sand retaining wall adopted along the Lanxin High-Speed Railway II in Xinjiang for controlling and blocking sand movement. To verify the effectiveness of the new fence structure for sand prevention, a wind tunnel test was used for flow field test simulation of the sand fence. The results indicate that the inclined inserting-type sand fence was able to deflect the flow of the sand and was able to easily form an upward slant acceleration zone on the leeward side of the sand fence. As shown by the percentage change in sand collection rates on the windward side and the leeward side of the sand fence, the sand flux per unit area at 4 m height in the slant upward direction increased on the leeward side of the inclined inserting-type sand fence. By comparing the flow fields, this site is an acceleration zone, which also reaffirms the correspondence of wind-sand flow fields with the spatial distribution characteristic of the wind-carried sand motion. The field sand collection data indicates that under the effects of the inclined inserting-type sand fence, the sandy air currents passing in front and behind the sand fence not only changed in quality, but the grain composition and particle size also significantly changed, suggesting that the inclined inserting-type sand fence has a sorting and filtering effect on the sandy air currents that passed through. The fence retained coarse particulates on the windward side and fine particulates within the shade of the wind on the leeward side.

  6. Optimal array of sand fences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Izael A.; Araújo, Ascânio D.; Parteli, Eric J. R.; Andrade, José S.; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2017-03-01

    Sand fences are widely applied to prevent soil erosion by wind in areas affected by desertification. Sand fences also provide a way to reduce the emission rate of dust particles, which is triggered mainly by the impacts of wind-blown sand grains onto the soil and affects the Earth’s climate. Many different types of fence have been designed and their effects on the sediment transport dynamics studied since many years. However, the search for the optimal array of fences has remained largely an empirical task. In order to achieve maximal soil protection using the minimal amount of fence material, a quantitative understanding of the flow profile over the relief encompassing the area to be protected including all employed fences is required. Here we use Computational Fluid Dynamics to calculate the average turbulent airflow through an array of fences as a function of the porosity, spacing and height of the fences. Specifically, we investigate the factors controlling the fraction of soil area over which the basal average wind shear velocity drops below the threshold for sand transport when the fences are applied. We introduce a cost function, given by the amount of material necessary to construct the fences. We find that, for typical sand-moving wind velocities, the optimal fence height (which minimizes this cost function) is around 50 cm, while using fences of height around 1.25 m leads to maximal cost.

  7. Sands at Gusev Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Farmer, Jack D.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Grin, E.A.; Li, Ron; Fenton, Lori; Cohen, B.; Bell, J.F.; Yingst, R. Aileen

    2014-01-01

    Processes, environments, and the energy associated with the transport and deposition of sand at Gusev Crater are characterized at the microscopic scale through the comparison of statistical moments for particle size and shape distributions. Bivariate and factor analyses define distinct textural groups at 51 sites along the traverse completed by the Spirit rover as it crossed the plains and went into the Columbia Hills. Fine-to-medium sand is ubiquitous in ripples and wind drifts. Most distributions show excess fine material, consistent with a predominance of wind erosion over the last 3.8 billion years. Negative skewness at West Valley is explained by the removal of fine sand during active erosion, or alternatively, by excess accumulation of coarse sand from a local source. The coarse to very coarse sand particles of ripple armors in the basaltic plains have a unique combination of size and shape. Their distribution display significant changes in their statistical moments within the ~400 m that separate the Columbia Memorial Station from Bonneville Crater. Results are consistent with aeolian and/or impact deposition, while the elongated and rounded shape of the grains forming the ripples, as well as their direction of origin, could point to Ma'adim Vallis as a possible source. For smaller particles on the traverse, our findings confirm that aeolian processes have dominated over impact and other processes to produce sands with the observed size and shape patterns across a spectrum of geologic (e.g., ripples and plains soils) and aerographic settings (e.g., wind shadows).

  8. Sands at Gusev Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Knoll, Andrew H.; Farmer, Jack; Arvidson, Raymond; Grin, Edmond; Li, Ronxing; Fenton, Lori; Cohen, Barbara; Bell, James F.; Aileen Yingst, R.

    2014-05-01

    Processes, environments, and the energy associated with the transport and deposition of sand at Gusev Crater are characterized at the microscopic scale through the comparison of statistical moments for particle size and shape distributions. Bivariate and factor analyses define distinct textural groups at 51 sites along the traverse completed by the Spirit rover as it crossed the plains and went into the Columbia Hills. Fine-to-medium sand is ubiquitous in ripples and wind drifts. Most distributions show excess fine material, consistent with a predominance of wind erosion over the last 3.8 billion years. Negative skewness at West Valley is explained by the removal of fine sand during active erosion, or alternatively, by excess accumulation of coarse sand from a local source. The coarse to very coarse sand particles of ripple armors in the basaltic plains have a unique combination of size and shape. Their distribution display significant changes in their statistical moments within the ~400 m that separate the Columbia Memorial Station from Bonneville Crater. Results are consistent with aeolian and/or impact deposition, while the elongated and rounded shape of the grains forming the ripples, as well as their direction of origin, could point to Ma'adim Vallis as a possible source. For smaller particles on the traverse, our findings confirm that aeolian processes have dominated over impact and other processes to produce sands with the observed size and shape patterns across a spectrum of geologic (e.g., ripples and plains soils) and aerographic settings (e.g., wind shadows).

  9. Energy Return on Investment of Canadian Oil Sands Extraction from 2009 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Oil sands, as unconventional oil, are so essential to both Canada and the world that special attention should be paid to their extraction status, especially their energy efficiency. One of the most commonly used methods to evaluate energy efficiency is the Energy Return on Investment (EROI analysis. This paper focuses on EROI analysis for both in situ oil sands and mining oil sands over the period of 2009 to 2015. This time period represents an extension to periods previously considered by other analyses. An extended Input-Output model is used to quantify indirect energy input, which has been ignored by previous analyses of oil sands extraction. Results of this paper show that EROI of both mining oil sands (range of value: 3.9–8 and in situ oil sands (range of value: 3.2–5.4 display an upward trend over the past 7 years; EROI of mining oil sands is generally higher, but is more fluctuating than the EROI of in situ oil sands. Compared with EROI of other hydrocarbons, the EROI of oil sands is still quite low, despite the fact that it is increasing gradually.

  10. Sand Drift Potential by Wind in Shileh Plain of Sistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Poormand

    2016-02-01

    directions from 1992 to 2003 in order to predict the volume of sand transportation and its direction using sand-rose and wind-rose softwares. As described earlier, in this research, the drift potential (DP is estimated for all possible wind speed categories, summed up for all categories of each direction sector using Fryberger’s Equation. The sand drift potential in Shileh was estimated about 3439 vector units with a resultant drift direction along the Southeast, which places it in the high class of wind erosive power based on the Fryberger and Dean (1979 classification method. The sand drift potential values show that the resultant drift direction is from the Northwest towards the Southeast. It was also found that the most powerful winds (the prevailing winds blow in the summer and the spring seasons, respectively. In contrast, the percentage of calm winds increases during autumn and winter times. The sand transport discharge was predicted to be 20.422 t m-1 year-1 using Lattau and Lattau Equation. With regard to the monthly sand rose, it was seen that the resultant drift potential was low in December and January and high in June and July. The prevailing wind direction ranged from North to Northwest in all seasons. The winds with the highest velocities were observed in the summer, while the winds with lower velocities were observed during the winter. Wind velocities higher than 11 m s-1 had the largest frequencies in the summer and the lowest frequencies in the winter. Wind unidirectional index (UDI is estimated to be 0.95, implying that the index provides a suitable condition for the creation of transverse (barchanoid dunes. Conclusion: The Sistan plain is one of the windiest places in the world that is exposed to wind erosion and dust storms. The result of this study is very important due to the construction of an international roadway that connects Chabahar port to Sistan plain and continues towards the Afghanistan border. Therefore, the practical result of this

  11. Precise terrestrial time: A means for improved ballistic missile guidance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrsam, E. E.; Cresswell, S. A.; Mckelvey, G. R.; Matthews, F. L.

    1978-01-01

    An approach developed to improve the ground instrumentation time tagging accuracy and adapted to support the Minuteman ICBM program is desired. The Timing Insertion Unit (TIU) technique produces a telemetry data time tagging resolution of one tenth of a microsecond, with a relative intersite accuracy after corrections and velocity data (range, azimuth, elevation and range rate) also used in missile guidance system analysis can be correlated to within ten microseconds of the telemetry guidance data. This requires precise timing synchronization between the metric and telemetry instrumentation sites. The timing synchronization can be achieved by using the radar automatic phasing system time correlation methods. Other time correlation techniques such as Television (TV) Line-10 and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GEOS) terrestial timing receivers are also considered.

  12. Silo model tests with sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Andersen, Jørgen

    Tests have been carried out in a large silo model with Leighton Buzzard Sand. Normal pressures and shear stresses have been measured during tests carried out with inlet and outlet geometry. The filling method is a very important parameter for the strength of the mass and thereby the pressures...

  13. Sand and Water Table Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ann H.; White, Mary J.; Stone, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    The authors observed preschoolers engaged at the sand and water table to determine if math could be found within their play. Wanting to understand how children interact with provided materials and what kinds of math ideas they explore during these interactions, the authors offer practical examples of how such play can promote mathematical…

  14. V-2 at White Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1947-01-01

    A V-2 rocket is hoisted into a static test facility at White Sands, New Mexico. The German engineers and scientists who developed the V-2 came to the United States at the end of World War II and continued rocket testing under the direction of the U. S. Army, launching more than sixty V-2s.

  15. The Delft Sand, Clay & Rock Cutting Model. Family Edition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    In dredging, trenching, (deep sea) mining, drilling, tunnel boring and many other applications, sand, clay or rock has to be excavated. The productions (and thus the dimensions) of the excavating equipment range from mm3/sec - cm3/sec to m3/sec. In oil drilling layers with a thickness of a magnitude

  16. Monitoring of rapid sand filters using an acoustic imaging technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allouche, N.; Simons, D.G.; Rietveld, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    A novel instrument is developed to acoustically image sand filters used for water treatment and monitor their performance. The instrument consists of an omnidirectional transmitter that generates a chirp with a frequency range between 10 and 110 kHz, and an array of hydrophones. The instrument was

  17. Geologic map of Great Sand Dunes National Park, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madole, Richard F.; VanSistine, D. Paco; Romig, Joseph H.

    2016-10-20

    Geologic mapping was begun after a range fire swept the area of what is now the Great Sand Dunes National Park in April 2000. The park spans an area of 437 square kilometers (or about 169 square miles), of which 98 percent is blanketed by sediment of Quaternary age, the Holocene and Pleistocene Epochs; hence, this geologic map of the Great Sand Dunes National Park is essentially a surficial geologic map. These surficial deposits are diverse and include sediment of eolian (windblown), alluvial (stream and sheetwash), palustrine (wetlands and marshes), lacustrine (lake), and mass-wasting (landslides) origin. Sediment of middle and late Holocene age, from about 8,000 years ago to the present, covers about 80 percent of the park.Fluctuations in groundwater level during Holocene time caused wetlands on the nearby lowland that bounds the park on the west to alternately expand and contract. These fluctuations controlled the stability or instability of eolian sand deposits on the downwind (eastern) side of the lowland. When groundwater level rose, playas became lakes, and wet or marshy areas formed in many places. When the water table rose, spring-fed streams filled their channels and valley floors with sediment. Conversely, when groundwater level fell, spring-fed streams incised their valley floors, and lakes, ponds, and marshes dried up and became sources of windblown sand.Discharge in streams draining the west flank of the Sangre de Cristo Range is controlled primarily by snowmelt and flow is perennial until it reaches the mountain front, beyond which streams begin losing water at a high rate as the water soaks into the creek beds. Even streams originating in the larger drainage basins, such as Sand and Medano Creeks, generally do not extend much more than 4 km (about 2.5 miles) beyond where they exit the mountains.The Great Sand Dunes contain the tallest dunes (maximum height about 750 feet, or 230 m) in North America. These dunes cover an area of 72 square kilometers

  18. The eolian sand problems arising from desertification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bofah, K K; Owusu, Y A

    1986-05-01

    Eolian (wind blown) sand constitutes a very serious problem to development in sandy desert lands and causes equally serious problems in lands that are undergoing desertification. In this paper, eolian sand movement due to bulk movement such as sand dune and ripple movement, sand drift by saltation, and sand storms by strong winds are discussed. Associated problems such as eolian sand encroachment on highways, farms, communities and industrial complexes are also discussed and workable solutions are offered. Solutions include chemical stabilization of the surface grains, fences to trap the blown sand and vegetation to prevent soil deflation. Vegetation is emphasized and recommended as the ultimate viable solution to combat desertification and eolian sand problems.

  19. Coastal geology and recent origins for Sand Point, Lake Superior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Timothy G.; Krantz, David E.; Castaneda, Mario R.; Loope, Walter L.; Jol, Harry M.; Goble, Ronald J.; Higley, Melinda C.; DeWald, Samantha; Hansen, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Sand Point is a small cuspate foreland located along the southeastern shore of Lake Superior within Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore near Munising, Michigan. Park managers’ concerns for the integrity of historic buildings at the northern periphery of the point during the rising lake levels in the mid-1980s greatly elevated the priority of research into the geomorphic history and age of Sand Point. To pursue this priority, we recovered sediment cores from four ponds on Sand Point, assessed subsurface stratigraphy onshore and offshore using geophysical techniques, and interpreted the chronology of events using radiocarbon and luminescence dating. Sand Point formed at the southwest edge of a subaqueous platform whose base is probably constructed of glacial diamicton and outwash. During the post-glacial Nipissing Transgression, the base was mantled with sand derived from erosion of adjacent sandstone cliffs. An aerial photograph time sequence, 1939–present, shows that the periphery of the platform has evolved considerably during historical time, infl uenced by transport of sediment into adjacent South Bay. Shallow seismic refl ections suggest slump blocks along the leading edge of the platform. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) and shallow seismic refl ections to the northwest of the platform reveal large sand waves within a deep (12 m) channel produced by currents fl owing episodically to the northeast into Lake Superior. Ground-penetrating radar profi les show transport and deposition of sand across the upper surface of the platform. Basal radiocarbon dates from ponds between subaerial beach ridges range in age from 540 to 910 cal yr B.P., suggesting that Sand Point became emergent during the last ~1000 years, upon the separation of Lake Superior from Lakes Huron and Michigan. However, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from the beach ridges were two to three times as old as the radiocarbon ages, implying that emergence of Sand Point may have begun

  20. Diode Pumped Alkaline Laser System: A High Powered, Low SWaP Directed Energy Option for Ballistic Missile Defense High-Level Summary - April 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisoff, P. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-28

    The Diode-Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL) system is an R&D effort funded by the Missile Defense Agency (MDA) underway at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). MDA has described the characteristics needed for a Boost Phase directed energy (DE) weapon to work against ICBM-class threat missiles. In terms of the platform, the mission will require a high altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that can fly in the “quiet” stratosphere and display long endurance – i.e., days on station. In terms of the laser, MDA needs a high power, low size and weight laser that could be carried by such a platform and deliver lethal energy to an ICBM-class threat missile from hundreds of kilometers away. While both the military and industry are pursuing Directed Energy for tactical applications, MDA’s objectives pose a significantly greater challenge than other current efforts in terms of the power needed from the laser, the low size and weight required, and the range, speed, and size of the threat missiles. To that end, MDA is funding two R&D efforts to assess the feasibility of a high power (MWclass) and low SWaP (size, weight and power) laser: a fiber combining laser (FCL) project at MIT’s Lincoln Laboratory, and LLNL’s Diode-Pumped Alkali Laser (DPAL) system.

  1. Multi-Mode Electric Actuator Dynamic Modelling for Missile Fin Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhimashankar Gurav

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Linear first/second order fin direct current (DC actuator model approximations for missile applications are currently limited to angular position and angular velocity state variables. Furthermore, existing literature with detailed DC motor models is decoupled from the application of interest: tail controller missile lateral acceleration (LATAX performance. This paper aims to integrate a generic DC fin actuator model with dual-mode feedforward and feedback control for tail-controlled missiles in conjunction with the autopilot system design. Moreover, the characteristics of the actuator torque information in relation to the aerodynamic fin loading for given missile trim velocities are also provided. The novelty of this paper is the integration of the missile LATAX autopilot states and actuator states including the motor torque, position and angular velocity. The advantage of such an approach is the parametric analysis and suitability of the fin actuator in relation to the missile lateral acceleration dynamic behaviour.

  2. Application of Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle in Optimum Time of Missile Manoeuvring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Cahyaningtias

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Missile is a guided weapon and designed to protect outermost island from a thread of other country. It, commonly, is used as self defense. This research presented surface-to-surface missile in final dive manoeuvre for fixed target. Furthermore, it was proposed manoeuvring based on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, autopilot system, which needs accuration and minimum both time and thrust of missile while attacking object. This paper introduced pontryagin’s Minimum Principle, which is useable to solve the problem. The numerical solution showed that trajectory of the missile is split it up in three sub-intervals; flight, climbing, and diving. The numerical simulation showed that the missile must climb in order to satisfy the final dive condition and the optimum time of a missile depend on initial condition of the altitude and the terminal velocity

  3. Ionospheric effects of the missile destruction on December 9, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovsky, Alexander; Shalimov, Sergey; Lukianova, Renata

    2014-05-01

    We report on ionosonde and meteor radar observations made in Sodankyla Geophysical Observatory (SGO, 67N, 27E, Finland) on December 9, 2009 during a test launch of the Russian solid propellant military missile. Because of the technical problem the missile was self-destroyed around 07 UT at ionospheric height (170-260 km) over the Kola Peninsula (Russia), at a distance about 500 km to east from the observatory. Products of the explosion, including long-lived ionized aluminum oxides, were spread into the large area and reached the region of SGO meteor radar observations in about 2 hours (around 09 UT). After about 3 hours (around 10 UT) a sporadic E layer presumably composed of the remains was observed close to the zenith of the SGO ionosonde. We present the data and discuss possible mechanisms accounting for both vertical and horizontal transport of the remains. Theoretical estimations suggest that the observed transport could be likely due to thermospheric turbulence.

  4. Discrete Sliding Mode Control for Hypersonic Cruise Missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Hua Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A discrete variable structure control (DVSC with sliding vector is presented to track the velocity and acceleration command for a hypersonic cruise missile. In the design an integrator is augmented to ensure the tracking with zero steady-state errors. Furthermore the sliding surface of acceleration is designed using the error of acceleration and acceleration rate to avoid the singularity of control matrix. A proper power rate reaching law is utilized in this proposal; therefore the state trajectory from any initial point can be driven into the sliding surface. Besides, in order to validate the robustness of controller, the unmolded dynamic and parameter disturbance of the missile are considered. Through simulation the proposed controller demonstrates good performance in tracking velocity and acceleration command.

  5. Oblique second-order sand transport pathways on an intertidal sand flat in a natural tidal inlet system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Verner Brandbyge; Lefebvre, Alice; Kroon, Aart

    2013-01-01

    A detailed digital elevation model (DEM) of an intertidal sand flat in the Knudedyb tidal inlet in the Danish Wadden Sea, derived from high-resolution Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) data, reveals a large elongated bedform field with complex bedform morphologies and drainage channel networks....

  6. Complexity confers stability: Climate variability, vegetation response and sand transport on longitudinal sand dunes in Australia's deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Paul P.; Telfer, Matt W.; Farebrother, Will

    2017-04-01

    The relationship between antecedent precipitation, vegetation cover and sand movement on sand dunes in the Simpson and Strzelecki Deserts was investigated by repeated (up to four) surveys of dune crest plots (≈25 × 25 m) over a drought cycle (2002-2012) in both winter (low wind) and spring (high wind). Vegetation varied dramatically between surveys on vegetated and active dune crests. Indices of sand movement had significant correlations with vegetation cover: the depth of loose sand has a strong inverse relationship with crust (cyanobacterial and/or physical) while the area covered by ripples has a strong inverse relationship with the areal cover of vascular plants. However, the relationship between antecedent rainfall and vegetation cover was found to be complex. We tentatively identify two thresholds; (1) >10 mm of rainfall in the preceding 90 days leads to rapid and near total cover of crust and/or small plants 400 mm of rainfall in the preceding three years leads to higher cover of persistent and longer-lived plants >50 cm tall. These thresholds were used to predict days of low vegetation cover on dune crests. The combination of seasonality of predicted bare-crest days, potential sand drift and resultant sand drift direction explains observed patterns of sand drift on these dunes. The complex vegetation and highly variable rainfall regime confer meta-stability on the dunes through the range of responses to different intervals of antecedent rainfall and non-linear growth responses. This suggests that the geomorphic response of dunes to climate variation is complex and non-linear.

