WorldWideScience

Sample records for sand-verbena abronia alpina

  1. Isolation, Synthesis, and Antisepsis Effects of a C-Methylcoumarinochromone Isolated from Abronia nana Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonhwa; Lee, Doohyun; Lee, Yuri; Lee, Taeho; Song, Kyung-Sik; Yang, Eun-Ju; Bae, Jong-Sup

    2018-05-25

    Only a few isoflavones have been isolated from plants of the genus Abronia. The biological properties of compounds isolated from Abronia species have not been well established, and their antisepsis effects have not been reported yet. In the present study, a new C-methylcoumarinochromone, was isolated from Abronia nana suspension cultures. Its structure was deduced as 9,11-dihydroxy-10-methylcoumarinochromone (boeravinone Y, 1) by spectroscopic data analysis and verified by chemical synthesis. The potential inhibitory effects of 1 against high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1)-mediated septic responses were investigated. Results showed that 1 effectively inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced release of HMGB1 and suppressed HMGB1-mediated septic responses, in terms of reduction of hyperpermeability, leukocyte adhesion and migration, and cell adhesion molecule expression. In addition, 1 increased the phagocytic activity of macrophages and exhibited bacterial clearance effects in the peritoneal fluid and blood of mice with cecal ligation and puncture-induced sepsis. Collectively, these results suggested that 1 might have potential therapeutic activity against various severe vascular inflammatory diseases via inhibition of the HMGB1 signaling pathway.

  2. The presence of Abronia oaxacae (Squamata: Anguidae in tank bromeliads in temperate forests of Oaxaca, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GI. Cruz-Ruiz

    Full Text Available The presence of lizards in bromeliads has been widely documented. Nevertheless, the possibility of some type of preference or specificity among lizards for particular bromeliad species has not yet been investigated. Therefore, this study aims to document the presence of Abronia oaxacae in six species of tank bromeliads found in pine forests, pine-live oak forests, and live oak groves during both the rainy season and the dry season. Three adult individuals of Abronia oaxacae were collected; one in a Tillandsia violácea (pine-live oak forest, one in a T. calothyrsus (live oak grove, and one in a T. prodigiosa (live oak grove. All three specimens were collected in sampling efforts carried out during the dry season. The results of the present study suggest that A. oaxacae shows no preference for a single, specific bromeliad species, although it does have a certain preference for a few select species. The presence of A. oaxacae in bromeliads during the dry season could be related to the cooler, moister microhabitat that these plants represent.

  3. Guidelines for the monitoring of Rosalia alpina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Campanaro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rosalia alpina (Linnaeus, 1758 is a large longhorn beetle (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae which is protected by the Habitats Directive and which typically inhabits beech forests characterised by the presence of mature, dead (or moribund and sun-exposed trees. A revision of the current knowledge on systematics, ecology and conservation of R. alpina is reported. The research was carried out as part of the LIFE MIPP project which aims to find a standard monitoring method for saproxylic beetles protected in Europe. For monitoring this species, different methods were tested and compared in two areas of the Apennines, utilising wild trees, logs and tripods (artificially built with beech woods, all potentially suitable for the reproduction of the species. Even if all methods succeeded in the survey of the target species, these results showed that the use of wild trees outperformed other methods. Indeed, the use of wild trees allowed more adults to be observed and required less intensive labour. However, monitoring the rosalia longicorn on wild trees has the main disadvantage that they can hardly be considered “standard sampling units”, as each tree may be differently attractive to adults. Our results demonstrated that the most important factors influencing the attraction of single trunks were wood volume, sun-exposure and decay stage. Based on the results obtained during the project LIFE MIPP, as well as on a literature review, a standard monitoring method for R. alpina was developed.

  4. Roosting behavior of premigratory Dunlins (Calidris alpina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Colleen M.; Gill, Robert E.

    1992-01-01

    We studied roosting behavior of Dunlins (Calidris alpina) during late summer along the coast of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska, in relation to tidal cycle, time of day, time of season, and occurrence of predators. Within Angyoyaravak Bay, peak populations of 70,000-100,000 Dunlins occur each year. The major diurnal roost sites were adjacent to intertidal feeding areas, provided an unobstructed view of predators, and were close to shallow waters used for bathing. At one site studied intensively, roosting flocks formed at high water consistently during the day but rarely at night. On about 75% of the days, Dunlins also came to the roost at dawn and dusk when the tide was low. The size of the roosting flock, the length of time birds spent at the roost site, and behavior at the roost site were highly variable throughout the season and significantly affected by both tide level and time of day. Roosting behavior changed significantly between early and late August, as Dunlins underwent heavy wing and body molt, and began premigratory fattening. The reaction of Dunlins to potential predators, the formation of roosting flocks in response to light cues, and seasonal changes in social behavior at the roost site suggested that communal roosting behavior may be related not only to the risk of predation but also to behavior during migration.

  5. Early flowers of Bartsia alpina (Scrophulariaceae) and the visitation by bumblebees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwak, MM; Bergman, P

    Phenology and insect visitation of early flowers of Bartsia alpina, a perennial herb, in a subalpine population in northern Sweden, were investigated to find causes for low seed set in early flowers. Bumblebees are the only visitors of B. alpina; they collect pollen and nectar. Flower phenologies of

  6. Alpina: Innovación permanente para «sorprender» al cliente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Nieto Potes

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Proceso llevado a cabo por ALPINA en el desarrollo de nuevos productos, incluyendo estudios de mercado y marketing, estudios de factibilidad técnica y la coherencia del producto con el enfoque de la empresa.

  7. Rosalia longicorn Rosalia alpina (LINNAEUS, 1758 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae as a host of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana LI, LI, HUANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartnik Czesław

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes, for the first time, the occurrence of the entomopathogenic fungus Cordyceps bassiana (anamorph: Beauveria bassiana on the imago of the endangered beetle Rosalia longicorn Rosalia alpina from the Low Beskid Mountains (the Carpathians, SE Poland. Furthermore, an isolate of the saprotrophic fungus Hypoxylon fragiforme was obtained as a result of laboratory tests on R. alpina specimens. Relationships between the identified fungi and R. alpina are discussed.

  8. Isolation of endophyic bacteria from purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Kds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Widayat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Kds. merupakan tanaman obat langka yang berkhasiat sebagai afrodisiak. Tanaman yang mengandung kumarin tersebut berinteraksi dengan bakteri endofi t. Senyawa kumarin dalam industri dimanfaatkan untuk bahan aditif makanan dan parfum. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan bakteri endofi t dari tanaman purwoceng, menganalisis kemampuan tumbuh bakteri endofi t dalam medium yang mengandung kumarin, dan pengaruh bakteri tersebut terhadap jumlah kumarin dalam medium pertumbuhan.Metode: Isolasi bakteri endofi t dilakukan secara langsung dari akar dan daun purwoceng. Seleksi bakteri endofi t penghasil kumarin dilakukan berdasarkan kemampuan bertahan hidup pada medium cair ammoniumsalt sugar (ASS yang mengandung infusa herba purwoceng. Pengaruh bakteri terhadap jumlah kumarin di dalam medium pertumbuhan diuji melalui percobaan kultivasi isolat bakteri terpilih pada medium yang sama. Jumlah kumarin dalam kultur dideteksi menggunakan teknik kromatografi lapis tipis (KLT.Hasil: Sembilan isolat bakteri endofi t yang berhasil diisolasi dari akar dan daun tanaman purwoceng mampu bertahan hidup pada medium basal yang diberi infusa herba purwoceng dengan waktu generasi (g 2,7-5,07jam dan kecepatan pertumbuhan spesifi k (μ 0,14-0,26/jam. Kultivasi isolat terpilih menunjukkan bahwa BAP5 menghasilkan senyawa dengan Rf 0,27 yang diduga sebagai turunan kumarin. Bakteri BAP5 mampu tumbuh dengan jumlah kumarin 1072 arbitrary unit (AU dalam medium.Kesimpulan: Bakteri endofi t dapat diisolasi dari tanaman purwoceng dan secara in vitro mampu mempertahankan jumlah kumarin yang terkandung di dalam medium. (Health Science Indones 2012;1:31-6Kata kunci: bakteri endofi t, purwoceng, Pimpinella alpina Kds, kumarinAbstractBackground: Purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Kds. is a medicinal plant species used as aphrodisiac. Like any other plants, the coumarin containing plant probably interacts with endophytic bacteria. Coumarin

  9. Arachidonic acid production by the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina 1S-4: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kikukawa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The filamentous fungus Mortierella alpina 1S-4 is capable of accumulating a large amount of triacylglycerol containing C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Indeed, triacylglycerol production by M. alpina 1S-4 can reach 20 g/L of culture broth, and the critical cellular signaling and structural PUFA arachidonic acid (ARA comprises 30%–70% of the total fatty acid. The demonstrated health benefits of functional PUFAs have in turn encouraged the search for rich sources of these compounds, including fungal strains showing enhanced production of specific PUFAs. Screening for mutants and targeted gene manipulation of M. alpina 1S-4 have elucidated the functions of various enzymes involved in PUFA biosynthesis and established lines with improved PUFA productivity. In some cases, these strains have been used for indistrial-scale production of PUFAs, including ARA. In this review, we described practical ARA production through mutant breeding, functional analyses of genes encoding enzymes involved in PUFA biosynthesis, and recent advances in the production of specific PUFAs through molecular breeding of M. alpina 1S-4. Keywords: Arachidonic acid, Mortierella alpina, Molecular breeding, Fatty acid desaturase

  10. Alpina: un caso de innovación para la competitividad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Fernández González

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Alpina es una compañía pionera en la industria de alimentos en Colombia que se ha desarrollado a partir de la innovación. Este artículo presenta cómo Alpina ha forjado una cultura de innovación, calidad y emprendimiento en todo lo que realiza y cómo los constantes cambios en el contexto competitivo motivan el desarrollo continuo de la capacidad de innovación y estrategias para hacer el negocio más sostenible y con proyección hacia el futuro.

  11. Genome expansion of Arabis alpina linked with retrotransposition and reduced symmetric DNA methylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willing, Eva Maria; Rawat, Vimal; Mandáková, Terezie; Maumus, Florian; James, Geo Velikkakam; Nordström, Karl J.V.; Becker, Claude; Warthmann, Norman; Chica, Claudia; Szarzynska, Bogna; Zytnicki, Matthias; Albani, Maria C.; Kiefer, Christiane; Bergonzi, Sara; Castaings, Loren; Mateos, Julieta L.; Berns, Markus C.; Bujdoso, Nora; Piofczyk, Thomas; Lorenzo, De Laura; Barrero-Sicilia, Cristina; Mateos, Isabel; Piednoël, Mathieu; Hagmann, Jörg; Chen-Min-Tao, Romy; Iglesias-Fernández, Raquel; Schuster, Stephan C.; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos; Roudier, François; Carbonero, Pilar; Paz-Ares, Javier; Davis, Seth J.; Pecinka, Ales; Quesneville, Hadi; Colot, Vincent; Lysak, Martin A.; Weigel, Detlef; Coupland, George; Schneeberger, Korbinian

    2015-01-01

    Despite evolutionary conserved mechanisms to silence transposable element activity, there are drastic differences in the abundance of transposable elements even among closely related plant species. We conducted a de novo assembly for the 375 .Mb genome of the perennial model plant, Arabis alpina.

  12. Agrobacterium rhizogenes vs auxinic induction for in vitro rhizogenesis of Prosopis chilensis and Nothofagus alpina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, Luis A; Santecchia, Natalia; Marinangeli, Pablo A; Curvetto, Néstor R; Hernández, Luis F

    2003-12-01

    The induction and improvement of in vitro rhizogenesis of microshoots of Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stuntz and Nothofagus alpina (Poep. et Endl. Oerst.) were compared using Agrobacterium rhizogenes (Ar) versus indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) in the culture media. Microshoots of P. chilensis (1-2 cm length), coming from in vitro grown seedlings, were cultivated in a modified Broadleaved Tree Medium (BTMm) containing half salt concentration of macronutrients and 0.05 mg x L(-1) benzilaminopurine (BAP). After 30 days, microshoots with 2-4 leaves were selected and cultured in BTMm-agar in presence or abscense of Ar and in combination with IBA. For N. alpina, the apical shoots with the first 2 true leaves, from 5 weeks old seedlings, were cultured in the abovementioned medium, but with 0.15 mg x L(-1) of BAP. After 2 months, microshoots with 2-3 leaves were selected and cultured in BTMm-agar, supplemented with 5 mg x L(-1) IBA or in liquid BTMm on perlite and, in the presence or absence of A. rhizogenes (Ar) and in combination with 3 mg x L(-1) IBA. Rooting in P. chilensis reached 100.0% when Ar infection was produced in the presence of IBA, increasing both, the number and dry weight of roots. In N. alpina, 90.0% of rooting efficiency was obtained when Ar infection was produced in liquid culture and in the absence of auxin.

  13. Characterization of an fungal l-fucokinase involved in Mortierella alpina GDP-l-fucose salvage pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongchao; Zhang, Chen; Chen, Haiqin; Yang, Qin; Zhou, Xin; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Chen, Yong Q

    2016-08-01

    GDP-l-fucose functions as a biological donor for fucosyltransferases, which are required for the catalysis of l-fucose to various acceptor molecules including oligosaccharides, glycoproteins and glycolipids. Mortierella alpina is one of the highest lipid-producing fungi and can biosynthesis GDP-l-fucose in the de novo pathway. Analysis of the M. alpina genome suggests that there is a gene encoding l-fucokinase (FUK) for the conversion of fucose to l-fucose-1-phosphate in the GDP-l-fucose salvage pathway, which has never been found in fungi before. This gene was characterized to explore its role in GDP-l-fucose synthesis. The yield of GDP-l-fucose is relatively higher in lipid accumulation phase (0.096 mg per g cell) than that in cell multiplication phase (0.074 mg per g cell) of M. alpina Additionally, the transcript level of FUK is up regulated by nitrogen exhaustion when M. alpina starts to accumulate lipid, highlights the functional significance of FUK in the GDP-l-fucose biosynthesis in M. alpina Gene encoding FUK was expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli and the resulting protein was purified to homogeneity. The product of FUK reaction was analyzed by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Kinetic parameters and other properties of FUK were investigated. Comparative analyses between the FUK protein and other homologous proteins were performed. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report a comprehensive characterization of FUK in a fungus. Mortierella alpina could be used as an alternative source for the production of GDP-l-fucose. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. El éxito de la gestión ambiental en Alpina S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edicson Jair Gil costa Acosta

    2013-08-01

    Este análisis permitió observar tanto su excelente organización interna, como el importante desarrollo de sus políticas ambientales, las cuales se reflejan no sólo al interior de la organización, sino también al exterior, como consecuencia de su activa participación en la generación de políticas gubernamentales de alto impacto para la sociedad. Igualmente, el artículo incluye las estrategias desarrolladas por Alpina para alcanzar los objetivos propuestos en estas políticas ambientales.

  15. In vitro Propagation of Giant Bamboo (Dendrocalamus giganteus) and Arudinaria alpina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machua, J.; Sigu, G. Gathura M.; Nyingi, J

    2007-01-01

    The giant bamboo (Dendrocalamus giganteus) is a multipurpose tree with uses and it has been widely cultivated in Asia while the indigenous bamboo (Arudinaria alpina) has a very low rate of domestication. The propagation and establishment of bamboo species is hampered by infrequent flowering, insufficient and irregular supply of seeds and inadequate knowledge of propagation technologies. The study aimed at developing in vitro techniques for mass propagation of the bamboo. Bamboo explant material was collected and and sterilized in a permutation of sterilizers over varying durations. The explants were further inoculated into matrix of hormonal concentrations. Successful sterilization of both Dendrocalamous giganteous and Arudinaria alpina was achieved in 25% v/v formaldehyde for 20 minutes resulting in a 75% survival. On the other hand sterilization with sodium hypochlorite was found to be ineffective for both species. Root initiation was not achieved after six weeks in varying concentrations of IBA (indolebutyric acid), NAA (+ n aphthalene acetic acid) and a blanket application of 0.3mgl -1 BAP, by which time most microshoots had overgrown the culture tubes. In conclusion, 25% v/v formaldehyde for 20 minutes is adequate for bamboo explant sterilization while microshoots induction could be achieved though varying BAP concentrations while the culture conditions were optimal for toot initiation

  16. Transformation of Mortierella alpina (fatty acid supplier myceliums via AMT system (Agrobacterium Mediated Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Javanmard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mortierella alpina is one of the most important fungi in food industry because of having ability of synthesizing unsaturated fatty acids, particularly Arashidonic Acid. This is a precursor of Eicosanoidregulate-lipoprotein metabolism which is involved in blood rheology, platelet activation and leukocyte-function, and the functional characteristics of the cell membrane. Materials and methods: In this study genetic transformation of M. alpina CBS754.68 fungus was evaluated via Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes. Agrobacteriums containing pBI121 vector were used for transformation of three days of old mycelia. Three days old hyphae were exposed to the bacteria with three level of time (one, two and three hours in the present of acetosyringone. Mitotic stability of the third generation of transgenic (T2 was confirmed by GUS assay and amplification of CaMV 35S promoter by polymerase chain reaction. Results: The highest percentage of transformation and mitotic stability were obtained by using A. tumefaciens and A. rhizogenese, respectively. Discussion and conclusion: The results showed that to obtain more efficient and more stable transformation, the fundamental factor is the use of suitable species of Agrobacterium. It is the first report for transformation of autothroph strain of M. alpine via Agrobacterium.

  17. Range expansion of an endangered beetle: Alpine Longhorn Rosalia alpina (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) spreads to the lowlands of Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížek, Lukáš; Schlaghamerský, J.; Bořucký, J.; Hauck, D.; Helešic, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 3 (2009), s. 200-206 ISSN 0785-8760 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600960705; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Rosalia alpina Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.377, year: 2009

  18. The Role of Lipid Droplets in Mortierella alpina Aging Revealed by Integrative Subcellular and Whole-Cell Proteome Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yadong; Li, Tao; Wu, Na; Jiang, Ling; Ji, Xiaojun; Huang, He

    2017-03-07

    Lipid droplets (LDs) participate in many cellular processes in oleaginous microorganisms. However, the exact function of LDs in the Mortierella alpina aging process remains elusive. Herein, subcellular proteomics was employed to unveil the composition and dynamics of the LD proteome in the aging M. alpina for the first time. More than 400 proteins were detected in LDs and 62 of them changed expression significantly during aging. By combining the LD proteomic data with whole-cell data, we found that the carbohydrate metabolism and de novo lipid biosynthesis were all inhibited during aging of M. alpina mycelia. The up-regulation of fructose metabolism-related enzymes in LDs might imply that LDs facilitated the fructose metabolism, which in turn might cause pyruvate to accumulate and enter malate-pyruvate cycle, and ultimately, provide additional NADPH for the synthesis of arachidonic acid (ARA). Lysophospholipase and lecithinase were up-regulated in LDs during the aging process, suggesting that the phospholipids and lecithin were starting to be hydrolyzed, in order to release fatty acids for the cells. The impairment of the anti-oxidant system might lead to the accumulation of ROS and consequently cause the up-regulation of autophagy-related proteins in LDs, which further induces the M. alpina mycelia to activate the autophagy process.

  19. Citation analysis of Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Pannonica et Adriatica: 1992-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrbenk, Anja; Skamperle, Mateja; Poljak, Mario

    2012-09-01

    Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Pannonica et Adriatica is small regional professional journal that started publishing in 1992. Despite the journal's relatively narrow readership, it has significantly improved its quality and global profile during the last 20 years, as shown in this citation analysis update. Since 1992, 654 bibliographical items have been published. Among these, 545 (83.4%) were considered WoS citable items and 109 (16.6%) WoS noncitable items. Since 2008, 90% of all published items have been considered WoS citable items and received an average of 1.9 citations per item. The predicted Acta Dermatovenerol APA impact factor calculated using data from a Cited Reference search of Thomson Scientific's Web of Science has shown steep and continuous increase since 2006, when the journal acquired full indexing status in Index Medicus/Medline, and has been above 0.5 since 2008.

  20. Biochemical characterization of GDP-L-fucose de novo synthesis pathway in fungus Mortierella alpina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Yan; Perepelov, Andrei V.; Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Hao; Knirel, Yuriy A.; Wang, Lei; Chen, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Mortierella alpina is a filamentous fungus commonly found in soil, which is able to produce large amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids. L-Fucose is an important sugar found in a diverse range of organisms, playing a variety of biological roles. In this study, we characterized the de novo biosynthetic pathway of GDP-L-fucose (the nucleotide-activated form of L-fucose) in M. alpina. Genes encoding GDP-D-mannose 4,6-dehydratase (GMD) and GDP-keto-6-deoxymannose 3,5-epimerase/4-reductase (GMER) were expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzymes were produced as His-tagged fusion proteins. Conversion of GDP-mannose to GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy mannose by GMD and GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy mannose to GDP-L-fucose by GMER were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis, electro-spray ionization-mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The k m values of GMD for GDP-mannose and GMER for GDP-4-keto-6-deoxy mannose were determined to be 0.77 mM and 1.047 mM, respectively. Both NADH and NADPH may be used by GMER as the coenzyme. The optimum temperature and pH were determined to be 37 o C and pH 9.0 (GMD) or pH 7.0 (GMER). Divalent cations are not required for GMD and GMER activity, and the activities of both enzymes may be enhanced by DTT. To our knowledge this is the first report on the characterization of GDP-L-fucose biosynthetic pathway in fungi.

  1. Micropropagación in vitro de Nothofagus alpina utilizando fitohormonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz García Cruzatty

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nothofagus alpina es una de las especies forestales más importantes del Sur de Chile y Argentina, países donde se ha empezado con programas de mejoramiento genético. La micropropagación es una técnica muy útil en la clonación de árboles con fines de mejoramiento, por tanto, los objetivos planteados en esta investigación fueron: determinar la mejor concentración de fitohormonas 6-bencilaminopurina (BAP y ácido indol butírico (AIB y, el medio de cultivo idóneo para inducir el enraizamiento de brotes y la brotación de secciones nodales de N. alpina. Se evaluaron los medios de Murashige Skoog (MS y Wood Plant Medium (WPM, con la mitad de los macronutrientes (enraizamiento y los micronutrientes completos (multiplicación, suplementado con peptone (0.1%, sacarosa (2.0%, agar (0.7% y diferentes concentraciones de auxinas. El medio MS suplementado con 2 mg L-1 de AIB resultó mejor para inducir la producción de las raíces, tanto en número como en la longitud de la raíz principal. El mayor porcentaje de enraizamiento se registró en el medio WPM suplementado con 2 mg L-1 AIB. Los tratamientos para inducir multiplicación que incluyeron citoquinina originaron callos y no enraizaron; siendo mayor la presencia de callos en el medio WPM. Se sugiere que la aplicación de citoquininas no es indispensable para la brotación, puesto que en los tratamientos testigos hubo una buena brotación; lo que hace suponer que el material vegetal utilizado tiene suficiente niveles endógenos de esta fitohormona.

  2. Pollen and stigma size changes during the transition from tristyly to distyly in Oxalis alpina (Oxalidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Díaz, F; Fornoni, J; Sosenski, P; Weller, S G; Domínguez, C A

    2017-11-01

    Pollen and stigma size have the potential to influence male fitness of hermaphroditic plants, particularly in species presenting floral polymorphisms characterised by marked differences in these traits among floral morphs. In this study, we take advantage of the evolutionary transition from tristyly to distyly experienced by Oxalis alpina (Oxalidaceae), and examined whether modifications in the ancillary traits (pollen and stigma size) respond to allometric changes in other floral traits. Also, we tested whether these modifications are in accordance with what would be expected under the hypothesis that novel competitive scenarios (as in distylous-derived reproductive system) exert morph- and whorl-specific selective pressures to match the available stigmas. We measure pollen and stigma size in five populations of O. alpina representing the tristyly-distyly transition. A general reduction in pollen and stigma size occurred along the tristyly-distyly transition, and pollen size from the two anther levels within each morph converged to a similar size that was characterised by whorl-specific changes (increases or decreases) in pollen size of different anthers in each floral type. Overall, results from this study show that the evolution of distyly in this species is characterised not only by changes in sexual organ position and flower size, but also by morph-specific changes in pollen and stigma size. This evidence supports the importance of selection on pollen and stigma size, which increase fitness of remaining morphs following the evolution of distyly, and raises questions to explore on the functional value of pollen size in heterostylous systems under pollen competition. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Demography and dispersal ability of a threatened saproxylic beetle: A mark-recapture study of the rosalia longicorn (Rosalia alpina)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drag, Lukáš; Hauck, David; Pokluda, Pavel; Zimmermann, Kamil; Čížek, Lukáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 6 (2011), e21345 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Grant - others:Ministerstvo životního prostředí(CZ) VaV/SP/2d3/153/08 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Rosalia alpina Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.092, year: 2011

  4. Application of a ω-3 Desaturase with an Arachidonic Acid Preference to Eicosapentaenoic Acid Production in Mortierella alpina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengfeng Ge

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the industrial oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina, the arachidonic acid (AA; C20:4; ω-6 fraction can reach 50% of the total fatty acids (TFAs in vivo. However, the eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5; ω-3 fraction is less than 3% when this fungus is cultivated at a low temperature (12°C. Omega-3 fatty acid desaturase is a key enzyme in ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids biosynthesis pathways. To enhance EPA production, we transformed the ω-3 fatty acid desaturase (PaD17, which exhibits strong Δ-17 desaturase activity, into M. alpina, thus increasing the AA to EPA conversion rate to 49.8%. This PaD17-harboring M. alpina reconstruction strain produced 617 mg L−1 of EPA at room temperature in broth medium, this yield was increased to 1.73 g L−1 after culture medium optimization (i.e., about threefold higher than that under original culture conditions, with concomitant respective increases in dry cell weight and TFA content to 16.55 and 6.46 g L−1. These findings suggest a new platform for the future industrial production of EPA.

