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Sample records for sand-verbena abronia alpina

  1. Registros nuevos de Abronia mixteca (Sauria: Anguidae) en Oaxaca, México New records of Abronia mixteca (Sauria: Anguidae) in Oaxaca, Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cintia Natalia Martín-Regalado; Mario C. Lavariega; Rosa Ma. Gómez-Ugalde

    2012-01-01

    Se dan a conocer registros nuevos de Abronia mixteca en el estado de Oaxaca, México. Los organismos fueron encontrados en bosque de pino, pino-encino y encino-pino en 5 localidades en la subprovincia...

  2. Registros nuevos de Abronia mixteca (Sauria: Anguidae en Oaxaca, México New records of Abronia mixteca (Sauria: Anguidae in Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Natalia Martín-Regalado

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se dan a conocer registros nuevos de Abronia mixteca en el estado de Oaxaca, México. Los organismos fueron encontrados en bosque de pino, pino-encino y encino-pino en 5 localidades en la subprovincia fisiográfica Montañas y Valles del Occidente de Oaxaca. Estos registros incrementan el conocimiento del área de distribución, rango altitudinal y hábitat de A. mixteca.We present new records of Abronia mixteca in the Mexican state of Oaxaca. The organisms were found in pine forest, pine-oak forest, and oak-pine forest from 5 localities in the physiographic subprovince of Mountains and Valleys of Western Oaxaca. These records increase the distribution area of A. mixteca known to date.

  3. 76 FR 33923 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Abronia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ..., from Forest Guardians (now WildEarth Guardians), requesting that we: (1) Consider all full species in...) (Marriott 1993, pp. 6, 9; Fertig 1994, unpaginated). Abronia ammophila is a member of the New World plant..., fire regime, hydrology, microclimate, nutrient cycling, and productivity (Dukes and Mooney 2004,...

  4. The presence of Abronia oaxacae (Squamata: Anguidae in tank bromeliads in temperate forests of Oaxaca, Mexico

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    GI. Cruz-Ruiz

    Full Text Available The presence of lizards in bromeliads has been widely documented. Nevertheless, the possibility of some type of preference or specificity among lizards for particular bromeliad species has not yet been investigated. Therefore, this study aims to document the presence of Abronia oaxacae in six species of tank bromeliads found in pine forests, pine-live oak forests, and live oak groves during both the rainy season and the dry season. Three adult individuals of Abronia oaxacae were collected; one in a Tillandsia violácea (pine-live oak forest, one in a T. calothyrsus (live oak grove, and one in a T. prodigiosa (live oak grove. All three specimens were collected in sampling efforts carried out during the dry season. The results of the present study suggest that A. oaxacae shows no preference for a single, specific bromeliad species, although it does have a certain preference for a few select species. The presence of A. oaxacae in bromeliads during the dry season could be related to the cooler, moister microhabitat that these plants represent.

  5. The presence of Abronia oaxacae (Squamata: Anguidae) in tank bromeliads in temperate forests of Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ruiz, G I; Mondragón, D; Santos-Moreno, A

    2012-05-01

    The presence of lizards in bromeliads has been widely documented. Nevertheless, the possibility of some type of preference or specificity among lizards for particular bromeliad species has not yet been investigated. Therefore, this study aims to document the presence of Abronia oaxacae in six species of tank bromeliads found in pine forests, pine-live oak forests, and live oak groves during both the rainy season and the dry season. Three adult individuals of Abronia oaxacae were collected; one in a Tillandsia violácea (pine-live oak forest), one in a T. calothyrsus (live oak grove), and one in a T. prodigiosa (live oak grove). All three specimens were collected in sampling efforts carried out during the dry season. The results of the present study suggest that A. oaxacae shows no preference for a single, specific bromeliad species, although it does have a certain preference for a few select species. The presence of A. oaxacae in bromeliads during the dry season could be related to the cooler, moister microhabitat that these plants represent.

  6. β-Secretase (BACE1)-inhibiting C-methylrotenoids from Abronia nana suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se-Hoon; Yang, Eun-Ju; Kim, Sang-In; Song, Kyung-Sik

    2014-07-01

    Suspension cultures of Abronia nana were established to produce C-methylisoflavones. A new C-methylrotenoid, named abronione A (2), was isolated along with three known rotenoids, boeravinone D (1), boeravinone A methyl ether (3), and mirabijalone D (4). The IC50 values of compounds 1, 2, and 4 on β-secretase (BACE1) were 4.77, 62.21, and 4.24 μM, respectively, whereas 3 was inactive. At concentrations up to 1.0 mM, the compounds did not inhibit other proteases such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, and elastase, indicating that they were specific inhibitors of β-secretase. Compounds 1 and 4 were non-competitive inhibitors based on the Dixon plot and with Ki values of 5.01 and 4.28 μM, respectively. At 50 μM, compound 4 inhibited Aβ1-42 production by 43.7% in APPSW-N2a cells.

  7. A β-secretase (BACE1)-inhibiting C-methylrotenoid induced by yeast elicitation in Abronia nana suspension cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-In; Yang, Eun-Ju; Park, Se-Hoon; Kim, Chang-Kil; Song, Kyung-Sik

    2014-04-01

    Suspension cultures of Abronia nana were established to produce C-methylisoflavones. Treatment of the A. nana cultures with yeast elicitor induced boeravinone E (1), with maximum induction at 24 h after elicitor treatment. Of the biotic and abiotic elicitors tested, yeast extract gave the strongest induction of 1. The IC50 value of 1 against β-secretase (β-amyloid cleaving enzyme-1) was 5.57 μM. Other proteases such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, and elastase were not inhibited by concentrations up to 1.0 mM, indicating that inhibition of β-secretase was specific. 1 was noncompetitive in Dixon plot, and Ki value was 3.79 μM.

  8. Genetic diversity in the Alpine flatworm Crenobia alpina

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    M. Brändle

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater flatworm Crenobia alpina (Platyhelminthes, Tricladida, Planariidae lives almost exclusively in cold springs and crenal streams and possesses only limited dispersal ability. In this study fragments of the COI and 18S rRNA genes were used to estimate genetic divergences among 37 C. alpina populations from the European Alps. Phylogenetic analyses revealed five geographically and genetically distinct groups and at least 10 distinct lineages of C. alpina across the European Alps. Our study suggests that C. alpina represents a complex of numerous cryptic species. Speciation (allopatric and/or sympatric may have been facilitated by the orogenetic activity of the Alps and the high habitat specificity.

  9. Genome characterization of the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina.

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    Lei Wang

    Full Text Available Mortierella alpina is an oleaginous fungus which can produce lipids accounting for up to 50% of its dry weight in the form of triacylglycerols. It is used commercially for the production of arachidonic acid. Using a combination of high throughput sequencing and lipid profiling, we have assembled the M. alpina genome, mapped its lipogenesis pathway and determined its major lipid species. The 38.38 Mb M. alpina genome shows a high degree of gene duplications. Approximately 50% of its 12,796 gene models, and 60% of genes in the predicted lipogenesis pathway, belong to multigene families. Notably, M. alpina has 18 lipase genes, of which 11 contain the class 2 lipase domain and may share a similar function. M. alpina's fatty acid synthase is a single polypeptide containing all of the catalytic domains required for fatty acid synthesis from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA, whereas in many fungi this enzyme is comprised of two polypeptides. Major lipids were profiled to confirm the products predicted in the lipogenesis pathway. M. alpina produces a complex mixture of glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids. In contrast, only two major sterol lipids, desmosterol and 24(28-methylene-cholesterol, were detected. Phylogenetic analysis based on genes involved in lipid metabolism suggests that oleaginous fungi may have acquired their lipogenic capacity during evolution after the divergence of Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota and Mucoromycota. Our study provides the first draft genome and comprehensive lipid profile for M. alpina, and lays the foundation for possible genetic engineering of M. alpina to produce higher levels and diverse contents of dietary lipids.

  10. Via GeoAlpina - an international project of IYPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piller, Werner E.

    2010-05-01

    Mountainous areas show earth science features in a very conspicuous, frequently even in a spectacular way. Because of the general perception of the beauty of mountains many mountainous regions are well developed in terms of trails and touristic infrastructure. Therefore, mountains are a key area to bring earth sciences closer to people. In many mountain chains all over the world (e.g., Alps, Pyrenees, Andes, Rocky Mountains) far-ranging walking and hiking trails are developed to serve a broad audience. To provide this audience with basic information in geological phenomena along such trails the project "Via Geo..." was born as an international activity within the International Year of Planet Earth. The Alps have been selected to act as a pilot project with six Alpine nations participating: Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Slovenia, and Switzerland. Many well maintained trails exist bridging the Alps from the Adriatic Sea in Trieste (Italy) to Monte Carlo (Monaco) in the Western Mediterranean. Some of these trails are included in the project "Via Alpina". The idea of Via GeoAlpina is to point at geological attractions along the trails of Via Alpina or in their vicinity and offer simple but striking information. Various earth science fields will be covered, such as geology, geophysics, paleontology, mineralogy, hydrogeology, pedology, climatology, and geomorphology. The trail descriptions can be accessed and downloaded from the Via GeoAlpina website. In 2009 every country inaugurated Via GeoAlpina on a national base with a particular opening event in the presence of local authorities and local and national media. These events were accompanied with the distribution of flyers, by offering guided tours and by installation of panels in the field. These activities, however, should be followed by even more actions in the following years. These follow-ups should attract local and regional authorities at state, county or village level and will ideally be financed by private

  11. Ice nucleation activity in the widespread soil fungus Mortierella alpina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Hill, Thomas C. J.; Pummer, Bernhard G.; Yordanova, Petya; Franc, Gary D.; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    Biological residues in soil dust are a potentially strong source of atmospheric ice nucleators (IN). However, the sources and characteristics of biological - in particular, fungal - IN in soil dust have not been characterized. By analysis of the culturable fungi in topsoils, from a range of different land use and ecosystem types in south-east Wyoming, we found ice nucleation active (INA, i.e., inducing ice formation in the probed range of temperature and concentration) fungi to be both widespread and abundant, particularly in soils with recent inputs of decomposable organic matter. For example, in harvested and ploughed sugar beet and potato fields, and in the organic horizon beneath Lodgepole pine forest, their relative abundances and concentrations among the cultivable fungi were 25% (8 x 103 CFU g-1), 17% (4.8 x 103 CFU g-1) and 17% (4 x 103 CFU g-1), respectively. Across all investigated soils, 8% (2.9 x 103 CFU g-1) of fungal isolates were INA. All INA isolates initiated freezing at -5° C to -6° C and all belonged to a single zygomycotic species, Mortierella alpina (Mortierellales, Mortierellomycotina). By contrast, the handful of fungal species so far reported as INA all belong within the Ascomycota or Basidiomycota phyla. Mortierella alpina is known to be saprobic (utilizing non-living organic matter), widespread in soil and present in air and rain. Sequencing of the ITS region and the gene for γ-linolenic elongase revealed four distinct clades, affiliated to different soil types. The IN produced by M. alpina seem to be extracellular proteins of 100-300 kDa in size which are not anchored in the fungal cell wall. Ice nucleating fungal mycelium will ramify topsoils and probably also release cell-free IN into it. If these IN survive decomposition or are adsorbed onto mineral surfaces, these small cell-free IN might contribute to the as yet uncharacterized pool of atmospheric IN released by soils as dusts.

  12. Via GeoAlpina - an international project of IYPE (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piller, W. E.

    2009-12-01

    Mountainous areas show geological features in a very conspicuous, frequently even in a spectacular way. Because of the general perception of the beauty of mountains many mountainous regions are well developed in terms of touristic infrastructure and accessibility. Therefore, mountains are a key area to bring earth sciences closer to people. In many mountain chains all over the world (e.g., Alps, Pyrenees, Andes, Rocky Mountains, Himalayas) far-ranging walking and hiking trails are developed to serve a broad spectrum of activists. To supply this audience with basic information about geological phenomena and processes along such trails the project “Via Geo...” was born as an international activity within the International Year of Planet Earth. This approach may and should be applied in different parts of the world. The Alps have been selected to act in a pilot project with six Alpine nations participating in “Via GeoAlpina”: Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Slovenia, and Switzerland. This is due to the fact that a wealth of well maintained trails and touristic infrastructure exists all over the Alps. Some of these are included in the project “Via Alpina” bridging the entire mountain system from the Adriatic Sea at Trieste (Italy) to Monte Carlo (Monaco) in the Western Mediterranean. The idea of Via GeoAlpina is to point at geological attractions along the trails of Via Alpina or in their vicinity and to offer simple but clear-cut information on these features. Various earth science fields will be covered, such as geology, geophysics, paleontology, mineralogy, hydrogeology, pedology, climatology, and geomorphology. In addition, particular topics on applied earth science aspects, e.g, mineral recourses and geological hazards, which are of particular importance for society, will be addressed. This information is primarily web-based and trail descriptions can be accessed and downloaded from the Via GeoAlpina website (http://www.viageoalpina.org). In 2009

  13. Alpina: Innovación permanente para «sorprender» al cliente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Nieto Potes

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Proceso llevado a cabo por ALPINA en el desarrollo de nuevos productos, incluyendo estudios de mercado y marketing, estudios de factibilidad técnica y la coherencia del producto con el enfoque de la empresa.

  14. Rosalia longicorn Rosalia alpina (LINNAEUS, 1758 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae as a host of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana LI, LI, HUANG

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    Bartnik Czesław

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes, for the first time, the occurrence of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana (anamorph: Beauveria bassiana on the imago of the endangered beetle Rosalia longicorn Rosalia alpina from the Low Beskid Mountains (the Carpathians, SE Poland. Furthermore, an isolate of the saprotrophic fungus Hypoxylon fragiforme was obtained as a result of laboratory tests on R. alpina specimens. Relationships between the identified fungi and R. alpina are discussed.

  15. Arachidonic acid production by Mortierella alpina using raw crop materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ganggang; Guan, Zhengbing; Liu, Feixian G; Liao, Xiangru; Cai, Yujie

    2015-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (ARA) is one of the three essential fatty acids, and it is important for human body to keep healthy and is widely used. At present, expensive materials such as glucose and yeast extract are generally reported to be optimal for ARA production. A new cost-effective fermentation process including cheaper material for ARA production is of great significance. Feasibility of using corn meal and powdered soybean for fungal growth and lipid accumulation was evaluated by means of single factor test. N-hexadecane concentration was optimized, and the effect of temperature on biomass and ARA content was examined. Mortierella alpina made better use of the aforementioned material as carbon and nitrogen sources for both hyphae growth and ARA production compared with glucose and yeast extract. Maximal levels of 10.9 g/L ARA and 26.1 g/L total lipids were obtained when 66 g/L corn meal, 54 g/L soybean meal and 6% (v/v) n-hexadecane were supplemented. A temperature-shift strategy involved three steps, namely, 30°C (3 days) - 25°C (4 days) - 20°C (4 days), which further improved ARA production by 24.7%. Several factors such as carbon and nitrogen sources, temperature and dissolved oxygen had great influence on biomass and microbial oil production. Mortierella alpina preferred corn and soybean meal compared with glucose and yeast extract, which would surely alleviate the high cost of ARA production. Based on this study, the new process is both low cost and practicable.

  16. Arachidonic acid production by Mortierella alpina using raw crop materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganggang Cao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Arachidonic acid (ARA is one of the three essential fatty acids, and it is important for human body to keep healthy and is widely used. At present, expensive materials such as glucose and yeast extract are generally reported to be optimal for ARA production. A new cost-effective fermentation process including cheaper material for ARA production is of great signifi cance. Material and methods. Feasibility of using corn meal and powdered soybean for fungal growth and lipid accumulation was evaluated by means of single factor test. N-hexadecane concentration was optimized, and the effect of temperature on biomass and ARA content was examined. Results. Mortierella alpina made better use of the aforementioned material as carbon and nitrogen sources for both hyphae growth and ARA production compared with glucose and yeast extract. Maximal levels of 10.9 g/L ARA and 26.1 g/L total lipids were obtained when 66 g/L corn meal, 54 g/L soybean meal and 6% (v/v n-hexadecane were supplemented. A temperature-shift strategy involved three steps, namely, 30°C (3 days – 25°C (4 days – 20°C (4 days, which further improved ARA production by 24.7%. Conclusion. Several factors such as carbon and nitrogen sources, temperature and dissolved oxygen had great infl uence on biomass and microbial oil production. Mortierella alpina preferred corn and soybean meal compared with glucose and yeast extract, which would surely alleviate the high cost of ARA production. Based on this study, the new process is both low cost and practicable.

  17. Isolation of endophyic bacteria from purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Kds.

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    Tri Widayat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Kds. merupakan tanaman obat langka yang berkhasiat sebagai afrodisiak. Tanaman yang mengandung kumarin tersebut berinteraksi dengan bakteri endofi t. Senyawa kumarin dalam industri dimanfaatkan untuk bahan aditif makanan dan parfum. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan bakteri endofi t dari tanaman purwoceng, menganalisis kemampuan tumbuh bakteri endofi t dalam medium yang mengandung kumarin, dan pengaruh bakteri tersebut terhadap jumlah kumarin dalam medium pertumbuhan.Metode: Isolasi bakteri endofi t dilakukan secara langsung dari akar dan daun purwoceng. Seleksi bakteri endofi t penghasil kumarin dilakukan berdasarkan kemampuan bertahan hidup pada medium cair ammoniumsalt sugar (ASS yang mengandung infusa herba purwoceng. Pengaruh bakteri terhadap jumlah kumarin di dalam medium pertumbuhan diuji melalui percobaan kultivasi isolat bakteri terpilih pada medium yang sama. Jumlah kumarin dalam kultur dideteksi menggunakan teknik kromatografi lapis tipis (KLT.Hasil: Sembilan isolat bakteri endofi t yang berhasil diisolasi dari akar dan daun tanaman purwoceng mampu bertahan hidup pada medium basal yang diberi infusa herba purwoceng dengan waktu generasi (g 2,7-5,07jam dan kecepatan pertumbuhan spesifi k (μ 0,14-0,26/jam. Kultivasi isolat terpilih menunjukkan bahwa BAP5 menghasilkan senyawa dengan Rf 0,27 yang diduga sebagai turunan kumarin. Bakteri BAP5 mampu tumbuh dengan jumlah kumarin 1072 arbitrary unit (AU dalam medium.Kesimpulan: Bakteri endofi t dapat diisolasi dari tanaman purwoceng dan secara in vitro mampu mempertahankan jumlah kumarin yang terkandung di dalam medium. (Health Science Indones 2012;1:31-6Kata kunci: bakteri endofi t, purwoceng, Pimpinella alpina Kds, kumarinAbstractBackground: Purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Kds. is a medicinal plant species used as aphrodisiac. Like any other plants, the coumarin containing plant probably interacts with endophytic bacteria. Coumarin

  18. 78 FR 30961 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision that Nonconforming 2005-2007 Alpina B5 Passenger Cars...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... derived from BMW vehicles. These include the 1988-1994 Alpina B11 coupe, the 1988-1994 Alpina B12 5.0....-model BMW 5-series and reprogramming the vehicle computer to operate the necessary safety systems... lamps (which include side marker lights), from the U.S.-model BMW 5-series, and installation of the...

  19. Alpina: un caso de innovación para la competitividad

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    Juan Pablo Fernández González

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Alpina es una compañía pionera en la industria de alimentos en Colombia que se ha desarrollado a partir de la innovación. Este artículo presenta cómo Alpina ha forjado una cultura de innovación, calidad y emprendimiento en todo lo que realiza y cómo los constantes cambios en el contexto competitivo motivan el desarrollo continuo de la capacidad de innovación y estrategias para hacer el negocio más sostenible y con proyección hacia el futuro.

  20. Evolution of the Selfing Syndrome in Arabis alpina (Brassicaceae.

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    Andrew Tedder

    Full Text Available The transition from cross-fertilisation (outcrossing to self-fertilisation (selfing frequently coincides with changes towards a floral morphology that optimises self-pollination, the selfing syndrome. Population genetic studies have reported the existence of both outcrossing and selfing populations in Arabis alpina (Brassicaceae, which is an emerging model species for studying the molecular basis of perenniality and local adaptation. It is unknown whether its selfing populations have evolved a selfing syndrome.Using macro-photography, microscopy and automated cell counting, we compared floral syndromes (size, herkogamy, pollen and ovule numbers between three outcrossing populations from the Apuan Alps and three selfing populations from the Western and Central Alps (Maritime Alps and Dolomites. In addition, we genotyped the plants for 12 microsatellite loci to confirm previous measures of diversity and inbreeding coefficients based on allozymes, and performed Bayesian clustering.Plants from the three selfing populations had markedly smaller flowers, less herkogamy and lower pollen production than plants from the three outcrossing populations, whereas pistil length and ovule number have remained constant. Compared to allozymes, microsatellite variation was higher, but revealed similar patterns of low diversity and high Fis in selfing populations. Bayesian clustering revealed two clusters. The first cluster contained the three outcrossing populations from the Apuan Alps, the second contained the three selfing populations from the Maritime Alps and Dolomites.We conclude that in comparison to three outcrossing populations, three populations with high selfing rates are characterised by a flower morphology that is closer to the selfing syndrome. The presence of outcrossing and selfing floral syndromes within a single species will facilitate unravelling the genetic basis of the selfing syndrome, and addressing which selective forces drive its evolution.

  1. Evolution of the Selfing Syndrome in Arabis alpina (Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, Andrew; Carleial, Samuel; Gołębiewska, Martyna; Kappel, Christian; Shimizu, Kentaro K; Stift, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The transition from cross-fertilisation (outcrossing) to self-fertilisation (selfing) frequently coincides with changes towards a floral morphology that optimises self-pollination, the selfing syndrome. Population genetic studies have reported the existence of both outcrossing and selfing populations in Arabis alpina (Brassicaceae), which is an emerging model species for studying the molecular basis of perenniality and local adaptation. It is unknown whether its selfing populations have evolved a selfing syndrome. Using macro-photography, microscopy and automated cell counting, we compared floral syndromes (size, herkogamy, pollen and ovule numbers) between three outcrossing populations from the Apuan Alps and three selfing populations from the Western and Central Alps (Maritime Alps and Dolomites). In addition, we genotyped the plants for 12 microsatellite loci to confirm previous measures of diversity and inbreeding coefficients based on allozymes, and performed Bayesian clustering. Plants from the three selfing populations had markedly smaller flowers, less herkogamy and lower pollen production than plants from the three outcrossing populations, whereas pistil length and ovule number have remained constant. Compared to allozymes, microsatellite variation was higher, but revealed similar patterns of low diversity and high Fis in selfing populations. Bayesian clustering revealed two clusters. The first cluster contained the three outcrossing populations from the Apuan Alps, the second contained the three selfing populations from the Maritime Alps and Dolomites. We conclude that in comparison to three outcrossing populations, three populations with high selfing rates are characterised by a flower morphology that is closer to the selfing syndrome. The presence of outcrossing and selfing floral syndromes within a single species will facilitate unravelling the genetic basis of the selfing syndrome, and addressing which selective forces drive its evolution.

  2. First Report of Mortierella alpina (Mortierellaceae, Zygomycota) Isolated from Crop Field Soil in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Dil Raj; Kim, Sang Woo; Babu, Anam Giridhar; Adhikari, Mahesh; Kim, Changmu; Lee, Hyang Burm; Lee, Youn Su

    2014-12-01

    A new recorded species of Mortierella was recovered during the investigation of fungal communities in soil samples collected from different locations of Gangwon-do, Korea. The species was identified and described as Mortierella alpina on the basis of phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer sequences and morphological characteristics. This species has not been officially reported from Korea thus far.

  3. Ginger and the beetle: Evidence of primitive pollination system in a Himalayan endemic alpine ginger (Roscoea alpina, Zingiberaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Babu Ram; Shrestha, Mani; Dyer, Adrian G; Li, Qing-Jun

    2017-01-01

    The Himalayan endemic alpine genus Roscoea, like other members of ginger family, exhibits the combination of floral traits that would fit pollination by long distant foragers such as bees, birds or flies. We studied the pollination biology of Roscoea alpina, observed potential floral visitors and determined their foraging behaviour, visitation frequency and pollination efficiency, to seek evidence in support of the pollination syndrome hypothesis. We also measured the floral spectra of R. alpina flowers to evaluate if signals fit with the currently known framework for observed floral visitors. We found that R. alpina have autonomous selfing and pollinator-mediated crossing, but lack apomixis. We observed that a beetle (Mylabris sp.), and a moth (Macroglossum nycteris) visit the flowers of R. alpina for pollen and nectar feeding respectively. Our field observations, the stigmatic pollen count and fruit set data indicated that the visit by the beetle was legitimate, while that of the moth was illegitimate. Emasculated flowers visited by beetles set as many fruits and seeds/fruit as auto-selfed and naturally pollinated flowers, while emasculated flowers excluded from beetle visits did not set fruit and seed; indicating that a single visit of a beetle to the flowers of R. alpina can facilitate pollination. We found that flower spectral signal of R. alpina does not fit typical spectra previously reported for beetle or bee-visited flowers. Our results suggest that, to ensure reproductive success in alpine habitat, R. alpina has evolved autonomous selfing as a predominant mode of reproduction, while beetle pollination would promote genetic diversity of this plant species. The visitation of beetles to the flowers of R. alpina, despite floral signal mismatch with the classically associated beetle vision, suggests that a different visual processing may operate in this plant-pollinator interaction at high altitudes.

  4. Ginger and the beetle: Evidence of primitive pollination system in a Himalayan endemic alpine ginger (Roscoea alpina, Zingiberaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Mani; Dyer, Adrian G.; Li, Qing-Jun

    2017-01-01

    The Himalayan endemic alpine genus Roscoea, like other members of ginger family, exhibits the combination of floral traits that would fit pollination by long distant foragers such as bees, birds or flies. We studied the pollination biology of Roscoea alpina, observed potential floral visitors and determined their foraging behaviour, visitation frequency and pollination efficiency, to seek evidence in support of the pollination syndrome hypothesis. We also measured the floral spectra of R. alpina flowers to evaluate if signals fit with the currently known framework for observed floral visitors. We found that R. alpina have autonomous selfing and pollinator-mediated crossing, but lack apomixis. We observed that a beetle (Mylabris sp.), and a moth (Macroglossum nycteris) visit the flowers of R. alpina for pollen and nectar feeding respectively. Our field observations, the stigmatic pollen count and fruit set data indicated that the visit by the beetle was legitimate, while that of the moth was illegitimate. Emasculated flowers visited by beetles set as many fruits and seeds/fruit as auto-selfed and naturally pollinated flowers, while emasculated flowers excluded from beetle visits did not set fruit and seed; indicating that a single visit of a beetle to the flowers of R. alpina can facilitate pollination. We found that flower spectral signal of R. alpina does not fit typical spectra previously reported for beetle or bee-visited flowers. Our results suggest that, to ensure reproductive success in alpine habitat, R. alpina has evolved autonomous selfing as a predominant mode of reproduction, while beetle pollination would promote genetic diversity of this plant species. The visitation of beetles to the flowers of R. alpina, despite floral signal mismatch with the classically associated beetle vision, suggests that a different visual processing may operate in this plant-pollinator interaction at high altitudes. PMID:28723912

  5. Germination Ecology of Arundinaria alpina (K. Schum. and Oxytenanthera abyssinica (A. Rich. Munro Seeds: Indigenous Bamboo Species in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinsae Bahru

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Highland bamboo (Arundinaria alpina and lowland bamboo (Oxytenanthera abyssinica are indigenous to Ethiopia and endemic to Africa. Seeds of A. alpina were collected from Dawa Wereda (District, while O. abyssinica seeds were collected from Pawe and Sherkole Weredas. In this study, seed presowing treatments, effects of dry heat, moist heat, and light/dark treatments on the germination of seeds were tested. The averages were of 59,416 and 8,393 seeds contained within 1 kg of A. alpina and O. abyssinica seeds within 86 and 91% pure seeds, respectively. From 1 kg of pure seeds 37,301 and 7,168 seedlings are raised in the laboratory in their respective orders. The result revealed that control seeds of A. alpina and O. abyssinica showed the best germination of 73 and 98%. Germination of both dry and moist heat treatments of O. abyssinica seeds was significantly improved at 60 and 80°C. Unlike A. alpina seeds, seeds of O. abyssinica had better germination for light treatment compared to dark. For effective large scale plantation and raising of A. alpina and O. abyssinica seedlings from its seeds for laboratory, control seeds supply to necessary light source (for O. abyssinica seeds is recommended.

  6. Contemporary gene flow and mating system of Arabis alpina in a Central European alpine landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Buehler, D.; Graf, R; Holderegger, R; Gugerli, F.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims Gene flow is important in counteracting the divergence of populations but also in spreading genes among populations. However, contemporary gene flow is not well understood across alpine landscapes. The aim of this study was to estimate contemporary gene flow through pollen and to examine the realized mating system in the alpine perennial plant, Arabis alpina (Brassicaceae). Methods An entire sub-alpine to alpine landscape of 2 km2 was exhaustively sampled in the Swiss Alps...

  7. Lipid characterization of an arachidonic acid-rich oil producing fungus Mortierella alpina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjia Wu; Jiacheng Yan; Xiaojun Ji; Xin Zhang; Jingsheng Shang; Lina Sun; Lujing Ren; He Huang

    2015-01-01

    Mortierel a alpina has been considered as the most effective producer of arachidonic acid (ARA)-rich oil. It was found that several methods could improve the percentage of ARA in total lipids successful y, as they activated the desaturation system on the endoplasmic reticulum. Additionally, in M. alpina the ARA exists in several forms, such as triacylglycerol (TAG), and diacylglycerol (DAG). These forms are caused by different acyltransferases and they determine the nutrient value of the microbial oil. However, few works revealed de-tailed fatty acid distribution among lipid classes, which to some extent impeded the accurate regulation in ARA accumulation. Herein, this paper gives information on the accumulation process of main lipid classes and the changes of fatty acid composition in these lipids during ARA accumulation period in M. alpina. The result dem-onstrates that TAG was the dominant component of the total lipids, and it is the main form for ARA storage. The ARA enrichment stage occurred during 168–192 h when the amount of total lipids maintained steady. Further analysis indicated that the newly formed ARA-TAG might come from the incorporation and modification of sat-urated and monounsaturated fatty acids in other lipid classes. This work could be helpful for further optimization of ARA-rich TAG production.

  8. Role of the phenylalanine-hydroxylating system in aromatic substance degradation and lipid metabolism in the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongchao; Chen, Haiqin; Hao, Guangfei; Yang, Bo; Feng, Yun; Wang, Yu; Feng, Lu; Zhao, Jianxin; Song, Yuanda; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q; Wang, Lei; Chen, Wei

    2013-05-01

    Mortierella alpina is a filamentous fungus commonly found in soil that is able to produce lipids in the form of triacylglycerols that account for up to 50% of its dry weight. Analysis of the M. alpina genome suggests that there is a phenylalanine-hydroxylating system for the catabolism of phenylalanine, which has never been found in fungi before. We characterized the phenylalanine-hydroxylating system in M. alpina to explore its role in phenylalanine metabolism and its relationship to lipid biosynthesis. Significant changes were found in the profile of fatty acids in M. alpina grown on medium containing an inhibitor of the phenylalanine-hydroxylating system compared to M. alpina grown on medium without inhibitor. Genes encoding enzymes involved in the phenylalanine-hydroxylating system (phenylalanine hydroxylase [PAH], pterin-4α-carbinolamine dehydratase, and dihydropteridine reductase) were expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli, and the resulting proteins were purified to homogeneity. Their enzymatic activity was investigated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or visible (Vis)-UV spectroscopy. Two functional PAH enzymes were observed, encoded by distinct gene copies. A novel role for tetrahydrobiopterin in fungi as a cofactor for PAH, which is similar to its function in higher life forms, is suggested. This study establishes a novel scheme for the fungal degradation of an aromatic substance (phenylalanine) and suggests that the phenylalanine-hydroxylating system is functionally significant in lipid metabolism.

  9. Isolation of 16 Microsatellite Markers for Spiraea alpina and S. mongolica (Rosaceae of the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzar Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: A set of microsatellite markers were developed to characterize the level of genetic diversity and gene flow in two plant species endemic to the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, Spiraea alpina and S. mongolica. Methods and Results: Using the Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequences Containing repeats (FIASCO method, 16 microsatellite loci showed polymorphisms in both species. In two populations of each species, the number of alleles per locus ranged from three to 18 in S. alpina and from four to 30 in S. mongolica. Conclusions: These microsatellite markers provide an efficient tool for population genetic studies and will be used to assess the genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure of S. alpina and S. mongolica.

  10. Characterization of an fungal l-fucokinase involved in Mortierella alpina GDP-l-fucose salvage pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongchao; Zhang, Chen; Chen, Haiqin; Yang, Qin; Zhou, Xin; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Chen, Yong Q

    2016-08-01

    GDP-l-fucose functions as a biological donor for fucosyltransferases, which are required for the catalysis of l-fucose to various acceptor molecules including oligosaccharides, glycoproteins and glycolipids. Mortierella alpina is one of the highest lipid-producing fungi and can biosynthesis GDP-l-fucose in the de novo pathway. Analysis of the M. alpina genome suggests that there is a gene encoding l-fucokinase (FUK) for the conversion of fucose to l-fucose-1-phosphate in the GDP-l-fucose salvage pathway, which has never been found in fungi before. This gene was characterized to explore its role in GDP-l-fucose synthesis. The yield of GDP-l-fucose is relatively higher in lipid accumulation phase (0.096 mg per g cell) than that in cell multiplication phase (0.074 mg per g cell) of M. alpina Additionally, the transcript level of FUK is up regulated by nitrogen exhaustion when M. alpina starts to accumulate lipid, highlights the functional significance of FUK in the GDP-l-fucose biosynthesis in M. alpina Gene encoding FUK was expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli and the resulting protein was purified to homogeneity. The product of FUK reaction was analyzed by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Kinetic parameters and other properties of FUK were investigated. Comparative analyses between the FUK protein and other homologous proteins were performed. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report a comprehensive characterization of FUK in a fungus. Mortierella alpina could be used as an alternative source for the production of GDP-l-fucose. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. El éxito de la gestión ambiental en Alpina S.A.

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    Edicson Jair Gil costa Acosta

    2013-08-01

    Este análisis permitió observar tanto su excelente organización interna, como el importante desarrollo de sus políticas ambientales, las cuales se reflejan no sólo al interior de la organización, sino también al exterior, como consecuencia de su activa participación en la generación de políticas gubernamentales de alto impacto para la sociedad. Igualmente, el artículo incluye las estrategias desarrolladas por Alpina para alcanzar los objetivos propuestos en estas políticas ambientales.

  12. Interactions Between Temperature and Sugars in the Regulation of Leaf Senescence in the Perennial Herb Arabis alpina L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Astrid Wingler; Emma Josefine Stangberg; Triambak Saxena; Rupal Mistry

    2012-01-01

    Annual plants usually flower and set seed once before senescence results in the death of the whole plant (monocarpic senescence).Leaf senescence also occurs in polycarpic perennials; even in "evergreen" species individual leaves senesce.In the annual model Arabidopsis thaliana sugars accumulate in the senescent leaves and senescence is accelerated by high sugar availability.Similar to A.thaliana,sugar contents increased with leaf age in the perennial Arabis alpina grown under warm conditions (22 ℃day/18 night).At 5 ℃,sugar contents in non-senescent leaves were higher than at a warm temperature,but dependent on the accession,either sugars did not accumulate or their contents decreased in old leaves.In A.alpina plants grown in their natural habitat in the Alps,sugar contents declined with leaf age.Growth at a cold temperature slightly delayed senescence in A.alpina.In both warm and cold conditions,an external glucose supply accelerated senescence,but natural variation was found in this response.In conclusion,sugar accumulation under warm conditions could accelerate leaf senescence in A.alpina plants,but genotype-specific responses and interactions with growth temperature are likely to influence senescence under natural conditions.

  13. Root microbiota dynamics of perennial Arabis alpina are dependent on soil residence time but independent of flowering time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Nina; Schlaeppi, Klaus; Agler, Matthew T; Hacquard, Stéphane; Kemen, Eric; Garrido-Oter, Ruben; Wunder, Jörg; Coupland, George; Schulze-Lefert, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Recent field and laboratory experiments with perennial Boechera stricta and annual Arabidopsis thaliana suggest that the root microbiota influences flowering time. Here we examined in long-term time-course experiments the bacterial root microbiota of the arctic-alpine perennial Arabis alpina in natural and controlled environments by 16S rRNA gene profiling. We identified soil type and residence time of plants in soil as major determinants explaining up to 15% of root microbiota variation, whereas environmental conditions and host genotype explain maximally 11% of variation. When grown in the same soil, the root microbiota composition of perennial A. alpina is largely similar to those of its annual relatives A. thaliana and Cardamine hirsuta. Non-flowering wild-type A. alpina and flowering pep1 mutant plants assemble an essentially indistinguishable root microbiota, thereby uncoupling flowering time from plant residence time-dependent microbiota changes. This reveals the robustness of the root microbiota against the onset and perpetual flowering of A. alpina. Together with previous studies, this implies a model in which parts of the root microbiota modulate flowering time, whereas, after microbiota acquisition during vegetative growth, the established root-associated bacterial assemblage is structurally robust to perturbations caused by flowering and drastic changes in plant stature.

  14. 75 FR 51164 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 1990-1996 ALPINA Burkard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ...-1996 ALPINA B12 2-door coupe as a modified version of the 1991-1997 BMW 8-series (e31) 2-door coupe that was manufactured for sale in the United States and certified by BMW as complying with all... base vehicles by BMW. In view of these circumstances, the petitioner acknowledged that it could...

  15. 78 FR 59092 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision that Nonconforming 1988-1996 Alpina B10 Passenger Cars...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... Alpina vehicles that were derived from BMW vehicles. These include the 2005-2007 (manufactured before... from the U.S.-model BMW E34 5-series and reprogramming the vehicle computer to operate the necessary... headlamps and front and rear marker lights with components from the U.S.-model BMW E34 5-series,...

  16. 76 FR 69323 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision that Nonconforming 1987-1994 ALPINA Burkard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... Innovations described the 1987-1994 ALPINA B11 sedan as a modified version of the 1987-1994 BMW 7-series (e32) sedan that was manufactured for sale in the United States and certified by BMW as complying with all... base vehicles manufactured by BMW. In view of these circumstances, the petitioner acknowledged that...

  17. Transformation of Mortierella alpina (fatty acid supplier myceliums via AMT system (Agrobacterium Mediated Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Javanmard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mortierella alpina is one of the most important fungi in food industry because of having ability of synthesizing unsaturated fatty acids, particularly Arashidonic Acid. This is a precursor of Eicosanoidregulate-lipoprotein metabolism which is involved in blood rheology, platelet activation and leukocyte-function, and the functional characteristics of the cell membrane. Materials and methods: In this study genetic transformation of M. alpina CBS754.68 fungus was evaluated via Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Agrobacteriums containing pBI121 vector were used for transformation of three days of old mycelia. Three days old hyphae were exposed to the bacteria with three level of time (one, two and three hours in the present of acetosyringone. Mitotic stability of the third generation of transgenic (T2 was confirmed by GUS assay and amplification of CaMV 35S promoter by polymerase chain reaction. Results: The highest percentage of transformation and mitotic stability were obtained by using A. tumefaciens and A. rhizogenese, respectively. Discussion and conclusion: The results showed that to obtain more efficient and more stable transformation, the fundamental factor is the use of suitable species of Agrobacterium. It is the first report for transformation of autothroph strain of M. alpine via Agrobacterium.

  18. Development of a defined medium for arachidonic acid production by Mortierella alpina using a visualization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Ji, Xiaojun; Zhang, Hongman; Fu, Ninghua; Yan, Liexiang; Deng, Zhongtao; Huang, He

    2012-11-01

    Defined medium for arachidonic acid (ARA) production by Mortierella alpina was optimized for its metabolomics study. For this purpose, a visualization method (VM) was applied for the first time. Experiments were designed according to the uniform design with four factors (concentrations of glucose, NaNO(3), KH(2)PO(4) and MgSO(4)·7H(2)O) for each at nine levels. Dry cell weight (DCW), ARA yield in DCW [percent (w/w)] and ARA content in total fatty acids [percent (w/w)] were considered as the three objectives. Optimization of single-objective function and multi-objective function of two objectives and three objectives was attempted. Optimal DCW, ARA yield and ARA content were predicted to occur in a medium that contained (grams per litre): glucose 35, NaNO(3) 1, KH(2)PO(4) 7.5 and MgSO(4)·7H(2)O 2.6. Upon verification, the average tested DCW (12.95 g/l), ARA yield (18.89 %) and ARA content (42.36 %) were fairly close to the predicted values (12.88 g/l, 9.68 % and 35.57 %, respectively). Moreover, DCW, ARA yield and ARA content from the optimum medium increased by 35.68, 47.23 and 30.90 % compared with control, respectively, indicating that VM had succeeded in exploiting the biomass growth and ARA production by M. alpina.

  19. Inhibition of Advanced Glycation End-Product Formation and Antioxidant Activity by Extracts and Polyphenols from Scutellaria alpina L. and S. altissima L.

    OpenAIRE

    Izabela Grzegorczyk-Karolak; Krzysztof Gołąb; Jakub Gburek; Halina Wysokińska; Adam Matkowski

    2016-01-01

    Methanolic extracts from the aerial parts and roots of two Scutellaria species, S. alpina and S. altissima, and five polyphenols from these plants demonstrated a significant ability to inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) in vitro. S. alpina, which is richer in polyphenolic compounds, had strong antiglycation properties. These extracts demonstrated also high activity in the FRAP (ferric-reducing antioxidant power), antiradical (DPPH) and lipid peroxidation inhibition...

  20. Expression analysis for genes involved in arachidonic acid biosynthesis in Mortierella alpina CBS 754.68.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadlouie, Hamid-Reza; Hamidi-Esfahani, Zohreh; Alavi, Seyed-Mehdi; Varastegani, Boshra

    2014-01-01

    The time courses for production of fungal biomass, lipid, phenolic and arachidonic acid (ARA) as well as expression of the genes involved in biosynthesis of ARA and lipid were examined in Mortierella alpina CBS 754.68. A significant increase in the arachidonic acid content in lipids that coincided with reduced levels of lipid was obtained. Reduced gene expression occurred presumably due to the steady reduction of carbon and nitrogen resources. However, these energy resources were inefficiently compensated by the breakdown of the accumulated lipids that in turn, induced up-regulated expression of the candidate genes. The results further indicated that the expression of the GLELO encoding gene is a rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of ARA in the early growth phase.

  1. Expression analysis for genes involved in arachidonic acid biosynthesis in Mortierella alpina CBS 754.68

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid-Reza Samadlouie

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The time courses for production of fungal biomass, lipid, phenolic and arachidonic acid (ARA as well as expression of the genes involved in biosynthesis of ARA and lipid were examined in Mortierella alpina CBS 754.68. A significant increase in the arachidonic acid content in lipids that coincided with reduced levels of lipid was obtained. Reduced gene expression occurred presumably due to the steady reduction of carbon and nitrogen resources. However, these energy resources were inefficiently compensated by the breakdown of the accumulated lipids that in turn, induced up-regulated expression of the candidate genes. The results further indicated that the expression of the GLELO encoding gene is a rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of ARA in the early growth phase.

  2. Citation analysis of Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Pannonica et Adriatica: 1992-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oštrbenk, Anja; Poljak, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Pannonica et Adriatica is the leading journal in the field of dermatology and sexually transmitted infections in the region. Several important steps were taken during the last 20 years to improve the journal's quality, global visibility, and international impact. Since 1992, 699 bibliographical items have been published, which received 1,360 citations. Web of Science citable items received on average 2.29 citations per item. Importantly, almost half (49.6%) of all citations retrieved to date were received from 2012 onwards. The predicted impact factor was calculated in a way to match official impact factors published annually in Thomson Scientific Journal Citation Reports. Citation analysis shows a substantial increase of the predicted impact factor since 2006, with values above 0.5 since 2007. For the first time in the journal's history, a predicted impact factor value above 1.0 was recorded in 2013.

  3. Citation analysis of Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Pannonica et Adriatica: 1992-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrbenk, Anja; Skamperle, Mateja; Poljak, Mario

    2012-09-01

    Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Pannonica et Adriatica is small regional professional journal that started publishing in 1992. Despite the journal's relatively narrow readership, it has significantly improved its quality and global profile during the last 20 years, as shown in this citation analysis update. Since 1992, 654 bibliographical items have been published. Among these, 545 (83.4%) were considered WoS citable items and 109 (16.6%) WoS noncitable items. Since 2008, 90% of all published items have been considered WoS citable items and received an average of 1.9 citations per item. The predicted Acta Dermatovenerol APA impact factor calculated using data from a Cited Reference search of Thomson Scientific's Web of Science has shown steep and continuous increase since 2006, when the journal acquired full indexing status in Index Medicus/Medline, and has been above 0.5 since 2008.

  4. Biochemical characterization of GDP-L-fucose de novo synthesis pathway in fungus Mortierella alpina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Yan [TEDA School of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Nankai University, Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area, Tianjin 300457 (China); Perepelov, Andrei V. [N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prospekt 47, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Wang, Haiyan [TEDA School of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Nankai University, Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area, Tianjin 300457 (China); Zhang, Hao [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122 (China); Knirel, Yuriy A. [N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prospekt 47, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Wang, Lei [TEDA School of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Nankai University, Tianjin Economic-Technological Development Area, Tianjin 300457 (China); Chen, Wei, E-mail: weichen@jiangnan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University, Wuxi, Jiangsu 214122 (China)

    2010-01-22

    Mortierella alpina is a filamentous fungus commonly found in soil, which is able to produce large amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids. L-Fucose is an important sugar found in a diverse range of organisms, playing a variety of biological roles. In this study, we characterized the de novo biosynthetic pathway of GDP-L-fucose (the nucleotide-activated form of L-fucose) in M. alpina. Genes encoding GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase (GMD) and GDP-keto-6-deoxymannose 3,5-epimerase/4-reductase (GMER) were expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzymes were produced as His-tagged fusion proteins. Conversion of GDP-mannose to GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy mannose by GMD and GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy mannose to GDP-L-fucose by GMER were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis, electro-spray ionization-mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The k{sub m} values of GMD for GDP-mannose and GMER for GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy mannose were determined to be 0.77 mM and 1.047 mM, respectively. Both NADH and NADPH may be used by GMER as the coenzyme. The optimum temperature and pH were determined to be 37 {sup o}C and pH 9.0 (GMD) or pH 7.0 (GMER). Divalent cations are not required for GMD and GMER activity, and the activities of both enzymes may be enhanced by DTT. To our knowledge this is the first report on the characterization of GDP-L-fucose biosynthetic pathway in fungi.

  5. Pollen and stigma size changes during the transition from tristyly to distyly in Oxalis alpina (Oxalidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Díaz, Fernanda; Fornoni, Juan; Sosenski, Paula; Weller, Stephen G; Domínguez, César A

    2017-08-23

    (1)Pollen and stigma size have the potential of influencing male fitness of hermaphroditic plants, particularly in species presenting floral polymorphisms characterized by marked differences in these traits among floral morphs. In this study, we take advantage of the evolutionary transition from tristyly to distyly experienced by Oxalis alpina (Oxalidaceae) and examined whether modifications in the ancillary traits (pollen and stigma size) respond to allometric changes in other floral traits. Also, we tested if these modifications are in accordance with what would be expected under the hypothesis that novel competitive scenarios (as in distylous derived reproductive system) exerts morph- and whorl-specific selective pressures to match the available stigmas. (2) We measure pollen- and stigma size in five populations of O. alpina representing the tristyly-distyly transition. (3) A general reduction in pollen and stigma size occurred along the tristyly-distyly transition and pollen size from the two anther levels within each morph converged to a similar size that was characterized by whorl specific changes (increases or decreases) in pollen size of different anthers in each floral type. (4) Overall, results from this study show that the evolution of distyly in this species is characterized not only by changes in sexual organ position and flower size, but also by morph-specific changes in pollen and stigma size. This evidence supports the importance of selection on pollen and stigma size that increase fitness of remaining morphs following the evolution of distyly, and raises questions to explore the functional value of pollen size in heterostylous systems under pollen competition. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Biochemical characterization of GDP-L-fucose de novo synthesis pathway in fungus Mortierella alpina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yan; Perepelov, Andrei V; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Hao; Knirel, Yuriy A; Wang, Lei; Chen, Wei

    2010-01-22

    Mortierella alpina is a filamentous fungus commonly found in soil, which is able to produce large amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids. L-fucose is an important sugar found in a diverse range of organisms, playing a variety of biological roles. In this study, we characterized the de novo biosynthetic pathway of GDP-L-fucose (the nucleotide-activated form of L-fucose) in M. alpina. Genes encoding GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase (GMD) and GDP-keto-6-deoxymannose 3,5-epimerase/4-reductase (GMER) were expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzymes were produced as His-tagged fusion proteins. Conversion of GDP-mannose to GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy mannose by GMD and GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy mannose to GDP-L-fucose by GMER were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis, electro-spray ionization-mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The k(m) values of GMD for GDP-mannose and GMER for GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy mannose were determined to be 0.77 mM and 1.047 mM, respectively. Both NADH and NADPH may be used by GMER as the coenzyme. The optimum temperature and pH were determined to be 37 degrees C and pH 9.0 (GMD) or pH 7.0 (GMER). Divalent cations are not required for GMD and GMER activity, and the activities of both enzymes may be enhanced by DTT. To our knowledge this is the first report on the characterization of GDP-L-fucose biosynthetic pathway in fungi. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of essential oils from Scutellaria orientalis ssp. alpina and S. utriculata by GC and GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice; Piozzi, Franco; Arnold, Nelly Apostolides

    2011-09-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from aerial parts of Scutellaria orientalis L. ssp. alpina (Boiss.) O. Schwarz and S. utriculata Labill. growing wild in Lebanon, were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. In S. orientalis ssp. alpina, strongly characterized by sesquiterpenes (41.2%) and particularly sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (31.7%), hexahydrofarnesylacetone (11.7%) was recognized as the main constituent, together with hexadecanoic acid (7.6%), caryophyllene (7.4%), caryophyllene oxide (6.8%), 4-vinylguaiacol (5.4%) and germacrene D (5.4%). S. utriculata oil was instead constituted above all by monoterpenes (42.2%), particularly oxygen containing monoterpenes (39.9%), and in this oil the main compounds were linalool (20.1%), 4-vinyl guaiacol (15.5%), alpha-terpineol (8.9%), (E)-nerolidol (8.9%) and geraniol (8.2%).

  8. Metabolic engineering for the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids by oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina 1S-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuradani, Eiji; Ando, Akinori; Shimizu, Sakayu; Ogawa, Jun

    2013-10-01

    Researches related with the application of functional lipids such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been conducted in various fields with a view to health and dietary requirements. Novel rich sources other than known natural sources such as plant seeds and fish oils are required for increasing demands of PUFAs. The filamentous fungus Mortierella alpina 1S-4 produces triacylglycerols rich in arachidonic acid, i.e., ones reaching 20 g/l in concentration and containing 30-70% arachidonic acid as total fatty acids. Various mutants derived from M. alpina 1S-4 have led to the production of oils containing various PUFAs. Molecular breeding of M. alpina strains by means of manipulation of the genes involved in PUFA biosynthesis facilitates improvement of PUFA productivity and elucidation of the functions of their enzymes. This review describes practical PUFA production through mutant breeding, functional analyses of the genes of the enzymes involved in PUFA biosynthesis, and recent advances in unique PUFA production through molecular breeding.

  9. Biochemical characterization of an isoform of GDP-D-mannose-4,6-dehydratase from Mortierella alpina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongchao; Zhang, Chen; Chen, Haiqin; Yang, Qin; Zhou, Xin; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Chen, Yong Q

    2016-10-01

    To clarify the molecular mechanism of GDP-L-fucose biosynthesis in Mortierella alpina. Analysis of the M. alpina genome suggests that there were two isofunctional GDP-D-mannose-4,6-dehydratase genes (GMD1 and GMD2) that have never been found in a microorganism before. GMD2 was expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The addition of exogenous NAD(+) or NADP(+) was not essential for GMD2 activity. GMD2 may have considerable importance for GDP-L-fucose biosynthesis under nitrogen starvation. The transcriptional regulation of GMD1 may be more susceptible to GDP and GTP than that of GMD2. Significant changes were observed in the concentration of GDP-L-fucose (30 and 36 % inhibition respectively) and total fatty acids (18 and 12 % inhibition respectively) in M. alpina grown on GMD inhibitors medium, which suggests that GDP-L-fucose is functionally significant in lipid metabolism. This is the first time that an isofunctional GDP-D-mannose-4,6-dehydratase has been characterized in a microorganism.