  7. Mobility of functionalized quantum dots and a model polystyrene nanoparticle in saturated quartz sand and loamy sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Ivan R; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2012-04-17

    Quantum dots (QDs) are one example of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) with demonstrated toxic effects. Yet, little is known about the behavior of QDs in the natural environment. This study assessed the transport of two commercial carboxylated QDs (CdTe and CdSe) and carboxylated polystyrene latex (nPL) as a model nanoparticle using saturated laboratory-scale columns. The influence of solution ionic strength (IS) and cation type (K(+) or Ca(2+)) on the transport potential of these ENPs was examined in two granular matrices - quartz sand and loamy sand. The retention of all three particles was generally low in the quartz sand columns within the range of studied IS (0.1-100 mM) for the monovalent salt (KCl). In contrast, the retention of the three ENPs in the quartz sand was significant in the presence of 10 mM Ca(2+). Moreover, ENP attachment efficiencies (α) were enhanced by at least 1 order of magnitude in columns packed with loamy sand (for IS between 0.1-10 mM KCl). Although all three ENPs used here are carboxylated, they differ in the type of surface coating (e.g., choice of polymers or polyelectrolytes). Regardless of the surface coatings, the three ENPs exhibit comparable mobility in the quartz sand. However, the ENPs demonstrate variable transport potential in loamy sand suggesting that differences in the binding affinities of surface-modified ENPs for specific soil constituents can play a key role in the fate of ENPs in soils.

  8. experimental studies of sand production from unconsolidated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    consolidated samples has been used to simulate the effect of flow rates, confining pressure, pressure drawdown and fluid viscosity on sand production in the Niger. Delta. The model was also used to determine the ability of using the flow rate to control the production of sand. Sand sample from an unconsolidated reser-.

  9. Gouging abrasion resistance of materials for oil sands service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llewellyn, R.J. [National Research Council of Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Tolfree, D.J.; Hall, R.A. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Mining and Mineral Process Engineering; Liang, P. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Metals and Materials Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Hydraulic ore transportation in the oil sands industry has brought about a need for effective and reliable crusher and classifying systems to pulverize, screen and handle mined frozen oil sands lumps and large solids before they get slurried and pipelined to bitumen extraction plants. Improved product development, assessment methods for materials for oil sands applications have generally focused on low and high stress abrasion and slurry erosion resistance because these wear mechanisms are considered to predominate in oil sands mining, transportation and bitumen recovery. With the increased use of crusher and slurry handling systems, materials of construction are required to have good toughness and gouging abrasion properties to withstand impact and ploughing forces. Tests of gouging abrasion were conducted using a modified ASTM G81 procedure on a range of materials associated with oil sands processing. The objective was to assess material property requirements for mitigating these conditions. The wear losses that occurred for reference wear plates were compared to feed rock that was pulverized in a laboratory jaw crusher. The classes of evaluated materials were abrasion resistant (AR) steel plates, austenitic manganese steel castings, chromium and chromium molybdenum white irons (as plain castings and in laminated forms), and chromium carbide and tungsten carbide overlaid wear plates. 8 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  10. Have Adversary Missiles Become a Revolution in Military Affairs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    no need to culti- vate missiles as an RMA since it had developed and deployed forward-based air forces and carrier battle groups for power projec...they were stopped cold by the Soviets at Kursk in 1943. The US RMA of global power projection based upon forward air bases and carriers has yet to...areas with minimal ability to conduct a battle damage assessment, except for that announced on public news broadcasts. Threat technical

  11. MISSILE DATA COMPENDIUM (DATCOM) User Manual 2014 Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    constrained) KARMAN - von Karman (L-D Haack; length-diameter constrained) • If DAFT < DCENTR the afterbody is a boattail. • If DAFT > DCENTR the...or 1> (tangent ogive) - CONICAL LAFT - Afterbody length L 0. DAFT - Afterbody diameter at base (must be > 0 and not equal to...DCENTR, LAFT, DAFT , and DEXIT should also be defined when using the AXIBOD option 2 input scheme. If they are not specified, Missile Datcom will use

  12. Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile (JASSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-555 Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile (JASSM) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...6 Mission and Description 7 Executive Summary 8 Threshold Breaches 10 Schedule 11 Performance 14 Track to Budget 16 Cost...and Funding 17 Low Rate Initial Production 33 Foreign Military Sales 34 Nuclear Costs 34 Unit Cost 35 Cost Variance 41 Contracts

  13. Theater Missile Defenses and U.S. Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    6. 50Hughs, p. 38. For a discussion of the shortcomings of the Patriot defenses, see Theodore A. Postol , "Lessons of the Gulf War Experience with...34 December 1991. Postol , Theodore A. "Lessons of the Gulf War Experience with Patriot." International Security 16 (Winter 1991/1992): 119-171. Potter, William...Corps SAM, expected to have a missile defense footprint of about 40 kIn; --Theater High Altitude Area Defense ( THAAD ), expected to defend a

  14. Sino-Japanese relations and ballistic missile defence

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Christopher W.

    2001-01-01

    Since December 1998, the Japanese government has formally committed itself to undertake cooperative technological research with the US into Ballistic Missile Defence (BMD). Japanese government policy-makers stress that the BMD project remains at present purely at the research stage, and that separate government decisions will be necessary before any progression towards the stages of development, production and deployment. Nevertheless, even at the research phase it is clear that both Japanese...

  15. Patriot Advanced Capability-3 Missile Segment Enhancement (PAC-3 MSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-492 Patriot Advanced Capability-3 Missile Segment Enhancement ( PAC -3 MSE) As of FY 2017...President’s Budget Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval (DAMIR) March 21, 2016 09:42:58 UNCLASSIFIED PAC -3 MSE December 2015 SAR March...ORD - Operational Requirements Document OSD - Office of the Secretary of Defense O&S - Operating and Support PAUC - Program Acquisition Unit Cost PAC

  16. The Development of the US National Missile Defense and its Impact on the International Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yu. Parshkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reflects the US officials' point of view on the development of its national missile defense. The major threat to international security is the proliferation of ballistic missiles and weapons of mass destruction. The United States and the former Soviet Union made huge efforts to reduce and limit offensive arms. However, presently the proliferation of ballistic missiles spreads all over the world, especially in the Middle East, because of the ballistic missile technology falling into the hands of hostile non-state groups. Missile defenses can provide a permanent presence in a region and discourage adversaries from believing they can use ballistic missiles to coerce or intimidate the U.S. or its allies. With the possible attack regional missile defense systems will be promptly mobilized to enhance an effective deterrent. The ultimate goal of such large-scale missile defense deployment is to convince the adversaries that the use of ballistic missiles is useless in military terms and that any attack on the United States and its allies is doomed to failure. The United States has missile defense cooperative programs with a number of allies, including United Kingdom, Japan, Australia, Israel, Denmark, Germany, Netherlands, Czech Republic, Poland, Italy and many others. The Missile Defense Agency also actively participates in NATO activities to maximize opportunities to develop an integrated NATO ballistic missile defense capability. The initiative of the development of US BMD naturally belongs to the United States. That country has enormous technological, financial, economic, military and institutional capabilities, exceeding by far those of the other NATO members combined.

  17. The future of the ballistic missile submarine force in the Russian nuclear triad

    OpenAIRE

    Lesiw, Richard T.

    2008-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis analyzes the current status of the Russian Federation's ballistic missile submarine force. It reviews the history of the ballistic missile submarine force, its current status, and the implementation of plans currently in progress and as well as the advantages and disadvantages of maintaining a ballistic missile submarine force. This thesis also assesses the other two legs of the nuclear triad - the intercontinental balli...

  18. A Numerical Method for Blast Shock Wave Analysis of Missile Launch from Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Heimbs

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient empirical approach was developed to accurately represent the blast shock wave loading resulting from the launch of a missile from a military aircraft to be used in numerical analyses. Based on experimental test series of missile launches in laboratory environment and from a helicopter, equations were derived to predict the time- and position-dependent overpressure. The method was finally applied and validated in a structural analysis of a helicopter tail boom under missile launch shock wave loading.

  19. Counterforce and Theater Missile Defense: Can the Army Use an ASW approach to the Scud Hunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-03-27

    SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Counterforce and Theater Missile Defense: Can the Army Use an ASW Approach to the SCUD Hunt ? (U) B. AUTHOR(S) James J. Wirtz...ABSTRACT Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified I TL 0 COUNTERFORCE AND THEATER MISSILE DEFENSE: CAN THE ARMY USE AN ASW APPROACH TO THE SCUD HUNT ...alliance relations and deterrence. V COUNTERFORCE AND THEATER MISSILE DEFENSE: CAN THE ARMY USE AN ASW APPRO CH TO THE SCUD HUNT ? Introduction. As events

  20. Defense Science Board Task Force on Defense Strategies for Advanced Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    REPORT OF THE DEFENSE SCIENCE BOARD TASK FORCE ON Defense Strategies for Advanced Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threats January 2017 Office of...Science Board Task Force on Defense Strategies for Advanced Ballistic and Cruise Missile Threats completed its information-gathering in February 2016...Defense Strategies fo r Advanced Ballistic and Crui se Missile Threats l am pleased to forward the final report of the DSB Task Force on Defense

  1. Changing law of launching pitching angular velocity of rotating missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Guang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide accurate launching pitching angular velocity (LPAV for the exterior trajectory optimization design, multi-flexible body dynamics (MFBD technology is presented to study the changing law of LPAV of the rotating missile based on spiral guideway. An MFBD virtual prototype model of the rotating missile launching system is built using multi-body dynamics modeling technology based on the built flexible body models of key components and the special force model. The built model is verified with the frequency spectrum analysis. With the flexible body contact theory and nonlinear theory of MFBD technology, the research is conducted on the influence of a series of factors on LPAV, such as launching angle change, clearance between launching canister and missile, thrust change, thrust eccentricity and mass eccentricity, etc. Through this research, some useful values of the key design parameters which are difficult to be measured in physical tests are obtained. Finally, a simplified mathematical model of the changing law of LPAV is presented through fitting virtual test results using the linear regression method and verified by physical flight tests. The research results have important significance for the exterior trajectory optimization design.

  2. Strength and Compaction Analysis of Sand-Bentonite-Coal Ash Mixes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobti, Jaskiran; Singh, Sanjay Kumar

    2017-08-01

    This paper deals with the strength and compaction characteristics of sand-bentonite-coal ash mixes prepared by varying percentages of sand, bentonite and coal ash to be used in cutoff walls and as a liner or cover material in landfills. The maximum dry density (MDD) and optimum moisture content (OMC) of sand-bentonite mixes and sand-bentonite-coal ash mixes were determined by conducting the standard proctor test. Also, the strength and stiffness characteristics of soil mixes were furnished using unconfined compressive strength test. The results of the study reveal influence of varying percentages of coal ash and bentonite on the compaction characteristics of the sand-bentonite-coal ash mixes. Also, validation of a statistical analysis of the correlations between maximum dry density (MDD), optimum moisture content (OMC) and Specific Gravity (G) was done using the experimental results. The experimental results obtained for sand-bentonite, sand-bentonite-ash and coal ash-bentonite mixes very well satisfied the statistical relations between MDD, OMC and G with a maximum error in the estimate of MDD being within ±1 kN/m3. The coefficient of determination (R2) ranged from 0.95 to 0.967 in case of sand-bentonite-ash mixes. However, for sand-bentonite mixes, the R2 values are low and varied from 0.48 to 0.56.

  3. Flowfield and Radiation Analysis of Missile Exhaust Plumes Using a Turbulent-Chemistry Interaction Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Calhoon, W. H; Kenzakowski, D. C

    2000-01-01

    ... components and missile defense systems. Current engineering level models neglect turbulent-chemistry interactions and typically underpredict the intensity of plume afterburning and afterburning burnout...

  4. Assessment of Turbulence-Chemistry Interactions in Missile Exhaust Plume Signature Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Calhoon, W

    2002-01-01

    ... components and missile defense systems. Current engineering level models neglect turbulence chemistry interactions and typically underpredict the intensity of plume afterburning and afterburning burnout...

  5. Civilian casualties of Iranian cities by ballistic missile attacks during the Iraq-Iran war (1980-1988).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaji, Ali; Fallahdoost, Shoaodin; Soroush, Mohammad Reza

    2010-04-01

    To determine the nature and extent of Iranian casualties by ballistic missile attacks during the eight years of the Iraq-Iran war. The data collected about Iraqi missile strikes on Iranian cities included the following: date and time, number and type of missiles, cities targeted, and injuries and deaths resulting from impacts of missiles in civilian areas. The data were extracted from a database that was constructed by the army staff headquarters based on daily reports of Iranian army units during the war. Over a period of eight years (1980-1988), Iraqi army fired 533 ballistic missiles at Iranian territories. From those, 414 missiles (77.7%) landed on Iranian cities. The impacts of these missiles caused the deaths of 2,312 civilians and injured 11,625 others. Three types of ballistic missiles were used: FROG-7, Scud, and Al-Hussein (a modified version of the Scud missile). Twenty-seven cities in Iran were struck by Iraqi ballistic missiles. The highest mortalities from ballistic missiles were in Dezful and Tehran. Iraqi missile attacks continued for 90 months (2,748 days). Our results point to the necessity of investigating the psychological consequences of Iraqi ballistic missile attacks among survivors in 27 Iranian cities during the eight years of the Iraq-Iran war.

  6. Reframing the Canadian Oil Sands

    OpenAIRE

    Patchett, Merle M; Lozowy, A

    2012-01-01

    Reframing the Canadian Oil Sands” is a collaborative exchange between photographer Andriko Lozowy and cultural geographer Merle Patchett that engages photography and photographic theory to evoke a more critical and politically meaningful visual engagement with the world’s largest capital oil project. Since the appearance of Edward Burtynsky’s aerial and abstracted photographic-mappings of the region, capturing the scale of the Oil Sands from ‘on high’ has become the dominant visual imaginary....

  7. Rheological Characterization of Green Sand Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud; Spangenberg, Jon; Hovad, Emil

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to characterize experimentally the flow behaviour of the green sand that is used for casting of sand moulds. After the sand casting process is performed, the sand moulds are used for metal castings. The rheological properties of the green sand is important to quantify...... module for characterizing granular materials. The new module enables viscosity measurements of the green sand as function of the shear rate at different flow rates, i.e. 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 15 L/min. The results show generally that the viscosity decreases with both the shear- and flow rate....... In addition, the measurements show that the green sand flow follows a shear-thinning behaviour even after the full fluidization point....

  8. Satellite and Missile Data Generation for AIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    nominalizations and agentless passives, as well as a range of types of quantification, conjunction, complementation, ellipsis, and anaphora . The...types of definite anaphora which not 1-10 V only transcend sentence boundaries and, In some cases, even message boundaries, but often are of the kind...based language understanding and the generation of Indi- cator and descriptor data. However, from the pragmatic point of view, the work carried out

  9. Evaluation of Durability Parameters of Concrete with Manufacture Sand and River Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangoju, Bhaskar; Ramesh, G.; Bharatkumar, B. H.; Ramanjaneyulu, K.

    2017-09-01

    Most of the states in our country have banned sand quarrying from the river beds, causing a scarcity of natural river sand for the construction sector. Manufacture sand (M-sand) is one of the alternate solutions to replace the river sand (R-sand) in concrete. The main aim of the present study is to evaluate the durability parameters of concrete with M-sand when compared to that of concrete with R-sand. Corrosion of reinforcement is one of the main deteriorating mechanisms of reinforced concrete due to the ingress of chloride ions or carbon-di-oxide. For comparative evaluation of durability parameters, accelerated tests such as Rapid Chloride Permeability Test, Rapid Chloride Migration Test and accelerated carbonation test were carried out on specimens of R-sand and M-sand. All tests were carried out after 90 days of casting. Test results reveal that the durability parameters of the concrete with M-sand in chloride induced environment is relatively better than that of concrete with R-sand and hence is recommended to use M-sand as a replacement to R-sand.

  10. Effect of Natural Sand Percentages on Fatigue Life of Asphalt Concrete Mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla Yassub Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The design of a flexible pavement requires the knowledge of the material properties which are characterized by stiffness and fatigue resistance. The fatigue resistance relates the number of load cycles to failure with the strain level applied to the asphalt mixture. The main objective of this research is the evaluation of the fatigue life of asphalt mixtures by using two types of fine aggregate having different percentages. In this study, two types of fine aggregate were used natural sand (desert sand and crushed sand. The crushed sand was replaced by natural sand (desert sand with different percentages (0%, 25%, 75% and 100% by the weight of the sand (passing sieve No.8 and retained on sieve No.200 and one type of binder (40/50 penetration from Al-Daurah refinery. The samples of beams were tested by four point bending beam fatigue test at the control strain mode (250, 500 and 750 microstrain while the loading frequency (5Hz and testing temperature (20oC according to (AASHTO T321. The experimental work showed that fatigue life (Nf and initial flexural stiffness increased when control strain decreased for asphalt mixtures. Acceptable fatigue life at 750 microstrain was obtained with asphalt concrete mixtures containing 100% crushed sand as well as asphalt concrete contained 25% natural sand. The asphalt concrete contained 100% and 75% of natural sand exhibited high fatigue life at low level of microstrain (250. The main conclusion of this study found that best proportion of natural sand to be added to an asphaltic concrete mixture is falling within the range (0% and 25% by weight of fraction (passing No.8 and retained on No.200 sieve .

  11. A Life Cycle Assessment of Silica Sand: Comparing the Beneficiation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamarija Grbeš

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Silica sand or quartz sand is a mineral resource with a wide variety of application; glass industry, construction and foundry are the most common examples thereof. The Republic of Croatia has reserves of 40 million tons of silica sand and a long tradition of surface mining and processing. The average annual production of raw silica sand in Croatia in the period from 2006 to 2011 amounted to 150 thousand tons. This paper presents cradle to gate LCA results of three different types of beneficiation techniques: electrostatic separation; flotation; gravity concentration. The aim of this research is to identify and quantify the environmental impacts of the silica sand production, to learn the range of the impacts for different processing methods, as well as to identify the major contributors and focus for further process design development.

  12. SAND

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Grete

    Der er udført et konsolideringsforsøg med bakkesand fra Lunds grusgrav, Lund no. O. forsøget er udført i samme konsolideringsapparat, som er anvendt til måling af deformationsegenskaberne af mange forskellige danske jordarter. Forsøgsresultaterne er søgt tolket som ved forsøg med andre jordarter....

  13. A laws of war review of contemporary land-based missile defence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Automated precise guided missile defence has been around for some years, and is a modern-day mechanism used frequently since 2011 to defend against rocket attacks penetrating national airspace. Israel's automated Iron Dome Missile Defence System has intercepted over 1 000 rockets during two recent military ...

  14. 75 FR 28587 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Missile Launch...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... to sound produced by the engines of all launch vehicles, and, in some cases, their booster rockets... Marine Mammals Incidental to Missile Launch Operations from San Nicolas Island, CA AGENCY: National... three species of seals and sea lions incidental to missile launch operations from San Nicolas Island...

  15. Opportunities and challenges for MEMS technology in Army missile systems applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Paul B.