  5. Biochemical characterization of an isoform of GDP-D-mannose-4,6-dehydratase from Mortierella alpina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongchao; Zhang, Chen; Chen, Haiqin; Yang, Qin; Zhou, Xin; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Wei; Chen, Yong Q

    2016-10-01

    To clarify the molecular mechanism of GDP-L-fucose biosynthesis in Mortierella alpina. Analysis of the M. alpina genome suggests that there were two isofunctional GDP-D-mannose-4,6-dehydratase genes (GMD1 and GMD2) that have never been found in a microorganism before. GMD2 was expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. The addition of exogenous NAD(+) or NADP(+) was not essential for GMD2 activity. GMD2 may have considerable importance for GDP-L-fucose biosynthesis under nitrogen starvation. The transcriptional regulation of GMD1 may be more susceptible to GDP and GTP than that of GMD2. Significant changes were observed in the concentration of GDP-L-fucose (30 and 36 % inhibition respectively) and total fatty acids (18 and 12 % inhibition respectively) in M. alpina grown on GMD inhibitors medium, which suggests that GDP-L-fucose is functionally significant in lipid metabolism. This is the first time that an isofunctional GDP-D-mannose-4,6-dehydratase has been characterized in a microorganism.

  6. Survival, gene and metabolite responses of Litoria verreauxii alpina frogs to fungal disease chytridiomycosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, Laura F.; Mulvenna, Jason; Gummer, Joel P. A.; Scheele, Ben C.; Berger, Lee; Cashins, Scott D.; McFadden, Michael S.; Harlow, Peter; Hunter, David A.; Trengove, Robert D.; Skerratt, Lee F.

    2018-03-01

    The fungal skin disease chytridiomycosis has caused the devastating decline and extinction of hundreds of amphibian species globally, yet the potential for evolving resistance, and the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain poorly understood. We exposed 406 naïve, captive-raised alpine tree frogs (Litoria verreauxii alpina) from multiple populations (one evolutionarily naïve to chytridiomycosis) to the aetiological agent Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in two concurrent and controlled infection experiments. We investigated (A) survival outcomes and clinical pathogen burdens between populations and clutches, and (B) individual host tissue responses to chytridiomycosis. Here we present multiple interrelated datasets associated with these exposure experiments, including animal signalment, survival and pathogen burden of 355 animals from Experiment A, and the following datasets related to 61 animals from Experiment B: animal signalment and pathogen burden; raw RNA-Seq reads from skin, liver and spleen tissues; de novo assembled transcriptomes for each tissue type; raw gene expression data; annotation data for each gene; and raw metabolite expression data from skin and liver tissues. These data provide an extensive baseline for future analyses.

  7. VOLUME AND TAPER EQUATIONS FOR COMMERCIAL STEMS OF Nothofagus obliqua AND N. alpina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernan Attis Beltran

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Timber volume of standing trees is essential information for management decisions. The increasing need to optimize the potential capacity of forests maintaining their conservation, requires the quantification of the different potential possible timber products. The aim was to adjust taper equations to determine volumes of different timber products for commercial stems of Nothofagus alpina and N. obliqua. Trees of both species were randomly selected in harvesting areas of Lanin National Park (Argentina. Trees were felled and cut into commercial logs, measuring diameter with bark at different heights up to the beginning of the crown, and for each tree the diameter at breast height and total height. Five taper equations were selected and non-linear regression processes were employed for the fittings. We obtained the volume through the integration of the stem profile equation and the rotation in the space thereof through solid of revolution. The Bennet and Swindel (1972 model was selected for both Nothofagus species, obtaining similar equation parameters and differences were observed at the top of the stems of larger trees. For this the use of an integrated model is not recommended. With the obtained equations it is possible to: (i estimatevolume at different heights and for different commercial diameters, and (ii predict the height at which both species reach to a certain diameter. The model presented some statistical limitations (e.g. multicollinearity, however, the fitting of the equation and the easy understanding of the outputs support it as a useful tool in a broad range of forest applications.

  8. Intercontinental genetic structure and gene flow in Dunlin (Calidris alpina), a potential vector of avian influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark P.; Haig, Susan M.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Ruan, Luzhang; Casler, Bruce; Dondua, Alexei; Gates, River H.; Johnson, J. Matthew; Kendall, Steven J.; Tomkovich, Pavel S.; Tracy, Diane; Valchuk, Olga P.; Lanctot, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    Waterfowl (Anseriformes) and shorebirds (Charadriiformes) are the most common wild vectors of influenza A viruses. Due to their migratory behavior, some may transmit disease over long distances. Migratory connectivity studies can link breeding and nonbreeding grounds while illustrating potential interactions among populations that may spread diseases. We investigated Dunlin (Calidris alpina), a shorebird with a subspecies (C. a. arcticola) that migrates from nonbreeding areas endemic to avian influenza in eastern Asia to breeding grounds in northern Alaska. Using microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA, we illustrate genetic structure among six subspecies: C. a. arcticola, C. a. pacifica, C. a. hudsonia, C. a. sakhalina, C. a. kistchinski, and C. a. actites. We demonstrate that mitochondrial DNA can help distinguish C. a. arcticola on the Asian nonbreeding grounds with >70% accuracy depending on their relative abundance, indicating that genetics can help determine whether C. a. arcticola occurs where they may be exposed to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) during outbreaks. Our data reveal asymmetric intercontinental gene flow, with some C. a. arcticola short-stopping migration to breed with C. a. pacifica in western Alaska. Because C. a. pacifica migrates along the Pacific Coast of North America, interactions between these subspecies and other taxa provide route for transmission of HPAI into other parts of North America.

  9. Growth and reproduction of the alpine grasshopper Miramella alpina feeding on CO2-enriched dwarf shrubs at treeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asshoff, Roman; Hättenschwiler, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    The consequences for plant-insect interactions of atmospheric changes in alpine ecosystems are not well understood. Here, we tested the effects of elevated CO(2) on leaf quality in two dwarf shrub species (Vaccinium myrtillus and V. uliginosum) and the response of the alpine grasshopper (Miramella alpina) feeding on these plants in a field experiment at the alpine treeline (2,180 m a.s.l.) in Davos, Switzerland. Relative growth rates (RGR) of M. alpina nymphs were lower when they were feeding on V. myrtillus compared to V. uliginosum, and were affected by elevated CO(2) depending on plant species and nymph developmental stage. Changes in RGR correlated with CO(2)-induced changes in leaf water, nitrogen, and starch concentrations. Elevated CO(2) resulted in reduced female adult weight irrespective of plant species, and prolonged development time on V. uliginosum only, but there were no significant differences in nymphal mortality. Newly molted adults of M. alpina produced lighter eggs and less secretion (serving as egg protection) under elevated CO(2). When grasshoppers had a choice among four different plant species grown either under ambient or elevated CO(2), V. myrtillus and V. uliginosum consumption increased under elevated CO(2) in females while it decreased in males compared to ambient CO(2)-grown leaves. Our findings suggest that rising atmospheric CO(2) distinctly affects leaf chemistry in two important dwarf shrub species at the alpine treeline, leading to changes in feeding behavior, growth, and reproduction of the most important insect herbivore in this system. Changes in plant-grasshopper interactions might have significant long-term impacts on herbivore pressure, community dynamics and ecosystem stability in the alpine treeline ecotone.

  10. Spiroides shrubs on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: Multilocus phylogeography and palaeodistributional reconstruction of Spiraea alpina and S. Mongolica (Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Gulzar; Zhang, Faqi; Gao, Qingbo; Fu, Pengcheng; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Shilong

    2018-06-01

    A common hypothesis for the rich biodiversity found in mountains is uplift-driven diversification. Using a multilocus approach, here we assessed the influence of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) uplift and fluctuating regional climate on genetic diversity of two sister spiroides shrubs, Spiraea alpina and S. mongolica. Combined with palaeodistributional reconstruction modelling, we investigated the current and past-predicted distribution of these species under different climatic episodes. The study demonstrated that continuous pulses of retreat and expansion during last glacial-interglacial episodes, combined with the uplifting of QTP shaped the current distribution of these species. All the populations showed high level of genetic diversity based on both cpDNA and SSR markers. The average gene diversity within populations based on cpDNA markers was 0.383 ± 0.052 for S. alpina and 0.477 ± 0.048 for S. mongolica. The observed and expected heterozygosities based on SSR for both Spiraea alpina and S. mongolicawere H E (0.72-0.90)/H O (0.35-0.78) and H E (0.77-0.92)/H O (0.47-0.77) respectively. Palaeodistributional reconstruction indicated species' preferences at southeastern edge of the plateau during last glacial maximum, at higher altitude areas of QTP and range expansion to central plateau during the interglacial episodes. Assignment tests in STRUCTURE, discriminant analysis of principal coordinates and Immigrants analysis in GENECLASS based on nuclear SSR markers did not support the hypothesis of gene flow between both the species. However, maximum likelihood approach based on cpDNA showed sharing of haplotypes between both species. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Pannonica et Adriatica accepted for coverage in Thomson Reuters' Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, Mario; Miljković, Jovan; Triglav, Tina

    2016-09-01

    Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Pannonica et Adriatica (Acta Dermatovenerol APA) is the leading journal in dermatology and sexually transmitted infections in the region. Several important steps were taken during the last 25 years to improve the journal's quality, global visibility, and international impact. After a 1-year trial period, Thomson Reuters recently informed the editorial office that they had accepted Acta Dermatovenerol APA for coverage in Thomson Reuters' new index in the Web of Science Core Collection called the Emerging Sources Citation Index (ESCI). The coverage of Acta Dermatovenerol APA begins with the journal content published online in 2016; that is, from volume 25 onwards.

  12. High renesting rates in arctic-breeding Dunlin (Calidris alpina): A clutch-removal experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, H. River; Lanctot, Richard B.; Powell, Abby N.

    2013-01-01

    The propensity to replace a clutch is a complex component of avian reproduction and poorly understood. We experimentally removed clutches from an Arctic-breeding shorebird, the Dunlin (Calidris alpina arcticola), during early and late stages of incubation to investigate replacement clutch rates, renesting interval, and mate and site fidelity between nesting attempts. In contrast to other Arctic studies, we documented renesting by radiotracking individuals to find replacement clutches. We also examined clutch size and mean egg volume to document changes in individual females’ investment in initial and replacement clutches. Finally, we examined the influence of adult body mass, clutch volume, dates of clutch initiation and nest loss, and year on the propensity to renest. We found high (82–95%) and moderate (35–50%) rates of renesting for early and late incubation treatments. Renesting intervals averaged 4.7–6.8 days and were not different for clutches removed early or late in incubation. Most pairs remained together for renesting attempts. Larger females were more likely to replace a clutch; female body mass was the most important parameter predicting propensity to renest. Clutches lost later in the season were less likely to be replaced. We present evidence that renesting is more common in Arctic-breeding shorebirds than was previously thought, and suggest that renesting is constrained by energetic and temporal factors as well as mate availability. Obtaining rates of renesting in species breeding at different latitudes will help determine when this behavior is likely to occur; such information is necessary for demographic models that include individual and population-level fecundity estimates.

  13. Improved arrival-date estimates of Arctic-breeding Dunlin (Calidris alpina arcticola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Andrew C.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Stricker, Craig A.; Yezerinac, Stephen M.; Wunder, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    The use of stable isotopes in animal ecology depends on accurate descriptions of isotope dynamics within individuals. The prevailing assumption that laboratory-derived isotopic parameters apply to free-living animals is largely untested. We used stable carbon isotopes (δ13C) in whole blood from migratory Dunlin (Calidris alpina arcticola) to estimate an in situ turnover rate and individual diet-switch dates. Our in situ results indicated that turnover rates were higher in free-living birds, in comparison to the results of an experimental study on captive Dunlin and estimates derived from a theoretical allometric model. Diet-switch dates from all 3 methods were then used to estimate arrival dates to the Arctic; arrival dates calculated with the in situ turnover rate were later than those with the other turnover-rate estimates, substantially so in some cases. These later arrival dates matched dates when local snow conditions would have allowed Dunlin to settle, and agreed with anticipated arrival dates of Dunlin tracked with light-level geolocators. Our study presents a novel method for accurately estimating arrival dates for individuals of migratory species in which return dates are difficult to document. This may be particularly appropriate for species in which extrinsic tracking devices cannot easily be employed because of cost, body size, or behavioral constraints, and in habitats that do not allow individuals to be detected easily upon first arrival. Thus, this isotopic method offers an exciting alternative approach to better understand how species may be altering their arrival dates in response to changing climatic conditions.

  14. Evaluation of a subchronic (13-week) oral toxicity study, preceded by an in utero exposure phase, with arachidonic acid oil derived from Mortierella alpina in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempenius, R.A.; Lina, B.A.R.; Haggitt, R.C.

    2000-01-01

    Arachidonic acid oil (ARA-oil) derived from the fungus Mortierella alpina for use in infant nutrition was tested in a subchronic (13-week) oral toxicity study in rats, preceded by an in utero exposure phase. The ARA-oil was administered as admixture to the rodent diet at dose levels of 3000 ppm,

  15. Size and quality of wood used by Rosalia alpina (Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae in beech woodlands of Gipuzkoa (northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CASTRO, A., MARTINEZ DE MURGUIA, L., FERNANDEZ, J., CASIS, A., MOLINO-OLMEDO, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La conservación de la especie saproxilófaga legalmente protegida Rosalia alpina (Linnaeus, 1758 en los hayedos de Europa conlleva una gestión adecuada de los árboles muertos y moribundos. Sin embargo, los parámetros de los árboles preferidos (tamaño y calidad de la madera permanecen aún poco conocidos. En esta contribución se analizan los datos de distribución procedentes de seis años de trabajo en cuatro Lugares de Interés Comunitario de la provincia de Gipuzkoa (norte de España. Los individuos vivos de R. alpina y sus orificios de emergencia fueron registrados exclusivamente en hayas. 72 individuos vivos y 520 orificios fueron registrados en 77 árboles. Las evidencias de ocupación (presencia de individuos vivos o de orificios o de ambos fueron más frecuentes en troncos Ø > 25 cm de hayas en pie (tanto aún vivas como muertas que en ramas y árboles caídos y más delgados. Sin embargo, el número de orificios no mostró diferencias entre las clases de tamaño y la calidad de la madera de los troncos principales. Las ramas más gruesas (Ø > 15 cm registraron mayores tasas de presencia y número de orificios que las más finas. Conociendo los tipos de árboles más seleccionados, se sugiere la elaboración de un mapa regional de disponibilidad de hábitat como herramienta práctica para planificar estrategias de conservación.

  16. La tectónica alpina en el borde norte del Sistema Central español y su enlace con la cuenca del Duero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Ortiz, D.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This report is focused to describe the main alpine structures located in the northern edge of the Spanish Central System and the linking zone with the Tertiary Duero basin. A review of the main characteristics of the alpine tectonic phases is given. From these data, differences between the Gredos zone, dominated by N-S and E-W faults, and the Guadarrama zone, in which N 70° E reverse faults with N 140° E and N 10° E strike-slip faults are present, can be observed. The pattern of drainage of this area shows three main orientations, coincident with the alpine faults activated during the Guadarrama tectonic phase, which reveals the relationship between the present drainage pattern and the Alpine orogeny.En este trabajo se describen las principales estructuras alpinas del borde norte del Sistema Central y su enlace con la cuenca del Duero, así como las características de las principales fases tectónicas alpinas que han dado lugar a la actual estructura. Se pone de manifiesto las diferencias entre la zona de Gredos, dominada por fallas N-S y E-O principalmente, y la zona de Guadarrama en la que las fallas inversas son N 70° E acompañadas de desgarres N 140° E y N 10° E. El análisis de las direcciones de los ríos en este área permite definir tres zonas en función de su orientación, que coinciden con las definidas para las fallas alpinas, lo que refleja la relación entre la red de drenaje y la fase alpina Guadarrama principalmente.

  17. Elsevier’s CiteScore index values for Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Pannonica et Adriatica: a 2016 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šterbenc, Anja; Oštrbenk, Anja

    2017-09-01

    Elsevier’s recently launched citation metric CiteScore enables comprehensive, transparent, and current evaluation of a journal’s performance. For an editorial office, insight into a journal’s impact over time is of great value when making important decisions regarding the journal’s future. A 2016 update of CiteScore index values for Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Pannonica et Adri- atica (Acta Dermatovenerol APA) showed a slight decrease in the CiteScore index value from 1.18 in 2015 to 0.96 in 2016. Acta Dermatovenerol APA can still be considered the principal journal in the field of dermatology and sexually transmitted infections in our region, with almost half of the articles published between 2013 and 2015 cited at least once in 2016. Acta Dermatovenerol APA performed well in both categories listed because it ranked 67th out of 121 journals in the category Dermatology (44th percentile) and 175th out of 250 journals in the category Infectious Diseases (30th percentile).

  18. Endogenous Quantification of Abscisic Acid and Indole-3-Acetic Acid in Somatic and Zigotic Embryos of Nothofagus alpina (Poepp. & Endl. Oerst Cuantificación Endógena de Ácido Abscísico y Ácido Indol-3 Acético en Embriones Somáticos y Cigóticos de Nothofagus alpina (Poepp. & Endl. Oerst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pricila Cartes Riquelme

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abscisic acid (ABA and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA participate in the propagation of plants by somatic embryogenesis, causing polar structural differentiation of the embryo. The goal of the assay was to compare endogenous levels of ABA and IAA between somatic embryos (SE and zygotic embryos (ZE of Nothofagus alpina (Poepp. & Endl. Oerst. In this study, a somatic embryo maturation assay involving the addition of varying concentrations of exogenous ABA was performed on cotyledonary-stage of N. alpina. Furthermore, the endogenous levels of ABA and IAA were quantified in the immature ZE, the mature ZE, and the embryonic axis of a mature embryo of N. alpina. The current study utilized high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC for quantification. The maturation treatments performed did not present significant differences in the endogenous ABA levels in SE. However, significant differences did exist in levels of ABA and IAA between SE submitted to the different maturation treatments and mature ZE of N. alpina. The application of exogenous ABA to the culture medium increased endogenous ABA levels, therefore, increasing the number of germinated somatic embryos. Thus, the plant conversion process was also successfully completed in somatic embryos of N. alpina.El ácido abscísico (ABA y el ácido indol 3 acético (IAA participan en el proceso de propagación de plantas mediante embriogénesis somática, ya que permiten la diferenciación de la estructura polar del embrión, órganos y regiones meristemáticas de éste. En este estudio se llevó a cabo un ensayo de maduración de embriones somáticos en estado cotiledonar con la adición de diferentes concentraciones de ABA exógeno, además se determinaron niveles endógenos entre ZE inmaduro, ZE maduro, y eje embrionario aislado desde el embrión maduro para luego comparar niveles endógenos de ABA e IAA en embriones somáticos (SE y cigóticos (ZE de raulí, Nothofagus alpina (Poepp. & Endl. Oerst. La

  19. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 of Mortierella alpina with specificity on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: A potential tool for reconstituting lipids with nutritional value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeennor, Sukanya; Veerana, Mayura; Anantayanon, Jutamas; Panchanawaporn, Sarocha; Chutrakul, Chanikul; Laoteng, Kobkul

    2017-12-10

    Based on available genome sequences and bioinformatics tools, we searched for an uncharacterized open reading frame of Mortierella alpina (MaDGAT2) using diacylglycerol acyltransferase sequence (fungal DGAT type 2B) as a query. Functional characterization of the identified native and codon-optimized M. alpina genes were then performed by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain defective in synthesis of neutral lipid (NL). Lipid analysis of the yeast tranformant carrying MaDGAT2 showed that the NL biosynthesis and lipid particle formation were restored by the gene complementation. Substrate specificity study of the fungal enzyme by fatty acid supplementation in the transformant cultures showed that it had a broad specificity on saturated and unsaturated fatty acid substrates for esterification into triacylglycerol (TAG). The n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with 18 and 20 carbon atoms, including linoleic acid, γ-linolenic acid, dihomo γ-linolenic and arachidonic acid could be incorporated into TAG fraction in the yeast cells. Interestingly, among n-3 PUFAs tested, the MaDGAT2 enzyme preferred eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) substrate as its highly proportional constituent found in TAG fraction. This study provides a potential genetic tool for reconstituting oils rich in long-chain PUFAs with nutritional value. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Isolation of Three Triterpene Saponins, Including Two New Oleanane Derivatives, from Soldanella alpina and Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography-Evaporative Light Scattering Detection of these Three Saponins in Four Soldenella Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Julia; Schwaiger, Stefan; Stuppner, Hermann; Gafner, Frank; Ganzera, Markus

    2017-11-01

    The genus Soldanella is one of the few endemic to Europe. Some of its species have relevance in local traditional medicine. Earlier work has indicated the possible presence of saponins in S. alpina. To investigate S. alpina and other related species for the occurrence of saponins. Following sequential extraction with n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate the subsequent methanolic extract of S. alpina roots was fractionated after solvent precipitation using fast centrifugal partition chromatography and column chromatography. Structures were elucidated by LC-MS n , high-resolution MS, hydrolysis experiments and one-dimensional (1D)- and two-dimensional (2D)-NMR. A hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography method was developed to quantitate saponins in the leaves and roots of four Soldanella species. Three triterpene saponins, two of them new natural products, were isolated from S. alpina. Based on an epoxyoleanal aglycone substituted with four sugar units, they were analytically quantitated using a Kinetex 2.6 μm hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) column together with a mobile phase comprising of ammonium acetate, water and acetonitrile. Method validation confirmed that the assay meets all requirements in respect to linearity, accuracy, sensitivity and precision. All four Soldanella species investigated contained the three saponins. The lowest total level of the three saponins (1.09%) was observed in S. montana leaves while the highest saponin content (5.14%) was determined in S. alpina roots. The detection of saponins within the genus Soldanella is an indication that further phytochemical examination of this genus may reveal more secondary metabolites of interest. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. 76 FR 9309 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Sand...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... Washington. At known locations in British Columbia, the sand verbena moth occurs in small satellite patches... of beach dune habitat remain at the type locality for the sand verbena moth, making this species... and, therefore, the sand verbena moth are adversely affected by the construction of artificial...

  2. Experimental challenge and pathology of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in dunlin (Calidris alpina), an intercontinental migrant shorebird species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S.; Franson, J. Christian; Gill, Robert E.; Meteyer, Carol U.; TeSlaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Dusek, Robert J.; Ip, Hon S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Shorebirds (Charadriiformes) are considered one of the primary reservoirs of avian influenza. Because these species are highly migratory, there is concern that infected shorebirds may be a mechanism by which highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 could be introduced into North America from Asia. Large numbers of dunlin (Calidris alpina) migrate from wintering areas in central and eastern Asia, where HPAIV H5N1 is endemic, across the Bering Sea to breeding areas in Alaska. Low pathogenic avian influenza virus has been previously detected in dunlin, and thus, dunlin represent a potential risk to transport HPAIV to North America. To date no experimental challenge studies have been performed in shorebirds.

  3. Encapsulado de Embriones Somáticos y Embriones Cigóticos para Obtención de Semillas Artificiales de Raulí (Nothofagus alpina (Poepp. & Endl.) Oerst.)

    OpenAIRE

    Cartes R, Priscila; Castellanos B, Hermes; Ríos L, Darcy; Sáez C, Katia; Spierccolli H, Scarlette; Sánchez O, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Somatic and zygotic embryos from mature seeds of rauli-beech, Nothofagus alpina (Poepp. & Endl.) Oerst., were encapsulated in different artificial endosperms in order to generate a cover that fulfills the function of nourishment and protection of the embryos, facilitating their later germination. The content of sodium alginate varied by 4%, 3%, and 2%, as did the immersion time in calcium chloride (CaCl2), which acts as complexing agent. The artificial endosperm components of the Murashige an...