  10. Improving arachidonic acid fermentation by Mortierella alpina through multistage temperature and aeration rate control in bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Min-Jie; Wang, Cheng; Zheng, Zhi-Yong; Zhu, Li; Zhan, Xiao-Bei; Lin, Chi-Chung

    2016-05-18

    Effective production of arachidonic acid (ARA) using Mortierella alpina was conducted in a 30-L airlift bioreactor. Varying the aeration rate and temperature significantly influenced cell morphology, cell growth, and ARA production, while the optimal aeration rate and temperature for cell growth and product formation were quite different. As a result, a two-stage aeration rate control strategy was constructed based on monitoring of cell morphology and ARA production under various aeration rate control levels (0.6-1.8 vvm). Using this strategy, ARA yield reached 4.7 g/L, an increase of 38.2% compared with the control (constant aeration rate control at 1.0 vvm). Dynamic temperature-control strategy was implemented based on the fermentation performance at various temperatures (13-28°C), with ARA level in total cellular lipid increased by 37.1% comparing to a constant-temperature control (25°C). On that basis, the combinatorial fermentation strategy of two-stage aeration rate control and dynamic temperature control was applied and ARA production achieved the highest level of 5.8 g/L.

  11. Screening of Potential Free Radicals Scavenger and Antibacterial Activities of Purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Molk)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuningrum, Retno; Utami, Pri Iswati; Dhiani, Binar Asrining; Kumalasari, Malikhah; Kusumawardani, Rizka Sari

    2016-01-01

    Purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Molk) is a traditional medicinal plant used for its aphrodisiac values. This plant was originated Dieng Plateu, Central Java, Indonesia. Purwoceng has been reported to contain steroid, flavonoids, glycoside, saponins, tannins, and phenolic. Based on secondary metabolite compounds of Purwoceng herbs, a research need to be done to determine the other potential free radicals scavenger and antibacterial activities of Purwoceng. The objectives of this research are to screen the potential free radicals scavenger activity of in vitro using DPPH (1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil) radicals and NO• (nitric oxide) radicals, and antibacterial activity of Purwoceng. The extraction is done by a maceration method with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and ethanol solvent, respectively. Free radicals scavenger test was performed using DPPH radicals and NO• radicals, while antibacterial activity screening was performed using agar diffusion test. The results showed that ethyl acetate extract of Purwoceng has free radical scavenger activity with IC50 53.07 ppm lower than butylated hydroxytoluene. Ethyl acetate extract and ethanol extract of Purwoceng have antibacterial activity against Staphyloccus aureus, Escherichia coli, and MG42 bacterial isolate. PMID:27965755

  12. Screening of Potential Free Radicals Scavenger and Antibacterial Activities of Purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Molk).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuningrum, Retno; Utami, Pri Iswati; Dhiani, Binar Asrining; Kumalasari, Malikhah; Kusumawardani, Rizka Sari

    2016-11-01

    Purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Molk) is a traditional medicinal plant used for its aphrodisiac values. This plant was originated Dieng Plateu, Central Java, Indonesia. Purwoceng has been reported to contain steroid, flavonoids, glycoside, saponins, tannins, and phenolic. Based on secondary metabolite compounds of Purwoceng herbs, a research need to be done to determine the other potential free radicals scavenger and antibacterial activities of Purwoceng. The objectives of this research are to screen the potential free radicals scavenger activity of in vitro using DPPH (1,1 diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil) radicals and NO• (nitric oxide) radicals, and antibacterial activity of Purwoceng. The extraction is done by a maceration method with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, and ethanol solvent, respectively. Free radicals scavenger test was performed using DPPH radicals and NO• radicals, while antibacterial activity screening was performed using agar diffusion test. The results showed that ethyl acetate extract of Purwoceng has free radical scavenger activity with IC50 53.07 ppm lower than butylated hydroxytoluene. Ethyl acetate extract and ethanol extract of Purwoceng have antibacterial activity against Staphyloccus aureus, Escherichia coli, and MG42 bacterial isolate.

  13. PEP1 of Arabis alpina is encoded by two overlapping genes that contribute to natural genetic variation in perennial flowering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C Albani

    Full Text Available Higher plants exhibit a variety of different life histories. Annual plants live for less than a year and after flowering produce seeds and senesce. By contrast perennials live for many years, dividing their life cycle into episodes of vegetative growth and flowering. Environmental cues control key check points in both life histories. Genes controlling responses to these cues exhibit natural genetic variation that has been studied most in short-lived annuals. We characterize natural genetic variation conferring differences in the perennial life cycle of Arabis alpina. Previously the accession Pajares was shown to flower after prolonged exposure to cold (vernalization and only for a limited period before returning to vegetative growth. We describe five accessions of A. alpina that do not require vernalization to flower and flower continuously. Genetic complementation showed that these accessions carry mutant alleles at PERPETUAL FLOWERING 1 (PEP1, which encodes a MADS box transcription factor orthologous to FLOWERING LOCUS C in the annual Arabidopsis thaliana. Each accession carries a different mutation at PEP1, suggesting that such variation has arisen independently many times. Characterization of these alleles demonstrated that in most accessions, including Pajares, the PEP1 locus contains a tandem arrangement of a full length and a partial PEP1 copy, which give rise to two full-length transcripts that are differentially expressed. This complexity contrasts with the single gene present in A. thaliana and might contribute to the more complex expression pattern of PEP1 that is associated with the perennial life-cycle. Our work demonstrates that natural accessions of A. alpina exhibit distinct life histories conferred by differences in PEP1 activity, and that continuous flowering forms have arisen multiple times by inactivation of the floral repressor PEP1. Similar phenotypic variation is found in other herbaceous perennial species, and our results

  14. Essential oil of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak needles: chemical composition, antifungal activity and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, C; Francisco, V; Cavaleiro, C; Gonçalves, M J; Cruz, M T; Sales, F; Batista, M T; Salgueiro, L

    2012-09-01

    Essential oils are known to possess antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of bacteria and fungi. In the present work the composition and the antifungal activity of the oils of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak were evaluated. Moreover, the skin cytotoxicity, at concentrations showing significant antifungal activity, was also evaluated. The oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oil against dermatophytes (Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, T. rubrum, T. verrucosum), yeasts (Candida albicans, C. guillermondii, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, Cryptococcus neoformans) and Aspergillus species (Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger). Cytotoxicity was tested in HaCaT keratinocytes through the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Essential oil of J. communis subsp. alpina needles was predominantly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons (78.4%), with the main compounds being sabinene (26.2%), α-pinene (12-9%) and limonene (10.4%). Results concerning the antifungal activity demonstrated the potential of needle oil against dermatophytes, particularly for Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum with MIC and MLC of 0.32 μL/mL. Furthermore, evaluation of cell viability showed no significant cytotoxicity in HaCaT keratinocytes at concentrations between 0.32 and 0.64 μL/mL. These results show that it is possible to find appropriate doses of J. communis subsp. alpina oil with both antifungal activity and a very low detrimental effect on keratinocytes. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Size and quality of wood used by Rosalia alpina (Linnaeus, 1758) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in beech woodlands of Gipuzkoa (northern Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    De Castro, A.

    2012-01-01

    La conservación de la especie saproxilófaga legalmente protegida Rosalia alpina (Linnaeus, 1758) en los hayedos de Europa conlleva una gestión adecuada de los árboles muertos y moribundos. Sin embargo, los parámetros de los árboles preferidos (tamaño y calidad de la madera) permanecen aún poco conocidos. En esta contribución se analizan los datos de distribución procedentes de seis años de trabajo en cuatro Lugares de Interés Comunitario de la provincia de Gipuzkoa (norte de España). Los indi...

  16. Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Pannonica et Adriatica accepted for coverage in Thomson Reuters' Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, Mario; Miljković, Jovan; Triglav, Tina

    2016-09-01

    Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Pannonica et Adriatica (Acta Dermatovenerol APA) is the leading journal in dermatology and sexually transmitted infections in the region. Several important steps were taken during the last 25 years to improve the journal's quality, global visibility, and international impact. After a 1-year trial period, Thomson Reuters recently informed the editorial office that they had accepted Acta Dermatovenerol APA for coverage in Thomson Reuters' new index in the Web of Science Core Collection called the Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI). The coverage of Acta Dermatovenerol APA begins with the journal content published online in 2016; that is, from volume 25 onwards.

  17. High renesting rates in arctic-breeding Dunlin (Calidris alpina): A clutch-removal experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, H. River; Lanctot, Richard B.; Powell, Abby N.

    2013-01-01

    The propensity to replace a clutch is a complex component of avian reproduction and poorly understood. We experimentally removed clutches from an Arctic-breeding shorebird, the Dunlin (Calidris alpina arcticola), during early and late stages of incubation to investigate replacement clutch rates, renesting interval, and mate and site fidelity between nesting attempts. In contrast to other Arctic studies, we documented renesting by radiotracking individuals to find replacement clutches. We also examined clutch size and mean egg volume to document changes in individual females’ investment in initial and replacement clutches. Finally, we examined the influence of adult body mass, clutch volume, dates of clutch initiation and nest loss, and year on the propensity to renest. We found high (82–95%) and moderate (35–50%) rates of renesting for early and late incubation treatments. Renesting intervals averaged 4.7–6.8 days and were not different for clutches removed early or late in incubation. Most pairs remained together for renesting attempts. Larger females were more likely to replace a clutch; female body mass was the most important parameter predicting propensity to renest. Clutches lost later in the season were less likely to be replaced. We present evidence that renesting is more common in Arctic-breeding shorebirds than was previously thought, and suggest that renesting is constrained by energetic and temporal factors as well as mate availability. Obtaining rates of renesting in species breeding at different latitudes will help determine when this behavior is likely to occur; such information is necessary for demographic models that include individual and population-level fecundity estimates.

  18. Evaluation of a subchronic (13-week) oral toxicity study, preceded by an in utero exposure phase, with arachidonic acid oil derived from Mortierella alpina in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempenius, R.A.; Lina, B.A.R.; Haggitt, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Arachidonic acid oil (ARA-oil) derived from the fungus Mortierella alpina for use in infant nutrition was tested in a subchronic (13-week) oral toxicity study in rats, preceded by an in utero exposure phase. The ARA-oil was administered as admixture to the rodent diet at dose levels of 3000 ppm, 15,

  19. Evaluation of a subchronic (13-week) oral toxicity study, preceded by an in utero exposure phase, with arachidonic acid oil derived from Mortierella alpina in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempenius, R.A.; Lina, B.A.R.; Haggitt, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Arachidonic acid oil (ARA-oil) derived from the fungus Mortierella alpina for use in infant nutrition was tested in a subchronic (13-week) oral toxicity study in rats, preceded by an in utero exposure phase. The ARA-oil was administered as admixture to the rodent diet at dose levels of 3000 ppm,

  20. Evaluation of a subchronic (13-week) oral toxicity study, preceded by an in utero exposure phase, with arachidonic acid oil derived from Mortierella alpina in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempenius, R.A.; Lina, B.A.R.; Haggitt, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Arachidonic acid oil (ARA-oil) derived from the fungus Mortierella alpina for use in infant nutrition was tested in a subchronic (13-week) oral toxicity study in rats, preceded by an in utero exposure phase. The ARA-oil was administered as admixture to the rodent diet at dose levels of 3000 ppm, 15,

  1. Intertidal biofilm distribution underpins differential tide-following behavior of two sandpiper species (Calidris mauri and Calidris alpina) during northward migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimenez, A.; Elner, R.W.; Favaro, C.; Rickards, K.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    The discovery that some shorebird species graze heavily on biofilm adds importance to elucidating coastal processes controlling biofilm, as well as impetus to better understand patterns of shorebird use of intertidal flats. Western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) and dunlin (Calidris alpina) stopover in

  2. 高山被孢霉原生质体菌龄的研究%Fungus age of Mortierella alpina protoplast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任扬; 佘隽; 田华; 陈涛; 何东平

    2013-01-01

    The most available fungus age of Mortierella alpina protoplast was determined. Protoplasts of Mortierella alpina 200012201(1) with different fungus ages were prepared by Lywallzyme and Snail enzymes mixture enzymolysis liquid (2% +4%). After inoculation and continuous fermentation in a 5 L tank, the products were detected by dying with sudan black B and gas chromatography. The results showed that the content of arachidonic acid in the product was influenced by protoplasts of Mortierella alpina with different fungus ages; the most available fungus age was 12 h; after fermentation for 7 d, the content of total lipid and arachidonic acid were 17. 3 g/L and 7. 55 g/L, respectively.%确定了适合制备生产用高山被孢霉(Mortierella alpina)原生质体的最佳菌龄.将溶壁酶和蜗牛酶按比例(2%+4%)配制成混合酶解液制备不同菌龄Mortierella alpina 200012201(1)的原生质体,分别进行5L发酵罐连续发酵,通过苏丹黑B染色和气相色谱法测定发酵产物.结果表明:菌龄对高山被孢霉原生质体发酵产物中花生四烯酸的含量有一定影响,选择菌龄为12 h的高山被孢霉原生质体进行发酵培养较为理想,培养7d后总油脂和花生四烯酸含量分别为17.3 g/L和7.55 g/L.

  3. ANÁLISIS PRELIMINAR DE LA VARIABILIDAD GENÉTICA DE ESCALLONIA ALPINA Y E. RUBRA (ESCALLONIACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Morello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Escallonia alpina y E. rubra (Escalloniaceae comparten su área de distribución en el sur de los Andes y se diferencian por pocos caracteres morfológicos diagnósticos, tales como la disposición de las flores y la presencia y tipo de glándulas; sin embargo, en algunas poblaciones no es posible asignar los individuos a una u otra especie. Además, se han reconocido y descrito como híbridos varias formas de transición entre ambas. El objetivo de este trabajo es examinar la variabilidad genética poblacional de Escallonia alpina y E. rubra, y analizar si se corresponde con la variabilidad morfológica observada. Se estudió la morfología en 39 individuos de cinco poblaciones sobre los que también se realizó un análisis de AFLP. Se investigó la relación entre los individuos mediante análisis de ordenación, agrupamiento y de asignación bayesiana. Además se calcularon índices de diversidad y se realizó una prueba de Man- tel. A partir del análisis morfológico, se asignaron dos poblaciones a cada especie, mientras que una población con individuos con morfología intermedia no se pudo asignar unívocamente a ninguna de las dos especies. Se observó una fuerte correspondencia entre las especies delimitadas mediante caracteres morfológicos diagnósticos tradicionales y el patrón de AFLP. La evidencia morfológica y molecular preliminar nos permitió reconocer a Escallonia alpina y E. rubra como dos especies distintas, y a una población con caracteres morfológicos y genéticos intermedios que podrían ser el resultado de flujo génico interespecífico o de una separación incompleta de linajes.

  4. [Studies on the constituents of Scutellaria species. XV. On the diterpenoid constituents of the leaves of Scutellaria alpina L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaichi, Y; Kizu, H; Yamaguchi, Y; Tomimori, T

    1994-04-01

    From the leaves of Scutellaria alpina L., four new neo-clerodane diterpenes (1-4) were isolated. The structures of 1-4 were shown to be (4S)-19-acetoxy-8 beta-hydroxy-6 alpha-benzoyloxy-4,18-epoxy-neo-cleroda-11,13- dien-15,16-olide, (4S)-19-acetoxy-8 beta-hydroxy-6 alpha-tigloyloxy-4,18-epoxy-neo-cleroda-11,13- dien-15,16-olide, (4S, 11S)-11-acetoxy-8 beta,19-dihydroxy-6 alpha-tigloyloxy-4,18-epoxy-neo- clerod-13-en-15,16-olide, and (4S)-19-acetoxy-8 beta-hydroxy-6 alpha, 7 beta-dibenzoyloxy-4,18-epoxy-neo- cleroda-11,13-dien-15,16-olide, respectively, by the chemical and spectral data.

  5. The importance of Anatolian mountains as the cradle of global diversity in Arabis alpina, a key arctic–alpine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, Stephen W.; Stenøien, Hans K.; Grundmann, Michael; Russell, Stephen J.; Koch, Marcus A.; Schneider, Harald; Vogel, Johannes C.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Anatolia is a biologically diverse, but phylogeographically under-explored region. It is described as either a centre of origin and long-term Pleistocene refugium, or as a centre for genetic amalgamation, fed from distinct neighbouring refugia. These contrasting hypotheses are tested through a global phylogeographic analysis of the arctic–alpine herb, Arabis alpina. Methods Herbarium and field collections were used to sample comprehensively the entire global range, with special focus on Anatolia and Levant. Sequence variation in the chloroplast DNA trnL-trnF region was examined in 483 accessions. A haplotype genealogy was constructed and phylogeographic methods, demographic analysis and divergence time estimations were used to identify the centres of diversity and to infer colonization history. Key Results Fifty-seven haplotypes were recovered, belonging to three haplogroups with non-overlapping distributions in (1) North America/Europe/northern Africa, (2) the Caucuses/Iranian Plateau/Arabian Peninsula and (3) Ethiopia–eastern Africa. All haplogroups occur within Anatolia, and all intermediate haplotypes linking the three haplogroups are endemic to central Anatolia and Levant, where haplotypic and nucleotide diversities exceeded all other regions. The local pattern of haplotype distribution strongly resembles the global pattern, and the haplotypes began to diverge approx. 2·7 Mya, coinciding with the climate cooling of the early Middle Pleistocene. Conclusions The phylogeographic structure of Arabis alpina is consistent with Anatolia being the cradle of origin for global genetic diversification. The highly structured landscape in combination with the Pleistocene climate fluctuations has created a network of mountain refugia and the accumulation of spatially arranged genotypes. This local Pleistocene population history has subsequently left a genetic imprint at the global scale, through four range expansions from the Anatolian diversity

  6. The importance of Anatolian mountains as the cradle of global diversity in Arabis alpina, a key arctic-alpine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansell, Stephen W; Stenøien, Hans K; Grundmann, Michael; Russell, Stephen J; Koch, Marcus A; Schneider, Harald; Vogel, Johannes C

    2011-08-01

    Anatolia is a biologically diverse, but phylogeographically under-explored region. It is described as either a centre of origin and long-term Pleistocene refugium, or as a centre for genetic amalgamation, fed from distinct neighbouring refugia. These contrasting hypotheses are tested through a global phylogeographic analysis of the arctic-alpine herb, Arabis alpina. Herbarium and field collections were used to sample comprehensively the entire global range, with special focus on Anatolia and Levant. Sequence variation in the chloroplast DNA trnL-trnF region was examined in 483 accessions. A haplotype genealogy was constructed and phylogeographic methods, demographic analysis and divergence time estimations were used to identify the centres of diversity and to infer colonization history. Fifty-seven haplotypes were recovered, belonging to three haplogroups with non-overlapping distributions in (1) North America/Europe/northern Africa, (2) the Caucuses/Iranian Plateau/Arabian Peninsula and (3) Ethiopia-eastern Africa. All haplogroups occur within Anatolia, and all intermediate haplotypes linking the three haplogroups are endemic to central Anatolia and Levant, where haplotypic and nucleotide diversities exceeded all other regions. The local pattern of haplotype distribution strongly resembles the global pattern, and the haplotypes began to diverge approx. 2·7 Mya, coinciding with the climate cooling of the early Middle Pleistocene. The phylogeographic structure of Arabis alpina is consistent with Anatolia being the cradle of origin for global genetic diversification. The highly structured landscape in combination with the Pleistocene climate fluctuations has created a network of mountain refugia and the accumulation of spatially arranged genotypes. This local Pleistocene population history has subsequently left a genetic imprint at the global scale, through four range expansions from the Anatolian diversity centre into Europe, the Near East, Arabia and Africa. Hence

  7. Size and quality of wood used by Rosalia alpina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae in beech woodlands of Gipuzkoa (northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CASTRO, A., MARTINEZ DE MURGUIA, L., FERNANDEZ, J., CASIS, A., MOLINO-OLMEDO, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La conservación de la especie saproxilófaga legalmente protegida Rosalia alpina (Linnaeus, 1758 en los hayedos de Europa conlleva una gestión adecuada de los árboles muertos y moribundos. Sin embargo, los parámetros de los árboles preferidos (tamaño y calidad de la madera permanecen aún poco conocidos. En esta contribución se analizan los datos de distribución procedentes de seis años de trabajo en cuatro Lugares de Interés Comunitario de la provincia de Gipuzkoa (norte de España. Los individuos vivos de R. alpina y sus orificios de emergencia fueron registrados exclusivamente en hayas. 72 individuos vivos y 520 orificios fueron registrados en 77 árboles. Las evidencias de ocupación (presencia de individuos vivos o de orificios o de ambos fueron más frecuentes en troncos Ø > 25 cm de hayas en pie (tanto aún vivas como muertas que en ramas y árboles caídos y más delgados. Sin embargo, el número de orificios no mostró diferencias entre las clases de tamaño y la calidad de la madera de los troncos principales. Las ramas más gruesas (Ø > 15 cm registraron mayores tasas de presencia y número de orificios que las más finas. Conociendo los tipos de árboles más seleccionados, se sugiere la elaboración de un mapa regional de disponibilidad de hábitat como herramienta práctica para planificar estrategias de conservación.

  8. La tectónica alpina en el borde norte del Sistema Central español y su enlace con la cuenca del Duero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Ortiz, D.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This report is focused to describe the main alpine structures located in the northern edge of the Spanish Central System and the linking zone with the Tertiary Duero basin. A review of the main characteristics of the alpine tectonic phases is given. From these data, differences between the Gredos zone, dominated by N-S and E-W faults, and the Guadarrama zone, in which N 70° E reverse faults with N 140° E and N 10° E strike-slip faults are present, can be observed. The pattern of drainage of this area shows three main orientations, coincident with the alpine faults activated during the Guadarrama tectonic phase, which reveals the relationship between the present drainage pattern and the Alpine orogeny.En este trabajo se describen las principales estructuras alpinas del borde norte del Sistema Central y su enlace con la cuenca del Duero, así como las características de las principales fases tectónicas alpinas que han dado lugar a la actual estructura. Se pone de manifiesto las diferencias entre la zona de Gredos, dominada por fallas N-S y E-O principalmente, y la zona de Guadarrama en la que las fallas inversas son N 70° E acompañadas de desgarres N 140° E y N 10° E. El análisis de las direcciones de los ríos en este área permite definir tres zonas en función de su orientación, que coinciden con las definidas para las fallas alpinas, lo que refleja la relación entre la red de drenaje y la fase alpina Guadarrama principalmente.

  9. Phylogeography of Spiraea alpina (Rosaceae) in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau inferred from chloroplast DNA sequence variations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fa-Qi ZHANG; Qing-Bo GAO; De-Jun ZHANG; Yi-Zhong DUAN; Yin-Hu LI; Peng-Cheng FU; Rui XING; Khan GULZAR; Shi-Long CHEN

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the phylogeographic patterns of Spiraea alpina (Rosaceae) and clarify its response to past climatic changes in the climate-sensitive Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP).We sequenced a chloroplast DNA fragment (trnL-trnF) from 528 individuals representing 43 populations.We identified 10 haplotypes,which were tentatively divided into three groups.These haplotypes or groups were distributed in the different regions of the QTP.Only half the populations were fixed by a single haplotype,whereas the others contained two or more.In the central and eastern regions,adjacent populations at the local scale shared the same haplotype.Our phylogeographic analyses suggest that this alpine shrub survived in multiple refugia during the Last Glacial Maximum and that earlier glaciations may have trigged deep intraspecific divergences.Post-glacial expansions occurred only within populations or across multiple populations within a local range.The findings of the present study together with previous phylogeographic reports suggest that evolutionary histories of plants in the QTP are complex and variable depending on the species investigated.

  10. The influence of chemoreception on the foraging behaviour of two species of sandpiper, calidris alba and calidris alpina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heezik, Y. M.; Gerritsen, A. F. C.; Swennen, C.

    This study is concerned with the ability of two wader species, the sanderling, Calidris alba and the dunlin, C. alpina to determine the presence of prey in a sediment by using their sense of taste, and whether they use this information while foraging for prey hidden in the sediment. Preference tests were designed in which the birds were presented with a choice of 2 jars filled with sand from 3 possible combination pairs: (1) "food" and "no taste", (2) "food" and "taste", and (3) "taste" and "no taste". Preferences were measured as the relative amount of time spent foraging in each jar of each pair. Significantly more time was spent on "taste" than on "no taste" for the "taste" and "no taste" combination. More time was spent on "taste" than on "no taste" when each was paired with "food" for 3 out of 4 situations. Foraging technique on "taste" was observed to be more purposeful and methodical than on "no taste". Both species are shown to be able to use taste while foraging to determine whether prey is present, and can modify their foraging behaviour by persisting in a spot that gives no information on the presence of prey other than taste, and by using a different, more determined searching technique.

  11. Parâmetros genéticos para a produção de leite em caprinos das raças Saanen e Alpina Genetic parameters for milk yield in Saanen and Alpina breed goats

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    Natália Irano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho estimar parâmetros genéticos para a produção de leite acumulada até os 305 dias (P305 de cabras das raças Saanen e Alpina. Foram utilizadas as duas primeiras parições de cabras pertencentes a rebanhos participantes do programa de controle produtivo e reprodutivo de caprinos (PROCAPRI da UNESP-FCAV-Jaboticabal-SP. A P305 foi analisada por meio de modelos de repetibilidade e bicaracterísticas. Para verificar a influência dos efeitos fixos sobre a característica analisada foram realizadas análises preliminares, pelo método de quadrados mínimos. Os componentes de covariâncias foram estimados pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita (REML, utilizando o programa Wombat. A duração da lactação, a idade da cabra ao parto, o rebanho, o ano de parto e a estação de parto foram importantes fontes de variação para a P305. Não houve diferença significativa entre as raças estudadas. As estimativas de herdabilidade e repetibilidade para a P305, obtidas com o modelo de repetibilidade, foram de 0,29 e 0,36, respectivamente. As estimativas de herdabilidade, obtidas pelos modelos de repetibilidade e bicaracterísticas foram semelhantes. Sendo assim, um modelo de repetibilidade poderia ser indicado para avaliar a P305 pela sua simplicidade.The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for 305 days milk yield (M305 in Saanen and Alpina breed goats. Data consisted of records from first to second lactations of goats belonging to herds participating in the program control productive and reproductive goats (PROCAPRI from UNESP-FCAV-Jaboticabal-SP. The M305 was analyzed by repeatability and bi-trait models. The influence of fixed effects on the traits was analyzed preliminary analysis by the method of least squares. Variance components were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood method (REML, using the package Wombat. The duration of lactation, age of dam at calving, the herd, calving

  12. Feeding ecology of dunlins Calidris alpina staging in the southern Baltic Sea, 1. Habitat use and food selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierschke, Volker; Kube, Jan; Probst, Sandra; Brenning, Ulrich

    1999-08-01

    The feeding habits of migrating dunlins Calidris alpina staging in different non-tidal coastal habitats in the southern Baltic Sea are described. The study also focuses on the structure of the benthic macrofauna of these habitats and the diet choice of dunlins. All investigations were carried out on Langenwerder Island (Wismar Bay), where different types of flats and beaches harbour a total of 30 to 40 species of marine macrofauna. The composition of the macrobenthos differed considerably between the eulittoral sandbank, the eulittoral mudflat, the pebble beach, and the sublittoral surroundings. Most dunlins were observed foraging in flocks of up to several hundred individuals on the eulittoral flats. Densities of up to 20 to 30 foraging dunlins ha -1 occurred annually during peak migration in September and October. Macrobenthos biomass in these habitats fluctuated between 20 and 40 g AFDM m -2. The mean total food consumption of dunlins during autumn migration was estimated at 0.01 g AFDM m -2 d -1. The predation pressure could be estimated at 3 to 6% of the suitable food supply. Dunlins staging on Langenwerder were able to attain a pre-migratory mass gain of 0.2 to 0.5% of their body weight per day within an 8 to 12-h daily feeding period. The birds fed predominantly on the polychaete Hediste diversicolor by probing. They selected small 7 to 31-mm-long individuals. When water levels were high, and the eulittoral flats inundated, many dunlins switched to foraging along the shorelines where a variety of small prey were taken from spilled macrophytes. Dunlins sometimes obviously ignored their most important food H. diversicolor, although available, by feeding on other prey such as juvenile fishes and shrimps, dipteran larvae or spilled amphipods. When feeding on amphipods, dunlins selected the smallest individuals.

  13. Endogenous Quantification of Abscisic Acid and Indole-3-Acetic Acid in Somatic and Zigotic Embryos of Nothofagus alpina (Poepp. & Endl. Oerst Cuantificación Endógena de Ácido Abscísico y Ácido Indol-3 Acético en Embriones Somáticos y Cigóticos de Nothofagus alpina (Poepp. & Endl. Oerst

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    Pricila Cartes Riquelme

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA participate in the propagation of plants by somatic embryogenesis, causing polar structural differentiation of the embryo. The goal of the assay was to compare endogenous levels of ABA and IAA between somatic embryos (SE and zygotic embryos (ZE of Nothofagus alpina (Poepp. & Endl. Oerst. In this study, a somatic embryo maturation assay involving the addition of varying concentrations of exogenous ABA was performed on cotyledonary-stage of N. alpina. Furthermore, the endogenous levels of ABA and IAA were quantified in the immature ZE, the mature ZE, and the embryonic axis of a mature embryo of N. alpina. The current study utilized high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for quantification. The maturation treatments performed did not present significant differences in the endogenous ABA levels in SE. However, significant differences did exist in levels of ABA and IAA between SE submitted to the different maturation treatments and mature ZE of N. alpina. The application of exogenous ABA to the culture medium increased endogenous ABA levels, therefore, increasing the number of germinated somatic embryos. Thus, the plant conversion process was also successfully completed in somatic embryos of N. alpina.El ácido abscísico (ABA y el ácido indol 3 acético (IAA participan en el proceso de propagación de plantas mediante embriogénesis somática, ya que permiten la diferenciación de la estructura polar del embrión, órganos y regiones meristemáticas de éste. En este estudio se llevó a cabo un ensayo de maduración de embriones somáticos en estado cotiledonar con la adición de diferentes concentraciones de ABA exógeno, además se determinaron niveles endógenos entre ZE inmaduro, ZE maduro, y eje embrionario aislado desde el embrión maduro para luego comparar niveles endógenos de ABA e IAA en embriones somáticos (SE y cigóticos (ZE de raulí, Nothofagus alpina (Poepp. & Endl. Oerst. La

  14. Inhibition of Advanced Glycation End-Product Formation and Antioxidant Activity by Extracts and Polyphenols from Scutellaria alpina L. and S. altissima L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorczyk-Karolak, Izabela; Gołąb, Krzysztof; Gburek, Jakub; Wysokińska, Halina; Matkowski, Adam

    2016-06-14

    Methanolic extracts from the aerial parts and roots of two Scutellaria species, S. alpina and S. altissima, and five polyphenols from these plants demonstrated a significant ability to inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE) in vitro. S. alpina, which is richer in polyphenolic compounds, had strong antiglycation properties. These extracts demonstrated also high activity in the FRAP (ferric-reducing antioxidant power), antiradical (DPPH) and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. Among the pure compounds, baicalin was the strongest glycation inhibitor (90.4% inhibition at 100 μg/mL), followed by luteolin (85.4%). Two other flavone glycosides had about half of this activity. Verbascoside was similar to the reference drug aminoguanidine (71.2% and 75.9%, respectively). The strong correlation observed between AGE inhibition and total flavonoid content indicated that flavonoids contribute significantly to antiglycation properties. A positive correlation was also observed between antiglycative and antioxidant activities. The studied skullcap species can be considered as a potential source of therapeutic agents for hyperglycemia-related disorders.

  15. Inhibition of Advanced Glycation End-Product Formation and Antioxidant Activity by Extracts and Polyphenols from Scutellaria alpina L. and S. altissima L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Grzegorczyk-Karolak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Methanolic extracts from the aerial parts and roots of two Scutellaria species, S. alpina and S. altissima, and five polyphenols from these plants demonstrated a significant ability to inhibit the formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGE in vitro. S. alpina, which is richer in polyphenolic compounds, had strong antiglycation properties. These extracts demonstrated also high activity in the FRAP (ferric-reducing antioxidant power, antiradical (DPPH and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. Among the pure compounds, baicalin was the strongest glycation inhibitor (90.4% inhibition at 100 μg/mL, followed by luteolin (85.4%. Two other flavone glycosides had about half of this activity. Verbascoside was similar to the reference drug aminoguanidine (71.2% and 75.9%, respectively. The strong correlation observed between AGE inhibition and total flavonoid content indicated that flavonoids contribute significantly to antiglycation properties. A positive correlation was also observed between antiglycative and antioxidant activities. The studied skullcap species can be considered as a potential source of therapeutic agents for hyperglycemia-related disorders.

  16. Sex Ratio and Reproductive Effort in the Dioecious Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak. (Cupressaceae) Along an Altitudinal Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    ORTIZ, PEDRO LUIS; ARISTA, MONTSERRAT; TALAVERA, SALVADOR

    2002-01-01

    The hypothesis that reproductive cost differs between sexes was tested in Juniperus communis subsp. alpina along an altitudinal gradient. Sex ratio (male : female) increased significantly with elevation, and above 2600 m it was significantly male‐biased. The reproductive effort was markedly greater for females than for males at all elevations. However, over 3 years of study, the growth of the females, measured as elongation of the main axes, was similar to that of the males. In both sexes, growth decreased with increasing elevation. Neither size of the ripe seed cones, nor the number of developed seeds per cone varied with elevation. The percentage of filled seeds was significantly greater at higher elevations indicating more favourable conditions for wind pollination in these stands. However, cone production decreased with elevation and so, reproductive success of J. communis subsp. alpina in Sierra Nevada decreases towards both upper and lower altitudinal distribution limits. The results do not support the hypothesis of differential reproductive cost between sexes; thus, alternative arguments to explain the altitudinal variation of sex ratio are discussed. PMID:12099351

  17. Experimental challenge and pathology of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in dunlin (Calidris alpina), an intercontinental migrant shorebird species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Franson, J. Christian; Gill, Robert E.; Meteyer, Carol U.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean; Dusek, Robert J.; Ip, Hon S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Shorebirds (Charadriiformes) are considered one of the primary reservoirs of avian influenza. Because these species are highly migratory, there is concern that infected shorebirds may be a mechanism by which highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 could be introduced into North America from Asia. Large numbers of dunlin (Calidris alpina) migrate from wintering areas in central and eastern Asia, where HPAIV H5N1 is endemic, across the Bering Sea to breeding areas in Alaska. Low pathogenic avian influenza virus has been previously detected in dunlin, and thus, dunlin represent a potential risk to transport HPAIV to North America. To date no experimental challenge studies have been performed in shorebirds.

  18. Abundance of microbes involved in nitrogen transformation in the rhizosphere of Leucanthemopsis alpina (L.) Heywood grown in soils from different sites of the Damma glacier forefield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Töwe, Stefanie; Albert, Andreas; Kleineidam, Kristina; Brankatschk, Robert; Dümig, Alexander; Welzl, Gerhard; Munch, Jean Charles; Zeyer, Josef; Schloter, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Glacier forefields are an ideal playground to investigate the role of development stages of soils on the formation of plant-microbe interactions as within the last decades, many alpine glaciers retreated, whereby releasing and exposing parent material for soil development. Especially the status of macronutrients like nitrogen differs between soils of different development stages in these environments and may influence plant growth significantly. Thus, in this study, we reconstructed major parts of the nitrogen cycle in the rhizosphere soil/root system of Leucanthemopsis alpina (L.) HEYWOOD: as well as the corresponding bulk soil by quantifying functional genes of nitrogen fixation (nifH), nitrogen mineralisation (chiA, aprA), nitrification (amoA AOB, amoA AOA) and denitrification (nirS, nirK and nosZ) in a 10-year and a 120-year ice-free soil of the Damma glacier forefield. We linked the results to the ammonium and nitrate concentrations of the soils as well as to the nitrogen and carbon status of the plants. The experiment was performed in a greenhouse simulating the climatic conditions of the glacier forefield. Samples were taken after 7 and 13 weeks of plant growth. Highest nifH gene abundance in connection with lowest nitrogen content of L. alpina was observed in the 10-year soil after 7 weeks of plant growth, demonstrating the important role of associative nitrogen fixation for plant development in this soil. In contrast, in the 120-year soil copy numbers of genes involved in denitrification, mainly nosZ were increased after 13 weeks of plant growth, indicating an overall increased microbial activity status as well as higher concentrations of nitrate in this soil.

  19. Produção, qualidade do leite e índices fisiológicos de cabras Alpinas no semiárido no período chuvoso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim R. Malheiros Filho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Com este trabalho objetivou-se verificar o efeito do ambiente sobre os índices fisiológicos, produção e qualidade do leite de cabras Parda Alpina, puras e mestiças, no semiárido paraibano, utilizando-se 27 cabras, nove puras, nove ¾ Parda Alpina e nove ½ Parda Alpina, distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. As variáveis ambientais foram registradas através de data logger marca Hobo e os índices fisiológicos aferidos foram: temperatura retal, frequência respiratória, frequência cardíaca e temperatura superficial, nos horários das 8, 12 e 16 h. O leite foi avaliado através das características físico-químicas, contagem bacteriana total (CBT e contagem de células somáticas (CCS. Os índices bioclimáticos apresentaram valores mais elevados entre as 12 e 15 h porém dentro da zona de conforto térmico para caprinos. Os índices fisiológicos, os parâmetros físico-químicos a CBT e CCS não apresentaram diferença significativa (p > 0,05 entre os grupos genéticos. Houve efeito significativo (p < 0,05 para produção diária de leite com maiores médias para o grupo ¾ Parda Alpina, sugerindo-se essa composição como a mais indicada para a exploração nas condições do trabalho.

  20. Caracterização química da carne de cabrito da raça Moxotó e de cruzas Pardo Alpina x Moxotó Chemical characterization of kid meat from Moxotó goat and Pardo Alpina x Moxotó Crossbreeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico José Beserra

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da pesquisa foi avaliar a composição química da carne de cabrito-mamão (idade média de 72 dias, da raça Moxotó (MOX, grupos genéticos ¾ Pardo Alpina x ¼ Moxotó (3/4 PAMOX e ½ Pardo Alpina x ½ Moxotó (1/2 PAMOX. A análise apresentou valores médios entre 77,80% a 80,25% de umidade; 15,90% a 19,08% de proteína; 1,12% a 1,21% de gordura, e 1,29% a 2,03% de cinzas. Quanto à composição mineral, os valores médios variaram de 5,62 mg/100 g a 8,21 mg/100 g de cálcio; 156,97 mg/100 g a 196,25 mg/100 g de fósforo; 0,26 mg/100 g a 0,48 mg/100 g de ferro; 16,25 mg/100 g a 23,72 mg/100 g de magnésio; 59,20 mg/100 g a 78,79 mg/100 g de sódio, e de 259,69 mg/100 g a 292,24 mg/100 g de potássio. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas a 5% de probabilidade entre os grupos genéticos no que diz respeito à composição de umidade, proteína e cinzas e mineral quanto a elementos estudados. Não houve diferenças entre os valores de gordura dos grupos genéticos.The objective of this study was to evaluate chemical composition of kid meat of Moxotó (MOX, ¾ Pardo Alpina x ¼ Moxotó (3/4 PAMOX and ½ Moxotó x ½ Pardo Alpina (1/2 PAMOX crossbreed goats. Average age of kids at slaughter was 72 days. Kids were fed with cow milk and a protein supplement. Meat analysis showed average values ranging from 77.80% to 80.25% for moisture; from 15.90% to 19.08% for protein; from 1.12% to 1.21% for fat and from 1.29% to 2.03% for ash. For mineral composition, average values ranged from 5.62 mg/100 g to 8.21 mg/100 g for calcium; from 156.97 mg/100 g to 196.25 mg/100 g for phosphorus; from 0.26 mg/100 g to 0.48 mg/100 g for iron; from 16.25 mg/100 g to 23.72 mg/100 g for magnesium; from 59.20 mg/100 g to 78.79 mg/100 g for sodium and from 259.69 mg/100 g to 292.24 mg/100 g for potassium. Genetic groups showed significative differences for composition of moisture, protein and ash values and for mineral composition, in all measured

  1. Estimação de parâmetros genéticos para produção de leite de cabras da raça Alpina Genetic parameters estimation for test day milk yield of Alpina goats

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    Fernanda Cristina Breda

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 9.374 registros semanais de produção de leite de 302 primeiras lactações de cabras da raça Alpina. A produção de leite no dia do controle foi analisada por meio de um modelo animal, unicarater, de regressão aleatória, em que as funções de covariâncias para os componentes genéticos aditivos e de ambiente permanente foram modeladas por meio das funções de Wilmink, Ali e Schaeffer e por polinômios ortogonais, em uma escala de Legendre de ordens cúbica e quíntica. Assumiu-se, ainda, variância residual homogênea durante toda a lactação e heterogênea com três e quatro classes de variância residual. Os modelos foram comparados pelo critério de informação de Akaike (AIC, pelo critério de informação Bayesiano de Schwar (BIC, pela função de verossimilhança (Ln L, pela visualização das estimativas de variâncias genéticas, de ambiente permanente, fenotípicas e residuais e pelas herdabilidades. O polinômio de Legendre de ordem quíntica, com quatro e três classes de variâncias residuais, e a função de Ali e Schaeffer, com quatro classes de variâncias residuais, foram indicados como os mais adequados pelo AIC, BIC e Ln L. Estes modelos diferiram na partição da variância fenotípica para as variâncias de ambiente permanente, genética e residual apenas no início e no final da lactação. Contudo, a função de Ali e Schaeffer resultou em estimativas negativas de correlação genética entre os controles mais distantes. O polinômio de Legendre de ordem quíntica, assumindo variância residual heterogênea, mostrou-se mais adequado para ajustar a produção de leite no dia do controle de cabras da raça Alpina.Data consisting of 9,374 test day milk yield records from 302 first lactations of Alpina goats were analyzed by random regression models using the Wilmink and Ali and Schaeffer functions and Legendre orthogonal polynomials of third and fifth orders. Models including animal additive genetic

  2. Characterization of SO/sub 2/ damage to field-, grassland- and forest-stands. [Agrostis stolonifera; Nardus stricta; Arrhenatherum elatius; Poa alpina; Silene cucubalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutschera, L.

    1984-01-01

    The development of vegetation in an industrial area of South Kaernten (Austria) under the influence of SO/sub 2/ and heavy metals is described. Following a historical overview of the environmental impact of these ecotoxicants the author reports about comparative investigations on the effects of SO/sub 2/ on field- and forest stands. Although the concentration of heavy metals in the upper layers of the soil were high woodlands with herbplantpopulations could survive, but since 1951 the SO/sub 2/-immision destroyed completely several of these herbplantpopulations and reduced the growth of Quercus robur to a hight of 15-50 cm. In pasture lands the effects are characterized by increased occurrence of adapted species like Agrostis stolonifera and Nardus stricta and by a reduction of the root growth of Arrhenatherum elatius from the normal length in this area of ca. 130 cm to a length of 35 cm. Ecotypes of Agrostis stolonifera, Poa alpina and Silene cucubalus are further described in relation to their occurrence on the contaminated habitats of the area investigated. In some cases the damage on crops as barley and on grassland plants can be greater than on trees.

  3. Intertidal biofilm distribution underpins differential tide-following behavior of two sandpiper species (Calidris mauri and Calidris alpina) during northward migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Ariam; Elner, Robert W.; Favaro, Corinna; Rickards, Karen; Ydenberg, Ronald C.

    2015-03-01

    The discovery that some shorebird species graze heavily on biofilm adds importance to elucidating coastal processes controlling biofilm, as well as impetus to better understand patterns of shorebird use of intertidal flats. Western sandpipers (Calidris mauri) and dunlin (Calidris alpina) stopover in the hundreds of thousands on the Fraser River estuary, British Columbia, Canada, during northward migration to breeding areas. Western sandpipers show greater modification of tongue and bill morphology for biofilm feeding than dunlin, and their diet includes more biofilm. Therefore, we hypothesized that these congeners differentially use the intertidal area. A tide following index (TFI) was used to describe their distributions in the upper intertidal during ebbing tides. Also, we assessed sediment grain size, biofilm (= microphytobenthic or MPB) biomass and invertebrate abundance. Foraging dunlin closely followed the ebbing tide line, exploiting the upper intertidal only as the tide retreated through this area. In contrast, western sandpipers were less prone to follow the tide, and spent more time in the upper intertidal. Microphytobenthic biomass and sediment water content were highest in the upper intertidal, indicating greater biofilm availability for shorebirds in the first 350 m from shore. Invertebrate density did not differ between sections of the upper intertidal. Overall, western sandpiper behaviour and distribution more closely matched MPB biofilm availability than invertebrate availability. Conservation of sandpipers should consider physical processes, such as tides and currents, which maintain the availability of biofilm, a critical food source during global migration.

  4. Consumo de nutrientes, produção e composição do leite de cabras da raça Alpina alimentadas com dietas contendo diferentes teores de fibra

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho,Sérgio; Rodrigues,Marcelo Teixeira; Branco, Renata Helena; Rodrigues, Carla Aparecida Florentino

    2006-01-01

    Foram utilizadas 50 cabras Alpinas em lactação objetivando-se avaliar os efeitos de diferentes teores de fibra em detergente neutro proveniente da forragem (FDNF) sobre o consumo de nutrientes, a produção e a composição do leite. Os animais foram confinados em baias individuais e distribuídos aleatoriamente em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e dez repetições. Foi utilizada uma ração em mistura completa, composta de feno de tifton-85 (Cynodon sp.), ...

  5. Cortes compensados para la deformación principal alpina en el borde sur oriental del Sistema Central español (Zona de Tamajón, Guadalajara)

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Serrano, F.; Vicente Muñoz, Gerardo de; González Casado, José María

    1993-01-01

    Las estructuras alpinas principales del borde sur oriental del Sistema Central Español (zona de Tamajón) resultan ser dos cabalgamientos de dirección N70oE, con dirección de transporte hacia el SE, con retrocabalgamientos y fallas de transferencia asociadas. La dirección de transporte de los cabalgamientos es coherente con la dirección de acortamiento horizontal de la "etapa Guadarrama" (N1500E), a la cual están asociados genéticamente. El efecto de los cabalgamientos en la cobertera mesoz...

  6. Encapsulated Somatic Embryos and Zygotic Embryos for Obtaining Artificial Seeds of Rauli-Beech (Nothofagus alpina (Poepp. & Endl. Oerst. Encapsulado de Embriones Somáticos y Embriones Cigóticos para Obtención de Semillas Artificiales de Raulí (Nothofagus alpina (Poepp. & Endl. Oerst.

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    Priscila Cartes R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Somatic and zygotic embryos from mature seeds of rauli-beech, Nothofagus alpina (Poepp. & Endl. Oerst., were encapsulated in different artificial endosperms in order to generate a cover that fulfills the function of nourishment and protection of the embryos, facilitating their later germination. The content of sodium alginate varied by 4%, 3%, and 2%, as did the immersion time in calcium chloride (CaCl2, which acts as complexing agent. The artificial endosperm components of the Murashige and Skoog medium (MS were added, supplemented with 0.5 mg L-1 indolacetic acid (IAA, 0.5 mg L-1 naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, 2 mg L-1 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and 30 g L-1 sucrose. The germinative behaviors of encapsulated somatic and zygotic embryos were evaluated after 4 wk. Comparing the percentages of germination reached by encapsulated somatic and zygotic embryos it was observed that they had similar germinative behavior according to the type of encapsulation applied. However, zygotic embryos substantially exceeded the germination levels reached by somatic embryos, 100% vs. 45% respectively.Embriones somáticos y cigóticos provenientes de semillas maduras de raulí, Nothofagus alpina (Poepp. & Endl. Oerst., se encapsularon en diferentes endospermas sintéticos con el fin de generar una cubierta que cumpla la función de nutrir y proteger al embrión para facilitar su posterior germinación. Se varió el contenido de alginato de sodio al 4%, 3% y 2% y el tiempo de inmersión en cloruro de calcio (CaCl2, el que actúa como agente acomplejante. Además, a la matriz artificial se adicionaron componentes del medio Murashige y Skoog (MS suplementado con: 0,5 mg L-1 de indolacetic acid (IAA, 0,5 mg L-1 de ácido naftalenacético (NAA, 2 mg L-1 de 6-bencilaminopurina (BAP y 30 gL-1 de sacarosa. Al cabo de 4 semanas el porcentaje de germinación de los embriones somáticos y cigóticos encapsulados tuvieron similar comportamiento germinativo según el tipo de

  7. Distribución natural de Nothofagus alpina y Nothofagus obliqua (nothofagaceae en Argentina, dos especies de primera importancia forestal de los bosques templados norpatagónicos Natural distribution of Nothofagus alpina and Nothofagus obliqua (Nothofagaceae in Argentina, two productively important tree species of the North Patagonian temperate forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamila Sabatier

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Conocer la distribución natural de cualquier especie es esencial para poder planificar su conservación o uso. El Raulí [Nothofagus alpina (Poepp. & Endl. Oerst. = Nothofagus nervosa (Phil. Dim. et Mil.] y el Roble Pellín [Nothofagus obliqua (Mirb. Oerst. ssp. obliqua] son dos especies forestales de primera importancia en los bosques norpatagónicos, y objetos de un programa de domesticación en curso. En base al cruce de capas de información digital de estudios previos verificada por informantes locales calificados, por controles de campo y por interpretación sobre pantalla de imágenes provistas libremente por Google Earth, se mapeó la distribución natural de ambas especies en Argentina. La presencia del Raulí se registra sobre una superficie de 79.636 ha, mientras que sobre 33.859 ha se desarrollan bosques con presencia de Roble Pellín. La mayor parte de estas superficies se encuentran protegidas por el sistema de Parques Nacionales (97 % del área ocupada con Raulí y 83 % de la ocupada con Roble Pellín, sin embargo varios bosques relevantes para la conservación se hallan bajo jurisdicción de la Provincia de Neuquén, lo cual debería ser considerado al momento de planear una estrategia de conservación para ambas especies.Knowing the natural range of any species is essential to plan its conservation or use. The South-American beeches Raulí [Nothofagus alpina (Poepp. & Endl. Oerst. = Nothofagus nervosa (Phil. Dim. et Mil.] and Roble Pellín [Nothofagus obliqua (Mirb. Oerst. ssp. obliqua] are two important forest tree species of the North Patagonian forests, and the object of a current domestication program. Natural distribution of both beeches in Argentina was mapped based on digital information of previous works which was verified by local qualified informants, ground control check and visual interpretation of images freely provided by Google Earth. Raulí is present over a surface of 79,636 ha, while 33,859 ha are occupied by

  8. Relaciones fenotípicas entre características de conformación con la habilidad de permanencia a los 36 meses en cabras Alpinas Relaciones fenotípicas entre características de conformación con la habilidad de permanencia a los 36 meses en cabras Alpinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Shepard

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to study the relationships among stayability to 36 months of age with 14 type traits and first lactation milk yield in the Alpine breed, were used 1937 records of goats distributed in 155 flocks from the US American Dairy Goat Association. Data were analyzed using stepwise forward logistic regressions model. Flock effect resulted significant (p Se utilizaron 1937 registros de cabras de 155 rebaños pertenecientes a la American Dairy Goat Association de Estados Unidos con información de 14 características de conformación, así como de producción de leche de la primera lactancia (kg de la raza Alpina, con el objetivo de estudiar las relaciones que tienen estas con la habilidad de permanencia a los 36 meses de edad. Se utilizó un análisis de regresión logística hacia adelante en pasos. El efecto de rebaño resultó significativo (p

  9. Estimação de parâmetros genéticos para produção de leite de cabras da raça Alpina

    OpenAIRE

    Breda, Fernanda Cristina; ALBUQUERQUE, Lucia Galvão de; Yamaki, Marcos; Reis Filho,João Cruz; Sarmento,José Lindenberg Rocha; Lopes, Paulo Sávio; Rodrigues,Marcelo Teixeira

    2006-01-01

    Foram utilizados 9.374 registros semanais de produção de leite de 302 primeiras lactações de cabras da raça Alpina. A produção de leite no dia do controle foi analisada por meio de um modelo animal, unicarater, de regressão aleatória, em que as funções de covariâncias para os componentes genéticos aditivos e de ambiente permanente foram modeladas por meio das funções de Wilmink, Ali e Schaeffer e por polinômios ortogonais, em uma escala de Legendre de ordens cúbica e quíntica. Assumiu-se, ain...