    1999-07-01

    The military market drives the thrust for the development of robust, high performance MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) devices with applications such as: competent and smart munitions, aircraft and missile autopilots, tactical missile guidance, fire control systems, platform stabilization, smart structures with embedded inertial sensors, missile system health monitoring, aerodynamic flow control, and multiple intelligent small projectiles. Army missile applications will be a fertile market for MEMS products, such as MEMS-based inertial sensors. MEMS technology should significantly enhance performance and provide more robust mission capability in applications where arrays of MEMS devices are required. The Army Aviation and Missile Command Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center is working diligently with other government agencies, academia, and industry to develop high performing MEMS devices to withstand shock, vibration, temperature, humidity, and long-term storage conditions often encountered by Army missile systems. The goals of the ongoing DARPA MEMS technology programs will meet a significant portion of the Army missile systems requirements. In lieu of presenting an all-inclusive review of Army MEMS applications, this paper addresses a number of opportunities and associated challenges for MEMS systems operating in military environments. Near term applications and the less mature, high-risk applications of MEMS devices are addressed.

  16. Zero-sum versus nonzero-sum differential game approach to missile guidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trottemant, E.J.; Vermeulen, A.; Weiss, M.

    2007-01-01

    New developments and improvements on evasive missiles have led to a situation in which the current missile guidance laws have difficulties to intercept maneuvering targets. The nature of the interception problem with 2 non-cooperative players leads to the field of differential games. Recent studies

  17. Civilian casualties of Iraqi ballistic missile attack to Tehran, capital of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaji, Ali; Fallahdoost, Shoaodin; Soroush, Mohammad-Reza; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa

    2012-01-01

    To determine the pattern of causalities of Iraqi ballistic missile attacks on Tehran, the capital of Iran, during Iraq-Iran war. Data were extracted from the Army Staff Headquarters based on daily reports of Iranian army units during the war. During 52 days, Tehran was stroked by 118 Al-Hussein missiles (a modified version of Scud missile). Eighty-six missiles landed in populated areas. During Iraqi missile attacks, 422 civilians died and 1 579 injured (4.9 deaths and 18.3 injuries per missile). During 52 days, 8.1 of the civilians died and 30.4 injured daily. Of the cases that died, 101 persons (24%) were excluded due to the lack of information. Among the remainders, 179 (55.8%) were male and 142 (44.2%) were female. The mean age of the victims was 25.3 years+/-19.9 years. Our results show that the high accuracy of modified Scud missiles landed in crowded areas is the major cause of high mortality in Tehran. The presence of suitable warning system and shelters could reduce civilian casualties. The awareness and readiness of civilian defense forces, rescue services and all medical facilities for dealing with mass casualties caused by ballistic missile attacks are necessary.

  18. The National Research Council study: "Making sense of ballistic missile defense"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkening, Dean A.

    2014-05-01

    This chapter explains and summarizes the main findings of a recent National Research Council study entitled Making Sense of Ballistic Missile Defense: An Assessment of Concepts and Systems for U.S. Boost-Phase Missile Defense in Comparison to Other Alternatives.

  19. 48 CFR 225.7016 - Restriction on Ballistic Missile Defense research, development, test, and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Acquisition 225.7016 Restriction on Ballistic Missile Defense research, development, test, and evaluation. ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restriction on Ballistic Missile Defense research, development, test, and evaluation. 225.7016 Section 225.7016 Federal Acquisition...

  20. Pacific Missile Range Facility Intercept Test Support. Environmental Assessment/Overseas Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    imbricata Hawksbill sea turtle E Lepidochelys olivacea Olive ridley sea turtle T Birds Oceanodroma castro Band-rumped storm-petrel C Phoebastria albatrus...mydas Green sea turtle T Dermochelys coriacea Leatherback sea turtle E Eretmochelys imbricata Hawksbill sea turtle E Lepidochelys olivacea Olive...Hawaiian Islands: the green, hawksbill, loggerhead (Caretta caretta), olive ridley (Lepidochelys olivacea ), and leatherback sea turtles. 3-82 PMRF

  1. AIM-120 Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (AMRAAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    applications against massed penetration aircraft. The AIM-120D, currently in production, provides improved accuracy via Global Positioning System...to cut in the latter part of Lot 31 in FY 2019. AIM-120 Lot 28-30 Production Contract: The Lot 28 contract, with priced options for Lots 29 and 30...The basic PSAS 2015 contract was awarded on September 21, 2015 with a ceiling price of $180M. The first task order for program support, CLS, and SLPP

  2. Job Language Performance Requirements for MOS 16P. Short Range Air Defense Artillery Missile Crewman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-10-01

    resuscitation causes obstruction certain pause checking pinched -ieck pliable ,;nest position children procedure - circulation pulse clear ratio clothing...dtfcnse surface sandbags, operational exposue guidan tall grass shielding radiometer tend standard reading woods super user vehicle S -Sr (: e i,0 Vi .- w...M-40 packed ir fixed - instruction sheet pairs of fragment spray insulation tape plug functioning kill zone groove of the sight lead of an enemy

  3. Long-Range Precision-Strike Cruise Missiles in Nato Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    strategic strikes, going after the heart of Milosevic’s power. The Europeans, or at least the French and a few others, were more interested in...going after the heart of Milosevic’s power. The Europeans, or at least the French and a few others, were more interested in limiting the strikes to...relatively weak countries the chance to leap- frog their way to battlefield superiority.149 146Sitakanta

  4. Crisis Stability and Long-Range Strike: A Comparative Analysis of Fighters, Bombers, and Missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    of Social Darwinism on military thinking. For some of the more important works on the causes of World War I not cited elsewhere in this report, see...study team postulated that oppo- nent leaders would assume that, if the crisis devolved to war, they could hold out for up to 30 days. Therefore, to

  5. Environmental Assessment (EA): Proposed Missile Storage Improvements, Utah Test and Training Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    degrees Fahrenheit. One of these structures (Building 30260) was used for cryogenic or deep -freeze testing. They were hardened structures meant to...based paint (confirmed to contain lead by on-site inspections using a portable X-ray fluorescence analyzer) would be scraped , collected, and properly...according to basic survey standards for Building 30213 and submitted to Utah’s SHPO. The most relevant portions of the ILS form would be posted on the web

  6. Stability of spinning ICBM (intercontinental ballistic missile) in first stage boost phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandstra, R. W.

    1985-12-01

    A computer program is developed to model a spinning intercontinental Ballistic Missile (IICBM) during the first stage boost phase. The equations of motion are derived and presented and a full rotation matrix is used to show the relationship between a launch-centered, nonrotating earth inertial reference frame and the missile body reference frame. The moments of inertia and aerodynamic forces are derived and presented. A feedback controller is derived which proved to be a necessary additiion to the system in order to reduce the angle of attack. The angle of attack of the missile produced adverse effects on the burnout vector without the feedback controller, but the effects are reduced considerably with the controller included. Problem areas include possibly excessive nozzle gimbal rates caused by the feedback controller and the need to change the initial kick angle if the missile is spinning in order to achieve the same burnout conditions as a nonspinning missile.

  7. Analysis and optimization of trajectories for Ballistic Missiles Interception

    OpenAIRE

    Montero Yéboles, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles are capable of placing a nuclear warhead at more than 5,000 km away from its launching base. With the lethal power of a nuclear warhead a whole city could be wiped out by a single weapon causing millions of deaths. This means that the threat posed to any country from a single ICBM captured by a terrorist group or launched by a 'rogue' state is huge. This threat is increasing as more countries are achieving nuclear and advanced launcher capabilities. In orde...

  8. Ballistic missile precession frequency extraction by spectrogram's texture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Longlong; Xu, Shiyou; Li, Gang; Chen, Zengping

    2013-10-01

    In order to extract precession frequency, an crucial parameter in ballistic target recognition, which reflected the kinematical characteristics as well as structural and mass distribution features, we developed a dynamic RCS signal model for a conical ballistic missile warhead, with a log-norm multiplicative noise, substituting the familiar additive noise, derived formulas of micro-Doppler induced by precession motion, and analyzed time-varying micro-Doppler features utilizing time-frequency transforms, extracted precession frequency by measuring the spectrogram's texture, verified them by computer simulation studies. Simulation demonstrates the excellent performance of the method proposed in extracting the precession frequency, especially in the case of low SNR.

  9. Dr. von Braun and Army Ballistics Missile Agency (ABMA) Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    1959-01-01

    This photograph of Dr. von Braun, shown here to the left of General Bruce Medaris, was taken in the fall of 1959, immediately prior to Medaris' retirement from the Army. At the time, von Braun and his associates worked for the Army Ballistics Missile Agency in Huntsville, Alabama. Those in the photograph have been identified as Ernst Stuhlinger, Frederick von Saurma, Fritz Mueller, Hermarn Weidner, E.W. Neubert (partially hidden), W.A. Mrazek, Karl Heimburg, Arthur Rudolph, Otto Hoberg, von Braun, Oswald Lange, Medaris, Helmut Hoelzer, Hans Maus, E.D. Geissler, Hans Heuter, and George Constan.

  10. Crest line minimal model for sand dune

    OpenAIRE

    Guignier, Lucie; Valance, Alexandre; Lague, Dimitri

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In desert, complex patterns of dunes form. Under unidirectional wind, transverse rectilinear dunes or crescent shaped dunes called barchan dunes can appear, depending on the amount of sediment available. Most rectilinear transverse sand dunes are observed to fragment, for example at White Sands (New Mexico, United States of America) or Walvis Bay (Namibia). We develop a reduced complexity model to investigate the morphodynamics of sand dunes migrating over a non-erodib...

  11. Properties of Desert Sand and CMAS Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Choi, Sung R.

    2014-01-01

    As-received desert sand from a Middle East country has been characterized for its phase composition and thermal stability. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the presence of quartz (SiO2), calcite (CaCO3), gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O), and NaAlSi3O8 phases in as-received desert sand and showed weight loss of approx. 35 percent due to decomposition of CaCO3 and CaSO4.2H2O when heated to 1400 C. A batch of as-received desert sand was melted into calcium magnesium aluminosilicate (CMAS) glass at approx. 1500 C. From inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, chemical composition of the CMAS glass was analyzed to be 27.8CaO-4MgO-5Al2O3-61.6SiO2-0.6Fe2O3-1K2O (mole percent). Various physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the glass have been evaluated. Bulk density of CMAS glass was 2.69 g/cc, Young's modulus 92 GPa, Shear modulus 36 GPa, Poisson's ratio 0.28, dilatometric glass transition temperature (T (sub g)) 706 C, softening point (T (sub d)) 764 C, Vickers microhardness 6.3 +/- 0.4 GPa, indentation fracture toughness 0.75 +/- 0.15 MPa.m (sup 1/2), and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) 9.8 x 10 (exp -6)/degC in the temperature range 25 to 700 C. Temperature dependence of viscosity has also been estimated from various reference points of the CMAS glass using the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman (VFT) equation. The glass remained amorphous after heat treating at 850 C for 10 hr but crystallized into CaSiO3 and Ca-Mg-Al silicate phases at 900 C or higher temperatures. Crystallization kinetics of the CMAS glass has also been investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA). Activation energies for the crystallization of two different phases in the glass were calculated to be 403 and 483 kJ/mol, respectively.

  12. Crushed rock sand – An economical and ecological alternative to natural sand to optimize concrete mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Mundra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the use of crushed rock sand as viable alternative to Natural River sand that is being conventionally used as fine aggregate in cement concrete. Various mix designs were developed for different grades of concrete based on IS, ACI and British codes using Natural River sand and crushed rock sand. In each case, the cube compressive strength test, and beam flexure tests were conducted. The results of the study show that, the strength properties of concrete using crushed rock sand are nearly similar to the conventional concrete. The study has shown that crushed stone sand can be used as economic and readily available alternative to river sand and can therefore help to arrest the detrimental effects on the environment caused due to excessive mining of river sand.

  13. Erosion/corrosion testing of materials for oil sands applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, G.; Wolodko, J.; Alemaskin, K.; Been, J.; Danysh, M. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Erosion and corrosion are common wear mechanisms for components used in oil sands processing facilities. This paper described a slurry jet test apparatus designed to evaluate and assess materials for oil sands service conditions. The jet testing apparatus was designed to mimic the wet erosion phenomena typically found in oil sands applications. Wear- and corrosion-resistant materials tested by the apparatus included carbon steel, tungsten carbide metal matrix composite (WC-MMC) overlays, and a range of polymer and rubber liner materials. Polymeric materials included hydrogenated nitrile rubber (HNBR); polyurethane elastomer; and high density polyethylene (HDPE). Material losses were determined by measuring the mass of the samples before and after testing. Normalized rates of abrasion were calculated by dividing total mass lost in the specimens by the total mass of sand impinged on the sample surface. Samples were also visually assessed and analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to determine failure modes. Tests were conducted for a 2-hour period at an impingement angle of 90 degrees. Results of the study showed that the average abrasion rates of the polymeric samples are lower than rates seen with the carbon steel and overlay materials. Future work on the apparatus will include testing the materials under varying slurry jet parameters. 15 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs.

  14. An efficient, self-orienting, vertical-array, sand trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Michael; Nickling, Bill; Wakes, Sarah; Sherman, Douglas; Konlechner, Teresa; Jermy, Mark; Geoghegan, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    There remains a need for an efficient, low-cost, portable, passive sand trap, which can provide estimates of vertical sand flux over topography and within vegetation and which self-orients into the wind. We present a design for a stacked vertical trap that has been modelled (computational fluid dynamics, CFD) and evaluated in the field and in the wind tunnel. The 'swinging' trap orients to within 10° of the flow in the wind tunnel at 8 m s-1, and more rapidly in the field, where natural variability in wind direction accelerates orientation. The CFD analysis indicates flow is steered into the trap during incident wind flow. The trap has a low profile and there is only a small decrease in mass flow rate for multiple traps, poles and rows of poles. The efficiency of the trap was evaluated against an isokinetic sampler and found to be greater than 95%. The centre pole is a key element of the design, minimally decreasing trap efficiency. Finally, field comparisons with the trap of Sherman et al. (2014) yielded comparable estimates of vertical sand flux. The trap described in this paper provides accurate estimates of sand transport in a wide range of field conditions.

  15. Does denitrification occur within porous carbonate sand grains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miall Cook, Perran Louis; Kessler, Adam John; Eyre, Bradley David

    2017-09-01

    Permeable carbonate sands form a major habitat type on coral reefs and play a major role in organic matter recycling. Nitrogen cycling within these sediments is likely to play a major role in coral reef productivity, yet it remains poorly studied. Here, we used flow-through reactors and stirred reactors to quantify potential rates of denitrification and the dependence of denitrification on oxygen concentrations in permeable carbonate sands at three sites on Heron Island, Australia. Our results showed that potential rates of denitrification fell within the range of 2-28 µmol L-1 sediment h-1 and were very low compared to oxygen consumption rates, consistent with previous studies of silicate sands. Denitrification was observed to commence at porewater oxygen concentrations as high as 50 µM in stirred reactor experiments on the coarse sediment fraction (2-10 mm) and at oxygen concentrations of 10-20 µM in flow-through and stirred reactor experiments at a site with a median sediment grain size of 0.9 mm. No denitrification was detected in sediments under oxic conditions from another site with finer sediment (median grain size: 0.7 mm). We interpret these results as confirmation that denitrification may occur within anoxic microniches present within porous carbonate sand grains. The occurrence of such microniches has the potential to enhance denitrification rates within carbonate sediments; however further work is required to elucidate the extent and ecological significance of this effect.

  16. Ionospheric effects of the missile destruction on 9 December 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovsky, Alexander; Shalimov, Sergey; Lukianova, Renata; Lester, Mark

    2014-05-01

    We report on ionosonde and meteor radar observations made in Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory (SGO, 67°22'N, 26°38'E, Finland) on 9 December 2009, during a test launch of the Russian solid propellant military missile. Due to a technical problem, the missile was self-destroyed around 07 UT at an ionospheric height (near 200 km altitude) over the Kola Peninsula (Russia), at a distance about 500 km to east from the observatory. Products of the explosion were spread into a large area and reached the region of SGO meteor radar observations in about 2 h (around 09 UT). After about 3 h (around 10 UT), a sporadic E layer presumably composed of the remains including long-lived metallic (aluminum and its oxides) ions, was observed near the zenith of the SGO ionosonde. We discuss possible mechanisms accounting for transport of the remains. (1) Since the event occurred during a long-lasting period of extremely low solar and magnetic activity, the ionospheric electric field was unlikely to play a substantial role in the transport of the remains and sporadic E layer formation. (2) The horizontal transport of the remains cannot be explained by the neutral winds based on empirical models. (3) Theoretical estimations suggest that the observed transport could be due to thermospheric turbulence.

  17. Children's sleep under the threat of attack by ballistic missiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie; Amit; Epstein; Tzischinsky

    1993-03-01

    The present paper reports on the influence of the Scud missile attacks during the Gulf War on the sleep of Israeli children. Two studies were performed. In the first, sleep habits and sleep disturbances of 61 (mean age 20 months) infants were assessed by questionnaires completed by their parents 5 months before the war and immediately after the end of the War. Comparison of pre- and post-war data revealed no major changes in sleep habits or in sleep quality. In the second study, sleep of 55 children was monitored at home by actigraphs during the last month of the War. All children were aroused during missile attacks, but returned to sleep immediately, with no evidence of carry-over effects once the 'all clear' sign was given. Comparison of sleep quality measures obtained during the War with those of age- and sex-matched children monitored a year before the war did not reveal any significant differences apart from the immediate response to the attack.

  18. Simulating and understanding sand wave variation: a case study of the Golden Gate sand waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterlini-Van der Meer, Fenneke; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Hanes, D.M

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a detailed comparison between measured features of the Golden Gate sand wave field and the results of a nonlinear sand wave model. Because the Golden Gate sand waves exhibit large variation in their characteristics and in their environmental physics, this area gives us the

  19. Dataset of tensile strength development of concrete with manufactured sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunbo Zhao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents 755 groups splitting tensile strength tests data of concrete with manufactured sand (MSC in different curing age ranged from 1 day to 388 days related to the research article “Experimental study on tensile strength development of concrete with manufactured sand” (Zhao et al., 2017 [1]. These data were used to evaluate the precision of the prediction formulas of tensile strength of MSC, and can be applied as dataset for further studies.

  20. Guided wave attenuation in coated pipes buried in sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinov, Eli; Cawley, Peter; Lowe, Michael J. S.

    2016-02-01

    Long-range guided wave testing (GWT) is routinely used for the monitoring and detection of corrosion defects in above ground pipelines in various industries. The GWT test range in buried, coated pipelines is greatly reduced compared to aboveground pipelines due to energy leakage into the embedding soil. In this study, we aim to increase test ranges for buried pipelines. The effect of pipe coatings on the T(0,1) and L(0,2) guided wave attenuation is investigated using a full-scale experimental apparatus and model predictions. Tests are performed on a fusion-bonded epoxy (FBE)-coated 8" pipe, buried in loose and compacted sand over a frequency range of 10-35 kHz. The application of a low impedance coating is shown to effectively decouple the influence of the sand on the ultrasound leakage from the buried pipe. We demonstrate ultrasonic isolation of a buried pipe by coating the pipe with a Polyethylene (PE)-foam layer that has a smaller impedance than both pipe and sand and the ability to withstand the overburden load from the sand. The measured attenuation in the buried PE-foam-FBE-coated pipe is substantially reduced, in the range of 0.3-1.2 dBm-1 for loose and compacted sand conditions, compared to buried FBE-coated pipe without the PE-foam, where the measured attenuation is in the range of 1.7-4.7 dBm-1. The acoustic properties of the PE-foam are measured independently using ultrasonic interferometry technique and used in model predictions of guided wave propagation in a buried coated pipe. Good agreement is found between the attenuation measurements and model predictions. The attenuation exhibits periodic peaks in the frequency domain corresponding to the through-thickness resonance frequencies of the coating layer. The large reduction in guided wave attenuation for PE-coated pipes would lead to greatly increased GWT test ranges, so such coatings would be attractive for new pipeline installations.