  4. Caracterização química da carne de cabrito da raça Moxotó e de cruzas Pardo Alpina x Moxotó Chemical characterization of kid meat from Moxotó goat and Pardo Alpina x Moxotó Crossbreeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico José Beserra

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo da pesquisa foi avaliar a composição química da carne de cabrito-mamão (idade média de 72 dias, da raça Moxotó (MOX, grupos genéticos ¾ Pardo Alpina x ¼ Moxotó (3/4 PAMOX e ½ Pardo Alpina x ½ Moxotó (1/2 PAMOX. A análise apresentou valores médios entre 77,80% a 80,25% de umidade; 15,90% a 19,08% de proteína; 1,12% a 1,21% de gordura, e 1,29% a 2,03% de cinzas. Quanto à composição mineral, os valores médios variaram de 5,62 mg/100 g a 8,21 mg/100 g de cálcio; 156,97 mg/100 g a 196,25 mg/100 g de fósforo; 0,26 mg/100 g a 0,48 mg/100 g de ferro; 16,25 mg/100 g a 23,72 mg/100 g de magnésio; 59,20 mg/100 g a 78,79 mg/100 g de sódio, e de 259,69 mg/100 g a 292,24 mg/100 g de potássio. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas a 5% de probabilidade entre os grupos genéticos no que diz respeito à composição de umidade, proteína e cinzas e mineral quanto a elementos estudados. Não houve diferenças entre os valores de gordura dos grupos genéticos.The objective of this study was to evaluate chemical composition of kid meat of Moxotó (MOX, ¾ Pardo Alpina x ¼ Moxotó (3/4 PAMOX and ½ Moxotó x ½ Pardo Alpina (1/2 PAMOX crossbreed goats. Average age of kids at slaughter was 72 days. Kids were fed with cow milk and a protein supplement. Meat analysis showed average values ranging from 77.80% to 80.25% for moisture; from 15.90% to 19.08% for protein; from 1.12% to 1.21% for fat and from 1.29% to 2.03% for ash. For mineral composition, average values ranged from 5.62 mg/100 g to 8.21 mg/100 g for calcium; from 156.97 mg/100 g to 196.25 mg/100 g for phosphorus; from 0.26 mg/100 g to 0.48 mg/100 g for iron; from 16.25 mg/100 g to 23.72 mg/100 g for magnesium; from 59.20 mg/100 g to 78.79 mg/100 g for sodium and from 259.69 mg/100 g to 292.24 mg/100 g for potassium. Genetic groups showed significative differences for composition of moisture, protein and ash values and for mineral composition, in all measured

  5. Estimação de parâmetros genéticos para produção de leite de cabras da raça Alpina Genetic parameters estimation for test day milk yield of Alpina goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Cristina Breda

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 9.374 registros semanais de produção de leite de 302 primeiras lactações de cabras da raça Alpina. A produção de leite no dia do controle foi analisada por meio de um modelo animal, unicarater, de regressão aleatória, em que as funções de covariâncias para os componentes genéticos aditivos e de ambiente permanente foram modeladas por meio das funções de Wilmink, Ali e Schaeffer e por polinômios ortogonais, em uma escala de Legendre de ordens cúbica e quíntica. Assumiu-se, ainda, variância residual homogênea durante toda a lactação e heterogênea com três e quatro classes de variância residual. Os modelos foram comparados pelo critério de informação de Akaike (AIC, pelo critério de informação Bayesiano de Schwar (BIC, pela função de verossimilhança (Ln L, pela visualização das estimativas de variâncias genéticas, de ambiente permanente, fenotípicas e residuais e pelas herdabilidades. O polinômio de Legendre de ordem quíntica, com quatro e três classes de variâncias residuais, e a função de Ali e Schaeffer, com quatro classes de variâncias residuais, foram indicados como os mais adequados pelo AIC, BIC e Ln L. Estes modelos diferiram na partição da variância fenotípica para as variâncias de ambiente permanente, genética e residual apenas no início e no final da lactação. Contudo, a função de Ali e Schaeffer resultou em estimativas negativas de correlação genética entre os controles mais distantes. O polinômio de Legendre de ordem quíntica, assumindo variância residual heterogênea, mostrou-se mais adequado para ajustar a produção de leite no dia do controle de cabras da raça Alpina.Data consisting of 9,374 test day milk yield records from 302 first lactations of Alpina goats were analyzed by random regression models using the Wilmink and Ali and Schaeffer functions and Legendre orthogonal polynomials of third and fifth orders. Models including animal additive genetic

  6. Coverage of Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Pannonica et Adriatica in Elsevier's CiteScore index: a new tool for measuring the citation impact of academic journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poljak, Mario

    2017-03-01

    In December 2016, Elsevier launched a new tool that helps measure the citation impact of academic journals, called the CiteScore index. The CiteScore index values for 2015 confirmed the status of Acta Dermatovenerologica Alpina, Pannonica et Adriatica (Acta Dermatovenerol APA) as the leading journal in dermatology and sexually transmitted infections in the region. Sixty-five articles published in Acta Dermatovenerol APA from 2012 to 2014 received a total of 77 citations in 2015, resulting in a CiteScore index value of 1.18 for the journal. More than half of the articles published from 2012 to 2014 received at least one citation in 2015. Acta Dermatovenerol APA performed well in all three categories listed because it is ranked 384th out of 1,549 journals in the category General Medicine (75th percentile), 53rd out of 122 journals in the category Dermatology (56th percentile), and 142nd out of 246 journals in the category Infectious Diseases (42nd percentile).

  7. Population-level body condition correlates with productivity in an arctic wader, the dunlin Calidris alpina, during post-breeding migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Grzegorz; Pilacka, Lucyna; Zieliński, Piotr; Gromadzka, Jadwiga

    2017-01-01

    Weather and predation constitute the two main factors affecting the breeding success of those Arctic waders whose productivity is highly variable over the years. We tested whether reproductive success is associated with the post-breeding condition of adults, in which in 'good' years (with warm weather, plentiful food and low predation pressure) the condition of breeders and their productivity is high. To verify this hypothesis, we used a 10-year dataset comprising 20,792 dunlins Calidris alpina, trapped during migration at a stopover site on the southern Baltic Sea shore. Males were consistently in a slightly worse condition than females, likely due to male-biased parental investment in brood rearing. Annual productivity indices were positively correlated with the respective condition indices of breeders from the Eurasian Arctic, indicating that in 'good' years, despite great effort spent on reproduction, breeders leave the breeding grounds in better condition. The pattern did not hold for 1992: productivity was low, but the average condition of adults during migration was the highest noted over the decade. We suggest that the delayed effect of the Mount Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines in 1991, could be responsible for the unexpected high condition of Arctic breeders in 1992. High population-level average condition, coupled with the low productivity could stem from severe weather caused by the volcano eruption a year before and strong predation pressure, which in turn lead to a reduced investment in reproduction. The importance of large-scale episodic phenomena, like this volcano eruption, may blur the statistical associations of wildlife with local environmental drivers.

  8. Population-level body condition correlates with productivity in an arctic wader, the dunlin Calidris alpina, during post-breeding migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Neubauer

    Full Text Available Weather and predation constitute the two main factors affecting the breeding success of those Arctic waders whose productivity is highly variable over the years. We tested whether reproductive success is associated with the post-breeding condition of adults, in which in 'good' years (with warm weather, plentiful food and low predation pressure the condition of breeders and their productivity is high. To verify this hypothesis, we used a 10-year dataset comprising 20,792 dunlins Calidris alpina, trapped during migration at a stopover site on the southern Baltic Sea shore. Males were consistently in a slightly worse condition than females, likely due to male-biased parental investment in brood rearing. Annual productivity indices were positively correlated with the respective condition indices of breeders from the Eurasian Arctic, indicating that in 'good' years, despite great effort spent on reproduction, breeders leave the breeding grounds in better condition. The pattern did not hold for 1992: productivity was low, but the average condition of adults during migration was the highest noted over the decade. We suggest that the delayed effect of the Mount Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines in 1991, could be responsible for the unexpected high condition of Arctic breeders in 1992. High population-level average condition, coupled with the low productivity could stem from severe weather caused by the volcano eruption a year before and strong predation pressure, which in turn lead to a reduced investment in reproduction. The importance of large-scale episodic phenomena, like this volcano eruption, may blur the statistical associations of wildlife with local environmental drivers.

  9. Experimental challenge and pathology of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in dunlin (Calidris alpina), an intercontinental migrant shorebird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey S; Franson, J Christian; Gill, Robert E; Meteyer, Carol U; TeSlaa, Joshua L; Nashold, Sean; Dusek, Robert J; Ip, Hon S

    2011-09-01

    Shorebirds (Charadriiformes) are considered one of the primary reservoirs of avian influenza. Because these species are highly migratory, there is concern that infected shorebirds may be a mechanism by which highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 could be introduced into North America from Asia. Large numbers of dunlin (Calidris alpina) migrate from wintering areas in central and eastern Asia, where HPAIV H5N1 is endemic, across the Bering Sea to breeding areas in Alaska. Low pathogenic avian influenza virus has been previously detected in dunlin, and thus, dunlin represent a potential risk to transport HPAIV to North America. To date no experimental challenge studies have been performed in shorebirds. Wild dunlin were inoculated intranasally and intrachoanally various doses of HPAIV H5N1. The birds were monitored daily for virus excretion, disease signs, morbidity, and mortality. The infectious dose of HPAIV H5N1 in dunlin was determined to be 10(1.7) EID(50)/100 μl and that the lethal dose was 10(1.83) EID(50)/100 μl. Clinical signs were consistent with neurotropic disease, and histochemical analyses revealed that infection was systemic with viral antigen and RNA most consistently found in brain tissues. Infected birds excreted relatively large amounts of virus orally (10(4) EID(50)) and smaller amounts cloacally. Dunlin are highly susceptible to infection with HPAIV H5N1. They become infected after exposure to relatively small doses of the virus and if they become infected, they are most likely to suffer mortality within 3-5 days. These results have important implications regarding the risks of transport and transmission of HPAIV H5N1 to North America by this species and raises questions for further investigation. Published 2011. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. Encapsulated Somatic Embryos and Zygotic Embryos for Obtaining Artificial Seeds of Rauli-Beech (Nothofagus alpina (Poepp. & Endl. Oerst. Encapsulado de Embriones Somáticos y Embriones Cigóticos para Obtención de Semillas Artificiales de Raulí (Nothofagus alpina (Poepp. & Endl. Oerst.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Cartes R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Somatic and zygotic embryos from mature seeds of rauli-beech, Nothofagus alpina (Poepp. & Endl. Oerst., were encapsulated in different artificial endosperms in order to generate a cover that fulfills the function of nourishment and protection of the embryos, facilitating their later germination. The content of sodium alginate varied by 4%, 3%, and 2%, as did the immersion time in calcium chloride (CaCl2, which acts as complexing agent. The artificial endosperm components of the Murashige and Skoog medium (MS were added, supplemented with 0.5 mg L-1 indolacetic acid (IAA, 0.5 mg L-1 naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, 2 mg L-1 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP and 30 g L-1 sucrose. The germinative behaviors of encapsulated somatic and zygotic embryos were evaluated after 4 wk. Comparing the percentages of germination reached by encapsulated somatic and zygotic embryos it was observed that they had similar germinative behavior according to the type of encapsulation applied. However, zygotic embryos substantially exceeded the germination levels reached by somatic embryos, 100% vs. 45% respectively.Embriones somáticos y cigóticos provenientes de semillas maduras de raulí, Nothofagus alpina (Poepp. & Endl. Oerst., se encapsularon en diferentes endospermas sintéticos con el fin de generar una cubierta que cumpla la función de nutrir y proteger al embrión para facilitar su posterior germinación. Se varió el contenido de alginato de sodio al 4%, 3% y 2% y el tiempo de inmersión en cloruro de calcio (CaCl2, el que actúa como agente acomplejante. Además, a la matriz artificial se adicionaron componentes del medio Murashige y Skoog (MS suplementado con: 0,5 mg L-1 de indolacetic acid (IAA, 0,5 mg L-1 de ácido naftalenacético (NAA, 2 mg L-1 de 6-bencilaminopurina (BAP y 30 gL-1 de sacarosa. Al cabo de 4 semanas el porcentaje de germinación de los embriones somáticos y cigóticos encapsulados tuvieron similar comportamiento germinativo según el tipo de

  11. LOS DÍAS LARGOS ARTIFICIALES CONSTANTES INCREMENTAN LA PRODUCCIÓN LÁCTEA EN LAS CABRAS ALPINAS DEL NORTE DE MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaristo Carrillo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Para determinar si la aplicación de días largos artificiales durante el invierno y primavera aumenta la producción láctea de las cabras Alpinas del norte de México, un grupo testigo (GT; n=14, fue expuesto a las variaciones naturales del fotoperiodo de la región durante todo el estudio (10 h y 19 m en el solsticio de invierno y 13 h con 41 m durante el solsticio de verano, mientras otro grupo experimental (GE; n=15, se sujetó a un tratamiento de días largos constantes (16 h de luz/8 h de oscuridad del 1 de diciembre al 19 de abril. La producción de leche al inicio del estudio (día 0 = 45 ± 0.6 días posparto fue similar en los dos grupos (P>0.05, mientras que del día 14 hasta el día 112 del estudio, fue diferente entre los dos grupos (3.2 ± 0.07 vs. 2.7 ± 0.06 lts/día/animal GE vs. GT; P

  12. Desempenho reprodutivo de cabras alpinas tratadas com hCG cinco dias após o acasalamento Reproductive performance of alpine goats treated with hCG five days after breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeferson Ferreira da Fonseca

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar o efeito da administração de hCG sobre o desempenho reprodutivo de cabras Alpinas durante a estação de acasalamento natural. Trinta e duas fêmeas nulíparas e 124 lactantes, após a identificação de estro e acasalamento, foram aleatoriamente divididas, de acordo com a categoria, em dois tratamentos. Em T1 (n=75 e T2 (n=81, os animais receberam 1 mL de solução salina ou 250 UI de hCG, respectivamente, por via intramuscular cinco dias após o acasalamento. A gestação foi verificada por ultra-sonografia transabdominal (probe de 3,5 MHz nos dias 35 e 70 após o acasalamento, para detecção e confirmação da gestação, respectivamente. As taxas de gestação não diferiram entre T1 (86,7% e T2 (70,6% para nulíparas e T1 (78,3 % e T2 (84,4 % para lactantes. Não houve diferença entre a taxa de parição (75,0 e 75,7%, o período de gestação (150,47 e 150,80 dias e a prolificidade (1,75 e 1,80 fetos entre os animais do T1 e T2, respectivamente. A prolificidade foi superior em cabras lactantes (1,90 que em nulíparas (1,41. A administração de hCG cinco dias após o acasalamento não elevou o desempenho reprodutivo em cabras da raça Alpina.The effect of hCG administration on reproductive performance of Alpine goats during the natural breeding season was evaluated. Thirty-two nulliparous and 124 lactating goats, after estrus identification and breeding, were randomly assigned according to the categories to two treatments. In T1 (n=75 and T2 (n=81 the animals received 1 mL of saline solution or 250 IU of hCG intramuscularly, respectively, five days after breeding. Pregnancy was detected and confirmed on days 35 and 70 after breeding by transabdominal ultrasonography (3.5 MHz probe, respectively. Pregnancy rate did not differ between T1 (86.7 % and T2 (70.6% for nulliparous and T1 (78.3% and T2 (84.4% for lactating does. There were no differences for kidding rate (75.0 and 75.7%, gestation period

  13. MODELACIÓN DE CURVAS DE PRODUCCIÓN Y COMPOSICIÓN DE LA LECHE EN UN HATO DE CABRAS F1 ALPINA x NUBIA EN SAN LUIS POTOSÍ, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vielka Jeanethe Castañeda-Bustos

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La producción de leche de cabra constituye una fuente muy importante de ingresos para los productores en las regiones áridas y semiáridas de México. Sin embargo, hay información limitada en México sobre caracterización de las curvas de producción de la leche y sus componentes. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar las curvas de lactancia y sus componentes (sólidos totales, grasa, proteína en cabras F1 Alpina x Nubia del altiplano Potosino, utilizando tres modelos matemáticos. Se evaluaron los modelos monofásico, difásico y gamma incompleta, considerando como criterios de ajuste el cuadrado medio del error, pseudo R2, criterio de información de Akaike, criterio de información Bayesiano y -2 veces el logaritmo de la verosimilitud. Para la caracterización de la curva de producción de leche el modelo difásico fue el más consistente en todos los criterios de ajuste, por lo que resultó más útil que los modelos monofásico y gamma incompleta. Para las curvas de los componentes de la leche, el mejor ajuste correspondió al modelo gamma incompleto.

  14. Propagation Techniques for Highland Bamboo (Arundinaria alpina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Forestry Research Center, ... (10 new shoots per propagule), along its stem length (at the upper, middle and butt ... laminated bamboo lumber (LBL), oriented strand board (OSB), medium density ...

  15. Condição corporal e desempenho produtivo de cabras Alpinas no início de lactação Body condition and productive performance of Alpine goat in early lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Pires Barbosa

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a influência da condição corporal ao parto sobre os parâmetros produtivos de cabras Alpinas no início da lactação. Sessenta e oito cabras foram distribuídas em três grupos, de acordo com o escore de condição corporal (baixo, entre 1,00 e 2,75; intermediário, entre 2,75 e 3,50; e alto, entre 3,50 e 5,00 e avaliadas do parto até a oitava semana de lactação. Realizaram-se o controle diário do consumo alimentar e da produção leiteira e avaliações semanais de peso corporal, escore da condição corporal e composição do leite. Os animais com escore corporal alto apresentaram menor consumo de matéria seca, fibra em detergente neutro e proteína bruta em comparação àqueles com escores corporais baixo e intermediário. O período médio de recuperação do consumo de matéria seca dos animais das três condições corporais foi de 16 dias (2,3 semanas do pós-parto, com estabilização até o final do experimento. Na sexta semana de lactação, o peso corporal dos animais com escore corporal baixo se igualou ao daqueles com escore corporal intermediário. Não houve efeito da condição corporal ao parto nas variações de ECC e da produção leiteira ao longo do período. O teor de gordura do leite dos animais com escore corporal alto foi menor nas duas primeiras semanas pós-parto em comparação ao dos animais com escores corporais baixo e intermediário. Elevada condição corporal ao parto influencia negativamente o consumo voluntário de cabras leiteiras no início da lactação, mas quando se utiliza dieta de alta qualidade e com altos níveis de energia, a influência da condição corporal ao parto inexiste para variações de peso, de escore da condição corporal e produção leiteira dos animais.The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of body condition at birth on Alpine goat productive parameters in early lactation. Sixty-eight females were assigned to three groups according to

  16. Avaliação espermática e da concentração de proteínas solúveis no plasma seminal de bodes da raça Alpina em regime de monta controlada Reproductive performance, soluble proteins of the seminal plasm and hypoosmotic test in male goats of the Alpine breed under controlled mating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Franco Martins

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudadas as relações entre a concentração de proteínas solúveis do plasma seminal, o teste hipoosmótico, a análise física e morfológica do sêmen e o desempenho reprodutivo de bodes da raça Alpina em regime de monta controlada. O experimento foi realizado durante os meses de fevereiro a abril de 2001. Foram realizadas 40 coletas de sêmen em quatro reprodutores adultos em regime de monta controlada. Em todas as coletas, além do exame físico e morfológico do sêmen, foram realizados os testes hipoosmóticos, isoosmóticos e a determinação da concentração de proteínas solúveis do plasma seminal. Foi detectada diferença entre os bodes na concentração de proteínas solúveis do plasma seminal, mas não houve diferença no teste hipoosmótico e no número de coberturas por prenhez. O teste hipoosmótico pode ser uma importante ferramenta para a avaliação de sêmen caprino, mas a concentração de proteínas solúveis do plasma seminal não pode ser utilizada como parâmetro para predizer a qualidade seminal e a fertilidade de bodes da raça Alpina utilizados em regime de monta natural.The relationships among soluble proteins of the seminal plasma, the hypoosmotic test, the physical and morphologic analyses of semen and the reproductive performance of male goats of the Alpine breed under controlled mating were studied using forty samples of semen from four adult male goats collected twice a week between February and April of 2001. Differences among male goats were observed for soluble protein concentration of the seminal plasma, but not for the hypoosmotic test and the pregnancy rate. These results suggest the hypoosmotic test may be used for the evaluation of goat semen, but the protein concentration of the seminal plasma can not be used as a parameter to predict the seminal quality and fertility of male goats of the Alpine breed.

  17. 76 FR 33923 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Abronia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... regulations to temporarily list a species are not judicially reviewable. See Fund for Animals v. Hogan, 428 F... particular factor to evaluate whether the species may respond to the factor in a way that causes actual.... The threat is significant if it drives or contributes to the risk of extinction of the species such...

  18. Efeitos do estresse térmico sobre a produção, composição química do leite e respostas termorreguladoras de cabras da raça alpina Thermal stress effects on milk yield and chemical composition and thermoregulatory responses of lactating alpines goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena de Albuquerque Brasil

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Seis cabras da raça Alpina, com produção média de leite de 2,5 kg/dia, foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em dois grupos de três e submetidas à termoneutralidade ou estresse térmico por 56 dias em câmara climática. Usou-se um delineamento estatístico "crossover". A temperatura média do ar diurna, incluindo radiação solar simulada, foi de 33,84ºC. Os animais estressados aumentaram a freqüência respiratória, o volume-minuto respiratório, a termólise-evaporativa respiratória, temperatura retal e a taxa de sudorese, enquanto o volume corrente respiratório e o volume globular diminuíram. Houve também perda de peso, redução da ingestão de alimentos e duplicação do consumo de água. A produção de leite e a porcentagem de gordura, proteína, lactose e sólidos totais diminuíram. Os teores de cloretos, cálcio e fósforo não sofreram alteração. Concluiu-se que, para manter a homeotermia, as cabras mobilizaram o sistema respiratório e sudoríparo para perder calor. A alta temperatura ambiente efetiva reduziu a produção e os teores de alguns componentes do leite.Six Alpine goats with an average milk yield of 2.5 kg/day were randomly assigned to two groups of three and allotted to thermoneutral or heat stress conditions, for 56 days in climate chamber room. A crossover experimental design was used. The goats under heat stress were exposed to a diurnal average air temperature plus simulated solar radiation of 33. 84ºC. The heat-stressed goats showed elevated respiratory frequency, respiratory minute volume, respiratory evaporation, rectal temperature and sweating rate, while the tidal volume and packed cell volume decreased. Further weight loss, decreased feed intake, and their water consumption doubled. The milk yield, the percentage of fat, protein, lactose and total solid contents decreased. The contents of chloride, calcium and phosphorus did not change. The goats mobilized the respiratory and sweating systems to

  19. PROJEKT VPELJAVE SUIV V PODJETJE ALPINA, D.O.O.

    OpenAIRE

    Vehar, Klemen

    2013-01-01

    Namen magistrskega dela je prikazati, kako lahko s pomočjo napotkov standarda ISO/IEC 27003 in z uporabo računalniških orodij za projektno vodenje izdelamo plan vpeljave SUIV za določeno organizacijo. V teoretičnemu delu smo prikazali osnove s področja varnosti informacijskega sistema. Predstavili smo družino standardov ISO 27000 in druge standarde, ki služijo kot osnova pri vpeljavi sistema za upravljanje informacijske varnosti (SUIV) v organizacijo in so v praksi največkrat uporabljeni....

  20. Transcriptome survey of Patagonian southern beech Nothofagus nervosa (= N. Alpina: assembly, annotation and molecular marker discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torales Susana L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nothofagus nervosa is one of the most emblematic native tree species of Patagonian temperate forests. Here, the shotgun RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq of the transcriptome of N. nervosa, including de novo assembly, functional annotation, and in silico discovery of potential molecular markers to support population and associations genetic studies, are described. Results Pyrosequencing of a young leaf cDNA library generated a total of 111,814 high quality reads, with an average length of 447 bp. De novo assembly using Newbler resulted into 3,005 tentative isotigs (including alternative transcripts. The non-assembled sequences (singletons were clustered with CD-HIT-454 to identify natural and artificial duplicates from pyrosequencing reads, leading to 21,881 unique singletons. 15,497 out of 24,886 non-redundant sequences or unigenes, were successfully annotated against a plant protein database. A substantial number of simple sequence repeat markers (SSRs were discovered in the assembled and annotated sequences. More than 40% of the SSR sequences were inside ORF sequences. To confirm the validity of these predicted markers, a subset of 73 SSRs selected through functional annotation evidences were successfully amplified from six seedlings DNA samples, being 14 polymorphic. Conclusions This paper is the first report that shows a highly precise representation of the mRNAs diversity present in young leaves of a native South American tree, N. nervosa, as well as its in silico deduced putative functionality. The reported Nothofagus transcriptome sequences represent a unique resource for genetic studies and provide a tool to discover genes of interest and genetic markers that will greatly aid questions involving evolution, ecology, and conservation using genetic and genomic approaches in the genus.

  1. Enhanced polyunsaturated fatty acids production in Mortierella alpina by SSF and the enrichment in chicken breasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengli Yang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS and soybean meal were used as the substrates for the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in solid-state fermentation (SSF by Mortierella alpine. These fermented products were fed to laying hens. PUFA enrichment from chicken breasts was studied. Methods: The maximum productivity of PUFA was achieved under optimized process condition, including 1% w/w yeast extract as additive, an incubation period of 5 days at 12°C, 10% v/w inoculum level, 75% moisture content, and pH 6.0. The hens were then fed with ration containing soybean DDGS, rapeseed oil, soybean oil, and peanut oil. The control group was fed with basal ration. Results: Under the optimal condition, M. alpine produced total fatty acids (TFA of 182.34 mg/g dry substrate. It has better mycelial growth when soybean meal was added to DDGS (SDDGS. PUFA in fermentation product increased with higher soybean meal content. The addition of 70% soybean meal to DDGS substrate yielded 175.16 mg of TFA, including 2.49 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and 5.26 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. The ratios of ω-6/ω-3 found in chicken breasts fat were all lower than that found in control by 36.98, 31.51, 18.15, and 12.63% for SDDGS, rapeseed oil, soybean oil, and peanut oil, respectively. Conclusions: This study identified an optimized SSF process to maximize PUFA productivity by M. alpine as the strain. This PUFA-enriched feed increased the PUFA contents as well as the proportions of ω-6 and ω-3 in chicken breasts and liver.