  10. Manejo orgânico e convencional do sistema de produção de cabras leiteiras Parda Alpina no Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Emanuela Silva

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho comparar o manejo orgânico e convencional de um sistema de produção de caprinos leiteiros em Angicos, Rio Grande do Norte, Nordeste do Brasil. Foram utilizadas 26 cabras da Raça Parda Alpina em lactação, sendo 13 em manejo orgânico (MO e 13 em manejo convencional (MC. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com dois tratamentos e 13 repetições. Os animais do MO foram submetidos à sincronização de estro com efeito macho, tratamento à base de fitoterápicos contra endoparasitoses (Extrato de limão (Citrus Limonium e alho (Allium sativum, e no controle de mastite usando o Kit Embrapa de ordenha manual à base de alecrim pimenta (Lippia sidoides. No MC os animais receberam hormônios sintéticos (Promone-e®, Prólise® e Novormon® para a sincronização do estro, Ivermectina para endoparasitoses e álcool iodado para prevenção de mastite auxiliado pelo Kit Embrapa de ordenha manual. Não houve diferença significativa para os resultados de porcentagem de prenhezes, OPG, escores do FAMACHA©, composição físico-química do leite e Contagem de Células Somáticas (CCS nos dois tipos de manejo. No MO e MC as cabras apresentaram médias de percentagem de prenhezes positiva de 61,54% em ambos os sistemas. Os valores médios da contagem de ovos observados nos MO e MC foram de 24 e 35 de OPG, respectivamente. Pelo método FAMACHA© observou-se escores de 1 e 2; 2, 3 e 4 no MO e MC respectivamente. As cabras apresentaram pesos médios no MO (48,53 Kg e MC (55,92 Kg. A produção de leite, gordura, proteína, lactose, extrato seco total e extrato seco desengordurado no MO (0,971kg/dia; 2,210; 2,322; 3,306; 7,866; 5,566 foram ligeiramente superiores aos valores do MC (0,946 kg/dia 1,812; 1,812; 2,868; 6,74; 4,928. Para a CCS o MO (904.860 cel/mL e MC (1.020.520 cel/mL apresentaram valores próximos, estando o MO dentro dos valores aceitáveis para leite de cabra. O manejo orgânico foi

  11. Facturación a distintas escalas y campos de esfuerzos durante la tectogenesis alpina en el área de Mosqueruela (Teruel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simón Gómez, J. L.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the brittle tectonic deformation on all scales in one area of the eastern Iberian Chain (Mosqueruela, Teruel allows us to define a fracture pattern characterized by three main sets: NNE to NE, ENE and E to ESE. Brittle structures (stylolites, tension gashes, brittle-ductile shear zones and faults show a poliphase Alpine tectonics. From the analysis of fault populations two compressive (wrench regime phases and a multidirectional extension regime have been inferred. Their chronological evolution is the fol1owing: 1 ENE compression; 2 ESE compression; 3 nearly multidirectional NNE extension. The study of fractures using a number of methodologies at macro-, meso- and microstructural scales allows us to suggest a model of stress distribution and relationships between different structures in sorne areas. The detailed fracture mapping on a hectometric scale shows the distribution and strike variations of fractures. These changes have been interpreted as stress deflection phenomena due to major structures which, in many cases, were identified. Examples of stress deflections have been analyzed both for strike-slip and normal fault sets.El análisis de la deformación tectónica frágil a distintas escalas en un sector de la Cordillera Ibérica oriental ha permitido definir el patrón de fracturación, caracterizado por tres familias principales de fracturas (NNE a NE, ENE YE a ESE. Las estructuras frágiles (estilolitos, juntas de extensión, zonas de cizalla semifrágil y, fundamentalmente, fallas registran una tectónica alpina polifásica. Del análisis poblacional de las microfal1as se infieren dos campos de esfuerzos compresivos, principalmente en régimen de desgarre, de los cuales sólo el primero tiene reflejo a nivel macroestructural, y un estado distensivo en régimen de extensión radial o multidireccional. Las relaciones de corte observadas entre las ditintas estructuras ha mostrado la evolución temporal siguiente: 1

  12. Domestication of the high-sugar-tolerant Mortierella alpina on arachidonic acid (ARA) production%花生四烯酸产生菌高山被孢霉的高糖驯化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾思钰; 凌雪萍; 张长杰; 卢英华

    2012-01-01

    [目的]提高花生四烯酸(Arachidonic acid,ARA)产量,克服ARA产生菌高山被孢霉(Mortierella alpina)在长期的保存及使用过程中易受到外界条件影响发生退化,从而导致菌种耗糖量降低、影响菌种摄入营养的能力和不利于工业化生产的缺点.[方法]首先采用固体培养基驯化,将菌种逐级涂布于梯度高糖PDA平板(含糖量分别为2%、5%、7%、10%和15%)培养,挑选经固体驯化后能耐受10%高糖浓度平板的菌种,转接到两种含不同氮源的梯度高糖(含糖量分别为3%、4%、5%和6%)液体培养基中进行驯化,最后对驯化后的菌种进行2L发酵罐放大实验.[结果]当培养基中以酵母粉为氮源时,驯化后菌体的最高耗糖量由3 g/(L·d)提高到12 g/(L·d);当培养基中以玉米浆为氮源时,驯化后菌体的最高耗糖量由7 g/(L·d)提高到12 g/(L·d).摇瓶驯化实验结果表明以玉米浆为氮源驯化的菌种发酵效果较好,发酵罐实验结果显示菌体生物量为50 g/L,总油脂为18 g/L,目的产物ARA产量为8g/L.相比未驯化之前的发酵结果,生物量和总油脂含量提高了近3倍,ARA产量提高了近4倍.[结论]经过高糖驯化,菌种的耗糖能力得到提高,生物量、总油脂及ARA的产量也都有所增加,从而可以使菌种在保存和使用过程中不易退化,保持稳定.%[Objective] In order to improve arachidonia acid (ARA) production, and prevent the degeneration of ARA-producing strain Mortierella alpina in long-term culture preservation and cultivation, which could lead to low consumption rate of substrates like carbon source. [Methods] Mortierella alpina strain was first domesticated in high-sugar PDA plate with gradient sugar content (2%, 5%, 7%, 10% and 15%). The strain which grew better in the solid medium containing 10% sugar was then selected and transferred to two liquid high-sugar media with different nitrogen sources to domesticate. The gradient sugar

  13. Consumo de nutrientes, produção e composição do leite de cabras da raça Alpina alimentadas com dietas contendo diferentes teores de fibra Nutrient intake and milk yield and composition of Alpine lactating goats fed diets with different fiber levels

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Carvalho; Marcelo Teixeira Rodrigues; Renata Helena Branco; Carla Aparecida Florentino Rodrigues

    2006-01-01

    Foram utilizadas 50 cabras Alpinas em lactação objetivando-se avaliar os efeitos de diferentes teores de fibra em detergente neutro proveniente da forragem (FDNF) sobre o consumo de nutrientes, a produção e a composição do leite. Os animais foram confinados em baias individuais e distribuídos aleatoriamente em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e dez repetições. Foi utilizada uma ração em mistura completa, composta de feno de tifton-85 (Cynodon sp.), ...

  14. 高山被孢霉发酵生产花生四烯酸的宏观形态%Macro-morphology characterization of Mortierella alpina during the cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代军; 赵根海; 王鹏; 刘会; 宋均营; 胡以华; 郑之明

    2014-01-01

    An image processing technology was employed to analyze the different morphology features of Mortierella alpina,then their arachidonic acid(ARA) production capacities were compared�The results showed that the mixing ratio of peptone to yeast extract in the complex nitrogen source was important factors to affect the macroscopic morphology,the ARA production of mycelia grown in the form of pellet was the higher than that in dispersed mycelia�Among different pellet forms,the lipid content in the hollow pellet was highest while the biomass, and ARA content were the highest in the fluffy pellets�The ARA production capacity was determined by the biomass, lipid content in biomass, and the ARA content in lipid�Based on these factors,the ARA production capacity of fluffy pellets was 2�01,2�70 fold compared with that of hollow pellets and dispersed filaments, respectively�Therefore, the fluffy pellets were the optimum morphology for M�alpina to produce ARA in batch cultivation, whose morphological characteristics were as follows:the mean diameter 4 mm,the area pellet core 43�6%of total mycelia area, the compactness 71�36�%采用图像处理技术对高山被孢霉( Mortierella alpina)发酵过程中的不同形态进行分析,并对其产花生四烯酸( ARA)能力进行了比较。研究发现:复合N源中蛋白胨与酵母粉比例是影响高山被孢霉宏观形态的重要因素,球形形态生长的菌体中ARA产量较分散,菌丝体中ARA产量高;在球形形态中,空心球的菌体生物量低,ARA比例低,蓬松球可以兼顾菌体高生物量、高油脂比例及高ARA比例。产ARA能力由生物量、油脂比例及油脂中ARA比例共同决定。结果表明:直径大约4 mm、成核区域面积大约为43�6%、紧密度为71�36的蓬松球形态,是高山被孢霉一种相对较佳的发酵形态,其菌体产ARA能力分别是空心球和分散丝状菌体产ARA能力的2�01和2�70倍。

  15. Evolución del estado de esfuerzos durante la tectogénesis alpina en un sector del borde N de la Cordillera Ibérica (Alcaine, Teruel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casas Sáinz, A. M.

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Through brittle microstructure population analysis. the stress regime sequence in Alcaine's area during alpine tectogenesis bas been inferred. Dynamic study of fault populations allows us to distinguish stress tensors; chronological relationships of stylolitic joints and superposed striation within fault planes lead to establish its temporal sequence: (1 compression 100-110; (2 compression between N and ENE; (3 compression 140- 150; (4 distension with σ3 axis 050-070. The three compressive stages have worked in a wrench regime (vertical σ2; the transition between the third and distensive stages has been done by a σ12 axis interchange, without a break in tectonic activity.

    La secuencia de estados de esfuerzo durante la tectogénesis alpina en el área de Alcaine es interpretada a partir del análisis de poblaciones de microestructuras frágiles. El estudio dinámico de poblaciones de fallas permite caracterizar bien los tensores de esfuerzos; las relaciones cronológicas entre juntas estilolíticas y entre diferentes estriaciones dentro de un mismo plano de falla conducen a establecer la secuencia temporal de los mismos: (1 compresión 100-110; (2 compresión entre N y ENE; (3 compresión 140-150; (4 distensión con σ3 050-070. Las tres etapas compresivas operan en régimen de décrochement2 vertical; el tránsito entre la tercera de ellas y la etapa distensiva se produce por simple intercambio de los ejes σ1a y σ2 sin ruptura brusca en la actividad tectónica.

  16. Volcanic Soils as Sources of Novel CO-Oxidizing Paraburkholderia and Burkholderia: Paraburkholderia hiiakae sp. nov., Paraburkholderia metrosideri sp. nov., Paraburkholderia paradisi sp. nov., Paraburkholderia peleae sp. nov., and Burkholderia alpina sp. nov. a Member of the Burkholderia cepacia Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Carolyn F.; King, Gary M.

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies showed that members of the Burkholderiales were important in the succession of aerobic, molybdenum-dependent CO oxidizing-bacteria on volcanic soils. During these studies, four isolates were obtained from Kilauea Volcano (Hawai‘i, USA); one strain was isolated from Pico de Orizaba (Mexico) during a separate study. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, the Pico de Orizaba isolate and the isolates from Kilauea Volcano were provisionally assigned to the genera Burkholderia and Paraburkholderia, respectively. Each of the isolates possessed a form I coxL gene that encoded the catalytic subunit of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH); none of the most closely related type strains possessed coxL or oxidized CO. Genome sequences for Paraburkholderia type strains facilitated an analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities and average nucleotide identities (ANI). ANI did not exceed 95% (the recommended cutoff for species differentiation) for any of the pairwise comparisons among 27 reference strains related to the new isolates. However, since the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity among this set of reference strains was 98.93%, DNA-DNA hybridizations (DDH) were performed for two isolates whose 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with their nearest phylogenetic neighbors were 98.96 and 99.11%. In both cases DDH values were <16%. Based on multiple variables, four of the isolates represent novel species within the Paraburkholderia: Paraburkholderia hiiakae sp. nov. (type strain I2T = DSM 28029T = LMG 27952T); Paraburkholderia paradisi sp. nov. (type strain WAT = DSM 28027T = LMG 27949T); Paraburkholderia peleae sp. nov. (type strain PP52-1T = DSM 28028T = LMG 27950T); and Paraburkholderia metrosideri sp. nov. (type strain DNBP6-1T = DSM 28030T = LMG 28140T). The remaining isolate represents the first CO-oxidizing member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex: Burkholderia alpina sp. nov. (type strain PO-04-17-38T = DSM 28031T = LMG 28138T

  17. Propagation Techniques for Highland Bamboo (Arundinaria alpina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    larger scale plantation, six types of vegetative propagation materials ... (10 new shoots per propagule), along its stem length (at the upper, middle and butt ..... can be used to get starting materials for macro-propagation purposes so that mass.

  18. Condição corporal e desempenho produtivo de cabras Alpinas no início de lactação Body condition and productive performance of Alpine goat in early lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Pires Barbosa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência da condição corporal ao parto sobre os parâmetros produtivos de cabras Alpinas no início da lactação. Sessenta e oito cabras foram distribuídas em três grupos, de acordo com o escore de condição corporal (baixo, entre 1,00 e 2,75; intermediário, entre 2,75 e 3,50; e alto, entre 3,50 e 5,00 e avaliadas do parto até a oitava semana de lactação. Realizaram-se o controle diário do consumo alimentar e da produção leiteira e avaliações semanais de peso corporal, escore da condição corporal e composição do leite. Os animais com escore corporal alto apresentaram menor consumo de matéria seca, fibra em detergente neutro e proteína bruta em comparação àqueles com escores corporais baixo e intermediário. O período médio de recuperação do consumo de matéria seca dos animais das três condições corporais foi de 16 dias (2,3 semanas do pós-parto, com estabilização até o final do experimento. Na sexta semana de lactação, o peso corporal dos animais com escore corporal baixo se igualou ao daqueles com escore corporal intermediário. Não houve efeito da condição corporal ao parto nas variações de ECC e da produção leiteira ao longo do período. O teor de gordura do leite dos animais com escore corporal alto foi menor nas duas primeiras semanas pós-parto em comparação ao dos animais com escores corporais baixo e intermediário. Elevada condição corporal ao parto influencia negativamente o consumo voluntário de cabras leiteiras no início da lactação, mas quando se utiliza dieta de alta qualidade e com altos níveis de energia, a influência da condição corporal ao parto inexiste para variações de peso, de escore da condição corporal e produção leiteira dos animais.The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of body condition at birth on Alpine goat productive parameters in early lactation. Sixty-eight females were assigned to three groups according to

  19. Avaliação genética de caprinos da raça Alpina utilizando-se a produção de leite no dia do controle Genetic evaluation of Alpine goats using test day milk yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Lindenberg Rocha Sarmento

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Com os objetivos de estimar os parâmetros genéticos e predizer os valores genéticos para produção de leite no dia do controle (PLDC e para produção acumulada (PAC, utilizaram-se dados de 356 cabras da raça Alpina, com 825 lactações e 26.389 controles semanais efetuados entre os anos de 1997 e 2004. A PLDC foi analisada considerando-se o efeito fixo de grupo contemporâneo (ano-mês de controle, a idade da cabra ao parto, como covariável, e os efeitos aleatórios genético aditivo e de ambiente permanente. Para PAC, o modelo incluiu os mesmos efeitos aleatórios, o efeito fixo de grupo contemporâneo (ano-mês de parto e as covariáveis idade da cabra ao parto e duração da lactação. Em geral, as herdabilidades estimadas foram de maiores magnitudes na primeira lactação, nos controles intermediários, indicando possibilidade de resposta à seleção. As correlações de ordem entre os valores genéticos para a produção até 305 dias de lactação e as PLDC intermediárias foram maiores que as do início e do final da lactação. Apesar de a correlação de ordem ter sido alta, houve alterações na classificação dos reprodutores para produção até 305 dias de lactação quando a seleção foi praticada com base na PLDC aos 90 dias. A seleção pela PLDC e PAC no meio da lactação pode ser indicada como critério de seleção, em substituição à produção até 305 dias.Data consisting of 26,389 individual test day milk yield from 825 lactations of 356 Parda Alpina goats, recorded from 1997 to 2004, were used to estimate genetic parameters and to predict breeding values for test day (PLDC and accumulated (PAC milk yields. The model for PLDC included the fixed effects of contemporary group (year-month of test, age of dam at kidding as covariate, and additive genetic, permanent environment and residual random effects. The model for PAC included the same random effects used for PLDC and the fixed effects of contemporary group

  20. Taxa de gestação em cabras Alpinas e Saanen tratadas com hCG no terceiro dia após o estro Pregnancy rate and progesterone concentration of Alpine and Saanen goats treated with hCG the third day after estrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Prosperi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da aplicação da gonadotrofina coriônica humana (hCG sobre a taxa e duração da gestação e sobre a concentração plasmática de progesterona (P4 em cabras lactantes das raças Alpina (83 e Saanen (60, na estação de acasalamento induzida pelo programa de fotoperíodo artificial. Os animais foram distribuídos em dois tratamentos após a cobrição; as cabras do tratamento 1 (T1 controle receberam solução salina via intramuscular (1ml, e as do tratamento 2 (T2 receberam 250UI do hCG, no terceiro dia no pós-estro. As taxas de gestação, detectadas por exame ultra-sonográfico, realizado no 35º após a cobrição, para as cabras das raças Alpina e Saanen controle e tratadas, foram de 80,4; 70,3; 72,7; 81,5%, respectivamente, não diferindo entre os tratamentos e entre as raças (P>0,05. A taxa média de gestação foi 77,2 e 75,0% para os animais controle e tratados, respectivamente. A duração da gestação não foi influenciada pelos tratamentos (P>0,05. As amostras de sangue para análise da concentração plasmática de progesterona (P4 foram coletadas de cinco cabras Alpina por tratamento, no dia do estro (dia 0 e aos 3, 8, 15, 21, 42 e 60 dias após o estro. Não houve diferença na concentração plasmática média de P4 entre os tratamentos (P>0,05, sendo de 5,84ng/ml para T1 e 5,76ng/ml para T2. Observou-se diferença em relação aos dias de coleta (PThe experimental objective was to evaluate the effect of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG administration on pregnancy rate and gestation length and on serum concentration of progesterone (P4 in Alpine (83 and Saanen (60 dairy goats induced by artificial photoperiod to enter the breeding season. Animals were randomly allocated to two treatments following estrus: in treatment 1 (T1 goats received 1ml saline solution and in treatment 2 (T2 animals received 250IU of hCG in 1ml saline intramuscularly during the third day after estrus. Pregnancy rates detected by

  1. Influência do transporte e mudança de local de manejo nas variáveis fisiológicas e produtivas de cabras Alpinas Physiologic and productive responses of Alpine goats submitted to transportation to a new dairy location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Canaes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se o efeito do transporte e a mudança de local de manejo sobre a produção e a composição do leite e sobre as variáveis fisiológicas, utilizando-se 12 cabras da raça Alpina em final de lactação. Semanalmente, foram mensuradas a produção e composição do leite e a contagem de células somáticas, além do volume do leite residual após administração de ocitocina. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue para dosagem hormonal (cortisol e enzimática (glicose no plasma no dia do transporte: antes (7h10min e após (8h20min, 8h30min e 10h30min o transporte. Nas três semanas subsequentes ao transporte, também foram colhidas amostras de sangue às 8h20min. Obtiveram-se teores mais elevados (PThe effects of transportation and reallocation on milk production and composition and physiological responses were studied in 12 late-lactation Alpine goats. Weekly, somatic cell count, milk production and composition, and residual milk volume (after administration of oxytocin were monitored. Blood samples were taken for hormonal (cortisol and enzymatic dosages (glucose in plasma on the day of transportation: before (7h10min and after transportation (8h20min, 8h30min, and 10h30min. During the three weeks after transportation, blood samples were also taken at 8h20min. Higher levels (P<0.05 of cortisol and glucose after transportation and reallocation were observed and milk yield was significantly lower (P<0.05 one day after them. Milk fat percentage and somatic cell count (P<0.05 were higher after transportation. Results allow concluding that transportation is a stressor agent that may momentarily influence animal production.

  2. Efeitos do estresse térmico sobre a produção, composição química do leite e respostas termorreguladoras de cabras da raça alpina Thermal stress effects on milk yield and chemical composition and thermoregulatory responses of lactating alpines goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena de Albuquerque Brasil

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Seis cabras da raça Alpina, com produção média de leite de 2,5 kg/dia, foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em dois grupos de três e submetidas à termoneutralidade ou estresse térmico por 56 dias em câmara climática. Usou-se um delineamento estatístico "crossover". A temperatura média do ar diurna, incluindo radiação solar simulada, foi de 33,84ºC. Os animais estressados aumentaram a freqüência respiratória, o volume-minuto respiratório, a termólise-evaporativa respiratória, temperatura retal e a taxa de sudorese, enquanto o volume corrente respiratório e o volume globular diminuíram. Houve também perda de peso, redução da ingestão de alimentos e duplicação do consumo de água. A produção de leite e a porcentagem de gordura, proteína, lactose e sólidos totais diminuíram. Os teores de cloretos, cálcio e fósforo não sofreram alteração. Concluiu-se que, para manter a homeotermia, as cabras mobilizaram o sistema respiratório e sudoríparo para perder calor. A alta temperatura ambiente efetiva reduziu a produção e os teores de alguns componentes do leite.Six Alpine goats with an average milk yield of 2.5 kg/day were randomly assigned to two groups of three and allotted to thermoneutral or heat stress conditions, for 56 days in climate chamber room. A crossover experimental design was used. The goats under heat stress were exposed to a diurnal average air temperature plus simulated solar radiation of 33. 84ºC. The heat-stressed goats showed elevated respiratory frequency, respiratory minute volume, respiratory evaporation, rectal temperature and sweating rate, while the tidal volume and packed cell volume decreased. Further weight loss, decreased feed intake, and their water consumption doubled. The milk yield, the percentage of fat, protein, lactose and total solid contents decreased. The contents of chloride, calcium and phosphorus did not change. The goats mobilized the respiratory and sweating systems to

  3. 76 FR 9309 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Sand...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... easily identified by their distinctive physical characteristics. The sand verbena moth is dark in color... are poorly understood (BCIRT 2008, pp. 3, 5). To date, there is no quantitative or qualitative measure... scenarios; a formal framework to quantify the probabilities of the very high or very low sea level rise...

  4. Ultrassonografia testicular em caprinos jovens da raça Alpina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R.B. Carazo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho observar as mudanças do parênquima testicular de acordo com o fotoperíodo e com a faixa etária dos animais por meio da ecotextura testicular e a viabilidade do uso do ultrassom na avaliação testicular. Foram utilizados 4 animais desde o 6° até o 13° mês de idade. Os exames ecográficos foram realizados a cada 15 dias para avaliar a ecotextura testicular. O parênquima testicular mostrou-se moderadamente ecogênico e homogêneo. Foi observado comportamento semelhante na ecotextura testicular durante o período de avaliação, sendo maior no 8º mês de idade, quando o volume testicular também foi maior; tais mudanças foram relacionadas com o fotoperíodo da região. A avaliação ultrassonográfica dos testículos mostrou-se um método eficiente, capaz de detectar as mudanças no parênquima testicular ao longo do tempo, e como ferramenta alternativa para diferenciação de condições normais e patológicas em caprinos.

  5. Role of malic enzyme during fatty acid synthesis in the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hao, Guangfei; Chen, Haiqin; Wang, Lei; Gu, Zhennan; Song, Yuanda; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Chen, Yong Q

    2014-01-01

    The generation of NADPH by malic enzyme (ME) was postulated to be a rate-limiting step during fatty acid synthesis in oleaginous fungi, based primarily on the results from research focusing on ME in Mucor circinelloides...

  6. Genome expansion of Arabis alpina linked with retrotransposition and reduced symmetric DNA methylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willing, Eva Maria; Rawat, Vimal; Mandáková, Terezie; Maumus, Florian; James, Geo Velikkakam; Nordström, Karl J.V.; Becker, Claude; Warthmann, Norman; Chica, Claudia; Szarzynska, Bogna; Zytnicki, Matthias; Albani, Maria C.; Kiefer, Christiane; Bergonzi, Sara; Castaings, Loren; Mateos, Julieta L.; Berns, Markus C.; Bujdoso, Nora; Piofczyk, Thomas; Lorenzo, De Laura; Barrero-Sicilia, Cristina; Mateos, Isabel; Piednoël, Mathieu; Hagmann, Jörg; Chen-Min-Tao, Romy; Iglesias-Fernández, Raquel; Schuster, Stephan C.; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; Roudier, François; Carbonero, Pilar; Paz-Ares, Javier; Davis, Seth J.; Pecinka, Ales; Quesneville, Hadi; Colot, Vincent; Lysak, Martin A.; Weigel, Detlef; Coupland, George; Schneeberger, Korbinian

    2015-01-01

    Despite evolutionary conserved mechanisms to silence transposable
    element activity, there are drastic differences in the
    abundance of transposable elements even among closely
    related plant species. We conducted a de novo assembly for the
    375 Mb genome of the perennial model plant, Ar

  7. Transcriptome survey of Patagonian southern beech Nothofagus nervosa (= N. Alpina: assembly, annotation and molecular marker discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torales Susana L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nothofagus nervosa is one of the most emblematic native tree species of Patagonian temperate forests. Here, the shotgun RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq of the transcriptome of N. nervosa, including de novo assembly, functional annotation, and in silico discovery of potential molecular markers to support population and associations genetic studies, are described. Results Pyrosequencing of a young leaf cDNA library generated a total of 111,814 high quality reads, with an average length of 447 bp. De novo assembly using Newbler resulted into 3,005 tentative isotigs (including alternative transcripts. The non-assembled sequences (singletons were clustered with CD-HIT-454 to identify natural and artificial duplicates from pyrosequencing reads, leading to 21,881 unique singletons. 15,497 out of 24,886 non-redundant sequences or unigenes, were successfully annotated against a plant protein database. A substantial number of simple sequence repeat markers (SSRs were discovered in the assembled and annotated sequences. More than 40% of the SSR sequences were inside ORF sequences. To confirm the validity of these predicted markers, a subset of 73 SSRs selected through functional annotation evidences were successfully amplified from six seedlings DNA samples, being 14 polymorphic. Conclusions This paper is the first report that shows a highly precise representation of the mRNAs diversity present in young leaves of a native South American tree, N. nervosa, as well as its in silico deduced putative functionality. The reported Nothofagus transcriptome sequences represent a unique resource for genetic studies and provide a tool to discover genes of interest and genetic markers that will greatly aid questions involving evolution, ecology, and conservation using genetic and genomic approaches in the genus.

  8. Transcriptome survey of Patagonian southern beech Nothofagus nervosa (= N. Alpina): assembly, annotation and molecular marker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torales, Susana L; Rivarola, Máximo; Pomponio, María F; Fernández, Paula; Acuña, Cintia V; Marchelli, Paula; Gonzalez, Sergio; Azpilicueta, María M; Hopp, Horacio Esteban; Gallo, Leonardo A; Paniego, Norma B; Poltri, Susana N Marcucci

    2012-07-02

    Nothofagus nervosa is one of the most emblematic native tree species of Patagonian temperate forests. Here, the shotgun RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) of the transcriptome of N. nervosa, including de novo assembly, functional annotation, and in silico discovery of potential molecular markers to support population and associations genetic studies, are described. Pyrosequencing of a young leaf cDNA library generated a total of 111,814 high quality reads, with an average length of 447 bp. De novo assembly using Newbler resulted into 3,005 tentative isotigs (including alternative transcripts). The non-assembled sequences (singletons) were clustered with CD-HIT-454 to identify natural and artificial duplicates from pyrosequencing reads, leading to 21,881 unique singletons. 15,497 out of 24,886 non-redundant sequences or unigenes, were successfully annotated against a plant protein database. A substantial number of simple sequence repeat markers (SSRs) were discovered in the assembled and annotated sequences. More than 40% of the SSR sequences were inside ORF sequences. To confirm the validity of these predicted markers, a subset of 73 SSRs selected through functional annotation evidences were successfully amplified from six seedlings DNA samples, being 14 polymorphic. This paper is the first report that shows a highly precise representation of the mRNAs diversity present in young leaves of a native South American tree, N. nervosa, as well as its in silico deduced putative functionality. The reported Nothofagus transcriptome sequences represent a unique resource for genetic studies and provide a tool to discover genes of interest and genetic markers that will greatly aid questions involving evolution, ecology, and conservation using genetic and genomic approaches in the genus.

  9. Enhanced polyunsaturated fatty acids production in Mortierella alpina by SSF and the enrichment in chicken breasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengli Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS and soybean meal were used as the substrates for the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in solid-state fermentation (SSF by Mortierella alpine. These fermented products were fed to laying hens. PUFA enrichment from chicken breasts was studied. Methods: The maximum productivity of PUFA was achieved under optimized process condition, including 1% w/w yeast extract as additive, an incubation period of 5 days at 12°C, 10% v/w inoculum level, 75% moisture content, and pH 6.0. The hens were then fed with ration containing soybean DDGS, rapeseed oil, soybean oil, and peanut oil. The control group was fed with basal ration. Results: Under the optimal condition, M. alpine produced total fatty acids (TFA of 182.34 mg/g dry substrate. It has better mycelial growth when soybean meal was added to DDGS (SDDGS. PUFA in fermentation product increased with higher soybean meal content. The addition of 70% soybean meal to DDGS substrate yielded 175.16 mg of TFA, including 2.49 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and 5.26 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. The ratios of ω-6/ω-3 found in chicken breasts fat were all lower than that found in control by 36.98, 31.51, 18.15, and 12.63% for SDDGS, rapeseed oil, soybean oil, and peanut oil, respectively. Conclusions: This study identified an optimized SSF process to maximize PUFA productivity by M. alpine as the strain. This PUFA-enriched feed increased the PUFA contents as well as the proportions of ω-6 and ω-3 in chicken breasts and liver.

  10. Genome expansion of Arabis alpina linked with retrotransposition and reduced symmetric DNA methylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willing, Eva Maria; Rawat, Vimal; Mandáková, Terezie; Maumus, Florian; James, Geo Velikkakam; Nordström, Karl J.V.; Becker, Claude; Warthmann, Norman; Chica, Claudia; Szarzynska, Bogna; Zytnicki, Matthias; Albani, Maria C.; Kiefer, Christiane; Bergonzi, Sara; Castaings, Loren; Mateos, Julieta L.; Berns, Markus C.; Bujdoso, Nora; Piofczyk, Thomas; Lorenzo, De Laura; Barrero-Sicilia, Cristina; Mateos, Isabel; Piednoël, Mathieu; Hagmann, Jörg; Chen-Min-Tao, Romy; Iglesias-Fernández, Raquel; Schuster, Stephan C.; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; Roudier, François; Carbonero, Pilar; Paz-Ares, Javier; Davis, Seth J.; Pecinka, Ales; Quesneville, Hadi; Colot, Vincent; Lysak, Martin A.; Weigel, Detlef; Coupland, George; Schneeberger, Korbinian

    2015-01-01

    Despite evolutionary conserved mechanisms to silence transposable
    element activity, there are drastic differences in the
    abundance of transposable elements even among closely
    related plant species. We conducted a de novo assembly for the
    375 Mb genome of the perennial model plant,

  11. Ginger and the beetle: Evidence of primitive pollination system in a Himalayan endemic alpine ginger (Roscoea alpina, Zingiberaceae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Babu Ram Paudel; Mani Shrestha; Adrian G Dyer; Qing-Jun Li

    2017-01-01

    The Himalayan endemic alpine genus Roscoea, like other members of ginger family, exhibits the combination of floral traits that would fit pollination by long distant foragers such as bees, birds or flies...

  12. Transcriptome survey of Patagonian southern beech Nothofagus nervosa (= N. Alpina): assembly, annotation and molecular marker discovery

    OpenAIRE

    Torales Susana L; Rivarola Máximo; Pomponio María F; Fernández Paula; Acuña Cintia V; Marchelli Paula; Gonzalez Sergio; Azpilicueta María M; Hopp Horacio; Gallo Leonardo A; Paniego Norma B; Poltri Susana N

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Nothofagus nervosa is one of the most emblematic native tree species of Patagonian temperate forests. Here, the shotgun RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) of the transcriptome of N. nervosa, including de novo assembly, functional annotation, and in silico discovery of potential molecular markers to support population and associations genetic studies, are described. Results Pyrosequencing of a young leaf cDNA library generated a total of 111,814 high quality reads, with an average le...

  13. Seasonal variations in the diet and foraging behaviour of dunlins Calidris alpina in a south European estuary: improved feeding conditions for northward migrants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo C Martins

    Full Text Available During the annual cycle, migratory waders may face strikingly different feeding conditions as they move between breeding areas and wintering grounds. Thus, it is of crucial importance that they rapidly adjust their behaviour and diet to benefit from peaks of prey abundance, in particular during migration, when they need to accumulate energy at a fast pace. In this study, we compared foraging behaviour and diet of wintering and northward migrating dunlins in the Tagus estuary, Portugal, by video-recording foraging birds and analysing their droppings. We also estimated energy intake rates and analysed variations in prey availability, including those that were active at the sediment surface. Wintering and northward migrating dunlins showed clearly different foraging behaviour and diet. In winter, birds predominantly adopted a tactile foraging technique (probing, mainly used to search for small buried bivalves, with some visual surface pecking to collect gastropods and crop bivalve siphons. Contrastingly, in spring dunlins generally used a visual foraging strategy, mostly to consume worms, but also bivalve siphons and shrimps. From winter to spring, we found a marked increase both in the biomass of invertebrate prey in the sediment and in the surface activity of worms and siphons. The combination of these two factors, together with the availability of shrimps in spring, most likely explains the changes in the diet and foraging behaviour of dunlins. Northward migrating birds took advantage from the improved feeding conditions in spring, achieving 65% higher energy intake rates as compared with wintering birds. Building on these results and on known daily activity budgets for this species, our results suggest that Tagus estuary provides high-quality feeding conditions for birds during their stopovers, enabling high fattening rates. These findings show that this large wetland plays a key role as a stopover site for migratory waders within the East Atlantic Flyway.

  14. 高山被孢霉挥发性次生代谢产物分析%Analysis for the Volatile Secondary Metabolites of Mortierella alpina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣; 马小琛; 黄和; 于文涛; 纪晓俊; 彭超; 高振

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The study was to investigate the volatile components of secondary metabolites from M.alpine producing arachidonic acid and explore the changes in its metabolic pathway. [Method] The air above M.alpine broth was extracted by solid-phase microextraction(SPME) during the post-exponential phase of growth and analyzed by GC-MS. [Result] 13 compounds were identified, 12 of which were sesquiterpenes with C15H24 formula and accounting for 99.62% of the complete compounds. Thujopsene-(12), α-Guaiene and Aristolene were three most sesquiterpenes accounting for 10.66%, 33.69% and 34.85% of total content respectively. It can be sufficiently certified that sesquiterpene metabolic pathway existing in M.alpine. [Conclusion] Metabolic flux of sesquiterpene pathway increased to improve its mass accumulation, because one or several key enzyme genes mutation in isoprene or sesquiterpene pathway enhanced their activities during induction of mutation from initial strain.

  15. What determines the densities of feeding birds on tidal flats? A case study on dunlin, Calidris alpina, in the Wadden Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, Georg; Tiedemann, Ralph

    The tidal and seasonal pattern of habitat utilization by dunlin was studied in a tidal-flat area in a shallow bay called Königshafen, island of Sylt, by counting the number of dunlins on marked plots at 10-min intervals over whole tidal cycles. Sediment type, tidal elevation, and seasonal changes in food choice were found to influence the feeding densities of dunlin irrespective of total numbers present in the area. Densities of dunlin were generally highest on low muddy substrates. A preference for high sandy substrates was found in late summer. The tidal pattern of habitat utilization differed between areas. In preferred areas dunlin stayed during the whole emersion period. Other areas were only used by following the moving tide line. Seasonal changes in habitat utilization were apparently triggered by changes in food choice. In spring dunlin fed almost exclusively on polychaetes. In late summer a relatively high proportion of shrimps, Crangon crangon, was found in the diet of dunlins. The preference for shrimps may force the birds to stay away from the tide line, where the shrimps can escape into deeper waters. It is recommended that studies on habitat utilization on tidal flats should consider the tidal behaviour of the target species, as single low-tide counts may not give valid results.

  16. Large and irregular population fluctuations in migratory Pacific (Calidris alpina pacifica) and Atlantic (C. a. hudsonica) dunlins are driven by density-dependence and climatic factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, C.; Barnett, J.; Lank, D.B.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the forces driving population dynamics is critical for species conservation and population management. For migratory birds, factors that regulate population abundance could come from effects experienced on breeding areas, wintering grounds, or during migration. We compiled survey data

  17. Seasonal variations in the diet and foraging behaviour of dunlins Calidris alpina in a south European estuary: improved feeding conditions for northward migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ricardo C; Catry, Teresa; Santos, Carlos D; Palmeirim, Jorge M; Granadeiro, José P

    2013-01-01

    During the annual cycle, migratory waders may face strikingly different feeding conditions as they move between breeding areas and wintering grounds. Thus, it is of crucial importance that they rapidly adjust their behaviour and diet to benefit from peaks of prey abundance, in particular during migration, when they need to accumulate energy at a fast pace. In this study, we compared foraging behaviour and diet of wintering and northward migrating dunlins in the Tagus estuary, Portugal, by video-recording foraging birds and analysing their droppings. We also estimated energy intake rates and analysed variations in prey availability, including those that were active at the sediment surface. Wintering and northward migrating dunlins showed clearly different foraging behaviour and diet. In winter, birds predominantly adopted a tactile foraging technique (probing), mainly used to search for small buried bivalves, with some visual surface pecking to collect gastropods and crop bivalve siphons. Contrastingly, in spring dunlins generally used a visual foraging strategy, mostly to consume worms, but also bivalve siphons and shrimps. From winter to spring, we found a marked increase both in the biomass of invertebrate prey in the sediment and in the surface activity of worms and siphons. The combination of these two factors, together with the availability of shrimps in spring, most likely explains the changes in the diet and foraging behaviour of dunlins. Northward migrating birds took advantage from the improved feeding conditions in spring, achieving 65% higher energy intake rates as compared with wintering birds. Building on these results and on known daily activity budgets for this species, our results suggest that Tagus estuary provides high-quality feeding conditions for birds during their stopovers, enabling high fattening rates. These findings show that this large wetland plays a key role as a stopover site for migratory waders within the East Atlantic Flyway.

  18. Proteinograma de caprinos da raça Pardo-Alpina infectados naturalmente por parasitos gastrintestinais Proteinogram of Alpine goat naturally infected by gastrointestinal parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Y. Fernández

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The proteinogram of six 12 month-old Alpine goats, intensively raised and naturally infected by gastrointestinal parasites, was evaluated. Blood and feces samples of each animal were monthly collected. Total serum protein and their fractions were determined by agarose gel eletrophoresis, using Tris buffer, pH 9.2. The identified protein fractions were albumin, alfa-globulin, beta1-globulin, beta2-globulin and gama-globulin, whose average and standard deviation (g/dl were, respectively: 2.35±0.39, 0.69±0.36, 0.70±0.08, 0.48±0.08 and 1.52±0.41. It was not observed significative correlation (P>0.05, according to the Spearman non-parametric test, either between the Strongyloides eggs count per gram of feces or the Haemonchus spp. larval count per gram of feces and the fraction electrophorectly variable.

  19. Increase in Bcl2 expression of penile and prostate cells of Sprague Dawley male rats following treatment with buceng (combination of Pimpinella alpina molk with Eurycoma longifolia Jack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiqurrachman Nasihun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment with buceng combination of Eurycoma longifolia Jack and Pimpinella alpine Molk has been proven to increase testosterone level, decrease apoptosis and caspase3 expression. Bcl2 is an antiapoptotic protein found in cytoplasm which inhibits cells apoptosis. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of buceng on Bcl2 expression on penile and prostate tissues of the rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 24 male Sprague Dawley rats of 90 days old, weighing ± 300 grams, were randomly assigned into four groups. Group A, normal rats. Group B, castrated rats and treated with buceng 100 mg/day, per oral (Cast-Bcg; Group C, castrated rats and treated with 2 ml of water as placebo against buceng (Cast-Plac. Group D, castrated rats, treated with mesterolone 6.75 mg/day, per oral, as exogenous testosterone (Cast-Mest. All rats were treated for 30 days. Manova test was used to analyze the different expression of Bcl2 among groups with significance level at p ≤ 0.05. Results: Castration was associated with significant decrease of Bcl2 expression in the penile and prostate tissues (53.0 and 50.9%, respectively compared to normal rats (82.6 and 84.2%, respectively, p < 0.001. Treatment with mesterolone reversed Bcl2 expression (77.1 and 78.1% to a near normal level. The same level of Bcl2 expression was also observed with buceng treatment (73.8 and 78.2%.Conclusion: The treatment with buceng could enhance Bcl2 expression in penile and prostate tissues, comparable to normal rats and mesterolone treated rats.

  20. 高山被孢霉发酵产鸟苷酸二磷酸岩藻糖的研究%Production of GDP-L-fucose by Mortierella alpina fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鸿超; 杨芹; 张陈; 陈海琴; 顾震南; 张灏; 陈卫; 陈永泉

    2016-01-01

    鸟苷酸二磷酸岩藻糖(GDP-L-Fuc)是一种重要的核糖类化合物,其作为岩藻糖基的受体具有重要的生理功能.尝试利用高山被孢霉发酵产GDP-L-Fuc.高山被孢霉经液氮研磨破壁,甲酸(含10%丁醇)溶液萃取后,利用高效液相色谱进一步分离得到了GDP-L-Fuc,并采用四极杆-静电场轨道阱高分辨质谱对结果进行定性分析.然后对高山被孢霉不同发酵时期GDP-L-Fuc产量进行分析,发现GDP-L-Fuc在氮源消耗之后仍然持续积累.同时,GDP-L-Fuc合成途径关键基因的转录水平在氮源耗尽时发生了上调,这表明氮源很可能是GDP-L-Fuc积累的关键因素.最后,在氮源耗尽后添加外源岩藻糖显著提高了GDP-L-Fuc的产量(50%),可达170.51μg/g.这为利用微生物发酵产GDP-L-Fuc奠定了理论基础.

  1. Relaciones entre la zonalidad petrológica y metalogénica de los macizos lerzolíticos de las cadenas alpinas del Mediterráneo Occidental (Cordillera Bético-Rifeña y Kabylias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Ruiz, J.

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Gamet-lherzolite facies, Ariegite and Seiland subfacies of the spinel-lherzolite facies and plagioclase-lherzolite facies have been identified in the Serranía de Ronda, Beni Bousera and Collo lherzolitic massifs. These petrological facies occur in a zonal arrangement: gamet lherzolite are in contact with the overlaying metapelitic sequence and spinel then plagioclase lherzolite occur inwards, representing the innermost zones in the former mantle body. The various occurrences of mineralizations can be classified in two main groups: one of them is essentialIy made up of chromite and Ni arsenides with pyroxene and/or cordierite as gangue minerals; the other consists Qf Fe-Ni-Cu sulfides and graphite, with pyroxene, plagioclase and phlogopite as gangue minerals. In both groups, the ores with the more refractory composition were the first to crystallize in the hotter core of the diapir while those other with a more differentiated composition were formed later within the external zones. The close correlation between petrological and metallogenical roning supports a magmatic origin of the mineralizations related to the petrologic evolution of the mantle bodies. The mineralizing liquids• originated from magmas generated by partial melting of the peridotites. The former migrated outwards, from the internal part of the bodies, during which marked interaction with the enclosing rocks and complex fractionation processes took place under moderate to low pressure conditions.En los macizos lerzolíticos de la Serranía de Ronda, de Beni Bousera y de Collo se han identificado facies de lerzolitas con granate, facies de lerzolitas con espinela (subfacies Ariegita y Seiland y facies de lerzolitas con plagioclasa. Estas facies petrológicas se distribuyen de forma que las lerzolitas con granate se sitúan en contacto con la unidad metapelítica suprayacente, mientras que las lerzolitas con espinela y con plagioclasa lo hacen en posiciones progresivamente más alejadas, representando zonas cada vez más internas en el primitivo cuerpo ultramáfico. Los diferentes indicios de mineralización pueden dividirse en dos grupos: uno compuesto esencialmente por cromita y arseniuros de níquel con ganga de piroxenos y/o cordierita, y el otro constituido por sulfuros de Fe-Ni-Cu con grafito y con piroxenos, plagioclasa y flogopita como minerales de la ganga. En ambos grupos las mineralizaciones de composición más refractaria son las primeras en cristalizar y lo hacen en las etapas más tempranas en las zonas más internas del diapiro, mientras que las de composición más diferenciada lo hacen más tarde en posiciones más periféricas. La fuerte interrelación entre la zonación petrológica y metalogénica apoya una génesis para las mineralizaciones íntimamente asociada a la evolución petrológica de los diapiros del manto. Los líquidos mineralizantes derivan de magmas generados mediante la fusión parcial de las peridotitas y habrían migrado hacia la periferia sufriendo un complejo proceso de fraccionación e interacción con las rocas encajantes, en condiciones de presión moderadas a bajas.

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DDIS-05-0061 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DDIS-05-0061 dbj|BAA75927.1| delta-9 fatty acid desaturase [Mortierella alpina...] dbj|BAA75928.1| delta-9 fatty acid desaturase [Mortierella alpina] BAA75927.1 1e-107 48% ...

  3. Floristic changes in alpine plant communities induced by the cushion plant Azorella madreporica (Apiaceae in the Andes of central Chile Cambios florísticos en comunidades de plantas alpinas inducidos por la planta en cojín Azorella madrepórica (Apiaceae en los Andes de Chile central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANZA L QUIROZ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the number of plant species associated with nurse plants increases with elevation. However, studies conducted so far have largely ignored the effect of nurse plants on other community attributes, such as the species abundances, diversity and evenness. Moreover, changes in these community attributes along environmental gradients have also been seldom examined. The present study evaluates the effect of the cushion plant Azorella madrepórica (Apiaceae on species richness, species abundance, diversity and evenness of vascular plants at two elevations in the Andes of central Chile. Theoretically, the impact of this nurse cushion plant on these community attributes should be grater at a higher elevation. Results showed that the proportion of plant species associated with cushion plants increases with elevation, and the abundance of some species is also greater within cushions than on bare ground. Although the proportion of species growing within cushions increased with elevation, diversity and evenness were higher on bare ground. This is due to some few species that attained very high densities within cushions, generating assemblages highly dominated by some few species. Ordination analyses indicated differences in species assemblages within and outside A. madrepórica at the higher elevation. Therefore, the influence of cushion plants on community structure changes with elevation. Accordingly, we suggest that attributes other than species richness must be included in future studies in order to analyze the impact of nurse species on community structure along environmental gradients.Se sabe que el número de especies asociado a plantas nodrizas aumenta con la altitud. Sin embargo, el efecto de plantas nodrizas sobre otros atributos de las comunidades, como la abundancia de especies, diversidad y equidad, ha sido largamente ignorado. Más aún, cambios en estos atributos en gradientes ambientales han sido pocas veces examinados. Este trabajo evalúa el efecto de una planta en cojín, Azorella madrepórica (Apiaceae, sobre la riqueza de especies, abundancia de especies, diversidad y equitatividad de la comunidad de plantas vasculares en dos altitudes en los Andes de Chile central. Teóricamente, el impacto de esta especie nodriza sobre la estructura comunitaria debería ser mayor a mayor altitud. Los resultados mostraron que la proporción de especies de plantas asociadas con plantas en cojín aumenta con la altitud, y que la abundancia de algunas especies también es mayor al interior de cojines que en el suelo desnudo. Aunque la riqueza relativa de especies al interior de los cojines aumenta con la altitud, la diversidad y la equidad fueron mayores en el suelo desnudo. Los resultados sugieren que la importancia de las plantas en cojín sobre la estructura comunitaria cambia con la altitud, produciendo mayores diferencias en los ensambles de especies presentes dentro y fuera de A. madrepórica en la mayor altitud. Basándonos en esto, sugerimos que otros atributos además de la riqueza de especies deben ser incluidos en futuros estudios para analizar el impacto de las especies nodrizas en la estructura de las comunidades a lo largo de gradientes ambientales.

  4. Efeitos do estresse térmico nas concentrações plasmáticas de progesterona (P4 e estradiol 17-b (E2 e temperatura retal em cabras da raça Pardo Alpina Effects of heat stress on progesterone (P4 and estradiol-17b plasma concentrations and rectal temperature of Alpine Brown goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Uribe-Velásquez

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Seis cabras lactantes foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em um delineamento experimental em "crossover", em dois grupos: sob condições termoneutras e estresse térmico. Um período de adaptação de 28 dias foi seguido por quatro períodos de 14 dias cada, quando os animais sob estresse térmico foram expostos à temperatura média de 33,84ºC; THI de 86,20; BGT de 36,18 e BT de 32,11ºC das 8 às 17 horas, incluindo radiação solar simulada das 10 às 15 horas. Não houve diferença entre as concentrações plasmáticas de progesterona, mas as fêmeas submetidas ao estresse térmico apresentaram diminuição nas concentrações plasmáticas de estradiol, quando comparados ao grupo termoneutro. A temperatura retal dos animais sob estresse térmico foi mais elevada quando foi comparada à do grupo de animais em condições de termoneutralidade. As cabras mantiveram as concentrações plasmáticas da progesterona, com diminuição na secreção de estradiol, quando expostas a um estresse repetido e intermitente, a despeito de ocorrer hipertermia durante o estresse pelo calor.Six lactating goats were randomly assigned to a crossover experimental design in two groups, under thermoneutral and heat stress conditions. An adaptation period of 28 days were followed by 4-periods of 14 days each, when the animals under heat stress were exposed to an average temperature of 33.34ºC; THI of 86.20; BGT of 36.18 and BT of 32.11ºC from 8 to 17 hours, including simulated solar radiation from 10 to 15 hours. There was no difference for progesterone plasma concentrations but the animals under heat stress showed a reduction of estradiol plasma concentrations as compared to the thermoneutral group. The rectal temperature of the animals under heat stress was higher when compared to the animals under thermoneutral conditions. The goats maintained progesterone plasma concentrations with reduction of estradiol secretion when exposed to repeat stress and intermittent in spite of the occurrence of hyperthermia during heat stress.

  5. Expression of △6-fatty Acid Elongase Gene from Mortierella alpina in Pichia pastoris%高山被孢霉△6-脂肪酸延长酶基因在巴斯德毕赤酵母中的表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰昊; 欧秀元; 黎明; 于爱群; 石桐磊; 邢来君; 李明春

    2013-01-01

    长链多不饱和脂肪酸花生四烯酸(ARA,C20:4n-6)是合成生物活性物质类二十碳烷酸的初级底物和神经组织的重要组成成分.△6-脂肪酸延长酶是花生四烯酸△6-合成途径的关键酶之一.根据已经报道的△6-脂肪酸延长酶基因序列设计引物,分别从产花生四烯酸的丝状真菌高山被孢霉ATCC16266菌株基因组和cDNA中扩增得到该序列.经序列分析后,将来源于cDNA的序列连接到毕赤酵母表达载体pPIC3.5K上,得到重组质粒pPIC3.5K-ELO.用电击转化法将重组载体pPIC3.5K-ELO转化到巴斯德毕赤酵母GS115中,在缺省培养基上筛选得到毕赤酵母转化菌株pPIC3.5K-ELO.在适宜的培养条件下,添加外源底物γ-亚麻酸(GLA)和诱导物甲醇诱导基因表达.气相色谱分析表明该基因在毕赤酵母中得到了表达,底物GLA转化为二高γ-亚麻酸(DGLA),转化效率为28.91%.对△6-脂肪酸延长酶进行跨膜分析,表明该蛋白为具有7个跨膜域的膜结合蛋白.%The very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (VLC-PUFA),arachidonic acid (ARA),is a primary substrate for the biosynthesis of biologically active eicosanoids and a component of neuron tissues.△6-fatty acid elongase is one of the key enzymes involving in the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid in △6-pathway.Two specific sequences were cloned from genome DNA and cDNA of the Mortierella alpine ATCC16266 using primers designed according to the reported sequences.The sequence from cDNA was ligated into pPIC3.5K,yielding the recombinant vector pPIC3.5K-ELO.Pichia pastoris GS115 was transformed with pPIC3.5K-ELO by electroporation method.Under the optimum culture conditions,by adding exogenous substrate γ-linolenic acid (GLA)and inducer methanol,GC analysis confirmed the gene was expressed in Pichia pastoris.Exogenous substrate GLA was converted into dihomo-γ-linolenic acid (DGLA),and the substrate conversion efficiency reached 28.91%.Transmembrane analysis of the △6-fatty acid elongase predicted that the protein is a membrane binding protein with seven transmembrane domains.

  6. Peso à cobrição e ganho de peso durante a gestação de cabras nativas, exóticas e mestiças no semi-árido

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros,Geovergue Rodrigues de; Pimenta Filho, Edgard Cavalcanti; Sousa,Wandrick Hauss de; Brito,Evaneusa de Alves

    2004-01-01

    Avaliaram-se os efeitos de mês, ano, ordem de parto e tipo de parto sobre o peso à cobrição (PC) e o ganho de peso durante a gestação (GP), respectivamente, de 753 e 527 cabras nativas Canindés, 463 e 333 cabras exóticas Anglo-nubianas, 374 e 296 Alpinas, 151 e 87 de mestiças ½ Alpina (A) ½ Sem Raça Definida (SRD), 92 e 73 ¾ Alpina (A) ¼ SRD, criadas na Estação Experimental de Pendência - EMEPA-PB, Soledade-PB, na microrregião semi-árida da Paraíba, em regime semi-intensivo, no período de 198...