  1. Major International R and D Ranges and Test Facilities. Summary of Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    SIDE- tors. WINDER AIM-9 air-to-air missile, a low.level anti- Lank Measures to increase reliability. I weapon and new weapons for use against...vehicles. Six cinesextants and a full range of high-speed Wildcat and Baker’s Strongpoint Ranges con- cameras provide documentary photography. * 189 SrI

  2. Description of Pintomyia (Pifanomyia falcaorum sp. n. (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae, a Fossil Sand Fly from Dominican Amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginaldo Peçanha Brazil

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of sand fly, Pintomyia (Pifanomyia falcaorum is described from an amber originated from the northern mountain range of Dominican Republic. The male sand fly specimen is well preserved and most features used in Phlebotominae taxonomy are seen with remarkable clarity.

  3. Evaluation of electronic jamming effect based on seeker captive flight test and missile flight simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Tie, Weitao

    2017-01-01

    In order to test and evaluate the jamming effect of electronic warfare weapons on missiles, a method based on seeker captive flight jamming test and missile flight simulation test is put forward, in which real data for the jamming effect of the electronic warfare weapon on seekers is obtained by seeker captive flight jamming test, and immitted into a missile digital simulation system to perform large numbers of missile flight simulation tests under jamming, then one could evaluate the jamming effect of the electronic warfare weapon on missiles according to the simulation test results. The method is demonstrated and validated by test and evaluation of the jamming effect of a smokescreen jamming device on TV guidance missiles. The results show that, the method proposed here not only overcomes the shortcomings of both pure digital simulation test and field test, but also combines their advantages, thus could be taken as an easy, economical and reliable method for testing and evaluating electronic jamming effect on missiles.

  4. Aerodynamic shape optimization of guided missile based on wind tunnel testing and computational fluid dynamics simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ocokoljić Goran J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents modification of the existing guided missile which was done by replacing the existing front part with the new five, while the rear part of the missile with rocket motor and missile thrust vector control system remains the same. The shape of all improved front parts is completely different from the original one. Modification was performed based on required aerodynamic coefficients for the existing guided missile. The preliminary aerodynamic configurations of the improved missile front parts were designed based on theoretical and computational fluid dynamics simulations. All aerodynamic configurations were tested in the T-35 wind tunnel at the Military Technical Institute in order to determine the final geometry of the new front parts. The 3-D Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes numerical simulations were carried out to predict the aerodynamic loads of the missile based on the finite volume method. Experimental results of the axial force, normal force, and pitching moment coefficients are presented. The computational results of the aerodynamic loads of a guided missile model are also given, and agreed well with.

  5. Understanding the Canadian oil sands industry's greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Alex D.; Bergerson, Joule A.; MacLean, Heather L.

    2009-01-01

    The magnitude of Canada's oil sands reserves, their rapidly expanding and energy intensive production, combined with existing and upcoming greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions regulations motivate an evaluation of oil sands-derived fuel production from a life cycle perspective. Thirteen studies of GHG emissions associated with oil sands operations are reviewed. The production of synthetic crude oil (SCO) through surface mining and upgrading (SM&Up) or in situ and upgrading (IS&Up) processes is reported to result in emissions ranging from 62 to 164 and 99 to 176 kgCO2eq/bbl SCO, respectively (or 9.2-26.5 and 16.2-28.7 gCO2eq MJ-1 SCO, respectively), compared to 27-58 kgCO2eq/bbl (4.5-9.6 gCO2eq MJ-1) of crude for conventional oil production. The difference in emissions intensity between SCO and conventional crude production is primarily due to higher energy requirements for extracting bitumen and upgrading it into SCO. On a 'well-to-wheel' basis, GHG emissions associated with producing reformulated gasoline from oil sands with current SM&Up, IS&Up, and in situ (without upgrading) technologies are 260-320, 320-350, and 270-340 gCO2eq km-1, respectively, compared to 250-280 gCO2eq km-1 for production from conventional oil. Some variation between studies is expected due to differences in methods, technologies studied, and operating choices. However, the magnitude of the differences presented suggests that a consensus on the characterization of life cycle emissions of the oil sands industry has yet to be reached in the public literature. Recommendations are given for future studies for informing industry and government decision making.

  6. Bacteria of Phlebotominae Sand Flies Collected in Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Rafatbakhsh-Iran

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms particularly bacteria presenting in insects such as Phlebotominae may play an important role in the epidemiology of human infectious disease. Nowadays, because of vector implications, the routine methods of controlling and spraying have no more beneficial effects on vectors and reservoirs. Little knows about the prevalence and diversity of sand fly bacteria. The main objective of this study was to determine the presence of bacteria of phlebotominae sand flies collected in Hamadan, west of Iran. This information is important in order to development of vector control strategies. The microbial flora of Phlebotomus papatasi and P. sergenti the main vector of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the old world, were investigated. We characterized 8 bacteria, including 5 Gram-negative bacteria: Acinetobacter lwoffii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Edvardsiela sp. and Proteus mirabilis and Gram-positive bacteria: Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Micrococcus luteus. Our study provides some data on the microbiota diversity of field-collected sand flies for the first time in Hamadan. Our results indicate that there is a range of variation of aerobic bacteria inhabiting sand fly, which possibly reflect the ecological condition of the habitat where the fly breeds. Microbiota is increasingly regarded as an important factor for modulating vector competence in insect vectors. So, mirobiota can be effects on the biology of phlebotominae and their roles in the sandfly-Leishmania interaction. Further experiments are required to clearly delineate the vectorial role of sand flies. Because it is probable that in the future, factors such as environmental changes, migration and urbanization can ease the transmission of leishmaniasis in this area.

  7. Understanding Colombian Amazonian white sand forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peñuela-Mora, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Although progress has been made in studies on white sand forests in the Amazon, there is still a considerable gap in our knowledge of the unique species composition of white sand forests and their structure and dynamics, especially in Western Amazon. This thesis aims to fill this gap by addressing

  8. Pattern formation - Instabilities in sand ripples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J. L.; v. Hecke, M.; Haaning, A.

    2001-01-01

    Sand ripples are seen below shallow wavy water and are formed whenever water oscillates over a bed of sand. Here we analyse the instabilities that can upset this perfect patterning when the ripples are subjected to large changes in driving amplitude or frequency, causing them to deform both...

  9. Silica sand resources in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, M.J. van der; Westerhoff, W.E.; Menkovic, A.; Gruijters, S.H.L.L.; Dubelaar, C.W.; Maljers, D.

    2009-01-01

    Silica sand, (almost) pure quartz sand, is a valuable and scarce mineral resource within the shallow Dutch subsurface. High-grade deposits are exploited in the southeastemmost part of the country, as raw material for the glass, ceramic, chemical and other process industries. Dutch land-use policy

  10. Excerpt of the Interview with Mathew Sands

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 9. Excerpt of the Interview with Mathew Sands. Mathew Sands Finn Aaserud. Face to Face Volume 16 Issue 9 September 2011 pp 881-885. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  11. Seasonal fluctuations of phlebotomines sand fly populations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An entomological survey of phlebotomine sand flies was conducted in the Moulay Yacoub province, central Morocco. An anthropic niche (Ouled Aid) and a wild niche (Zliligh) were selected. Sand flies were collected twice a month between April 2011 and March 2012, using sticky traps and CDC light traps. 3675 specimens ...

  12. Review of Sand Production Prediction Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Rahmati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sand production in oil and gas wells can occur if fluid flow exceeds a certain threshold governed by factors such as consistency of the reservoir rock, stress state and the type of completion used around the well. The amount of solids can be less than a few grams per cubic meter of reservoir fluid, posing only minor problems, or a substantial amount over a short period of time, resulting in erosion and in some cases filling and blocking of the wellbore. This paper provides a review of selected approaches and models that have been developed for sanding prediction. Most of these models are based on the continuum assumption, while a few have recently been developed based on discrete element model. Some models are only capable of assessing the conditions that lead to the onset of sanding, while others are capable of making volumetric predictions. Some models use analytical formulae, particularly those for estimating the onset of sanding while others use numerical models, particularly in calculating sanding rate. Although major improvements have been achieved in the past decade, sanding tools are still unable to predict the sand mass and the rate of sanding for all field problems in a reliable form.

  13. Sand transportation and reverse patterns over leeward face of sand dune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Dun, Hongchao; Tong, Ding; Huang, Ning

    2017-04-01

    Sand saltation has complex interactions with turbulent flow and dune form. Most models of wind-blown sand consider ideal circumstances such as steady wind velocity and a flat surface, and the bulk of data on wind flow and sand transport over an individual dune has focused mostly on the influence of dune shape or inter-dune space on the wind flow, neglecting the effect of morphology on sand saltation, particularly airflow and sand transportation over the leeward slope. Wind flow structures over the leeward slope of sand dunes have a fundamental influence on the organization of sand dunes. In order to understand sand dune dynamics, lee face airflow and sediment transportation should be paid more attention. Previous field observations could not measure turbulent flow structure well because of the limited observation points and the influence of experiment structure on wind field. In addition, the reverse sand particles over leeward face could not be collected by sand trap in field. Numerous field observations could not measure turbulent flow structure because of the limited observation points and the influence of experimental structures on the wind field. In addition, the reverse transport of sand particles over leeward face could not be collected by sand traps in field. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the turbulent flow structure and sand transport pattern over the leeward slope. A numerical model of sand saltation over slope terrain is constructed, which also considers the coupling effects between air flow and sand particles. The large eddy simulation method is used to model turbulent flow. Sand transport is simulated by tracking the trajectory of each sand particle. The results show that terrain significantly alters the turbulent air flow structure and wind-blown sand movement, especially over the leeward slope. Here, mass flux increases initially and then decreases with height in the reversed flow region in the direction of wind flow, and the mass flux

  14. The Effect of Sand on Strength of Mixtures of Bentonite-Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakbaz, Mohammad C.; Khayat, Navid

    The main purpose of this research is to evaluate the effect of sand on strength of compacted samples of bentonite sand mixtures. Samples of bentonite with 10,30,50,70, and 80 percent by weight of sand at standard proctor optimum water content were compacted and tested to measure confined and unconfined strength. Unconfined strength of mixtures increased with percentage of sand until 50 percent and then it decreased thereafter. On the other hand, the confined strength of mixtures tested in triaxial UU increased with percentage of sand.

  15. Analysis of the development of missile-borne IR imaging detecting technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jinxiang; Wang, Feng

    2017-10-01

    Today's infrared imaging guiding missiles are facing many challenges. With the development of targets' stealth, new-style IR countermeasures and penetrating technologies as well as the complexity of the operational environments, infrared imaging guiding missiles must meet the higher requirements of efficient target detection, capability of anti-interference and anti-jamming and the operational adaptability in complex, dynamic operating environments. Missileborne infrared imaging detecting systems are constrained by practical considerations like cost, size, weight and power (SWaP), and lifecycle requirements. Future-generation infrared imaging guiding missiles need to be resilient to changing operating environments and capable of doing more with fewer resources. Advanced IR imaging detecting and information exploring technologies are the key technologies that affect the future direction of IR imaging guidance missiles. Infrared imaging detecting and information exploring technologies research will support the development of more robust and efficient missile-borne infrared imaging detecting systems. Novelty IR imaging technologies, such as Infrared adaptive spectral imaging, are the key to effectively detect, recognize and track target under the complicated operating and countermeasures environments. Innovative information exploring techniques for the information of target, background and countermeasures provided by the detection system is the base for missile to recognize target and counter interference, jamming and countermeasure. Modular hardware and software development is the enabler for implementing multi-purpose, multi-function solutions. Uncooled IRFPA detectors and High-operating temperature IRFPA detectors as well as commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) technology will support the implementing of low-cost infrared imaging guiding missiles. In this paper, the current status and features of missile-borne IR imaging detecting technologies are summarized. The key

  16. Hematite Outlier and Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 4 December 2003This image shows a crater just south of the edge of the famous hematite-bearing surface, which is visible in the context image as a smooth area to the north. The crater has two features of immediate note. The first is a layered mound in the north part of the crater floor. This mound contains hematite, and it is an outlying remnant of the greater deposits to the north that have otherwise completely disappeared in this crater. The second feature is a dune field in the center of the crater floor, with dark dunes indicating winds from the northwest. The dunes grade into a dark sand sheet with no coherent structure, indicating that the sand layer thins out to the south and east.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -4.4, Longitude 357.3 East (2.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. Flowability in crushed sand mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera, O. A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present experimental study explored the relationship between mortar flowability and the voids content in crushed sand to determine the effect of grain shape and surface texture as well as dust content on the behaviour of fresh mortar. The findings revealed a close correlation between voids content and the volume of paste needed for mortar to begin to flow as a continuous material, mortar flowability and the water content needed to attain a given flowability. The comparison of the empirical findings to the results obtained with the Larrard (1, 2 model provided further information on the effect of sand grain morphology on fresh mortars.

    En el presente trabajo se plantea un estudio experimental de la fluidez de morteros basado en el contenido de vacíos de arenas machacadas, para comprender la influencia de la forma y textura superficial de los granos de arena y del contenido de polvo de las mismas sobre el estado fresco de morteros. Los resultados muestran la estrecha relación entre el contenido de vacíos entre granos y los volúmenes de pasta necesarios para iniciar el escurrimiento como un material continuo, la fluidez de los morteros, el contenido de agua para alcanzar una determinada fluidez, etc. El comportamiento evaluado se compara con resultados obtenidos aplicando el modelo de F. de Larrard (1, 2, permitiendo de este modo obtener mayor información de la influencia de la morfología de los granos de la arena sobre el estado fresco de los morteros.

  18. Preserving inland drift sands in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riksen, M.; Sparrius, L.; Nijssen, M.; Keestra, S.

    2012-04-01

    Inland drift sands in the Netherlands are an important landscape type within the Dutch nature. They represent an important pioneer habitat which has become rare in European nature. Under current climate and environmental conditions (i.e. high N-deposition) these inland drift sands tend to be rapid colonialized by vegetation and therefor lose their aeolian activity. To maintain the area bare sand, managers regularly remove the vegetation. Lack of proper knowledge about the geomorphological processes and even more important on the geomorphological structure of these drift sands, could lead to the loss of characteristic dune structure. In an interdisciplinary research project a new management strategy was developed in which the geomorphological processes and structure form the base for the planning process. To improve the awareness of these aspects among nature managers we developed a management tool "PROMME". Several activities were taken to communicate this with the people involved in the management of drift sands like a brochure and field workshops.

  19. Ecological release in White Sands lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roches, S Des; Robertson, J M; Harmon, L J; Rosenblum, E B

    2011-12-01

    Ecological opportunity is any change that allows populations to escape selection from competition and predation. After encountering ecological opportunity, populations may experience ecological release: enlarged population size, broadened resource use, and/or increased morphological variation. We identified ecological opportunity and tested for ecological release in three lizard colonists of White Sands, New Mexico (Sceloporus undulatus, Holbrookia maculata, and Aspidoscelis inornata). First, we provide evidence for ecological opportunity by demonstrating reduced species richness and abundance of potential competitors and predators at White Sands relative to nearby dark soils habitats. Second, we characterize ecological release at White Sands by demonstrating density compensation in the three White Sands lizard species and expanded resource use in White Sands S. undulatus. Contrary to predictions from ecological release models, we observed directional trait change but not increased trait variation in S. undulatus. Our results suggest that ecological opportunity and ecological release can be identified in natural populations, especially those that have recently colonized isolated ecosystems.

  20. Choosing an optimum sand control method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Khamehchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Formation sand control is always one of the main concerns of production engineers. There are some different methods to prevent sand production. Choosing a method for preventing formation sand production depends on different reservoir parameters and politic and economic conditions. Sometimes, economic and politic conditions are more effective to choose an optimum than reservoir parameters. Often, simultaneous investigation of politic and economic conditions with reservoir parameters has different results with what is expected. So, choosing the best sand control method is the result of thorough study. Global oil price, duration of sand control project and costs of necessary equipment for each method as economic and politic conditions and well productivity index as reservoir parameter are the main parameters studied in this paper.

  1. Ecological release in White Sands lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roches, S Des; Robertson, J M; Harmon, L J; Rosenblum, E B

    2011-01-01

    Ecological opportunity is any change that allows populations to escape selection from competition and predation. After encountering ecological opportunity, populations may experience ecological release: enlarged population size, broadened resource use, and/or increased morphological variation. We identified ecological opportunity and tested for ecological release in three lizard colonists of White Sands, New Mexico (Sceloporus undulatus, Holbrookia maculata, and Aspidoscelis inornata). First, we provide evidence for ecological opportunity by demonstrating reduced species richness and abundance of potential competitors and predators at White Sands relative to nearby dark soils habitats. Second, we characterize ecological release at White Sands by demonstrating density compensation in the three White Sands lizard species and expanded resource use in White Sands S. undulatus. Contrary to predictions from ecological release models, we observed directional trait change but not increased trait variation in S. undulatus. Our results suggest that ecological opportunity and ecological release can be identified in natural populations, especially those that have recently colonized isolated ecosystems. PMID:22393523

  2. Broadband measurements of the acoustic backscatter cross section of sand particles in suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, C.; Hay, A.E. (Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, Newfoundland (Canada))

    1993-10-01

    A method using a broadband transducer to measure the acoustic backscatter cross section of suspended sand particles is investigated. The frequencies used range from 1.3 to 2.8 MHz, and the sand sizes from 100- to 350-[mu]m diameter. The measurements are made in the transducer near field. The measured form factor is compared with the theoretical result for the movable rigid sphere model, and with previous narrow-band measurements. 29 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Characteristic extraction and matching algorithms of ballistic missile in near-space by hyperspectral image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li; Sheng, Wen; Liu, Shihua; Zhang, Xianzhi

    2014-10-01

    The ballistic missile hyperspectral data of imaging spectrometer from the near-space platform are generated by numerical method. The characteristic of the ballistic missile hyperspectral data is extracted and matched based on two different kinds of algorithms, which called transverse counting and quantization coding, respectively. The simulation results show that two algorithms extract the characteristic of ballistic missile adequately and accurately. The algorithm based on the transverse counting has the low complexity and can be implemented easily compared to the algorithm based on the quantization coding does. The transverse counting algorithm also shows the good immunity to the disturbance signals and speed up the matching and recognition of subsequent targets.

  4. Adaptive nonlinear control of missiles using neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Michael Bryan

    Research has shown that neural networks can be used to improve upon approximate dynamic inversion for control of uncertain nonlinear systems. In one architecture, the neural network adaptively cancels inversion errors through on-line learning. Such learning is accomplished by a simple weight update rule derived from Lyapunov theory, thus assuring stability of the closed-loop system. In this research, previous results using linear-in-parameters neural networks were reformulated in the context of a more general class of composite nonlinear systems, and the control scheme was shown to possess important similarities and major differences with established methods of adaptive control. The neural-adaptive nonlinear control methodology in question has been used to design an autopilot for an anti-air missile with enhanced agile maneuvering capability, and simulation results indicate that this approach is a feasible one. There are, however, certain difficulties associated with choosing the proper network architecture which make it difficult to achieve the rapid learning required in this application. Accordingly, this technique has been further extended to incorporate the important class of feedforward neural networks with a single hidden layer. These neural networks feature well-known approximation capabilities and provide an effective, although nonlinear, parameterization of the adaptive control problem. Numerical results from a six-degree-of-freedom nonlinear agile anti-air missile simulation demonstrate the effectiveness of the autopilot design based on multilayer networks. Previous work in this area has implicitly assumed precise knowledge of the plant order, and made no allowances for unmodeled dynamics. This thesis describes an approach to the problem of controlling a class of nonlinear systems in the face of both unknown nonlinearities and unmodeled dynamics. The proposed methodology is similar to robust adaptive control techniques derived for control of linear

  5. Global sand trade is paving the way for a tragedy of the sand commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A.; Brandt, J.; Lear, K.; Liu, J.