  2. Characterization of nine polymorphic microsatellite loci for a threatened saproxylic beetle Rosalia alpina (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drag, Lukáš; Zima, Jan; Čížek, Lukáš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2013), s. 903-905 ISSN 1877-7252 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA02021501 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 168/2013/P; project Biodiversity of forest ecosystem(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0064 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : SSR markers * population genetics * dead wood Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.136, year: 2013

  3. 76 FR 69323 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision that Nonconforming 1987-1994 ALPINA Burkard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ...: installation of U.S.-model instrument cluster and U.S.-version software. Standard No. 108 Lamps, Reflective Devices and Associated Equipment: installation of U.S.-model: (a) headlamps; (b) front and rear side marker lamps; and (c) rear high mounted stop lamp and associated wiring. Standard No. 110 Tire Selection...

  4. 75 FR 51164 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 1990-1996 ALPINA Burkard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ...: Installation of U.S.-model instrument cluster and U.S.-version software. Standard No. 108 Lamps, Reflective Devices and Associated Equipment: Installation of U.S.-model: (a) Headlamps; (b) front and rear side marker lamps; and (c) rear high mounted stop lamp and associated wiring. Standard No. 110 Tire Selection...

  5. 78 FR 59092 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision that Nonconforming 1988-1996 Alpina B10 Passenger Cars...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... Transmission Braking Effect, 103 Windshield Defrosting and Defogging Systems, 104 Windshield Wiping and Washing... Pneumatic Tires, 113 Hood Latch System, 116 Motor Vehicle Brake Fluids, 124 Accelerator Control Systems, 201...-series and reprogramming the vehicle computer to operate the necessary safety systems. Standard No. 108...

  6. 78 FR 30961 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision that Nonconforming 2005-2007 Alpina B5 Passenger Cars...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... Hood Latch System, 116 Motor Vehicle Brake Fluids, 124 Accelerator Control Systems, 135 Light Vehicle... vehicle computer to operate the necessary safety systems. Standard No. 108 Lamps, Reflective Devices, and... vehicle computer to activate the required safety systems. Standard No. 118 Power-Operated Window...

  7. Novel, male-produced aggregation pheromone of the cerambycid beetle Rosalia alpina, a priority species of European conservation concern

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žunič Kosi, A.; Zou, Y.; Hoskovec, Michal; Vrezec, A.; Stritih, N.; Millar, J. G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 8 (2017), č. článku e0183279. E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : 1758 Coleoptera Cerambycidae * host plant volatiles * sex pheromone Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016 http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0183279

  8. De lange weg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas Geesteranus, R.A.

    1968-01-01

    Peziza alpina (Fuck.) Cooke (1876) and Peziza alpina (Fuck.) Oud. (1885) are recombinations based on Humaria alpina Fuck. (1874), and have no relation with Peziza alpina Sauter (1878). While the identity of Fuckel’s species is left out of consideration (as it will be discussed in a future paper),

  9. Separation and Identification of Odd Chain Triacylglycerols of the Protozoan Khawkinea quartana and the Mold Mortierella alpina Using LC-MS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Vítová, Milada; Nováková, Alena; Sigler, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 8 (2015), s. 811-820 ISSN 0024-4201 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/0215; GA ČR GA14-00227S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Protozoan * Khawkinea quartana * Mold Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.892, year: 2015

  10. Decreased expression of caspase3 in penis and prostate tissues of rat after the treatment with buceng (Pimpinella alpina Molk & Euricoma longifolia Jack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiqurrachman Taufiqurrachman

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Buceng {combination of pasak bumi (Eurycoma longifolia Jack and purwoceng (Pimpinella alpine Molk} has been proven to increase testosterone (Te level and decrease apoptosis. Unfortunately, there is no evidence whether these effects are mediated by the declining of caspase3. Objective of this study was to evaluate whether buceng could decrease the expression of caspase3 of penis and prostate cells in Sprague Dawley male rats.Methods: Twenty four Sprague Dawley male rats weighing 300 g (90 days old were randomly assigned into 4 groups of 6 male rats. Group A, rats were castrated and received buceng 50 mg. Group B, rats were not castrated, sacrifices as positive control. Group C, rats were castrated and given 2 mL aquadest as negative control. Group D, rats were castrated and got of 6.75 mg mesterolone, dissolved in 2 mL water. MANOVA statistical analysis was adopted to examine the difference expression of caspase3 in all groups. The comparison of caspase3 expression between two groups exhibiting difference values were evaluated by Post Hoc test.Results: MANOVA revealed statistically significant differences in the expression of caspase3 of penis and prostate tissues among the four groups. Post Hoct test also indicated that expression of caspase3 in group A (buceng (33.56; 35.83 was significantly lower compared to group C (negative control (54.33; 60.07 and group D (mesterolone (51.91;56.21, p = 0.000, and higher compared than group B or normal rats (29.40; 27.72, but statistically not significant (p = 0.826.Conclusion: The treatment of 50 mg buceng/day for 30 consecutive days could decrease caspase3 expression in penis and prostate cells. (Med J Indones. 2013;22:2-8Keywords: Apoptosis, buceng (Pimpinella alpine Molk – Eurycoma longifolia Jack, caspase3 

  11. Increase in Bcl2 expression of penile and prostate cells of Sprague Dawley male rats following treatment with buceng (combination of Pimpinella alpina molk with Eurycoma longifolia Jack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufiqurrachman Nasihun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Treatment with buceng combination of Eurycoma longifolia Jack and Pimpinella alpine Molk has been proven to increase testosterone level, decrease apoptosis and caspase3 expression. Bcl2 is an antiapoptotic protein found in cytoplasm which inhibits cells apoptosis. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of buceng on Bcl2 expression on penile and prostate tissues of the rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 24 male Sprague Dawley rats of 90 days old, weighing ± 300 grams, were randomly assigned into four groups. Group A, normal rats. Group B, castrated rats and treated with buceng 100 mg/day, per oral (Cast-Bcg; Group C, castrated rats and treated with 2 ml of water as placebo against buceng (Cast-Plac. Group D, castrated rats, treated with mesterolone 6.75 mg/day, per oral, as exogenous testosterone (Cast-Mest. All rats were treated for 30 days. Manova test was used to analyze the different expression of Bcl2 among groups with significance level at p ≤ 0.05. Results: Castration was associated with significant decrease of Bcl2 expression in the penile and prostate tissues (53.0 and 50.9%, respectively compared to normal rats (82.6 and 84.2%, respectively, p < 0.001. Treatment with mesterolone reversed Bcl2 expression (77.1 and 78.1% to a near normal level. The same level of Bcl2 expression was also observed with buceng treatment (73.8 and 78.2%.Conclusion: The treatment with buceng could enhance Bcl2 expression in penile and prostate tissues, comparable to normal rats and mesterolone treated rats.

  12. Proteinograma de caprinos da raça Pardo-Alpina infectados naturalmente por parasitos gastrintestinais Proteinogram of Alpine goat naturally infected by gastrointestinal parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Y. Fernández

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The proteinogram of six 12 month-old Alpine goats, intensively raised and naturally infected by gastrointestinal parasites, was evaluated. Blood and feces samples of each animal were monthly collected. Total serum protein and their fractions were determined by agarose gel eletrophoresis, using Tris buffer, pH 9.2. The identified protein fractions were albumin, alfa-globulin, beta1-globulin, beta2-globulin and gama-globulin, whose average and standard deviation (g/dl were, respectively: 2.35±0.39, 0.69±0.36, 0.70±0.08, 0.48±0.08 and 1.52±0.41. It was not observed significative correlation (P>0.05, according to the Spearman non-parametric test, either between the Strongyloides eggs count per gram of feces or the Haemonchus spp. larval count per gram of feces and the fraction electrophorectly variable.

  13. Genetic differentiation of populations of the threatened saproxylic beetle Rosalia longicorn, Rosalia alpina (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Central and South-east Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drag, Lukáš; Hauck, David; Bérces, S.; Michalcewicz, J.; Šerić Jelaska, L.; Aurenhammer, S.; Čížek, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 116, č. 4 (2015), s. 911-925 ISSN 0024-4066 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/12/1952 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) 04-168/2013/P; European Social Fund(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0064 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : beech * conservation * Natura 2000 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.984, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bij.12624/epdf

  14. Seasonal variations in the diet and foraging behaviour of dunlins Calidris alpina in a south European estuary: improved feeding conditions for northward migrants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo C Martins

    Full Text Available During the annual cycle, migratory waders may face strikingly different feeding conditions as they move between breeding areas and wintering grounds. Thus, it is of crucial importance that they rapidly adjust their behaviour and diet to benefit from peaks of prey abundance, in particular during migration, when they need to accumulate energy at a fast pace. In this study, we compared foraging behaviour and diet of wintering and northward migrating dunlins in the Tagus estuary, Portugal, by video-recording foraging birds and analysing their droppings. We also estimated energy intake rates and analysed variations in prey availability, including those that were active at the sediment surface. Wintering and northward migrating dunlins showed clearly different foraging behaviour and diet. In winter, birds predominantly adopted a tactile foraging technique (probing, mainly used to search for small buried bivalves, with some visual surface pecking to collect gastropods and crop bivalve siphons. Contrastingly, in spring dunlins generally used a visual foraging strategy, mostly to consume worms, but also bivalve siphons and shrimps. From winter to spring, we found a marked increase both in the biomass of invertebrate prey in the sediment and in the surface activity of worms and siphons. The combination of these two factors, together with the availability of shrimps in spring, most likely explains the changes in the diet and foraging behaviour of dunlins. Northward migrating birds took advantage from the improved feeding conditions in spring, achieving 65% higher energy intake rates as compared with wintering birds. Building on these results and on known daily activity budgets for this species, our results suggest that Tagus estuary provides high-quality feeding conditions for birds during their stopovers, enabling high fattening rates. These findings show that this large wetland plays a key role as a stopover site for migratory waders within the East Atlantic Flyway.

  15. Relaciones entre la zonalidad petrológica y metalogénica de los macizos lerzolíticos de las cadenas alpinas del Mediterráneo Occidental (Cordillera Bético-Rifeña y Kabylias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Ruiz, J.

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Gamet-lherzolite facies, Ariegite and Seiland subfacies of the spinel-lherzolite facies and plagioclase-lherzolite facies have been identified in the Serranía de Ronda, Beni Bousera and Collo lherzolitic massifs. These petrological facies occur in a zonal arrangement: gamet lherzolite are in contact with the overlaying metapelitic sequence and spinel then plagioclase lherzolite occur inwards, representing the innermost zones in the former mantle body. The various occurrences of mineralizations can be classified in two main groups: one of them is essentialIy made up of chromite and Ni arsenides with pyroxene and/or cordierite as gangue minerals; the other consists Qf Fe-Ni-Cu sulfides and graphite, with pyroxene, plagioclase and phlogopite as gangue minerals. In both groups, the ores with the more refractory composition were the first to crystallize in the hotter core of the diapir while those other with a more differentiated composition were formed later within the external zones. The close correlation between petrological and metallogenical roning supports a magmatic origin of the mineralizations related to the petrologic evolution of the mantle bodies. The mineralizing liquids• originated from magmas generated by partial melting of the peridotites. The former migrated outwards, from the internal part of the bodies, during which marked interaction with the enclosing rocks and complex fractionation processes took place under moderate to low pressure conditions.En los macizos lerzolíticos de la Serranía de Ronda, de Beni Bousera y de Collo se han identificado facies de lerzolitas con granate, facies de lerzolitas con espinela (subfacies Ariegita y Seiland y facies de lerzolitas con plagioclasa. Estas facies petrológicas se distribuyen de forma que las lerzolitas con granate se sitúan en contacto con la unidad metapelítica suprayacente, mientras que las lerzolitas con espinela y con plagioclasa lo hacen en posiciones progresivamente más alejadas, representando zonas cada vez más internas en el primitivo cuerpo ultramáfico. Los diferentes indicios de mineralización pueden dividirse en dos grupos: uno compuesto esencialmente por cromita y arseniuros de níquel con ganga de piroxenos y/o cordierita, y el otro constituido por sulfuros de Fe-Ni-Cu con grafito y con piroxenos, plagioclasa y flogopita como minerales de la ganga. En ambos grupos las mineralizaciones de composición más refractaria son las primeras en cristalizar y lo hacen en las etapas más tempranas en las zonas más internas del diapiro, mientras que las de composición más diferenciada lo hacen más tarde en posiciones más periféricas. La fuerte interrelación entre la zonación petrológica y metalogénica apoya una génesis para las mineralizaciones íntimamente asociada a la evolución petrológica de los diapiros del manto. Los líquidos mineralizantes derivan de magmas generados mediante la fusión parcial de las peridotitas y habrían migrado hacia la periferia sufriendo un complejo proceso de fraccionación e interacción con las rocas encajantes, en condiciones de presión moderadas a bajas.

  16. AcEST: DK953800 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rbita pepo GN=CA... 317 3e-86 sp|O24339|CATA_SOLAP Catalase OS=Soldanella alpina ...QTRIFSYA 349 >sp|O24339|CATA_SOLAP Catalase OS=Soldanella alpina PE=2 SV=1 Length = 492 Score = 315 bits (80

  17. AcEST: DK951372 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 91 e-108 sp|O24339|CATA_SOLAP Catalase OS=Soldanella alpina PE=2 SV=1 389 e-108 sp|P25819|CATA2_ARATH Catala... Sbjct: 181 ESLHMFSFLFDDLGVP 196 >sp|O24339|CATA_SOLAP Catalase OS=Soldanella alpina PE=2 SV=1 Length = 492

  18. Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant potential of four Arctic vascular plants from Svalbard

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Singh, P.; Singh, S.M.; DeSouza, L.; Wahidullah, S.

    the chemical composition and antioxidative activities of four Arctic flowering plant species (Dryas octopetala, Carex rupestris, Silene uralensis and Deschampsia alpina.) through in vitro measurements of the free radical scavenging activities (FRS), inhibition...

  19. Seasonal age differences in weight and biometrics of migratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calidris alpina) caught in Eilat, Israel, before and after they accomplish the crossing of the combined ecological barrier of the Sinai, Sahara and Sahel deserts. Between 1999–2001, a total of 410 adults and 342 juveniles were banded.

  20. Efeitos do estresse térmico nas concentrações plasmáticas de progesterona (P4 e estradiol 17-b (E2 e temperatura retal em cabras da raça Pardo Alpina Effects of heat stress on progesterone (P4 and estradiol-17b plasma concentrations and rectal temperature of Alpine Brown goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Uribe-Velásquez

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Seis cabras lactantes foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em um delineamento experimental em "crossover", em dois grupos: sob condições termoneutras e estresse térmico. Um período de adaptação de 28 dias foi seguido por quatro períodos de 14 dias cada, quando os animais sob estresse térmico foram expostos à temperatura média de 33,84ºC; THI de 86,20; BGT de 36,18 e BT de 32,11ºC das 8 às 17 horas, incluindo radiação solar simulada das 10 às 15 horas. Não houve diferença entre as concentrações plasmáticas de progesterona, mas as fêmeas submetidas ao estresse térmico apresentaram diminuição nas concentrações plasmáticas de estradiol, quando comparados ao grupo termoneutro. A temperatura retal dos animais sob estresse térmico foi mais elevada quando foi comparada à do grupo de animais em condições de termoneutralidade. As cabras mantiveram as concentrações plasmáticas da progesterona, com diminuição na secreção de estradiol, quando expostas a um estresse repetido e intermitente, a despeito de ocorrer hipertermia durante o estresse pelo calor.Six lactating goats were randomly assigned to a crossover experimental design in two groups, under thermoneutral and heat stress conditions. An adaptation period of 28 days were followed by 4-periods of 14 days each, when the animals under heat stress were exposed to an average temperature of 33.34ºC; THI of 86.20; BGT of 36.18 and BT of 32.11ºC from 8 to 17 hours, including simulated solar radiation from 10 to 15 hours. There was no difference for progesterone plasma concentrations but the animals under heat stress showed a reduction of estradiol plasma concentrations as compared to the thermoneutral group. The rectal temperature of the animals under heat stress was higher when compared to the animals under thermoneutral conditions. The goats maintained progesterone plasma concentrations with reduction of estradiol secretion when exposed to repeat stress and intermittent in spite of the occurrence of hyperthermia during heat stress.

  1. Floristic changes in alpine plant communities induced by the cushion plant Azorella madreporica (Apiaceae in the Andes of central Chile Cambios florísticos en comunidades de plantas alpinas inducidos por la planta en cojín Azorella madrepórica (Apiaceae en los Andes de Chile central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANZA L QUIROZ

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the number of plant species associated with nurse plants increases with elevation. However, studies conducted so far have largely ignored the effect of nurse plants on other community attributes, such as the species abundances, diversity and evenness. Moreover, changes in these community attributes along environmental gradients have also been seldom examined. The present study evaluates the effect of the cushion plant Azorella madrepórica (Apiaceae on species richness, species abundance, diversity and evenness of vascular plants at two elevations in the Andes of central Chile. Theoretically, the impact of this nurse cushion plant on these community attributes should be grater at a higher elevation. Results showed that the proportion of plant species associated with cushion plants increases with elevation, and the abundance of some species is also greater within cushions than on bare ground. Although the proportion of species growing within cushions increased with elevation, diversity and evenness were higher on bare ground. This is due to some few species that attained very high densities within cushions, generating assemblages highly dominated by some few species. Ordination analyses indicated differences in species assemblages within and outside A. madrepórica at the higher elevation. Therefore, the influence of cushion plants on community structure changes with elevation. Accordingly, we suggest that attributes other than species richness must be included in future studies in order to analyze the impact of nurse species on community structure along environmental gradients.Se sabe que el número de especies asociado a plantas nodrizas aumenta con la altitud. Sin embargo, el efecto de plantas nodrizas sobre otros atributos de las comunidades, como la abundancia de especies, diversidad y equidad, ha sido largamente ignorado. Más aún, cambios en estos atributos en gradientes ambientales han sido pocas veces examinados. Este trabajo evalúa el efecto de una planta en cojín, Azorella madrepórica (Apiaceae, sobre la riqueza de especies, abundancia de especies, diversidad y equitatividad de la comunidad de plantas vasculares en dos altitudes en los Andes de Chile central. Teóricamente, el impacto de esta especie nodriza sobre la estructura comunitaria debería ser mayor a mayor altitud. Los resultados mostraron que la proporción de especies de plantas asociadas con plantas en cojín aumenta con la altitud, y que la abundancia de algunas especies también es mayor al interior de cojines que en el suelo desnudo. Aunque la riqueza relativa de especies al interior de los cojines aumenta con la altitud, la diversidad y la equidad fueron mayores en el suelo desnudo. Los resultados sugieren que la importancia de las plantas en cojín sobre la estructura comunitaria cambia con la altitud, produciendo mayores diferencias en los ensambles de especies presentes dentro y fuera de A. madrepórica en la mayor altitud. Basándonos en esto, sugerimos que otros atributos además de la riqueza de especies deben ser incluidos en futuros estudios para analizar el impacto de las especies nodrizas en la estructura de las comunidades a lo largo de gradientes ambientales.

  2. New floristic records in the Balkans: 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    caespitosa subsp. alpina (34), Plantago maritima subsp. serpentina (38), Thymus callieri subsp. callieri (31); Montenegro - Asperula hercegovina (73); Serbia - Allium paniculatum subsp. villosum (98), Viola obliqua (57); Turkey-in-Europe - Chamaecytisus jankae (37). subsp. (98), (57); Turkey-in-Europe - (37...

  3. Winter body mass and over-ocean flocking as components of danger management by Pacific dunlins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ydenberg, R.C.; Dekker, D.; Kaiser, G.; Shepherd, P.C.F.; Ogden, L.E.; Rickards, K.; Lank, D.B.

    2010-01-01

    Background: We compared records of the body mass and roosting behavior of Pacific dunlins (Calidris alpina pacifica) wintering on the Fraser River estuary in southwest British Columbia between the 1970s and the 1990s. 'Over-ocean flocking' is a relatively safe but energetically-expensive alternative

  4. Raptor predation on wintering Dunlins in relation to the tidal cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, D.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    At Boundary Bay, British Columbia, Canada, Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) captured 94 Dunlins (Calidris alpina) in 652 hunts. The two main hunting methods were open attacks on flying Dunlins (62%) and stealth attacks on roosting or foraging Dunlins (35%). Peregrines hunted throughout the day,

  5. Mitochondrial DNA sequence evolution in shorebird populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenink, P.W.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis describes the global molecular population structure of two shorebird species, in particular of the dunlin, Calidris alpina, by means of comparative sequence analysis of the most variable part of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genome. There are several reasons

  6. Monitoring tesaříka alpského v Ralské pahorkatině

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížek, Lukáš; Pokluda, P.; Hauck, D.; Roztočil, O.; Honců, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, - (2009), s. 125-140 ISSN 1211-9172 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600960705; GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : Rosalia alpina * Coleoptera * Cerambycidae Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  7. Some new or noteworthy species of Mortierella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gams, W.

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-two species of Mortierella are described and distributed over the sections defined by Gams (1970) which include the following new species: Section Pusilla: M. roseo-nana; Section Alpina: M. globalpina and M. polygonia Section Simplex: M. amoeboidea; Section Hygrophila : M. elongatula, M.

  8. Circaea x intermedia Ehrh. (Klein heksenkruid) een tuinplant?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beringen, Ruud

    2001-01-01

    Circaea x intermedia, a very rare taxon in the Netherlands, was found on a new locality on the edge of a woodland near the outskirts of the town of Ede. Growing conditions on the site are not suitable for both parental species ( C. alpina and C. lutetiana). Therefore it is most unlikely the hybrid

  9. AcEST: DK955512 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AT4 PE=2 SV=1 332 6e-91 sp|P49317|CATA3_NICPL Catalase isozyme 3 OS=Nicotiana plumbagini... 332 6e-91 sp|O24339|CATA_SOLAP...121 GFAVKFYTREGNFDLVGNNFPVFFVRDGMKFPDMVHALKPNPKSHIQ 167 >sp|O24339|CATA_SOLAP Catalase OS=Soldanella alpina

  10. AcEST: DK950258 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available umbagini... 395 e-109 sp|O24339|CATA_SOLAP Catalase OS=Soldanella alpina PE=2 SV=1 394 e-109 sp|P25819|CATA2... Query: 632 ESMHMFSWLFDDVGIPLNYR 691 ES+HMFS+LFDD+G+P +YR Sbjct: 181 ESLHMFSFLFDDLGVPQDYR 200 >sp|O24339|CATA_SOLAP

  11. AcEST: DK947415 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 7|CATA2_GOSHI Catalase isozyme 2 OS=Gossypium hirsutum G... 74 3e-13 sp|O24339|CATA_SOLAP Catalase OS=Soldan...RLNVRPSI 492 >sp|O24339|CATA_SOLAP Catalase OS=Soldanella alpina PE=2 SV=1 Length = 492 Score = 73.2 bits (1

  12. AcEST: DK957364 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available N=CAT2... 249 5e-66 sp|P49317|CATA3_NICPL Catalase isozyme 3 OS=Nicotiana plumbagini... 248 1e-65 sp|O24339|CATA_SOLAP...KFYT 128 >sp|O24339|CATA_SOLAP Catalase OS=Soldanella alpina PE=2 SV=1 Length = 492 Score = 247 bits (631),

  13. AcEST: DK943980 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available S=Arabidopsis thaliana GN=CAT1... 32 1.00 sp|O24339|CATA_SOLAP Catalase OS=Soldanella alpina PE=2 SV=1 31 1.... 1 AQADKSLGQKVGMRLNVKSN 60 +QADKSLGQK+ RLNV+ N Sbjct: 472 SQADKSLGQKLATRLNVRPN 491 >sp|O24339|CATA_SOLAP

  14. AcEST: DK951242 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available umbagini... 398 e-110 sp|O24339|CATA_SOLAP Catalase OS=Soldanella alpina PE=2 SV=1 397 e-110 sp|P25819|CATA2...FSHHP 180 Query: 628 ESMHMFSWLFDDVGIPLNYRH 690 ES+HMFS+LFDD+G+P +YRH Sbjct: 181 ESLHMFSFLFDDLGVPQDYRH 201 >sp|O24339|CATA_SOLAP

  15. AcEST: DK948290 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .. 415 e-116 sp|O24339|CATA_SOLAP Catalase OS=Soldanella alpina PE=2 SV=1 411 e-114 sp|P32290|CATA_PHAAU Cat...MFSWLFDDVGIPLNYRHMEGFGVHTFT 653 ES+HMF++LFDD+G+P +YRHM+G GVHT+T Sbjct: 181 ESLHMFTFLFDDIGVPQDYRHMDGSGVHTYT 211 >sp|O24339|CATA_SOLAP

  16. AcEST: DK949197 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available GOSHI Catalase isozyme 2 OS=Gossypium hirsutum G... 432 e-121 sp|O24339|CATA_SOLAP Catalase OS=Soldanella al...t: 181 ESLHMFTFLFDDIGVPQDYRHMDGSGVHTYTLINKAGKSHYVKFH 225 >sp|O24339|CATA_SOLAP Catalase OS=Soldanella alpina

  17. AcEST: DK950143 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ... 398 e-110 sp|O24339|CATA_SOLAP Catalase OS=Soldanella alpina PE=2 SV=1 397 e-110 sp|P25819|CATA2_ARATH C...0 Query: 619 ESMHMFSWLFDDVGIPLNYRH 681 ES+HMFS+LFDD+G+P +YRH Sbjct: 181 ESLHMFSFLFDDLGVPQDYRH 201 >sp|O24339|CATA_SOLAP

  18. AcEST: DK949890 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _GOSHI Catalase isozyme 1 OS=Gossypium hirsutum G... 401 e-111 sp|O24339|CATA_SOLAP Catalase OS=Soldanella a...8 EGFMNFMHRDEEINYFPSRYDPVRHAEMFPIPPAVCT 414 >sp|O24339|CATA_SOLAP Catalase OS=Soldanella alpina PE=2 SV=1 Le

  19. AcEST: DK948548 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sicum... 431 e-120 sp|O24339|CATA_SOLAP Catalase OS=Soldanella alpina PE=2 SV=1 430 e-120 sp|P32290|CATA_PHA...VK Sbjct: 181 ESLHMFTFLFDDIGIPQDYRHMDGSGVHTFTLINRAGKSTYVK 223 >sp|O24339|CATA_SOLAP Catalase OS=Soldanella a

  20. Does growth rate determine the rate of metabolism in shorebird chicks living in the arctic?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Joseph B.; Tieleman, B. Irene; Visser, G. Henk; Ricklefs, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    We measured resting and peak metabolic rates (RMR and PMR, respectively) during development of chicks of seven species of shorebirds: least sandpiper (Calidris minutilla; adult mass 20 22 g), dunlin (Calidris alpina; 56-62 g), lesser yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes; 88-92 g), short-billed dowitcher

  1. NEW ASPECTS OF THE ALPINE VEGETATION OF PARÂNG MOUNTAINS (SOUTH CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIMON TIBOR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available 4 plant communities unknown in the the European syntaxonomy are described from the alpine and subalpine belts of Parâng Mountains, based on vegetation studies of the authors during 1955–1960. These are: Arabis alpina-Saxifraga aizoides, Arabis alpina-Delphinium elatum, Dianthus tenuifolius-Festuca dalmatica and the Primula minima-Dryas octopetala communities. These communities could be described later as new associations in the possession of more relevés from different localities. The East and South Carpathian Doronico carpatici-Festucetum pictae association is distinguished under this new name from the Festucetum pictae Krajina described from the Tatra Mountains. 7 further associations are found as new to the Parâng Mountains.