  7. Behavior of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in biota of Yangtze Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆健健; 唐亚文; 唐亚文; 周开亚; 叶属峰; 孙平跃

    2001-01-01

    The contents of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium were measured in the dominant species (plants: Scripus triquetor and Phrgrmites australis, macrobenthos: llyoplax deschampsin, Helice tridens tientsinensis, Bullacta exarata and Corbicula fluminea, and migrating waders: Calidris ruficollis and C. alpina) of the ecosystem of Yangtze Estuary, China, from 1995-1998. Results show that:

  8. The Property and Application of Arachidonic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王相勤; 姚建铭; 袁成凌; 王纪; 余增亮

    2002-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is one of the most important PUFAs (polyunsaturated fatty acids) in human body. A high-yield arachidonic acid-producing strain (mortierella alpina) was selected by ion implantation (the relative content of arachidonic acid is 70.2% among all fatty acids). This paper mainly introduced the structure, distribution, source, physiologic healthcare function and application of AA.

  9. Low-Level Wind Systems in the Warsaw Pact Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    May 1967. Bossolasco, Marto, The Foehn of the Italian Alps, Atti Del Primo Convegno Internazionale di Meteorologia Alpina, Milano, pp. 62-66, 1950... Meteorologia , Vol. 4, No. 1-2, pp. 11-12, Jan/Apr 195’ Prib, Z.M., Climate Outline of the Kara Sea, Transactions of the Arctic Scientific Research Institute

  10. Population divergence times and historical demography in red knots and dunlins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buehler, DM; Baker, AJ

    2005-01-01

    We employed Bayesian coalescent modeling of samples of mitochondrial control region sequences in two species of shorebird, Red Knots (Calidris canutus) and Durdins (Calidris alpina) to estimate evolutionary effective population size, population divergence times, and time to most recent common ancest

  11. Mitochondrial DNA sequence evolution in shorebird populations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenink, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis describes the global molecular population structure of two shorebird species, in particular of the dunlin, Calidris alpina, by means of comparative sequence analysis of the most variable part of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome. There are several reasons why mtDNA is the molecule of

  12. Mitochondrial DNA sequence evolution in shorebird populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenink, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis describes the global molecular population structure of two shorebird species, in particular of the dunlin, Calidris alpina, by means of comparative sequence analysis of the most variable part of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome. There are several reasons

  13. Production of arachidonic acid and dihomo-gama-linolenic acid from glycerol by oil-producing filamentous fungi, Mortierella in ARS Culture Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twelve Mortirella strains: M. alpina NRRL 6302, M. claussenii NRRL 2760, M. elongata NRRL 5246, M. epigama NRRL 5512, M. humilis NRRL 6369, M. hygrophila NRRL 2591, M. minutissima NRRL 6462, M. multidivaricata NRRL 6456, M. nantahalensis NRRL 5216, M. parvispora NRRL 2941, M. sepedonioides NRRL 6425...

  14. New uses of bioglycerin: production of arachidonic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filamentous fungi of the genus Mortierella are known to produce arachidonic acid from glucose and M. alpina is currently used in industrial scale production of arachidonic acid in Japan. In anticipation of a large excess of co-product bioglycerin from the national biodiesel program, we would like ...

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01657-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pid:none) Mortierella alpina delta-6 fatty a... 44 0.007 AF306634_1( AF306634 |pid:none) Mortierella isabe...llina delta6-fatt... 44 0.007 AF465282_1( AF465282 |pid:none) Mortierella isabellin

  16. Habitat use and diet selection of northward migrating waders in the Sivash (Ukraine) : The use of Brine Shrimp Artemia salina in a variably saline lagoon complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuil, Y.I.; Van der Have, TM; Van der Winden, J; Chernichko, [No Value

    2003-01-01

    Wader species migrating through the Sivash (Ukraine) use hypersaline and brackish lagoons. We studied the use of the two habitat types, and focused on the profitability of Brine Shrimp Artemia salina, prey species in hypersaline lagoons for Dunlins Calidris alpina, Curlew Sandpipers Calidris ferrugi

  17. Habitat use and diet selection of northward migrating waders in the Sivash (Ukraine): the use of brine shrimp Artemia salina in a variably saline lagoon complex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkuil, Y.; Have, van der T.M.; Winden, van der J.; Chernichko, I.I.

    2003-01-01

    Wader species migrating through the Sivash (Ukraine) use hypersaline and brackish lagoons. We studied the use of the two habitat types, and focused on the profitability of Brine Shrimp Artemia salina, prey species in hypersaline lagoons for Dunlins Calidris alpina, Curlew Sandpipers Calidris ferrugi

  18. Dicty_cDB: VHC382 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available stear... 179 3e-44 Y18554_1( Y18554 |pid:none) Mortierella alpina ole2 gene for stear... 177 1e-43 AY576801_...1( AY576801 |pid:none) Hortaea werneckii putative delta-9... 175 4e-43 AP007162_283( AP007162 |pid:none) Asp

  19. Winter body mass and over-ocean flocking as components of danger management by Pacific dunlins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ydenberg, R.C.; Dekker, D.; Kaiser, G.; Shepherd, P.C.F.; Ogden, L.E.; Rickards, K.; Lank, D.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: We compared records of the body mass and roosting behavior of Pacific dunlins (Calidris alpina pacifica) wintering on the Fraser River estuary in southwest British Columbia between the 1970s and the 1990s. 'Over-ocean flocking' is a relatively safe but energetically-expensive alternative

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16167-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _1( AY660880 |pid:none) Clarias gariepinus fatty acid elon... 51 6e-05 AY660881_1( AY660881 |pid:none) Gadus...ene for ... 52 4e-05 AF268031_1( AF268031 |pid:none) Mortierella alpina long chain fatt... 52 4e-05 AY660880

  1. Where are you sucking from? Using Stable Isotopes to understand Host Specificity in two Hemiparasitic plants above the tree line in Northern Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias Sevde, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    By Alejandro Macias, Erik Hobbie, Ruth Varner, Kaitlyn Steele Hemiparasites are known to suck nutrients from nearby plants but their host specificity is not well understood. Hemiparasites are ecosystem engineers, limiting surrounding plant's growth, and decreasing local biodiversity. To better understand this phenomenon, the host specificities of two hemiparasitic angiosperms, Bartsia alpina , and Pedicularis lapponica were studied above the tree line along an elevational gradient in Sweden. B. alpina specialized in wetter environments, as indicated by their higher δ13C signature, and their growth among Salixsp.Betula nana, Bistorta vivipara, Viola biflora, Geranium sp., and Trollious europaeus. P. lapponica was common in drier, less species rich environments, known as heaths, where B. nana, Empetrum negrum, Phyllodoce coeruela, Vaccinium myrtillus and Vaccinium vitis-idaea are the most common species. P. lapponica had higher foliage δ13C due to its better water-use efficiency in a dry environment. Field survey data and δN15 values of both the foliage of the parasitic plants and their potential hosts were used to determine host specificity. Since the δN15 value of the hemiparasitic plant and its host are similar due to parasitism, it was determined that P. lapponica had a preference for plants with an ericoid mycorrhizal association, such as Vaccinium sp, and E. negrum, but not for the common P. coeruela. This does not support the idea found in the literature that P. lapponica has a preference for grasses. B. alpina was less host specific, associating with non-mycorrhizal, ericoid, and ectomycorhizal plants, such as Carex sp, Vaccinium sp., and S. lapponum. The ectomycorrhizal species, Salix sp., and B. nana, were both potential hosts for B. alpina and P. lapponica due to their presence among them. However, the isotopic data revealed that B. alpina had a preference for Salix sp., and P. lapponica had a preference for B. nana.

  2. Hybrid origin and differentiation of two tetraploid Achillea species in East Asia: molecular, morphological and ecogeographical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y-P; Vogl, C; Van Loo, M; Ehrendorfer, F

    2006-01-01

    Achillea (Asteraceae-Anthemideae) offers classical models for speciation by hybridization and polyploidy. Here, we test the suspected allotetraploid origin of two species, Achillea alpina and Achillea wilsoniana between phylogenetically distinct lineages in East Asia. A total of 421 AFLP bands from 169 individuals and 19 populations of five 2x- and two 4x-species were obtained. The data set was analysed with a newly developed model that accounts for polyploidy and assumes lack of recombination between the parental chromosome sets (i.e. disomic inheritance). A. alpina and A. wilsoniana then appear to be allotetraploids between Achillea acuminata-2x (sect. Ptarmica) and Achillea asiatica-2x (sect. Achillea). The two 4x-species share 44% and 48% of their AFLP bands with A. acuminata-2x, and 39% and 38% with A. asiatica-2x, respectively. Eight plastid haplotypes (A-H) were detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analyses. A. alpina-4x and A. wilsoniana-4x share haplotype F only with A. asiatica-2x. This is consistent with the hybrid origin(s) involving the latter as the maternal ancestor. This result corroborates our previous DNA sequence data, where A. alpina-4x and A. wilsoniana-4x are also placed close to A. asiatica-2x. Morphology, ecology, and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) profiles of the two 2x-species are distinct, whereas the two 4x-species, grouped as A. alpina aggregate, form a nearly continuous link between them. Considering all evidence, this 4x-aggregate is regarded as the product of a hybridization between genetically distant 2x-ancestors limited to China and adjacent areas: one A. acuminata-like, and the other A. asiatica-like. The allopolyploid A. alpina agg. exhibits considerable morphological variation and ecological flexibility, and has expanded throughout eastern Asia and to northern North America, far beyond the ranges of their presumed 2x-ancestors.

  3. The Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary in the Apulco area by means of calpionellids and calcareous dinoflagellates: An alternative to the classical Mazatepec section in eastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martínez, Rafael; Barragán, Ricardo; Reháková, Daniela

    2013-11-01

    A detailed bed-by-bed sampling within the Pimienta and the Lower Tamaulipas Formations from a section in the Apulco area (Puebla State, Eastern Mexico), allows the delimitation of the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary. The Late Tithonian was identified by the presence of calpionellids of the Crassicollaria Zone (Colomi Subzone) and calcareous dinocysts of the Proxima Zone. The Tithonian/Berriasian boundary was placed at the acme of Calpionella alpina (small forms) between samples MZT 45-46. The Berriasian was divided into two main units, namely the Calpionella Zone, further subdivided into the Alpina, Ferasini and Elliptica subzones, and the Calpionellopsis Zone, within which only the Oblonga subzone was identified. The vertical distribution of calpionellids and their assemblages in the biozones of this Mexican section fit those from other Tethyan areas.

  4. NEW ASPECTS OF THE ALPINE VEGETATION OF PARÂNG MOUNTAINS (SOUTH CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMON TIBOR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available 4 plant communities unknown in the the European syntaxonomy are described from the alpine and subalpine belts of Parâng Mountains, based on vegetation studies of the authors during 1955–1960. These are: Arabis alpina-Saxifraga aizoides, Arabis alpina-Delphinium elatum, Dianthus tenuifolius-Festuca dalmatica and the Primula minima-Dryas octopetala communities. These communities could be described later as new associations in the possession of more relevés from different localities. The East and South Carpathian Doronico carpatici-Festucetum pictae association is distinguished under this new name from the Festucetum pictae Krajina described from the Tatra Mountains. 7 further associations are found as new to the Parâng Mountains.

  5. Essential oil of one of the Iranian skullcaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannadi, Alireza; Mehregan, Iraj

    2003-01-01

    The hydro-distilled essential oil from dried aerial parts of one of widespread Iranian skullcaps, Scutellaria pinnatifida A. Hamilt. sap. alpina (Bornm.) Rech. grown in Khorassan province was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. Thirty components were characterized ing 93.8% of the total components detected. The major components of the oil were germacrene-D (39.7%) and beta-caryophyllene (15.0%).

  6. Comportamiento de cuatro razas caprinas exoticas en condiciones comerciales. I. Indicadoress reproductivos

    OpenAIRE

    González-García, Eliel; Hansen, H.; Batuste, Jose

    2000-01-01

    Different reproductive parameters were evaluated in four genetically pure caprine herds under commercial conditions in the province of Havana during the 1992-1995 period. During the study, climatic indicators were in accordance with the historical averages of that region. Nubia, Toggenburg and Alpina breeds showed differences in their indicators under similar conditions of stocking rate (intensive grazing system), supplementation policy and technological discipline. Peaks were obtained in sea...

  7. Amphibians with infectious disease increase their reproductive effort: evidence for the terminal investment hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannelly, Laura A.; Webb, Rebecca; Skerratt, Lee F.; Berger, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Mounting an immune response to fight disease is costly for an organism and can reduce investment in another life-history trait, such as reproduction. The terminal investment hypothesis predicts that an organism will increase reproductive effort when threatened by disease. The reproductive fitness of amphibians infected with the deadly fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is largely unknown. In this study, we explored gametogenesis in two endangered and susceptible frog species, Pseudophryne corroboree and Litoria verreauxii alpina. Gametogenesis, both oogenesis and spermatogenesis, increased when animals were experimentally infected with Bd. In P. corroboree, infected males have thicker germinal epithelium, and a larger proportion of spermatocytes. In L. v. alpina, infected males had more spermatic cell bundles in total, and a larger proportion of spermatozoa bundles. In female L. v. alpina, ovaries and oviducts were larger in infected animals, and there were more cells present within the ovaries. Terminal investment has consequences for the evolution of disease resistance in declining species. If infected animals are increasing reproductive efforts and producing more offspring before succumbing to disease, it is possible that population-level selection for disease resistance will be minimized. PMID:27358291

  8. Root-associated fungal communities in three Pyroleae species and their mycobiont sharing with surrounding trees in subalpine coniferous forests on Mount Fuji, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shuzheng; Nakano, Takashi; Hattori, Masahira; Nara, Kazuhide

    2017-07-13

    Pyroleae species are perennial understory shrubs, many of which are partial mycoheterotrophs. Most fungi colonizing Pyroleae roots are ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and share common mycobionts with their Pyroleae hosts. However, such mycobiont sharing has neither been examined in depth before nor has the interspecific variation in sharing among Pyroleae species. Here, we examined root-associated fungal communities in three co-existing Pyroleae species, including Pyrola alpina, Pyrola incarnata, and Orthilia secunda, with reference to co-existing ECM fungi on the surrounding trees in the same soil blocks in subalpine coniferous forests. We identified 42, 75, and 18 fungal molecular operational taxonomic units in P. alpina, P. incarnata, and O. secunda roots, respectively. Mycobiont sharing with surrounding trees, which was defined as the occurrence of the same mycobiont between Pyroleae and surrounding trees in each soil block, was most frequent among P. incarnata (31 of 44 plants). In P. alpina, sharing was confirmed in 12 of 37 plants, and the fungal community was similar to that of P. incarnata. Mycobiont sharing was least common in O. secunda, found in only 5 of 32 plants. Root-associated fungi of O. secunda were dominated by Wilcoxina species, which were absent from the surrounding ECM roots in the same soil blocks. These results indicate that mycobiont sharing with surrounding trees does not equally occur among Pyroleae plants, some of which may develop independent mycorrhizal associations with ECM fungi, as suggested in O. secunda at our research sites.

  9. Impact of γ-rays on seed germination/short-term storage in four native alpine species: Correlation with free radical and antioxidant profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zani, Deborah; Dondi, Daniele; Araújo, Susana; Mondoni, Andrea; Balestrazzi, Alma

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the impact of gamma (γ) radiation on seeds was investigated in four native alpine species, Campanula barbata L., Cirsium spinosissinum (L.) Scop., Plantago alpina L., and Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke. Seeds were γ-irradiated with 100 and 200 Gy total doses delivered at a high dose rate of 2.7 Gy min-1. Irradiated and non-irradiated seeds were used immediately, and subsequently 7 and 14 days after drying (15% Relative Humidity, 15 °C) to assess their response to standard seed bank processing. Germination rates, seedling length and weight, antioxidant activity and phenolics content were measured, while free radical accumulation profiles were acquired by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Germination was only hampered in irradiated C. barbata seeds. C. barbata and C. spinosissinum seedlings obtained from irradiated seeds suffered a decrease in length and weight, while growth was not affected in P. alpina and S. vulgaris, when compared to non-irradiated control. Although profiles of seed antioxidant activity were not influenced immediately after γ-irradiation, subsequent drying under seed bank standards induced changes in seed antioxidant activity, depending on the species. According to EPR data, C. barbata and C. Spinosissinum seeds revealed high free radical levels in non-irradiated samples, which were further enhanced by γ-irradiation. An opposite behaviour was observed in P. alpina and S. vulgaris. The four alpine species showed different profiles of γ-ray sensitivity. The reported data encourage future research to test inter-specific variability in the plant response to γ-rays based on a multidisciplinary approach which integrates environmental data. Considering that seeds of alpine plants are short-lived in storage, γ-irradiation could emerge as a promissory priming tool for native endangered species.

  10. Desempenho produtivo em caprinos mestiços no semi-árido do Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Francisco Luiz Ribeiro da

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado para avaliar as características produtivas dos caprinos mestiços submetidos às condições climáticas do semi-árido nordestino. Foram utilizadas 657 cabras, as quais foram mantidas em pasto nativo, no período seco, e alimentadas com milho e farelo de soja, e 945 crias mestiças, que foram aleitadas com leite de vaca até 24 horas de vida. As médias das cabras para prolificidade e peso ao parto foram respectivamente 1,69+0,03 e 36,38+0,03 kg, para ½ Pardo Alpina (PA + ½ Moxotó (MO; 1,59+0,05 e 36,24+0,58 kg, para ¾ PA + ¼ MO; e 1,78+0,04 e 37,25+0,46 kg, para ½ Anglo Nubiana (NA + ¼ PA + ¼ MO (Tricross. As médias de peso das crias ao nascer, aos 28, 56 e 84 dias de idade, foram respectivamente 2,26+0,04; 4,02+0,07; 6,93+0,14; e 10,97+0,03 kg, para ½ PA + ½ MO, 2,46+0,03; 4,32+0,05; 7,85+0,10 kg; e 12,18+0,19 kg, na mesma ordem de peso, para ¾ PA + ¼ MO e 2,46+0,03; 4,30+0,04; 7,48+0,09; e 11,86+0,17 kg, também na mesma ordem de peso, para Tricross. As cabras mestiças apresentaram prolificidade semelhante às nativas. As crias ¾ Pardo Alpina e as Tricross foram mais pesadas que as crias ½ Pardo Alpina + ½ MO, provavelmente em função do maior percentual de sangue exótico observado nestes dois grupos genéticos.

  11. Dicty_cDB: VSC639 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1842 |pid:none) Utricularia parthenopipes trnK gen... 35 0.84 AF531783_1( AF531783 |pid:none) Pinguicula alp...ina trnK gene, intro... 33 4.1 DQ010656_1( DQ010656 |pid:none) Pinguicula esseria...na trnK gene, pa... 33 4.1 DQ010665_1( DQ010665 |pid:none) Pinguicula sp. 'Pachuca' trnK gene... 33 4.1 DQ01...0661_1( DQ010661 |pid:none) Pinguicula lusitanica trnK gene, p... 33 4.1 protein update 2009. 3.20 PSORT psg

  12. Morfología polínica del género Leucanthemopsis (Giroux) Heywood (Asteraceae) en la Península Ibérica

    OpenAIRE

    Prado, C.

    1985-01-01

    Se estudia l a morfología de l polen de 8 taxones del géne ro Leucanthemopsis ( Giroux) Heywood en la Península Ibér ica : L. pallida (Miller) Heywood subsp. pallida , L. pallida (IH l ler ) Heywood subsp . :flaveola ( Heywood ) Ladero & Ve l asco , L. pallida ( Miller) Heywood subs p . virescens (Pau) Heywood, L. pall ida (IHl ler) Heywood subsp . spathulifolia ( Gay) Heywood, L. pulver ulenta (Lag .) Heywood, L. r adicans (Cav . ) Heywood , L. alpina (L . ) Heywood y L. al...

  13. A revision of the genus Trixa Meigen (Diptera: Tachinidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHUN-TIANZHANG; HIROSHISHIMA

    2005-01-01

    The genus Trixa Meigen, 1824 is revised. Dexiotrix Villeneuve, 1936 and Trixella Mesnil, 1980, each of which was sometimes treated as a distinct genus, are treated as junior synonyms of Trixa Meigen. Two species from Sichuan and Yunnan, China, are described as new to science, viz. Trixa chinensis sp. nov. and T. chaoi sp. nov. T. alpina Meigen is treated as a junior synonym of T. caerulescens Meigen. T. nox (Shima) and T.pubiseta (Mesnil) are newly recorded from China. Males of T. pubiseta (Mesnil) and T.longipensis (Villeneuve) are described for the first time. Diagnoses, figures and a key to twelve species in Trixa are given.

  14. Materialidad poética: arquitectura suiza en el entorno de los Grisones 1992-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso de los Ríos, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    El entorno alpino de los Grisones ha sido un laboratorio donde experimentar un método arquitectónico procedente de diversas fuentes durante los años 70 en la ETHZ. Este método ha producido durante las últimas tres décadas un discurso teórico propiamente suizo alemán. La tradición continúa siendo un valor cultural para la comunidad alpina de los Grisones, que apuesta por seguir relacionando la arquitectura con su historia y su paisaje. La especificidad de cada entorno suizo alemán es un hecho ...

  15. El Macizo de Peñalara (Sistema Central Español). Morfoestructura y modelado

    OpenAIRE

    Pedraza Gilsanz, Javier; Carrasco, Rosa M.; Martín Duque, José Francisco; Sanz Santos, Miguel Ángel

    2004-01-01

    El Macizo de Peñalara se localiza en el sector central de la Sierra de Guadarrama (Sistema Central Español) y sus cimas sobrepasan en unos 200 m el nivel general de cumbres que presenta aquí 2100 m de cota media absoluta (Fig. 1). En la estructura de bloques (Block mountain) que caracteriza el relieve de esta montaña intraplaca de reactivación Alpina, el Macizo de Peñalara corresponde a una dovela flanqueada por bloques más deprimidos (Fig. 2). Los límites del Macizo están asociados a fallas ...

  16. Metabolitos sanguíneos en caprinos alimentados con mezclas integrales frescas con Moringa oleífera: Pennisetum purpureum Clon-OM22

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Norberto González González; Delfín Gutiérrez González; Roberto García López; Aníbal Fernández Mayer

    2015-01-01

    Se evaluó el comportamiento de metabolitos sanguíneos energéticos y proteicos con el uso de mezclas de Moringa oleífera : Pennisetum purpureum clon OM-22. Se utilizaron cuatro machos caprinos de raza Alpina, con 37.78 ±4.87 kg de peso vivo, dos años de edad y alojados en jaulas metabólicas individuales, or - ganizados en un diseño cuadrado latino (4x4). El tiempo experimental fue 60 días, con cuatro periodos de 15 días. Los tratamientos consistie - ron en la inclusión creciente de ...

  17. El glaciarismo pleistoceno del Sistema Central

    OpenAIRE

    Pedraza Gilsanz, Javier; Carrasco, Rosa María

    2006-01-01

    El Sistema Central Español es una montaña intraplaca, originada por la reactivación de una antigua penillanura durante la orogenia Alpina. Sus cimas alomadas tienen una altura media de 1700-1800 m, en algunos sectores 1900-2000 m y en macizos locales pueden llegar a los 2300-2500 m; se trata por tanto de una montaña media, de ambiente mediterráneo continentalizado. Exceptuando Gata-Peña de Francia, en los macizos culminante de los demás sectores aparecen morfologías glaciares bien desarrol...

  18. Investigation of the effect of glucose syrup and brown sugar as low-cost substrate for lipid production by Mortierella alpine CBS 754.68

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saed Montazeri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Arachidonic acid is an important essential fatty acid in human nutrition. The filamentous fungus Mortierella alpina has been identified as a promising producer of arachidonic acid. Mortierella alpine can accumulate up to 40% (w/w lipid, of which up to 40% can be arachidonic acid. Materials and methods: Mortierella alpina CBS 754.68 was cultivated in low cost substrate such as glucose syrup, brown sugar and starch for lipid and arachidonic acid production. The reduced sugar, total lipids and content of ARA were determined by dinitrosalicylic acid method, soxhlet and Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS respectively. Results: The carbon sources were applied at 70 g/l and nitrogen source (soybean powder at 10 g/lit. The results showed that lipid in dry biomass in glucose syrup, starch and brown sugar media were obtained 32, 25 and 13 % w/w respectively. The arachidonic acid contents of lipid in the glucose syrup, starch and brown sugar media were 41, 33 and 31 % w/w respectively. Discussion and conclusion: Lipid fatty acid compositions are affected by the growth of microorganism. Cell membrane fatty acids such as stearic acid and oleic acid increased substantially concomitant with increases in the amount of biomass. Biomass and oil production efficiency fell due to inappropriate brown sugar medium.

  19. Eriocóccidos (Hemiptera: Coccoidea encontrados en la Patagonia Argentina Eriococcidae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea found in Patagonia Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia González

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Se listan cuatro géneros y nueve especies de eriocóccidos presentes en la Patagonia argentina, sobre distintos huéspedes. Chilecoccus browni Miller & González, Chilecoccus spinossus Miller & González, Eriococcus novarinoensis Hoy, Eriococcus rhadinothrix Miller & González, Icelococcus nothofagi Miller & González, sobre Nothofagus dombeyi (Fagaceae. Eriococcus chilensis Miller & González, Eriococcus eurythrix Miller & González, Icelococcus charlini Miller & González, sobre Nothofagus antarctica. Eriococcus eurythrix Miller & González sobre Nothofagus alpina. Icelococcus charlini Miller & González sobre Nothofagus obliqua. Stibococcus cerinus Miller & González sobre Myrceugenia exsucca (Myrtaceae.We list four genera and nine species of eriococcid present in the Patagonia Argentina, on different hosts. Chilecoccus browni Miller & González, Chilecoccus spinossus Miller & González, Eriococcus novarinoensis Hoy, Eriococcus rhadinothrix Miller & González, Icelococcus nothofagi Miller & González, on Nothofagus dombeyi (Fagaceae. Eriococcus chilensis Miller & González, Eriococcus eurythrix Miller & González, Icelococcus charlini Miller & González, on Nothofagus antarctica. Eriococcus eurythrix Miller & González on Nothofagus alpina. Icelococcus charlini Miller & González on Nothofagus obliqua. Stibococcus cerinus Miller & González on Myrceugenia exsucca (Myrtaceae.

  20. Influence of environmental gradients on the distribution of benthic resources available for shorebirds on intertidal mudflats of Yves Bay, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Anne S.; Pinaud, David; Cayatte, Marie-Laure; Goulevant, Cyril; Lachaussée, Nicolas; Pineau, Philippe; Karpytchev, Mikhail; Bocher, Pierrick

    2016-06-01

    The case study of Yves Bay (Pertuis Charentais, France) highlighted links between environmental gradients (i.e. sediment characteristics and emersion time) and prey distribution and availability for the two most numerous shorebird species overwintering in Yves Bay: the red knot Calidris canutus and the dunlin Calidris alpina. Two hundred and fifty-two stations were sampled on a predetermined 250 m regular grid covering the intertidal mudflats of this major wintering site in France for east-Atlantic migratory shorebirds. The distribution of principal benthic species abundance and biomass was modelled along two environmental gradients: sediment structure (particularly pronounced north-south sand-mud gradient) and emersion time. The effect of emersion time combined with sedimentary structure strongly explained abundances and biomasses of the main prey for C. canutus and C. alpina in the bay (Cerastoderma edule, Hydrobia ulvae, Macoma balthica, Scrobicularia plana, and Nephtys hombergii). This study highlighted prey species-specific spatial segregation/overlapping as well as spatial interferences in the trophic niche of the two shorebirds.

  1. Toxicological evaluation of arachidonic acid (ARA)-rich oil and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kara D; Huang, Weifeng; Zheng, Xiaohui; Jiang, Yue; Feldman, Robin S; Falk, Michael C

    2016-10-01

    The safety of DHA-rich oil from Schizochytrium sp. and ARA-rich oil from Mortierella alpina was separately evaluated by testing for gene mutations, clastogenicity, and aneugenicity, and by conducting 28-day and 90-day dietary studies in Wistar rats. The results of all genotoxicity tests were negative. The 28-day and 90-day studies involved dietary exposure to 1000, 2500, and 5000 mg per kg bw of the DHA-rich and ARA-rich oils and two control diets: water and corn oil (vehicle control). There were no treatment-related effects of either the DHA-rich or ARA-rich oils on clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, behavior, hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, urinalysis parameters, or necropsy findings. Increases in cholesterol and triglyceride levels were considered related to a high oil diet and non-adverse. The no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) for both the DHA-rich and ARA-rich oils was 5000 mg per kg bw, the highest dose tested. The results confirm that these oils possess toxicity profiles similar to those of other currently marketed oils and support the safety of DHA-rich oil from Schizochytrium sp. and ARA-rich oil from Mortierella alpina for their proposed uses in food.

  2. Peso à cobrição e ganho de peso durante a gestação de cabras nativas, exóticas e mestiças no semi-árido Mating weight and weight gain during gestation of native, exotic and crossbred goats in the semi-arid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovergue Rodrigues de Medeiros

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de mês, ano, ordem de parto e tipo de parto sobre o peso à cobrição (PC e o ganho de peso durante a gestação (GP, respectivamente, de 753 e 527 cabras nativas Canindés, 463 e 333 cabras exóticas Anglo-nubianas, 374 e 296 Alpinas, 151 e 87 de mestiças ½ Alpina (A ½ Sem Raça Definida (SRD, 92 e 73 ¾ Alpina (A ¼ SRD, criadas na Estação Experimental de Pendência - EMEPA-PB, Soledade-PB, na microrregião semi-árida da Paraíba, em regime semi-intensivo, no período de 1980 a 1994. O mês foi significativo sobre os pesos à cobrição das matrizes Canindés, Anglo-nubianas, ½ A ½ SRD e ¾ A ¼ SRD. O ano influenciou o PC de todos os grupos genéticos. O efeito do ano sobre o GP foi significativo para as cabras Canindés, Anglo-nubianas, ½ A ½ SRD e Alpinas. O peso à cobrição elevou-se com o aumento da ordem de parto e o GP foi mais evidente entre as cabras de primeiro parto. O tipo de parto foi significativo sobre o GP das matrizes nubianas, ¾ A ¼ SRD e Alpina, que tiveram maiores ganhos quando pariram apenas um cabrito. A raça influenciou o PC e o GP de todas as matrizes. A raça nativa foi a mais leve e com o melhor ganho de peso; as exóticas, as mais pesadas e com GP inferiores aos da raça Canindé e da mestiça ½ A ½ SRD; e a mestiça ¾ A ¼ SRD, a raça com peso corporal (PC e GP semelhantes às exóticas. Concluiu-se que a composição genética dos animais e os fatores ambientais, como mês, ano, ordem e tipo de parto, refletiram sobre o peso à cobrição e o ganho de peso durante a gestação das matrizes estudadas.The effects of month, year, order and type parturition on mating weight (MW, weight gain during gestation (WG, respectively, of 753 and 527 Caninde native goats, 463 and 333 exotic Anglo Nubian and 374 and 296 Alpine goats, 151 and 87 crossbred ½ Alpine ½ SRD, and 92 and 73 ¾Alpine ¼SRD goats, raised in the Experimental Station of the Governmental Research Institute

  3. Las mineralizaciones filonianas de fluorita (galena del Calar de San José (sierra de Baza, cordilleras Béticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Ruiz, J.

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available The F-(Pb, Zn, Ba district of Sierra de Baza are a (Southeastern Spain is mainly constituted by fluorite-(galene stratiform and stratabound mineralizations which are included in Carbonate levels of Ladinian-Carnian age. These levels also contain vein mineralizations but only in certain zones as de Calar de San José and the Calar de Santa Bárbara. This paper deals with the main structural and mineralogical characteristics of the vein mineralizations and their relations with the geological context evolution. Special attention is given to the tectonic and the spatial association with the stratiform and stratabound, mineralizations of sedimentary/diagenetic character. Two types of vein mineralizations may be distinguished : one type is represented by small "in situ" remobilizations, from the stratiform and stratabound mineralizat ioos, which have been formed during the final stages of alpine deformations; the other one has been formed before Alpina Orogeny and probably in direct relation with an intratriassic tectonic phase.

    El distrito de F-(Pb, Zn, Ba de la Sierra de Baza (al SE de España está constituido fundamentalmente por mineralizaciones estratiformes y estratoligadas de fluorita-(galena, enclavadas en niveles carbonatados del Ladiniense Superior-Carniense. En estos mismos niveles, en algunos sectores como los del Calar de San José y Calar de Santa Bárbara, que constituyen el área de mayor importancia de este distrito minero, dichas mineralizaciones coexisten con otras de tipo filoniano. La presente nota trata esencialmente de las principales características estructurales y mineralógicas de las mineralizaciones filonianas y de sus relaciones con la evolución del contexto geológico, muy especialmente en lo que se refiere a la tectónica y a su asociación espacial con las mineralizaciones estratiformes y estratoligadas de carácter sedimentario/diagenético. Se han diferenciado dos tipos de mineralizaciones filonianas: unas

  4. Efeito do genótipo sobre a produção e a composição do leite de cabras mestiças Effect of genotype on milk yield and composition of crossbred goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Nogueira Barros

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O potencial de produção de trinta e cinco cabras mestiças - 12 ½Pardo-alpina + ½Moxotó (½PA-M, 11¾ Pardo-alpina + ¼Moxotó (¾PA-M e 12 Tricross (½Anglo-nubiana + ¼Pardo-alpina + ¼Moxotó - foi avaliado em um experimento foi conduzido na Embrapa Caprinos. Os cabritos foram separados das respectivas mães ao nascimento. As cabras foram ordenhadas duas vezes ao dia e o controle leiteiro procedido semanalmente. Os animais foram confinados em baias coletivas e receberam dieta para produção de 2,5 kg de leite/dia, composta de silagem de sorgo ad libitum e concentrado. Os animais foram pesados em intervalos de 14 dias. A produção de leite, como coletada, não foi influenciada pelo genótipo. No entanto, quando foi corrigida para 4% de gordura, o genótipo ½ PA-M foi superior aos ¾ PA-M e Tricross. Não houve diferença significativa entre genótipos para gordura, proteína e extrato seco total do leite.The objective of this trial was to study the production of thirty-five crossbred goats: ½Brown Alpine x 12 ½Moxoto (½BA-M, 11 ¾Brown Alpine x ¼Moxoto (¾BA-M, and 12 Tricross (½Anglo Nubian x ¼Moxoto x ¼Brown Alpine. After birth, the kids were separated from their mothers. Goats were milked twice a day and milk composition determined weekly. Animals were housed in collective pens and received a diet composed of sorghum silage (ad libitum plus concentrate that were formulated to allow 2.5 kg/d of milk yield. Animals were weighted every 14 days. Milk production did not differ among genotypes. However, 4% fat corrected milk was greater for ½BA-M than the remaining groups. No significant differences were observed for milk composition (fat, protein, and total solids across genotypes in the current trial.

  5. Observations on aerophytic cyanobacteria and algae from ten caves in the Ojców National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Czerwik-Marcinkowska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study, carried out in 2010–11, focuses on species composition and distribution of cyanobacterial and algal communities colonizing ten caves (Biała, Ciemna, Koziarnia, Krakowska, Łokietka, Okopy Wielka Dolna, Sąspowska, Sypialnia, Zbójecka and Złodziejska Caves in the Ojców National Park (South Poland. A total of 85 taxa were identified, 35 of them belonging to cyanobacteria, 30 chlorophytes, and 20 belonging to other groups of algae. Aerophytic cyanobacteria dominated in these calcareous habitats. Nine species, Gloeocapsa alpina, Nostoc commune, Chlorella vulgaris, Dilabifilum arthopyreniae, Klebsormidium flaccidum, Muriella decolor, Neocystis subglobosa, and Orthoseira roseana, were the most abundant taxa in all the caves. The investigated microhabitats offer relatively stable microclimatic conditions and are likely to be responsible for the observed vertical distribution of aerophytic cyanobacteria and algae.

  6. Óleo de soja e própolis na alimentação de cabras leiteiras

    OpenAIRE

    Rogério de Paula Lana; Maíra Machado Leal Camardelli; Augusto César de Queiroz; Marcelo Teixeira Rodrigues; Eduardo da Costa Eifert; Eloísio Nunes Miranda; Ivan Carlos Carreiro Almeida

    2005-01-01

    Objetivou-se, neste experimento, verificar os efeitos da adição de óleo de soja e/ou de extrato etanólico de própolis na alimentação de cabras leiteiras sobre o consumo, a digestibilidade de nutrientes, a produção e composição do leite e alguns parâmetros de fermentação ruminal. Foram utilizadas dezesseis cabras Alpinas (quatro fistuladas no rúmen). Os animais foram alocados em quatro quadrados latinos 4x4, em arranjo fatorial 2x2 dos tratamentos. Foram adicionados ao concentrado 0 ou 120 g d...

  7. Typification of taxa of subfamily Silenoideae (Caryophyllaceae Juss. from Siberia and Russian Far East based on materials kept in the Herbarium of the Komarov Botanical Institute (LE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Lazkov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Data on type material of previously not typified taxa of the subfamily Silenoideae (Caryophyllaceae Juss., kept in the Herbarium of the Komarov Botanical Institute (LE are summarized in the paper. All relevant taxa including eight species (or subsequently accepted as species: Gastrolychnis violascens Tolm., Gypsophila stricta Bunge, Heterochroa petraea Bunge, Lychnis ajanensis var. villosula Trautv. [L. villosula (Trautv. Gorschk.], L. fulgens var. wilfordi Regel [L. wilfordi (Regel Maxim.], L. tristis Bunge, Melandrium olgae Maxim., Silene melandriiformis Maxim., five varieties (Melandrium affine var. Intermedium Tolm., Silene repens var. pratensis Kom., S. repens var. alpina Kom., S. repens var. angustifolia Turcz., S. repens var. latifolia Turcz., and one form (Silene repens f. densa Kom. are lectotypified.Key words: Caryophyllaceae, Silenoideae, type specimens, typification, Komarov Botanical Institute (LE, Siberia, Far East. 

  8. Memory of the Vernalized State in Plants including the Model Grass Brachypodium distachyon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Woods

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant species that have a vernalization requirement exhibit variation in the ability to remember winter—i.e., variation in the stability of the vernalized state. Studies in Arabidopsis have demonstrated that molecular memory involves changes in the chromatin state and expression of the flowering repressor FLOWERING LOCUS C, and have revealed that single-gene differences can have large effects on the stability of the vernalized state. In the perennial Arabidopsis relative Arabis alpina, the lack of memory of winter is critical for its perennial life history. Our studies of flowering behavior in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon reveal extensive variation in the vernalization requirement, and studies of a particular Brachypodium accession that has a qualitative requirement for both cold exposure and inductive daylength reveals that Brachypodium can exhibit a highly stable vernalized state.

  9. Guerra vs comunità: la «Trilogia dell’Altipiano» di Mario Rigoni Stern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Di Benedetto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available La Trilogia dell’Altipiano di Mario Rigoni Stern può essere considerata un’opera coerente per diversi motivi: le tre storie raccontate hanno una comune ambientazione geografica, la piana di Asiago, che presenta un legame molto forte con la popolazione locale; le vicende narrate si pongono in consequenzialità cronologica e mostrano figure che tornano in tutti e tre i testi, comprendendo anche personaggi della famiglia dell’autore. Tale coerenza narrativa si riflette nel messaggio della Trilogia, che è un messaggio di pace e di denuncia della guerra come elemento di distruzione della comunità umana, raffigurata emblematicamente dall’allegoria del ciliegio che torna in tutte e tre le narrazioni. Finita la guerra, alla comunità e alla natura si oppone il consumismo moderno, che cancella le tracce dell’antica civilità alpina e contro cui Rigoni Stern si impegna come custode della memoria attraverso la parola narrata.

  10. Interglacial insects and their possible survival in Greenland during the last glacial stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøcher, Jens Jensenius

    2012-01-01

    Sediments from the last interglacial (Eemian) in Jameson Land, East Greenland, and the Thule area, NW Greenland, have revealed a number of insect fragments of both arctic and more or less warmth-demanding species. Altogether, the interglacial fauna of Coleoptera (beetles) indicates boreal...... beetle species such as Amara alpina and Isochnus arcticus did not survive the last glacial stage in Greenland. Two factors that have not been sufficiently considered when discussing survival contra extinction are the importance of microclimate and the number of sun-hours during the Arctic summer. Even...... among the Coleoptera, which as a group fares quite badly in the Arctic, there might be survivors, at least among those found both during the interglacial and as fossils during the early Holocene. First of all, glacial survival applies to the seed bug Nysius groenlandicus, which was widespread during...

  11. Efeito de polimorfismo nos loci CSN1S1, GH, DGAT1 e POU1F1 sobre os valores genéticos de produção e composição do leite de cabra

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Objetivamos com este trabalho, verificar se os polimorfismos nos genes CSN1S1, GH, DGAT1 e POU1F1 de caprinos estão associados com a produção de leite até os 270 dias de lactação, duração da lactação, contagem de células somáticas, produção e porcentagens de gordura, proteína, lactose e extrato seco total no leite. Para este propósito foram consideradas 2173 lactações de 1064 cabras de grupamentos genéticos das raças Saanen e Alpina, pertencentes ao rebanho do Setor de Caprinocultura da Unive...

  12. Phytosociological analysis of alpine swards and heathlands (pioneer patches on ridges and peaks in the Julian Alps (NW Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakskobler Igor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a phytosociological analysis of more than 250 relevés in the Julian Alps and compared them with similar communities elsewhere in the Alps and in the Dinaric Alps to describe the following new syntaxa of alpine swards and heathlands from the alliance Caricion firmae (class Elyno-Seslerietea: Saxifrago squarrosae-Caricetum mucronatae, Saussureo pygmaeae-Caricetum rupestris, Seslerio sphaerocephalae-Dryadetum octopetalae, Homogyno discoloris-Vaccinietum gaultherioidis, Saxifrago paniculatae-Caricetum fuliginosae and Homogyno discoloris-Loiseleurietum caricetosum firmae, the new association Achilleo clavennae-Elynetum myosuroidis from the alliance Oxytropido-Elynion and two new syntaxa from the alliance Loiseleurio-Vaccinion (class Loiseleurio-Vaccinietea: Homogyno alpinae-Vaccinietum gaultherioidis and Empetro-Vaccinietum gaultherioidis rhododendretosum hirsuti. Many species that are rare, of conservation concern or protected in Slovenia occur in the newly described communities.

  13. Pollen morphology of Plantago species native to Poland and their taxonomic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Klimko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen grains of 9 species of the genus Plantago (Plantaginaceae, including 8 taxa native to Poland, were observed under a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope. Descriptions of grain sculpture are illustrated only SEM micrographs. The studied pollen grains were medium-sized or small, spherical or prolate spheroidal. Their sculpture was always verrucate with granulation. In the studied taxa, internal apertures had the form of pores. Their number ranged from (45-9(14. The pores were scattered on the surface of pollen grains. Identification features of individual taxa include: presence or absence of an annulus around each pore, annulus structure, ornamentation of the pollen grain and operculum, type of aperture membrane, number of internal pores, and pore diameter. We suggest that two new pollen grain types, characteristic of P. intermedia and P. arenaria, should be distinguished, and that P. alpina should be assigned to the P. coronopus type.

  14. Monitoring of saproxylic beetles in Croatia: following the path of the stag beetle

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    Luka Katušić

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As a member of the European Union, Croatia is obliged to report on the conservation status of 220 animal non-bird species listed in the annexes of the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC, for which purpose a monitoring system is being established. Concerning saproxylic beetles, seven species present in its territory have to be monitored: Lucanus cervus, Cerambyx cerdo, Morimus funereus, Rhysodes sulcatus, Cucujus cinnaberinus, Rosalia alpina and Osmoderma eremita complex. Out of these species, a monitoring programme has only been established for Lucanus cervus, which partially includes participation of non-experts. In 2015 and 2016, a public campaign was organised in order to collect observations of Lucanus cervus and two other saproxylic beetles that are easily recognisable by the public: Morimus funereus and Rosalia alpina. Data gathered through this campaign serve as an addition to the mapping activities and monitoring of the species’ range. So far, more than 650 citizen observations have been collected, providing data on species presence in 216 10×10 km2 grid cells intended for reporting on the species’ range. Besides the public campaign, since 2014, public institutions for managing nature protected values have been involved in population monitoring for which they received education through several workshops. Altogether, 21 sites have been included in the monitoring of the stag beetle so far. Data collected for Lucanus cervus on standard transects, by tree and ground pitfall traps and tree trunk surveys at night will be discussed. To the present time, eight public institutions have been involved in stag beetle population monitoring and the number has been continuously increasing.

  15. Studies on the antioxidant properties of extracts from the roots and shoots of two Scutellaria species in human blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorczyk-Karolak, Izabela; Wysokińska, Halina; Olas, Beata

    2015-01-01

    We determined the in vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts from the shoots and roots of Scutellaria species (S. altissima and S. alpina) against the action of strong oxidants: hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and H2O2+Fe(2+) (donor of hydroxyl radicals) on plasma proteins and lipids. Lipid peroxidation in human plasma was measured by the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). Protein oxidation was measured by quantitation of thiol group. We observed that the extracts (5-50 µg ml(-1)) containing phenolic compounds from both Scutellaria species distinctly reduced oxidation of lipids and proteins in human plasma treated with H2O2. These results also indicated that the extracts have a protective effect against oxidative damage to the human plasma lipids and proteins by induced hydroxyl radical. The main components of the plant materials analysed were flavonoids, present as aglycones (luteolin) or glycosides (cynaroside, baicalin, wogonoside). In all of the extracts, the phenylethanoid verbascoside was also found. The properties of the tested plant extracts were also compared with the action of a well characterised commercial antioxidative polyphenolic extract from the berries of Aronia melanocarpa (Aronox(®)). The comparative studies indicated that the analysed plant extracts were comparable to or even more effective in reducing the oxidation processes than the A. melanocarpa extract. The present study suggests that natural extracts from S. altissima and S. alpina have antioxidant activities and, therefore, may be beneficial in the prevention of diseases related to oxidant stress, such as cancer, cardiovascular, and inflammatory diseases.

  16. Analyses of occurrence data of protected insect species collected by citizens in Italy

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    Alessandro Campanaro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Citizen science, the engagement of people in a research project, has grown rapidly in recent years, also for mapping of species of conservation interest. The Life Project “Monitoring Insects with Public Participation” (MIPP actively promoted collaboration amongst scientists, public administrations and citizens in the collection of occurrence data of nine insect species listed in the Habitats Directive: Lucanus cervus, Osmoderma eremita, Cerambyx cerdo, Rosalia alpina, Morimus asper/funereus, Lopinga achine, Parnassius apollo, Zerynthia cassandra/polyxena and Saga pedo. These species were selected because they share two main characteristics: (i they are listed in Annexes II and IV of the Habitats Directive and (ii they are large and relatively easy to identify. From 2014 to 2016, many different strategies were applied to contact and engage the public and approximately 14,000 citizens were reached directly. Additionally, printed and online material informed the public about this project. Citizens could transmit data on the target species, accompanied by a photograph, via the web-site of the project or through a dedicated application (app for smartphones and tablets. All records were validated by experts based on the photographs sent by citizens. A total number of 2,308 records were transmitted and 1,691 (73.2% of these were confirmed. Most of the reports were submitted via the website, although the submission via the app increased over time. The species most commonly recorded was L. cervus, followed by M. asper/funereus and R. alpina. Data collected by citizen scientists allowed a detailed analysis to be made on altitudinal distribution and phenology of the species and the results obtained were compared with literature data on altitudinal distribution and phenology. For example, for L. cervus, 67% of the records collected were from the altitudinal range 0–400 m a.s.l. Interestingly, the data showed that the phenology of this species changed

  17. Uso de testes complementares para avaliação do congelamento do sêmen de bodes submetidos ao manejo de fotoperíodo artificial Use of complementary tests to evaluate the freezing ability of semen from goats under artificial photoperiod exposure

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    Anselmo Domingos Ferreira Santos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O congelamento do sêmen de bodes das raças Alpina e Saanen submetidos ao manejo de fotoperíodo artificial foi avaliado por meio dos testes de termorresistência (TTR, hiposmótico (HOST e de integridade do acrossoma. Foram utilizados oito machos caprinos (quatro da raça Alpina e quatro da raça Saanen de duas idades diferentes (jovens e adultos. A qualidade do sêmen durante as etapas do congelamento foi superior em bodes jovens de ambas as raças. Avaliada pelo TTR, a motilidade do sêmen fresco apresentou longevidade pós-descongelamento. Os resultados de motilidade espermática, obtidos imediatamente após o descongelamento, tiveram reflexos positivos sobre o TTR, indicando que os sêmens que apresentaram maior motilidade pós-coleta (86,2% vs 79,3% e pós-descongelamento (37,7% vs 32,0% tiveram maior longevidade seminal. Os resultados do HOST, tanto para o sêmen fresco quanto para o congelado, não diferiram entre raças e idades. Houve redução na porcentagem de espermatozóides íntegros após o congelamento e descongelamento do sêmen dos animais da raça Alpina e dos adultos Saanen. Houve redução superior a 14% nos valores do HOST para o sêmen congelado em relação aos valores observados para o sêmen fresco (38,0 vs 52,0%, respectivamente. A motilidade espermática progressiva mostrou maior sensibilidade à criopreservação que a integridade da membrana espermática, indicando que a motilidade espermática é mais afetada pelo processo de congelamento que a membrana plasmática. A integridade do acrossoma não foi influenciada pelo descongelamento. Os índices de danos acrossomais (edema, desprendimento parcial e até perda total de acrossoma mostraram-se dentro do padrão aceitável (44,5%, tanto no pós-descongelamento como após o término do TTR.The freezing ability of semen from Alpine and Saanen goats submitted to an artificial photoperiod exposure were evaluated by the thermo-resistance (TTR and hypoosmotic (HOST tests

  18. Floristic and community diversity of sub-alpine and alpine grasslands and grazed dwarf-shrub heaths in the Romanian Carpathians

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    Coldea, Gheorghe

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Floristic diversity at community level and community diversity at landscape level are presented for the main grassland and dwarf-shrub communities in the sub-alpine and alpine zones in five mountain ranges of the Romanian Carpathians. The 30 plant communities studied had their floristic composition and distribution determined by geological substratum and pedo-climatic factors. The most diverse grasslands (Oxytropido-Elynetum, Seslerio haynaldianae-Caricetun were on calcareous substratum and on the mountain slopes (Festucetum pictae, whilst the lowest diversity was in the oligo-mesotrophic sub-alpine grasslands (Scorzonero- Festucetum nigricantis, Alchemillo-Poetum alpinae, Violo-Nardetum. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index for the communities increased almost linearly with the number of species per community, whilst community diversity in the five mountain ranges was a function of the number of communities per mountain range.