    2016-12-01

    In the first 40 years of the 21st century, planet Earth is highly likely to experience more urban land expansion than in all of history, an increase in transportation infrastructure by more than a third, and a great variety of land reclamation projects. While scientists are beginning to quantify the deep imprint of human infrastructure on biodiversity at large scales, its off-site impacts and linkages to sand mining and trade have been largely ignored. Sand is the most widely used building material in the world. With an ever-increasing demand for this resource, sand is being extracted at rates that far exceed its replenishment, and is becoming increasingly scarce. This has already led to conflicts around the world and will likely lead to a "tragedy of the sand commons" if sustainable sand mining and trade cannot be achieved. We investigate the environmental and socioeconomic interactions over large distances (telecouplings) of infrastructure development and sand mining and trade across diverse systems through transdisciplinary research and the recently proposed telecoupling framework. Our research is generating a thorough understanding of the telecouplings driven by an increasing demand for sand. In particular, we address three main research questions: 1) Where are the conflicts related to sand mining occurring?; 2) What are the major "sending" and "receiving" systems of sand?; and 3) What are the main components (e.g. causes, effects, agents, etc.) of telecoupled systems involving sand mining and trade? Our results highlight the role of global sand trade as a driver of environmental degradation that threatens the integrity of natural systems and their capacity to deliver key ecosystem services. In addition, infrastructure development and sand mining and trade have important implications for other sustainability challenges such as over-fishing and global warming. This knowledge will help to identify opportunities and tools to better promote a more sustainable use

  6. Ecology of the Sand Roller (Percopsis transmontana) in a lower Snake River Reservoir, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Erhardt, John M.; Rhodes, Tobyn N.; Hemingway, Rulon J.

    2017-01-01

    The Sand Roller (Percopsis transmontana), has not been abundant in the Snake River since it was first found in the system in the 1950s, but its population has apparently increased in recent years. As a result, we initiated a study to better understand its ecology in habitats of Lower Granite Reservoir. From November 2014 to October 2015, Sand Rollers were present along shorelines, with peak abundance being observed during spring months. Logistic regression analyses showed that Sand Rollers were more likely to be present in shoreline habitats at temperatures ≤18.4°C. Fish were found over a range of substrates, with the lowest odds of fish presence being associated with riprap, which is common in hydropower reservoirs. From length-frequency analysis, we suggest that Sand Roller spawning occurs primarily in May and early June. Assessment of Sand Roller diets found dipteran (chironomid) larvae and pupae were the most important prey consumed by all sizes of Sand Rollers, but Opossum Shrimp (Neomysis mercedis) were also prominent in diets of larger fish in shoreline and offshore habitats. At a time when the populations of so many native species are in decline, the increase of the Sand Roller population in the lower Snake River represents a positive, yet curious occurrence.

  7. Barchan dune mobility in Mauritania related to dune and interdune sand fluxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ould Ahmedou,, D.; Ould Mahfoudh, A.; Dupont, P

    2007-01-01

    We present a 1 year study of 50 dunes in a small field of barchan dunes in Mauritania. We documented the morphological evolution of the dunes and their migration rates and measured at 10 min intervals the interdune sand transport, the wind strength, and its direction for the same interval of time....... The dune heights H 0 range between 2 and 5 m, and their celerity c is found to be well approximated by the standard migration law: c = Q 0/H 0, with Q 0 ≈ 50 m3/m yr. From both the interdune sand flux and the migration rate of the dunes we were able to estimate the spatially averaged sand flux at the dune...... crest as well as the bulk sand flux associated with the mass of sand transported by the dune. We found that the sand flux at the crest was about 3 times greater than the interdune mass transport rate, whereas the bulk sand flux was surprisingly of the same order as the interdune flux. Moreover, we...

  8. Schedule Risk Event Driven Methodology (SREDM): FY13 Army Studies Program Project Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    TRADOC Analysis Center ATRC-PR/ Susan Matus 255 Sedgwick Avenue Fort Leavenworth, KS 66027-2345 susan.g.matus.civ@mail.mil US...Army TRAC- White Sands Missile Range ATRC-W/Dr. Lambert Bldg 1400 Martin Luther King Drive White Sands Missile Range, NM 88002-5502

  9. X-ray lasers: Strategic problems and potential as an in-orbit exoatmospheric ballistic missile defense system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perusich, Karl Anthony

    1986-12-01

    The problems and potential of a single proposed ballistic missile defense system, the X-ray laser-armed satellite, are examined in this research. Specifically, the X-ray laser satellite system is examined to determine its impact on the issues of cost-effectiveness and crisis stability. To examime the cost-effectiveness and the crisis stability of the X-ray laser satellites, a simulation of a nuclear exchange was constructed. The X-ray laser satellites were assumed to be vulnerable to attack from energy satellites with limited satellite-to-satellite lethal ranges. Symmetric weapons and force postures were used. Five principal weapon classes were used in the model: ICMBs, SLBMs, X-ray laser satellites, bombers, and endo-atmospheric silo defenses. Also, the orbital dynamics of the ballistic missiles and satellites were simulated. The cost-effectiveness of the X-ray laser satellites was determined for two different operational capabilities, damage-limitation and assured destruction. The following conclusions were reached. The effects of deployment of a new weapon system on the Triad as a whole should be examined. The X-ray laser was found to have little effectiveness as a damage-limiting weapon for a defender. For an assured destruction capability, X-ray laser satellites could be part of a minimum-cost force mix with that capability.

  10. Research on Multichannel Test Device of Missile Fuze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyong Zhen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the design of multichannel acquisition circuit based on FPGA which samples and records the Doppler signals, ignition signal and the working condition of fuze security enforcement agencies of missile fuze in real-time in the test of high speed dynamic intersection. Furthermore, for the problem of increasing number of sample channel which causes the complexity of the multiplexer control, a general programmable channel switching method is proposed based on FPGA. In the method, FPGA is the control core, and using the internal ROM resource effectively simplifies the complexity of channel switch in the multichannel acquisition system. This paper analyzes the acquisition system design, and describes the design of hardware circuit and analog switch address coding in detail. The test result shows that the acquisition circuit meets the design requirements with high sampling precision and application value.

  11. Radar scatterometry of sand dunes and lava flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, R.; Elachi, C.; Sheehan, A.

    1982-01-01

    Four frequency like polarized scatterometer data over a sand dune field and a volcanic field were analyzed to understand the scattering characteristics of these two terrain types as a function of frequency and incidence angle. For the frequency range studied (400 MHz to 13.3 GHz) unvegetated sand dunes are specular reflectors that return an echo to the radar antenna particularly when the geometry is such that the dune slope is nearly perpendicular to the antenna. Vegetation on the dunes can cause significant backscatter. Lava flows are strong diffuse scatterers which have backscatter values similar to coniferous forest at certain frequencies. Different observation frequencies are required for different situations. The scatterometer data correlate well with radar images.

  12. Key features for ATA / ATR database design in missile systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özertem, Kemal Arda

    2017-05-01

    Automatic target acquisition (ATA) and automatic target recognition (ATR) are two vital tasks for missile systems, and having a robust detection and recognition algorithm is crucial for overall system performance. In order to have a robust target detection and recognition algorithm, an extensive image database is required. Automatic target recognition algorithms use the database of images in training and testing steps of algorithm. This directly affects the recognition performance, since the training accuracy is driven by the quality of the image database. In addition, the performance of an automatic target detection algorithm can be measured effectively by using an image database. There are two main ways for designing an ATA / ATR database. The first and easy way is by using a scene generator. A scene generator can model the objects by considering its material information, the atmospheric conditions, detector type and the territory. Designing image database by using a scene generator is inexpensive and it allows creating many different scenarios quickly and easily. However the major drawback of using a scene generator is its low fidelity, since the images are created virtually. The second and difficult way is designing it using real-world images. Designing image database with real-world images is a lot more costly and time consuming; however it offers high fidelity, which is critical for missile algorithms. In this paper, critical concepts in ATA / ATR database design with real-world images are discussed. Each concept is discussed in the perspective of ATA and ATR separately. For the implementation stage, some possible solutions and trade-offs for creating the database are proposed, and all proposed approaches are compared to each other with regards to their pros and cons.

  13. Scaling laws in sand launch process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Li; Yang, Zhang

    2017-04-01

    As the bond linking the micro research to the macro research in wind-sand flow, the scaling laws on sand mean launch velocity and mean launch angle can be used to calculate the mean velocity and the transport rate, and they also play an important role in understanding saltation. However, universal scaling laws are still absent. In analogy to the fluid flows, the wind-sand flow is divided into three periods based on the way of sand taking off from sand bed, and the hypothesis on the scaling laws in each period is proposed. Then according to the hypothesis we deduce the sand concentration piece-wise function for saltation layer and also the critical shields numbers dividing three periods. The comparisons between the predictions and the experimental observations show that under a lower shields number the vertical mean launch velocity and the mean launch angle scale with the wind shear velocity and the square root of shields number respectively. However, under a higher shields number the vertical mean launch velocity scale with the sand diameter and the mean launch angle is almost constant at 700 or so.

  14. The Influence of Sand Grains Properties on Electrical Properties of Moulding Sand with Inorganic Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opyd B.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of basic research on the influence of the properties of sand grains on electrical properties of water glass moulding sands. It shows electrical properties of the main component – sand grains, crucial to the kinetics of moulding sands heating, such as permittivity εr and loss factor tgδ. Measurements were carried out with the use of the perturbation method for silica, chromite and olivine sands of different mineral, chemical composition and particle size distribution, as well as for moulding sands with water glass grade 145. Analysis of the results of measurements of electrical properties shows that all moulding sands are characterized by a similar permittivity εr and loss factor tgδ. It was found that the electrical properties and the quantity and quality of other components may have a decisive influence on the effectiveness and efficiency of the microwave heating of moulding sands with sand grains. In determining the ability to efficiently absorb the microwave radiation for mixtures which moulding sands are, the impact of all components influencing their individual technological parameters should be taken into account.

  15. Analysis of Ballistic Missile Defense Policy in East Asia: Implications for Sino-U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moentmann, James

    2001-01-01

    The vital U.S. national interests of protecting the homeland, citizens abroad and deployed military forces are significantly threatened by current and emerging ballistic missile-capable nations, states of concern...

  16. A Terminal Guidance Law Based on Motion Camouflage Strategy of Air-to-Ground Missiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-sheng Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A guidance law for attacking ground target based on motion camouflage strategy is proposed in this paper. According to the relative position between missile and target, the dual second-order dynamics model is derived. The missile guidance condition is given by analyzing the characteristic of motion camouflage strategy. Then, the terminal guidance law is derived by using the relative motion of missile and target and the guidance condition. In the process of derivation, the three-dimensional guidance law could be designed in a two-dimensional plane and the difficulty of guidance law design is reduced. A two-dimensional guidance law for three-dimensional space is derived by bringing the estimation for target maneuver. Finally, simulation for the proposed guidance law is taken and compared with pure proportional navigation. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed guidance law can be applied to air-to-ground missiles.

  17. Extending U.S. Theater Missile Defense to Northeast Asia: Ramifications for Regional Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Attenweiler, Steven

    2001-01-01

    ... ambitions at a relatively acceptable cost. This thesis shows that the introduction of a layered missile defense capability will serve to enhance regional security for the United States and its allies by raising...

  18. Ballistic Missile Defense: National Security and the High Frontier of Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adragna, Steven P.

    1985-01-01

    Ballistic missile defense is discussed, and the rationale behind the proposal to place defensive weapons in space is examined. Strategic defense is a national security, political, and moral imperative. (RM)

  19. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) Analysis of a Generic Missile With Grid Fins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeSpirito, James

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study demonstrating an approach for using viscous computational fluid dynamic simulations to calculate the flow field and aerodynamic coefficients for a missile with grid fin...

  20. US-Led Cooperative Theater Missile Defense in Northeast Asia challenges and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kiriah, Rex

    2000-01-01

    .... After maintaining four days of silence, North Korean officials stated that the Western labeled MRBM flight test was not the test firing of a ballistic missile but was a three-stage rocket launch...

  1. Small Business Innovation Research Program at the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    The audit objective was to determine whether the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization complied with legislation and DoD policy covering commercial potential requirements for Phase 1 of the SBIR program...

  2. Key considerations in infrared simulations of the missile-aircraft engagement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Willers, MS

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available simulating the missile-aircraft engagement scenario. Parameters considered include signature spectral colour ratio, spatial shape, kinematics, temporal behaviour, as well as the effect of the atmosphere and background. From this analysis the significance...

  3. Radar signal analysis of ballistic missile with micro-motion based on time-frequency distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianming; Liu, Lihua; Yu, Hua

    2015-12-01

    The micro-motion of ballistic missile targets induces micro-Doppler modulation on the radar return signal, which is a unique feature for the warhead discrimination during flight. In order to extract the micro-Doppler feature of ballistic missile targets, time-frequency analysis is employed to process the micro-Doppler modulated time-varying radar signal. The images of time-frequency distribution (TFD) reveal the micro-Doppler modulation characteristic very well. However, there are many existing time-frequency analysis methods to generate the time-frequency distribution images, including the short-time Fourier transform (STFT), Wigner distribution (WD) and Cohen class distribution, etc. Under the background of ballistic missile defence, the paper aims at working out an effective time-frequency analysis method for ballistic missile warhead discrimination from the decoys.

  4. Numerical Simulation of Transient Jet Interaction on a Generic Supersonic Missile with Fins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ebrahimi, Houshang

    1998-01-01

    ... of the highly turbulent flow field produced by a pulsed, lateral jet control thruster and the interaction of this jet with the supersonic free stream and missile boundary layer were completed for different...

  5. China's Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Current Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kan, Shirley A

    2002-01-01

    ...) in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missiles that could deliver them. Recipients of China s technology include Pakistan and countries that the State Department says support terrorism, like Iran, North Korea, and Libya...

  6. China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kan, Shirley A

    2003-01-01

    ...) in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missiles that could deliver them. Recipients of China's technology include Pakistan and countries that the State Department says support terrorism, such as Iran, North Korea, and Libya...

  7. China and Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kan, Shirley A

    2004-01-01

    ...) in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and the missiles that could deliver them. Recipients of China's technology include Pakistan and countries that the State Department says support terrorism, such as Iran, North Korea, and Libya...

  8. China's Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction and Missiles: Current Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kan, Shirley A

    2002-01-01

    ...) in the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missiles that could deliver them. Recipients of China's technology include Pakistan and countries that the State Department says support terrorism, like Iran, North Korea, and Libya...

  9. Fecal indicators in sand, sand contact, and risk of enteric illness among beachgoers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Sams, Elizabeth; Dufour, Alfred P.; Brenner, Kristen P.; Haugland, Richard A.; Chern, Eunice; Wing, Steve; Marshall, Stephen; Love, David C.; Serre, Marc; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Beach sand can harbor fecal indicator organisms and pathogens, but enteric illness risk associated with sand contact remains unclear. Methods In 2007, visitors at two recreational marine beaches were asked on the day of their visit about sand contact. Ten to 12 days later, participants answered questions about health symptoms since the visit. F+ coliphage, Enterococcus, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides, and Clostridium spp. in wet sand were measured using culture and molecular methods. Results We analyzed 144 wet sand samples and completed 4,999 interviews. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were computed, comparing those in the highest tertile of fecal indicator exposure with those who reported no sand contact. Among those digging in sand compared with those not digging in sand, a molecular measure of Enterococcus spp. (calibrator cell equivalents/g) in sand was positively associated with gastrointestinal (GI) illness (aOR = 2.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2–3.2]) and diarrhea (2.4 [1.4–4.2]). Among those buried in sand, point estimates were greater for GI illness (3.3 [1.3–7.9]) and diarrhea (4.9 [1.8–13]). Positive associations were also observed for culture-based Enterococcus (colony-forming units/g) with GI illness (aOR digging = 1.7 [1.1–2.7]) and diarrhea (2.1 [1.3–3.4]). Associations were not found among non-swimmers with sand exposure. Conclusions We observed a positive relationship between sand contact activities and enteric illness as a function of concentrations of fecal microbial pollution in beach sand. PMID:22157306

  10. Prediction of sand particle trajectories and sand erosion damage on helicopter rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Bong Gun

    Therefore, in this dissertation, accurate and time-efficient methodologies were developed for performing sand particle tracking and predicting sand erosion damage on actual helicopter rotor blades under realistic hover and vertical lift conditions. In this dissertation, first, injection (release) conditions of solid particles with new injection parameter, sand particle mass flow rate (SPmFR), were specified to deal with the effect of non-uniform and unsteady flow conditions surrounding at each injection point from which solid particles are released. The SPmFR defines the number of solid particles released from the same injection position per unit time. Secondly, a general definition of erosion rate, "mass or volume loss from the metal surface due to the impact of a unit "mass" of solid particles" was also modified by multiplying with SPmFR in order to solve the limitation for predicting erosion damage on actual helicopter rotor blade. Next, a suitable empirical particle rebound model and an erosion damage model for spherical sand particles with diameters ranging from 10 microm to 500 microm impacting on the material Ti-6A1-4V, the material of helicopter rotor blade, were developed. Finally, C++ language based codes in the form of User Defined Functions (UDFs) were developed and implemented into the commercially available multi-dimensional viscous flow solver ANSYS-FLUENT in order to develop and integrate with the general purpose flow solver, ANSYS-FLUENT, for a specific Lagrangian particle trajectory computing algorithm and rebound and erosion quantification purposes. In the erosion simulation, a reasonably accurate fluid flow solution is necessary. In order to validate the numerical results obtained in this dissertation, computations for flow-only around 2D RAE2822 airfoil and 3D rotating rotor blade (NACA0012) without any sand particle were performed. In the comparison of these results with experimental results, it is found that the flow solutions are in good

  11. Investigation of the bacterial communities associated with females of Lutzomyia sand fly species from South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio R V Sant'Anna

    Full Text Available Phlebotomine sand flies are vectors of Leishmania that are acquired by the female sand fly during blood feeding on an infected mammal. Leishmania parasites develop exclusively in the gut lumen during their residence in the insect before transmission to a suitable host during the next blood feed. Female phlebotomine sand flies are blood feeding insects but their life style of visiting plants as well as animals, and the propensity for larvae to feed on detritus including animal faeces means that the insect host and parasite are exposed to a range of microorganisms. Thus, the sand fly microbiota may interact with the developing Leishmania population in the gut. The aim of the study was to investigate and identify the bacterial diversity associated with wild adult female Lutzomyia sand flies from different geographical locations in the New World. The bacterial phylotypes recovered from 16S rRNA gene clone libraries obtained from wild caught adult female Lutzomyia sand flies were estimated from direct band sequencing after denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of bacterial 16 rRNA gene fragments. These results confirm that the Lutzomyia sand flies contain a limited array of bacterial phylotypes across several divisions. Several potential plant-related bacterial sequences were detected including Erwinia sp. and putative Ralstonia sp. from two sand fly species sampled from 3 geographically separated regions in Brazil. Identification of putative human pathogens also demonstrated the potential for sand flies to act as vectors of bacterial pathogens of medical importance in addition to their role in Leishmania transmission.

  12. Murzuk Sand Sea, Sahara Desert, Libya, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This near vertical view of the Murzuk Sand Sea, Sahara Desert, Libya (22.5N, 13.0E) shows the very diverse landscape that is part of the great Sahara Desert of North Africa. The vast expanse of sand dunes known as the Murzuk sand Sea of Libya and the adjacent rock outcrops support little human habitation. In fact, the tiny village of Murzuk with its center pivot, swing arm irrigated agriculture complex is the only sign of life in the region.

  13. Major Range and Test Facility Base Summary of Capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    V:ISHAM LINDER Director Defense Test and Evaluation *1 DoD 3200.11-D MAJOR RANGE AND TEST FACILITY BASE SUMMARY OF CAPABILITIES TABLE OF CONTENTS White...suitable for zero g testing and rocket plume signature studies. TYPICAL PROJECTS SUPPORTED B-i and F-15/16 Air-Launched Cruise Missile Global Position...rocket plumes , trucks, and other aerospace and ground-based objects. The RATSCAT facility is isolated physically and electromagnetically by its

  14. Trident II (D-5) Sea Launched Ballistic Missile UGM 133A (Trident II Missile)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    chocks, Third Stage (TS) dollies and TS Motor Supports and completion of machining and welding for Aerospike Protective Caps ; 2) Early delivery of...accurate SWS. SSP’s " Cradle to Grave" responsibility requires a broad range of engineering knowledge and unique skill sets to support the Navy’s

  15. Six-Degree-of-Freedom Digital Simulations for Missile Guidance and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjie Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Six-degree-of-freedom ballistic trajectory model can be used to verify design indicators, performance parameters, and correctness so they have been put forward in the missile argumentation and design process. Mathematical simulation is the basis of late semiphysical simulation and field firing testing, and it can greatly reduce the field shooting test time, which shortens the missile test cycle and so reduces costs.