  2. Growth of colonies and hyphal ultrastructure of filamentous fungi grown on dibutyl phthalate and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez-Segundo, J.L.; Vázquez-López, D.; Torres-García, J.L.; Ahuactzin-Perez, M.; Montiel-Martínez, N.; Tlecuitl-Beristain, S.; Sánchez, C.

    2013-01-01

    Phthalates are compounds that give fl exnbíüty to the plastics and are considered mutagens and teratogens. Mycelial growth rate, biomass production and hyphal diameter of the young and mature zones of colonies of Fusarium oxysporum, Mortierella alpina, Pleurotuspulmonarius, two strains of Pleurotus ostreatus (Po 37 and Po 83) and one strain of Pleurotus florida grown on glucose, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and dibutyl phthalate were studied. F oxysporum had the highest mycelial growth r...

  3. PRIMERJAVA SUHIH TRAVIŠČ IZ DVEH RAZLIČNIH GEOLOŠKIH PODLAG GLEDE NA C-S-R EKOLOŠKE STRATEGIJE RASTLIN

    OpenAIRE

    Hartman, Klavdija

    2009-01-01

    V diplomski nalogi smo opravili floristično in funkcionalno primerjavo dveh tipov suhih travišč v hribovitem celinskem predelu Slovenije (asociacija Scabioso hladnikianae-Caricetum humilis, razred Festuco-Brometea in asociacija Homogyno alpinae-Nardetum, razred Calluno-Ulicetea), ki sta razvita na različni geološki podlagi (karbonatna oz. nekarbonatna silikatna). Analizirali smo 30 še neobjavljenih popisov asociacije Scabioso hladnikianae-Caricetum humilis in 32 objavljenih popisov asociaci...

  4. AcEST: DK955964 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VGIPQDYRHMDGFGVNTYTLINKA 216 Query: 541 GKTTYVKFHWKPTC 582 GK YVKFHWK TC Sbjct: 217 GKAVYVKFHWKTTC 230 >sp|O24339|CATA_SOLAP...g significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|O48560|CATA3_SOYBN Catalase-3 OS=Glycine max GN=CAT3 PE=2 SV=1 387... e-107 sp|O24339|CATA_SOLAP Catalase OS=Soldanella alpina PE=2 SV=1 385 e-107 sp|

  5. AcEST: DK955410 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e 56.9) Link to BlastX Result : Swiss-Prot sp_hit_id O24339 Definition sp|O24339|CATA_SOLAP... E Sequences producing significant alignments: (bits) Value sp|O24339|CATA_SOLAP ...na GN=CAT1... 79 5e-15 >sp|O24339|CATA_SOLAP Catalase OS=Soldanella alpina PE=2 SV=1 Length = 492 Score = 90

  6. Root-associated fungal communities in three Pyroleae species and their mycobiont sharing with surrounding trees in subalpine coniferous forests on Mount Fuji, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shuzheng; Nakano, Takashi; Hattori, Masahira; Nara, Kazuhide

    2017-11-01

    Pyroleae species are perennial understory shrubs, many of which are partial mycoheterotrophs. Most fungi colonizing Pyroleae roots are ectomycorrhizal (ECM) and share common mycobionts with their Pyroleae hosts. However, such mycobiont sharing has neither been examined in depth before nor has the interspecific variation in sharing among Pyroleae species. Here, we examined root-associated fungal communities in three co-existing Pyroleae species, including Pyrola alpina, Pyrola incarnata, and Orthilia secunda, with reference to co-existing ECM fungi on the surrounding trees in the same soil blocks in subalpine coniferous forests. We identified 42, 75, and 18 fungal molecular operational taxonomic units in P. alpina, P. incarnata, and O. secunda roots, respectively. Mycobiont sharing with surrounding trees, which was defined as the occurrence of the same mycobiont between Pyroleae and surrounding trees in each soil block, was most frequent among P. incarnata (31 of 44 plants). In P. alpina, sharing was confirmed in 12 of 37 plants, and the fungal community was similar to that of P. incarnata. Mycobiont sharing was least common in O. secunda, found in only 5 of 32 plants. Root-associated fungi of O. secunda were dominated by Wilcoxina species, which were absent from the surrounding ECM roots in the same soil blocks. These results indicate that mycobiont sharing with surrounding trees does not equally occur among Pyroleae plants, some of which may develop independent mycorrhizal associations with ECM fungi, as suggested in O. secunda at our research sites.

  7. Materialidad poética: arquitectura suiza en el entorno de los Grisones 1992-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso de los Ríos, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    El entorno alpino de los Grisones ha sido un laboratorio donde experimentar un método arquitectónico procedente de diversas fuentes durante los años 70 en la ETHZ. Este método ha producido durante las últimas tres décadas un discurso teórico propiamente suizo alemán. La tradición continúa siendo un valor cultural para la comunidad alpina de los Grisones, que apuesta por seguir relacionando la arquitectura con su historia y su paisaje. La especificidad de cada entorno suizo alemán es un hecho ...

  8. Diversity of earthworms (Clitellata: Lumbricidae from Sredna Gora Mountain (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valchovski, H.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current study the diversity, zoogeographical position and distribution of earthworms from Sredna Gora Mountain (Bulgaria is presented. During the present investigation, altogether ten earthworm species belonging to seven genera were collected. Among them, seven taxa are reported for the first time from the Sredna Gora Mt.: Cernosvitovia rebeli, Dendrobaena alpina, Allolobophoridella eiseni, Dendrodrilus rubidus rubidus, Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea and Lumbricus terrestris. On the basis of the new and literature data here we provide the first list of lumbricid earthworms from Sredna Gora Mountain.

  9. El anticlinal y las discordancias de Pareja (Guadalajara): definición de las unidades cenozoicas de la Depresión Intermedia (provs. Cuenca y Guadalajara, España)

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Pérez-Hidalgo, Trinidad José

    2006-01-01

    Este trabajo contempla las unidades representadas en la sección estratigráfica del Anticlinal la Pareja (Guadalajara, España) en la cuenca cenozoica denominada Depresión Intermedia. La columna estratigráfica de la zona permite identificar tres unidades principales separadas por discordancias angulares relacionables con fases tectónicas de la orogenia alpina. También se han diferenciado subunidades que, en su mayor parte, vienen definidas por rupturas sedimentarias ligadas a proces...

  10. Sobre el origen de las razas caprinas españolas

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera García, M.; Peña Blanco, Francisco; Rodero Serrano, E.

    1998-01-01

    Aún hoy, transcurridos más de 50 años desde que Aparicio Sánchez estableciera el origen de las razas caprinas españolas, su hipótesis está llena de contenido y actualidad. Las tres formas prehistóricas propuestas por este autor como troncos originarios, la Capra Prisca, la Capra Aegagrus y otra forma desconocida de procedencia africana son asumidas, así como las variedades Alpina y Pirenaica de la cabra Aegagrus anteriormente reconocida por Sanson (1903) y que fueron desarrolladas por este au...

  11. Investigation of the effect of glucose syrup and brown sugar as low-cost substrate for lipid production by Mortierella alpine CBS 754.68

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saed Montazeri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Arachidonic acid is an important essential fatty acid in human nutrition. The filamentous fungus Mortierella alpina has been identified as a promising producer of arachidonic acid. Mortierella alpine can accumulate up to 40% (w/w lipid, of which up to 40% can be arachidonic acid. Materials and methods: Mortierella alpina CBS 754.68 was cultivated in low cost substrate such as glucose syrup, brown sugar and starch for lipid and arachidonic acid production. The reduced sugar, total lipids and content of ARA were determined by dinitrosalicylic acid method, soxhlet and Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS respectively. Results: The carbon sources were applied at 70 g/l and nitrogen source (soybean powder at 10 g/lit. The results showed that lipid in dry biomass in glucose syrup, starch and brown sugar media were obtained 32, 25 and 13 % w/w respectively. The arachidonic acid contents of lipid in the glucose syrup, starch and brown sugar media were 41, 33 and 31 % w/w respectively. Discussion and conclusion: Lipid fatty acid compositions are affected by the growth of microorganism. Cell membrane fatty acids such as stearic acid and oleic acid increased substantially concomitant with increases in the amount of biomass. Biomass and oil production efficiency fell due to inappropriate brown sugar medium.

  12. Vertical distribution of the alpine lepidoptera in the Carpathians and in the Balkan peninsula in relation to the zonation of the vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varga, Z. S.

    2001-12-01

    alpinen Arten sind meistens auf Europa beschrdnkt, und sie sind ebenfalls zu den alpinen-subnivalen Stufen der mittel- und südeuropäschen Hochgehirge gebunden. Die balkanischen Orealarten haben einen südosteuropaschen Arealschwerpunkt. sie kommen jedoch lokal auch in den Südalpen und Süd-bzw. Ostkarpaten vor. Die balkanischen Orealarten kommen am zahlreichsten in der Nàhe der Waldgrenze vor, und die Wiesen der oberen subalpinen Stufe gelten ais ihre am meisten besiedelte Lebensraume. Die mehr mannigfaltigen Habitate der Kalksteingebirge beherbergen meistens eine hohere Anzahl der alpinen (s. l. Arten, ais die azidischen Urgesteinsstocke. Die scheinbare Petrophilie zahlreicher alpinen und tundro-alpinen Arten ist durch ihre spezifische Verhaltensweise bedingt. Die vertikale Verbreitung der Arten ist wohl auch durch die Kompetition der verwandten Arten bedingt. Die nahe verwandten Arten weisen oft eine charakteristische Habitat-Aufteilung auf. Artenzahle und Angaben über die vertikale Verbreitung werden dargestellt (Tabellen 1-4.
    [es]
    Los autores estudian la distribución de las especies de montaña árticoalpinas, alpinas o balcánicas y su relación con la zonación altitudinal de la vegetación, las condiciones climáticas, el sustrato, el tipo de vegetación alpina y la presencia de especies relacionadas. Las especies árticoalpinas tienen sobre todo un área de distribución euroasiática y se dan tanto en las regiones árticas como en los niveles alpino y subnival de las cordilleras de Europa central y meridional, las cuales presentan morfología glaciar y vegetación alpina. Las especies alpinas son principalmente europeas y están relacionadas con los pisos alpino y subnival de las altas montañas del centro y sur de Europa. Las especies orófitas de los Balcanes son principalmente de Europa sudoriental, si bien algunas de ellas alcanzan puntos meridionales de los Alpes y de los Cárpatos. Dichas especies orófitas de los Balcanes se muestran

  13. Las mineralizaciones filonianas de fluorita (galena del Calar de San José (sierra de Baza, cordilleras Béticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Ruiz, J.

    1984-08-01

    Full Text Available The F-(Pb, Zn, Ba district of Sierra de Baza are a (Southeastern Spain is mainly constituted by fluorite-(galene stratiform and stratabound mineralizations which are included in Carbonate levels of Ladinian-Carnian age. These levels also contain vein mineralizations but only in certain zones as de Calar de San José and the Calar de Santa Bárbara. This paper deals with the main structural and mineralogical characteristics of the vein mineralizations and their relations with the geological context evolution. Special attention is given to the tectonic and the spatial association with the stratiform and stratabound, mineralizations of sedimentary/diagenetic character. Two types of vein mineralizations may be distinguished : one type is represented by small "in situ" remobilizations, from the stratiform and stratabound mineralizat ioos, which have been formed during the final stages of alpine deformations; the other one has been formed before Alpina Orogeny and probably in direct relation with an intratriassic tectonic phase.

    El distrito de F-(Pb, Zn, Ba de la Sierra de Baza (al SE de España está constituido fundamentalmente por mineralizaciones estratiformes y estratoligadas de fluorita-(galena, enclavadas en niveles carbonatados del Ladiniense Superior-Carniense. En estos mismos niveles, en algunos sectores como los del Calar de San José y Calar de Santa Bárbara, que constituyen el área de mayor importancia de este distrito minero, dichas mineralizaciones coexisten con otras de tipo filoniano. La presente nota trata esencialmente de las principales características estructurales y mineralógicas de las mineralizaciones filonianas y de sus relaciones con la evolución del contexto geológico, muy especialmente en lo que se refiere a la tectónica y a su asociación espacial con las mineralizaciones estratiformes y estratoligadas de carácter sedimentario/diagenético. Se han diferenciado dos tipos de mineralizaciones filonianas: unas

  14. Efeito do genótipo sobre a produção e a composição do leite de cabras mestiças Effect of genotype on milk yield and composition of crossbred goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Nogueira Barros

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O potencial de produção de trinta e cinco cabras mestiças - 12 ½Pardo-alpina + ½Moxotó (½PA-M, 11¾ Pardo-alpina + ¼Moxotó (¾PA-M e 12 Tricross (½Anglo-nubiana + ¼Pardo-alpina + ¼Moxotó - foi avaliado em um experimento foi conduzido na Embrapa Caprinos. Os cabritos foram separados das respectivas mães ao nascimento. As cabras foram ordenhadas duas vezes ao dia e o controle leiteiro procedido semanalmente. Os animais foram confinados em baias coletivas e receberam dieta para produção de 2,5 kg de leite/dia, composta de silagem de sorgo ad libitum e concentrado. Os animais foram pesados em intervalos de 14 dias. A produção de leite, como coletada, não foi influenciada pelo genótipo. No entanto, quando foi corrigida para 4% de gordura, o genótipo ½ PA-M foi superior aos ¾ PA-M e Tricross. Não houve diferença significativa entre genótipos para gordura, proteína e extrato seco total do leite.The objective of this trial was to study the production of thirty-five crossbred goats: ½Brown Alpine x 12 ½Moxoto (½BA-M, 11 ¾Brown Alpine x ¼Moxoto (¾BA-M, and 12 Tricross (½Anglo Nubian x ¼Moxoto x ¼Brown Alpine. After birth, the kids were separated from their mothers. Goats were milked twice a day and milk composition determined weekly. Animals were housed in collective pens and received a diet composed of sorghum silage (ad libitum plus concentrate that were formulated to allow 2.5 kg/d of milk yield. Animals were weighted every 14 days. Milk production did not differ among genotypes. However, 4% fat corrected milk was greater for ½BA-M than the remaining groups. No significant differences were observed for milk composition (fat, protein, and total solids across genotypes in the current trial.

  15. Trapped in the extinction vortex? Strong genetic effects in a declining vertebrate population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson Mikael

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inbreeding and loss of genetic diversity are expected to increase the extinction risk of small populations, but detailed tests in natural populations are scarce. We combine long-term population and fitness data with those from two types of molecular markers to examine the role of genetic effects in a declining metapopulation of southern dunlins Calidris alpina schinzii, an endangered shorebird. Results The decline is associated with increased pairings between related individuals, including close inbreeding (as revealed by both field observations of parentage and molecular markers. Furthermore, reduced genetic diversity seems to affect individual fitness at several life stages. Higher genetic similarity between mates correlates negatively with the pair's hatching success. Moreover, offspring produced by related parents are more homozygous and suffer from increased mortality during embryonic development and possibly also after hatching. Conclusions Our results demonstrate strong genetic effects in a rapidly declining population, emphasizing the importance of genetic factors for the persistence of small populations.

  16. A DNA barcode library for ground beetles of Germany: the genus Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Michael J.; Hannig, Karsten; Moriniére, Jérôme; Hendrich, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The genus Amara Bonelli, 1810 is a very speciose and taxonomically difficult genus of the Carabidae. The identification of many of the species is accomplished with considerable difficulty, in particular for females and immature stages. In this study the effectiveness of DNA barcoding, the most popular method for molecular species identification, was examined to discriminate various species of this genus from Central Europe. DNA barcodes from 690 individuals and 47 species were analysed, including sequences from previous studies and more than 350 newly generated DNA barcodes. Our analysis revealed unique BINs for 38 species (81%). Interspecific K2P distances below 2.2% were found for three species pairs and one species trio, including haplotype sharing between Amara alpina/Amara torrida and Amara communis/Amara convexior/Amara makolskii. This study represents another step in generating an extensive reference library of DNA barcodes for carabids, highly valuable bioindicators for characterizing disturbances in various habitats. PMID:29853775

  17. Observations on aerophytic cyanobacteria and algae from ten caves in the Ojców National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Czerwik-Marcinkowska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study, carried out in 2010–11, focuses on species composition and distribution of cyanobacterial and algal communities colonizing ten caves (Biała, Ciemna, Koziarnia, Krakowska, Łokietka, Okopy Wielka Dolna, Sąspowska, Sypialnia, Zbójecka and Złodziejska Caves in the Ojców National Park (South Poland. A total of 85 taxa were identified, 35 of them belonging to cyanobacteria, 30 chlorophytes, and 20 belonging to other groups of algae. Aerophytic cyanobacteria dominated in these calcareous habitats. Nine species, Gloeocapsa alpina, Nostoc commune, Chlorella vulgaris, Dilabifilum arthopyreniae, Klebsormidium flaccidum, Muriella decolor, Neocystis subglobosa, and Orthoseira roseana, were the most abundant taxa in all the caves. The investigated microhabitats offer relatively stable microclimatic conditions and are likely to be responsible for the observed vertical distribution of aerophytic cyanobacteria and algae.

  18. Trends of some wintering waterbirds in Lazio (1993-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Brunelli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the 90s, censuses of wintering waterfowl have been carried out in the main wetlands of Lazio. We analysed the trends of 31 species in the 1993-2006 period (base year 1993 by means of TRIM (Trends and Indices Monitoring data software (Model 3. Among the species regularly recorded in the region, Ardea alba, Ardea cinerea, Bubulcus ibis and Anser anser showed a strong increase; Podiceps cristatus, Nycticorax nycticorax, Egretta garzetta, Phoenicopterus ruber, Anas penelope, Anas strepera, Anas crecca, Anas platyrhynchos, Anas clypeata, Netta rufina, Aythya ferina, Aythya nyroca, Circus aeruginosus, Fulica atra, Pluvialis apricaria and Vanellus vanellus showed a moderate increase; Gavia arctica, Tachybaptus ruficollis, Podiceps nigricollis, Phalacrocorax carbo, Aythya fuligula and Numenius arquata resulted “stable”; Botaurus stellaris, Tadorna tadorna, Anas acuta, Pluvialis squatarola and Calidris alpina showed an uncertain trend. The trends for most species are similar to those recorded at a national level.

  19. Arctic-nesting birds find physiological relief in the face of trophic constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Laura; Nol, Erica; Juillet, Cédric

    2013-01-01

    A climate-induced phenological mismatch between the timing of reproduction and the timing of food resource peaks is one of the key hypothesized effects of climate change on wildlife. Though supported as a mechanism of population decline in birds, few studies have investigated whether the same temperature increases that drive this mismatch have the potential to decrease energetic costs of growth and compensate for the potential negative effects of reduced food availability. We generated independent indices of climate and resource availability and quantified their effects on growth of Dunlin (Calidris alpina) chicks, in the sub-arctic tundra of Churchill, Manitoba during the summers of 2010-2011 and found that when resource availability was below average, above average growth could be maintained in the presence of increasing temperatures. These results provide evidence that chicks may find physiological relief from the trophic constraints hypothesized by climate change studies.

  20. Additions to the Diptera Acalyptrata fauna (Anthomyzidae, Stenomicridae, Carnidae, Milichiidae, Heleomyzidae of the Czech Republic and Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roháček Jindřich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Records of five species of Diptera Acalyptrata representing novelties for the faunas of Bohemia or Moravia (Czech Republic and Slovakia are given with discussion on their significance to the biodiversity knowledge of local faunas and a summary of their biology, distribution and identification with new information obtained from the material examined. Stiphrosoma humerale Roháček & Barber, 2005 (Anthomyzidae and Stenomicra cogani Irwin, 1982 (Stenomicridae are new additions to the dipterous fauna of Slovakia. Records of Meoneura alpina Hennig, 1948 (Carnidae and Milichia speciosa Meigen, 1830 (Milichiidae are the first from Bohemia and represent new northernmost distribution limits of these species; those of Heleomyza (Anypotacta setulosa (Czerny, 1924 are the first from Moravia. Macrophotographs of all these species are presented to document the specimens recorded and/or to facilitate identification of these uncommon species. In addition, new records of S. humerale from Russia: E Siberia and of M. speciosa from Greece: Peloponnesse are given.

  1. Hoteles y sanatorios: influencia de la tuberculosis en la arquitectura del turismo de masas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Jiménez Morales

    Full Text Available Resumen Este artículo pretende constatar la influencia que ha ejercido la tuberculosis en la formalización de la arquitectura del turismo de masas. Para ello se repasa la evolución tipológica del hotel a partir de la eclosión del sanatorio antituberculoso en el contexto de la estación turística alpina de mediados del siglo XIX. Un recorrido que se realiza tendiendo puentes entre los progresos en arquitectura y los avances en terapias médicas. El objetivo es hacer evidente el proceso de hibridación que se produce entre ambas tipologías arquitectónicas. Una imbricación que se extiende hasta la Segunda Guerra Mundial pero cuya influencia aún persiste en la arquitectura del turismo masivo de sol y playa.

  2. Analytical aspects of diterpene alkaloid poisoning with monkshood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Maria Laura; Bugatti, Carlo; Davanzo, Franca; Persico, Andrea; Ballabio, Cinzia; Restani, Patrizia

    2009-11-01

    A sensitive and specific method for aconitine extraction from biological samples was developed. Aconitine, the main toxic alkaloid from plants belonging to Aconitum species (family Ranunculaceae), was determined in plant material by an external standard method, and by a standard addition calibration method in biological fluids. Described here is one fatal case and five intoxications of accidental aconitine poisoning following the ingestion of aconite mistaken for an edible grass, Aruncus dioicus (Walt.) Fernald, "mountain asparagus", and Cicerbita alpina (L.) Wallroth. The aconitine content in urine was in the range 2.94 microg/mL (dead patient)-0.20 microg/mL (surviving patients), which was almost two to four times higher than that in plasma.

  3. Interglacial insects and their possible survival in Greenland during the last glacial stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøcher, Jens Jensenius

    2012-01-01

    Sediments from the last interglacial (Eemian) in Jameson Land, East Greenland, and the Thule area, NW Greenland, have revealed a number of insect fragments of both arctic and more or less warmth-demanding species. Altogether, the interglacial fauna of Coleoptera (beetles) indicates boreal...... beetle species such as Amara alpina and Isochnus arcticus did not survive the last glacial stage in Greenland. Two factors that have not been sufficiently considered when discussing survival contra extinction are the importance of microclimate and the number of sun-hours during the Arctic summer. Even...... among the Coleoptera, which as a group fares quite badly in the Arctic, there might be survivors, at least among those found both during the interglacial and as fossils during the early Holocene. First of all, glacial survival applies to the seed bug Nysius groenlandicus, which was widespread during...