    [fr] Nous présentons dans ce travail la diversité floristique au niveau de la communauté et la diversité de communautés au niveau du paysage pour les principaux types de pâturages et de communautés à petits arbustes des étages subalpin et alpin de cinq chaînes montagneuses des Carpathes en Roumanie. Aussi bien la composition floristique que la distribution des 30 communautés étudiées dépendent de la nature géologique du terrain et des facteurs édapho-climatiques. Les pâturages les plus riches en diversité (Oxytropido-Elynetum, Seslerio haynaldianae- Caricetun se développent sur substrat calcaire et sur les versants des montagnes (Testucetum pictae; par contre la plus faible diversité a été rencontrée dans les pâturages oligo-mesotrophes subalpins (Scorzonero-Festucetum nigricantis, Alchemillo-Poetum alpinae, Violo-Nardetum. L'index de diversité de Shannon- Weaver augmente quasi linéairement avec le nombre d'espèces de chaque communauté, tandis que

  19. Resistencia al Impacto y a la Tracción de Materiales Compuestos Plástico-Madera Impact and Tensile Strength of Wood-Plastic Composites

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    M. E Solís

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describe el efecto de harina de madera de dos especies, Pinus radiata D. Don (pino y Nothofagus alpina (raulí, sobre las propiedades mecánicas de materiales compuestos plástico-madera, cuando se incorpora en porcentajes de 10 y 20% en la matriz polimérica. Los materiales termoplásticos utilizados fueron polietileno de alta densidad (HDPE y polipropileno (PP, ambos de origen comercial. Las mezclas se realizaron en un equipo extrusor de laboratorio de tornillo simple y se fabricaron probetas de ensayo para medir la resistencia al impacto Izod y la resistencia a la tracción, con el incremento de madera. El efecto de la incorporación de 10% de madera de raulí aumenta la resistencia a la tracción de los materiales compuestos a base de HDPE y de PP. En este mismo porcentaje, la madera de pino produce también un incremento de la resistencia a la tracción un poco menor. Materiales compuestos con mayor contenido de madera (20% presentan valores menores de resistencia a la tracción. La resistencia al impacto de los materiales compuestos con 10 y 20% de madera de las dos especies disminuye en un alto porcentaje con respecto del polímero puro.This article describes the effect of addition of wood flour from two different species, Pinus radiata D.Don (pino and Nothofagus alpina (raulí on the mechanical properties of wood-plastic composites, using 10 and 20% wood content in the polymer matrix. The thermoplastic materials employed included high density polyethylene (HDPE and polypropylene (PP, both of commercial origin. The mixtures were prepared using a laboratory single-screw extruder, and samples were prepared to determine Izod impact strength and tensile strength as a function of wood content. The tensile strength of HDPE and PP composites increased with 10% raulí wood content. This resistance was somewhat less in samples having the same pine content. Composites with greater wood content (20% present lower tensile strength values. The

  20. Indicios de antecedencia en la red fluvial del sureste de Galicia

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    Vidal Romaní, J. R.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work offers a preliminary analysis of the river network with tertiary antecedents of the Galician SE. The geomorphological observations of the area are centred on the cartography of erosive terraces, scrolled canals, hanging meanders, elbows of capture, and anomalous networks. For its interpretation we interface them with the thalwegs of the principal courses and the Alpine fractures charted by other authors. We propose a chronology for the identified fluvial processes, a chronology which points to a greater river network than has been estimated so far. Of these seven identified tendencies three presented a regional entity (ENE-WSW, NE-SW, N-S and four local (NW-SE, SW-NE, SE-NW, S-N. The principal character of the paleo-network ENE-WSW (river Sil is confirmed. And as a hypothesis we propose, for the Sierra de Queixa-San Mamede, the character of positive paleo-relief of Mesozoic inheritance. This relief has undergone severa1 processes of isostatic raising and also tectonic during the Alpine Mountain-building. These raisings have caused the superimposition of captures in the SE spurs of the Sierra de Queixa-San Mamede.El presente trabajo ofrece un análisis preliminar de la red fluvial con antecedencia terciaría del sureste gallego. Las observaciones geomorfológicas de campo se centran en la cartografía de terrazas erosivas, canales abandonados, meandros colgados, codos de captura y redes anómalas. Para su interpretación se confrontaron con los thalwegs de los cursos principales y las fracturas alpinas cartografiadas por otros autores. Se propone una cronología para los procesos fluviales identificados; cronología que apunta una antigüedad de la red fluvial mayor a la estimada hasta el momento. De las siete tendencias identificadas, tres presentan una entidad regional (ENE-WSW, NE-SW, N-S, y cuatro local (NW-SE, SW-NE, SE-NW, S-N. Se confirma el carácter principal de la paleorred ENE-WSW (caracterizada por el río Sil y como

  1. Home range dynamics of mountain hare (Lepus timidus in the Swiss Alps

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    Anne-Sophie Genini-Gamboni

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little is known on the ecology and behaviour of alpine mountain hare (Lepus timidus. Between 1996 and 1997 we analysed by radiotracking the pattern of space use of 8 mountain hares from the Swiss Alps. We estimated home range size using both the kernel density estimator and the minimum convex polygon. We found smaller ranges (38 ha compared to those reported for the species in boreal or arctic habitats, but similar to ranges in Scotland. Hares did not use a centre of major activity (core area and showed high home range overlap, confirming their non-territorial behaviour. Smaller ranges were used during winter compared to the other seasons, whilst no difference in size was found between sexes. Riassunto Dinamica dell'uso dello spazio della lepre bianca (Lepus timidus nelle Alpi Svizzere Le informazioni relative all'ecologia e al comportamento della lepre alpina (Lepus timidus sono ad oggi scarse. In questo studio abbiamo analizzato l'utilizzo dello spazio di una popolazione di lepre bianca sulle Alpi Svizzere. Tra il 1996 e il 1997 sono stati marcati con redio collare 8 individui di lepre alpina. L'home range è stato calcolato utilizzando lo stimatore di densità kernel (KDE ed il metodo del minimo poligono convesso (MCP. L'ampiezza degli home range (38 ha è risultata inferiore a quella riportata per la specie in habitat boreali ed artici. ma simile a quella riscontrata in Scozia. All'interno dell home range non è stato rilevato alcun centro di maggiore attività (core area ed è stata evidenziata una notevole sovrapposizione tra gli stessi, confermando la non territorialità della specie. Le aree frequentate in inverno sono risultate più piccole rispetto alle altre stagioni e non sono state riscontrate differenze tra i sessi.

  2. Critical load of acid precipitations. Mapping of Italian regions; Mappa dei carichi critici di acidita' totale riferita al territorio italiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanni, P.; Brini, S.; Delmonaco, G.; Liburdi, R.; Trocciola, A.; Vetrella, G. [ENEA Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    In this report the mapping of critical loads of acidity for the Italian terrestrial ecosystems is presented. The level O method (Stockholm Environment Institute) has been used to determine sensitivity to acid deposition; this semi-quantitative method has been modified to address some Italian characteristics. The results show that the sensitivity of the Italian soils to acidification is not particularly elevated: there are really only few small areas with poor tolerance to acid depositions. These areas are in the north-east of Italy, in Alpine and Prealpine region. [Italian] Nel rapporto vengono riportati i risultati della mappatura, riferita agli ecosistemi terrestri del territorio italiano, dei carichi critici per l'acidita' totale. Il calcolo dei carichi critici e' stato eseguito sulla base della metodologia messa a punto dallo Stokholm Environment Institute; a questo metodo semi-quantitativo sono state apportate alcune modifiche per meglio adattarlo alle caratteristiche del territorio italiano. Dall'analisi dei risultati ottenuti, si evince come la sensibilita' dei suoli italiani all'acidificazione non sia particolarmente elevata: sono state riscontrate infatti solo alcune aree, peraltro con superficie limitata, con una scarsa tolleranza alle deposizioni acide. Tali aree sono localizzate nell'Italia nord-orientale, in zona alpina e prealpina.

  3. A population genetic model to infer allotetraploid speciation and long-term evolution applied to two yarrow species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan-Ping; Tong, Xiao-Yuan; Wang, Lan-Wei; Vogl, Claus

    2013-07-01

    Allotetraploid speciation, that is, the generation of a hybrid tetraploid species from two diploid species, and the long-term evolution of tetraploid populations and species are important in plants. We developed a population genetic model to infer population genetic parameters of tetraploid populations from data of the progenitor and descendant species. Two yarrow species, Achillea alpina-4x and A. wilsoniana-4x, arose by allotetraploidization from the diploid progenitors, A. acuminata-2x and A. asiatica-2x. Yet, the population genetic process has not been studied in detail. We applied the model to sequences of three nuclear genes in populations of the four yarrow species and compared their pattern of variability with that in four plastid regions. The plastid data indicated that the two tetraploid species probably originated from multiple independent allopolyploidization events and have accumulated many mutations since. With the nuclear data, we found a low rate of homeologous recombination or gene conversion and a reduction in diversity relative to the level of both diploid species combined. The present analysis with a novel probabilistic model suggests a genetic bottleneck during tetraploid speciation, that the two tetraploid species have a long evolutionary history, and that they have a small amount of genetic exchange between the homeologous genomes.

  4. Epilithic algae from caves of the Krakowsko-Częstochowska Upland (Southern Poland

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    Joanna Czerwik-Marcinkowska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the first study of algae assemblages in 20 caves in the Krakowsko-Częstochowska Upland (Southern Poland, in the period between 2005-2006. The investigations showed mostly on epilithic algae and their subaeric habitats (rock faces within caves and walls at cave entrances. The morphological and cytological variability of algae were studied in fresh samples, in cultures grown on agar plates and in SPURR preparations. A total of 43 algae species was identified, mostly epilithic species and tolerant of low light intensities. The largest group was formed by representatives of the division Chlorophyta (24 species, and then the division Chrysophyta (Heterokontophyta - 17 species, with 9 species belonging to the class Bacillariophyceae, 7 species - Xanthophyceae and 1 species representing the class Eustigmatophyceae. Dinophyta (2 species constituted the last and the smallest group. Among the collected algae, the following species deserve special attention: Thelesphaera alpina, Bracteacoccus minor, Trachychloron simplex, Tetracystis intermedia and T. cf. isobilateralis. The last species was not earlier found in Europe. Identification of species was greatly aided by examination of cell ultrastructure, which provided an array of further features, increasing chances of correct species identification. Furthermore, the studies focused that algae, although usually remaining under dominance of cyanobacteria, excellently differentiate this special area and even enrich it.

  5. Species delimitation in the Grayling genus Pseudochazara (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) supported by DNA barcodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verovnik, Rudi; Wiemers, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Palaearctic Grayling genus Pseudochazara encompasses a number of petrophilous butterfly species, most of which are local endemics especially in their centre of radiation in SW Asia and the Balkans. Due to a lack of consistent morphological characters, coupled with habitat induced variability, their taxonomy is poorly understood and species delimitation is hampered. We employed a DNA barcoding approach to address the question of separate species status for several European taxa and provide first insight into the phylogeny of the genus. Unexpectedly we found conflicting patterns with deep divergences between presumably conspecific taxa and lack of divergence among well-defined species. We propose separate species status for Pseudochazara tisiphone, Pseudochazara amalthea, Pseudochazara amymone, and Pseudochazara kermana all of which have separate well supported clades, with the majority of them becoming local endemics. Lack of resolution in the ‘Mamurra’ species group with well-defined species (in terms of wing pattern and coloration) such as Pseudochazara geyeri, Pseudochazara daghestana and Pseudochazara alpina should be further explored using nuclear molecular markers with higher genetic resolution. PMID:27408604

  6. Mapping of critical loads of acidity for the Italian terrestrial ecosystems; Mappa dei carichi critici di acidita' totale riferita al territorio italiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanni, P.; Brini, S.; Delmonaco, G.; Liburdi, C.; Trocciola, A.; Vetrella, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    In this report the mapping of critical loads of acidity for the Italian terrestrial ecosystems is presented. The level 0 method (Stockholm Environment Institute) has been used to determine sensitivity to acid deposition; this semi-quantitative method has been modified to address some Italian characteristics. The sensitivity of the Italian soils to acidification is not particularly elevated: there are really only few small areas with poor tolerance to acid depositions in the north-east Italy, Alpine and Prealpine region. [Italian] Nel presente relazione vengono riportati i risultati della mappatura riferita ad ecosistemi terrestri del territorio italiano, dei carichi critici per l'acidita' totale. Il calcolo dei carichi e' stato eseguito sulla base della metodologia messa a punto dallo Stockholm Environment Institute con alcune modifiche per adattarlo meglio alle caratteristiche del territorio italiano. Si dimostra che la sensibilita' dei suoli italiani all'acidificazione non sia particolarmente elevata: sono state riscontrate infatti solo alcune aree, peraltro con superficie limitata, con una scarsa tolleranza alle deposizioni acide nelle zone del Nord Est, in zona alpina e prealpina.

  7. Plant communities with Pinus mugo (alliance Pinion mugo in the subalpine belt of the Western Carpathians - a numerical approach

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    Jozef Šibík

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A syntaxonomical revision of plant communities with dominant Pinus mugo in the Western Carpathians is presented. The data set of 341 relevés was examined and analysed using the detrended correspondence analysis and the cluster analysis. Major gradients and clusters were interpreted using Ellenberg’s indicator values. The major gradient in species composition was associated with available nutrients and moisture. The authors suggest distinguishing the dwarf pine stands of the supramontanous and subalpine belts of the Western Carpathians referred to the alliance Pinion mugo Pawłowski in Pawłowski et al. 1928 of the order Junipero-Pinetalia mugo Boşcaiu 1971 and the class Roso pendulinae-Pinetea mugo Theurillat in Theurillat et al. 1995, into three separate associations: the Cetrario-Pinetum mugo Hadač 1956, the Homogyno alpinae-Pinetum mugo (Sillinger 1933 nom. nov., and the Adenostylo alliariae-Pinetum mugo (Sillinger 1933 Šoltésová 1974. The authors also elucidated the unauthorized name of the association Vaccinio myrtilli-Pinetum mugo Hadač 1956, which is a younger homonym of the valid name of the association Vaccinio myrtilli-Pinetum montanae Morton 1927 that characterises the acidophilous dwarf pine stands on calcareous bedrocks in the Alps.

  8. Epidermal cell death in frogs with chytridiomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Alexandra A.; Skerratt, Lee F.; Berger, Lee

    2017-01-01

    Background Amphibians are declining at an alarming rate, and one of the major causes of decline is the infectious disease chytridiomycosis. Parasitic fungal sporangia occur within epidermal cells causing epidermal disruption, but these changes have not been well characterised. Apoptosis (planned cell death) can be a damaging response to the host but may alternatively be a mechanism of pathogen removal for some intracellular infections. Methods In this study we experimentally infected two endangered amphibian species Pseudophryne corroboree and Litoria verreauxii alpina with the causal agent of chytridiomycosis. We quantified cell death in the epidermis through two assays: terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL) and caspase 3/7. Results Cell death was positively associated with infection load and morbidity of clinically infected animals. In infected amphibians, TUNEL positive cells were concentrated in epidermal layers, correlating to the localisation of infection within the skin. Caspase activity was stable and low in early infection, where pathogen loads were light but increasing. In animals that recovered from infection, caspase activity gradually returned to normal as the infection cleared. Whereas, in amphibians that did not recover, caspase activity increased dramatically when infection loads peaked. Discussion Increased cell death may be a pathology of the fungal parasite, likely contributing to loss of skin homeostatic functions, but it is also possible that apoptosis suppression may be used initially by the pathogen to help establish infection. Further research should explore the specific mechanisms of cell death and more specifically apoptosis regulation during fungal infection. PMID:28168107

  9. Polymorphic microsatellite loci identified through development and cross-species amplification within shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, I.; Guzzetti, B.M.; Gust, Judy R.; Sage, G.K.; Gill, R.E.; Tibbitts, T.L.; Sonsthagen, S.A.; Talbot, S.L.

    2012-01-01

    We developed microsatellite loci for demographic assessments of shorebirds, a group with limited markers. First, we isolated five dinucleotide repeat microsatellite loci from the Black Oystercatcher (Haematopodidae: Haematopus bachmani), and three from the Bristle-thighed Curlew (Scolopacidae: Numenius tahitiensis); both species are of conservation concern. All eight loci were polymorphic in their respective target species. Hbaμ loci were characterized by two to three alleles with observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.07 to 0.33, and two to nine alleles were detected for Nut loci with observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.08 to 0.72. No linkage disequilibrium or departures from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium were observed. The eight loci were also tested for cross-species amplification in 12 other species within Charadriidae and Scolopacidae, and the results demonstrated transferability across several genera. We further tested all 14 species at 12 additional microsatellite markers developed for other shorebirds: Dunlin (Calidris alpina; four loci) and Ruff (Philomachus pugnax; eight loci). Two markers (Hbaμ4 and Ruff6) were polymorphic in 13 species, while two (Calp6 and Ruff9) were monomorphic. The remaining eight markers revealed polymorphism in one to nine species each. Our results provide further evidence that locus Ruff10 is sex-linked, contrary to the initial description. These markers can be used to enhance our understanding of shorebird biology by, for example, helping to determine migratory connectivity among breeding and wintering populations and detecting relatedness among individuals.

  10. Evolutionary analysis of mitogenomes from parasitic and free-living flatworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solà, Eduard; Álvarez-Presas, Marta; Frías-López, Cristina; Littlewood, D Timothy J; Rozas, Julio; Riutort, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) are useful and relatively accessible sources of molecular data to explore and understand the evolutionary history and relationships of eukaryotic organisms across diverse taxonomic levels. The availability of complete mitogenomes from Platyhelminthes is limited; of the 40 or so published most are from parasitic flatworms (Neodermata). Here, we present the mitogenomes of two free-living flatworms (Tricladida): the complete genome of the freshwater species Crenobia alpina (Planariidae) and a nearly complete genome of the land planarian Obama sp. (Geoplanidae). Moreover, we have reanotated the published mitogenome of the species Dugesia japonica (Dugesiidae). This contribution almost doubles the total number of mtDNAs published for Tricladida, a species-rich group including model organisms and economically important invasive species. We took the opportunity to conduct comparative mitogenomic analyses between available free-living and selected parasitic flatworms in order to gain insights into the putative effect of life cycle on nucleotide composition through mutation and natural selection. Unexpectedly, we did not find any molecular hallmark of a selective relaxation in mitogenomes of parasitic flatworms; on the contrary, three out of the four studied free-living triclad mitogenomes exhibit higher A+T content and selective relaxation levels. Additionally, we provide new and valuable molecular data to develop markers for future phylogenetic studies on planariids and geoplanids.

  11. Evolutionary analysis of mitogenomes from parasitic and free-living flatworms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Solà

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes are useful and relatively accessible sources of molecular data to explore and understand the evolutionary history and relationships of eukaryotic organisms across diverse taxonomic levels. The availability of complete mitogenomes from Platyhelminthes is limited; of the 40 or so published most are from parasitic flatworms (Neodermata. Here, we present the mitogenomes of two free-living flatworms (Tricladida: the complete genome of the freshwater species Crenobia alpina (Planariidae and a nearly complete genome of the land planarian Obama sp. (Geoplanidae. Moreover, we have reanotated the published mitogenome of the species Dugesia japonica (Dugesiidae. This contribution almost doubles the total number of mtDNAs published for Tricladida, a species-rich group including model organisms and economically important invasive species. We took the opportunity to conduct comparative mitogenomic analyses between available free-living and selected parasitic flatworms in order to gain insights into the putative effect of life cycle on nucleotide composition through mutation and natural selection. Unexpectedly, we did not find any molecular hallmark of a selective relaxation in mitogenomes of parasitic flatworms; on the contrary, three out of the four studied free-living triclad mitogenomes exhibit higher A+T content and selective relaxation levels. Additionally, we provide new and valuable molecular data to develop markers for future phylogenetic studies on planariids and geoplanids.

  12. Calpionellid distribution and microfacies across the Jurassic/ Cretaceous boundary in western Cuba (Sierra de los Órganos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martínez, Rafael; Barragán, Ricardo; Reháková, Daniela; Cobiella-Reguera, Jorge Luis

    2013-06-01

    A detailed bed-by-bed sampled stratigraphic section of the Guasasa Formation in the Rancho San Vicente area of the "Sierra de los Órganos", western Cuba, provides well-supported evidence about facies and calpionellid distribution across the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary. These new data allowed the definition of an updated and sound calpionellid biozonation scheme for the section. In this scheme, the drowning event of a carbonate platform displayed by the facies of the San Vicente Member, the lowermost unit of the section, is dated as Late Tithonian, Boneti Subzone. The Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary was recognized within the facies of the overlying El Americano Member on the basis of the acme of Calpionella alpina Lorenz. The boundary is placed nearly six meters above the contact between the San Vicente and the El Americano Members, in a facies linked to a sea-level drop. The recorded calpionellid bioevents should allow correlations of the Cuban biozonation scheme herein proposed, with other previously published schemes from distant areas of the Tethyan Domain.

  13. Pierre Charmoz : La montagne à seins nus, un roman érotique de montagne, ou de la destruction du mythe alpin par le langage Pierre Charmoz: La Montagne à seins nus, or, the Debunking of the Alpine Myth trough Language Pierre Charmoz, La Sierra de los pechos desnudos o la destrucción del mito alpino por el lenguage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Mestre

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available La Montagne à seins nus de Pierre Charmoz est l'un des rares romans de montagne dans lequel l'érotisme joue un rôle important. C'est également une tentative de remise en cause des mythologies sur lesquelles le roman de montagne s'appuie, pour n'en garder que l'aspect léger et humoristique.La Montagne à seins nus, by Pierre Charmoz, is one of these few mountain novels in which eroticism plays a major part, it is also an attempt at debunking the mythologies on which alpine novels traditionally rest. It keeps only laughter and a gentle spirit of derision from it.La Sierra de los pechos desnudos, de Pierre Charmoz, es una de las raras novelas de montaña en las cuales el erotismo ocupa un lugar preponderante. También se empeña en derribar los mitos sobre los cuales suelen construirse las novelas alpinas tradicionales. De éstos permanece la risa, y uno disfruta mientras se hace burla de ellos.

  14. Sperm structure of Limoniidae and their phylogenetic relationship with Tipulidae (Diptera, Nematocera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallai, Romano; Lombardo, Bianca Maria; Mercati, David; Vanin, Stefano; Lupetti, Pietro

    2008-01-01

    The sperm ultrastructure of a few species of Limoniidae (Limonia nigropunctata; L. nubeculosa; Chionea n. sp.; C. alpina; C. lutescens) was studied. The two species of Limonia have a monolayered acrosome with crystallized material, a three-lobed nucleus in cross section, a ring of centriole adjunct material and a flagellum which consists of a 9+9+1 axoneme and a single mitochondrial derivative. The central axonemal tubule is provided with 15 protofilaments in its tubular wall, while the accessory tubules have 13 protofilaments and are flanked by the electron-dense intertubular material. The three species of Chionea share a monolayered acrosome, a nucleus with two longitudinal grooves, a centriole adjunct material which surrounds the centriole and the initial part of the axoneme. The axoneme is of conventional type, with 9+9+2 microtubular pattern, with accessory tubules provided with 13 protofilaments and intertubular material. However, in C. lutescens the accessory tubules start with 15 protofilaments and transform into a tubule with 13 protofilaments. These data are discussed in the light of the phylogenetic relationship between Limoniidae and Tipulidae. For this purpose, the sperm ultrastructure of Nephrotoma appendiculata was also considered comparatively.

  15. Wastewater recycling technology for fermentation in polyunsaturated fatty acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaojin; Ma, Zengxin; Tan, Yanzhen; Zhang, Huidan; Cui, Qiu

    2017-07-01

    To reduce fermentation-associated wastewater discharge and the cost of wastewater treatment, which further reduces the total cost of DHA and ARA production, this study first analyzed the composition of wastewater from Aurantiochytrium (DHA) and Mortierella alpina (ARA) fermentation, after which wastewater recycling technology for these fermentation processes was developed. No negative effects of DHA and ARA production were observed when the two fermentation wastewater methods were cross-recycled. DHA and ARA yields were significantly inhibited when the wastewater from the fermentation process was directly reused. In 5-L fed-batch fermentation experiments, using this cross-recycle technology, the DHA and ARA yields were 30.4 and 5.13gL(-1), respectively, with no significant changes (P>0.05) compared to the control group, and the water consumption was reduced by half compared to the traditional process. Therefore, this technology has great potential in industrial fermentation for polyunsaturated fatty acid production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in chloroplast ultrastructure in some high-alpine plants: adaptation to metabolic demands and climate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütz, C; Engel, L

    2007-01-01

    The cytology of leaf cells from five different high-alpine plants was studied and compared with structures in chloroplasts from the typical high-alpine plant Ranunculus glacialis previously described as having frequent envelope plus stroma protrusions. The plants under investigation ranged from subalpine/alpine Geum montanum through alpine Geum reptans, Poa alpina var. vivipara, and Oxyria digyna to nival Cerastium uniflorum and R. glacialis. The general leaf structure (by light microscopy) and leaf mesophyll cell ultrastructure (by transmission electron microscopy [TEM]) did not show any specialized structures unique to these mountain species. However, chloroplast protrusion formation could be found in G. reptans and, to a greater extent, in O. digyna. The other species exhibited only a low percentage of such chloroplast structural changes. Occurrence of protrusions in samples of G. montanum and O. digyna growing in a mild climate at about 50 m above sea level was drastically reduced. Serial TEM sections of O. digyna cells showed that the protrusions can appear as rather broad and long appendices of plastids, often forming pocketlike structures where mitochondria and microbodies are in close vicinity to the plastid and to each other. It is suggested that some high-alpine plants may form such protrusions to facilitate fast exchange of molecules between cytoplasm and plastid as an adaptation to the short, often unfavorable vegetation period in the Alps, while other species may have developed different types of adaptation that are not expressed in ultrastructural changes of the plastids.

  17. Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzetti, Bruno; Costantini, Elisa

    2006-01-01

    Genetic transformation in strawberry (Fragaria spp.) can be achieved by using the Agrobacterium-mediated procedure on leaves from in vitro proliferated shoots. Regardless of the sufficient regeneration levels achieved from leaf explants of some commercial strawberry genotypes, the regeneration of transformed strawberry plants remains difficult and seems to be strongly genotype dependent. In fact, the main factors that play an important role in the success of strawberry genetic transformation are the availability of both an efficient regeneration protocol and an appropriate selection procedure of the putative transgenic shoots. The strawberry genetic transformation protocol herein described relates to two genotypes resulting from our experience with the highest regeneration and transformation efficiency. The study includes an octoploid Fragaria x ananassa cultivar (Sveva) and a diploid F. vesca cultivar (Alpina W.O.). All the different steps related to the leaf tissue Agrobacterium infection, co-culture, and selection of regenerating adventitious shoots, as well as the following identification of selected lines able to proliferate and root on the selective agent (kanamycin), will be described.

  18. Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Roberto; Sabbadini, Silvia; Mezzetti, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Genetic transformation in strawberry (Fragaria spp.) can be achieved by using the Agrobacterium-mediated procedure on leaves from in vitro proliferated shoots. Regardless of the sufficient regeneration levels achieved from leaf explants of some commercial strawberry genotypes, the regeneration of transformed strawberry plants remains difficult and seems to be strongly genotype dependent. In fact, the main factors that play an important role in the success of strawberry genetic transformation are the availability of an efficient regeneration protocol and of an appropriate selection procedure of the putative transgenic shoots. The strawberry genetic transformation protocol herein described relates to three genotypes resulted from our experience with the highest regeneration and transformation efficiency. The study includes two octoploid Fragaria × ananassa cultivars, Sveva and Calypso, and a diploid F. vesca cultivar (Alpina W.O.). All the different steps related to the leaf tissue Agrobacterium infection, coculture, and selection of regenerating adventitious shoots, as well as the following identification of selected lines able to proliferate and root on the selective agent (kanamycin), will be described.

  19. Importance of Marine-Derived Nutrients Supplied by Planktivorous Seabirds to High Arctic Tundra Plant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolicki, Adrian; Zmudczyńska-Skarbek, Katarzyna; Richard, Pierre; Stempniewicz, Lech

    2016-01-01

    We studied the relative importance of several environmental factors for tundra plant communities in five locations across Svalbard (High Arctic) that differed in geographical location, oceanographic and climatic influence, and soil characteristics. The amount of marine-derived nitrogen in the soil supplied by seabirds was locally the most important of the studied environmental factors influencing the tundra plant community. We found a strong positive correlation between δ15N isotopic values and total N content in the soil, confirming the fundamental role of marine-derived matter to the generally nutrient-poor Arctic tundra ecosystem. We also recorded a strong correlation between the δ15N values of soil and of the tissues of vascular plants and mosses, but not of lichens. The relationship between soil δ15N values and vascular plant cover was linear. In the case of mosses, the percentage ground cover reached maximum around a soil δ 15N value of 8‰, as did plant community diversity. This soil δ15N value clearly separated the occurrence of plants with low nitrogen tolerance (e.g. Salix polaris) from those predominating on high N content soils (e.g. Cerastium arcticum, Poa alpina). Large colonies of planktivorous little auks have a great influence on Arctic tundra vegetation, either through enhancing plant abundance or in shaping plant community composition at a local scale. PMID:27149113

  20. Antiinflammatory activities of Hungarian Stachys species and their iridoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Háznagy-Radnai, Erzsébet; Balogh, Ágnes; Czigle, Szilvia; Máthé, Imre; Hohmann, Judit; Blazsó, Gábor

    2012-04-01

    The antiinflammatory activities of aqueous extracts prepared from the aerial parts of ten Hungarian Stachys species were investigated in vivo in the carrageenan-induced paw oedema test after intraperitoneal and oral administration to rats. Some of the extracts were found to display significant antiphlogistic effects when administered intraperitoneally and orally; in particular, the extracts of S. alpina, S. germanica, S. officinalis and S. recta demonstrated high activity following intraperitoneal administration. At the same dose of 5.0 mg/kg, these extracts exhibited similar or greater potency than that of the positive control diclofenac-Na. The main iridoids present in the investigated extracts, ajugoside, aucubin, acetylharpagide, harpagide and harpagoside, were also assayed in the same test, and high dose-dependent antiphlogistic effects were recorded for aucubin and harpagoside. These results led to the conclusion that most probably iridoids are responsible for the antiinflammatory effect of Stachys species, but other active constituents or their synergism must also be implicated in the antiinflammatory effect.

  1. Simple, effective protein extraction method and proteomics analysis from polyunsaturated fatty acids-producing micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xueping; Guo, Jing; Zheng, Chuqiang; Ye, Chiming; Lu, Yinghua; Pan, Xueshan; Chen, Zhengqi; Ng, I-Son

    2015-12-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are valuable ingredients in the food and pharmaceutical products due to their beneficial influence on human health. Most studies paid attention on the production of PUFAs from oleaginous micro-organisms but seldom on the comparative proteomics of cells. In the study, three methods (i.e., cold shock, acetone precipitation and ethanol precipitation) for lipid removal from crude protein extracts were applied in different PUFAs-producing micro-organisms. Among the selective strains, Schizochytrium was used as an oleaginous strain with high lipid of 60.3 (w/w%) in biomass. The Mortierella alpina and Cunninghamella echinulata were chosen as the low-lipid-content strains with 25.8 (w/w%) and 21.8 (w/w%) of lipid in biomass, respectively. The cold shock resulted as the most effective method for lipid removed, thus obtained higher protein amount for Schizochytrium. Moreover, from the comparative proteomics for the three PUFAs-producing strains, it showed more significant proteins of up or down-regulation were explored under cold shock treatment. Therefore, the essential proteins (i.e., polyunsaturated fatty acid synthase) and regulating proteins were observed. In conclusion, this study provides a valuable and practical approach for analysis of high PUFAs-producing strains at the proteomics level, and would further accelerate the understanding of the metabolic flux in oleaginous micro-organisms.

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizas are present on Spitsbergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsham, K K; Eidesen, P B; Davey, M L; Axelsen, J; Courtecuisse, E; Flintrop, C; Johansson, A G; Kiepert, M; Larsen, S E; Lorberau, K E; Maurset, M; McQuilkin, J; Misiak, M; Pop, A; Thompson, S; Read, D J

    2017-07-10

    A previous study of 76 plant species on Spitsbergen in the High Arctic concluded that structures resembling arbuscular mycorrhizas were absent from roots. Here, we report a survey examining the roots of 13 grass and forb species collected from 12 sites on the island for arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonisation. Of the 102 individuals collected, we recorded AM endophytes in the roots of 41 plants of 11 species (Alopecurus ovatus, Deschampsia alpina, Festuca rubra ssp. richardsonii, putative viviparous hybrids of Poa arctica and Poa pratensis, Poa arctica ssp. arctica, Trisetum spicatum, Coptidium spitsbergense, Ranunculus nivalis, Ranunculus pygmaeus, Ranunculus sulphureus and Taraxacum arcticum) sampled from 10 sites. Both coarse AM endophyte, with hyphae of 5-10 μm width, vesicles and occasional arbuscules, and fine endophyte, consisting of hyphae of 1-3 μm width and sparse arbuscules, were recorded in roots. Coarse AM hyphae, vesicles, arbuscules and fine endophyte hyphae occupied 1.0-30.7, 0.8-18.3, 0.7-11.9 and 0.7-12.8% of the root lengths of colonised plants, respectively. Principal component analysis indicated no associations between the abundances of AM structures in roots and edaphic factors. We conclude that the AM symbiosis is present in grass and forb roots on Spitsbergen.

  3. In vivo and in vitro evaluation of the therapeutic potential of some Turkish Scorzonera species as wound healing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süntar, Ipek; Acikara, Ozlem Bahadir; Citoglu, Gulcin Saltan; Keles, Hikmet; Ergene, Burcin; Akkol, Esra Kupeli

    2012-01-01

    Wound healing and anti-inflammatory effects of aerial parts and roots of S. acuminata, S. cana var. alpina, S. cana var. jacquiniana, S. cana var. radicosa, S. eriophora, S. laciniata ssp. laciniata, S. suberosa ssp. suberosa and S. sublanata were investigated in current study to clarify the traditional usage of Scorzonera species growing in Turkey. It is well known that some species of the Scorzonera genus are used for wound healing in Turkish and European traditional medicine. Therefore, wound healing effect of the plants was assessed by using linear incision and circular excision experimental wound models and subsequently histopathological analysis. Hydroxyproline content of the treated tissues was also assessed. Furthermore, the extracts were screened for anti-hyaluronidase activity. For the evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity, acetic acid-induced increase in capillary permeability test was used. 20% aqueous methanol extracts of the aerial parts of Scorzonera species, S. cana var. jacquiniana and S. eriophora were found to be effective on the wound and anti-inflammatory activity test models. The results of histopathological examination supported the outcome of linear incision and circular excision wound models. Phytochemical analyses of the tested extracts were also performed by using developed and validated HPLC method. Among the tested standard compounds, varying amounts of the chlorogenic acid, rutin, hyperoside and luteolin-7-glycoside were determined in Scorzonera species.

  4. Metabolic flux analysis on arachidonic acid fermentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Mingjie; HUANG He; ZHANG Kun; YAN Jie; GAO Zhen

    2007-01-01

    The analysis of flux distributions in metabolic networks has become an important approach for understanding the fermentation characteristics of the process.A model of metabolic flux analysis of arachidonic acid (AA) synthesis in Mortierella alpina ME-1 was established and carbon flux distributions were estimated in different fermentation phases with different concentrations of N-source.During the exponential,decelerating and stationary phase,carbon fluxes to AA were 3.28%,8.80% and 6.97%,respectively,with sufficient N-source broth based on the flux of glucose uptake,and those were increased to 3.95%,19.21% and 39.29%,respectively,by regulating the shifts of carbon fluxes via fermentation with limited N-source broth and adding 0.05%NaNO3 at 96 h.Eventually AA yield was increased from 1.3 to 3.5 g.L-1.These results suggest a way to improve AA fermentation,that is,fermentation with limited N-source broth and adding low concentration N-source during the stationary phase.

  5. Preliminary ethnobotanical studies of the Rwenzori Mountain forest area in Bundibugyo District, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Oryem-Origa

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobotanical studies of the Rwenzori Mountain forest area in Bundibugyo District in Uganda were carried out between May and December 1991, and covered the northern part of the Rwenzori Mountain slopes occupied by the Bakonjo people. The presence of a major footpath through the forest with numerous utility trails radiating from it showed that some forest resources are being sought by the local population. Plant biodiversity is high, as is indicated by the fact that in a study plot of only 4 250 m , a total of 115 plant species, 101 genera and 57 families were identified from a collection of 300 plant specimens. Seventy-seven plant species were found to be of some importance to the local communities. Out of the 77 useful plant species recorded:  22 species were used for medicinal purposes; 16 for firewood; 13 for construction, joinery and furniture;  12 for craftwork; 10 provided edible fruits and vegetables; and 27 were used for a variety of other purposes. These other purposes include construction of shrines, covering of granary floors, use as toilet paper, carry ing luggage, and fodder for goats, sheep and cattle. Arundinaria alpina K. Schum. (bamboo is the species that is most extensively harvested from the forest.

  6. Ice nucleation active particles in continental air samples over Mainz, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pummer, Bernhard G.; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2016-04-01

    Aerosol particles are of central importance for atmospheric chemistry and physics, climate and public health. Some of these particles possess ice nucleation activity (INA), which is highly relevant for cloud formation and precipitation. In 2010, air filter samples were collected with a high-volume filter sampler separating fine and coarse particles (aerodynamic cut-off diameter 3 μm) in Mainz, Germany. In this study, the INA of the atmospheric particles deposited on these filters was determined. Therefore,they were extracted with ultrapure water, which was then measured in a droplet freezing assay, as described in Fröhlich-Nowoisky et al. (2015). The determined concentration of ice nucleators (INs) was between 0.3 and 2per m³ at 266 K, and between5 and 75 per m³ at 260 K. The INs were further characterized by different treatments, like heating (308 K, 371 K), filtration (0.1 μm, 300 kDa), and digestion with papain (10 mg/ml). We further investigated, which atmospheric conditions (e.g. weather) and distinguished events (e.g. dust storms, volcanic eruptions, and pollen peaks) influenced the number and nature of these INs. Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J., Hill, T. C. J., Pummer, B. G., Yordanova, P., Franc, G. D., and Pöschl, U.: Ice nucleation activity in the widespread soil fungus Mortierella alpina, Biogeosci., 12, 1057-1071, doi:10.5194/bg-12-1057-2015, 2015.

  7. Vertical distribution of the alpine lepidoptera in the Carpathians and in the Balkan peninsula in relation to the zonation of the vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varga, Z. S.

    2001-12-01

    alpinen Arten sind meistens auf Europa beschrdnkt, und sie sind ebenfalls zu den alpinen-subnivalen Stufen der mittel- und südeuropäschen Hochgehirge gebunden. Die balkanischen Orealarten haben einen südosteuropaschen Arealschwerpunkt. sie kommen jedoch lokal auch in den Südalpen und Süd-bzw. Ostkarpaten vor. Die balkanischen Orealarten kommen am zahlreichsten in der Nàhe der Waldgrenze vor, und die Wiesen der oberen subalpinen Stufe gelten ais ihre am meisten besiedelte Lebensraume. Die mehr mannigfaltigen Habitate der Kalksteingebirge beherbergen meistens eine hohere Anzahl der alpinen (s. l. Arten, ais die azidischen Urgesteinsstocke. Die scheinbare Petrophilie zahlreicher alpinen und tundro-alpinen Arten ist durch ihre spezifische Verhaltensweise bedingt. Die vertikale Verbreitung der Arten ist wohl auch durch die Kompetition der verwandten Arten bedingt. Die nahe verwandten Arten weisen oft eine charakteristische Habitat-Aufteilung auf. Artenzahle und Angaben über die vertikale Verbreitung werden dargestellt (Tabellen 1-4.
    [es]
    Los autores estudian la distribución de las especies de montaña árticoalpinas, alpinas o balcánicas y su relación con la zonación altitudinal de la vegetación, las condiciones climáticas, el sustrato, el tipo de vegetación alpina y la presencia de especies relacionadas. Las especies árticoalpinas tienen sobre todo un área de distribución euroasiática y se dan tanto en las regiones árticas como en los niveles alpino y subnival de las cordilleras de Europa central y meridional, las cuales presentan morfología glaciar y vegetación alpina. Las especies alpinas son principalmente europeas y están relacionadas con los pisos alpino y subnival de las altas montañas del centro y sur de Europa. Las especies orófitas de los Balcanes son principalmente de Europa sudoriental, si bien algunas de ellas alcanzan puntos meridionales de los Alpes y de los Cárpatos. Dichas especies orófitas de los Balcanes se muestran

  8. Shorebird avoidance of nearshore feeding and roosting areas at night correlates with presence of a nocturnal avian predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersma, Theunis; Gill, Robert E.; de Goeij, Petra; Dekinga, Anne; Shepherd, Marnie; Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Tibbitts, T. Lee

    2006-01-01

    We here report two anecdotes about avianinteractions relevant to the interpretation of differences in shorebirdhabitat use between day and night. Several studies have reported that shorebirds avoid feeding and roosting along nearshore areasat night yet commonly use these sites during daytime. This suggests that nighttime avoidance of nearshore places is a response to increased danger of predation. When mist-netting during autumn 2005 on nearshore intertidal habitats along South Spit, Egegik Bay (Alaska Peninsula), Alaska, we discovered that shorebirds that occurred there in large numbers during daytime low tides and roosted there during daytime high tides (especially Dunlin Calidris alpina, Rock Sandpipers Calidris ptilocnemis, Black-bellied Plover Pluvialis squatarola, and Surfbirds Aphriza virgata), were absent at night. Their avoidance of the area correlated with Short-eared Owls Asio flammeus concurrently hunting over the beach and adjacent intertidal habitats. Spotlighting over nearby expansive intertidal mudflats confirmed that the same suite of species continued to forage or roost nearby at night. To bring the story full circle, the morning following one mist-netting effort we found a Short-eared Owl on the beach that had been killed earlier by a Gyrfalcon Falco rusticolus. In the owl’s stomach were remains of a freshly devoured Dunlin.

  9. Niche dynamics of shorebirds in Delaware Bay: Foraging behavior, habitat choice and migration timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novcic, Ivana

    2016-08-01

    Niche differentiation through resource partitioning is seen as one of the most important mechanisms of diversity maintenance contributing to stable coexistence of different species within communities. In this study, I examined whether four species of migrating shorebirds, dunlins (Calidris alpina), semipalmated sandpipers (Calidris pusilla), least sandpipers (Calidris minutilla) and short-billed dowitchers (Limnodromus griseus), segregate by time of passage, habitat use and foraging behavior at their major stopover in Delaware Bay during spring migration. I tested the prediction that most of the separation between morphologically similar species will be achieved by differential migration timing. Despite the high level of overlap along observed niche dimensions, this study demonstrates a certain level of ecological separation between migrating shorebirds. The results of analyses suggest that differential timing of spring migration might be the most important dimension along which shorebird species segregate while at stopover in Delaware Bay. Besides differences in time of passage, species exhibited differences in habitat use, particularly least sandpipers that foraged in vegetated areas of tidal marshes more frequently than other species, as well as short-billed dowitchers that foraged in deeper water more often than small sandpipers did. Partitioning along foraging techniques was less prominent than segregation along temporal or microhabitat dimensions. Such ranking of niche dimensions emphasizes significance of temporal segregation of migratory species - separation of species by time of passage may reduce the opportunity for interspecific aggressive encounters, which in turn can have positive effects on birds' time and energy budget during stopover period.

  10. Sobre las deformaciones del paleozoico en el macizo del Desierto de las Palmas (Castellón

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    Simón Gómez, J. L.

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The Paleozoic deposits in the Desierto de las Palmas massif are turbidites whose probable age is lower Carboniferous. They registered a fírst deformation phase giving rise to very flattened recumbent folds, with associated slaty cleavage and NE-SW axes. Afterwards two phases of buckling folds with small flattening and crenulation cleavage are developed: the second one is ENE and the third one is N to NNW. A last superposed ESE crenulation is probably of Alpine age.

    Los materiales paleozoicos que afloran en el macizo del Desierto de las Palmas son turbiditas de probable edad Carbonífero inferior. Registran una primera fase de deformación en la que se generan pliegues muy aplastados, tendidos o acostados, con esquistosidad de flujo asociada y ejes NE-SW. Posteriormente se desarrollan dos etapas de pliegues flexurales poco aplastados con esquistosidad de crenulación: la segunda etapa ENE y la tercera N a NNW. Una última crenulación superpuesta ESE es ya probablemente de edad alpina.

  11. Evolutionary Analysis of Mitogenomes from Parasitic and Free-Living Flatworms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frías-López, Cristina; Littlewood, D. Timothy J.; Rozas, Julio; Riutort, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) are useful and relatively accessible sources of molecular data to explore and understand the evolutionary history and relationships of eukaryotic organisms across diverse taxonomic levels. The availability of complete mitogenomes from Platyhelminthes is limited; of the 40 or so published most are from parasitic flatworms (Neodermata). Here, we present the mitogenomes of two free-living flatworms (Tricladida): the complete genome of the freshwater species Crenobia alpina (Planariidae) and a nearly complete genome of the land planarian Obama sp. (Geoplanidae). Moreover, we have reanotated the published mitogenome of the species Dugesia japonica (Dugesiidae). This contribution almost doubles the total number of mtDNAs published for Tricladida, a species-rich group including model organisms and economically important invasive species. We took the opportunity to conduct comparative mitogenomic analyses between available free-living and selected parasitic flatworms in order to gain insights into the putative effect of life cycle on nucleotide composition through mutation and natural selection. Unexpectedly, we did not find any molecular hallmark of a selective relaxation in mitogenomes of parasitic flatworms; on the contrary, three out of the four studied free-living triclad mitogenomes exhibit higher A+T content and selective relaxation levels. Additionally, we provide new and valuable molecular data to develop markers for future phylogenetic studies on planariids and geoplanids. PMID:25793530

  12. Fatty Acid Profile of Cheese from Dairy Goats Fed a Diet Enriched with Castor, Sesame and Faveleira Vegetable Oils

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    Ertha Medeiros

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The addition of vegetable oils to the diets of dairy goats is an alternative to supplemental feeding during the dry period and improves the lipid profile of milk and by-products. Cheeses were produced using milk from cross bred goats (Saanen × Alpina fed diets enriched with 4% vegetable oil (faveleira, sesame or castor, the fatty acid profile of cheeses was studied. Supplementation with vegetable oils did not increase the total fat percentage of the cheese (p ≥ 0.05 but did increase the percentage of CLA isomers, long-chain fatty acids (LCFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; in addition, the index of desirable fatty acids (DFA - expressed as the sum of unsaturated fatty acids plus stearic acid was increased for cheese made from milk from goats fed sesame or faveleira oil. Cheeses may have had increased percentages of cis-9,trans-11-CLA due to the supplementation of animal diets with vegetable oils rich in C18:2, such as faveleira and sesame oils. The fatty acid profile of goat cheese did not change significantly in response to the use of castor oil. Thus, the addition of sesame and faveleira oils to goat diets positively altered the fatty acid profile, which improved the nutritional characteristics of the fat present in goat cheese.

  13. Evolution of the selfing syndrome: Anther orientation and herkogamy together determine reproductive assurance in a self-compatible plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toräng, Per; Vikström, Linus; Wunder, Jörg; Wötzel, Stefan; Coupland, George; Ågren, Jon

    2017-07-19

    Capacity for autonomous self-fertilization provides reproductive assurance, has evolved repeatedly in the plant kingdom, and typically involves several changes in flower morphology and development (the selfing syndrome). Yet, the relative importance of different traits and trait combinations for efficient selfing and reproductive success in pollinator-poor environments is poorly known. In a series of experiments, we tested the importance of anther-stigma distance and the less studied trait anther orientation for efficiency of selfing in the perennial herb Arabis alpina. Variation in flower morphology among eight self-compatible European populations was correlated with efficiency of self-pollination and with pollen limitation in a common-garden experiment. To examine whether anther-stigma distance and anther orientation are subject to directional and/or correlational selection, and whether this is because these traits affect pollination success, we planted a segregating F2 population at two native field sites. Selection strongly favored a combination of introrse anthers and reduced anther-stigma distance at a site where pollinator activity was low, and supplemental hand-pollination demonstrated that this was largely because of their effect on securing self-pollination. The results suggest that concurrent shifts in more than one trait can be crucial for the evolution of efficient self-pollination and reproductive assurance in pollinator-poor habitats. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Parasitism of Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) by a New Species of Hairworm (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) in Arctic Canada.

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    Ernst, Crystal M; Hanelt, Ben; Buddle, Christopher M

    2016-06-01

    The host-parasite associations between ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and hairworms (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) collected from the Arctic (an understudied and ecologically important region) is described. Carabids and their parasites were collected from 12 sites spanning the 3 northernmost ecoclimatic zones of Canada (north boreal, subarctic, and high Arctic) using standardized methods. The beetles and hairworms were identified using traditional morphological approaches. Seven beetle species are recorded as hosts: Amara alpina, Pterostichus caribou, Pterostichus brevicornis, Pterostichus tareumiut, Pterostichus haematopus, Patrobus septentrionis, and Notiophilus borealis. All represent new host records (increasing the known North American host list from 14 to 21), and this is the first record of hairworm infection in the genus Notiophilus. Beetles from Banks Island, Northwest Territory, were infected in high numbers (11-19% per sampling period) and were used as an ecological case study. There was no significant relationship between infection status and host species, body size, or sex. Beetles collected in yellow pan traps and in wet habitats were more likely to be infected, likely due to water-seeking behavior induced by the parasites. Morphological examinations indicate that the hairworms collected from all locations represent a single, new species of Gordionus, making it only the sixth hairworm species and the third species of that genus found in Canada. Hosts are unknown for all other Canadian (and 1 Alaskan) Gordionus species.

  15. Availability of ectomycorrhizal fungi to black spruce above the present treeline in Eastern Labrador.

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    Reithmeier, Laura; Kernaghan, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF) are an important biotic factor in the survival of conifer seedlings under stressful conditions and therefore have the potential to facilitate conifer establishment into alpine and tundra habitats. In order to assess patterns of ectomycorrhizal availability and community structure above treeline, we conducted soil bioassays in which Picea mariana (black spruce) seedlings were grown in field-collected soils under controlled conditions. Soils were collected from distinct alpine habitats, each dominated by a different ectomycorrhizal host shrub: Betula glandulosa, Arctostaphylos alpina or Salix herbacaea. Within each habitat, half of the soils collected contained roots of ectomycorrhizal shrubs (host (+)) and the other half were free of host plants (host(-)). Forest and glacial moraine soils were also included for comparison. Fungi forming ectomycorrhizae during the bioassays were identified by DNA sequencing. Our results indicate that ECMF capable of colonizing black spruce are widespread above the current tree line in Eastern Labrador and that the level of available inoculum has a significant influence on the growth of seedlings under controlled conditions. Many of the host(-) soils possessed appreciable levels of ectomycorrhizal inoculum, likely in the form of spore banks. Inoculum levels in these soils may be influenced by spore production from neighboring soils where ectomycorrhizal shrubs are present. Under predicted temperature increases, ectomycorrhizal inoculum in soils with host shrubs as well as in nearby soils without host shrubs have the potential to facilitate conifer establishment above the present tree line.

  16. Effects of different fungal elicitors on growth, total carotenoids and astaxanthin formation by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjun; Yu, Longjiang; Zhou, Pengpeng

    2006-01-01

    Six fungal elicitors prepared from Rhodotorula rubra, Rhodotorula glutinis, Panus conchatus, Coriolus versicolor, Mucor mucedo, Mortieralla alpina M-23 were examined to determine their effects on the growth, total carotenoids and astaxanthin formation by Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous. The results showed that different fungal elicitor could cause diversely stimulating effects. Among the fungal elicitors tested, the M. mucedo elicitor concentration of 30 mg l(-1) promoted the biomass and total carotenoids yield most remarkably, resulting in 69.81+/-6.00% and 78.87+/-4.15% higher than the control, respectively. At the concentration of 30 mg l(-1), R. glutinis elicitor stimulated the highest astaxanthin yield with a 90.60+/-5.98% increase compared to the control. The R. rubra elicitor concentration of 30 mg l(-1) resulted in the optimal total carotenoids and astaxanthin content to be 42.24+/-0.49% and 69.02+/-0.72% higher than the control, respectively. At the concentration of 30 mg l(-1), R. rubra elicitor gave the highest increase in the ratio of astaxanthin in total carotenoids by 18.85+/-0.11% of the control.

  17. Screening for Extracellular Lipase Enzymes with Transesterification Capacity in Mucoromycotina Strains

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    Alexandra Kotogán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 169 zygomycetes fungal strains including some cold-tolerant isolates were screened for their extracellular lipolytic activity towards tributyrin. Nineteen of them were outstanding in their enzyme production as they developed the largest lipolytic halo around the colonies in plate tests. Mortierella alpina, M. echinosphaera, Mucor corticolus, Rhizomucor miehei, Rhizopus oryzae, Rh. stolonifer, Umbelopsis autotrophica, U. isabellina, U. ramanniana var. angulispora and U. versiformis were selected for further studies to characterise their lipolytic enzyme production in detail. In these assays, effect of Tween 80 and palm, soybean, sunflower, olive, extra virgin olive, wheat germ, corn germ, sesame seed, pumpkin seed and cottonseed oils on the enzyme activities was investigated, and wheat bran-based submerged and solid-state fermentations were also tested. Tween 80 and olive oil proved to be efficient inductors for lipolytic enzyme production, which was also enhanced when wheat bran was used as support. Addition of mineral salts and olive oil to the solid fermentation medium resulted in at least 1.5-fold increment in the enzyme activities of the crude extracts. Organic synthesis was also assayed by the selected lipases, in which enzymes from the fungi R. miehei, Rh. stolonifer and M. echinosphaera gave the best yields during transesterification reactions between p-nitrophenyl palmitate and ethanol.

  18. Comportamiento predestete de cabritos cruzados en Guanajuato, México

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    Sonia Castillo-Rodríguez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Los pesos al nacimiento y al destete fueron registrados para evaluar el comportamiento pre-destete de cabritos cruzado en ocho pequeñas fincas de producción de leche de cabra en Guanajuato, México. Materiales y métodos. Se usaron 234 registros de cabritos, las cabras fueron mantenidas en condiciones de pastoreo con suplementación de un concentrado comercial. Los cabritos eran cruzados, de las razas Sannen, Alpina y Toggenburg, los datos fueron analizados con un modelo estadístico que considero los efectos de rebaño (RE, grupo contemporáneo (GC, número de parto (NP, tipo parto (TP y sexo del cabrito (SC. Resultados. Las medias de peso al nacer, peso a los 60 días de edad y la ganancia diaria de peso fueron 3.4±0.5 (rango 2.0 a 5.5, 13.7±1.8 (rango 8.0 a 17.5 y 0.17±0.02 (0.08 a 0.23 kg. El peso al nacimiento fue afectado (p<0.01 por RE, GC, NP, TP y SC. Sin embargo, el peso a 60 días y ganancia diaria de peso fueron afectadas (p<0.05 por RE y SC. Conclusiones. El rebaño afectó el comportamiento de los cabritos.