  16. Echoes That Never Were: American Mobile Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles, 1956-1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-11

    It was heady stuff for a little boy. 2 ’Quoted in Jacob Neufeld, Ballistic Missiles in the United States Air Force: 1945-1960 (Washington, D.C...the Weapon that Changed the World (1991), Jacob Neufeld’s superb Ballistic Missiles in the United States Air Force, 1945-1960 (1990), Edmund Beard’s...Khrushchev, "Disarmament for Durable Peace and Friendship," in The Soviet Art of War: Doctrine, Strategy, and Tactics, ed. Harriet Fast Scott and

  17. Integrated CLOS and PN Guidance for Increased Effectiveness of Surface to Air Missiles

    OpenAIRE

    Binte Fatima Tuz ZAHRA; Syed Tauqeer ul Islam RIZVI; Syed Irtiza Ali SHAH

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach has been presented to integrate command to line-of-sight (CLOS) guidance and proportional navigation (PN) guidance in order to reduce miss distance and to increase the effectiveness of surface to air missiles. Initially a comparison of command to line-of-sight guidance and proportional navigation has been presented. Miss distance, variation of angle-of-attack, normal and lateral accelerations and error of missile flight path from direct line-of-sight have been ...

  18. Shoulder Launched Missiles (A.K.A. MANPADS): The Ominous Threat to Commercial Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    undergraduate and graduate text, Homeland Security: Controlling the New Security Environment. 1 Shoulder Launched Missiles (A.K.A. MANPADS): The...global trade and just-in-time delivery, along with its leadership status in the world’s largest industry, travel and tourism , make it even more... Thesis , (Monterey, California: March 2005), 8. 3. Robert Sherman, “The Real Terrorist Missile Threat, and What Can Be Done About It,” The Journal

  19. Navy Ohio Replacement (SSBN[X]) Ballistic Missile Submarine Program: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-17

    propulsion technology first occurred many years ago: To help jumpstart the UK’s nuclear - powered submarine program, the United States transferred to the UK a... nuclear - powered attack submarines (SSNs), nuclear - powered cruise missile submarines (SSGNs), and nuclear - powered ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs). 2...2 In the designations SSN, SSGN, SSBN, and SSBN(X), the SS stands for submarine, N stands for nuclear - powered (meaning the ship is

  20. The Close Aboard Bastion: a Soviet ballistic missile submarine deployment strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Kreitler, Walter M

    1988-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis describes and analyzes a possible deployment posture for the Soviet ballistic missile submarine force. It examines the proposition that the Soviet Navy will establish a point defense, labeled "Close Aboard Bastions" (CABs), for its ballistic missile submarine fleet within the Soviet claimed 12 nautical mile territorial sea. This is a logical derivation of the currently widely held view that the Soviets will estab...

  1. Chemical characterization of sanding dust and methylene chloride usage in automotive refinishing: implications for occupational and environmental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enander, Richard T; Gute, David M; Cohen, Howard J; Brown, Linfield C; Desmaris, Anne Marie C; Missaghian, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Surface preparation activities conducted during automotive refinishing present several potential human health and environmental risks. This study examines the chemical composition of vehicle sanding dust and the prevalence of methylene chloride use as a basis for evaluating potential chemical exposures in the work environment, fugitive environmental releases, and take-home toxics. This article reports on the findings of (1) a statewide technology and work practices survey of 353 licensed auto body shops and (2) laboratory analyses of sanding dust representing more than 200 vehicles, 10 commercial body filler compounds, and work shirts worn during vehicle sanding while using nonventilated equipment. Survey data revealed that the majority of shops (78%) do not use ventilated sanding equipment, that most workers (55%) take their work clothes and shoes home at the end of the workday, and that 17% of the respondents used a methylene chloride-based paint stripper as an adjunct to mechanical sanding. Laboratory results showed that Pb, As, Cr, Mn, and Ni were present in the sanding dust at every facility tested. Lead concentrations in sanding dust were found to be highest at facilities that performed complete vehicle refinishing (range 770 to 7300 ppm) and at a collision repair shop that used a high-lead content body filler compound (1800 ppm). Hexavalent chromium also was found in two vocational high school paint dust samples at concentrations of 54 and 710 ppm. When total lead and chromium concentrations reached 7300 and 2300 ppm, respectively, facility sanding dust samples failed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure for hazardous waste. Metals found in the sanding dust also were present on the work shirts of technicians-ranging from 0.06 (Cd) to 81 (Mg) microg/inch2 of cloth-who sanded on paint without ventilated equipment. Results suggest that sanding dust and methylene chloride paint strippers used in vehicle

  2. Harry Sands (1917-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochroch, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    To everyone who knew and had worked with him, the death of Harry Sands on January 3, 2007, three days before his 90th birthday, resounded as though a mighty oak had fallen. Harry was a giant of a man, both as a human being and as a psychologist. Harry was born January 6, 1917, on the Lower East Side of Manhattan to Russian immigrant parents who ran a laundry. His bachelor's degree in psychology (1941) and his doctoral degree (1952) were both earned at New York University. Harry became a member of the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1943. With his breadth of experience and knowledge, as well as his firm foundation in management and finance, he eventually became a financial advisor to the APA Practice Directorate as well as to the American Psychological Foundation. As the executive director of the Postgraduate Center for Mental Health, Harry made creative strides to improve both the public awareness of the organization as well as its fiscal health. Harry was an active writer and researcher, with a particular interest in epilepsy and various psychoanalytic topics. 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  3. Potential of the application of the modified polysaccharides water solutions as binders of moulding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kaczmarska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of preliminary tests of selected properties of the moulding sands with the binder in the form of a 5 % water solution of the sodium salt of carboxymethyl starch (with a degree of substitution (DS of 0,2 and 0,87 arepresented in this study. The moulding sand properties such as permeability, abrasion resistance, tensile and bendingstrength - after curing - are shown in series of tests. The cure process was conducted in a field of electromagnetic radiation within the microwave range. The effect of the microwave treatment on the moulding sand was evaporating of water (solvent in a binder and cross-linking of the polymeric binder. As a result the cured moulding sands with particular properties, essential in the context of its application in the mould technology in the foundry industry, were obtained.

  4. Countermeasure effectiveness against an intelligent imaging infrared anti-ship missile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Greer J.; Aouf, Nabil; Richardson, Mark; Butters, Brian; Walmsley, Roy

    2013-02-01

    Ship self defense against heat-seeking anti-ship missiles is of great concern to modern naval forces. One way of protecting ships against these threats is to use infrared (IR) offboard countermeasures. These decoys need precise placement to maximize their effectiveness, and simulation is an invaluable tool used in determining optimum deployment strategies. To perform useful simulations, high-fidelity models of missiles are required. We describe the development of an imaging IR anti-ship missile model for use in countermeasure effectiveness simulations. The missile model's tracking algorithm is based on a target recognition system that uses a neural network to discriminate between ships and decoys. The neural network is trained on shape- and intensity-based features extracted from simulated imagery. The missile model is then used within ship-decoy-missile engagement simulations, to determine how susceptible it is to the well-known walk-off seduction countermeasure technique. Finally, ship survivability is improved by adjusting the decoy model to increase its effectiveness against the tracker.

  5. Cooperative Monitoring Center Occasional Paper/9: De-Alerting Strategic Ballistic Missiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, Leonard W.; Edenburn, Michael W.; Fraley, Stanley K.; Trost, Lawrence C.

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating the technical merits of strategic ballistic missile de-alerting measures, and it uses the framework to evaluate a variety of possible measures for silo-based, land-mobile, and submarine-based missiles. De-alerting measures are defined for the purpose of this paper as reversible actions taken to increase the time or effort required to launch a strategic ballistic missile. The paper does not assess the desirability of pursuing a de-alerting program. Such an assessment is highly context dependent. The paper postulates that if de-alerting is desirable and is used as an arms control mechanism, de-alerting measures should satisfy specific cirteria relating to force security, practicality, effectiveness, significant delay, and verifiability. Silo-launched missiles lend themselves most readily to de-alerting verification, because communications necessary for monitoring do not increase the vulnerabilty of the weapons by a significant amount. Land-mobile missile de-alerting measures would be more challenging to verify, because monitoring measures that disclose the launcher's location would potentially increase their vulnerability. Submarine-launched missile de-alerting measures would be extremely challlenging if not impossible to monitor without increasing the submarine's vulnerability.

  6. Sediment Analysis Network for Decision Support (SANDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, D. M.; Keiser, K.; Graves, S. J.; Conover, H.; Ebersole, S.

    2009-12-01

    Since the year 2000, Eastern Louisiana, coastal Mississippi, Alabama, and the western Florida panhandle have been affected by 28 tropical storms, seven of which were hurricanes. These tropical cyclones have significantly altered normal coastal processes and characteristics in the Gulf region through sediment disturbance. Although tides, seasonality, and agricultural development influence suspended sediment and sediment deposition over periods of time, tropical storm activity has the capability of moving the largest sediment loads in the shortest periods of time for coastal areas. The importance of sediments upon water quality, coastal erosion, habitats and nutrients has made their study and monitoring vital to decision makers in the region. Currently agencies such as United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), NASA, and Geological Survey of Alabama (GSA) are employing a variety of in-situ and airborne based measurements to assess and monitor sediment loading and deposition. These methods provide highly accurate information but are limited in geographic range, are not continuous over a region and, in the case of airborne LIDAR are expensive and do not recur on a regular basis. Multi-temporal and multi-spectral satellite imagery that shows tropical-storm-induced suspended sediment and storm-surge sediment deposits can provide decision makers with immediate and long-term information about the impacts of tropical storms and hurricanes. It can also be valuable for those conducting research and for projects related to coastal issues such as recovery, planning, management, and mitigation. The recently awarded Sediment Analysis Network for Decision Support will generate decision support products using NASA satellite observations from MODIS, Landsat and SeaWiFS instruments to support resource management, planning, and decision making activities in the Gulf of Mexico. Specifically, SANDS will generate decision support products that address the impacts of tropical storms

  7. Sand Lake WMD vegetation mapping project update

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Final report on the vegetation mapping project at Sand Lake Wetland Management District. This project is being completed by the use of SPRING software and ground...

  8. Displacement pile installation effects in sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijer-Lundberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Installation effects govern the post-installation behaviour of displacement piles in sand. These effects are currently not completely understood. Suitable experimental techniques to model these installation effects include field, laboratory and experimental models. In the current thesis a

  9. The Holocene evolution of the beach and inland aeolian sand of the north-central Mediterranean coast of Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskin, Joel; Sivan, Dorit; Bookman, Revital; Shteinberg, Gilad

    2015-04-01

    Israel's coastal geomorphology, situated within a Mediterranean climate zone, is characterized by parallel Pleistocene aeolianite ridges, coastal cliffs of aeolianite, and sandy beaches. Lobe-like fields of predominantly stable transverse and parabolic quartz sand dunes protrude 2-7 km inland from the current Mediterranean Sea coastline. However, their migration and accumulation history is still not well-defined. This study focuses on the Holocene appearance, chronology and drivers of beach sand deposition and inland aeolian sand transport along the Caesarea-Hadera dunefield in the north-central coastal plain of Israel. In order to achieve these goals, a detailed field survey and sampling campaign was carried out along a west-east and southwest-northeast transect, loyal to the advancement orientations of the currently stable dunes and directions of dominant sand transporting winds. Beach sand, a foredune, a linear dune, and interdunes of parabolic and transverse dunes were sampled down to their aeolianite or red loam (locally named hamra) palaeosol substrate by drilling and analyzing exposed sections. The sampled sediments were sedimentologically analyzed and twenty-five were dated by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The results indicate that beach sand started to accumulate rapidly around 6 ka probably in response to global sea level stabilization. Until around 4 ka, thin sand sheets encroached 2-3 km inland. Sand ages in the range of 1.2-1.1 ka (8th-9th century CE -- Early Moslem period) were found throughout the study area, suggesting a major mobilization of sand, followed by stabilization around 0.6 ka and pedogenesis. By 1.2 ka, the sands had reached their current extent of 5-7 km inland, suggesting transport in a southwest-northeast orientation similar to the advancement orientation of the current transverse and parabolic dunes. The particle-size distributions of the fine to medium-sized aeolian sand showed minor variation linked to inland transport

  10. Supercritical solvent extraction of oil sand bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanbayev, Ye. I.; Ongarbayev, Ye. K.; Tileuberdi, Ye.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Golovko, A. K.; Rudyk, S.

    2017-08-01

    The supercritical solvent extraction of bitumen from oil sand studied with organic solvents. The experiments were performed in autoclave reactor at temperature above 255 °C and pressure 29 atm with stirring for 6 h. The reaction resulted in the formation of coke products with mineral part of oil sands. The remaining products separated into SARA fractions. The properties of the obtained products were studied. The supercritical solvent extraction significantly upgraded extracted natural bitumen.

  11. Laboratory evaluation of selected tar sand asphalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Button, J.W.; Epps, J.A.; Gallaway, B.M.

    1980-12-01

    Three tar sand asphalts of similar grades prepared from one syncrude by three different refining methods were characterized by tests commonly used to specify paving asphalts together with certain special tests. Asphalt-aggregate mixtures were prepared using these asphalts and tested in the laboratory to determine strength stiffness stability, tensile properties, temperature effects and water susceptibility. Comparison of the tar sand asphalt properties to conventional petroleum asphalt properties reveal no striking differences.

  12. Pragmatics of reclaimed sand quality assessment recovered nowadays from various used sand systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dańko

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of the reclamation degree of used sands is not a simple, clearly defined issue. The great variety of technologies ofmoulding and core sands, based on the organic and inorganic binders does not allow the use of a single, universal index assessing thedegree of reclamation. The article presents the problems of research relating to selection of proper criteria for assessing the degree ofreclamation process of used moulding and core sands deriving from different technologies. The most often applied in practice types ofused sands and the most adequate in practice methods of assessing the degrees of their reclamation were characterized.

  13. Sand Dune Encroachment and Desertification Processes of the Rigboland Sand Sea, Central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmady-Birgani, Hesam; McQueen, Kenneth G; Moeinaddini, Mazaher; Naseri, Hamidreza

    2017-05-08

    Early studies on sand dune movement and desertification in Iran have not always been convincingly demonstrated because of problems with the field-based measurements. In some areas where various land uses have been engulfed by aeolian sand dunes, desertification is clear, but in other less settled areas, it may not be so obvious. The objective of this study is to demonstrate encroachments of the Rigboland sand sea, central Iran, in its different directions and variable magnitude rates. Determining the rate and direction of the sand sea movements is critical for specifying which lands should be prioritized and quickly protected. The study has trialed a change detection technique which uses a Cross-Tabulation module to compare two available LandsatTM images over the Rigboland sand sea. This indicates that within a ten-year span (from 1988 to 1998) more than 200 ha/yr were added to the Rigboland sand sea, from the alluvial fan landforms in the eastern upstream, outer margins of the Rigboland sand sea. Coupled with GIS techniques, this type of analysis of the remote sensing (RS) images provides an effective tool for the monitoring and prognostication of sand dune movement and sand sea change.

  14. Investigation of formaldehyde interaction with carbon nanotubes and quartz sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulou, Maria P.; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V.

    2017-04-01

    Assessment of the potential impact of synthetic carbon nanotubes on the fate and transport of common chemical contaminants (pesticides, pharmaceuticals, etc.) in groundwater systems is considered to be an increasingly important aspect of environmental research. This study investigates the interaction of formaldehyde with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and quartz sand under static and dynamic conditions. Due to polarity, formaldehyde, is expected to develop strong adsorptive interactions with carbon nanotubes. Several batch adsorption experiments were conducted in test tubes, under controlled conditions. Various initial formaldehyde solution concentration (2, 5, 8 ppm), contact times, and temperatures (8, 18, 25 °C) were considered. Supernatant liquid samples were collected at regular intervals, and centrifuged. Subsequently, the formaldehyde concentration in the supernatant was quantified indirectly, by derivatization with Nash reagent and subsequent measurement of the resulting complex using spectrophotometry in the visible spectral range. Experimental results suggested that formaldehyde has a low affinity for quartz sand, but an enhanced potential for adsorption onto carbon nanotubes. Formaldehyde adsorption onto both absorbents (quartz sand and MWCNTs) was more pronounced under dynamic than static conditions, probably, because agitation improves the mixing of the absorbent within the solution. Also, it was shown that the adsorption data were adequately described by the pseudo-second order kinetic model, suggesting that the primary adsorption mechanism was chemisorption, where two or more (sequential or parallel) processes (e.g. surface chemisorption, intraparticle diffusion) were taking place. Therefore, MWCNTs could be promising adsorbent materials for groundwater remediation.

  15. Layers, Landslides, and Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 27 October 2003This image shows the northern rim of one of the Valles Marineris canyons. Careful inspection shows many interesting features here. Note that the spurs and gullies in the canyon wall disappear some distance below the top of the canyon wall, indicating the presence of some smooth material here that weathers differently from the underlying rocks. On the floor of the canyon, there are remains from a landslide that came hurtling down the canyon wall between two spurs. Riding over the topography of the canyon floor are many large sand dunes, migrating generally from the lower right to upper left.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -14.1, Longitude 306.7 East (53.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  16. Trade-off study for the hit-to-kill interception of ballistic missiles in the boost phase

    OpenAIRE

    Leong, Weng Wai.

    2009-01-01

    In recent military conflicts, ballistic missiles have been used to achieve military and psychological objectives. With the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), the growing threat of ballistic missiles being used as a delivery platform for WMD by rogue nations or militant groups becomes a concern for many countries. Defense against such threats becomes increasingly important. There are different guidance laws for the missile interception of aerial targets. These include purs...

  17. Sand and soil dynamics studied by quartz OSL dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallinga, J.; Schilder, M.; van Mourik, J.

    2012-04-01

    Landscape evolution is the result of altering periods with active geomorphological processes and relatively stable periods with soil development. Soils and buried soils in polycyclic profiles are important indicators of landscape stability. Buried soils as micropodzols in polycyclic driftsand sequences are a common phenomena in driftsand landscapes. Insight in the age of the buried soils is of paramount importance to determine whether they indicate local or regional phases of landscape stability. However, accurate datingof palaeosols is often problematic. Here we investigate the use of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating for determining the time, available for soil formation and duration of palaeosol formation. We studied young drift-sand deposits in the Weerterbergen area in SE-Netherlands. Samples were taken from six shallow pits (aeolian sand was samples both below and above a palaeosol. For comparison, the humic fraction of the palaeosols was dated with radiocarbon methods. OSL properties of the sand-sized quartz grains were suitable for luminescence dating. Internal consistency of results indicated that the wind-blown material was exposed sufficiently to daylight to entirely reset the OSL signal in all grains prior to deposition and burial. Results were in correct stratigraphic order, and showed that the sand deposits, and the sandwiched palaeosols, were formed during the past 200 years. The palaeosols were dated to different periods, and OSL ages suggested that the duration of soil formation was very short (< 10 years) in some cases. For all six sites, OSL ages were much younger than the radiocarbon ages on the humic soil fraction. The latter ranged from 100 to 1500 years. Further micro-morphological investigation of the palaeosols indicated the abundance of wind-blown organic material in the soils, partly originating from bronze-age hearths in the area. Combining this information with the OSL ages made clear that some of the 'palaeosols' consisted

  18. Field observations of artificial sand and oil agglomerates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalyander, Patricia (Soupy); Long, Joseph W.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; McLaughlin, Molly R.; Mickey, Rangley C.