  4. Weak trophic links between a crab-spider and the effective pollinators of a rewardless orchid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Carolina; Corley, Juan C.; Aizen, Marcelo A.

    2015-01-01

    Sit and wait predators hunting on flowers are considered to be exploiters of plant-pollinator mutualisms. Several studies have shown that plant-pollinator interactions can be highly susceptible to the impact of a third trophic level, via consumptive (direct) and non-consumptive (indirect) effects that alter pollinator behavior and, ultimately, plant fitness. However, most flowering plants attract a wide array of flower visitors, from which only a subset will be effective pollinators. Hence, a negative effect of an ambush predator on plant fitness should be expected only when: (i) the effective pollinators are part of the predators' diet and/or (ii) the non-consumptive effects of predator presence (e.g. dead prey) alter the behavior of effective pollinators and pollen movement among individual plants. We analyzed the direct and indirect effects of a crab-spider (Misumenops pallidus), on the pollination and reproductive success of Chloraea alpina, a Patagonian rewardless orchid. Our results indicate that most of the flower visitors do not behave as effective pollinators and most effective pollinators were not observed as prey for the crab-spider. In terms of non-consumptive effects, inflorescences with and without spiders and/or dead-prey did not vary the frequency of flower visitors, nor pollinia removal or deposition. Hence, it is not surprising that M. pallidus has a neutral effect on pollinia removal and deposition as well as on fruit and seed set. Similar to other rewardless orchids, the low reproductive success of C. alpina (∼6% fruit set) was associated with the limited number of visits by effective pollinators. Negative top-down effects of a flower-visitor predator on plant pollination may not be anticipated without studying the direct and indirect effects of this predator on the effective pollinators. In pollination systems where effective pollinators visited flowers erratically, such as in deceptive orchids, we expect weak or no effect of predators on

  5. Analyses of occurrence data of protected insect species collected by citizens in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Campanaro

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Citizen science, the engagement of people in a research project, has grown rapidly in recent years, also for mapping of species of conservation interest. The Life Project “Monitoring Insects with Public Participation” (MIPP actively promoted collaboration amongst scientists, public administrations and citizens in the collection of occurrence data of nine insect species listed in the Habitats Directive: Lucanus cervus, Osmoderma eremita, Cerambyx cerdo, Rosalia alpina, Morimus asper/funereus, Lopinga achine, Parnassius apollo, Zerynthia cassandra/polyxena and Saga pedo. These species were selected because they share two main characteristics: (i they are listed in Annexes II and IV of the Habitats Directive and (ii they are large and relatively easy to identify. From 2014 to 2016, many different strategies were applied to contact and engage the public and approximately 14,000 citizens were reached directly. Additionally, printed and online material informed the public about this project. Citizens could transmit data on the target species, accompanied by a photograph, via the web-site of the project or through a dedicated application (app for smartphones and tablets. All records were validated by experts based on the photographs sent by citizens. A total number of 2,308 records were transmitted and 1,691 (73.2% of these were confirmed. Most of the reports were submitted via the website, although the submission via the app increased over time. The species most commonly recorded was L. cervus, followed by M. asper/funereus and R. alpina. Data collected by citizen scientists allowed a detailed analysis to be made on altitudinal distribution and phenology of the species and the results obtained were compared with literature data on altitudinal distribution and phenology. For example, for L. cervus, 67% of the records collected were from the altitudinal range 0–400 m a.s.l. Interestingly, the data showed that the phenology of this species changed

  6. Uso de testes complementares para avaliação do congelamento do sêmen de bodes submetidos ao manejo de fotoperíodo artificial Use of complementary tests to evaluate the freezing ability of semen from goats under artificial photoperiod exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselmo Domingos Ferreira Santos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available O congelamento do sêmen de bodes das raças Alpina e Saanen submetidos ao manejo de fotoperíodo artificial foi avaliado por meio dos testes de termorresistência (TTR, hiposmótico (HOST e de integridade do acrossoma. Foram utilizados oito machos caprinos (quatro da raça Alpina e quatro da raça Saanen de duas idades diferentes (jovens e adultos. A qualidade do sêmen durante as etapas do congelamento foi superior em bodes jovens de ambas as raças. Avaliada pelo TTR, a motilidade do sêmen fresco apresentou longevidade pós-descongelamento. Os resultados de motilidade espermática, obtidos imediatamente após o descongelamento, tiveram reflexos positivos sobre o TTR, indicando que os sêmens que apresentaram maior motilidade pós-coleta (86,2% vs 79,3% e pós-descongelamento (37,7% vs 32,0% tiveram maior longevidade seminal. Os resultados do HOST, tanto para o sêmen fresco quanto para o congelado, não diferiram entre raças e idades. Houve redução na porcentagem de espermatozóides íntegros após o congelamento e descongelamento do sêmen dos animais da raça Alpina e dos adultos Saanen. Houve redução superior a 14% nos valores do HOST para o sêmen congelado em relação aos valores observados para o sêmen fresco (38,0 vs 52,0%, respectivamente. A motilidade espermática progressiva mostrou maior sensibilidade à criopreservação que a integridade da membrana espermática, indicando que a motilidade espermática é mais afetada pelo processo de congelamento que a membrana plasmática. A integridade do acrossoma não foi influenciada pelo descongelamento. Os índices de danos acrossomais (edema, desprendimento parcial e até perda total de acrossoma mostraram-se dentro do padrão aceitável (44,5%, tanto no pós-descongelamento como após o término do TTR.The freezing ability of semen from Alpine and Saanen goats submitted to an artificial photoperiod exposure were evaluated by the thermo-resistance (TTR and hypoosmotic (HOST tests

  7. Recuento de bacterias totales en leche cruda de tambos que caracterizan la zona noroeste de Santa Fe y sur de Santiago del Estero Total bacterial count in raw milk of dairy farms that characterize the northwest zone of Santa Fe and south of Santiago del Estero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.R. Revelli

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Un total de 6.998 muestras de leche cruda de pool de tanque, correspondientes a 55 establecimientos lecheros asociados a la Cooperativa Tambera Nueva Alpina Ltda., fueron recolectadas entre los años 1993 y 2002. Se realizó el Recuento de Microorganismos Aerobios Mesófilos Totales, obteniéndose como resultado un valor medio de 1,2 x 105± 2,4 x 105UFC/ml que caracteriza la zona. El año de finalización de la experiencia, se observó un 97% de los tambos evaluados con promedios £ 1,0 x 105UFC/ml. Solamente un 3% sobrepasa este límite, no encontrándose establecimientos con niveles superiores a 1,5 x 105UFC/ml. Al relacionar este indicador con parámetros composicionales, las correlaciones más significativas resultaron para: Recuento de Bacterias Totales vs Acidez (r = 0,292; P A total of 6.998 raw milk samples of bulk tank, belonging to 55 dairy farms associated to the Cooperativa Tambera Nueva Alpina Ltda., were collected between the years 1993 and 2002. The Total Mesophilic Aerobic Microorganisms Count was analyzed, obtaining a medium value of 1.2 x 105± 2.4 x 105CFU/ml that characterizes the zone. The final year of experience, observed a 97% of dairy farms evaluated with averages £ 1,0 x 105CFU/ml. Only a 3% it surpasses this limit, not being found establishments with levels over 1.5 x 105CFU/ml. Relating this indicators with compositionals parameters, the most significant correlation resulted for: Total Bacterial Count vs Acidity (r = 0.292; P < 0.001 and Total Bacterial Count vs Freezing Point (r = 0.157; P < 0.001. The microbiological quality in raw milk of dairy farms belonging to the northwest zone of Santa Fe and south of Santiago del Estero showed a significant improvement during this time.

  8. Home range dynamics of mountain hare (Lepus timidus in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sophie Genini-Gamboni

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little is known on the ecology and behaviour of alpine mountain hare (Lepus timidus. Between 1996 and 1997 we analysed by radiotracking the pattern of space use of 8 mountain hares from the Swiss Alps. We estimated home range size using both the kernel density estimator and the minimum convex polygon. We found smaller ranges (38 ha compared to those reported for the species in boreal or arctic habitats, but similar to ranges in Scotland. Hares did not use a centre of major activity (core area and showed high home range overlap, confirming their non-territorial behaviour. Smaller ranges were used during winter compared to the other seasons, whilst no difference in size was found between sexes. Riassunto Dinamica dell'uso dello spazio della lepre bianca (Lepus timidus nelle Alpi Svizzere Le informazioni relative all'ecologia e al comportamento della lepre alpina (Lepus timidus sono ad oggi scarse. In questo studio abbiamo analizzato l'utilizzo dello spazio di una popolazione di lepre bianca sulle Alpi Svizzere. Tra il 1996 e il 1997 sono stati marcati con redio collare 8 individui di lepre alpina. L'home range è stato calcolato utilizzando lo stimatore di densità kernel (KDE ed il metodo del minimo poligono convesso (MCP. L'ampiezza degli home range (38 ha è risultata inferiore a quella riportata per la specie in habitat boreali ed artici. ma simile a quella riscontrata in Scozia. All'interno dell home range non è stato rilevato alcun centro di maggiore attività (core area ed è stata evidenziata una notevole sovrapposizione tra gli stessi, confermando la non territorialità della specie. Le aree frequentate in inverno sono risultate più piccole rispetto alle altre stagioni e non sono state riscontrate differenze tra i sessi.

  9. Analysis of melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R gene polymorphisms in some cattle breeds: their usefulness and application for breed traceability and authentication of Parmigiano Reggiano cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Davoli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In cattle, the MC1R gene has been the subject of several studies with the aim to elucidate the biology of coat colour. Then, polymorphisms of this gene have been proposed as tools for breed identification and animal products authentication. As a first step to identify breed specific DNA markers that can be used for the traceability of mono-breed dairy cattle products we investigated, using PCR-RFLP and PCR-APLP protocols, the presence and distribution of some alleles at the MC1R locus in 18 cattle breeds for a total of 1360 animals. For each of seven breeds (Italian Holstein, Italian Brown, Italian Simmental, Rendena, Jersey, Reggiana and Modenese a large number of animals (>70 was genotyped so the obtained results can be considered with more confidence. Allele ED was identified only in black pied cattle (Italian Holstein and Black Pied Valdostana. Allele E (this nomenclature includes all alleles except ED, E1 and e was observed in Italian Brown, Rendena, Jersey, Modenese, Italian Simmental, Grigio Alpina, Piedmontese, Chianina, Romagnola, Marchigiana, Swedish Red and White and Danish Red. Allele E1 was identified in Italian Brown, Rendena, Grigio Alpina, Piedmontese, Swedish Red and White and Danish Red. The recessive allele e, known to cause red coat colour, was fixed in Reggiana and almost fixed in Italian Simmental. This allele was observed also in Italian Holstein, Italian Brown, Rendena, Jersey and Modenese albeit with low frequency. Moreover, this allele was detected in Valdostana, Pezzata Rossa d’Oropa, Piedmontese, Romagnola, Swedish Red and White, Danish Red, Charoleis and Salers. In the case of the Reggiana breed, which is fixed for allele e, the MC1R locus is highly informative with respect to breeds that carry other alleles or in which allele e is at very low frequency. In theory, using the MC1R locus it is possible to identify the presence of milk from some other breeds in Parmigiano Reggiano cheese labelled as exclusively from

  10. Philodryas chamissonis (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae preys on the arboreal marsupial Dromiciops gliroides (Mammalia: Microbiotheria: Microbiotheriidae Philodryas chamissonis (Reptilia: Squamata: Dipsadidae predando o marsupial arborícola Dromiciops gliroides (Mammalia: Microbiotheria: Microbiotheriidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Muñoz-Leal

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Philodryas chamissonis, the Chilean long-tailed snake, is a diurnal predator mainly of Liolaemus lizards, but also of amphibians, birds, rodents and juvenile rabbits. Dromiciops gliroides (Colocolo opossum is an arboreal marsupial endemic of temperate rainforest of southern South America. Little information is available about this marsupial's biology and ecology. Here we report the predation of one Colocolo opossum by an adult female P. chamissonis in a mixed Nothofagus forest, composed mainly by N. dombeyi, N. glauca and N. alpina trees, in the "Huemules de Niblinto" National Reserve, Nevados de Chillán, Chile. Since these two species have different activity and habitat use patterns, we discuss how this encounter may have occurred. Although it could just have been an opportunistic event, this finding provides insights into the different components of food chains in forest ecosystems of Chile.Philodryas chamissonis, cobra de cauda comprida ("Culebra de cola larga", é uma cobra diurna, predadora principalmente de lagartos do gênero Liolaemus, mas também de anfíbios, aves, roedores e coelhos jovens. Dromiciops gliroides (colocolo é um marsupial arborícola endêmico das florestas temperadas do sul da América do Sul. Há pouca informação disponível sobre a biologia e a ecologia deste marsulpial. É reportada, neste estudo, a predação de um colocolo por uma fêmea adulta de P. chamissonis, em uma floresta mista de Nothofagus, composta principalmente por árvores N. dombeyi, N. glauca e N. alpina, na Reserva Nacional de Huemules de Niblinto, Nevados de Chillán, Chile. Uma vez que estas duas espécies possuem diferentes padrões de atividade e de uso de habitat, discute-se como este evento poder ter ocorrido. Embora este possa ter sido apenas um evento oportunístico, o achado fornece novas informações sobre os diferentes componentes da cadeia alimentar nos ecossistemas florestais do Chile.

  11. Abundance of Royle’s pika (Ochotona roylei along an altitudinal gradient in Uttarakhand, Western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabuj Bhattacharyya

    2010-06-01

    zona alpina, in aree caratterizzate dalla presenza di muri in pietra, e sui pendii della zona sub-alpina, mentre l’abbondanza minore è stata rilevata nelle praterie alpine. I pika sono stati osservati consumare 26 specie di vegetali. La maggiore percentuale di piante utilizzate è stata rilevata lungo i pendii rocciosi al limite della vegetazione arborea. Tramite regressione multipla si è evidenziato che la copertura rocciosa è il fattore che più influenza l’abbondanza della specie. Le aree rocciose offrono probabilmente sia aree idonee per la tana, sia riparo dai predatori.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-20.2-4441

  12. Wastewater recycling technology for fermentation in polyunsaturated fatty acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaojin; Ma, Zengxin; Tan, Yanzhen; Zhang, Huidan; Cui, Qiu

    2017-07-01

    To reduce fermentation-associated wastewater discharge and the cost of wastewater treatment, which further reduces the total cost of DHA and ARA production, this study first analyzed the composition of wastewater from Aurantiochytrium (DHA) and Mortierella alpina (ARA) fermentation, after which wastewater recycling technology for these fermentation processes was developed. No negative effects of DHA and ARA production were observed when the two fermentation wastewater methods were cross-recycled. DHA and ARA yields were significantly inhibited when the wastewater from the fermentation process was directly reused. In 5-L fed-batch fermentation experiments, using this cross-recycle technology, the DHA and ARA yields were 30.4 and 5.13gL -1 , respectively, with no significant changes (P>0.05) compared to the control group, and the water consumption was reduced by half compared to the traditional process. Therefore, this technology has great potential in industrial fermentation for polyunsaturated fatty acid production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Isolation, identification and antagonistic activity evaluation of actinomycetes in barks of nine trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Dong-sheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycetes are important producers of novel bioactive compounds. New sources need to be explored for isolating previously unknown bioactive compound-producing actinomycetes. Here we evaluated the potential of bark as a natural source of novel bioactive actinomycete species. Bark samples were collected from nine tree species at different elevations (1600-3400 ma.s.l. on Qin Mountain, Shaanxi Province, China. Actinomycetes were cultivated, enumerated and isolated using serial dilution and spread-plate techniques. The antimicrobial activity of actinomycete isolates was analyzed using an agar block method against 15 typical bacterial and fungal species and plant pathogens. The dominant isolates were identified by 16S rRNA-based sequence analysis. Results showed that actinomycete counts in bark samples of Quercus liaotungensis Koidz. was the highest among all trees species tested. The numbers of actinomycete species in bark samples were highest in Q. aliena var. acutiserrata and Spiraea alpina Pall. Antagonistic activity wasdetected in approximately 54% of the actinomycete isolates. Of these, 20 isolates (25% showed broad-spectrum antagonistic activity against ≥5 of the microorganisms tested. In conclusion, the bark on coniferous and broadleaf trees possesses a high diversity of actinomycetes and serves as a natural source of bioactive compound-producing actinomycetes.

  14. Calpionellid distribution and microfacies across the Jurassic/ Cretaceous boundary in western Cuba (Sierra de los Órganos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martínez, Rafael; Barragán, Ricardo; Reháková, Daniela; Cobiella-Reguera, Jorge Luis

    2013-06-01

    A detailed bed-by-bed sampled stratigraphic section of the Guasasa Formation in the Rancho San Vicente area of the "Sierra de los Órganos", western Cuba, provides well-supported evidence about facies and calpionellid distribution across the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary. These new data allowed the definition of an updated and sound calpionellid biozonation scheme for the section. In this scheme, the drowning event of a carbonate platform displayed by the facies of the San Vicente Member, the lowermost unit of the section, is dated as Late Tithonian, Boneti Subzone. The Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary was recognized within the facies of the overlying El Americano Member on the basis of the acme of Calpionella alpina Lorenz. The boundary is placed nearly six meters above the contact between the San Vicente and the El Americano Members, in a facies linked to a sea-level drop. The recorded calpionellid bioevents should allow correlations of the Cuban biozonation scheme herein proposed, with other previously published schemes from distant areas of the Tethyan Domain.

  15. Cloning, molecular characterization and expression of a cDNA encoding a functional NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase from Mucor racemosus PTCC 5305 in E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NED A SETAYESH

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to study a new NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase (cb5r from Mucor racemosus PTCC 5305. A cDNA coding for cb s r was isolated from a Mucor racemosus PTCC 5305 cDNA library. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA including coding and sequences flanking regions was determined. The open reading frame starting from ATG and ending with TAG stop codon encoded 228 amino acids and displayed the closest similarity (73% with Mortierella alpina cb s r. Lack of hydrophobic residues in the N-terminal sequence was apparent, suggesting that the enzyme is a soluble isoform. The coding sequence was then cloned in the pET16b transcription vector carrying an N-terminal-linked His-Tag® sequence and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3. The enzyme was then homogeneously purified by a metal affinity column. The recombinant Mucor enzyme was shown to have its optimal activity at pH and temperature of about 7.5 and 40 °C, respectively. The apparent Km value was calculated to be 13 μM for ferricyanide. To our knowledge, this is the first report on cloning and expression of a native fungal soluble isoform of NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase in E. coli.

  16. Comportamiento predestete de cabritos cruzados en Guanajuato, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Castillo-Rodríguez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Los pesos al nacimiento y al destete fueron registrados para evaluar el comportamiento pre-destete de cabritos cruzado en ocho pequeñas fincas de producción de leche de cabra en Guanajuato, México. Materiales y métodos. Se usaron 234 registros de cabritos, las cabras fueron mantenidas en condiciones de pastoreo con suplementación de un concentrado comercial. Los cabritos eran cruzados, de las razas Sannen, Alpina y Toggenburg, los datos fueron analizados con un modelo estadístico que considero los efectos de rebaño (RE, grupo contemporáneo (GC, número de parto (NP, tipo parto (TP y sexo del cabrito (SC. Resultados. Las medias de peso al nacer, peso a los 60 días de edad y la ganancia diaria de peso fueron 3.4±0.5 (rango 2.0 a 5.5, 13.7±1.8 (rango 8.0 a 17.5 y 0.17±0.02 (0.08 a 0.23 kg. El peso al nacimiento fue afectado (p<0.01 por RE, GC, NP, TP y SC. Sin embargo, el peso a 60 días y ganancia diaria de peso fueron afectadas (p<0.05 por RE y SC. Conclusiones. El rebaño afectó el comportamiento de los cabritos.

  17. Individual-Tree Diameter Growth Models for Mixed Nothofagus Second Growth Forests in Southern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. Moreno

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Second growth forests of Nothofagus obliqua (roble, N. alpina (raulí, and N. dombeyi (coihue, known locally as RORACO, are among the most important native mixed forests in Chile. To improve the sustainable management of these forests, managers need adequate information and models regarding not only existing forest conditions, but their future states with varying alternative silvicultural activities. In this study, an individual-tree diameter growth model was developed for the full geographical distribution of the RORACO forest type. This was achieved by fitting a complete model by comparing two variable selection procedures: cross-validation (CV, and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO regression. A small set of predictors successfully explained a large portion of the annual increment in diameter at breast height (DBH growth, particularly variables associated with competition at both the tree- and stand-level. Goodness-of-fit statistics for this final model showed an empirical coefficient of correlation (R2emp of 0.56, relative root mean square error of 44.49% and relative bias of −1.96% for annual DBH growth predictions, and R2emp of 0.98 and 0.97 for DBH projection at 6 and 12 years, respectively. This model constitutes a simple and useful tool to support management plans for these forest ecosystems.

  18. FY 1999 report on the results of the R and D of the plant use energy utilization rationalization industrial material production technology; 1999 nendo shokubutsu riyo energy shiyo gorika kogyo genryo seisan gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    For the purpose of using plants to the process to produce energy conservation type/environmentally friendly type industrial materials, the R and D were conducted on the improvement in material productivity/stress resistance of plants by transgenetic technology, etc., and the FY 1999 results were summarized. In the study of the creation of plants to produce industrial materials by genetic recombination of eucalyptus trees, it was found out that early maturing branches of eucalyptus trees were a material suitable for Agrobacterium infection, and conditions to efficiently acquire transformation calluses were obtained. In the R and D of the creation of soybeans to produce polyunsaturated fatty acid, a gene of unsaturated enzyme was acquired from Mortierella alpina storing ultra-long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, and an experimental study was made to study whether or not this gene functions by plant. Further, studies were conducted on the technology to produce hybrid fiber by salt tolerance plants, creation of plants to produce isoprenoid/natural rubber, technology to produce tissue-specific high proteins, study on the molecular breeding of disease resistant plants, etc. (NEDO)

  19. Epilithic algae from caves of the Krakowsko-Częstochowska Upland (Southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Czerwik-Marcinkowska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the first study of algae assemblages in 20 caves in the Krakowsko-Częstochowska Upland (Southern Poland, in the period between 2005-2006. The investigations showed mostly on epilithic algae and their subaeric habitats (rock faces within caves and walls at cave entrances. The morphological and cytological variability of algae were studied in fresh samples, in cultures grown on agar plates and in SPURR preparations. A total of 43 algae species was identified, mostly epilithic species and tolerant of low light intensities. The largest group was formed by representatives of the division Chlorophyta (24 species, and then the division Chrysophyta (Heterokontophyta - 17 species, with 9 species belonging to the class Bacillariophyceae, 7 species - Xanthophyceae and 1 species representing the class Eustigmatophyceae. Dinophyta (2 species constituted the last and the smallest group. Among the collected algae, the following species deserve special attention: Thelesphaera alpina, Bracteacoccus minor, Trachychloron simplex, Tetracystis intermedia and T. cf. isobilateralis. The last species was not earlier found in Europe. Identification of species was greatly aided by examination of cell ultrastructure, which provided an array of further features, increasing chances of correct species identification. Furthermore, the studies focused that algae, although usually remaining under dominance of cyanobacteria, excellently differentiate this special area and even enrich it.

  20. Availability of ectomycorrhizal fungi to black spruce above the present treeline in Eastern Labrador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Reithmeier

    Full Text Available Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF are an important biotic factor in the survival of conifer seedlings under stressful conditions and therefore have the potential to facilitate conifer establishment into alpine and tundra habitats. In order to assess patterns of ectomycorrhizal availability and community structure above treeline, we conducted soil bioassays in which Picea mariana (black spruce seedlings were grown in field-collected soils under controlled conditions. Soils were collected from distinct alpine habitats, each dominated by a different ectomycorrhizal host shrub: Betula glandulosa, Arctostaphylos alpina or Salix herbacaea. Within each habitat, half of the soils collected contained roots of ectomycorrhizal shrubs (host (+ and the other half were free of host plants (host(-. Forest and glacial moraine soils were also included for comparison. Fungi forming ectomycorrhizae during the bioassays were identified by DNA sequencing. Our results indicate that ECMF capable of colonizing black spruce are widespread above the current tree line in Eastern Labrador and that the level of available inoculum has a significant influence on the growth of seedlings under controlled conditions. Many of the host(- soils possessed appreciable levels of ectomycorrhizal inoculum, likely in the form of spore banks. Inoculum levels in these soils may be influenced by spore production from neighboring soils where ectomycorrhizal shrubs are present. Under predicted temperature increases, ectomycorrhizal inoculum in soils with host shrubs as well as in nearby soils without host shrubs have the potential to facilitate conifer establishment above the present tree line.