  19. Seasonal variation in the food habits of badgers in an Alpine valley

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    Mauro Lucherini

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The seasonal variation in diet and trophic niche breadth of the European badger (Meles meles have been studied in a high-elevation Alpine ecosystem from March 1990 to October 1991. The analysis of 76 faecal samples showed that Orthoptera, Coleoptera, insect larvae (mainly Coleoptera and Lepidoptera, earthworms and small mammals were the main food items. Both inter- and intra-year differences in food habits were detected. These differences seem primarily related to variations in food availability. Riassunto Variazione stagionale dell'alimentazione del tasso in una valle alpina - La variazione stagionale della dieta e dell'ampiezza di nicchia trofica del tasso (Meles meles è stata studiata in un ecosistema alpino di alta quota tra marzo 1990 e ottobre 1991. L'analisi di 76 campioni fecali ha mostrato che ortotteri, coleotteri, larve di insetti (principalmente coleotteri e lepidotteri, lombrichi e micromammiferi sono state le categorie principali della dieta del tasso. Nell'alimentazione sono state rilevate differenze sia stagionali che annuali. Queste differenze sono apparse essenzialmente connesse a variazioni delle disponibilità trofiche.

  20. OSTRACODS ACROSS THE PERMIAN-TRIASSIC BOUNDARY IN WESTERN TETHYS: THE BULLA PARASTRATOTYPE (SOUTHERN ALPS, ITALY

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    SYLVIE CRASQUIN

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the ostracod fauna of the parastratotype of the Permian-Triassic boundary at Bulla in the Southern Alps produced 62 species belonging to 31 genera. They are all discussed and figured. This paper presents results of the first description of ostracods from this important site. One genus, Bairdiacratia n. gen., and 13 species are new: Glyptopleurina pasinii n. sp., Knoxiella ventrospinosa n. sp., Knightina bullaensis n. sp., Bairdia ortiseiensis n. sp., B. cheni n. sp., B. (Rectobairdia kershawi n. sp., Bairdiacratia qinglai n.gen. n. sp., B. tergilata n. gen. n. sp., Microcheilinella lata n. sp., Parabythocythere chongpani n. sp., Cavellina bellerophonella n. sp., C. alpina n. sp. and C. triassica n. sp. The palaeocecological analysis of each unit is produced. The unconformity-paraconformity U1 is clearly reflected in the ostracod assemblages and is marked by a drop in diversity and abundance of specimens. It was followed by a change in the ostracod faunal composition. The Bulla Member displays maximum ostracod diversity and abundance linked with the trangressive trend reported for this period. The unconformity-paraconformity U2, at the boundary between the Bellerophon and Werfen formations (Bulla and Lower Tesero members is the main extinction level for ostracods. The Lower Tesero, Lower Mazzin and Upper Tesero members have very poor faunas. The lower part of the Upper Mazzin Mb. is characterized by an uneven burst of diversity before the great period of taxonomic paucity observed during the late Griesbachian all over the world. 

  1. Importance of Marine-Derived Nutrients Supplied by Planktivorous Seabirds to High Arctic Tundra Plant Communities.

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    Adrian Zwolicki

    Full Text Available We studied the relative importance of several environmental factors for tundra plant communities in five locations across Svalbard (High Arctic that differed in geographical location, oceanographic and climatic influence, and soil characteristics. The amount of marine-derived nitrogen in the soil supplied by seabirds was locally the most important of the studied environmental factors influencing the tundra plant community. We found a strong positive correlation between δ15N isotopic values and total N content in the soil, confirming the fundamental role of marine-derived matter to the generally nutrient-poor Arctic tundra ecosystem. We also recorded a strong correlation between the δ15N values of soil and of the tissues of vascular plants and mosses, but not of lichens. The relationship between soil δ15N values and vascular plant cover was linear. In the case of mosses, the percentage ground cover reached maximum around a soil δ 15N value of 8‰, as did plant community diversity. This soil δ15N value clearly separated the occurrence of plants with low nitrogen tolerance (e.g. Salix polaris from those predominating on high N content soils (e.g. Cerastium arcticum, Poa alpina. Large colonies of planktivorous little auks have a great influence on Arctic tundra vegetation, either through enhancing plant abundance or in shaping plant community composition at a local scale.

  2. Importance of Marine-Derived Nutrients Supplied by Planktivorous Seabirds to High Arctic Tundra Plant Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolicki, Adrian; Zmudczyńska-Skarbek, Katarzyna; Richard, Pierre; Stempniewicz, Lech

    2016-01-01

    We studied the relative importance of several environmental factors for tundra plant communities in five locations across Svalbard (High Arctic) that differed in geographical location, oceanographic and climatic influence, and soil characteristics. The amount of marine-derived nitrogen in the soil supplied by seabirds was locally the most important of the studied environmental factors influencing the tundra plant community. We found a strong positive correlation between δ15N isotopic values and total N content in the soil, confirming the fundamental role of marine-derived matter to the generally nutrient-poor Arctic tundra ecosystem. We also recorded a strong correlation between the δ15N values of soil and of the tissues of vascular plants and mosses, but not of lichens. The relationship between soil δ15N values and vascular plant cover was linear. In the case of mosses, the percentage ground cover reached maximum around a soil δ 15N value of 8‰, as did plant community diversity. This soil δ15N value clearly separated the occurrence of plants with low nitrogen tolerance (e.g. Salix polaris) from those predominating on high N content soils (e.g. Cerastium arcticum, Poa alpina). Large colonies of planktivorous little auks have a great influence on Arctic tundra vegetation, either through enhancing plant abundance or in shaping plant community composition at a local scale.

  3. Estudo do polimorfismo genético da α S1-caseína em cabras, no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil = Study of the genetic polymorphism of the α S1-casein in goats of Pernambuco State, Brazil

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    Ariosto Afonso da Silva

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O Estado de Pernambuco tem uma vocação pecuária, especialmente, para aexploração de caprinos. Dentre as proteínas, chamadas de caseínas, a αS1-caseína foi a primeira proteína comprovada com base no polimorfismo genético. Objetivando realizar a genotipagem de cabras criadas no sertão, agreste e zona da mata do Estado de Pernambuco, por meio da técnica de PCR-RFLP, estudou-se o polimorfismo do gene da aS1-caseína. Utilizaram-se 60 animais, divididos em três grupos de 20 animais, das raças Moxotó, Alpina Americana e SRD (Sem Raça Definida. A extração do DNA foi realizada com a utilização do protocolo fenol-clorofórmio, e o gene da aS1-caseína foi amplificado por meio da PCR (reação da polimerase em cadeia. Em seguida, foi utilizada a enzima de restrição XmnI para obter a freqüência alélica das raças estudadas. Encontrou-se, nos caprinos, os alelos da aS1-caseína B e D que foram predominantes para a raça nativa Moxotó e animais SRD (100%, e os alelos C e D, para a raça Alpina Americana(100%, concluindo-se que existem variações genéticas para o gene da aS1-caseína do leite das raças caprinas estudadas, embora se evidencie a proximidade genética entre a Moxotó e SRD.The Pernambuco State, has been a livestock area, mainly for thecaprine exploration. Among the proteins, called caseins, the αS1-casein was the first proved protein with base in the genetic polymorphism. To genotype goats of the “sertão”, “agreste” and “zona da mata” regions of the Brazilian State of Pernambuco, through the PCR-RFLP technique, we studied the polymorphism of the αS1-casein gene. Sixty animals were used, divided in three groups of twenty animals of the races Moxotó, American Alpine and UB (Undefined Breed. The DNA extraction was done by the phenol-chloroform protocol and the αS1-casein gene was amplified through the PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction. Then, the restriction enzyme XmnI was used to obtain the allele

  4. Estudo do polimorfismo genético da αS1-caseína em cabras, no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i3.551 Study of the genetic polymorphism of the αS1-casein in goats of Pernambuco State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i3.551

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    Aurea Wischral

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O Estado de Pernambuco tem uma vocação pecuária, especialmente, para a exploração de caprinos. Dentre as proteínas, chamadas de caseínas, a αS1-caseína foi a primeira proteína comprovada com base no polimorfismo genético. Objetivando realizar a genotipagem de cabras criadas no sertão, agreste e zona da mata do Estado de Pernambuco, por meio da técnica de PCR-RFLP, estudou-se o polimorfismo do gene da αS1-caseína. Utilizaram-se 60 animais, divididos em três grupos de 20 animais, das raças Moxotó, Alpina Americana e SRD (Sem Raça Definida. A extração do DNA foi realizada com a utilização do protocolo fenol-clorofórmio, e o gene da αS1-caseína foi amplificado por meio da PCR (reação da polimerase em cadeia. Em seguida, foi utilizada a enzima de restrição XmnI para obter a freqüência alélica das raças estudadas. Encontrou-se, nos caprinos, os alelos da αS1-caseína B e D que foram predominantes para a raça nativa Moxotó e animais SRD (100%, e os alelos C e D, para a raça Alpina Americana (100%, concluindo-se que existem variações genéticas para o gene da αS1-caseína do leite das raças caprinas estudadas, embora se evidencie a proximidade genética entre a Moxotó e SRD.The Pernambuco State, has been a livestock area, mainly for the caprine exploration. Among the proteins, called caseins, the αS1-casein was the first proved protein with base in the genetic polymorphism. To genotype goats of the “sertão”, “agreste” and “zona da mata” regions of the Brazilian State of Pernambuco, through the PCR-RFLP technique, we studied the polymorphism of the αS1-casein gene. Sixty animals were used, divided in three groups of twenty animals of the races Moxotó, American Alpine and UB (Undefined Breed. The DNA extraction was done by the phenol-chloroform protocol and the αS1-casein gene was amplified through the PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction. Then, the restriction enzyme XmnI was used to obtain the allele

  5. Final results on the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in the Gresten Klippenbelt (Austria): Macro-, micro-, nannofossils, isotopes, geochemistry, susceptibility, gamma-log and palaeomagnetic data as environmental proxies of the early Penninic Ocean history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukeneder, A.; Halásová, E.; Kroh, A.; Mayrhofer, S.; Pruner, P.; Reháková, D.; Schnabl, P.; Sprovieri, M.

    2009-04-01

    and magnetostratigraphic data, the entire succession of the Nutzhof section embraces a duration of approx. 8 million years (approx. 150-142 Ma). The deposition of the limestones, marly limestones and marls in this interval occurred during depositionally (e.g. tectonics) unstable conditions.The ammonite fauna comprises 6 different genera, each apparently represented by a single species. The occurrence at the Nutzhof section is dominated by ammonites of the perisphinctid-type. Ammonitina are the most frequent component (60 per cent; Subplanites and Haploceras), followed by the Phylloceratina (25per cent; Ptychophylloceras and Phylloceras), and the Lytoceratina (15 per cent; represented by Lytoceras and Leptotetragonites). The ammonite fauna consists solely of Mediterranean elements. Crinoids. Only the Tithonian part of the section proved suitable for bulk sampling. Four crinoid taxa (Margocrinus cf. pentagonalis, Saccocoma tenella, Crassicoma ? sp., and Phyllocrinus belbekensis could be documented. Among these only S. tenella and probably Crassicoma ? sp. appear to be autochthonous, the others are interpreted as transported based on preservation and size range. Observed changes in lithology and microfauna may be reflect geodynamically induced palaeogeographic changes and/or basinal deepening. Microfossils. The biostratigraphic study based on the distribution of calpionellids allowed us to distinguish the Boneti Subzone of the Chitinoidella Zone in the Nutzhof section. The J/K boundary in this section is situated between the Crassicollaria and Calpionella Zone (interval limited by samples 7.0-5.6). This base is defined by the morphological change of Calpionella alpina tests. The base of the Crassicollaria Zone approximately coincides with the onset of Tintinnopsella remanei and the base of the standard Calpionella Zone, with the monospecific calpionellid association being dominated by Calpionella alpina. Two further Subzones (Ferasini and Elliptica) of the standard

  6. Dados sorológicos sobre a presença e distribuição da artrite-encefalite caprina (CAE no Estado da Bahia , Brasil.

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    A. Figueredo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Para verificar a soroprevalência da artrite-encefalite caprina (Cae foram analisadas 1605 amostras de hemo-soros de caprinos pertencentes a rebanhos localizados em nove microrregiões geográficas e distribuídos em 24 municípios do Estado da Bahia, os quais nos foram enviados para exame no Laboratório de Viroses da Escola de Medicina Veterinária. A população estudada compreendeu animais de criatórios de leite e corte, de manejo intensivo, semi-intensivo e extensivo, das raças: alpina, anglo-nubiana, boer, mambrina, saanen, toggenburg e sem raça definida(SRD. Foram positivos ao teste de imunodifusão em ágar gel (IDAG 215 (13,4% hemo-soros de caprinos. Nas raças sanen, alpina e anglo-nubiana foram encontradas um maior número de animais positivos, respectivamente 77 (18,92%, 80 (16,06% e 49 (15,76%. Entre as amostras positivas a maior frequência foi de fêmeas 194 (90,23% e adultos 193 (89,77%. Os resultados obtidos comprovam a existência da CAE na região e a necessidade de novas pesquisas que avaliem o índice de infecção dos animais e as formas de prevenção e controle da doença, PALAVRAS CHAVE: Artrite – encefalite caprina, teste da imunidade, fusão em agar gel, doenças em caprinos SUMMARY: To verify the soroprevalency of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE 1605 samples of goats hemo-serums belonging to flocks located in nine geographical microrregiões were analyzed and distributed in 24 municipal districts of the State of Bahia. This samples were sent to Laboratory of Viruses of the Veterinary Medicine School to analysis. The studied population understood animals of herd of milk and court, of intensive, semi-intensive and extensive handling, of the races: alpine, anglo-nubiana, boer, mambrina, saanen, toggenburg and without race defined(SRD. They were positive to the agar gel imunodifusion test (IDAG 215 (13,4% goats hemo-serums. In the races

  7. Integrando escalas y métodos LTER para comprender la dinámica global de un espacio protegido de montaña: el Parque Nacional de Ordesa y Monte Perdido

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    M.B. García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Los espacios protegidos, por el hecho de albergar una gran geo-biodiversidad y asegurar una baja intervención humana, constituyen lugares muy adecuados para el seguimiento de organismos y procesos a escala ecológica, así como para la obtención de series temporales largas a escala geológica. En el marco de la red LTER-España, el Parque Nacional de Ordesa y Monte Perdido (PNOMP y el Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología-CSIC están impulsando estudios para la detección de cambios a distintas escalas mediante variados métodos y aproximaciones. Destacamos aquí los más consolidados, entre los que se encuentran los análisis de registros de sedimentos en lagos, espeleotemas en cuevas, la dinámica de uno de los pocos glaciares activos de la Península ibérica, el análisis físico-químico de aguas corrientes e ibones de alta montaña, el registro del cambio climático actual en árboles longevos, la afección que éste ejerce sobre masas actuales de pinos en el límite superior del bosque y de abetales en zonas húmedas, la matorralización de algunos pastos y los procesos mecanicistas que subyacen, la reorganización de la diversidad florística en pastos tras el abandono paulatino o drástico de la ganadería, la biodiversidad de las comunidades alpinas y la dinámica poblacional de especies amenazadas o indicadoras de hábitats o de motores de cambio global. Los seguimientos ecológicos actuales muestran que tanto el cambio climático como el de usos del suelo están teniendo una considerable trascendencia en la fisionomía y la estructura de algunos de los ambientes más icónicos y frecuentes del parque (deterioro del glaciar, termofilización de la flora en cumbres alpinas, densificación del bosque en su límite superior, pérdida de productividad en algunos pastos supraforestales, etc.. También sugieren una importante variabilidad espacial en los procesos (por ej. en el PNOMP conviven pastos matorralizados y pastos muy estables, y

  8. The distribution of potassium and sodium concentrations in the erythrocytes of some breeds of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arranz, J J; Bayón, Y; Primitivo, F

    1994-01-12

    The distribution of erythrocyte potassium and sodium concentrations was studied in Sayaguesa (n = 150), Brown Swiss (n = 163) and two populations of Avileña-Negra Ibérica cattle (n = 141 and 141 respectively). No polymorphism was detected for red-cell cation content in any of the breeds investigated. Mean values of potassium concentrations varied between 21.42 and 24.92 mmol/l red cells, those of sodium contents ranging from 77.50-93.44 mmol/1. The cattle studied can thus be considered as belonging to the 'low potassium' (LK) type. Significant differences were found both in potassium and sodium concentrations between one of the populations of Avileña-Negra Ibérica and the other groups examined. Mean values of sodium levels in Brown Swiss were also significantly different from the other groups. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: Verteilung von Kalium- und Natriumblutspiegelwerten in Erythrozyten einiger Rinderrassen Die Verteilung von Kalium- und Natriumkonzentrationen in Erythrozyten wurde in vier Gruppen untersucht: Sayaguesa (n = 150), Braunvieh (n = 163) und zwei Gruppen von Avileña-Negra Ibérica Rindern (n = 141). In keiner der untersuchten Gruppen wurde Polymorphismus für den Cationenspiegel gefunden. Mittelwerte für Kaliumkonzentration schwankten zwischen 21,4 und 24,9 mmol/l roter Zellen, die für Natriumgehalt zwischen 77,5 und 93,4 mmol/1. Die Rinder könnten daher als 'niedrigere Kalium' Type bezeichnet werden. Signifikante Unterschiede wurden sowohl für den Kalium-als auch für der Natriumspiegel zwischen den beiden Avileña-Negra Ibérica Gruppen gefunden. Die Mittelwerte für Natriumspiegel in Braunvieh waren ebenfalls significant unterscniedlich im Vergleich zu den anderen. RESUMEN: Distributión del potasio y sodio eritrocitarios en algunas razas de ganado vacuno Se estudió la distribución de las concentraciones de potasio y sodio eritrocitarios en cuatro grupos de ganado vacuno: Sayaguesa (n = 150), Pardo Alpina (n = 163) y dos poblaciones de Avile

  9. Microfacies of the Triassic limestones in the Izvorul Malului klippe (Rarău Syncline, Transylvanian Nappes, Eastern Carpathians, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Alexandra POPESCU

    2008-06-01

    platform are characterized by specificbenthic foraminiferal assemblages. They have proved to be extremely useful in recognisingfacies zones. The distribution was controlled by substrate conditions and salinity, nutrientrequirements, specific life behavior, the topography of depositional environment, water depthand light.The microscopic analysis of the carbonate klippe made on 30 thin sections allowed thedifferentiation of several microfacies types whose micropaleontological content covers theUpper Triassic time. The Carnian microfacies are: biomicrites with pelmicrites and sparites. The biomicritescontain a fossil assemblage consist of few foraminifera, alga, sponges, incertae sedis, (e.g.Agathammina austroalpina Kristan-Tollmann & Tollmann, Trochammina alpina Kristan,Glomospirella aff. facilis Ho, Endoteba ex. gr. obturata Brönnimann & Zaninetti, Glomospirasp., Solenopora simionescui Dragastan, Solenopora cassiana Flügel, Cryptocoelia zitteli Ott,Spiriamphorella carpathica gemerica Borza & Samuel, microgastropods etc.The Norian – Rhaetian microfacies, according to their frequency, are: crinoidbiosparites, biomicrites and pelmicrites. The foraminiferal assemblage contains a few species:Agathammina austroalpina Kristan-Tollmann & Tollmann, Variostoma catilliforme Kristan-Tollmann, Trochammina alpina Kristan, Glomospira inconstans Michalik, Glomospirellafriedli Kristan-Tollmann, Glomospirella sp., Endoteba ex. gr. obturata Brönnimann &Zaninetti, Diplotremmina sp.Aerobic conditions are indicated by a gastropod-ostracod-foraminifera community anda monotypic bivalve assemblage.Diagenetic microfacies criteria are cements, neomorphic alterations, dissolutionfeatures and fracturing. Calcite cements occur predominantly within the shell interior (marineradial fibrous cement and late diagenesis recrystallized blocky cement. The limestones wereaffected by near-surface and marine diagenesis (inversion of aragonite, radial fibrous cementand burial diagenesis (coarse blocky

  10. Experimental soil warming and cooling alters the partitioning of recent assimilates: evidence from a (14)C-labelling study at the alpine treeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, A; Hagedorn, F; Niklaus, P A

    2016-05-01

    Despite concerns about climate change effects on ecosystems functioning, little is known on how plant assimilate partitioning changes with temperature. Particularly, large temperature effects might occur in cold ecosystems where critical processes are at their temperature limit. In this study, we tested temperature effects on carbon (C) assimilate partitioning in a field experiment at the alpine treeline. We warmed and cooled soils of microcosms planted with Pinus mugo or Leucanthemopsis alpina, achieving daily mean soil temperatures (3-10 cm depth) around 5.8, 12.7 and 19.2 °C in cooled, control and warmed soils. We pulse-labelled these systems with (14)CO2 for one photoperiod and traced (14)C over the successive 4 days. Plant net (14)C uptake increased steadily with soil temperature. However, (14)C amounts in fungal hyphae, soil microbial biomass, soil organic matter, and soil respiration showed a non-linear response to temperature. This non-linear pattern was particularly pronounced in P. mugo, with five times higher (14)C activities in cooled compared to control soils, but no difference between warmed and control soil. Autoradiographic analysis of the spatial distribution of (14)C in soils indicated that temperature effects on the vertical label distribution within soils depended on plant species. Our results show that plant growth, in particular root metabolism, is limited by low soil temperature. As a consequence, positive temperature effects on net C uptake may not be paralleled by similar changes in rhizodeposition. This has important implications for predictions of soil C storage, because rhizodeposits and plant biomass vary strongly in their residence times.

  11. Molecular evidence indicates that subarctic willow communities in Scotland support a diversity of host-associated Melampsora rust taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Jeremy M; Helfer, Stephan; Kirk, Calum; Hollingsworth, Peter M; Ennos, Richard A

    2012-05-01

    Rare and threatened subarctic willow scrub communities in the UK are the subject of ongoing conservation programmes, yet little is known about the diversity of fungal taxa that they support. Isolates of the rust genus Melampsora were sampled from 112 leaves of eight subarctic willow (Salix) taxa and their hybrids from twelve sites in the UK. In order to determine the number of Melampsora taxa present in the samples, isolates were sequenced for the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of rDNA and data were subject to phylogenetic analysis. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis indicated that the isolates fell into three strongly supported host-associated clades. Clade I contained only isolates from Salix herbacea and was distinguished morphologically by dense urediniospore echinulation and thin cell walls. Clade II contained isolates from Salix arbuscula and Salix reticulata only. These could not be distinguished morphologically from isolates in Clade III which were found on Salix lapponum, Salix myrsinites, Salix myrsinifolia, Salix aurita, Salix lanata, and their hybrids. Clade II was most distinct in ITS sequence, differing by 50 bases from Clades I and III, while the latter clades differed in sequence by only 24 bases on average. Clades I and III are likely to represent the previously recognised taxa Melampsora alpina Juel 1894 and Melampsora epitea Thüm. 1879 respectively, but Clade II has not apparently been described before. Significant differences in the intensity of infection by isolates of Clade III were found among different Salix species at a single site, suggesting either differences in resistance among Salix taxa, or the presence of further cryptic taxa within Clade III. The study illustrates the power of molecular phylogenetic analysis to reveal cryptic biodiversity within Melampsora, and suggests that conserving Salix host diversity within subarctic willow communities will ensure that a diversity of associated Melampsora taxa is maintained.

  12. Wind effects on prey availability: How northward migrating waders use brackish and hypersaline lagoons in the sivash, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuil, Yvonne; Koolhaas, Anita; Van Der Winden, Jan

    Large numbers of waders migrating northward in spring use the Sivash, a large system of shallow, brackish and hypersaline lagoons in the Black Sea and Azov Sea region (Ukraine). The bottoms of these lagoons are often uncovered by the wind. Hence, for waders the time and space available for feeding depend on wind conditions. In hypersaline lagoons the benthic and pelagic fauna was very poor, consisting mainly of chironomid larvae (0.19 g AFDM·m -2) and brine shrimps Artemia salina, respectively. Brine shrimp abundance was correlated with salinity, wind force, wind direction and water depth. Dunlin Calidris alpina and curlew sandpiper Calidris ferruginea were the only species feeding on brine shrimp. As brine shrimp densities are higher in deeper water, smaller waders such as broad-billed sandpipers Limicola falcinellus are too short-legged to reach exploitable densities of brine shrimp. In brackish lagoons the benthic and pelagic fauna was rich, consisting of polychaetes, bivalves, gastropods, chironomid larvae, isopods and amphipods (8.9 to 30.5 g AFDM·m -2), but there were no brine shrimps. Prey biomass increased with the distance from the coast, being highest on the site that was most frequently inundated. Dunlin, broad-billed sandpiper and grey plover Pluvialis squatarola were the most abundant birds in the brackish lagoon. Due to the effects of wind-tides only a small area was usually available as a feeding site. Gammarus insensibilis was the alternative prey resource in the water layer, and their density varied with wind direction in the same way as brine shrimp. Curlew sandpipers and dunlins in the hypersaline lagoons and broad-billed sandpipers in the brackish lagoons often changed feeding sites, probably following the variation in prey availability. Only because of the large size and variety of lagoons are waders in the Sivash always able to find good feeding sites.

  13. Chromosome numbers in three species groups of freshwater flatworms increase with increasing latitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorch, Sven; Zeuss, Dirk; Brandl, Roland; Brändle, Martin

    2016-03-01

    Polyploidy in combination with parthenogenesis offers advantages for plasticity and the evolution of a broad ecological tolerance of species. Therefore, a positive correlation between the level of ploidy and increasing latitude as a surrogate for environmental harshness has been suggested. Such a positive correlation is well documented for plants, but examples for animals are still rare. Species of flatworms (Platyhelminthes) are widely distributed, show a remarkably wide range of chromosome numbers, and offer therefore good model systems to study the geographical distribution of chromosome numbers. We analyzed published data on counts of chromosome numbers and geographical information of three flatworm "species" (Phagocata vitta, Polycelis felina and Crenobia alpina) sampled across Europe (220 populations). We used the mean chromosome number across individuals of a population as a proxy for the level of ploidy within populations, and we tested for relationships of this variable with latitude, mode of reproduction (sexual, asexual or both) and environmental variables (annual mean temperature, mean diurnal temperature range, mean precipitation and net primary production). The mean chromosome numbers of all three species increased with latitude and decreased with mean annual temperature. For two species, chromosome number also decreased with mean precipitation and net primary production. Furthermore, high chromosome numbers within species were accompanied with a loss of sexual reproduction. The variation of chromosome numbers within individuals of two of the three species increased with latitude. Our results support the hypothesis that polyploid lineages are able to cope with harsh climatic conditions at high latitudes. Furthermore, we propose that asexual reproduction in populations with high levels of polyploidization stabilizes hybridization events. Chromosomal irregularities within individuals tend to become more frequent at the extreme environments of high

  14. Predicting breeding shorebird distributions on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfeld, Sarah T.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Brown, Stephen C.; Saalfeld, David T.; Johnson, James A.; Andres, Brad A.; Bart, Jonathan R.

    2013-01-01

    The Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska is an important region for millions of migrating and nesting shorebirds. However, this region is threatened by climate change and increased human development (e.g., oil and gas production) that have the potential to greatly impact shorebird populations and breeding habitat in the near future. Because historic data on shorebird distributions in the ACP are very coarse and incomplete, we sought to develop detailed, contemporary distribution maps so that the potential impacts of climate-mediated changes and development could be ascertained. To do this, we developed and mapped habitat suitability indices for eight species of shorebirds (Black-bellied Plover [Pluvialis squatarola], American Golden-Plover [Pluvialis dominica], Semipalmated Sandpiper [Calidris pusilla], Pectoral Sandpiper [Calidris melanotos], Dunlin [Calidris alpina], Long-billed Dowitcher [Limnodromus scolopaceus], Red-necked Phalarope [Phalaropus lobatus], and Red Phalarope [Phalaropus fulicarius]) that commonly breed within the ACP of Alaska. These habitat suitability models were based on 767 plots surveyed during nine years between 1998 and 2008 (surveys were not conducted in 2003 and 2005), using single-visit rapid area searches during territory establishment and incubation (8 June, 1 July). Species specific habitat suitability indices were developed and mapped using presence-only modeling techniques (partitioned Mahalanobis distance) and landscape environmental variables. For most species, habitat suitability was greater at lower elevations (i.e., near the coast and river deltas) and lower within upland habitats. Accuracy of models was high for all species, ranging from 65 -98%. Our models predicted that the largest fraction of suitable habitat for the majority of species occurred within the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, with highly suitable habitat also occurring within coastal areas of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge west to Prudhoe Bay.

  15. Transgenic expression of delta-6 and delta-15 fatty acid desaturases enhances omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid accumulation in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gao; Qu, Shujie; Wang, Qiang; Bian, Fei; Peng, Zhenying; Zhang, Yan; Ge, Haitao; Yu, Jinhui; Xuan, Ning; Bi, Yuping; He, Qingfang

    2014-03-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which contain two or more double bonds in their backbone, are the focus of intensive global research, because of their nutritional value, medicinal applications, and potential use as biofuel. However, the ability to produce these economically important compounds is limited, because it is both expensive and technically challenging to separate omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) from natural oils. Although the biosynthetic pathways of some plant and microalgal ω-3 PUFAs have been deciphered, current understanding of the correlation between fatty acid desaturase content and fatty acid synthesis in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 is incomplete. We constructed a series of homologous vectors for the endogenous and exogenous expression of Δ6 and Δ15 fatty acid desaturases under the control of the photosynthesis psbA2 promoter in transgenic Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. We generated six homologous recombinants, harboring various fatty acid desaturase genes from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, Gibberella fujikuroi and Mortierella alpina. These lines produced up to 8.9 mg/l of α-linolenic acid (ALA) and 4.1 mg/l of stearidonic acid (SDA), which are more than six times the corresponding wild-type levels, at 20°C and 30°C. Thus, transgenic expression of Δ6 and Δ15 fatty acid desaturases enhances the accumulation of specific ω-3 PUFAs in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. In the blue-green alga Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, overexpression of endogenous and exogenous genes encoding PUFA desaturases markedly increased accumulation of ALA and SDA and decreased accumulation of linoleic acid and γ-linolenic acid. This study lays the foundation for increasing the fatty acid content of cyanobacteria and, ultimately, for producing nutritional and medicinal products with high levels of essential ω-3 PUFAs.

  16. Identification & Characterization of Fungal Ice Nucleation Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Jan Frederik; Kunert, Anna Theresa; Kampf, Christopher Johannes; Mauri, Sergio; Weidner, Tobias; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2016-04-01

    Freezing of water at relatively warm subfreezing temperatures is dependent on ice nucleation catalysis facilitated by ice nuclei (IN). These IN can be of various origins and although extensive research was done and progress was achieved, the nature and mechanisms leading to an effective IN are to date still poorly understood. Some of the most important processes of our geosphere like the water cycle are highly dependent on effective ice nucleation at temperatures between -2°C - -8°C, a temperature range which is almost exclusively covered by biological IN (BioIN). BioIN are usually macromolecular structures of biological polymers. Sugars as well as proteins have been reported to serve as IN and the best characterized BioIN are ice nucleation proteins (IN-P) from gram negative bacteria. Fungal strains from Fusarium spp. were described to be effective IN at subfreezing temperatures up to -2°C already 25 years ago and more and more fungal species are described to serve as efficient IN. Fungal IN are also thought to be proteins or at least contain a proteinaceous compound, but to date the fungal IN-P primary structure as well as their coding genetic elements of all IN active fungi are unknown. The aim of this study is a.) to identify the proteins and their coding genetic elements from IN active fungi (F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, M. alpina) and b.) to characterize the mechanisms by which fungal IN serve as effective IN. We designed an interdisciplinary approach using biological, analytical and physical methods to identify fungal IN-P and describe their biological, chemical, and physical properties.

  17. Miocene-Pliocene speciation, introgression, and migration of Patis and Ptilagrostis (Poaceae: Stipeae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaschenko, Konstantin; Garcia-Jacas, Nuria; Peterson, Paul M; Soreng, Robert J; Vilatersana, Roser; Susanna, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    Genetic interchange between American and Eurasian species is fundamental to our understanding of the biogeographical patterns, and we make a first attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary events in East Asia that lead to the origin and dispersal of two genera, Patis and Ptilagrostis. We conducted a molecular phylogenetic study of 78 species in the tribe Stipeae using four plastid DNA sequences (ndhF, rpl32-trnL, rps16-trnK, and rps16 intron) and two nuclear DNA sequences (ITS and At103). We use single copy nDNA gene At103 for the first time in the grasses to elucidate the evolutionary history among members of the Stipeae. Ampelodesmos, Hesperostipa, Oryzopsis, Pappostipa, Patis, and Stipa are found to be of multiple origins. Our phylograms reveal conflicting positions for Ptilagrostis alpina and Pt. porteri that form a clade with Patis coreana, P. obtusa, and P. racemosa in the combined plastid tree but are aligned with other members of Ptilagrostis in the ITS tree. We hypothesize that Ptilagrostis still retains the nucleotype of an extinct genus which transited the Bering land bridge from American origins in the late Miocene (minimum 7.35-6.37 mya) followed by hybridization and two plastid capture events with a Trikeraia-like taxon (7.96 mya) and para-Patis (between 5.32 and 3.76 mya). Ptilagrostis porteri and Patis racemosa then migrated to continental North America 1.7-2.9 mya and 4.3-5.3 mya, respectively. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Effect of atmospheric CO 2 enrichment on rubisco content in herbaceous species from high and low altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Rowan F.; Schäppi, Bernd; Körner, Christian

    Atmospheric CO 2 enrichment reduces Rubisco content in many species grown in controlled environments; however, relatively few studies have examined CO 2 effects on Rubisco content of plants grown in their natural habitat. We examined the response of Rubisco content to atmospheric CO 2 enrichment (600-680 μmol mol -1 in place of ppm) in 5 herbaceous species growing in a low altitude grassland (550 m) near Basel, Switzerland, and 3 herbaceous species from Swiss alpine grassland at 2470 m. At low elevation, the dominant grass Bromus erectus and the subdominant dicot Sanquisorba minor exhibited 20% to 25% reduction of Rubisco content following high CO 2 exposure; no CO 2 effect was observed in the subdominants Carex flacca, Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium repens. At the Alpine site, the subdominant grass Poa alpina maintained 27% less Rubisco content when grown at high CO 2 while the co-dominant forb Leontodon helveticus had 19% less Rubisco in high CO 2. Rubisco content was unaffected in the tundra dominant Carex curvula. Because the degree of Rubisco modulation was similar between high and low elevation sites, it does not appear that differences in local partial pressure of CO 2 (altitude) or differences in stress in general induce different patterns of modulation of photosynthetic capacity in response to high CO 2. In addition, the degree of Rubisco reduction (<30%) was less than might be indicated by the low biomass response to CO 2 enrichment previously observed at these sites. Thus, plants in Swiss lowland and alpine grassland appear to maintain greater Rubisco concentration and photosynthetic capacity than whole plants can effectively exploit in terms of harvestable biomass.

  19. Ethnopharmacological evaluation of some Scorzonera species: in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küpeli Akkol, Esra; Bahadır Acıkara, Ozlem; Süntar, Ipek; Ergene, Burçin; Saltan Çitoğlu, Gülçin

    2012-03-27

    Scorzonera species are mainly used against inflammation and to relieve pain in Turkish traditional medicine. Therefore, we aimed to assess in vivo anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of the aerial part and root extracts of Scorzonera acuminata, Scorzonera cana var. alpina, Scorzonera cana var. jacquiniana, Scorzonera cana var. radicosa, Scorzonera cinerea, Scorzonera eriophora, Scorzonera incisa, Scorzonera laciniata ssp. laciniata, Scorzonera parviflora and Scorzonera sublanata. For the anti-inflammatory activity evaluation carrageenan, PGE(2) and serotonin-induced hind paw edema and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse ear edema models were used. p-Benzoquinone-induced abdominal constriction test was employed in mice for the assessment of antinociceptive activity. Furthermore chemical composition of the tested extracts was investigated qualitatively and quantitatively by using RP-HPLC method. Some phenolic acids and flavonoids were used as standards. Extracts prepared from the aerial parts of Scorzonera cana var. jacquiniana, Scorzonera cinerea, Scorzonera eriophora, Scorzonera incisa and Scorzonera parviflora showed significant inhibitory effect on carrageenan and PGE(2)-induced hind paw edema model as well as on p-benzoquinone-induced abdominal constriction test. The extracts did not show any remarkable activity on serotonin-induced hind paw edema and TPA-induced mouse ear edema models. Chlorogenic acid was detected as major compounds in all the species investigated. Additionally, among the tested flavonoids, luteolin-7-glucoside, hyperoside and rutin were found to be in different amounts in Scorzonera species. The experimental data revealed that Scorzonera cana var. jacquiniana, Scorzonera cinerea, Scorzonera eriophora, Scorzonera incisa and Scorzonera parviflora possess significant anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activity. It has been suggested that flavonoids and chlorogenic acid are partly responsible for mentioned activities

  20. UTILIZAÇÃO DO TESTE HIPOSMÓTICO PARA AVALIAR A EFICÁCIA DE DIFERENTES PROTOCOLOS DE CRIOPRESERVAÇÃO DO SÊMEN CAPRINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Freitas Vasconcelos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo comparar a eficácia de quatro protocolos de congelação do sêmen caprino (glicerol, glicerol+EDTA; etilenoglicol; etilenoglicol+EDTA, através da utilização do teste hiposmótico (HOST. O sêmen foi colhido de dois machos da raça Alpina, sexualmente maduros, diluído nos diferentes meios, congelado e armazenado em nitrogênio líquido. Após a colheita, 20ìL do sêmen fresco foram incubados com 01mL de solução hiposmótica (combinação de citrato de sódio e frutose em água destilada com osmolaridade de 125mOsmol, em banho-maria a 370C por 30 minutos. Este procedimento foi repetido após a descongelação e, em seguida, uma amostra foi colocada sobre lâmina/lamínula e avaliada em contraste de fase com mil vezes de aumento. Um total de 100 células foi contado, e as médias percentuais de espermatozóides com edema ou dobramento de cauda, após o HOST, foram – para o sêmen fresco, glicerol, glicerol+EDTA; etilenoglicol; etilenoglicol+EDTA –, respectivamente, 53,89; 16,90; 10,25; 52,64 e 57,54. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Caprinos, criopreservação, sêmen, teste hiposmótico

  1. Resource potential of bamboo, challenges and future directions towards sustainable management and utilization in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew Desalegn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Bamboo, the fastest growing and high yielding perennial plant of the world has more than 1500 species and 1500 versatile socio-economic uses and ecological services. Ethiopia has two indigenous bamboo species namely Yushania alpina and Oxytenantheria abyssinica, covering about one million ha with a wide distribution. The objective of this paper is to highlight the potential of bamboo resources, challenges including biodeterioration damage, opportunities and future research directions towards its sustainable management and rational utilization.Area of study: Bamboo resources of EthiopiaMaterial and Methods: Reconnaissance survey was done to some parts of the bamboo growing potential areas in Ethiopia besides the literature review. Main results: The bamboo resource, despite its socio-economic and environmental benefits, currently, in most areas has been under high pressure due to land use changes, bamboo mass- flowering, poor processing with low value addition, and damage by biodeteriorating agents (termites, beetles and fungi. The preservative tests on Ethiopian bamboos revealed low natural durability and highlighted the paramount importance of appropriate protection measures such as Tanalith and vehicles used motor oil to increase durability, service life and rational utilization of bamboo-based products and structures as potential alternative construction and furniture material.Research highlights: Therefore, integrated research and development interventions involving different propagation and managements techniques, harvesting season, processing, value addition including proper seasoning and preservation technologies and marketing are recommended to fill the information and technological gaps on sustainable management and rational utilization of this fast growing and multipurpose bamboo resources in Ethiopia.Key words: Bamboo; challenges; management; socio-economic and environmental significance; utilization.

  2. Repetitive flanking sequences challenge microsatellite marker development: a case study in the lepidopteran Melanargia galathea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Max; Csencsics, Daniela; Gugerli, Felix

    2016-11-01

    Microsatellite DNA families (MDF) are stretches of DNA that share similar or identical sequences beside nuclear simple-sequence repeat (nSSR) motifs, potentially causing problems during nSSR marker development. Primers positioned within MDFs can bind several times within the genome and might result in multiple banding patterns. It is therefore common practice to exclude MDF loci in the course of marker development. Here, we propose an approach to deal with multiple primer-binding sites by purposefully positioning primers within the detected repetitive element. We developed a new protocol to determine the family type and the primer position in relation to MDFs using the software packages repark and repeatmasker together with an in-house R script. We re-evaluated newly developed nSSR markers for the lepidopteran Marbled White (Melanargia galathea) and explored the implications of our results with regard to published data sets of the butterfly Euphydryas aurinia, the grasshopper Stethophyma grossum, the conifer Pinus cembra and the crucifer Arabis alpina. For M. galathea, we show that it is not only possible to develop reliable nSSR markers for MDF loci, but even to benefit from their presence in some cases: We used one unlabelled primer, successfully binding within an MDF, for two different loci in a multiplex PCR, combining this family primer with uniquely binding and fluorescently labelled primers outside of MDFs, respectively. As MDFs are abundant in many taxa, we propose to consider these during nSSR marker development in taxa concerned. Our new approach might help in reducing the number of tested primers during nSSR marker development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Impacts of habitat loss and fragmentation on the activity budget, ranging ecology and habitat use of Bale monkeys (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) in the southern Ethiopian Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Addisu; Fashing, Peter J; Bekele, Afework; Hernandez-Aguilar, R Adriana; Rueness, Eli K; Nguyen, Nga; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2017-02-09

    Understanding the extent to which primates in forest fragments can adjust behaviorally and ecologically to changes caused by deforestation is essential to designing conservation management plans. During a 12-month period, we studied the effects of habitat loss and degradation on the Ethiopian endemic, bamboo specialist, Bale monkey (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) by comparing its habitat quality, activity budget, ranging ecology and habitat use in continuous forest and two fragments. We found that habitat loss and fragmentation resulted in major differences in vegetation composition and structure between forest types. We also found that Bale monkeys in continuous forest spent more time feeding and traveling and less time resting and socializing than monkeys in fragments. Bale monkeys in continuous forest also had higher movement rates (m/hr) than monkeys in fragments. Bale monkeys in continuous forest used exclusively bamboo and mixed bamboo forest habitats while conspecifics in fragments used a greater variety of habitats including human use areas (i.e., matrix). Our findings suggest that Bale monkeys in fragments use an energy minimization strategy to cope with the lower availability of the species' primary food species, bamboo (Arundinaria alpina). We contend that Bale monkeys may retain some of the ancestral ecological flexibility assumed to be characteristic of the genus Chlorocebus, within which all extant species except Bale monkeys are regarded as ecological generalists. Our results suggest that, like other bamboo eating primates (e.g., the bamboo lemurs of Madagascar), Bale monkeys can cope with a certain threshold of habitat destruction. However, the long-term conservation prospects for Bale monkeys in fragments remain unclear and will require further monitoring to be properly evaluated.

  4. UJI PENDAHULUAN PENGARUH EKSTRAK AIR DARI TUMBUHAN TERHADAP KETERJADIAN KARAT PADA CAKRAM DAUN KOPI DI LABORATORIUM

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    Cipta Ginting

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary test on the effect of water extract from plants on rust incidence on coffee leaf disks at the latroratory. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of several water extract from plants on rust incidence on coffee leaf disk a laboratory condition. The study was done from March to June 2003. Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications, One experimental unit consisted of eight leaf disks with 2 cm in diameter. To prepare water extract, 1 00 g of plant or its part was homogenized with 100 ml sterilized distilled water.  After being passed through four layers of sterilized cheesecloth, the mixture was defined as the aliquot. Ten percent of the aliquot was sparyed on leaf disks before inoculation. As inoculum, uredospores developed on leaves under field condition were taken with sterilized scalpel and placed in sterilized distilled water and counted with hemacyometer to get suspension (4x105 uredospores per ml spores per ml. Data on disease incidence were analyzed with ANOVA and Duncan test. The results showed that disease incidence was significantly reduced by water extract processed from the leaves of Piper betle, Azadirachta indica, and Eugeni aromatica, the rhizomes of Zingiber afficinale and Curcumq longa, stem of Cymbopogon citratus, Allium ascalonium, A.sativa, and copper fungicide. Disease was not significantly reduced in leaf disks sprayed with extract prepares from the leaves of Piper retrofractum, P. nigrum,  the rhizomes of Imperata cylindrica and Alpina galanga, A. cepa,Ageratum comysoides, and Elephantopus scaber.

  5. Population study on Mustela erminea in Northwest Italy (Valle d'Aosta region: captures, morphometric data, diet

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    Elisabetta Bounous

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract By capturing-marking-recapturing method, 58 stoats Mustela erminea (37 males and 21 females were captured from 1990 to 1993 in an alpine area of the Valle d'Aosta region. Trappings were generally conducted from 15th July to 15th October of each year. Considering 2-3 subsequent trapping years the number of recaptures was very low, while in the same year we recaptured on average 57% of the animals. The population of stoats seemed to show a rapid turnover. The highest level of density was like to be reached at the beginning of September when the dispersal of animals probably started. The diet included exclusively small rodents, mainly Microtus. Riassunto Studio di popolazione su Mustela erminea, nell'Italia nord occidentale (Valle d'Aosta: catture, dati morfometrici, analisi alimentare - Nel periodo 1990-93, mediante il metodo di cattura-marcatura-ricattura, sono stati catturati 58 ermellini Mustela erminea (37 maschi e 21 femmine in una zona alpina della Valle d'Aosta. I trappolaggi sono stati effettuati dal 15 luglio al 15 ottobre di ogni anno. Il numero delle ricatture registrate in anni successivi è molto basso, mentre nell'arco di uno stesso anno raggiungeva mediamente il 57% del campione di animali catturati. Durante il periodo di studio la popolazione sembrava rinnovarsi pressoché totalmente. Il livello di densità più elevato sembrava essere raggiunto all'inizio di settembre, mese in cui gli animali probabilmente iniziavano a disperdersi. I risultati sull'analisi alimentare indicano una predazione esclusivamente a carico di piccoli roditori, in particolare Microtus.

  6. Stable Isotope Analysis Reveals That Agricultural Habitat Provides an Important Dietary Component for Nonbreeding Dunlin

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    Lesley Joan Evans Ogden

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Although shorebirds spending the winter in temperate areas frequently use estuarine and supratidal (upland feeding habitats, the relative contribution of each habitat to individual diets has not been directly quantified. We quantified the proportional use that Calidris alpina pacifica (Dunlin made of estuarine vs. terrestrial farmland resources on the Fraser River Delta, British Columbia, using stable isotope analysis (δ13C, δ15N of blood from 268 Dunlin over four winters, 1997 through 2000. We tested for individual, age, sex, morphological, seasonal, and weather-related differences in dietary sources. Based on single- (δ13C and dual-isotope mixing models, the agricultural habitat contributed approximately 38% of Dunlin diet averaged over four winters, with the balance from intertidal flats. However, there was a wide variation among individuals in the extent of agricultural feeding, ranging from about 1% to 95% of diet. Younger birds had a significantly higher terrestrial contribution to diet (43% than did adults (35%. We estimated that 6% of adults and 13% of juveniles were obtaining at least 75% of their diet from terrestrial sources. The isotope data provided no evidence for sex or overall body size effects on the proportion of diet that is terrestrial in origin. The use of agricultural habitat by Dunlin peaked in early January. Adult Dunlin obtained a greater proportion of their diet terrestrially during periods of lower temperatures and high precipitation, whereas no such relationship existed for juveniles. Seasonal variation in the use of agricultural habitat suggests that it is used more during energetically stressful periods. The terrestrial farmland zone appears to be consistently important as a habitat for juveniles, but for adults it may provide an alternative feeding site used as a buffer against starvation during periods of extreme weather. Loss or reduction of agricultural habitat adjacent to estuaries may negatively impact

  7. Dynamics of Chytridiomycosis during the Breeding Season in an Australian Alpine Amphibian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannelly, Laura A; Hunter, David A; Lenger, Daniel; Scheele, Ben C; Skerratt, Lee F; Berger, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Understanding disease dynamics during the breeding season of declining amphibian species will improve our understanding of how remnant populations persist with endemic infection, and will assist the development of management techniques to protect disease-threatened species from extinction. We monitored the endangered Litoria verreauxii alpina (alpine treefrog) during the breeding season through capture-mark-recapture (CMR) studies in which we investigated the dynamics of chytridiomycosis in relation to population size in two populations. We found that infection prevalence and intensity increased throughout the breeding season in both populations, but infection prevalence and intensity was higher (3.49 and 2.02 times higher prevalence and intensity, respectively) at the site that had a 90-fold higher population density. This suggests that Bd transmission is density-dependent. Weekly survival probability was related to disease state, with heavily infected animals having the lowest survival. There was low recovery from infection, especially when animals were heavily infected with Bd. Sympatric amphibian species are likely to be reservoir hosts for the disease and can play an important role in the disease ecology of Bd. Although we found 0% prevalence in crayfish (Cherax destructor), we found that a sympatric amphibian (Crinia signifera) maintained 100% infection prevalence at a high intensity throughout the season. Our results demonstrate the importance of including infection intensity into CMR disease analysis in order to fully understand the implications of disease on the amphibian community. We recommend a combined management approach to promote lower population densities and ensure consistent progeny survival. The most effective management strategy to safeguard the persistence of this susceptible species might be to increase habitat area while maintaining a similar sized suitable breeding zone and to increase water flow and area to reduce drought.

  8. Associação de SNPs nos genes para κ-caseína e β-lactoglobulina com curvas de lactação em cabras leiteiras

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    Samir Julián Calvo Cardona

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar o modelo com melhor ajuste aos dados de produção de leite, gordura, proteína e sólidos totais para cabras leiteiras, bem como associar polimorfismos de nucleotídeo único (SNPs nos genes para κ-caseína (κ-CSN3 e β-lactoglobulina (β-LG aos parâmetros das curvas de produção e qualidade do leite. Foram avaliados 4.160 registros de produção de leite, gordura, proteína e sólidos totais de cabras das raças Alpina, Saanen e mestiça, no Estado de Antioquia, na Colômbia. Os modelos não lineares com melhor ajuste à estrutura dos dados foram os de Nelder, para produção de leite, e de Cappio-Borlino, para qualidade do leite. As análises de associação mostraram efeito significativo do SNP κ-CSN3 sobre o pico de produção, a produção inicial e a persistência das características qualitativas do leite. Já o SNP β-LG apresentou efeito significativo sobre os picos de produção de leite e gordura, e sobre o tempo necessário para atingir o pico de produção de proteína. A identificação e a estimação da influência dos marcadores SNP avaliados sobre as curvas de lactação e a qualidade do leite podem contribuir para a seleção de caprinos leiteiros.

  9. El anticlinal y las discordancias de Pareja (Guadalajara: definición de las unidades cenozoicas de la Depresión Intermedia (provs. Cuenca y Guadalajara, España

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    Arribas, I.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the stratigraphic units visible at the Pareja Anticline in the Cenozoic-age Depresión Intermedia. The stratigraphic section allowed us to identify three main stratigraphic units differentiated through angular unconformities and sedimentary breaks. Some subunits are also been defined from sedimentary breaks linked to minor diastrophic processes. These subunits as well as the main ones (Cretaceous-Paleogene Unit, Paleogene Unit and Neogene Unit can be defined as tectosedimentary units being identifiable in all the Depresión Intermedia Basin extent through field sections and borehole logs where large numbers of fossil mammals have been located.Este trabajo contempla las unidades representadas en la sección estratigráfica del Anticlinal la Pareja (Guadalajara, España en la cuenca cenozoica denominada Depresión Intermedia. La columna estratigráfica de la zona permite identificar tres unidades principales separadas por discordancias angulares relacionables con fases tectónicas de la orogenia alpina. También se han diferenciado subunidades que, en su mayor parte, vienen definidas por rupturas sedimentarias ligadas a procesos diastróficos y que, como las tres unidades principales (Unidad Cretácico-Paleógena, Unidad Paleógena y Unidad Neógena, se corresponden con unidades tectosedimentarias, siendo identificables en toda la extensión de la Depresión Intermedia a partir de cortes y sondeos mecánicos de reconocimiento donde abundan los yacimientos de micromamíferos.

  10. Dynamics of Chytridiomycosis during the Breeding Season in an Australian Alpine Amphibian.

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    Laura A Brannelly

    Full Text Available Understanding disease dynamics during the breeding season of declining amphibian species will improve our understanding of how remnant populations persist with endemic infection, and will assist the development of management techniques to protect disease-threatened species from extinction. We monitored the endangered Litoria verreauxii alpina (alpine treefrog during the breeding season through capture-mark-recapture (CMR studies in which we investigated the dynamics of chytridiomycosis in relation to population size in two populations. We found that infection prevalence and intensity increased throughout the breeding season in both populations, but infection prevalence and intensity was higher (3.49 and 2.02 times higher prevalence and intensity, respectively at the site that had a 90-fold higher population density. This suggests that Bd transmission is density-dependent. Weekly survival probability was related to disease state, with heavily infected animals having the lowest survival. There was low recovery from infection, especially when animals were heavily infected with Bd. Sympatric amphibian species are likely to be reservoir hosts for the disease and can play an important role in the disease ecology of Bd. Although we found 0% prevalence in crayfish (Cherax destructor, we found that a sympatric amphibian (Crinia signifera maintained 100% infection prevalence at a high intensity throughout the season. Our results demonstrate the importance of including infection intensity into CMR disease analysis in order to fully understand the implications of disease on the amphibian community. We recommend a combined management approach to promote lower population densities and ensure consistent progeny survival. The most effective management strategy to safeguard the persistence of this susceptible species might be to increase habitat area while maintaining a similar sized suitable breeding zone and to increase water flow and area to reduce drought.