    2015-01-01

    Oil that comes into the surf zone following spills, such as occurred during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout, can mix with local sediment to form heavier-than-water sand and oil agglomerates (SOAs), at times in the form of mats a few centimeters thick and tens of meters long. Smaller agglomerates that form in situ or pieces that break off of larger mats, sometimes referred to as surface residual balls (SRBs), range in size from sand-sized grains to patty-shaped pieces several centimeters (cm) in diameter. These mobile SOAs can cause beach oiling for extended periods following the spill, on the scale of years as in the case of DWH. Limited research, including a prior effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) investigating SOA mobility, alongshore transport, and seafloor interaction using numerical model output, focused on the physical dynamics of SOAs. To address this data gap, we constructed artificial sand and oil agglomerates (aSOAs) with sand and paraffin wax to mimic the size and density of genuine SOAs. These aSOAs were deployed in the nearshore off the coast of St. Petersburg, Florida, during a field experiment to investigate their movement and seafloor interaction. This report presents the methodology for constructing aSOAs and describes the field experiment. Data acquired during the field campaign, including videos and images of aSOA movement in the nearshore (1.5-meter and 0.5-meter water depth) and in the swash zone, are also presented in this report.

  19. A medium-range air combat game solution by a pilot advisory system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shinar, J.; Siegel, A.W.; Gold, Y.I.

    1989-01-01

    Air-to-air combat between two aggressive aircraft , both equipped with medium-range guided missiles, is .a key element of future air warfare. This dynamic coni lict can be viewed as an interaction of a twotarget diiferential game (between the air--craft) and two independent missileaircraft

  20. Spectrum Management Guidelines for National and Service Test and Training Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-12

    C-1 C.3 UAV/ Drone and Situational Awareness Data Link (PLRS/EPLRS/A-EPLRS, 420 – 450 MHz... GPS Global Positioning System ISM Installation Spectrum Manager JTIDS Joint Tactical Information Distribution System KMR Kwajalein Missile Range...Positioning System ( GPS ).” CJCSM 3212.03A. 8 November 2013. May be superseded by update. Available to users with appropriate credentials at

  1. Contribution of laser altimetry images to the geomorphology of the Late Holocene inland drift sands of the European Sand Belt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungerius, P.D.; Riksen, M.J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper explores the possibilities of applying the analysis of laser altimetry images to Dutch drift sands. All along the European Sand Belt, which stretches from Great Britain to the Ural Mountains, Late Glacial cover sands, river dunes and other ice-age deposits were reactivated as drift sand

  2. Contribution of laser altimetry images to the geomorphology of the Late Holocene inland drift sands of the European Sand Belt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungerius, P.D.; Riksen, M.J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper explores the possibilities of applying the analysis of laser altimetry images to Dutch drift sands. All along the European Sand Belt, which stretches from Great Britain to the Ural Mountains, Late Glacial cover sands, river dunes and other ice–age deposits were reactivated as drift sand

  3. Formulating Fine to Medium Sand Erosion for Suspended Sediment Transport Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Dufois

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The capacity of an advection/diffusion model to predict sand transport under varying wave and current conditions is evaluated. The horizontal sand transport rate is computed by vertical integration of the suspended sediment flux. A correction procedure for the near-bed concentration is proposed so that model results are independent of the vertical resolution. The method can thus be implemented in regional models with operational applications. Simulating equilibrium sand transport rates, when erosion and deposition are balanced, requires a new empirical erosion law that involves the non-dimensional excess shear stress and a parameter that depends on the size of the sand grain. Comparison with several datasets and sediment transport formulae demonstrated the model’s capacity to simulate sand transport rates for a large range of current and wave conditions and sand diameters in the range 100–500 μm. Measured transport rates were predicted within a factor two in 67% of cases with current only and in 35% of cases with both waves and current. In comparison with the results obtained by Camenen and Larroudé (2003, who provided the same indicators for several practical transport rate formulations (whose means are respectively 72% and 37%, the proposed approach gives reasonable results. Before fitting a new erosion law to our model, classical erosion rate formulations were tested but led to poor comparisons with expected sediment transport rates. We suggest that classical erosion laws should be used with care in advection/diffusion models similar to ours, and that at least a full validation procedure for transport rates involving a range of sand diameters and hydrodynamic conditions should be carried out.

  4. Determining the influence of past development experience on the cost of strategic ballistic missile development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Dwight E.

    The influence of learning in the form of past relevant experience was examined in data collected for strategic ballistic missiles developed by the United States. A total of twenty-four new missiles were developed and entered service between 1954 and 1990. Missile development costs were collected and analyzed by regression analysis using the learning curve model with factors for past experience and other relevant cost estimating relationships. The purpose of the study was to determine whether prior development experience was a factor in the development cost of these like systems. Of the twenty-four missiles in the population, development costs for twelve of the missiles were collected from the literature. Since the costs were found to be segmented by military service, a discrete input variable for military service was used as one of the cost estimating relationships. Because there were only two US Navy samples, too few to analyze for segmentation and learning rate, they were excluded from the final analysis. The final analysis was on a sample of ten out of eighteen US Army and US Air Force missiles within the population. The result of the analysis found past experience to be a statistically significant factor in describing the development cost of the US Army and US Air Force missiles. The influence equated to a 0.86 progress ratio, indicating prior development experience had a positive (cost-reducing) influence on their development cost. Based on the result, it was concluded that prior development experience was a factor in the development cost of these systems.

  5. Sand lance: A review of biology and predator relations and annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, Martin D.; Willson, Mary F.; Armstrong, Robert H.; Piatt, John F.

    1999-01-01

    Six species of sand lance (Ammodytes) in temperate and boreal regions are currently recognized. Sand lance can occupy a wide range of environmental conditions, but all appear to be dormant predominantly in winter, and one species is in summer also. They lack a swim bladder and spend much of their time buried in specific substrates. Copepods are the primary food. Spawning usually occurs in fall or winter (although some species also spawn in spring), eggs are demersal, and larvae may hatch at times of low food abundance. Sand lance usually occur in schools and are regarded as a relatively high-quality forage fish.Sand lance constitute a major prey for at least some populations of over 100 species of consumer, including 40 species of birds, 12 species of marine mammals, 45 species of fishes, and some invertebrates. Variation in the availability of sand lance (and other forage fishes) can have major effects on the breeding success and survival of their predators. Commercial fishing and other pressures on sand lance populations potentially have ramifying effects on many species of wildlife.The bibliography contains over 1,700 references on the family Ammodytidae, with an emphasis on the genus Ammodytes. Keywords are provided for each reference and have been further organized into taxonomic, geographic, subject, and predator indexes.

  6. Analysis of effectiveness of used sands reclamation treatment – in various technological devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dańko

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of effectiveness of spent sands reclamation treatment performed in technological devices of various intensity of dry reclamation – during which used binding material is being removed from grain surfaces – is presented in the paper. Variety of reclamation influences was considered via the realization of the so called elementary operations such as: rubbing, grinding and crushing [1-5], which are realised mainly in dry mechanical reclamation devices but also appear in other technological devices for sand preparation.The model rotor reclaimer and two types of mixers used for preparing initial foundry sands with resin U 404 and hardener 100 T3 of the Hüttenes-Albertus Company were applied for tests.The theoretical model for assessing the effectiveness of reclamation treatment developed by the author [3, 4], was experimentally verified [5, 7], with the application of standard testing procedures. The model can be considered a new tool enabling the selection of optimal reclamation times for the given used sand at the assumed intensity of silica sand matrix recovery. Sand mixture of a proper composition fulfilled needed technological properties after total hardening was used as charge material in experiments. The reclamation treatment consisted of mechanical and mechanical-cryogenic reclamation performed within a wide range of times and conditions influencing the treatment intensity.

  7. Nuclear energy in the oils sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenault, J.E.

    2014-09-15

    The major Canadian oil sands are located in Alberta and Saskatchewan, with most production from the strata along the Athabasca River in Alberta. The economically recoverable oil sands reserves are estimated to be 168 billion barrels which at a current production rate of 1.8 million barrels per day (2012), are projected to last a very long time. Canada has been blessed with vast energy resources which make it potentially energy-independent and able to provide significant exports but there are concerns that their development cannot be managed in a wholly acceptable manner. Comparable concerns have been applied to nuclear energy in the past and in recent times to the oil sands. The technologies associated with these energy sources have always been controversial because they are at the confluence of economics and politics where finding a balance between risk and reward is difficult. So it should be no surprise that when these technologies get linked together in certain proposals their prospect for success is doubly difficult. The possible use of nuclear energy for production of oil from the oil sands dates back to the late 1950s, when an experiment to mine the oil by detonating an underground nuclear device was proposed. It was predicted that the heat and pressure released from such a device would create a large cavern into which oil would flow, and from where it would be pumped to the surface. Almost at the same time, oil sands research using conventional sources of energy had culminated with the development of practical refining processes, essentially those still in use today. These methods require large amounts of heat energy in the form of hot water and steam. In this century nuclear energy was proposed as the source for the heat required by the oil sands production processes. To date neither of these nuclear proposals for oil sands projects have been successful, because the economic and political balance could not be struck. (author)

  8. Experimental Investigation on Dilation Mechanisms of Land-Facies Karamay Oil Sand Reservoirs under Water Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Botao; Jin, Yan; Pang, Huiwen; Cerato, Amy B.

    2016-04-01

    The success of steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is strongly dependent on the formation of a homogeneous and highly permeable zone in the land-facies Karamay oil sand reservoirs. To accomplish this, hydraulic fracturing is applied through controlled water injection to a pair of horizontal wells to create a dilation zone between the dual wells. The mechanical response of the reservoirs during this injection process, however, has remained unclear for the land-facies oil sand that has a loosely packed structure. This research conducted triaxial, permeability and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) tests on the field-collected oil sand samples. The tests evaluated the influences of the field temperature, confining stress and injection pressure on the dilation mechanisms as shear dilation and tensile parting during injection. To account for petrophysical heterogeneity, five reservoir rocks including regular oil sand, mud-rich oil sand, bitumen-rich oil sand, mudstone and sandstone were investigated. It was found that the permeability evolution in the oil sand samples subjected to shear dilation closely followed the porosity and microcrack evolutions in the shear bands. In contrast, the mudstone and sandstone samples developed distinct shear planes, which formed preferred permeation paths. Tensile parting expanded the pore space and increased the permeability of all the samples in various degrees. Based on this analysis, it is concluded that the range of injection propagation in the pay zone determines the overall quality of hydraulic fracturing, while the injection pressure must be carefully controlled. A region in a reservoir has little dilation upon injection if it remains unsaturated. Moreover, a cooling of the injected water can strengthen the dilation potential of a reservoir. Finally, it is suggested that the numerical modeling of water injection in the Karamay oil sand reservoirs must take into account the volumetric plastic strain in hydrostatic loading.

  9. A Total Load Algorithm for Sand Transport by Fast Steady Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jago, C. F.; Mahamod, Y.

    1999-01-01

    A simple algorithm for total load sand flux is proposed which is suitable for application to high energy environments where fast currents promote significant sand suspension. The algorithm is a power relationship constrained by a threshold condition: q= k[( u1- u1 t)/ u1 t] nwhere qis total sand flux, u1and u1 tare mean current velocity and threshold current velocity 1 m above the bed, respectively, and kis an appropriate entrainment function. The algorithm has been calibrated for sands (mean grain diameter 190-930 μm) over a range of mean current velocities (0·2-1·5 ms -1) using the extensive experimental data set of Guy et al. (1966) (Prof Papers U.S. Geology Survey, 462,96). It is shown that kand nare dependent on mean grain diameter; they can be determined from appropriate calibration curves. The exponent nvaries from 4, increasing with decreasing grain diameter as transport by suspension becomes increasingly important; napproaches a minimum constant value for coarser sands as bed load transport becomes dominant. There is evidence that the exponent ndecreases with increasing current velocity in the case of fine sands moved by fast currents. The entrainment function kdecreases with decreasing grain diameter as bed roughness and entrainment efficiency decrease, and approaches a minimum constant value for fine sands. The algorithm reproduces flume sand transport rates more reliably than the previous formulations of Gadd et al. (1978) ( Journal of Sedimentary Petrology,48, 239-252) and Hardisty (1983) (Journal of Sedimentary Petrology, 53,1007-1010) which ignore suspension and use erroneous calibration coefficients.

  10. DNA barcoding for the identification of sand fly species (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Angélica Contreras Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available Sand flies include a group of insects that are of medical importance and that vary in geographic distribution, ecology, and pathogen transmission. Approximately 163 species of sand flies have been reported in Colombia. Surveillance of the presence of sand fly species and the actualization of species distribution are important for predicting risks for and monitoring the expansion of diseases which sand flies can transmit. Currently, the identification of phlebotomine sand flies is based on morphological characters. However, morphological identification requires considerable skills and taxonomic expertise. In addition, significant morphological similarity between some species, especially among females, may cause difficulties during the identification process. DNA-based approaches have become increasingly useful and promising tools for estimating sand fly diversity and for ensuring the rapid and accurate identification of species. A partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase gene subunit I (COI is currently being used to differentiate species in different animal taxa, including insects, and it is referred as a barcoding sequence. The present study explored the utility of the DNA barcode approach for the identification of phlebotomine sand flies in Colombia. We sequenced 700 bp of the COI gene from 36 species collected from different geographic localities. The COI barcode sequence divergence within a single species was <2% in most cases, whereas this divergence ranged from 9% to 26.6% among different species. These results indicated that the barcoding gene correctly discriminated among the previously morphologically identified species with an efficacy of nearly 100%. Analyses of the generated sequences indicated that the observed species groupings were consistent with the morphological identifications. In conclusion, the barcoding gene was useful for species discrimination in sand flies from Colombia.

  11. K West Basin Sand Filter Backwash Sample Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Smoot, Margaret R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coffey, Deborah S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pool, Karl N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    in the insoluble solids; less than 1% of other gamma-emitters (i.e., 137Cs, 154/155Eu, and 241Am) were present in the insoluble solids. Aliquots of the acid digestate were analyzed directly using gamma energy analysis (GEA) and after separations for 238Pu, 239+240Pu, 237Np, and 241Am radioisotopes using alpha energy analysis (AEA). The 90Sr was measured by liquid scintillation counting (LSC) on the Sr-separated fraction. The plutonium isotopic distribution of the acid digestate was analyzed following Pu separations by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). A table summarizes the results for the primary and duplicate samples. The 239+240Pu concentration (µCi/g dry) relative to 90Sr and to 137Cs concentrations (µCi/g dry) was examined. The K West Basin sludge has a 239+240Pu/90Sr ranging from 0.1 to 1.2 and the 239+240Pu/137Cs ratio ranging from 0.10 to 0.47. In contrast, the sand filter backwash solids 239+240Pu/90Sr ratio was 10.6 and the 239+240Pu/137Cs ratio was 2.0. The ratio differences indicate a relative enhancement of the Pu concentration in the sand filter solids relative to the 137Cs and 90Sr sludge concentrations currently in the K West Basin. A dose-to-curie radioisotope evaluation of the sand filter waste form may need to consider this dissimilarity.

  12. An evaluation of aeolian sand transport models using four different sand traps at the Hors, Texel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijma, M.P.; Lodder, Quirijn J.

    2001-01-01

    This report shows the result of an evaluation of how 12 aeolian sand transport models perform on a beach in Northwest-Europe. Their predictions are compared to measured rates of sand transport using four different traps. The efficiency of the different types of traps was also evaluated. From this it

  13. Simulating and understanding sand wave variation: A case study of the Golden Gate sand waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterlini, F.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.; Hanes, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a detailed comparison between measured features of the Golden Gate sand wave field and the results of a nonlinear sand wave model. Because the Golden Gate sand waves exhibit large variation in their characteristics and in their environmental physics, this area gives us the opportunity to study sand wave variation between locations, within one well-measured, large area. The nonlinear model used in this paper is presently the only tool that provides information on the nonlinear evolution of large-amplitude sand waves. The model is used to increase our understanding of the coupling between the variability in environmental conditions and the sand wave characteristics. Results show that the model is able to describe the variation in the Golden Gate sand waves well when both the local oscillating tidal current and the residual current are taken into account. Current and water depth seem to be the most important factors influencing sand wave characteristics. The simulation results give further confidence in the underlying model hypothesis and assumptions. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SAND FRACTION IN A SAND GRAIN IMAGE CAPTURE SYSTEM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimar Arruda Viana

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Morphology studies assume significant importance in analysis of phenomena of granular systems packaging, in particular with a view to the use of the technique of soil stabilization named particle size correction in forest roads. In this context, this study aimed to develop and operationalize a Sand Grain Image Capture System and, hereby, determine the morphological indices of the sand fractions of two sandy soils called João Pinheiro (JP and Cachoeira da Prata (CP. Soil samples, air-dried, were sieved (2.0 mm nominal mesh size for removal of gravels. The materials that passed through the sieve were subjected to dispersion, washing in 0.053 mm nominal mesh size sieve, removal of organic matter and iron oxides to obtain the clean sand fractions. Subsequently, each soil sample was sieved for separation into twelve classes, between the diameters of 0.149 mm and 1.190 mm, using a Rotap shaker. Next, tests were carried out to characterize the morphometric attributes of the twelve classes of sand fractions of the soils studied. For validation of the performance of the Sand Grain Image Capture System, the results were compared to those obtained using a standard procedure for image analysis. The analysis of the results led to the following conclusions: (i the sand fraction of the JP soil presented higher values for the morphometric indices roundness, elongation and compactness compared to sand fraction of the CP soil; and (ii the Sand Grain Image Capture System worked properly, with practicality.

  15. China and ballistic missile defense: 1955 to 2002 and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad, Roberts

    2004-07-01

    China's opposition to U.S. ballistic missile defense was forcefully articulated officially and unofficially between 1991 and 2001. Vociferous opposition gave way to near silence following U.S. ABM Treaty withdrawal, raising a question about precisely whether and how China will respond to future U.S. deployments in both the political and military-operational realms. To gauge likely future responses, it is useful to put the experience of the 1991-2001 period into historical context. China's attitudes toward BMD have passed through a series of distinct phases since the beginning of the nuclear era, as China has been concerned alternately with the problems of strategic defense by both the Soviet Union and United States (and others) around its periphery. Throughout this era it has also pursued its own strategic defense capabilities. There are important elements of continuity in China's attitudes concerns about the viability of its own force and about strategic stability. These suggest the likelihood of significant responses to U.S. BMD even in the absence of sharp rhetoric. (author)

  16. Elution of Mixed Moulding Sands with the GEOPOL Binder and Core Sands with the Phenolic Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holtzer M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Out of moulding and core sands used in the foundry industry, sands with organic binders deserve a special attention. These binders are based on synthetic resins, which ensure obtaining the proper technological properties and sound castings, however, they negatively influence the environment. Depending on the kind of the applied resin under an influence of a temperature such compounds as for example BTEX group and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs can be formed and released. During storing or economic utilization of used sand is possibility of eluting harmful substances into the environment. Therefore at assessing an influence of the used sand on the environment two above elements should be taken into consideration. Only such investigations provide the complete assessment of the given sand harmfulness.