  1. Availability of ectomycorrhizal fungi to black spruce above the present treeline in Eastern Labrador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reithmeier, Laura; Kernaghan, Gavin

    2013-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF) are an important biotic factor in the survival of conifer seedlings under stressful conditions and therefore have the potential to facilitate conifer establishment into alpine and tundra habitats. In order to assess patterns of ectomycorrhizal availability and community structure above treeline, we conducted soil bioassays in which Picea mariana (black spruce) seedlings were grown in field-collected soils under controlled conditions. Soils were collected from distinct alpine habitats, each dominated by a different ectomycorrhizal host shrub: Betula glandulosa, Arctostaphylos alpina or Salix herbacaea. Within each habitat, half of the soils collected contained roots of ectomycorrhizal shrubs (host (+)) and the other half were free of host plants (host(-)). Forest and glacial moraine soils were also included for comparison. Fungi forming ectomycorrhizae during the bioassays were identified by DNA sequencing. Our results indicate that ECMF capable of colonizing black spruce are widespread above the current tree line in Eastern Labrador and that the level of available inoculum has a significant influence on the growth of seedlings under controlled conditions. Many of the host(-) soils possessed appreciable levels of ectomycorrhizal inoculum, likely in the form of spore banks. Inoculum levels in these soils may be influenced by spore production from neighboring soils where ectomycorrhizal shrubs are present. Under predicted temperature increases, ectomycorrhizal inoculum in soils with host shrubs as well as in nearby soils without host shrubs have the potential to facilitate conifer establishment above the present tree line.

  2. Changes in the high-mountain vegetation of the Central Iberian Peninsula as a probable sign of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Elorza, Mario; Dana, Elías D; González, Alberto; Sobrino, Eduardo

    2003-08-01

    Aerial images of the high summits of the Spanish Central Range reveal significant changes in vegetation over the period 1957 to 1991. These changes include the replacement of high-mountain grassland communities dominated by Festuca aragonensis, typical of the Cryoro-Mediterranean belt, by shrub patches of Juniperus communis ssp. alpina and Cytisus oromediterraneus from lower altitudes (Oro-Mediterranean belt). Climatic data indicate a shift towards warmer conditions in this mountainous region since the 1940s, with the shift being particularly marked from 1960. Changes include significantly higher minimum and maximum temperatures, fewer days with snow cover and a redistribution of monthly rainfall. Total yearly precipitation showed no significant variation. There were no marked changes in land use during the time frame considered, although there were minor changes in grazing species in the 19th century. It is hypothesized that the advance of woody species into higher altitudes is probably related to climate change, which could have acted in conjunction with discrete variations in landscape management. The pronounced changes observed in the plant communities of the area reflect the susceptibility of high-mountain Mediterranean species to environmental change.

  3. Critical load of acid precipitations. Mapping of Italian regions; Mappa dei carichi critici di acidita' totale riferita al territorio italiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanni, P.; Brini, S.; Delmonaco, G.; Liburdi, R.; Trocciola, A.; Vetrella, G. [ENEA Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    In this report the mapping of critical loads of acidity for the Italian terrestrial ecosystems is presented. The level O method (Stockholm Environment Institute) has been used to determine sensitivity to acid deposition; this semi-quantitative method has been modified to address some Italian characteristics. The results show that the sensitivity of the Italian soils to acidification is not particularly elevated: there are really only few small areas with poor tolerance to acid depositions. These areas are in the north-east of Italy, in Alpine and Prealpine region. [Italian] Nel rapporto vengono riportati i risultati della mappatura, riferita agli ecosistemi terrestri del territorio italiano, dei carichi critici per l'acidita' totale. Il calcolo dei carichi critici e' stato eseguito sulla base della metodologia messa a punto dallo Stokholm Environment Institute; a questo metodo semi-quantitativo sono state apportate alcune modifiche per meglio adattarlo alle caratteristiche del territorio italiano. Dall'analisi dei risultati ottenuti, si evince come la sensibilita' dei suoli italiani all'acidificazione non sia particolarmente elevata: sono state riscontrate infatti solo alcune aree, peraltro con superficie limitata, con una scarsa tolleranza alle deposizioni acide. Tali aree sono localizzate nell'Italia nord-orientale, in zona alpina e prealpina.

  4. Mapping of critical loads of acidity for the Italian terrestrial ecosystems; Mappa dei carichi critici di acidita' totale riferita al territorio italiano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonanni, P.; Brini, S.; Delmonaco, G.; Liburdi, C.; Trocciola, A.; Vetrella, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    In this report the mapping of critical loads of acidity for the Italian terrestrial ecosystems is presented. The level 0 method (Stockholm Environment Institute) has been used to determine sensitivity to acid deposition; this semi-quantitative method has been modified to address some Italian characteristics. The sensitivity of the Italian soils to acidification is not particularly elevated: there are really only few small areas with poor tolerance to acid depositions in the north-east Italy, Alpine and Prealpine region. [Italian] Nel presente relazione vengono riportati i risultati della mappatura riferita ad ecosistemi terrestri del territorio italiano, dei carichi critici per l'acidita' totale. Il calcolo dei carichi e' stato eseguito sulla base della metodologia messa a punto dallo Stockholm Environment Institute con alcune modifiche per adattarlo meglio alle caratteristiche del territorio italiano. Si dimostra che la sensibilita' dei suoli italiani all'acidificazione non sia particolarmente elevata: sono state riscontrate infatti solo alcune aree, peraltro con superficie limitata, con una scarsa tolleranza alle deposizioni acide nelle zone del Nord Est, in zona alpina e prealpina.

  5. Protective Effect against Oxidative Stress in Medicinal Plant Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Shin, Dong O; Hong, Sung Eun; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2000-01-01

    Protective effect of medicinal plant extracts against oxidative stress were screened in this study. Methanol extracts from 48 medicinal plants, which were reported to have antioxidative or anti-inflammatory effect were prepared and screened for their protective activity against chemically-induced and radiation-induced oxidative stress by using MTT assay. Thirty three samples showed protective activity against chemically-induced oxidative stress in various extent. Among those samples, extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis revealed the strongest activity (25.9% at 100 μg/ml) with relatively lower cytotoxicity. Seven other samples showed higher than 20% protection at 100 μg/ml. These samples were tested for protection activity against radiation-induced oxidative stress. Methanol extract of Alpina officinarum showed the highest activity (17.8% at 20 μg/ml). Five fractions were prepared from the each 10 methanol extracts which showed high protective activity against oxidative stress. Among those fraction samples butanol fractions of Areca catechu var. dulcissima and Spirodela polyrrhiza showed the highest protective activities (78.8% and 77.2%, respectively, at 20 μg/ml)

  6. Morphological and anatomical features of cypsela of some crepis taxa (asteraceae) from turkey and their taxonomic importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ru, J.; Cheng, X.Y.; Wang, C.

    2015-01-01

    Fruit morphology and anatomy have taxonomic importance in Asteraceae. The fruits structures of Crepis from Turkey, which include five species (C. alpina, C. smyrnaea, C. pulchra, C. zacintha, C. sancta) and two subspecies (C. foetida subsp. foetida and C. foetida subsp. rhoeadifolia) were studied for fruit morphological and anatomical characters with one-way analysis of variance, cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Fruit size, shape, color, and the presence of beak were observed with stereomicroscopy. Whereas the surface patterns of fruit and pappus were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Furthermore, pericarp structure, thicknesses of testa and endosperm, and number of rib, cotyledon width in cypsela were studied anatomically. Results indicated that cypsela sizes, the presence or absence of beak on the cypsela, fruit and pappus surfaces, pericarp. Thickness of testa and endosperm, and number of ribs are of major importance to illustrate interspecific relations among the examined taxa. Also, this investigation is a preliminary study, which was performed to use fruit morphological and anatomical characters for their practicality on the classification of taxa within the genus. (author)

  7. Pierre Charmoz : La montagne à seins nus, un roman érotique de montagne, ou de la destruction du mythe alpin par le langage Pierre Charmoz: La Montagne à seins nus, or, the Debunking of the Alpine Myth trough Language Pierre Charmoz, La Sierra de los pechos desnudos o la destrucción del mito alpino por el lenguage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Mestre

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available La Montagne à seins nus de Pierre Charmoz est l'un des rares romans de montagne dans lequel l'érotisme joue un rôle important. C'est également une tentative de remise en cause des mythologies sur lesquelles le roman de montagne s'appuie, pour n'en garder que l'aspect léger et humoristique.La Montagne à seins nus, by Pierre Charmoz, is one of these few mountain novels in which eroticism plays a major part, it is also an attempt at debunking the mythologies on which alpine novels traditionally rest. It keeps only laughter and a gentle spirit of derision from it.La Sierra de los pechos desnudos, de Pierre Charmoz, es una de las raras novelas de montaña en las cuales el erotismo ocupa un lugar preponderante. También se empeña en derribar los mitos sobre los cuales suelen construirse las novelas alpinas tradicionales. De éstos permanece la risa, y uno disfruta mientras se hace burla de ellos.

  8. Informed renesting decisions: the effect of nest predation risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakanen, Veli-Matti; Rönkä, Nelli; Thomson, Robert L; Koivula, Kari

    2014-04-01

    Animals should cue on information that predicts reproductive success. After failure of an initial reproductive attempt, decisions on whether or not to initiate a second reproductive attempt may be affected by individual experience and social information. If the prospects of breeding success are poor, long-lived animals in particular should not invest in current reproductive success (CRS) in case it generates costs to future reproductive success (FRS). In birds, predation risk experienced during breeding may provide a cue for renesting success. Species having a high FRS potential should be flexible and take predation risk into account in their renesting decisions. We tested this prediction using breeding data of a long-lived wader, the southern dunlin Calidris alpina schinzii. As predicted, dunlin cued on predation risk information acquired from direct experience of nest failure due to predation and ambient nest predation risk. While the overall renesting rate was low (34.5%), the early season renesting rate was high but declined with season, indicating probable temporal changes in the costs and benefits of renesting. We develop a conceptual cost-benefit model to describe the effects of the phase and the length of breeding season on predation risk responses in renesting. We suggest that species investing in FRS should not continue breeding in short breeding seasons in response to predation risk but without time constraints, their response should be similar to species investing in CRS, e.g. within-season dispersal and increased nest concealment.

  9. Arbuscular mycorrhizas are present on Spitsbergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsham, K K; Eidesen, P B; Davey, M L; Axelsen, J; Courtecuisse, E; Flintrop, C; Johansson, A G; Kiepert, M; Larsen, S E; Lorberau, K E; Maurset, M; McQuilkin, J; Misiak, M; Pop, A; Thompson, S; Read, D J

    2017-10-01

    A previous study of 76 plant species on Spitsbergen in the High Arctic concluded that structures resembling arbuscular mycorrhizas were absent from roots. Here, we report a survey examining the roots of 13 grass and forb species collected from 12 sites on the island for arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) colonisation. Of the 102 individuals collected, we recorded AM endophytes in the roots of 41 plants of 11 species (Alopecurus ovatus, Deschampsia alpina, Festuca rubra ssp. richardsonii, putative viviparous hybrids of Poa arctica and Poa pratensis, Poa arctica ssp. arctica, Trisetum spicatum, Coptidium spitsbergense, Ranunculus nivalis, Ranunculus pygmaeus, Ranunculus sulphureus and Taraxacum arcticum) sampled from 10 sites. Both coarse AM endophyte, with hyphae of 5-10 μm width, vesicles and occasional arbuscules, and fine endophyte, consisting of hyphae of 1-3 μm width and sparse arbuscules, were recorded in roots. Coarse AM hyphae, vesicles, arbuscules and fine endophyte hyphae occupied 1.0-30.7, 0.8-18.3, 0.7-11.9 and 0.7-12.8% of the root lengths of colonised plants, respectively. Principal component analysis indicated no associations between the abundances of AM structures in roots and edaphic factors. We conclude that the AM symbiosis is present in grass and forb roots on Spitsbergen.

  10. Screening for Extracellular Lipase Enzymes with Transesterification Capacity in Mucoromycotina Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kotogán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 169 zygomycetes fungal strains including some cold-tolerant isolates were screened for their extracellular lipolytic activity towards tributyrin. Nineteen of them were outstanding in their enzyme production as they developed the largest lipolytic halo around the colonies in plate tests. Mortierella alpina, M. echinosphaera, Mucor corticolus, Rhizomucor miehei, Rhizopus oryzae, Rh. stolonifer, Umbelopsis autotrophica, U. isabellina, U. ramanniana var. angulispora and U. versiformis were selected for further studies to characterise their lipolytic enzyme production in detail. In these assays, effect of Tween 80 and palm, soybean, sunflower, olive, extra virgin olive, wheat germ, corn germ, sesame seed, pumpkin seed and cottonseed oils on the enzyme activities was investigated, and wheat bran-based submerged and solid-state fermentations were also tested. Tween 80 and olive oil proved to be efficient inductors for lipolytic enzyme production, which was also enhanced when wheat bran was used as support. Addition of mineral salts and olive oil to the solid fermentation medium resulted in at least 1.5-fold increment in the enzyme activities of the crude extracts. Organic synthesis was also assayed by the selected lipases, in which enzymes from the fungi R. miehei, Rh. stolonifer and M. echinosphaera gave the best yields during transesterification reactions between p-nitrophenyl palmitate and ethanol.

  11. Spatially resolved investigation of the oil composition in single intact hyphae of Mortierella spp. with micro-Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münchberg, Ute; Wagner, Lysett; Spielberg, Eike T; Voigt, Kerstin; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2013-02-01

    Zygomycetes are well known for their ability to produce various secondary metabolites. Fungi of the genus Mortierella can accumulate highly unsaturated lipids in large amounts as lipid droplets. However, no information about the spatial distribution or homogeneity of the oil inside the fungi is obtainable to date due to the invasive and destructive analytical techniques applied so far. Raman spectroscopy has been demonstrated to be well suited to investigate biological samples on a micrometre scale. It also has been shown that the degree of unsaturation of lipids can be determined from Raman spectra. We applied micro-Raman spectroscopy to investigate the spatial distribution and composition of lipid vesicles inside intact hyphae. For Mortierella alpina and Mortierella elongata distinct differences in the degree of unsaturation and even the impact of growth conditions are determined from the Raman spectra. In both species we found that the fatty acid saturation in the vesicles is highly variable in the first 600 μm of the growing hyphal tip and fluctuates towards a constant composition and saturation ratio in all of the remaining mycelium. Our approach facilitates in vivo monitoring of the lipid production and allows us to investigate the impact of cultivation parameters on the oil composition directly in the growing hyphae without the need for extensive extraction procedures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Genome-scale metabolic modeling of Mucor circinelloides and comparative analysis with other oleaginous species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Klanchui, Amornpan; Tawornsamretkit, Iyarest; Tatiyaborwornchai, Witthawin; Laoteng, Kobkul; Meechai, Asawin

    2016-06-01

    We present a novel genome-scale metabolic model iWV1213 of Mucor circinelloides, which is an oleaginous fungus for industrial applications. The model contains 1213 genes, 1413 metabolites and 1326 metabolic reactions across different compartments. We demonstrate that iWV1213 is able to accurately predict the growth rates of M. circinelloides on various nutrient sources and culture conditions using Flux Balance Analysis and Phenotypic Phase Plane analysis. Comparative analysis of three oleaginous genome-scale models, including M. circinelloides (iWV1213), Mortierella alpina (iCY1106) and Yarrowia lipolytica (iYL619_PCP) revealed that iWV1213 possesses a higher number of genes involved in carbohydrate, amino acid, and lipid metabolisms that might contribute to its versatility in nutrient utilization. Moreover, the identification of unique and common active reactions among the Zygomycetes oleaginous models using Flux Variability Analysis unveiled a set of gene/enzyme candidates as metabolic engineering targets for cellular improvement. Thus, iWV1213 offers a powerful metabolic engineering tool for multi-level omics analysis, enabling strain optimization as a cell factory platform of lipid-based production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Algological and Mycological Characterization of Soils under Pine and Birch Forests in the Pasvik Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korneikova, M. V.; Redkina, V. V.; Shalygina, R. R.

    2018-02-01

    The structure of algological and mycological complexes in Al-Fe-humus podzols (Albic Podzols) under pine and birch forests of the Pasvik Reserve is characterized. The number of micromycetes is higher in more acid soils of the pine forest, while the species diversity is greater under the birch forest. The genus Penicillium includes the largest number of species. The greatest abundance and occurrence frequency are typical for Penicillium spinulosum, P. glabrum, and Trichoderma viride in pine forest and for Umbelopsis isabellina, Mucor sp., Mortierella alpina, P. glabrum, Aspergillus ustus, Trichoderma viride, and T. koningii in birch forest. Cyanobacteria-algal cenoses of the investigated soils are predominated by green algae. Soils under birch forest are distinguished by a greater diversity of algal groups due to the presence of diatoms and xanthophytes. Species of frequent occurrence are represented by Pseudococcomyxa simplex and Parietochloris alveolaris in soils of the pine forest and by Tetracystis cf. aplanospora, Halochlorella rubescens, Pseudococcomyxa simplex, Fottea stichococcoides, Klebsormidium flaccidum, Hantzschia amphioxys, Microcoleus vaginatus, and Aphanocapsa sp. in soils under birch forest

  14. Parasitism of Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) by a New Species of Hairworm (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) in Arctic Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Crystal M; Hanelt, Ben; Buddle, Christopher M

    2016-06-01

    The host-parasite associations between ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and hairworms (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) collected from the Arctic (an understudied and ecologically important region) is described. Carabids and their parasites were collected from 12 sites spanning the 3 northernmost ecoclimatic zones of Canada (north boreal, subarctic, and high Arctic) using standardized methods. The beetles and hairworms were identified using traditional morphological approaches. Seven beetle species are recorded as hosts: Amara alpina, Pterostichus caribou, Pterostichus brevicornis, Pterostichus tareumiut, Pterostichus haematopus, Patrobus septentrionis, and Notiophilus borealis. All represent new host records (increasing the known North American host list from 14 to 21), and this is the first record of hairworm infection in the genus Notiophilus. Beetles from Banks Island, Northwest Territory, were infected in high numbers (11-19% per sampling period) and were used as an ecological case study. There was no significant relationship between infection status and host species, body size, or sex. Beetles collected in yellow pan traps and in wet habitats were more likely to be infected, likely due to water-seeking behavior induced by the parasites. Morphological examinations indicate that the hairworms collected from all locations represent a single, new species of Gordionus, making it only the sixth hairworm species and the third species of that genus found in Canada. Hosts are unknown for all other Canadian (and 1 Alaskan) Gordionus species.

  15. Plant communities with Pinus mugo (alliance Pinion mugo in the subalpine belt of the Western Carpathians - a numerical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Šibík

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A syntaxonomical revision of plant communities with dominant Pinus mugo in the Western Carpathians is presented. The data set of 341 relevés was examined and analysed using the detrended correspondence analysis and the cluster analysis. Major gradients and clusters were interpreted using Ellenberg’s indicator values. The major gradient in species composition was associated with available nutrients and moisture. The authors suggest distinguishing the dwarf pine stands of the supramontanous and subalpine belts of the Western Carpathians referred to the alliance Pinion mugo Pawłowski in Pawłowski et al. 1928 of the order Junipero-Pinetalia mugo Boşcaiu 1971 and the class Roso pendulinae-Pinetea mugo Theurillat in Theurillat et al. 1995, into three separate associations: the Cetrario-Pinetum mugo Hadač 1956, the Homogyno alpinae-Pinetum mugo (Sillinger 1933 nom. nov., and the Adenostylo alliariae-Pinetum mugo (Sillinger 1933 Šoltésová 1974. The authors also elucidated the unauthorized name of the association Vaccinio myrtilli-Pinetum mugo Hadač 1956, which is a younger homonym of the valid name of the association Vaccinio myrtilli-Pinetum montanae Morton 1927 that characterises the acidophilous dwarf pine stands on calcareous bedrocks in the Alps.

  16. Concentrate Supplement Modifies the Feeding Behavior of Simmental Cows Grazing in Two High Mountain Pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanzin, Alberto; Corazzin, Mirco; Piasentier, Edi; Bovolenta, Stefano

    2018-05-16

    During grazing on Alpine pastures, the use of concentrates in dairy cows' diet leads to a reduction of the environmental sustainability of farms, and influences the selective pressure on some plant species. In order to minimize the use of concentrates, it is imperative to obtain data on the grazing behavior of cows. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of concentrate levels on the behavior of dairy cows during grazing. One hundred and ten lactating Italian Simmental cows, that sequentially grazed two pastures characterized by Poion alpinae (Poion) and Seslerion caeruleae (Seslerion) alliance, were considered. For each pasture, eight cows were selected and assigned to two groups: High and Low, supplemented with 4 kg/head/d, and 1 kg/head/d of concentrate respectively. Cows were equipped with a noseband pressure sensor and a pedometer (RumiWatch system, ITIN-HOCH GmbH) to assess grazing, ruminating, and walking behavior. In addition, the plant selection of the animals was assessed. On Poion, increased supplement intake caused a more intense selection of legumes, without affecting feeding and walking times. On Seslerion, grazing time was higher in Low than High. Grazing management in alpine region must take into account the great variability of pastures that largely differ from a floristic and nutritional point of view.

  17. Concentrate Supplement Modifies the Feeding Behavior of Simmental Cows Grazing in Two High Mountain Pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Romanzin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available During grazing on Alpine pastures, the use of concentrates in dairy cows’ diet leads to a reduction of the environmental sustainability of farms, and influences the selective pressure on some plant species. In order to minimize the use of concentrates, it is imperative to obtain data on the grazing behavior of cows. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of concentrate levels on the behavior of dairy cows during grazing. One hundred and ten lactating Italian Simmental cows, that sequentially grazed two pastures characterized by Poion alpinae (Poion and Seslerion caeruleae (Seslerion alliance, were considered. For each pasture, eight cows were selected and assigned to two groups: High and Low, supplemented with 4 kg/head/d, and 1 kg/head/d of concentrate respectively. Cows were equipped with a noseband pressure sensor and a pedometer (RumiWatch system, ITIN-HOCH GmbH to assess grazing, ruminating, and walking behavior. In addition, the plant selection of the animals was assessed. On Poion, increased supplement intake caused a more intense selection of legumes, without affecting feeding and walking times. On Seslerion, grazing time was higher in Low than High. Grazing management in alpine region must take into account the great variability of pastures that largely differ from a floristic and nutritional point of view.

  18. Hetero-azeotropic distillation: combining fungal dehydration and lipid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tough, A J; Isabella, B L; Beattie, J E; Herbert, R A

    2000-01-01

    A low-cost single-stage laboratory process combining fungal dehydration and lipid extraction was compared with a traditional two-stage method employing freeze-drying and subsequent mechanical disruption in the presence of solvent. The ability of a number of organic solvents to form hetero-azeotropes with water was exploited. Chloroform, cyclohexane and hexane were assessed in their abilities to both dry and extract lipid from the oleaginous phycomycete Mortierella alpina (ATCC 32222). Drying rate and lipid extraction were maximised under conditions that prevented fungal agglomeration. The total processing time was limited by the rate of dehydration rather than by the rate of lipid extraction. In all cases azeotropic distillation facilitated a greater rate of dehydration than was possible with freeze-drying. A consequent reduction in overall processing time was observed. Uniquely, both the solvent used and the mode of mixing employed controlled the morphology of the aggregates formed during distillation. In combination with mild mixing chloroform discouraged agglomeration whereas cyclohexane and hexane promoted aggregation. Successful lipid extraction was dependent on the use of dry biomass rather than on the application of heat to effect distillation. Neither the application of heat nor the solvent employed had any significant effect on the lipid composition of the extracted oil.

  19. Preliminary ethnobotanical studies of the Rwenzori Mountain forest area in Bundibugyo District, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Oryem-Origa

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Ethnobotanical studies of the Rwenzori Mountain forest area in Bundibugyo District in Uganda were carried out between May and December 1991, and covered the northern part of the Rwenzori Mountain slopes occupied by the Bakonjo people. The presence of a major footpath through the forest with numerous utility trails radiating from it showed that some forest resources are being sought by the local population. Plant biodiversity is high, as is indicated by the fact that in a study plot of only 4 250 m , a total of 115 plant species, 101 genera and 57 families were identified from a collection of 300 plant specimens. Seventy-seven plant species were found to be of some importance to the local communities. Out of the 77 useful plant species recorded:  22 species were used for medicinal purposes; 16 for firewood; 13 for construction, joinery and furniture;  12 for craftwork; 10 provided edible fruits and vegetables; and 27 were used for a variety of other purposes. These other purposes include construction of shrines, covering of granary floors, use as toilet paper, carry ing luggage, and fodder for goats, sheep and cattle. Arundinaria alpina K. Schum. (bamboo is the species that is most extensively harvested from the forest.