  11. By Improving Regional Cortical Blood Flow, Attenuating Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Sequential Apoptosis Galangin Acts as a Potential Neuroprotective Agent after Acute Ischemic Stroke

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    Ming Cheng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is a devastating disease with a complex pathophysiology. Galangin is a natural flavonoid isolated from the rhizome of Alpina officinarum Hance, which has been widely used as an antioxidant agent. However, its effects against ischemic stroke have not been reported and its related neuroprotective mechanism has not really been explored. In this study, neurological behavior, cerebral infarct volumes and the improvement of the regional cortical blood flow (rCBF were used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of galangin in rats impaired by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO-induced focal cerebral ischemia. Furthermore, the determination of mitochondrial function and Western blot of apoptosis-related proteins were performed to interpret the neuroprotective mechanism of galangin. The results showed that galangin alleviated the neurologic impairments, reduced cerebral infarct at 24 h after MCAO and exerted a protective effect on the mitochondria with decreased production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS. These effects were consistent with improvements in the membrane potential level (Dym, membrane fluidity, and degree of mitochondrial swelling in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, galangin significantly improved the reduced rCBF after MCAO. Western blot analysis revealed that galangin also inhibited apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner concomitant with the up-regulation of Bcl-2 expression, down-regulation of Bax expression and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, a reduction in cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol, the reduced expression of activated caspase-3 and the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP. All these data in this study demonstrated that galangin might have therapeutic potential for ischemic stroke and play its protective role through the improvement in rCBF, mitochondrial protection and inhibiting caspase-dependent mitochondrial cell death pathway for the first time.

  12. Sphingomonas qilianensis sp. nov., Isolated from Surface Soil in the Permafrost Region of Qilian Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Ai-Lian; Feng, Xiao-Min; Nogi, Yuichi; Han, Lu; Li, Yonghong; Lv, Jie

    2016-04-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated X1(T), was isolated from the permafrost region of Qilian Mountains in northwest of China. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain X1(T) was a member of the genus Sphingomonas and shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Sphingomonas oligophenolica JCM 12082(T) (96.9%), followed by Sphingomonas glacialis CGMCC 1.8957(T) (96.7%) and Sphingomonas alpina DSM 22537(T) (96.4%). Strain X1(T) was able to grow at 15-30 °C, pH 6.0-10.0 and with 0-0.3% NaCl (w/v). The DNA G+C content of the isolate was 64.8 mol%. Strain X1(T)-contained Q-10 as the dominant ubiquinone and C(18:1)ω7c, C(16:1)ω7c, C(16:0) and C(14:0) 2-OH as the dominant fatty acids. The polar lipid profile of strain XI(T)-contained sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified glycolipid and two unidentified phospholipid. Due to the phenotypic and genetic distinctiveness and other characteristic studied in this article, we consider X1(T) as a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas and propose to name it Sphingomonas qilianensis sp. nov. The type strain is X1(T) (=CGMCC 1.15349(T) = KCTC 42862(T)).

  13. The LIFE Project “Monitoring of insects with public participation” (MIPP: aims, methods and conclusions

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    Giuseppe Maria Carpaneto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Life Project “Monitoring of insects with public participation” (LIFE11 NAT/IT/000252 had as the main objective to develop and test methods for the monitoring of five beetle species listed in the Annexes of the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC: Osmoderma eremita (hermit beetle, Scarabaeidae, Lucanus cervus (European stag beetle, Lucanidae, Cerambyx cerdo (great capricorn beetle, Cerambycidae, Rosalia alpina (rosalia longicorn, Cerambycidae and Morimus asper/funereus (morimus longicorn, Cerambycidae. The data gathered represent an important contribution to the monitoring of these target species in Italy. The methods developed for monitoring of the target species are intended for use by the local management authorities and staff of protected areas. These developed methods are the result of extensive fieldwork and ensure scientific validity, ease of execution and limited labour costs. The detailed description of methods and the results for each species are published in separate articles of this special issue of Nature Conservation. A second objective of the project was to gather faunistic data with a Citizen Science approach, using the web and a mobile application software (app specifically built for mobile devices. The validation of the records collected by the citizens was carried out by experts, based on photographs, which were obligatory for all records. Dissemination activities represented the principal way to contact and engage citizens for the data collection and also offered the possibility of providing information on topics such as Natura 2000, the Habitats Directive, the role of monitoring in nature conservation, the importance of forest ecosystems and the ecological role of the saproxylic insects. An innovative method tested during the project was the training of a dog for searching and monitoring the elusive hermit beetle; the trained dog also added a “curiosity” factor to attract public attention towards this rare insect and

  14. THE ROSSO AMMONITICO VERONESE (MIDDLE-UPPER JURASSIC OF THE TRENTO PLATEAU: A PROPOSALLITHOSTRATIGRAPHIC RDERING AND FORMALIZATION

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    LUCA MARTIRE

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We here propose a revision of the stratigraphic interval comprised between the top of platform carbonates, mainly of Early Jurassic age, and the base of the Maiolica, in the Trento Plateau. Most of this interval (upper Bajocian - upper Tithonian is represented by ammonite-bearing, red nodular limestones known with the historical name of Rosso Ammonitico Veronese (RAV. It has been subdivided in three units: a lower unit, calcareous and massively bedded; a middle unit, thinly bedded and cherty; and an upper unit, calcareous and nodular. In addition to these units, other sedimentary bodies are known below the base of the RAV. These are thin and discontinuous, such as the Lumachella a Posidonia alpina (LPa and the Calcari a Skirroceras (CSk, both spanning the upper Aalenian - upper Bajocian. A lithostratigraphic redefinition of the RAV is proposed by addition of two members (LPa e CSk to the three classical members. The new members are easily distinguished by their lithofacies and are always separated from the lower unit by discontinuities. Two sections located on the Altopiano di Asiago are described: Kaberlaba shows all the three members (lower, middle and upper and is proposed as the reference section for a formalization of the RAV; Rabeschini is characterized  by the absence of the middle member and may be held as a complementary section. The RAV lower boundary is everywhere very sharp and marked by a facies contrast; the upper boundary, instead, is transitional and is defined by a progressive change from red, nodular, Saccocoma packstones to white, non-nodular calpionellid wackestones. Calpionellid associations indicate that the upper boundary falls within the upper Tithonian.

  15. Winter body mass and over-ocean flocking as components of danger management by Pacific dunlins

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    Ogden Lesley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compared records of the body mass and roosting behavior of Pacific dunlins (Calidris alpina pacifica wintering on the Fraser River estuary in southwest British Columbia between the 1970s and the 1990s. 'Over-ocean flocking' is a relatively safe but energetically-expensive alternative to roosting during the high tide period. Fat stores offer protection against starvation, but are a liability in escape performance, and increase flight costs. Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus were scarce on the Fraser River estuary in the 1970s, but their numbers have since recovered, and they prey heavily on dunlins. The increase has altered the balance between predation and starvation risks for dunlins, and thus how dunlins regulate roosting behavior and body mass to manage the danger. We therefore predicted an increase in the frequency of over-ocean flocking as well as a decrease in the amount of fat carried by dunlins over these decades. Results Historical observations indicate that over-ocean flocking of dunlins was rare prior to the mid-1990s and became common thereafter. Residual body masses of dunlins were higher in the 1970s, with the greatest difference between the decades coinciding with peak peregrine abundance in October, and shrinking over the course of winter as falcon seasonal abundance declines. Whole-body fat content of dunlins was lower in the 1990s, and accounted for most of the change in body mass. Conclusions Pacific dunlins appear to manage danger in a complex manner that involves adjustments both in fat reserves and roosting behavior. We discuss reasons why over-ocean flocking has apparently become more common on the Fraser estuary than at other dunlin wintering sites.

  16. Planning the Brown Bear Ursus arctos reintroduction in the Adamello Brenta Natural Park. A tool to establish a metapopulation in the Central-Eastern Alps

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    Andrea Mustoni

    2003-10-01

    differences between municipalities with and without bears in human population density and intensity of tourism. The importance of a wide-scale and detailed analysis of human attitude towards the project and of education strategies to increase acceptance by local people are discussed. Riassunto La reintroduzione dell'orso bruno (Ursus arctos nel Parco Naturale Adamello Brenta: uno strumento per il ripristino di una metapopolazione nelle Alpi centro-orientali Nel XVII secolo gli orsi (Ursus arctos erano ancora abbondanti ed ampiamente distribuiti in tutta l'area alpina dell'Italia settentrionale e nelle aree densamente forestate delle Prealpi e della Pianura Padana. Il declino delle popolazioni ebbe inizio a partire dal XVIII secolo con l'aumentare della deforestazione per ottenere maggiori aree coltivabili e, nel XIX secolo, si ebbero fenomeni di estinzione locale, causati principalmente da abbattimenti. La popolazione alpina residua, composta esclusivamente da 3 individui che non si riproducono dal 1989, occupa oggi l'area coincidente con il Parco Naturale Adamello-Brenta ed è da considersarsi biologicamente estinta. Nel presente lavoro vengono analizzati rischi e benefici della reintroduzione, intesa come strumento ritenuto maggiormente idoneo per il recupero dell'orso bruno sulle Alpi italiane, con una valutazione più ampia sulla conservazione della specie estesa all'intero contesto della regione alpina. Le aree maggiormente adatte alla reintroduzione sono state identificate mediante un modello di valutazione della qualità dell'habitat basato su di un Sistema Informativo Territoriale. Il modello ha preso in considerazione tutte le segnalazioni di presenza dell'orso bruno relative agli ultimi 20 anni registrate nell'area del Parco Naturale Adamello-Brenta (6500 km², unitamente ad alcune variabili ambientali associate ad unità discrete di 25 ha ciascuna rilevate entro il territorio occupato dal nucleo residuo (645 km

  17. Sistemas de producción caprina y ovina en la subregión Costa Oriental del Lago de Maracaibo

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    Cesar Timaure-Jiménez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Para caracterizar los sistemas de producción caprina y ovina de la Costa Oriental del Lago de Maracaibo, se aplicó una metodología de investigación de acción participativa en las comunidades agrícolas del Municipio Simón Bolívar. Se consultaron líderes de la zona, al Equipo Zuliano de Criadores de Cabras y Ovejas, se aplicó un instrumento a 60 productores. La subregión COLM es zona petrolera, sin embargo, persiste la actividad agropecuaria arraigada en forma tradicional. En el Municipio Miranda existe una población de 16.137 caprinos y 7.526 ovejas, en Quisiro se analizaron 30 productores con 2.250 hectáreas, además de 1.300 caprinos y 675 ovinos. En Los Cilantrillos y La Esperanza se estudiaron 30 productores con 320 hectáreas, 375 caprinos y 430 ovejas, ocupando el 1 % del total regional, lo cual es importante por la persistencia e interés de los productores a pesar de las dificultades derivadas de la explotación petrolera. El grupo familiar se muestra participativo en el manejo de rebaños, el 88,3 % de los productores utiliza el pastoreo extensivo, hay tradición familiar, conocimiento de manejo de rebaños que pasa por cada generación, el 56,7 % están inscritos en la Misión Agro-Venezuela, las razas de cabra son principalmente nubian, alpina, criolla, en cuanto a ovejas, persa, mestiza o criolla, los productores trabajan más de 10 horas diarias los 7 días de la semana, el 56,7 % producen queso de cabra a puerta de finca para los mercados locales. Se recomienda continuar con los estudios y análisis participativos para el mejoramiento integral de este sistema productivo.

  18. FORMAS E PROCESSOS CÁRSICOS NOS MACIÇOS CALCÁRIOS DO CENTRO DE PORTUGAL. O CASO PARTICULAR DO MACIÇO DE SICÓ

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    Lúcio Cunha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available No Centro Litoral de Portugal continental, no espaço que estruturalmente pertence à chamada Bacia Lusitânica, as rochas carbonatadas jurássicas são responsáveis por um conjunto de pequenos Maciços Calcários, salientes na paisagem, quer pelo comportamento diferencial das litologias, quer pela atuação da tectónica alpina. Nestes maciços, os processos de evolução cársica, relacionados com a solubilidade da rocha e com a sua permeabilidade “em grande” são responsáveis por paisagens com características bem particulares, em que a tendência para a formação de bacias fechadas à superfície se adequa à proliferação de cavidades subterrâneas. Destes, o Maciço de Sicó, apesar da sua reduzida dimensão (pouco mais de 400 km2 apresenta nos seus diferentes compartimentos uma enorme variedade de formas cársicas (lapiás, dolinas, canhões fluviocársicos, grutas, abrigos sob rocha, exsurgências, muitas das quais com elevado valor em termos patrimoniais, mas também com alguns problemas de geoconservação. A especificidade morfológica do Maciço de Sicó advém sobretudo de se tratar de um carso coberto, com uma exumação incompleta em que os processos cársicos e fluviais interagiram e interagem na construção de uma paisagem em que os vales fluviocársicos, as formas superficiais fechadas, as grutas, as “buracas” e os lapiás coexistem num sistema complexo resultante de uma evolução polifásica e poligénica em que se encontram refletidos diferentes tempos e distintos ambientes.

  19. Parâmetros escroto-testiculares e de sêmen em caprinos adultos submetidos à insulação escrotal Scrotal testicular and semen parameters in adult male goats submitted to scrotal insulation

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    DIÔNES OLIVEIRA SANTOS

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Ejaculados de seis bodes Moxotó e seis ½ sangue Moxotó-Pardo Alpina, adultos, mantidos em confinamento, foram avaliados antes e após a insulação do saco escrotal com bolsa de plástico, de parede dupla, durante 6,5 dias. A degeneração seminal ocorreu em todos os animais na 4ª semana após o início da insulação, ressaltando-se a redução na concentração, o aumento dos defeitos espermáticos e a redução do vigor celular, culminando com a necrospermia. A motilidade individual progressiva (MIP atingiu os valores mais baixos na 3ª semana após o início da insulação, retornando aos valores normais entre a 8ª e 9ª semanas. Os defeitos espermáticos começaram a aumentar aos sete dias após o início da insulação escrotal. O volume apresentou oscilações atípicas e o aumento da temperatura escrotal afetou os parâmetros físicos e morfológicos do ejaculado de maneira consistente evidenciando-se o efeito negativo sobre a qualidade do sêmen.Ejaculations of twelve adult bucks, six Moxotó breed and six crossbred ½ Moxotó-Alpine Brown, kept in confinement were evaluated prior to and after insulation of scrotal sac through a plastic bag with double wall for 6.5 days. There was seminal degeneration in all animals, showed by reduction of spermatic concentration and drop of the forward individual motility (MIP associated to high level of sperm morphological abnormalities and hence necrospermy. The MIP reached lower values in three weeks after beginning of the scrotal insulation when sperm vigor was also reduced and sperm abnormalities increased. Seminal degeneration occurred on the 4th week post-insulation. However, within 56-63 days post-insulation the MIP returned to normality. The sperm abnormalities began to appear seven days after the initiation of insulation. The semen volume oscillated during all experimental period and the increasing heat in the scrotal sac caused a series of physical and morphological changes on seminal

  20. Indirect effects of prey swamping: differential seed predation during a bamboo masting event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitzberger, Thomas; Chaneton, Enrique J; Caccia, Fernando

    2007-10-01

    Resource pulses often involve extraordinary increases in prey availability that "swamp" consumers and reverberate through indirect interactions affecting other community members. We developed a model that predicts predator-mediated indirect effects induced by an epidemic prey on co-occurring prey types differing in relative profitability/preference and validated our model by examining current-season and delayed effects of a bamboo mass seeding event on seed survival of canopy tree species in mixed Patagonian forests. The model shows that predator foraging behavior, prey profitability, and the scale of prey swamping influence the character and strength of short-term indirect effects on various alternative prey. When in large prey-swamped patches, nonselective predators decrease predation on all prey types. Selective predators, instead, only benefit prey of similar quality to the swamping species, while very low or high preference prey remain unaffected. Negative indirect effects (apparent competition) may override such positive effects (apparent mutualism), especially for highly preferred prey, when prey-swamped patches are small enough to allow predator aggregation and/or predators show a reproductive numerical response to elevated food supply. Seed predation patterns during bamboo (Chusquea culeou) masting were consistent with predicted short-term indirect effects mediated by a selective predator foraging in large prey-swamped patches. Bamboo seeds and similarly-sized Austrocedrus chilensis (ciprés) and Nothofagus obliqua (roble) seeds suffered lower predation in bamboo flowered than nonflowered patches. Predation rates on the small-seeded Nothofagus dombeyi (coihue) and the large-seeded Nothofagus alpina (rauli) were independent of bamboo flowering. Indirect positive effects were transient; three months after bamboo seeding, granivores preyed heavily upon all seed types, irrespective of patch flowering condition. Moreover, one year after bamboo seeding

  1. La fracturación tardía al SW de Sierra Nevada (terminación occidental del corredor de las Alpujarras, zona bética

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    Sanz de Galdeano, C.

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available Fracturing is the most conspicuous type of tectonics developed in the SW of Sierra Nevada after the alpine building of the Betic Cordilleras. Fractures have been inspected on satellite images as well as on ordinary photograms and surveyed through field studies, including microtectonic measurements in several favorable sectors, There are three main sets of fractures. N 70-100 E, N 120-150E and N 10-30E. Although they were likely strike-slip faults in origin, they show numerous movements, both horizontal and vertical, ranging possibly up to the present time more, effectively controlling the sedimentation during the Neogene and Quaternary and being largely responsible for the present relief. The horizontal movements took place under a compressional stress trending essentially N 120 E and approximately N-S, acording to the results of microtectonic studies.

    La fracturación es en este área del SW de Sierra Nevada el hecho más notable producido después de la estructuración alpina de las Cordilleras Béticas. Esta fracturación se ha estudiado tanto sobre imágenes de satélite como con foto aérea normal y sobre el terreno, además de hacerla microtectónica de algunos sectores propicios . Son tres los juegos principales de fracturas: N 70-100 E, N 120-150E Y N 10-30 E. Fueron verosímilmente desgarres en origen. pero presentan numerosos movimientos tanto horizontales como verticales, los cuales se prolongan posiblemente a la actualidad. Los saltos verticales dan valores de 500-1.000 y más metros y controlaron el depósito del Neógeno y del Cuaternario y buena parte de la formación del relieve actual. Las direcciones de compresión obtenidas mediante estudios de microtectónica son fundamentalmente N 120 E Y aproximadamente N-S.

  2. Desempenho produtivo de cabritos alimentados com diferentes dietas líquidas, associadas com promotor de crescimento Effects of feeding different liquid diets with or without growth promoter on performance of kid goats

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    Antonio Bento Mancio

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para se avaliar o desempenho de cabritos tratados com leite de cabra integral ou colostro de vaca fermentado com ou sem óleo de soja, e com aplicação ou não do promotor de crescimento Zeranol. Vinte e quatro cabritos da raça Alpina foram dispostos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 3 x 2. Cada animal recebeu, pela manhã, 1 L da dieta líquida e 250 g/animal/dia de concentrado. Foram avaliados o ganho de peso dos animais, os consumos de concentrado e de matéria seca, a conversão alimentar e o tamanho dos órgãos. Houve diferenças entre as dietas líquidas, com ou sem a aplicação de Zeranol, para ganho de peso aos 29, 36, e 50 dias de idade, mas não para o ganho médio diário. A não aplicação de Zeranol nos tratamentos com leite de cabra e colostro fermentado com óleo de soja proporcionou diferença média de 8% no ganho de peso dos animais alimentados com leite de cabra. Não se observou diferença nos consumos de concentrado e de matéria seca e na conversão alimentar dos animais entre as diferentes dietas líquidas avaliadas. Não houve influência do Zeranol ou do óleo de soja nas dietas líquidas sobre nenhum dos órgãos estudadosThe objective of this experiment was to study the effects of feeding whole goat milk or fermented cow colostrum supplemented or not with soy oil and with or without the growth promoter Zeranol on performance of kid goats. Twenty-four Alpine kid goats assigned to a completely randomized design in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement were used in this trial. The following variables were investigated: weight gain, intakes of dry matter and concentrate, feed conversion, and organ sizes. Significant differences were observed among liquid diets with or without Zeranol for weight gain at 29, 36, and 50 days old, but not for the average daily gain. No significant differences for intake of both dry matter and concentrate as well as for feed conversion were

  3. Quantifying the contribution of the root system of alpine vegetation in the soil aggregate stability of moraine

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    Csilla Hudek

    2017-03-01

    stability was significantly increased by the presence of roots. The lowest soil aggregate stability was found with Epilobium fleischeri followed by Minuartia recurva and Leucanthemopsis alpina. The highest aggregate stability was found with the graminoid species. These results show a close relationship between the development of root systems of the studied species and soil aggregate stability, a factor which can be taken into consideration in order to improve the accuracy of existing susceptibility mapping for early warning and civilian protection.

  4. Metabolitos sanguíneos en caprinos alimentados con mezclas integrales frescas con Moringa oleífera: Pennisetum purpureum Clon-OM22

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    Nelson Norberto González González

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el comportamiento de metabolitos sanguíneos energéticos y proteicos con el uso de mezclas de Moringa oleífera : Pennisetum purpureum clon OM-22. Se utilizaron cuatro machos caprinos de raza Alpina, con 37.78 ±4.87 kg de peso vivo, dos años de edad y alojados en jaulas metabólicas individuales, or - ganizados en un diseño cuadrado latino (4x4. El tiempo experimental fue 60 días, con cuatro periodos de 15 días. Los tratamientos consistie - ron en la inclusión creciente de Moringa oleífera (MO20%, MO40%, MO80% en sustitución de Pennisetum purpureum clon OM-22 (20:80, 40:60; 80:20% en la mezcla integral y un testigo, al que se le ofertó concentrado comer - cial (6g kg PV -1 . La totalidad de los forrajes frescos fueron cosechados, molidos (3-5cm y mezclados, ofertados a razón del 3% del peso vivo base seca, en dos ocasiones (10:30-16:30 horas durante el día. El estado de los metaboli - tos sanguíneo fue evaluado 22 horas posteriores al consumo de alimento. Las concentraciones de Glucosa, Colesterol, Triglicéridos y Urea se mantuvieron dentro del rango fisiológico. Los valores de Urea y Colesterol mostraron una ten - dencia creciente con la moringa en la mezcla, a diferencia de los Triglicéridos, que disminu - yeron. Los niveles de Creatinina en MO40 y MO80% superaron el límite fisiológico para la especie (59.7-134.8 μmol/l, indicando un posible fallo renal. Estos resultados permiten concluir que la Moringa oleífera con un nivel de inclusión del 20% constituye una alternativa alimentaria para caprinos; pero requiere de es - tudios para dilucidar niveles de Creatinina con la inclusión de 40 y 80% moringa.

  5. Fatores relacionados à presença de anticorpos IgG anti-Toxoplasma gondii em caprinos leiteiros do Estado da Bahia.

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    M. Ângela O. de Almeida

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A toxoplasmose constitui-se uma das principais causas de abortos e natimortos em caprinos leiteiros. O desenvolvimento da caprinocultura leiteira no Estado da Bahia, com o manejo intensivo e semi-intensivo têm permitido a propagação de vários coccídeos, incluindo o Toxoplasma gondii. A presença deste protozoário foi determinada em nove rebanhos, para tanto, utilizaram-se 373 caprinos de diferentes raças, categorias zootécnicas e idades. Do total de animais avaliados, 61 (16,35% apresentaram reações positivas para anticorpos IgG anti-T.gondii (ponte de corte de 1:16, segundo a técnica de imunofluorescência indireta. Em todos os rebanhos foram encontrados animais positivos, com uma amplitude de variação entre 2 e 35% com títulos de 1:16 (13,1%, 1:32 (16,4%, 1:64 (16,4%, 1:128 (27,8%, 1:256 (11,5% e > de 1:256 (14,8%. Considerando a categoria zootécnica, as fêmeas em lactação obtiveram o maior percentual de positividade (22,8% seguida de fêmeas gestantes (20,8%, fêmeas secas (17% e fêmeas jovens (11,1%. Com relação às raças estudadas, a Parda Alpina apresentou maior freqüência de positivos (18,8%, seguida da raça Saanen (16,8% e Anglo Nubiana (4,8%. A faixa etária que apresentou maior número de reações positivas foi a de quatro a seis anos (26,67%. Os resultados analisados indicaram uma ampla distribuição deste coccídeo nos rebanhos caprinos leiteiros.

  6. Sources of organic ice nucleating particles in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Tom C. J.; DeMott, Paul J.; Tobo, Yutaka; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Moffett, Bruce F.; Franc, Gary D.; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.

    2016-06-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) may be a significant source of atmospheric ice nucleating particles (INPs), especially of those active > -15 °C. However, due to both a lack of investigations and the complexity of the SOM itself, the identities of these INPs remain unknown. To more comprehensively characterize organic INPs we tested locally representative soils in Wyoming and Colorado for total organic INPs, INPs in the heat-labile fraction, ice nucleating (IN) bacteria, IN fungi, IN fulvic and humic acids, IN plant tissue, and ice nucleation by monolayers of aliphatic alcohols. All soils contained ≈ 106 to ≈ 5 × 107 INPs g-1 dry soil active at -10 °C. Removal of SOM with H2O2 removed ≥ 99 % of INPs active > -18 °C (the limit of testing), while heating of soil suspensions to 105 °C showed that labile INPs increasingly predominated > -12 °C and comprised ≥ 90 % of INPs active > -9 °C. Papain protease, which inactivates IN proteins produced by the fungus Mortierella alpina, common in the region's soils, lowered INPs active at ≥ -11 °C by ≥ 75 % in two arable soils and in sagebrush shrubland soil. By contrast, lysozyme, which digests bacterial cell walls, only reduced INPs active at ≥ -7.5 or ≥ -6 °C, depending on the soil. The known IN bacteria were not detected in any soil, using PCR for the ina gene that codes for the active protein. We directly isolated and photographed two INPs from soil, using repeated cycles of freeze testing and subdivision of droplets of dilute soil suspensions; they were complex and apparently organic entities. Ice nucleation activity was not affected by digestion of Proteinase K-susceptible proteins or the removal of entities composed of fulvic and humic acids, sterols, or aliphatic alcohol monolayers. Organic INPs active colder than -10 to -12 °C were resistant to all investigations other than heat, oxidation with H2O2, and, for some, digestion with papain. They may originate from decomposing plant material, microbial

  7. Demandas territoriales del pueblo Mapuche en área Parques Nacionales

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    Sebastián Valverde

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En el año 1934 en la región cordillerana de Norpatagonia, se conformó el "Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi", lo cual traería importantes consecuencias para "chilenos" e "indígenas", ya que produciría la migración y expulsión de las áreas rurales de estos pobladores. Desde el imaginario promovido por la elite conservadora de los años '30, se consolidaría la impronta de esta zona -y sus centros urbanos de referencia, San Carlos de Bariloche y Villa la Angostura- como un área pretendidamente "natural", "virgen", con reminiscencias "alpinas", construcción simbólica que cimentó el proceso de despojo. A partir del año 2003, diversos grupos familiares mapuche han iniciado un proceso de reafirmación identitaria y territorial en sus ámbitos ancestrales en el área de Parques Nacionales. Nos proponemos como objetivo analizar las dinámicas que han dado origen a estos procesos asignando centralidad a las diversas políticas estatales.The "Nahuel Huapi National Park" was created in 1934, in the mountain range of North Patagonia. This brought important consequences for the "Chileans" and "Indigenous" because it gave rise to migration and eviction of the rural areas of these populations. The collective imaginary of the conservative elite of the 30's, consolidated the imprint of this area and its urban centres of reference, such as: "San Carlos de Bariloche" and "Villa la Angostura" as a supposedly "natural", "virgin" area, with "alpine" reminiscence. This symbolic construction strengthened the eviction process. Since 2006, several groups of Mapuche families have begun a process of identity and territorial reaffirmation in their ancestral ranges in the National Parks area. It is our goal to analyze the dynamics that have given rise to these processes by assigning centrality to the various state policies.

  8. Salto de Vinon, Francia

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    Vié, G.

    1966-05-01

    Full Text Available The hydroelectric exploitation of the Verdon stream, which is the most important of those flowing into the Durance river, is achieved by means of the Vinon Dam, and other dams. The combined water supply from the Greoux dam and the Vinon dam provide a controlled flow for the Provence canal, which is fed through the Maurras gallery. In this Alpine zone a general study is being conducted at present to coordinate in the best possible manner the use of the torrential water, available in the various valleys, both for irrigation and power producing purposes. The most important aspects of the Vinon project are the drilling of the very long galleries. This work has been done with very modem equipment of high efficiency. The author describes this in detail. The Vinon power plant is partly underground, and has a central cylindrical section, of 19 m diameter. This power station has a Francis unit, of 27.800 kw, operated by a water supply of 40 m3/sec under a hydrostatic head of 78 m.El aprovechamiento hidroeléctrico del arroyo Verdón, afluente más importante del río Durance, se realiza por medio del salto de Vinon. Las aguas combinadas de la restitución y embalse de Gréoux suministrarán un caudal regulado al canal de Provenza, para lo cual se aprovechará la galería de Maurras. Esta zona alpina es objeto, actualmente, de un estudio general que coordinará las aguas torrenciales de las distintas cuencas afectadas para un mejor aprovechamiento, tanto hidroeléctrico como para riegos, además de asegurar una regulación de caudales. Los trabajos más importantes del salto de Vinon se centran en la perforación de galerías de gran longitud, trabajo que se ha realizado con material moderno de gran rendimiento que el autor describe. La central de Vinon, semiexterior, presenta en su núcleo central una forma cilíndrica de 19 m de diámetro. Esta central se ha equipado con un grupo Francis de 27.800 kW de potencia, dispone de un salto hidrostático de 78

  9. Unidades tectónicas y estructura general de la Sierra de Gádor y zonas adyacentes (Cordillera Bética, provincia de Almería: implicaciones paleogeográficas

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    Delgado Salazar, F.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Sierra de Gádor (Almeria province terrains belonging to the Internal Betic Zone crop out. According to stratigraphic, structural and petrologic features we have recognised five tectonic units. These units are called, from bottom to top, Gádor-Turón, Laujar, Murtas, Felix and Chirán unit. The lower fourth are ascribed to the Alpujárride Complex, whilst the last one is ascribed to the Maláguide Complex. We also discuss if the Felix unit may be included in the Intermediate Units. The Felix unit represents the Triassic palaeogeographic transition between the Alpujárride and the Maláguide, and it was located between both complexes during the alpine tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Betic Cordillera.En la Sierra de Gádor (provincia del Almería afloran rocas pertenecientes a la Zona Interna de la Cordillera Bética. En este sector hemos reconocido un total de cinco unidades tectónicas, en función de sus características estratigráficas, estructurales y petrológicas. Estas unidades se denominan, de abajo a arriba, unidad de Gádor-Turón, unidad de Laujar, unidad de Murtas, unidad de Felix y unidad de Chirán. Las cuatro más bajas las asignamos al Complejo Alpujárride, mientras que la más alta la asignamos al Complejo Maláguide. Se discute además la posible inclusión de la unidad de Felix dentro de las denominadas Unidades Intermedias. La unidad de Felix representa el tránsito paleogeográfico durante el Triásico entre el dominio Alpujárride y el Maláguide, y estaría situada entre ambos complejos durante la evolución tectono-metamórfica alpina de la Cordillera Bética.

  10. Chamber experiments to investigate the release of fungal IN into the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunert, Anna Theresa; Krüger, Mira; Scheel, Jan Frederik; Helleis, Frank; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2015-04-01

    Biological aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the atmosphere. Several types of microorganisms like bacteria, fungi and lichen have been identified as sources of biological ice nuclei (IN). They are a potentially strong source of atmospheric IN, as some of them are able to catalyze ice formation at relatively warm subfreezing temperatures. Common plant-associated bacteria are the best-known biological IN but recently ice nucleation activity in a variety of fungal species such as Mortierella alpina, Isaria farinosa, Acremonium implicatum was found. These fungal species are widely spread throughout the world and are present in soil and air. Their IN seem to be proteins, which are not anchored in the fungal cell wall. To which extent these small, cell-free IN are emitted directly into the atmosphere remains unexplored just as other processes, which probably indirectly release fungal IN e.g. absorbed onto soil dust particles. To analyze the release of fungal IN into the air, we designed a chamber, whose main principle is based on the emission of particles into a closed gas compartment and the subsequent collection of these particles in water. The concentration of the collected IN in the water is determined by droplet freezing assays. For a proof of principles, fungal washing water containing cell-free IN was atomized by an aerosol generator and the produced gas stream was lead through a water trap filled with pure water. Preliminary results show a successful proof of principles. The chamber design is capable of collecting aerosolic IN produced by an aerosol generator with fungal washing water. In ongoing experiments, alive or dead fungal cultures are placed into the chamber and a gentle, particle free air stream is directed over the fungi surface. This gas stream is also lead through water to collect particles, which might be emitted either actively or passively by the fungi. Further experiments will be e.g. conducted under different relative humidities. Results

  11. Identification and quantification of ice nucleation active microorganisms by digital droplet PCR (ddPCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Martin; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2015-04-01

    PCR reaction volumes containing template DNA of ice nucleation active microorganisms from atmospheric samples in thousands of identical droplets. Each droplet encapsulates the reagents necessary for DNA amplification. With template DNA concentrations low enough, the droplets will statistically contain either no template molecules or one molecule. A molecule of template DNA corresponds to exactly one cell of an ice nucleation active microorganism in the original sample provided the genetic marker on the template is present in a single copy. Successful amplification in the presence of template DNA is coupled to a measurable fluorescence signal. The original template DNA concentration is automatically derived from the fraction of fluorescence positive droplets to total droplet number. This far, molecular probes against single-copy genetic markers for ice nucleation active fungi Mortierella alpina, Acremonium implicatum, Isaria farinosa and the ice nucleation active bacterium Pseudomonas syringae have been successfully designed and tested by our group.

  12. Concentrations of 17 elements, including mercury, in the tissues, food and abiotic environment of Arctic shorebirds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargreaves, Anna L., E-mail: alhargreaves@gmail.com [Calgary Zoo, Centre for Conservation Research, 1300 Zoo Rd NE, Calgary, AB, T2E 7V6 (Canada); Whiteside, Douglas P. [Calgary Zoo, Animal Health Centre, 1300 Zoo Rd NE, Calgary, AB, T2E 7V6 (Canada); University of Calgary, Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 2500 University Dr. NW, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Gilchrist, Grant [Carleton University, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, KIA OH3 (Canada)

    2011-09-01

    Exposure to contaminants is one hypothesis proposed to explain the global decline in shorebirds, and is also an increasing concern in the Arctic. We assessed potential contaminants (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, V, and Zn) at a shorebird breeding site in Nunavut, Canada. We compared element levels in soil, invertebrates and shorebird blood to assess evidence for bioconcentration and biomagnification within the Arctic-based food chain. We tested whether elements in blood, feathers and eggs of six shorebird species (Pluvialis squatarola, Calidris alpina, C. fuscicollis, Phalaropus fulicarius, Charadrius semipalmatus, and Arenaria interpres) were related to fitness endpoints: adult body condition, blood-parasite load, egg size, eggshell thickness, nest duration, and hatching success. To facilitate comparison to other sites, we summarise the published data on toxic metals in shorebird blood and egg contents. Element concentrations and invertebrate composition differed strongly among habitats, and habitat use and element concentrations differed among shorebird species. Hg, Se, Cd, Cu, and Zn bioconcentrated from soil to invertebrates, and Hg, Se and Fe biomagnified from invertebrates to shorebird blood. As, Ni, Pb, Co and Mn showed significant biodilution from soil to invertebrates to shorebirds. Soil element levels were within Canadian guidelines, and invertebrate Hg levels were below dietary levels suggested for the protection of wildlife. However, maximum Hg in blood and eggs approached levels associated with toxicological effects and Hg-pollution in other bird species. Parental blood-Hg was negatively related to egg volume, although the relationship varied among species. No other elements approached established toxicological thresholds. In conclusion, whereas we found little evidence that exposure to elements at this site is leading to the declines of the species studied, Hg, as found elsewhere in the Canadian Arctic, is of potential

  13. Efeito do aleitamento artificial à base de soro de queijo de leite cabra sobre as características da carcaça e da carne de cabritos "mamão" do tipo genético three cross Influence of the replacement of cow milk by goat milk cheese whey on meat composition carcass characteristics of three cross suckling kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico José Beserra

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência da substituição parcial na etapa de alimentação líquida do leite de vaca por soro de queijo de cabra (SLC sobre alguns aspectos qualitativos da carne e quantitativos da carcaça de cabritos "mamão" Three cross (½ Anglonubiana x ¼ Pardo-Alpina x ¼ Moxotó, em quatro níveis: 0% (Tratamento1; 20% (Tratamento2; 40% (Tratamento3 60% (Tratamento 4. Os pesos vivos ao abate (84 dias mostraram-se homogêneos (10,88 a 13,42kg, assim como o rendimento de carcaça (44,62 a 47,86% e a área do Longíssimus dorsi (9,55 a 10,80cm². 0 Tratamento 2 apresentou os maiores teores de tecido muscular (48,37%. A composição centesimal mostrou valores médios entre 76,78 a 77,62% de umidade; 20,39 a 21,43% de proteína; 4,86 a 6,59% de gordura e 1,06 a 1,14% de cinza. Para os minerais estudados, os valores médios variaram de 16,77 a 35,68mg/100g para o cálcio; 110,33 a 153,90mg/100g para o fósforo; 1,29 a 2,17mg/100g para o ferro; 0,72 a 1,30mg/100g para magnésio; 128,86 a 165,94mg/100g para o sódio e 404,88 a 504,73mg/100g para o potássio. Concluiu-se que os níveis de soro de leite de cabra utilizados, de uma maneira geral, não tendo influenciado de forma significativa (PIn this study, the influence of the replacement of cow milk by goat cheese whey on some quality aspects of meat and on some aspects of carcass composition of suckling kids Three cross (½ Anglonubiana x ¼ Pardo-Alpina x ¼ Moxotó was evaluated. The replacements goat cheese whey levels were: 0% (treatment 1; 20% (treatment 2; 40% (treatment 3; 60% (treatment 4. The values of live weight for all were statistically similar (10.88 to 13.42kg; the same happened to the carcass yield which ranged from 44.62 to 47.86% and to the Longissimus dorsi area (9.55 to 10.80cm². The treatment 2 showed the highest contents of muscular tissue (48.37%. Proximal composition of the meat showed mean values ranging from 76.78 to 77.62% for moisture; 20.39 to 21.43% for protein

  14. Efeitos genéticos e ambientais que afetam a produção de leite e duração da lactação de cabras mestiças no estado da Paraíba Genetic and environmental effects that affect milk production and lactation length of crossbred goats in the state of Paraiba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard Cavalcanti Pimenta Filho

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se dados de 689 lactações de 225 cabras Pardo Alpina x Gurguéia filhas de 18 bodes, controladas de 1988 a 1996, criadas na Fazenda Carnaúba, Taperoá-PB, com os objetivos de estudar os efeitos ambientais e estimar parâmetros genéticos para as características produção de leite (PL e duração da lactação (DL. Os efeitos ambientais foram estimados por meio de um modelo estatístico que incluiu o efeito aleatório de bode, os efeitos fixos de grupo contemporâneo, tipo de parto e idade da cabra ao parto e duração da lactação, para PL, como covariáveis. Os parâmetros genéticos foram estimados por intermédio do programa MTDFREML, sob modelo animal, contendo os efeitos fixos e covariáveis utilizados no modelo anterior. As características foram influenciadas pelo efeito fixo de grupo contemporâneo. A idade da cabra influenciou apenas a característica PL. As médias obtidas para PL e DL foram 257,71 ± 54,73 kg e 185,56 ± 46,87 dias, respectivamente, equivalendo à produção média diária de 1,38 kg de leite/dia. As estimativas de herdabilidade e repetibilidade foram, respectivamente, de 0,23 e 0,35 para PL e 0,20 e 0,24 para DL. A correlação genética estimada entre as características foi de 0,96. Em razão de as herdabilidades das características serem de média magnitude e limitadas ao sexo, sugere-se o teste de progênie como método de seleção mais eficaz para os bodes.Records of 689 lactations of 225 Alpine x Gurguéia goats, progenies of 18 buck, controlled from 1988 to 1996, raised at Carnaúba Farm, Taperoá-PB, were analyzed with the objective of study environmental effects and estimate genetics parameters for Milk Production (MP and Length of Lactation (LL. The environmental effects were analyzed by an statistical model that included buck random effects and the fixed effects of contemporary groups, type of kidding and age of dam at kidding and length lactation as covariate. The genetic parameters

  15. Efeito da temperatura ambiental na densidade e ponto de congelamento do leite de cabra Effects of ambiental temperature on density and freezing point of goat's milk

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    L.H.A. BRASIL

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Seis cabras Pardas Alpinas com produção média de leite de 2,5kg/dia, foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em dois grupos de três cada, submetidas a termoneutralidade ou estresse térmico. Usou-se um delineamento estatístico "crossover". Um período de adaptação de 28 dias foi seguido por quatro intervalos de 14 dias cada, durante os quais os animais sob estresse foram expostos à temperatura média do ar de 33,84ºC das 8 às 17 horas, incluindo radiação solar simulada das 10 às 15 horas. Na segunda semana de cada intervalo experimental amostras de leite individuais foram coletadas diariamente pela manhã e à tarde, adicionando-se conservador. No final da semana as amostras de cada ordenha foram misturadas formando-se amostras compostas nas quais foram efetuadas determinações de pH, acidez titulável, densidade e ponto crioscópico. Os resultados indicaram que os valores obtidos para densidade e ponto crioscópico são compatíveis aos encontrados por diversos autores em diferentes países. Constatou-se valor maior para densidade no leite ordenhado pela manhã, em relação ao da tarde, sendo que o intervalo desigual entre as ordenhas deve ter influído neste resultado. Não se verificou diferença estatística significativa para esta propriedade no leite das cabras em condições de termoneutralidade e de estresse térmico. Para o ponto crioscópico não se observou diferença estatística entre o leite ordenhado pela manhã e à tarde. Houve diferença estatística significativa para esta propriedade física entre o leite das cabras em condições de termoneutralidade e estresse térmico, sendo o valor médio maior, para as condições de termoneutralidade.Six alpine goats with milk average yield of 2,5 kg/day, were randomly settled in two groups of three and submitted to thermoneutrality (TN or heat stress (ST conditions. A crossover statistical delineation was used. An adjustment period of 28 days was followed by four intervals of

  16. El conocimiento geográfico de la Patagonia interior y la construcción de la imagen de Torres del Paine como patrimonio natural a conservar

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    Ferrer Jiménez, Daniel

    2009-06-01

    primeras propuestas de turismo de naturaleza asociado a la idea de la conservación y un reto de primer orden para las expediciones alpinas.

    Esas circunstancias explican que en la tesis doctoral del autor del presente artículo se dedicase un capítulo completo a analizar las principales aportaciones en el proceso de conocimiento geográfico de la Patagonia interior y construcción de la imagen de Torres del Paine como patrimonio natural a conservar. Sobre este tema versa precisamente este texto, en el que se aporta una información original sobre las exploraciones de reconocimiento geográfico que tuvieron lugar entre 1877 y 1896 en la Patagonia interior, por iniciativa de los gobiernos de Chile y Argentina; el primer viaje turístico conocido a la región chilena de Magallanes; el papel de los primeros “visionarios” del turismo andino-patagónico chileno, agrupados en torno a la figura de Werner Gromsh y el Touring Club; o la labor geográfica, científica y divulgativa desempeñada por el salesiano italiano Alberto Maria De Agostini. El artículo concluye con algunas consideraciones relativas a las primeras expediciones alpinísticas que tuvieron como objetivo las cumbres del Macizo del Paine.

  17. Características do ejaculado de caprinos sob estresse calórico em câmara bioclimática Sperm characteristics of bucks under heat stress in climatic chamber

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    L.A. Coelho

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Para verificar o efeito do estresse calórico (EC na produção espermática de caprinos, oito machos das raças Saanen (n=4 e Pardo-Alpina (n=4 foram mantidos em câmara bioclimática, sob condições de termoneutralidade (13,0ºC a 26,7ºC durante 30 dias e, após um período (60 dias de descanso, submetidos ao EC (23,7ºC a 34,0ºC por mais 30 dias. Para minimizar as variações sazonais na produção espermática, durante todo o período, o fotoperíodo foi controlado utilizando-se alternância de dias longos (16 horas de luz e 8 horas de escuro e de dias curtos (8 horas de luz e 16 horas de escuro a cada 30 dias. Avaliaram-se as temperaturas retal e testicular, o volume do ejaculado, a concentração espermática, as motilidades massal e individual progressiva (MIP, o vigor e a morfologia espermática. Houve aumento (P0,05 o percentual total de células anormais e nem a temperatura retal. Os machos da raça Saanen apresentaram temperaturas do testículo e retal mais elevadas (PTo verify the effect of heat stress (HS on caprine semen production eight male goats of Saanen (n=4 and Alpine Brown (n=4 breeds were kept in climate chamber under thermal neutral conditions (13.0ºC to 26.7ºC for 30 days. After a resting period (60 days, the same bucks were submitted to heat stress (23.7ºC to 34.0ºC for another 30 days. To neutralize the seasonal variations of sperm production throughout the period, the photoperiod was controlled every 30 days alterning long days (16 hours of light and 8 hours of darkness and short days (8 hours of light and 16 hours of darkness. The following variables were evaluated: rectal and testicular temperatures, volume of ejaculate, sperm concentration, mass motility, individual progressive motility, vigor and sperm morphology. There was an elevation (P0.05 on percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa and rectal temperature. The Saanen males showed higher testicular and rectal temperatures and produced more sperm

  18. Cold-stenothermic spring fauna in mountainous headwaters of the National Park Kellerwald-Edersee in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Martin; Zaenker, Stefan; Chifflard, Peter

    2017-04-01

    ,9). Due to nearly unaffected ecohydrological properties, in particular: relative consistently cold water temperature with low amplitudes (cold stenothermy), mostly low flow velocity and an intermittent discharge regime a very unique and specific adapted spring fauna composition for the German low mountain ranges can be characterized. Cold stenothermic and spring related species are very frequent in relative occurrence and abundance. We analyzed a map based and representative distribution for the entire large-scale protected area of the National Park Kellerwald-Edersee according to Bythinella dunkeri (spring snail), Crenobia alpina (planarian), Crunoecia irrorata (caddisfly) and Niphargus schellenbergi (groundwater amphipod). We discuss the potential of ecohydrological research on possible climate change predictions and consequences on the distribution of cold stenothermic and spring dwelling species within the special context of research goals in National Parks. Here, an idea of a new approach for an ecohydrological assessment by indicating cold stenothermic taxa is given as an outlook. References Reiss, M., Steiner, H. & S. Zaenker (2009): The Biospeleological Register of the Hesse Federation for Cave and Karst Research (Germany). Cave and Karst Science 35(1), pp.25-34.

  19. La Trascendencia de la Biomedicina de altura en el Perú

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    Roger Guerra García

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En Bogotá ha existido interés en estudios sobre el efecto de la altura en el hombre; así el trabajo del Dr. Francisco Gnecco Mozo, premiado por esta Academia en 1936 trató sobre “El trabajo del corazón en Bogotá”. En él Gnecco refuta a Corpas y también a Barriga con sus estudios pioneros de 1910 Y 1925 (Tesis de Grado de la Facultad de Medicina; en su conclusión, Gnecco, afirma “El corazón a la altura de Bogotá ha condicionado su trabajo tan fisiológicamente, que resulta sensiblemente igual al del nivel de! mar”. En 1941, Alfonso Bonilla Naar presentó su tesis para el doctorado en medicina y cirugía sobre “Fisiopatología de las alturas” y fue calificado de meritorio; en ella reconoce el aporte de la Escuela Peruana y de Carlos Monge Medrano.

    El tema era estudiado en las alturas del Perú y fue presentado también como tesis en la Facultad de Medicina de Bogotá por Hernán Torres; sin embargo no hay referencia alguna sobre los trabajos realizados en países vecinos, evidencia de la dificultad de comunicación de la época.

    La vida en la altura


    En los diversos continentes hay montañas elevadas, que el hombre las ha considerado en muy diversas maneras; así, dice Sarton que en Europa “los rigores y peligros alpinos habían inducido a las mentes medievales a creer que las altas montañas eran morada de gnomos y demonios. En ésto habían avanzado menos que los budistas en la India, la China y el Japón, quienes consideraban sagradas las montañas y construían templos en sus laderas o en las mismas cumbres”. Las primeras expediciones alpinas comenzaron muy tímidamente en el Siglo XIV pero no cobraron importancia antes del Siglo XVI. El primer hombre que subió a las montañas para entender el misterioso clip que prevalece en las elevadas altitudes y para observar la forma de las montañas y de las plantas y animales que las habitan, fue Leonardo Da Vinci

  20. Composite biostratigraphy and microfacies analysis of the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous carbonate platform to slope successions in Sivrihisar (Eskişehir) region (NW Turkey, Pontides): Remarks on the palaeogeographic evolution of the Western Sakarya Zo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atasoy, Serdar G.; Altıner, Demir; Okay, Aral I.

    2017-04-01

    Two stratigraphical sections were measured along the Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous carbonate successions exposed in a tectonic klippe of the Sakarya Zone (Pontides), north of Sivrihisar. According to the biozonation and microfacies types, two coeval but dissimiliar rock successions, separated by a thrust fault, have been detected. These successions belong to different depositional belts of the Edremit-Bursa-Bilecik Carbonate Platform (EBBCP), western Sakarya Zone. The lower succession displays a slope to basin facies and consists of the Kimmeridgian - Berriasian Yosunlukbayırı Formation and the overlying Valanginian Soǧukçam Limestone. Within these deposits the following biozones were defined: Globuligerina oxfordiana - Mohlerina basiliensis Zone (Kimmeridgian), Saccocoma Zone (Lower Tithonian), Protopeneroplis ultragranulata Zone (Upper Tithonian), Crassicollaria (massutiana subzone) Zone (uppermost Tithonian), Calpionella (alpina, Remaniella, elliptica subzones) Zone (Lower Berriasian), Calpionellopsis (simplex, oblonga subzones) Zone (Upper Berriasian) and Calpionellites (darderi subzone) Zone (Lower Valanginian). This succession is overthrusted from north to south by another distinct succession characterized by the shallow marine carbonate facies of the Kimmeridgian Günören Formation. Within this unit Labyrinthina mirabilis - Protopeneroplis striata (Kimmeridgian) Zone is recognized. A facies model is proposed for the Sivrihisar transect of the EBBCP for Kimmeridgian - Valanginian interval, based on the distribution of microfacies types. The toe-of-slope facies are characterized by peloidal-bioclastic packstone, mudstone-wackestone and calpionellid/ radiolarian wackestone-packstone comprising pelagic taxa (calpionellids, radiolaria, Globochaete sp., Pithonella sp., Saccocoma sp., calcareous dinocysts, aptychi, very rare planktonic foraminifera and nannoconids) and rare fossil groups transported from the carbonate platform (benthic foraminifera

  1. EVALUATION OF MILLET GRAIN (Pennisetun americanum IN SUBSTITUTION TO CORN IN DAIRY GOAT RATIONS AVALIAÇÃO DO GRÃO DE MILHETO (Pennisetum americanum EM SUBSTITUIÇÃO AO MILHO (Zea mays EM RAÇÕES PARA CABRAS EM LACTAÇÃO

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    Aldi Fernandes de souza França

    2007-09-01

    ção do milho pelo grão de rnilheto, na formulação de rações para cabras em lactação. Dezesseis cabras da raça Alpina foram distribuídas em um delineamento em quadrado latino e submetidas a quatro tratamentos com níveis crescentes de substituição, assim constituídos: T1 - 0%; T2 - 33%; T3 - 66% e T4 - 99%. Os resultados obtidos pelas análises foram tabulados e, posteriormente, submetidos à análise de variância, que evidenciou efeito não significativo (P>0,05 dos tratamentos sobre a produção de leite, matéria graxa (MG, matéria mineral (MM, extrato seco total (EST, extrato seco desengordurado (ESD, acidez (AC e crioscopia (CRIO, enquanto a proteína bruta não foi influenciada (P>0,05.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Milheto; ração; cabras; lactação.

  2. Aalenian foraminiferal fauna and microfacies analyses of the Tethys Ocean Basin from the Transdanubian Range (Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsiborás, Gábor; Görög, Ágnes

    2016-04-01

    assemblage, however, the dominance of spirillinids with 70-90{%} is a radical difference. Planktonic protoglobigerinds occurred only few beds. They are medium-sized, thin-walled and low trochospiral. However, the typical Aaleno-Bajocian large, thick-walled forms are absent. All these taxa have wide stratigraphical distribution, significant Aalenian species have not been found. The presence of the aragonitic microfossils (juvenile ammonites, epistominids, protoglobigerinids) indicate that the depositional environment was above the ACD. The benthic foraminiferal association, the abundance of the {Globochaete alpina} and {Bositra} shells suggest outer neritic zone. In the upper part of Opalinum Zone the foraminiferal fauna showed an impoverishment in diversity and quantity as well. It is well coincidence with the change of the ammonite fauna. It can be interpreted the influence of the so called Comptum Cooling Event. The studied microfauna compared with the assemblages of Valdorbia Section, shows similarity in the {Bositra} - radiolarian microfacies and taxonomic composition of the foraminiferal fauna. The main differences were the dominance of the spirillinids and lack of the protoglobigerinids in the lower Aalenian layers of Valdorbia. These successions served the first detailed record about the composition and ecological features of Aalenian foraminiferal fauna of the Tethyan basin. The research was supported by the Hantken Foundation.