  17. Central Asian sand seas climate change as inferred from OSL dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maman, Shimrit; Tsoar, Haim; Blumberg, Dan; Porat, Naomi

    2014-05-01

    Luminescence dating techniques have become more accessible, widespread, more accurate and support studies of climate change. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) is used to determine the time elapsed since quartz grains were last exposed to sunlight, before they were buried and the dune stabilized. Many sand seas have been dated extensively by luminescence, e.g., the Kalahari, Namib the Australian linear dunes and the northwestern Negev dune field, Israel. However, no ages were published so far from the central Asian sand seas. The lack of dune stratigraphy and numerical ages precluded any reliable assessment of the paleoclimatic significance of dunes in central Asia. Central Asian Sand seas (ergs) have accumulated in the Turan basin, north-west of the Hindu Kush range, and span from south Turkmenistan to the Syr-Darya River in Kazakhstan. These ergs are dissected by the Amu-Darya River; to its north lies the Kyzylkum (red sands) and to its south lies the Karakum (black sands). Combined, they form one of the largest sand seas in the world. This area is understudied, and little information has been published regarding the sands stabilization processes and deposition ages. In this study, OSL ages for the Karakum and Kyzylkum sands are presented and analysis of the implications of these results is provided. Optical dates obtained in this study are used to study the effects climatic changes had on the mobility and stability of the central Asian sand seas. Optically stimulated luminescence ages derived from the upper meter of the interdune of 14 exposed sections from both ergs, indicate extensive sand and dune stabilization during the mid-Holocene. This stabilization is understood to reflect a transition to a warmer, wetter, and less windy climate that generally persisted until today. The OSL ages, coupled with a compilation of regional paleoclimatic data, corroborate and reinforce the previously proposed Mid-Holocene Liavliakan phase, known to reflect a warmer

  18. Fracturing in the oil-sands reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Y.; Yang, B. [Society of Petroleum Engineers (Canada); Xu, B. [BitCan G and E Inc (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Oil sands reservoirs stimulation requires the use of steam or solvent in order to reduce oil viscosity, making for better recovery. Injection of these stimulants is generally achieved by hydro-fracturing and, given concerns over the impact of this on caprock integrity, a better understanding is needed of the phenomena involved during fracturing. Based on a review of the literature and on analytical, numerical and field data, this paper aims to explore the phenomena involved during hydro-fracturing of oil sands. Review of existing test data shows that oil sands have a clear dilatation tendency. Analytical derivation then compares the effects and occurrence of dilatation and tensile parting during hydro-fracturing, showing a dominance of dilatation, resulting in much higher porosity in the sands formation. Field data then confirmed these derivations, thus giving them an experimental validation. Glaciation is proposed as a cause for the presence of these phenomena in oil sands, thus the results can safely be extrapolated to other similar rock formations.

  19. An evaluation method for tornado missile strike probability with stochastic correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eguchi, Yuzuru; Murakami, Takahiro; Hirakuchi, Hiromaru; Sugimoto, Soichiro; Hattori, Yasuo [Nuclear Risk Research Center (External Natural Event Research Team), Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Abiko (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    An efficient evaluation method for the probability of a tornado missile strike without using the Monte Carlo method is proposed in this paper. A major part of the proposed probability evaluation is based on numerical results computed using an in-house code, Tornado-borne missile analysis code, which enables us to evaluate the liftoff and flight behaviors of unconstrained objects on the ground driven by a tornado. Using the Tornado-borne missile analysis code, we can obtain a stochastic correlation between local wind speed and flight distance of each object, and this stochastic correlation is used to evaluate the conditional strike probability, QV(r), of a missile located at position r, where the local wind speed is V. In contrast, the annual exceedance probability of local wind speed, which can be computed using a tornado hazard analysis code, is used to derive the probability density function, p(V). Then, we finally obtain the annual probability of tornado missile strike on a structure with the convolutional integration of product of QV(r) and p(V) over V. The evaluation method is applied to a simple problem to qualitatively confirm the validity, and to quantitatively verify the results for two extreme cases in which an object is located just in the vicinity of or far away from the structure.

  20. Signature analysis of ballistic missile warhead with micro-nutation in terahertz band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Jiang, Yue-song

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, the micro-Doppler effect has been proposed as a new technique for signature analysis and extraction of radar targets. The ballistic missile is known as a typical radar target and has been paid many attentions for the complexities of its motions in current researches. The trajectory of a ballistic missile can be generally divided into three stages: boost phase, midcourse phase and terminal phase. The midcourse phase is the most important phase for radar target recognition and interception. In this stage, the warhead forms a typical micro-motion called micro-nutation which consists of three basic micro-motions: spinning, coning and wiggle. This paper addresses the issue of signature analysis of ballistic missile warhead in terahertz band via discussing the micro-Doppler effect. We establish a simplified model (cone-shaped) for the missile warhead followed by the micro-motion models including of spinning, coning and wiggle. Based on the basic formulas of these typical micro-motions, we first derive the theoretical formula of micro-nutation which is the main micro-motion of the missile warhead. Then, we calculate the micro-Doppler frequency in both X band and terahertz band via these micro-Doppler formulas. The simulations are given to show the superiority of our proposed method for the recognition and detection of radar micro targets in terahertz band.

  1. Feasibility of missile guidance using MEMS-based active flow control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeChamplain, A.; Hamel, N.; Rainville, P.-A. [Laval Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: alain.dechamplain@gmc.ulaval.ca; Gosselin, P. [Numerica Technologies Inc., Quebec (Canada); Wong, F. [Defence R and D Canada - Valcartier, Valcartier, Quebec (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility to control a missile or rocket by mean of an active flow control device such as MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) in the form of a microbubble. For this simple aerodynamic form coupled to the geometry of a generic missile, different microbubble arrangements can have a very significant impact in steady operation. Using CFD, combinations of different microbubble configurations (ratio between the apparent diameter and apparent height) and positions on the surface of the missile were evaluated for their impact on overall system performance for a missile flying at Mach 2.5 at an altitude of 6 km at a zero angle of attack. From a validation study with the generic missile geometry tested experimentally, the Fluent commercial code gave an excellent accuracy of 2% for the drag coefficient. With the appropriate numerical parameters from the validation, different configurations of microbubble(s) were simulated to give only marginal changes to the coefficient of moment as compared to experimental values at an angle of attack of 14 degrees. Considering the major advantages in weight and space savings, this would certainly be a technology to implement for small changes in guidance parameters. (author)

  2. Understanding the fate of organic micropollutants in sand and granular activated carbon biofiltration systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, L., E-mail: lidia.paredes@usc.es; Fernandez-Fontaina, E., E-mail: eduardo.fernandez.fontaina@usc.es; Lema, J.M., E-mail: juan.lema@usc.es; Omil, F., E-mail: francisco.omil@usc.es; Carballa, M., E-mail: marta.carballa@usc.es

    2016-05-01

    In this study, sand and granular activated carbon (GAC) biofilters were comparatively assessed as post-treatment technologies of secondary effluents, including the fate of 18 organic micropollutants (OMPs). To determine the contribution of adsorption and biotransformation in OMP removal, four reactors were operated (two biofilters (with biological activity) and two filters (without biological activity)). In addition, the influence of empty bed contact time (EBCT), ranging from 0.012 to 3.2 d, and type of secondary effluent (anaerobic and aerobic) were evaluated. Organic matter, ammonium and nitrate were removed in both biofilters, being their adsorption higher on GAC than on sand. According to the behaviour exhibited, OMPs were classified in three different categories: I) biotransformation and high adsorption on GAC and sand (galaxolide, tonalide, celestolide and triclosan), II) biotransformation, high adsorption on GAC but low or null adsorption on sand (ibuprofen, naproxen, fluoxetine, erythromycin, roxythromycim, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, bisphenol A, estrone, 17β-estradiol and 17α-ethinylestradiol), and, III) only adsorption on GAC (carbamazepine, diazepam and diclofenac). No influence of EBCT (in the range tested) and type of secondary effluent was observed in GAC reactors, whereas saturation and kinetic limitation of biotransformation were observed in sand reactors. Taking into account that most of the organic micropollutants studied (around 60%) fell into category II, biotransformation is crucial for the elimination of OMPs in sand biofilters. - Highlights: • OMP removal was comparatively assessed in sand and GAC biofilters. • The contribution of adsorption and biotransformation in OMP removal was identified. • The filtering material did not affect the biological activities in biofilters. • There is no direct correlation between EBCT and OMP removal in biofilters. • The type of secondary effluent determines the lifespan of filtering

  3. THE DECENNIAL OF AIR FORCE SPACE COMMAND’S ONLY GROUND BASED MISSILE WARNING CLASSIC ASSOCIATE UNIT: BENEFITS, DRAWBACKS, AND CHALLENGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    in the event of a first strike against the United States. Strategic Missile Warning is a no fail mission. From detection of a missile warning alert ...relayed he has over 1000 Missile Warning and Space Surveillance alert shifts.92 His in-depth knowledge is hard to match; and is an indispensable...AU/ACSC/2016 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY THE DECENNIAL OF AIR FORCE SPACE COMMAND’S ONLY GROUND BASED MISSILE WARNING CLASSIC

  4. Planet-wide sand motion on mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, N.T.; Bourke, M.C.; Geissler, P.E.; Banks, M.E.; Colon, C.; Diniega, S.; Golombek, M.P.; Hansen, C.J.; Mattson, S.; McEwen, A.S.; Mellon, M.T.; Stantzos, N.; Thomson, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Prior to Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter data, images of Mars showed no direct evidence for dune and ripple motion. This was consistent with climate models and lander measurements indicating that winds of sufficient intensity to mobilize sand were rare in the low-density atmosphere. We show that many sand ripples and dunes across Mars exhibit movement of as much as a few meters per year, demonstrating that Martian sand migrates under current conditions in diverse areas of the planet. Most motion is probably driven by wind gusts that are not resolved in global circulation models. A past climate with a thicker atmosphere is only required to move large ripples that contain coarse grains. ?? 2012 Geological Society of America.

  5. Thermoluminescent dosimetric properties of Descalvado sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, M.I.; Caldas, L.V.E

    2006-07-01

    Sand samples proceeding from Descalvado, Sao Paulo, were studied with regard to their dosimetric properties using the thermoluminescence technique (TL) for high doses. These sand samples present steady physical and chemical characteristics to the end items, and they are used in the glass industry and for casting. The TL curves of the samples were obtained after an irradiation at the Gamma-Cell system ({sup 60} Co), of IPEN. The glow curves present two peaks at 80 C and 220 C approximately. Calibration curves were obtained for doses between 50 Gy and 5 kGy. The results indicate that the sand samples can be used for high-doses dosimetry in several areas of applications of ionizing radiation. (Author)

  6. On the Size Distribution of Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    by Bagnold and confirmed in numerous empirical studies. The model implies that the size distribution of a sand deposit is a logarithmic normal-inverse Gaussian (NIG) distribution, which is one of the generalized hyperbolic distributions. The model modifies a previous model, which implied a log-normal size-distribution......, variance and skewness of the log-size distribution to the physical parameters of the model. The results might be useful when comparing empirical size-distributions from different deposits. It is argued that size-distributions with the same general shape as the NIG-distributions can be obtained also when......A model is presented of the development of the size distribution of sand while it is transported from a source to a deposit. The model provides a possible explanation of the log-hyperbolic shape that is frequently found in unimodal grain size distributions in natural sand deposits, as pointed out...

  7. Permeability Tests on Silkeborg Sand No. 0000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Willy; Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends on the charact......The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends...... on the characteristics of the soil matrix, the permeability is determined for different void ratios. All tests are performed on reconstituted specimens of Silkeborg Sand No. 0000. The permeability is determined by use of a falling head apparatus. The apparatus, test procedures and the analysis method are described...

  8. Permeability Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends on the charact......The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends...... on the characteristics of the soil matrix, the permeability is determined for different void ratios. All tests are performed on reconstituted specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand. The permeability is determined by use of a falling head apparatus. Finally the test results are briefly summarised and a relationship between...

  9. Development tendencies of moulding and core sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw M. Dobosz1

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Further development of the technology for making moulding and core sands will be strictly limited by tough requirements due to protection of the natural environment. These tendencies are becoming more and more tense, so that we will reach a point when even processes, that from technological point of view fulfill high requirements of the foundry industry, must be replaced by more ecologically-friendly solutions. Hence, technologies using synthetic resins as binding materials will be limited. This paper presents some predictable development tendencies of moulding and core sands. The increasing role of inorganic substances will be noticed, including silicate binders with significantly improved properties, such as improved knock-out property or higher reclamation strength. Other interesting solutions might also be moulding sands bonded by geo-polymers and phosphate binders or salts and also binders based on degradable biopolymers. These tendencies and the usefulness of these binders are put forward in this paper.

  10. Sand transport, erosion and granular electrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrison, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The transport of granular materials by wind has a major impact on our environment through sand/soil erosion and the generation and transport of atmospheric dust aerosols. Terrestrially the transport of dust involves billions of tons of material every year, influencing the global climate...... can affect grain transport through the generation of intense electric fields and processes of electrostatic assembly. Importantly the transport of sand is characterized by saltation, which is known to be an active process for erosion and therefore a source for dust and sand formation. Using novel...... erosion simulation techniques the link between grain transport rates and erosion rates has been quantified. Furthermore this can be linked to production rates for dust and has been associated with chemical and mineral alteration through a process of mechanical activation of fractured surfaces. This work...

  11. Bioaugmentation of flow-through sand filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsen, Elin Djurhuus

    MCPA degradation for prolonged periods in flow-through sand columns. In an expression study of catabolic genes with putative roles in phenoxy acid degradation, we observed a marked upregulation of catabolic genes cadA and tfdC upon exposure to MCPA, 2,4-D, dichlorprop and mecoprop in strain PM2, which...... coincided with efficient mineralisation/degradation, and proposed the tfdC gene as a suitable marker for monitoring phenoxy acid degradation in strain PM2. Furthermore, when testing strain PM2s degradation performance in flow-through sand columns, we found that strain PM2 was able to sustain induced...... for degradation performances in flow-through sand columns, with the aim of identifying a suitable inoculant strain for future environmental applications. Another aim was to identify a suitable genetic marker to monitor phenoxy acid degradation in strain Sphingobium sp. PM2. We were not able to link motility...

  12. Development of a new instrument for measurement of high temperature mechanical properties of resin-bonded sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of resin-bonded sand mixtures at high temperatures significantly affect the quality of casting. However, the existing instruments for high-temperature performances testing mainly focus on inorganic binder-bonded sands no matter the test items or the atmospheric protection, while the instrumentss specially designed for resin-bonded sand are not yet available. A new instrument for testing the high-temperature performance of resin sand was designed including the confirmation of the testing parameters, loading, measurement and control systems, and the design of the frame shape and heating furnace. This instrument can test the compressive strength, heat tolerance time and restraining load of phenol-formaldehyde resin coated sand, self-hardened furan resin sand, and trimethylamine (TEA-based resin bonded sand at high temperatures. The developed instrument has a high accuracy offering smaller than 0.3% deviation at a full scale in the measurement of the high temperature compressive strength and the restraining load over the range of 0–6.8 MPa and 0–2,000 N, respectively. The high temperature heat tolerance time range is 0–300 s and its measurement accuracy is ±1 s.

  13. A Threshold Continuum for Aeolian Sand Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, C.; Ewing, R. C.; Sherman, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The threshold of motion for aeolian sand transport marks the initial entrainment of sand particles by the force of the wind. This is typically defined and modeled as a singular wind speed for a given grain size and is based on field and laboratory experimental data. However, the definition of threshold varies significantly between these empirical models, largely because the definition is based on visual-observations of initial grain movement. For example, in his seminal experiments, Bagnold defined threshold of motion when he observed that 100% of the bed was in motion. Others have used 50% and lesser values. Differences in threshold models, in turn, result is large errors in predicting the fluxes associated with sand and dust transport. Here we use a wind tunnel and novel sediment trap to capture the fractions of sand in creep, reptation and saltation at Earth and Mars pressures and show that the threshold of motion for aeolian sand transport is best defined as a continuum in which grains progress through stages defined by the proportion of grains in creep and saltation. We propose the use of scale dependent thresholds modeled by distinct probability distribution functions that differentiate the threshold based on micro to macro scale applications. For example, a geologic timescale application corresponds to a threshold when 100% of the bed in motion whereas a sub-second application corresponds to a threshold when a single particle is set in motion. We provide quantitative measurements (number and mode of particle movement) corresponding to visual observations, percent of bed in motion and degrees of transport intermittency for Earth and Mars. Understanding transport as a continuum provides a basis for revaluating sand transport thresholds on Earth, Mars and Titan.

  14. 33 CFR 334.590 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral, Fla.; Air Force missile testing area, Patrick Air Force Base...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Fla.; Air Force missile testing area, Patrick Air Force Base, Fla. 334.590 Section 334.590 Navigation... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.590 Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral, Fla.; Air Force missile testing area, Patrick Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The danger zone. An area in the Atlantic Ocean immediately offshore from...

  15. 15 CFR 744.3 - Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic missile systems and space launch...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic missile systems and space launch vehicles and sounding rockets) and Unmanned Air...: END-USER AND END-USE BASED § 744.3 Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic missile...

  16. 33 CFR 334.210 - Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided missiles test operations area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Tangier Island; naval guided missiles test operations area. 334.210 Section 334.210 Navigation and... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.210 Chesapeake Bay, in vicinity of Tangier Island; naval guided missiles test operations area. (a) The danger zone—(1) Prohibited area. A circle 1,000 yards in radius with its...

  17. 78 FR 31614 - Implementation of Regulatory Guide 1.221 on Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants,'' in support of NRC reviews of early site permit (ESP), standard design... INFORMATION: The staff issues DC/COL-ISGs to facilitate staff activities associated with its review of ESP, DC....221 on Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION...

  18. Optimization of Allocation and Launch Conditions of Multiple Missiles for Three-Dimensional Collaborative Interception of Ballistic Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burak Yuksek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the integrated problem of allocation and control of surface-to-air-missiles for interception of ballistic targets. Previous work shows that using multiple missile and utilizing collaborative estimation and control laws for target interception can significantly decrease the mean miss distance. However, most of these methods are highly sensitive to initial launch conditions, such as the initial pitch and heading angles. In this work we develop a methodology for optimizing selection of multiple missiles to launch among a collection of missiles with prespecified launch coordinates, along with their launch conditions. For the interception we use 3-DoF models for missiles and the ballistic target. The trajectory of the missiles is controlled using three-dimensional extensions of existing algorithms for planar collaborative control and estimation laws. Because the dynamics of the missiles and nature of the allocation problem is highly nonlinear and involves both discrete and continuous variables, the optimization problem is cast as a mixed integer nonlinear programming problem (MINP. The main contribution of this work is the development of a novel probabilistic search algorithm for efficiently solving the missile allocation problem. We verify the algorithm by performing extensive Monte-Carlo simulations on different interception scenarios and show that the developed approach yields significantly less average miss distance and more efficient use of resources compared to alternative methods.

  19. Undrained Cyclic Behaviour of Dense Frederikshavn Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Kjær; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Sørensen, Kris Wessel

    2013-01-01

    A modified contour diagram is created for the Frederikshavn Sand in the undrained case for a relative density of ID = 80 %. It can be used to estimate the number of cycles to failure for a given combination of pore pressure, average and cyclic load ratio. The diagram is based on a series of undra......A modified contour diagram is created for the Frederikshavn Sand in the undrained case for a relative density of ID = 80 %. It can be used to estimate the number of cycles to failure for a given combination of pore pressure, average and cyclic load ratio. The diagram is based on a series...

  20. Sand dunes - a study of the different dune formations in the Namib Sand Sea, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangunji, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Sand dunes - a study of the different dune formations in the Namib Sand Sea, Namibia By: Antonio Sangunji, Academia Secondary School, Windhoek, Namibia The Namib Sand Sea has spectacular dunes, some of which are 5700 years old. Large, complex, linear dune in the northern part of the Namib Sand Sea provide new information on the age and internal sedimentary structures of these dunes, with important implications for interpretations of paleoclimates and the rock record of eolian sandstones. Academia Secondary School learners study several science subjects including Life and Physical sciences. As part of their Science course, they study the environment and landforms. To better understand the dune dynamics, several grade 8 pupils, 35 learners in total were taken to the field to demonstrate the formation of dunes. One of the highest points in the Namib Sand Sea - Dune 7 which is 388 meters was visited. Learners made models of the dunes in the classroom with different types of modeling clay, such as oil-based, polymer, dough and pottery clay. The learners also carried out hands-on exercises on the link between different types of sand, wind speed, size and altitude of the dunes. Field trips are a great opportunity for learners to learn how sand dunes are formed and show how simple experiments can be used to demonstrate dune formation.