  3. The Effect of Different Type of Herbivores, Grazing Types and Grazing Intensities on Alpine Basiphillous Vegetation of the Romanian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballová, Zuzana; Pekárik, Ladislav; Šibík, Jozef

    2017-04-01

    increased the most in restricted areas compared to irregularly and regularly grazed sites. When analyzing soil properties, Generalized mixed models revealed reliable results in the differences among categories of grazing types and intensity. These differences were only noticeable in calcium concentration being calcium the most decreased by medium grazing intensity and the most increased by irregular grazing. Grazing had significant effects on individual plant species occurrences and covers. Horses decreased presence of Anthoxanthum odoratum and regular grazing sites as well as fences had significantly higher occurrence of trampling tolerant species Nardus stricta compared to sites with irregular grazing. The type of grazing herbivores influenced covers of Agrostis capillaris, A. rupestris, Campanula rotundifolia, Festuca supina, Luzula multiflora, and Ranunculus pseudomontanus. The grazing types significantly altered covers of Agrostis capillaris, Alchemilla sp. div., Campanula rotundifolia, Festuca supina, Luzula multiflora, Nardus stricta, and Potentilla ternata (Potentilla aurea subsp. chrysocraspeda). The intensity of grazing had important impact on covers of Agrostis rupestris, Alchemilla sp. div., Campanula rotundifolia, Festuca supina, Luzula multiflora, Poa alpina, Potentilla ternata, and Ranunculus pseudomontanus. Key words: alpine meadows; pastures; GLMM; NMDS; (nested) PERMANOVA

  4. Óleo de soja e própolis na alimentação de cabras leiteiras: consumo de matéria seca e de nutrientes e parâmetros de fermentação ruminal Soybean oil and propolis in the diets of dairy goats: intake of nutrients and ruminal metabolism

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    Rogério de Paula Lana

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a inclusão de níveis crescentes de óleo de soja (0; 1,5; 3,0; 4,5; 6,0; e 7,5% da MS, extrato etanólico de própolis (0; 1,0; 2,0; 4,0; 8,0 e 12,0 mL/animal/dia, 50% p/v de própolis moída em solução alcoólica a 70% em água e própolis bruta moída (0; 0,5; 1,0; 2,0; 4,0 e 6,0 g/animal/dia na alimentação de cabras leiteiras. Avaliaram-se o consumo de MS e de nutrientes e alguns parâmetros de fermentação ruminal, como pH, amônia (NH3, ácidos graxos voláteis (AGV e atividade específica de produção de amônia (AEPA pela microbiota ruminal. Foram utilizadas seis cabras Alpinas fistuladas no rúmen, em seis períodos experimentais. As dietas foram compostas de 67% de silagem de milho e 33% de concentrado à base de fubá de milho e farelo de soja. Os animais foram submetidos ao tratamento controle e, em seguida, a cinco níveis crescentes de óleo de soja, extrato etanólico de própolis e própolis bruta moída utilizando-se dois animais para cada produto testado, em seis períodos experimentais. Não houve efeito de níveis de óleo de soja, extrato etanólico de própolis e própolis bruta moída sobre o consumo de MS e de nutrientes e sobre os parâmetros ruminais estudados. Sugere-se, no entanto, a realização de mais pesquisas com a adição de própolis na alimentação de ruminantes, pois existem efeitos antimicrobianos comprovados in vitro e evidências de que seu fornecimento a esses animais reduz a relação acetato:propionato e a concentração de butirato no rúmen.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the increasing levels of soybean oil (0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0, and 7.5% of diet dry matter, ethanolic extract of propolis (0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, and 12.0 mL/animal/day and ground crude propolis (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 6.0 g/animal/day on intake and ruminal metabolism (pH, ammonia N, VFA, and specific activity of ammonia production in dairy goats. Six ruminally fistulated female Alpine

  5. Produção de leite em cabras alimentadas com diferentes níveis de proteína na dieta: consumo e digestibilidade dos nutrientes Production of goats fed diets with increasing levels of protein: intake, milk yield and apparent digestibility

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    Carlos Elysio Moreira da Fonseca

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os consumos e as digestibilidades dos nutrientes e a produção e composição do leite de cabras alimentadas com dietas com 47% de silagem de milho e 53% de concentrado, contendo níveis crescentes de PB (11,5; 13,5; 15,5 e 17,5%PB na MS. Foram utilizadas 12 cabras da raça Alpina em lactação, distribuídas em três quadrados latinos 4 x 4, compostos de quatro períodos de 15 dias (sete de adaptação às dietas e oito para coletas de amostras. Amostras de fezes e de leite foram analisadas e os resultados avaliados por meio de análises de variância e regressão. Os consumos de MS, MO, PB, PDR e NDT, assim com as digestibilidades da MS, MO, PB e CNF, aumentaram linearmente com os níveis de PB da dieta. A produção de leite aumentou linearmente com o incremento do nível dietético de PB, enquanto a produção de leite corrigida para 3,5% de gordura e as porcentagens de gordura e PB no leite não foram influenciadas pelos níveis de PB nas dietas. Concluiu-se que os níveis de 13,5% de PB ou 290 g de PB/dia atendem às exigências de proteína e parecem adequados para cabras com produção diária de até 2,7 kg de leite corrigido para 3,5% de gordura.Intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients, milk yield and milk composition were all evaluated in goats receiving diets with 47% of corn silage and 53% of concentrate. Dietary crude protein (CP was increased as follows [dry matter (DM basis]:11.5, 13.5, 15.5 and 17.5%. Twelve lactating Alpine goats were randomly assigned to three 4 x 4 Latin squares with 15 days experimental periods: seven days for diet adaptation and eight days for samples collection. Total collection of feces was done from day 8 to day 12 of each period while milk samples on day 10. Data were evaluated by analysis of variance and regression. Intakes of DM, organic matter (OM, CP, rumen degradable protein (RDP and total digestible nutrients (TDN increased linearly with the increment of dietary CP. Similarly

  6. Histological structure of the digestive tract of waders (Aves, Сharadrii

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    L. P. Kharchenko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Histological structure of digestive tracts of 12 species of waders (Aves, Сharadrii has been studied: Pluvialis squatarola (Linnaeus, 1758, Charadrius hiaticula (Linnaeus, 1758, Recurvirostra avosetta (Linnaeus, 1758, Tringa ochropus (Linnaeus, 1758, T. glareola (Linnaeus, 1758, T. nebularia (Gunnerus, 1767, T. erythropus (Pallas, 1764, Philomachus pugnax (Linnaeus, 1758, Calidris minuta (Leisler, 1812, C. ferruginea (Pontoppidan, 1763, C. alpina (Linnaeus, 1758 and Gallinago gallinago (Linnaeus, 1758. The features of histological structure of all parts of the digestive tract of the waders species under analysis were defined and adaptations in the structure of the digestive system to distant migrations were detected. It is determined that the histological structure of the wall of the esophagus of the studied species of waders is universal, and the relief of mucosa is folded; stratified squamous epithelium of the mucous membrane has an insignificant degree of hornification. A large number of esophagus glands is observed in the lamina propria of the mucosa; these glands secrete mucus which facilitates the movement of food along the esophagus. The muscular coat is well-developed and formed by longitudinal and circular layers of smooth muscle tissue. It is found that characteristics of histological structure of the stomach wall of the waders species under analysis are presupposed by the following functions: 1 glandular stomach wall provides secretion of digestive enzymes through active secretory activity of glands of deep complex; 2 secretion (mucus of simple tubular glands is excreted to the surface of glandular stomach performing the protective function; 3 the wall of the muscular stomach provides mechanical treatment of food through well-developed muscle layer and solid layer of the cuticle. It is established that the waders’ intestine is shortened, that is compensated by the complication of the relief of intestinal mucosa by plates that form

  7. Soroprevalência da infecção pelo vírus da artrite-encefalite caprina (caev no rebanho de caprinos leiteiros da região da Grande Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil Seroprevalence of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis vírus infection in dairy goats in the region of "Grande Fortaleza", Ceará, Brazil

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    Ana Célia Mendes Melo

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada uma pesquisa sorológica, com base no teste de imunodifusão em ágar gel (AGID com antígeno (p28 do vírus Maedi/Visna, para estimar a soroprevalência da infecção pelo vírus da Artrite-Encefalite Caprina (CAEV na população de caprinos leiteiros da região da Grande Fortaleza, Ceará. O estudo abrangeu um total de oito criatórios. dos quais cinco praticam o manejo intensivo e três o manejo semi-intensivo. A população estudada é composta, por animais puros de raças exóticas como a Saanen, Parda Alpina, Anglonubiana e Toggenburg, por animais Meio Sangue e alguns sem raça definida (SRD. Foi realizado exame clinico e coleta de amostra de soro em 248 caprinos, bem como a aplicação de questinonário epidemiológico. A análise dos dados revelou uma soroprevalência de 40,73% (101/248. As amostras soropositivas foram todas provenientes das propriedades com manejo intensivo (5/8. A distribuição da soroprevalência em cada um destes criatórios foi 61% (54/89, 74,28% (26/35, 61,11% (11/18, 11,36% (5/44 e 75% (6/8. Diferença significativa (P0,05 quanto aos falares idade e sexo dos animais estudados.A serologic survey was performed using a agar gel immunodiffusion test (AGID with the Maedi/Visna virus antigen (p28 to estimate the seroprevalence of the caprine arthritisencephalitis virus infection (CAEV in a dairy goat population in the region of "Grande Fortaleza", in the state of Ceará, Brazil. In this study a total of eight flocks were examined, five included intensive and three semi-intensive managements. The population studied consisted of three groups: pure-bred animais of exotic races such as Saanen, Alpine Parda, Anglonubian and Toggenburg: crossbreeds and animais of undefined breed. Serum samples were colleted from 248 goats, clinicai analysis were performed, andan epidemiologic survey was applied. Analysis of the results showed a seroprevalence of 40.73% (101/248. All seropositive samples carne from the flocks

  8. Degrabilidade Ruminal da Matéria Seca e da Fibra em Detergente Neutro de Alguns Volumosos Utilizados na Alimentação de Cabras Leiteiras, Submetidas a Dietas com Diferentes Relações Volumoso: Concentrado

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    Gonçalves André Luigi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do presente estudo foram a caracterização e a determinação das estimativas dos parâmetros relativos à cinética de degradação ruminal dos carboidratos contidos nas amostras dos volumosos feno de alfafa, capim-elefante, feno de Tifton 85 e silagem de milho em cabras submetidas a diferentes relações volumoso:concentrado, por meio das técnicas in situ e in vitro. Para a determinação da digestibilidade in situ, foram utilizadas cinco cabras Alpinas, não-gestantes, não-lactantes, com peso médio de 58 kg, fistuladas no rúmen. Para o ensaio de digestibilidade in vitro, utilizou-se tampão de McDougall, adaptado por Gonzáles, ajustados para os pHs observados nos animais, conforme a relação volumoso:concentrado (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60 e 20:80, com solução de ácido cítrico 1 M. Utilizou-se o delineamento estatístico em quadrado latino 5´5. A partir dos resultados observados, pode-se sugerir que houve influência significativa da relação volumoso:concentrado sobre a digestibilidade ruminal dos volumosos avaliados, para todas as frações analisadas, uma vez que o efeito associativo desta relação possibilitou aumento da degradação, em certa faixa de pH (6,8 a 6,2, em detrimento de sua redução em pH inferior a 6,0. O período de latência sofreu decréscimo, quando o pH passou de 7,05 para 6,8, mantendo-se estável até 6,5, a partir do qual ocorreu incremento significativo para todos os volumosos, principalmente quando atingiu pH inferior a 6,0. As incubações in situ e in vitro resultaram em curvas de degradação da matéria seca semelhantes em seus formatos para todos os alimentos avaliados, que apresentaram também valores bem próximos para as taxas de degradação. Porém, vale ressaltar que a comparação entre os parâmetros cinéticos observados nos métodos in situ e in vitro é desnecessária, uma vez que os objetivos de cada técnica são diferentes. Dessa forma, ambos os métodos podem ser

  9. Use of high moisture corn silage replacing dry corn on intake, apparent digestibility, production and composition of milk of dairy goats Utilização da silagem de grãos úmidos de milho em substituição ao milho seco no consumo, digestibilidade aparente, produção e composição do leite de cabras leiteiras

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    G.l.L. Canizares

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty primiparous and multiparous Alpine breed goats at approximately 80 days of lactation were used in this experiment. The animals were housed individually in metal cages and distributed according to milk production in five 4 × 4 Latin squares. The experimental diets used in the experiment presented concentrate:forage ratio of 65:35. The treatments were characterized by increasing levels of 0, 33, 67 and 100% of high moisture corn silage (HMCS replacing corn dry grain (CDG. Average intake of DM (1.62 kg/day, 3.90 % BW, CP (0.22 kg/day, NFC (0.76 kg/day and TDN (1.29 kg/day were not influenced by levels of HMCS. However, intake of NDF (0.53 kg/day was significant for the different level of HMCS. Daily milk production and production of milk correct at 3.5% of fat, feed efficiency (MP/DMI, fat percentage, protein, lactose, total solids and milk urea nitrogen, with means of 1.86; 1.69; 1.11; 2.96; 2.85; 4.36; 10.96 and 17.1, respectively, were not influenced by the levels of HMCS. Percentage of non fat solids (8.00% was affected by replacing levels of HMCS. The use of high moisture corn silage in the diet does not change milk production and it can be applied in total or partial substitution to dry corn grain in the feeding of milk goats.Foram utilizadas 20 cabras da raça Alpina, primíparas e multíparas, com aproximadamente 80 dias em lactação, alojadas individualmente em gaiolas metálicas e distribuídas, de acordo com a produção de leite, em cinco quadrados latinos 4 × 4. As dietas experimentais utilizadas apresentaram relação concentrado:volumoso 65:35. Os tratamentos foram caracterizados por níveis crescentes 0, 33, 67 e 100% de silagem de grãos úmidos de milho (SGUM em substituição ao grão seco de milho (GSM. As médias de consumo de MS (1,62 kg/dia, 3,90 %PV, proteína bruta (0,22 kg/dia, carboidratos não fibrosos (0,76 kg/dia e nutrientes digestíveis totais (1,29 kg/dia não foram influenciadas pelos níveis de SGUM

  10. COLPOCITOLOGY AND SERUM CONCENTRATIONS OF PROGESTERONE IN NULIPAROUS GOATS SUBMMITED TO ARTIFICIAL PHOTOPERIODS COLPOCITOLOGIA E CONCENTRAÇÕES SÉRICAS DE PROGESTERONA EM CABRAS NULÍPARAS SUBMETIDAS AO FOTOPERÍODO ARTIFICIAL

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    Caroline Rocha de Oliveira Lima

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present work was to evaluate the changes of cervico-vaginal epithelial cells and progesterone levels of nuliparous goats submitted to artificial photoperiod, in Middle-West of Brazil. Seventh Alpine and six crossbreed nuliparous goats were used, distributed in two groups: control (GC, maintained at isolated stall and submitted to natural light for the time of the year, and treated (GT, submitted to an alternate regime among natural and artificial light, for 24 hours and 35 uninterrupted days. Cérvico-vaginal content was collected, prepared on glass slides and differential cellular counts were carried out on Papanicolau smears. The progesterone concentration in blood serum was measurement by ELISA. Parabasal were the most frequent cell type present, followed by intermediate cells, mainly in the end of metaestrus and diestrus. Superficial cornified cells were present during proestrus and estrus. The cellular profile and progesterone concentrations oscillated in agreement with estrus cycle phase in control animals, but confuse on the begin of experimental period for treated animals. Cytological evaluation of cervico-vaginal content could be of value for a hormonal bioassay of estrus cycle of goats submitted to artificial photoperiod just after the adaptation period.

     

    KEY WORDS: Artificial photoperiod, caprine, hormone, vaginal cytology.

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar as alterações celulares do epitélio cérvico-vaginal e as concentrações de progesterona sérica em cabras nulíparas expostas ao fotoperíodo artificial, na região Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Dezessete cabras da raça Alpina e seis mestiças, nulíparas, foram aleatoriamente distribuídas em grupo-controle (GC, mantido em galpão isolado e submetido ao regime de luz natural para a época do ano, e grupo tratado (GT, submetido ao regime alternado entre luz natural e

  11. Alimentazione di Marmota marmota in praterie altimontane delle dolomiti bellunesi

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    Alessandro Rudatis

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of Marmota marmota in the mountain prairie of south-eastern Italian Alps. Diet composition of two family groups of alpine marmots was investigated in two areas of the Agordino’s Dolomites (Italian Alps in June-September 2001, by means of microscopic analysis of faeces and of direct observation of feeding activity. During the whole period of activity, a high consume of Angiosperms was confirmed, especially plants in flower; among them the “graminoids” seemed to play an important role only during the initial part of the active period. Generally vegetative parts predominated over flowers. The ingestion of animal preys was not confirmed by the analysis of droppings. Comparing diet composition of the two groups, Graminaceae (Poa, Phleum, Compositae (Achillea, Cyperaceae/Juncaceae, Leguminosae (Anthyllis, Rosaceae, and Labiatae (Prunella, Stachys formed the bulk of marmot diet in the study areas. Diet showed low diversity considering the abundance of plant species in the surrounding environment. Food resources were probably used in relation to their easy digestibility, with a high content in proteins, sugar and water. The knowledge of vegetation features in relation to marmot trophic habits can represent a useful tool for the management of this species. Riassunto Il regime alimentare di due gruppi di Marmotta alpina è stato studiato in giugno-settembre 2001 in due aree delle Dolomiti agordine (SE Italia, attraverso l’analisi microscopica delle feci e l’osservazione diretta dell’attività alimentare. Durante tutto il periodo di attività si è notato un forte consumo di Angiosperme, specialmente piante a fiore, mentre le ”graminoidi” sembra giochino un ruolo importante all’inizio della stagione. In generale le parti vegetali predominano sui fiori. L’ingestione di prede animali non è stata

  12. Concentrações plasmáticas de testosterona, triiodotironina (T3 e tiroxina (T4 em bodes submetidos ao estresse calórico Plasma concentrations of testosterone, triiodothyronine (T3, and thyroxine (T4 in bucks submitted to heat stress

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    L.A. Coelho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Para verificar o efeito do estresse calórico (EC nas concentrações plasmáticas de testosterona, triiodotironina (T3 e tiroxina (T4, oito bodes, das raças Saanen (n=4 e Alpina (n=4, foram mantidos em câmara bioclimática, sob condições de termoneutralidade (13,0ºC a 26,7ºC durante 30 dias e, após um período (60 dias de descanso, submetidos ao EC (23,7ºC a 34,0ºC por 30 dias. Para minimizar as variações sazonais nos perfis hormonais devido ao fotoperíodo, durante toda fase experimental, incluindo a de adaptação em condições de termoneutralidade (30 dias, o fotoperíodo foi controlado utilizando-se alternância de dias longos (16h de luz e 8h de escuro e de dias curtos (8h de luz e 16h de escuro a cada 30 dias. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas duas vezes por semana durante cinco semanas. No conjunto das raças, o EC não influenciou (P>0,05 as concentrações de testosterona (1,8±0,2 vs 1,3±0,2ng/ml e nem a de T4 (52,7±2,8 vs 50,0±2,8ng/ml. Houve declínio (PTo verify the effect of heat stress (HS on plasma testosterone, triiodothyronine (T3, and thyroxine (T4 concentrations, eight Saanen (n=4 and Alpine Brown (n=4 bucks were kept in climate chamber under thermal neutral conditions (13.0ºC to 26.7ºC for 30 days. After a resting period (60 days, the same bucks were submitted to heat stress (23.7ºC to 34.0ºC for another 30 days. To neutralize the seasonal variations of hormonal profiles throughout the period, the photoperiod was controlled every 30 days altering long (16 hours of light and 8 hours of darkness and short days (8 hours of light and 16 hours of darkness. The blood samples were collected twice a week during five weeks. In both breeds, there was no effect of HS (P>0.05 on plasma concentrations of testosterone (1.8±0.2 vs 1.3±0.2ng/ml and T4 (52.7±2.8 vs 50.0±2.8ng/ml. There was a decline (P<0.01 of plasma T3 concentrations (1.3±0.1 vs 1.0±0.1ng/ml after HS treatment, but this reduction was only

  13. Enteral fluid therapy through nasogastric tube in rumen cannulated goats Fluidoterapia enteral por via nasogástrica em cabras fistuladas no rúmen

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    Katia Atoji-Henrique

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the effects of fluid therapy in goats through nasogastric route with an electrolyte solution composed by concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride similar to goat plasma (140mmol/L of Na+, 4.5mmol/L of K+, 110mmol/L of Cl-. Four Alpine Chamoisee goats, two of them with evident leakage of the rumen cannulas, were used in a crossover experimental design of two periods and two groups. In one group the two goats were submitted to a treatment protocol to induce dehydration before the fluid therapy, whereas the other group was not. Fluid therapy consisted supplying 10mL/kg/h of the electrolyte solution during 8 hours. No signs of discomfort or stress were observed. The dehydration model employed caused a mild dehydration indicated by decrease in feces humidity, body weight and abdominal circumference, and increase in plasma total solids concentration. During fluid therapy globular volume and plasma total solids decreased, whereas % body weight and abdominal circumference increased. No signs of hyperhydration were observed and serum electrolytes (Na+, Cl-, K+ presented no significant alterations in both groups. Fluid therapy proposed in this study was efficient to treat dehydration, even for rumen cannulated animals with evident leakage, and can be administrated safely with no electrolyte imbalance.Este estudo relata os efeitos da fluidoterapia em cabras que receberam, por via nasogástrica, uma solução eletrolítica com concentrações de sódio, potássio e cloreto similares às verificadas no plasma de caprinos (140mmol/L of Na+, 4.5mmol/L of K+, 110mmol/L of Cl-. Foram utilizadas quatro cabras da raça Parda Alpina, sendo duas com cânulas ruminais apresentando vazamento evidente, em um delineamento experimental crossover com dois períodos e dois grupos. Em um grupo, as cabras eram submetidas a um protocolo terapêutico para induzir a desidratação antes da fluidoterapia enquanto o outro grupo não passava por este

  14. Generalization of heterogeneous alpine vegetation in air photo-based image classification, Latnjajaure catchment, northern Sweden

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    Lindblad, K. E. M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Mapping alpine vegetation at a meso-scale (catchment level using remote sensing presents difficulties due to a patchy distribution and heterogeneous spectral appearance of the plant cover. We discuss issues of generalization and accuracy assessment in this case study when using a digital CIR air photo for an automatic classification of the dominant plant communities. Spectral information from an aerial photograph was supplemented by classified plant communities in field and by topographical information derived from a DEM. 150 control points were tracked in the field using a GPS. The outcome from three alternative classifications was analysed by Kappa statistics, user’s and producer’s accuracy. Overall accuracy did not differ between the classifications although producer’s and user’s accuracy for separate classes differed together with total surface (ha and distribution. Manual accuracy assessment when recording the occurrence of the correct class within a radius of 5 meters from the control points generated an improvement of 16 % of the total accuracy. About 10 plant communities could be classified with acceptable accuracy where the chosen classification scheme determined the final outcome. If a high resolution pixel mosaic is generalized to units that match the positional accuracy of simple GPS this generalization may also influence the information content of the image.



    Hemos llevado a cabo la cartografía de la vegetación alpina a escala media (nivel de cuenca experimental mediante interpretación remota. Esta metodología plantea dificultades debido a la distribución en mosaico de la vegetación y a la heterogeneidad del espetro obtenido. Se discuten las posibilidades de generalización de los resultados y el grado de precisión alcanzado en este caso experimental mediante fotografía aérea digital CIR aplicada a una clasificación automática de

  15. La serie Triasica de Los Pastores (Algeciras

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    Valenzuela, J. M.

    1993-04-01

    del resto de la Península Ibérica. De las tres unidades superiores, la unidad 6 es de naturaleza pelítico-carbonatada y evaporítica y ha suministrado asimismo asociaciones de polen del Carniense. Las unidades 5 y 7, sin embargo, son de naturaleza carbonatada y presentan facies y organ.ismos francamente marinos (Involutínidos y algas dasycladáceas de características análogas a las que muestra el Trías superior de Facies Alpina de las Zonas Internas de la Cordillera Bética (Rondaides y Alpujárrides. El Trías de Los Pastores pertenece a una provincia fitogeográfica ecuatorial árida, cuya vegetación estaba dominada por elementos xerofíticos. Se depositó en una extensa llanura costera con influencia terrígena marginal y adyacente a una plataforma carbonatada, en ambientes de tipo perimareal y marino muy somero, muy sensibles a las variaciones en el nivel del mar. Las intercalaciones carbonatadas marinas contienen asociaciones de faunas autóctonas de baja diversidad, oportunistas y de nanismo endémico, propias de ambientes someros, restringidos, inestables e inmaduros ecológicamente, que confirman las características del medio sedimentario deducidas del análisis de las facies.

  16. The influence of environmental variables on the distribution of diatom communities in an alpine proglacial stream, Taillon-Babiétous catchment, french Pyrénées

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    Brown, L. E.

    2004-12-01

    meilleure stabilité et à sa conductivité. Cymbella, Fragilaria et Naviculaprédominent en tous les points, alors que Cocconeis était relativement abondant dans l'eau du fond de Tourettes, où la température plus élevée de l'eau en facilitait la colonisation.
    [es]
    Aunque las algas son importantes componentes de los ecosistemas de aguas corrientes, su distribución en los arroyos de montaña ha merecido poca atención. Hemos estudiado aquí las comunidades de diatomeas en una pequeña cuenca alpina sometida al glaciarismo (Taillón-Gabieto, Pirineos franceses con el fin de explorar los patrones de distribución longitudinal de los géneros de diatomeas e identificar las principales variables fisicoquímicas del habitat que los condicionan. Tanto las diatomeas como los datos hidroquímicos y físicos se tomaron en cuatro puntos a lo largo del arroyo del Glaciar del Taillón y otro punto en el agua de un arroyo tributario (Tourettes entre Julio y Agosto de 2002, precisamente durante el máximo de fusión. Los géneros de diatomeas aumentan de 3 en el borde del glaciar hasta 13 a 1,2 km aguas abajo, gracias al incremento de la temperatura del agua, a su estabilidad mayor y a su conductividad. Cymbella, Fragilariay Naviculadominaban en todos los puntos, mientras que Cocconeis era relativamente abundante en el agua del fondo de Tourettes, donde la temperatura algo mayor del agua facilitaba la colonización.

  17. The spider family Micropholcommatidae (Arachnida: Araneae: Araneoidea: a relimitation and revision at the generic level

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    Michael Rix

    2010-02-01

    .; the 20 previously described species of Textricella are thus transferred into Eterosonycha or other newly described genera. The Textricellini includes 10 genera from Australasia and Chile: Eterosonycha has four species, including the type E. alpina Butler (=Textricella parva Hickman syn. n., E. complexa (Forster, E. aquilina sp. n. and E. ocellata sp. n.; Epigastrina gen. n. has three species, including the type E. fulva (Hickman, E. loongana sp. n. and E. typhlops sp. n.; Guiniella gen. n. is monotypic, with G. tropica (Forster; Raveniella gen. n. has three species, including the type R. luteola (Hickman, R. hickmani (Forster and R. peckorum sp. n.; Rayforstia gen. n. has 12 species, including the type R. vulgaris (Forster, the two new species R. lordhowensis sp. n. and R. raveni sp. n., and the nine additional species R. antipoda (Forster, R. insula (Forster, R. mcfarlanei (Forster, R. plebeia (Forster, R. propinqua (Forster, R. salmoni (Forster, R. scuta (Forster, R. signata (Forster and R. wisei (Forster; Normplatnicka gen. n. has three species, including the type N. lamingtonensis (Forster, N. chilensis sp. n. and N. barrettae sp. n.; Eperiella gen. n. has two species, including the type E. alsophila sp. n., and E. hastings sp. n.; Algidiella gen. n. is monotypic, with A. aucklandica (Forster; Taliniella gen. n. has two species, including the type T. nigra (Forster, and T. vinki sp. n.; and Tinytrella gen. n. is monotypic, with T. pusilla (Forster. The micropholcommatine tribe Patelliellini trib. n. includes only one monotypic genus, Patelliella gen. n., represented by the enigmatic species Patelliella adusta sp. n. from Lord Howe Island. The subfamily Taphiassinae subfam. n. includes two genera of distinctive, heavily punctate Micropholcommatidae from Australasia: Taphiassa Simon has six species, including the type T. impressa Simon, T. punctata (Forster, T. castanea sp. n., T. globosa sp. n., T. magna sp. n. and T. robertsi sp. n.; the genus Parapua Forster

  18. Geoquímica de las aguas termales con CO2 del SE de las Cordilleras Béticas

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    Martín-Vallejo, M.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermalism of the south-east peninsular Alpine zone has been studied under different points of view, such as the geological control, the definition and systematising of its chemistry types and base temperatures, among others, showing always its notable development and its connection with geothermal anomalies of regional character. One of the problems that seems to carry important genetic implications, as well as implications for the utilisation of this water, is the content in carbon dioxide. Twenty-seven physicalchemical parameters in twenty-two water points on a fifty inventory have been studied. High temperatures were recorded for almost all the sampling points, varying between 20 and 41°C. The waters have conductivity between 771 and 5,030 μS cm-1 and increased to the east of the faults systems of Carboneras-Palomares-Guadalentín. In general, the concentration in bicarbonate was high, between 3 and 30 meq/l. The waters present high PC02, being arrived to measure values over 1.17 atmospheres and whose spatial variations are related to the proximity to the faults systems of Carboneras-Palomares-Guadalentín, the one which establishes a threshold between different thickness of the crust. Chemical equilibrium modelling shows that the waters are oversaturated in dolomite, in general saturated in calcite, and undersaturated in gypsum. The high content in CO2, besides the process of dedolomititation caused by the addition of S04~ to the system, helps the formation of travertines in many of the studied points. Isotopic studies show that δ13C values are in the range -S.I to -3.1‰, and reveals that there is an insignificant CO2 supply of deep origin The hydrothermal system of this zone is related to the proposed «C02 Alpine Belt», associated here with a series of grabens with seismic and neotectonic activities.El hidrotermalismo de las zonas alpinas peninsulares ha sido estudiado bajo diferentes puntos de vista, como son

  19. Análise das metodologias diretas e indiretas para a contagem de células somáticas no leite de cabras hígidas Analysis of direct and indirect methods for somatic cell counts in the milk of healthy goats

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    Karina Medici Madureira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A particularidade da secreção láctea caprina, do tipo apócrina, diferente da secreção merócrina da vaca, leva a erros de interpretação durante a realização de técnicas de avaliação da celularidade do leite de fêmeas desta espécie. Portanto, o presente trabalho teve o objetivo de determinar a contagem de células somáticas pelo método indireto California Mastitis Test (CMT, e por métodos diretos, incluindo a contagem por citometria de fluxo e a contagem microscópica direta, através da coloração de verde de metil e pironina-Y, além de comparar os métodos de contagem celular. Foram analisadas 102 amostras de 51 fêmeas caprinas, das raças Saanen, Parda Alpina e Toggenburg, criadas no Estado de São Paulo. Os animais foram categorizados segundo a fase da lactação, exame físico da glândula mamária e exame do leite. As amostras foram colhidas, após a realização do exame Califórnia Mastitis Test, em duas alíquotas, uma destinada à contagem celular automática e a outra, a contagem microscópica direta, utilizando-se o corante verde de metil e pironina- Y. De acordo com os diferentes escores do CMT, observou- se 74,5% de amostras negativas, 8,8% de amostras com escore traços, 8,8% de amostras ligeiramente positivas (+, 6,8% de amostras fracamente positivas (++ e 0,9% de amostras fortemente positivas (+++. Os valores medianos das contagens de células somáticas presentes no leite de cabras, avaliadas através de contador automático e microscopia direta, e analisadas de acordo com os diferentes escores do CMT, foram, respectivamente, 181.000, 578.000, 628.000, 1.421.500 e 5.542.000 células/mL de leite e 74.991, 271.396, 71.420, 640.995 e 5.049.394 células/ mL de leite, nos escores negativo, traços, +, ++ e +++. Os valores medianos obtidos através da contagem de células somáticas pelo método automático e microscópico direto, de acordo com as fases de lactação foram de 159.500, 508.000 e 277.500 c

  20. Óleo de soja e própolis na alimentação de cabras leiteiras Soybean oil and propolis in the diets of dairy goats

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    Rogério de Paula Lana

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste experimento, verificar os efeitos da adição de óleo de soja e/ou de extrato etanólico de própolis na alimentação de cabras leiteiras sobre o consumo, a digestibilidade de nutrientes, a produção e composição do leite e alguns parâmetros de fermentação ruminal. Foram utilizadas dezesseis cabras Alpinas (quatro fistuladas no rúmen. Os animais foram alocados em quatro quadrados latinos 4x4, em arranjo fatorial 2x2 dos tratamentos. Foram adicionados ao concentrado 0 ou 120 g de óleo de soja e 0 ou 10 mL de extrato etanólico de própolis/animal/dia (30% p/v de própolis bruta moída em solução alcoólica a 70% em água. As dietas foram isoprotéicas, com 11,5% de PB, e compostas de 67% de silagem de milho e 33% de concentrado à base de fubá de milho e farelo de soja. O óleo de soja reduziu os consumos de matéria seca (%PV e g/kg PV0,75, de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e de carboidratos não-fibrosos; diminuiu a digestibilidade da FDN; aumentou a digestibilidade da PB e do EE e o teor de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT; reduziu a produção e aumentou os percentuais de gordura, proteína e sólidos totais no leite; aumentou o pH; e reduziu a relação acetato:propionato no líquido ruminal. Houve interação entre óleo de soja e extrato etanólico de própolis, de modo que o óleo de soja reduziu os consumos de MS, MO e FDN (em kg/animal/dia somente na presença de própolis e aumentou o consumo de PB na ausência de própolis. O óleo de soja mostrou-se mais efetivo em alterar as variáveis analisadas que o extrato etanólico de própolis.The objective of this experiment was to verify the effects of soybean oil and/or ethanolic extract of propolis, in the diets of dairy goats, on intake, on digestibility of nutrients, on milk production and composition and some ruminal parameters. Sixteen Alpine female goats were used, in which four animals fistulated in the rumen. The animals were allocated in four 4

  1. Attempts of whole-rock K/Ar dating of mesozoic volcanic and hypabissal igneous rocks from the Central Subbetic (Southern Spain: A case of differential Argon loss related to very low-grade metamorphism

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    Sanz de Galdeano, C.

    1988-04-01

    ólo satisfactorias en relación con un cierto número de muestras de rocas volcánicas, no obstante, con una concordancia respecto de las edades estratigráficas en el orden del 10% relativo; las del resto, fundamentalmente muestras de «ofitas», presentan una fuerte dispersión, con diferencias que pueden alcanzar valores superiores a los 30 Ma, incluso en conjuntos provenientes del mismo afloramiento o localidad. Se concluye que las pérdidas de Ar causantes de los rejuvenecimientos de las edades analíticas observados son debidos a la existencia de transformaciones metamórficas alpinas, de muy bajo grado, que afectaron con mayor intensidad a las ofitas que a las rocas volcánicas presentes en niveles estratigráficos más altos. Otros cambios posteriores al emplazamiento magmático, tales como el grado de oxidación secundaria, son así mismo distintivos en ambos grupos de muestras al tiempo que proveen de soporte adicional al concepto de que el medio de alteración de las «ofitas» debió haber producido condiciones favorables a una interacción roca/fluidos más penetrativa y, por tanto, una recristalización más homogénea. En conjunto, la actividad magmática de la que derivaron las «ofitas» podría haber comenzado en el Trias terminal y continuado en el Jurásico Inferior. Tanto las «ofitas» como las volcanitas se consideran el resultado de eventos magmáticos ligados a movimientos de distensivos a transtensivos que afectaron a las cuencas externas de las Cordilleras Béticas desde el Trías terminal hasta el Cretáceo inferior.

  2. Petrología, evolución geodinámica y georrecursos del Espacio Natural de Sierra Nevada

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    Díaz Puga, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    í como la Formación de Soportújar, que se depositó sobre materiales del CM en una etapa intraorogénica alpina, fueron definidas basándose en las características de algunos afloramientos que están muy bien representados dentro del Espacio Natural de Sierra Nevada. Estos afloramientos constituyen una serie de georrecursos petrológicos que son esenciales para reconstruir el origen y la evolución petrogenética de Sierra Nevada y, por extensión, de la Cordillera Bética. Por esta razón, requieren un grado máximo de preservación, que impida su destrucción y el expolio de las rocas y minerales que los integran.

  3. GENOMIQUE ET PRODUCTION NON ALIMENTAIRE Acides gras d’intérêt industriel obtenus par génie génétique

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    Lessire René

    2002-03-01

    é par introduction des gènes de DELTA6 et DELTA12 désaturases de Mortierella alpina. Une huile de colza à haute teneur en acide érucique est en cours d’élaboration; pour y parvenir l’introduction du gène de la LPAAT de Limnanthes alba est nécessaire. Le colza obtenu est capable de synthétiser de la tri-érucine mais la teneur en acide érucique n’est que faiblement augmentée. Enfin, il est possible de modifier par ingénierie génétique les propriétés des désaturases et des thioestérases, laissant présager la possibilité de faire de l’huile à façon. Les limites de ces modifications de la composition en acides gras des huiles par génie génétique seront également présentées.

  4. TRANSRECTAL ULTRASOUND TO IDENTIFY THE SEX OF CAPRINE FETUSES ULTRASSONOGRAFIA TRANSRETAL PARA IDENTIFICAR O SEXO FETAL DE CAPRINOS

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    Cristiano Rocha Aguiar Filho

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish the period for sexing caprine fetuses by transrectal ultrasonography through viewing the structures of the external genitalia, monitoring of the final positioning of the genital tubercle, and the day that the penis, scrotum, clitoris and nipples were seen. Fetuses of Boer (n = 36, Brownscale Alpine (n = 31 and Anglo-nubian (n = 27, breeds in the 40th-60th day of gestation, were tracked using linear transducer of 6.0 and 8.0 MHz. The final positioning of the genital tubercle occurred in the period from 47.11 ± 1.45 days in males and 45.62 ± 1.36 days in females. The visualization of structures of the external genitalia was in the period from 49.42 ± 2.20 days for scrotum; 49.37 ± 2.19 days for penis; 49.23 ± 1.75 days for nipples and 49.98 ± 2.52 days for clitoris. The migration of female genital tubercle in the fetus occurred earlier (P < 0.05 than in males, and the visualization of penis and scrotum was earlier (P < 0.05 than the nipples and clitoris, there was no difference (P > 0.05 among the structures of the same sex. In conclusion, although the sexing of caprine fetuses can be done before the 55th day of pregnancy, it is recommended to perform it only after the visualization of the structures of the external genitalia for a greater security in the sex identification.

    KEY WORDS: Clitoris. nipples, penis, scrotum, sexing.

    Procurou-se estabelecer o período para sexar fetos caprinos pela ultrassonografia transretal visibilizando-se as estruturas da genitália externa, sendo que para tal foi monitorado o dia do posicionamento final do tubérculo genital (TG, bem como o dia em que o pênis, a bolsa escrotal, o clitóris e as tetas foram visibilizados. Foram monitorados fetos das raças Boer (n = 36, Parda Alpina (n = 31 e Anglo-nubiana (n = 27, do 40o ao 60o dia de gestação, usando-se transdutor linear de 6,0 e 8,0 MHz. O posicionamento final do TG ocorreu no período de 47

  5. New habitats, new menaces: Centaurea x kleinii (C. moncktonii x C. solstitialis, a new hybrid species between two alien weeds

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    Susanna, A.

    2010-12-01

    origen híbrido. La nueva especie podría convertirse en una mala hierba invasora gracias a su reproducción vegetativa. La que suponemos especie materna, a la cual el híbrido se acerca morfológicamente y puede que fisiológicamente, es una mala hierba rastrera bien conocida de las praderas alpinas en toda Europa. [ct] L’alteració antròpica de l’hàbitat dóna pas a la cohabitació d’espècies importades que mai coexistirien en el seu àmbit natural. Centaurea solstitialis i Centaurea moncktonii són dues espècies invasores les distribucions de les quals a Euràsia gairebé no se solapen. Després de la seva introducció a Amèrica del Nord, l’expansió invasiva va portar a distribucions superposades. Malgrat que els requeriments ambientals de les dues espècies són diferents, la proximitat d’hàbitats diversos (dins de l’abast dels pol·linitzadors ha donat lloc a diversos casos d’hibridació natural entre ambdues. L’ encreuament resultant entre dues espècies, llunyanament emparentades, és una planta perenne estèril. Molts dels caràcters de l’híbrid són intermitjos entre les seves espècies parentals, però morfològicament és més semblant a Centaurea moncktonii (probablement l’espècie materna, i al seu torn també d’origen híbrid. La nova espècie podria convertir-se en una mala herba invasora gràcies a la seva reproducció vegetativa. La que suposem espècie materna, a la qual l’híbrid s’acosta morfològicament i potser fisiològicament, és una mala herba prostrada ben coneguda de les pastures alpines a tota Europa.

  6. La costra biológica del suelo: Avances recientes en el conocimiento de su estructura y función ecológica Biological soil crusts: Recent advances in our knowledge of their structure and ecological function

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    ANDREA P CASTILLO-MONROY

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La costra biológica del suelo (CBS es una comunidad biótica formada por la íntima asociación entre partículas de suelo, cianobacterias, algas, hongos, líquenes, hepáticas y briófitos. La CBS está ampliamente distribuida en muchos tipos de suelo y en casi todas las comunidades vegetales donde la luz alcanza la superficie del suelo, si bien predomina en zonas áridas, semiáridas, alpinas y polares. Este conjunto de organismos proporciona un aporte importante de carbono y nitrógeno al suelo, incrementa su estabilidad y lo protege frente a la acción erosiva de la lluvia y el viento. También modula la infiltración y afecta de manera directa a las plantas vasculares y otros organismos. El conocimiento de la biología, ecología y fisiología de la CBS ha aumentado ampliamente en los últimos años. No obstante, existe un vacío de información importante respecto a la influencia de la CBS en los ciclos biogeoquímicos, especialmente del fósforo y carbono, así como a todo lo referente a las interacciones bióticas, tanto entre los componentes de la CBS entre sí como entre la CBS y los microorganismos, plantas vasculares e invertebrados. Es necesario descentralizar la información y extenderla a otras áreas del mundo, ya que la mayoría de los estudios se han realizado en zonas áridas y semiáridas de los Estados Unidos de América, Australia, Israel y China. Es especialmente preocupante la falta de estudios en toda América Central y del Sur, pese a que la CBS debe ser un componente biótico de primera magnitud en países como Chile, Argentina, Perú y México, por citar solo unos ejemplos. Con el fin de despertar el interés de la comunidad científica de habla hispana sobre este importante conjunto de organismos, y de identificar los principales avances y lagunas existentes en nuestro conocimiento sobre su ecología, en el presente trabajo revisamos las características y distribución de la CBS, así como sus efectos en la

  7. Assessing and comparing climatic control on distribution and reproduction of alpine and lowland species in the subalpine habitat of western Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meineri, Eric

    2012-02-15

    Aims and background: Species range shift is among the most well-documented responses to climate change. As a result, a growing number of studies model species climatic niches to predict how species ranges may displace in space and time (SDM studies). These studies are criticised because they do not include reproduction in their predictions. Other studies use empirical data to assess climatic control on reproductive life-stages. However, the climatic niche of reproductive life-stages may not determine the climatic niche of species, limiting the ability of both types of studies to assess the effect of climate change. In this synthesis, I compare the results of a SDM study (Paper I) with the results of two empirical studies focussing on flowering performance (Paper II) and seedling emergence (Paper III). The research focuses on the leading and rear altitudinal edges of lowland and alpine species ranges, respectively, as those are the two delimiting fronts that are expected to be specifically vulnerable to climate change. Reproduction response to climate is a complex process because it involves several sub-stages that can be affected by climate in several ways. Therefore, the results included in this synthesis integrate several direct and size-dependent climatic effects on flowering performance and report on the importance of both the climate conditions occurring at the recruitment sites and those experienced by the source populations for seedling emergence. Study area and species: This thesis makes use of the sub-alpine and alpine landscapes of western Norway to investigate climatic control on species occurrence and reproduction. This study area was chosen because it includes the leading altitudinal edge of lowland species ranges and the rear altitudinal edge of alpine species ranges. The research uses Viola biflora (alpine), Viola palustris (lowland), Veronica alpina (alpine), and Veronica officinalis (lowland) as study cases because these species are common in the

  8. Uso de própolis e ácido ascórbico na criopreservação do sêmen caprino Use of propolis and ascorbic acid on goat semen cryopreservation

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    Erick Fonseca de Castilho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos neste estudo foram verificar se a própolis e o ácido ascórbico têm efeito sobre a integridade da membrana plasmática dos espermatozoides de caprinos e investigar o potencial desses antioxidantes no uso de meios diluidores de criopreservação de sêmen caprino. Foram utilizados cinco bodes adultos das raças Alpina (n = 2 e Saanen (n = 3. Após a coleta de sêmen, realizaram-se o exame físico do sêmen e morfológico dos espermatozoides, o teste supravital e o teste hiposmótico. Em seguida, o sêmen fresco foi diluído com o diluidor Bioxcell® (controle; Bioxcell® + 0,25% de extrato liofilizado de própolis; Bioxcell® + 0,5% de extrato liofilizado de própolis; Bioxcell® + 0,05% de ácido ascórbico; ou Bioxcell® + 0,25% de ácido ascórbico. Após as diluições finais, foram avaliados a motilidade e o vigor espermático obtidos com cada diluidor e posteriormente o sêmen foi submetido a envase, resfriamento e congelamento. No sêmen fresco, os aspectos físicos e morfológicos e os resultados dos testes supravital e hiposmótico não diferiram entre os animais nem entre raças. As médias gerais de motilidade e vigor espermático e dos testes supravital e hiposmótico obtidos logo após o descongelamento e após 3 horas de teste de termorresistência diferiram entre si, de modo que o diluidor contendo ácido ascórbico e o controle foram similares e superiores àqueles contendo própolis. O ácido ascórbico mantém a integridade estrutural da membrana dos espermatozoides durante o processo de criopreservação, bem como sua viabilidade após o teste de termorresistência, e pode ser uma alternativa na composição de diluentes para criopreservação de sêmen caprino; a própolis não é eficaz na manutenção da integridade e da viabilidade espermática pós-descongelamento e é tóxica aos espermatozoides nas concentrações de 0,25 e 0,5%.The objectives of this study were to verify whether propolis and ascorbic

  9. Consecuencias de las variaciones microclimáticas sobre la visita de insectos polinizadores en dos especies de Chaetanthera (Asteraceae en los Andes de Chile central Consequences of microclimate variation on insect pollinator visitation in two species of Chaetanthera (Asteraceae in the central Chilean Andes

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    CRISTIAN TORRES-DÍAZ

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La actividad de polinizadores puede ser afectada por factores bióticos (e.g., densidad floral en el parche, despliegue floral o por factores abióticos (e.g., temperatura, velocidad de viento, nubosidad. A pesar de la notable variación local, estacional e interanual en temperatura en zonas alpinas, las consecuencias de la variación microclimática local sobre la actividad de los polinizadores han recibido escasa atención en ambientes de alta montaña. En este estudio comparamos las tasas de visita a flores de polinizadores realizadas sobre poblaciones de exposición norte y oeste, en Chaetanthera apiculata (3.100 m de altitud, y en poblaciones de exposición este y oeste en C. lycopodioides (3.300 m de altitud. Se estudiaron los sistemas de reproducción de ambas especies para determinar su nivel de dependencia de un agente de polinización externo. En C. apiculata, la población que crece sobre la ladera de exposición norte estuvo sujeta a mayores temperaturas diurnas (1,8 °C y mayores tasas de visita (7,8 veces que la población sobre la ladera de exposición oeste. En C. lycopodioides, a su vez, la ladera de exposición este fue más cálida (3 °C y más visitada (cuatro veces que la población de exposición oeste. Mientras en C. apiculata, solo Faunula leucoglene (Lepidóptera: Satyridae presentó mayor actividad en la población más cálida, en C. lycopodioides, solo F. leucoglene y Liphantus sp. (Himenóptera: Andrenidae tuvieron mayor actividad en la población más cálida. La tasa de visitas de Faunula leucoglene fue afectada por la temperatura en C. apiculata y C. lycopodioides. Ambas especies, C. apiculata y C. lycopodioides, son parcialmente autocompatibles, y por lo tanto requieren polen exógeno para alcanzar una producción de semillas máxima. Nuestros resultados muestran que en ambientes de alta montaña las tasas de visita de polinizadores son altamente variables y que los factores microclimáticos pueden generar m

  10. Photosynthetic performance of Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl. (Caryophyllaceae in a high-elevation site of the Andes of central Chile Desempeño fotosintético de Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl. (Caryophyllaceae en los Andes de Chile central

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    M. ANGÉLICA CASANOVA-KATNY

    2006-03-01

    midió la tasa de intercambio gaseoso y la fluorescencia de la clorofila en tres días típicos durante la estación de crecimiento (enero, marzo y mayo. Adicionalmente, se realizaron una serie de curvas de respuesta a incrementos en la intensidad lumínica a diferentes temperaturas para estimar la propensión de C. quitensis a la fotoinhibición. La fotosíntesis neta (Pn fue baja (ca. de 2,0 mmol CO2 m-2s-1 en la mañana y mediodía en días con alta radiación fotosintéticamente activa (PAR, sobre los 1.500 mmol fotones m-2s-1. La tasa de fotosíntesis aumentó en la tarde (3,5-4,8 mmol CO2 m-2s-1 cuando la radiación PAR disminuyó a alrededor de 1.000 mmol fotones m-2s-1. Fv/Fm osciló entre 0,7-0,75 en los registros de enero y marzo, decreciendo en mayo a 0,67. Hojas medidas a 15 y 22 °C mostraron un leve descenso en F PSII con el aumento en la intensidad de luz actínica, aunque la fracción de centros de reacción abiertos (expresados por qP fue mayor a 22 °C. NPQ fue saturado a intensidades lumínicas cercanas a 500 mmol photons m-2s-1 en hojas a 22 °C, y a intensidades mayores en hojas a 15 °C, sugiriendo que NPQ puede ser un mecanismo de disipación energética bajo condiciones de altas intensidades lumínicas y altas temperaturas en el campo. Nuestros resultados indican que C. quitensis no sufre fotodaño durante los ciclos diurnos, y probablemente, los bajos Pn registrados durante algunos periodos diurnos están relacionados con fotorrespiración, la cual ha sido sugerida como un mecanismo muy eficiente en la protección de plantas alpinas contra la fotoinhibición. Nuestros resultados también son comparados con el desempeño fotosintético de las poblaciones de C. quitensis en la Antártica marítima

  11. Origen, transporte y deposición del uranio en los yacimientos en pizarras de la provincia de Salamanca

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    Arribas, A.

    1985-12-01

    ás importante de las que existen en España de esta clase , se discuten las hipótesis anteriores y se exponen los principales caracteres metalogénicos del yacimiento. Entre éstos, los más significativos son : el alto contenido geoquímico en U, de 30 a 200 ppm, de las pizarras ampelíticas, que son predominantes en la zona; la naturaleza y los procesos de alteración, cloritización y hematización, de las rocas encajantes; la paragénesis de baja temperatura; las peculiares texturas geopetales de los minerales filonianos tardíos; la edad radiométrica de la pechblenda, 37 a 57 m. a.; el rango de temperatura y salinidad de las inclusiones fluidas de los carbonatos de la ganga, variable entre 230º y menos de 70ºC y 0 y 25% equiv. NaCl respectivamente; y el carácter superficial de los procesos tectónicos que dieron lugar a la fracturación hidráulica y a las brechas que contienen la mineralización. Finalmente, se compara ésta con la de otros yacimientos españoles y extranjeros, y se atribuye su origen a una reconcentración del U de las filitas ampelíticas como consecuencia del bombeo sísmico provocado en los materiales del CEG por los contragolpes de la orogenia alpina.
    De acuerdo con esta idea , las tensiones tangenciales que se desarrollaron en el basamento hercínico durante la primera mitad del Terciario habrían dado lugar a episódicas removilizaciones del U de los metasedimentos fértiles, el cual, al producirse el colapso de las zonas de dilatación, habría sido expulsado hacia la superficie por los fluidos hidrotermales de carácter geotérmico que depositaron el U y los minerales acompañantes en las brechas y fracturas asociadas con las fallas de desgarre.