  20. Epidermal cell death in frogs with chytridiomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Brannelly

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Amphibians are declining at an alarming rate, and one of the major causes of decline is the infectious disease chytridiomycosis. Parasitic fungal sporangia occur within epidermal cells causing epidermal disruption, but these changes have not been well characterised. Apoptosis (planned cell death can be a damaging response to the host but may alternatively be a mechanism of pathogen removal for some intracellular infections. Methods In this study we experimentally infected two endangered amphibian species Pseudophryne corroboree and Litoria verreauxii alpina with the causal agent of chytridiomycosis. We quantified cell death in the epidermis through two assays: terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labelling (TUNEL and caspase 3/7. Results Cell death was positively associated with infection load and morbidity of clinically infected animals. In infected amphibians, TUNEL positive cells were concentrated in epidermal layers, correlating to the localisation of infection within the skin. Caspase activity was stable and low in early infection, where pathogen loads were light but increasing. In animals that recovered from infection, caspase activity gradually returned to normal as the infection cleared. Whereas, in amphibians that did not recover, caspase activity increased dramatically when infection loads peaked. Discussion Increased cell death may be a pathology of the fungal parasite, likely contributing to loss of skin homeostatic functions, but it is also possible that apoptosis suppression may be used initially by the pathogen to help establish infection. Further research should explore the specific mechanisms of cell death and more specifically apoptosis regulation during fungal infection.

  1. Estudo do polimorfismo genético da αS1-caseína em cabras, no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i3.551 Study of the genetic polymorphism of the αS1-casein in goats of Pernambuco State, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i3.551

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurea Wischral

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O Estado de Pernambuco tem uma vocação pecuária, especialmente, para a exploração de caprinos. Dentre as proteínas, chamadas de caseínas, a αS1-caseína foi a primeira proteína comprovada com base no polimorfismo genético. Objetivando realizar a genotipagem de cabras criadas no sertão, agreste e zona da mata do Estado de Pernambuco, por meio da técnica de PCR-RFLP, estudou-se o polimorfismo do gene da αS1-caseína. Utilizaram-se 60 animais, divididos em três grupos de 20 animais, das raças Moxotó, Alpina Americana e SRD (Sem Raça Definida. A extração do DNA foi realizada com a utilização do protocolo fenol-clorofórmio, e o gene da αS1-caseína foi amplificado por meio da PCR (reação da polimerase em cadeia. Em seguida, foi utilizada a enzima de restrição XmnI para obter a freqüência alélica das raças estudadas. Encontrou-se, nos caprinos, os alelos da αS1-caseína B e D que foram predominantes para a raça nativa Moxotó e animais SRD (100%, e os alelos C e D, para a raça Alpina Americana (100%, concluindo-se que existem variações genéticas para o gene da αS1-caseína do leite das raças caprinas estudadas, embora se evidencie a proximidade genética entre a Moxotó e SRD.The Pernambuco State, has been a livestock area, mainly for the caprine exploration. Among the proteins, called caseins, the αS1-casein was the first proved protein with base in the genetic polymorphism. To genotype goats of the “sertão”, “agreste” and “zona da mata” regions of the Brazilian State of Pernambuco, through the PCR-RFLP technique, we studied the polymorphism of the αS1-casein gene. Sixty animals were used, divided in three groups of twenty animals of the races Moxotó, American Alpine and UB (Undefined Breed. The DNA extraction was done by the phenol-chloroform protocol and the αS1-casein gene was amplified through the PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction. Then, the restriction enzyme XmnI was used to obtain the allele

  2. Leaf waxes of slow-growing alpine and fast-growing lowland Poa species: inherent differences and responses to UV-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilon, J.J.; Lambers, H.; Baas, W.; Tosserams, M.; Rozema, J.; Atkin, O.K.

    1999-01-01

    We investigated whether alpine and lowland Poa species exhibit inherent differences in leaf cuticular waxes, leaf UV absorbing compounds and/or growth responses to UV-B treatment. All plants were grown hydroponically in a growth cabinet (constant 20°; 14 hr photoperiod; 520 μmol photons m −2 s −1 PAR). Two alpine (P. fawcettiae and P. costiniana), one sub-alpine (P. alpina) and three temperate lowland species (P. pratensis, P. compressa and P. trivialis) were grown under conditions without UV radiation for 36 days. In a subsequent experiment, four Poa species (P. costiniana, P. alpina, P. compressa and P. trivialis) were also exposed for 21 days to UV-B/(UV-A) radiation ('UV-B treatment') that resulted in daily UV-B radiation of 7.5 kJ m −2 day −1 , with control plants being grown without UV-B ('UV-A control treatment'). All treatments were carried out in the same growth cabinet. There was no altitudinal trend regarding wax concentrations per unit leaf area, when the six species grown under UV-less conditions, were compared at similar developmental stage (20–30 g shoot fresh mass). However, large differences in cuticular wax chemical composition were observed between the alpine and lowland species grown under UV-less conditions. For example, a single primary alcohol was present in the waxes of the lowland and sub-alpine species (C 26 H 53 OH), but was virtually absent in the alpine species. Although alkanes were present in all six species (primarily C 29 H 60 and C 31 H 64 ), the proportion of total wax present as alkanes was highest in the alpine species. Aldehydes were only present in the waxes of the alpine species. Conversely, substantial amounts of triterpenoids were mainly present in the three lowland species (squalene and lupeol were the dominant forms). The proportion of total wax present as long-chain esters (LCE-s) was similar in all six species grown in the absence of UV radiation. Acetates were observed only in the wax of

  3. Analisi della sovrapposizione spaziale teorica tra siti di interesse comunitario e grandi carnivori nel Friuli Venezia Giulia e relative implicazioni conservative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Fabro

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available In Friuli Venezia Giulia, in applicazione della Direttiva Habitat, sono stati proposti 63 Siti di Interesse Comunitario (SIC, per l'istituzione della Rete Natura 2000, di questi, 36, sono localizzati in area prealpina, alpina e carsica, zone nelle quali vi è o vi può essere la presenza di specie quali orso bruno e lince. Questi siti si estendono con notevoli differenze di superficie, avendo come mediana, nella bio-regione alpina, 1.033 ha (n=31 per un totale di 90.804 ha, con massimi di 36.701 ha (SIC: Dolomiti friulane. In questa situazione molto varia, è importante valutare l'importanza apparente di questi siti per la conservazione di lince ed orso, stimata sulla base della coincidenza territoriale tra SIC e osservazioni dirette e indirette raccolte nei periodi 1970-2001, per l'orso (n=260, e 1998-2001, per la lince (n=65. Queste osservazioni presentano livelli diversi di sicurezza e non sono state raccolte attraverso l'applicazione di schemi rigidi di indagine, di conseguenza se prese singolarmente e/o rapportate ai siti con superfici di diversa ampiezza potrebbero generare errori di interpretazione. Per diminuire questo rischio le osservazioni sono state raggruppate con l'analisi dei cluster (proc. cluster/method=ward, SAS, 1988 al fine di individuare la presenza di hot spot (aree calcolate su ciascun cluster con il metodo del minimo poligono convesso e definire spazi teorici d'uso (calcolati come aree circolari aventi punto centrale il centroide di ciascun cluster e raggio di 5 e 10 km, Mapinfo®. L'analisi statistica ha individuato 12 cluster per l'orso (pseudo t²=30,0, R²=0,974 e 10 per la lince (pseudo t²=5,1, R²=0,975 di dimensioni medie, calcolate come minimo poligono convesso, pari, rispettivamente, a 12.908 ha e 7.163 ha. Per la lince, le aree individuate come minimo poligono convesso sono risultate interessate, in 8 cluster su 10, dalla presenza di SIC (n=14 che occupano superfici mediamente pari al 19% dell'area (min.=9

  4. Dados sorológicos sobre a presença e distribuição da artrite-encefalite caprina (CAE no Estado da Bahia , Brasil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Figueredo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Para verificar a soroprevalência da artrite-encefalite caprina (Cae foram analisadas 1605 amostras de hemo-soros de caprinos pertencentes a rebanhos localizados em nove microrregiões geográficas e distribuídos em 24 municípios do Estado da Bahia, os quais nos foram enviados para exame no Laboratório de Viroses da Escola de Medicina Veterinária. A população estudada compreendeu animais de criatórios de leite e corte, de manejo intensivo, semi-intensivo e extensivo, das raças: alpina, anglo-nubiana, boer, mambrina, saanen, toggenburg e sem raça definida(SRD. Foram positivos ao teste de imunodifusão em ágar gel (IDAG 215 (13,4% hemo-soros de caprinos. Nas raças sanen, alpina e anglo-nubiana foram encontradas um maior número de animais positivos, respectivamente 77 (18,92%, 80 (16,06% e 49 (15,76%. Entre as amostras positivas a maior frequência foi de fêmeas 194 (90,23% e adultos 193 (89,77%. Os resultados obtidos comprovam a existência da CAE na região e a necessidade de novas pesquisas que avaliem o índice de infecção dos animais e as formas de prevenção e controle da doença, PALAVRAS CHAVE: Artrite – encefalite caprina, teste da imunidade, fusão em agar gel, doenças em caprinos SUMMARY: To verify the soroprevalency of the caprine arthritis-encephalitis (CAE 1605 samples of goats hemo-serums belonging to flocks located in nine geographical microrregiões were analyzed and distributed in 24 municipal districts of the State of Bahia. This samples were sent to Laboratory of Viruses of the Veterinary Medicine School to analysis. The studied population understood animals of herd of milk and court, of intensive, semi-intensive and extensive handling, of the races: alpine, anglo-nubiana, boer, mambrina, saanen, toggenburg and without race defined(SRD. They were positive to the agar gel imunodifusion test (IDAG 215 (13,4% goats hemo-serums. In the races

  5. Partial replacement of corn by forage cactus in the diets of lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Santiago Silva Goveia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of the partial replacement of corn by forage cactus (Nopalea cochenillifera Salm Dyck in the diets of lactating goats on the nutrient intake, milk production and composition and ingestive behavior. Five crossbreed Saanen x Pardo Alpina goats with body weights of 47 ± 3.3 kg were used in the study. The design was 5x5 Latin square design, in which the treatments were as follows: 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40% of girl cactus included in the diet as a partial replacement of corn, with 0, 18, 36, 54 and 72% of the added the cactus comprising of gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq Walp as roughage in all treatments. Treatment did not affect (P > 0.05 the dry matter intake, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and total digestible nutrients with the increasing levels of cactus in the diet, presenting means of 1.64, 0.26, 0.82, 0.54 and 1.17 kg day-1, respectively. In the same way, no influence was observed on the daily milk production and levels of fat, protein, lactose and total solids of milk, which averaged 1.18 kg day-1; 3.74, 3.34, 5.06 and 13.56%, respectively. The inclusion of cactus also had no influence (P > 0.05 on the ingestion behavior. The treatment with 35% cactus showed a lower impairment of food intake (31%. The partial replacement of the corn by the girl cactus in the diets of dairy goats can be accomplished because it does not alter the intake, milk yield and composition and feeding behavior. The replacement of up to 54% corn by the cactus is recommended to reduce producer costs for food.

  6. A high-throughput FTIR spectroscopy approach to assess adaptive variation in the chemical composition of pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Boris; Bağcıoğlu, Murat; Tafinstseva, Valeria; Kohler, Achim; Ohlson, Mikael; Fjellheim, Siri

    2017-12-01

    The two factors defining male reproductive success in plants are pollen quantity and quality, but our knowledge about the importance of pollen quality is limited due to methodological constraints. Pollen quality in terms of chemical composition may be either genetically fixed for high performance independent of environmental conditions, or it may be plastic to maximize reproductive output under different environmental conditions. In this study, we validated a new approach for studying the role of chemical composition of pollen in adaptation to local climate. The approach is based on high-throughput Fourier infrared (FTIR) characterization and biochemical interpretation of pollen chemical composition in response to environmental conditions. The study covered three grass species, Poa alpina , Anthoxanthum odoratum , and Festuca ovina . For each species, plants were grown from seeds of three populations with wide geographic and climate variation. Each individual plant was divided into four genetically identical clones which were grown in different controlled environments (high and low levels of temperature and nutrients). In total, 389 samples were measured using a high-throughput FTIR spectrometer. The biochemical fingerprints of pollen were species and population specific, and plastic in response to different environmental conditions. The response was most pronounced for temperature, influencing the levels of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates in pollen of all species. Furthermore, there is considerable variation in plasticity of the chemical composition of pollen among species and populations. The use of high-throughput FTIR spectroscopy provides fast, cheap, and simple assessment of the chemical composition of pollen. In combination with controlled-condition growth experiments and multivariate analyses, FTIR spectroscopy opens up for studies of the adaptive role of pollen that until now has been difficult with available methodology. The approach can easily be

  7. UTILIZAÇÃO DO TESTE HIPOSMÓTICO PARA AVALIAR A EFICÁCIA DE DIFERENTES PROTOCOLOS DE CRIOPRESERVAÇÃO DO SÊMEN CAPRINO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Freitas Vasconcelos

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve por objetivo comparar a eficácia de quatro protocolos de congelação do sêmen caprino (glicerol, glicerol+EDTA; etilenoglicol; etilenoglicol+EDTA, através da utilização do teste hiposmótico (HOST. O sêmen foi colhido de dois machos da raça Alpina, sexualmente maduros, diluído nos diferentes meios, congelado e armazenado em nitrogênio líquido. Após a colheita, 20ìL do sêmen fresco foram incubados com 01mL de solução hiposmótica (combinação de citrato de sódio e frutose em água destilada com osmolaridade de 125mOsmol, em banho-maria a 370C por 30 minutos. Este procedimento foi repetido após a descongelação e, em seguida, uma amostra foi colocada sobre lâmina/lamínula e avaliada em contraste de fase com mil vezes de aumento. Um total de 100 células foi contado, e as médias percentuais de espermatozóides com edema ou dobramento de cauda, após o HOST, foram – para o sêmen fresco, glicerol, glicerol+EDTA; etilenoglicol; etilenoglicol+EDTA –, respectivamente, 53,89; 16,90; 10,25; 52,64 e 57,54. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Caprinos, criopreservação, sêmen, teste hiposmótico

  8. Stable Isotope Analysis Reveals That Agricultural Habitat Provides an Important Dietary Component for Nonbreeding Dunlin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Joan Evans Ogden

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Although shorebirds spending the winter in temperate areas frequently use estuarine and supratidal (upland feeding habitats, the relative contribution of each habitat to individual diets has not been directly quantified. We quantified the proportional use that Calidris alpina pacifica (Dunlin made of estuarine vs. terrestrial farmland resources on the Fraser River Delta, British Columbia, using stable isotope analysis (δ13C, δ15N of blood from 268 Dunlin over four winters, 1997 through 2000. We tested for individual, age, sex, morphological, seasonal, and weather-related differences in dietary sources. Based on single- (δ13C and dual-isotope mixing models, the agricultural habitat contributed approximately 38% of Dunlin diet averaged over four winters, with the balance from intertidal flats. However, there was a wide variation among individuals in the extent of agricultural feeding, ranging from about 1% to 95% of diet. Younger birds had a significantly higher terrestrial contribution to diet (43% than did adults (35%. We estimated that 6% of adults and 13% of juveniles were obtaining at least 75% of their diet from terrestrial sources. The isotope data provided no evidence for sex or overall body size effects on the proportion of diet that is terrestrial in origin. The use of agricultural habitat by Dunlin peaked in early January. Adult Dunlin obtained a greater proportion of their diet terrestrially during periods of lower temperatures and high precipitation, whereas no such relationship existed for juveniles. Seasonal variation in the use of agricultural habitat suggests that it is used more during energetically stressful periods. The terrestrial farmland zone appears to be consistently important as a habitat for juveniles, but for adults it may provide an alternative feeding site used as a buffer against starvation during periods of extreme weather. Loss or reduction of agricultural habitat adjacent to estuaries may negatively impact

  9. Microbial food web dynamics along a soil chronosequence of a glacier forefield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Esperschütz

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Microbial food webs are critical for efficient nutrient turnover providing the basis for functional and stable ecosystems. However, the successional development of such microbial food webs and their role in "young" ecosystems is unclear. Due to a continuous glacier retreat since the middle of the 19th century, glacier forefields have expanded offering an excellent opportunity to study food web dynamics in soils at different developmental stages. In the present study, litter degradation and the corresponding C fluxes into microbial communities were investigated along the forefield of the Damma glacier (Switzerland. 13C-enriched litter of the pioneering plant Leucanthemopsis alpina (L. Heywood was incorporated into the soil at sites that have been free from ice for approximately 10, 60, 100 and more than 700 years. The structure and function of microbial communities were identified by 13C analysis of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA and phospholipid ether lipids (PLEL. Results showed increasing microbial diversity and biomass, and enhanced proliferation of bacterial groups as ecosystem development progressed. Initially, litter decomposition proceeded faster at the more developed sites, but at the end of the experiment loss of litter mass was similar at all sites, once the more easily-degradable litter fraction was processed. As a result incorporation of 13C into microbial biomass was more evident during the first weeks of litter decomposition. 13C enrichments of both PLEL and PLFA biomarkers following litter incorporation were observed at all sites, suggesting similar microbial foodwebs at all stages of soil development. Nonetheless, the contribution of bacteria, especially actinomycetes to litter turnover became more pronounced as soil age increased in detriment of archaea, fungi and protozoa, more prominent in recently deglaciated terrain.

  10. Sphingomonas qilianensis sp. nov., Isolated from Surface Soil in the Permafrost Region of Qilian Mountains, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Ai-Lian; Feng, Xiao-Min; Nogi, Yuichi; Han, Lu; Li, Yonghong; Lv, Jie

    2016-04-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated X1(T), was isolated from the permafrost region of Qilian Mountains in northwest of China. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain X1(T) was a member of the genus Sphingomonas and shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Sphingomonas oligophenolica JCM 12082(T) (96.9%), followed by Sphingomonas glacialis CGMCC 1.8957(T) (96.7%) and Sphingomonas alpina DSM 22537(T) (96.4%). Strain X1(T) was able to grow at 15-30 °C, pH 6.0-10.0 and with 0-0.3% NaCl (w/v). The DNA G+C content of the isolate was 64.8 mol%. Strain X1(T)-contained Q-10 as the dominant ubiquinone and C(18:1)ω7c, C(16:1)ω7c, C(16:0) and C(14:0) 2-OH as the dominant fatty acids. The polar lipid profile of strain XI(T)-contained sphingoglycolipid, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, one unidentified glycolipid and two unidentified phospholipid. Due to the phenotypic and genetic distinctiveness and other characteristic studied in this article, we consider X1(T) as a novel species of the genus Sphingomonas and propose to name it Sphingomonas qilianensis sp. nov. The type strain is X1(T) (=CGMCC 1.15349(T) = KCTC 42862(T)).

  11. Winter body mass and over-ocean flocking as components of danger management by Pacific dunlins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogden Lesley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compared records of the body mass and roosting behavior of Pacific dunlins (Calidris alpina pacifica wintering on the Fraser River estuary in southwest British Columbia between the 1970s and the 1990s. 'Over-ocean flocking' is a relatively safe but energetically-expensive alternative to roosting during the high tide period. Fat stores offer protection against starvation, but are a liability in escape performance, and increase flight costs. Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus were scarce on the Fraser River estuary in the 1970s, but their numbers have since recovered, and they prey heavily on dunlins. The increase has altered the balance between predation and starvation risks for dunlins, and thus how dunlins regulate roosting behavior and body mass to manage the danger. We therefore predicted an increase in the frequency of over-ocean flocking as well as a decrease in the amount of fat carried by dunlins over these decades. Results Historical observations indicate that over-ocean flocking of dunlins was rare prior to the mid-1990s and became common thereafter. Residual body masses of dunlins were higher in the 1970s, with the greatest difference between the decades coinciding with peak peregrine abundance in October, and shrinking over the course of winter as falcon seasonal abundance declines. Whole-body fat content of dunlins was lower in the 1990s, and accounted for most of the change in body mass. Conclusions Pacific dunlins appear to manage danger in a complex manner that involves adjustments both in fat reserves and roosting behavior. We discuss reasons why over-ocean flocking has apparently become more common on the Fraser estuary than at other dunlin wintering sites.

  12. Experimental soil warming and cooling alters the partitioning of recent assimilates: evidence from a (14)C-labelling study at the alpine treeline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, A; Hagedorn, F; Niklaus, P A

    2016-05-01

    Despite concerns about climate change effects on ecosystems functioning, little is known on how plant assimilate partitioning changes with temperature. Particularly, large temperature effects might occur in cold ecosystems where critical processes are at their temperature limit. In this study, we tested temperature effects on carbon (C) assimilate partitioning in a field experiment at the alpine treeline. We warmed and cooled soils of microcosms planted with Pinus mugo or Leucanthemopsis alpina, achieving daily mean soil temperatures (3-10 cm depth) around 5.8, 12.7 and 19.2 °C in cooled, control and warmed soils. We pulse-labelled these systems with (14)CO2 for one photoperiod and traced (14)C over the successive 4 days. Plant net (14)C uptake increased steadily with soil temperature. However, (14)C amounts in fungal hyphae, soil microbial biomass, soil organic matter, and soil respiration showed a non-linear response to temperature. This non-linear pattern was particularly pronounced in P. mugo, with five times higher (14)C activities in cooled compared to control soils, but no difference between warmed and control soil. Autoradiographic analysis of the spatial distribution of (14)C in soils indicated that temperature effects on the vertical label distribution within soils depended on plant species. Our results show that plant growth, in particular root metabolism, is limited by low soil temperature. As a consequence, positive temperature effects on net C uptake may not be paralleled by similar changes in rhizodeposition. This has important implications for predictions of soil C storage, because rhizodeposits and plant biomass vary strongly in their residence times.

  13. Impacts of habitat loss and fragmentation on the activity budget, ranging ecology and habitat use of Bale monkeys (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) in the southern Ethiopian Highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Addisu; Fashing, Peter J; Bekele, Afework; Hernandez-Aguilar, R Adriana; Rueness, Eli K; Nguyen, Nga; Stenseth, Nils Chr

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the extent to which primates in forest fragments can adjust behaviorally and ecologically to changes caused by deforestation is essential to designing conservation management plans. During a 12-month period, we studied the effects of habitat loss and degradation on the Ethiopian endemic, bamboo specialist, Bale monkey (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) by comparing its habitat quality, activity budget, ranging ecology and habitat use in continuous forest and two fragments. We found that habitat loss and fragmentation resulted in major differences in vegetation composition and structure between forest types. We also found that Bale monkeys in continuous forest spent more time feeding and traveling and less time resting and socializing than monkeys in fragments. Bale monkeys in continuous forest also had higher movement rates (m/hr) than monkeys in fragments. Bale monkeys in continuous forest used exclusively bamboo and mixed bamboo forest habitats while conspecifics in fragments used a greater variety of habitats including human use areas (i.e., matrix). Our findings suggest that Bale monkeys in fragments use an energy minimization strategy to cope with the lower availability of the species' primary food species, bamboo (Arundinaria alpina). We contend that Bale monkeys may retain some of the ancestral ecological flexibility assumed to be characteristic of the genus Chlorocebus, within which all extant species except Bale monkeys are regarded as ecological generalists. Our results suggest that, like other bamboo eating primates (e.g., the bamboo lemurs of Madagascar), Bale monkeys can cope with a certain threshold of habitat destruction. However, the long-term conservation prospects for Bale monkeys in fragments remain unclear and will require further monitoring to be properly evaluated. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. THE ROSSO AMMONITICO VERONESE (MIDDLE-UPPER JURASSIC OF THE TRENTO PLATEAU: A PROPOSALLITHOSTRATIGRAPHIC RDERING AND FORMALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUCA MARTIRE

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We here propose a revision of the stratigraphic interval comprised between the top of platform carbonates, mainly of Early Jurassic age, and the base of the Maiolica, in the Trento Plateau. Most of this interval (upper Bajocian - upper Tithonian is represented by ammonite-bearing, red nodular limestones known with the historical name of Rosso Ammonitico Veronese (RAV. It has been subdivided in three units: a lower unit, calcareous and massively bedded; a middle unit, thinly bedded and cherty; and an upper unit, calcareous and nodular. In addition to these units, other sedimentary bodies are known below the base of the RAV. These are thin and discontinuous, such as the Lumachella a Posidonia alpina (LPa and the Calcari a Skirroceras (CSk, both spanning the upper Aalenian - upper Bajocian. A lithostratigraphic redefinition of the RAV is proposed by addition of two members (LPa e CSk to the three classical members. The new members are easily distinguished by their lithofacies and are always separated from the lower unit by discontinuities. Two sections located on the Altopiano di Asiago are described: Kaberlaba shows all the three members (lower, middle and upper and is proposed as the reference section for a formalization of the RAV; Rabeschini is characterized  by the absence of the middle member and may be held as a complementary section. The RAV lower boundary is everywhere very sharp and marked by a facies contrast; the upper boundary, instead, is transitional and is defined by a progressive change from red, nodular, Saccocoma packstones to white, non-nodular calpionellid wackestones. Calpionellid associations indicate that the upper boundary falls within the upper Tithonian.

  15. Concentrations of 17 elements, including mercury, in the tissues, food and abiotic environment of Arctic shorebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Anna L; Whiteside, Douglas P; Gilchrist, Grant

    2011-09-01

    Exposure to contaminants is one hypothesis proposed to explain the global decline in shorebirds, and is also an increasing concern in the Arctic. We assessed potential contaminants (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, V, and Zn) at a shorebird breeding site in Nunavut, Canada. We compared element levels in soil, invertebrates and shorebird blood to assess evidence for bioconcentration and biomagnification within the Arctic-based food chain. We tested whether elements in blood, feathers and eggs of six shorebird species (Pluvialis squatarola, Calidris alpina, C. fuscicollis, Phalaropus fulicarius, Charadrius semipalmatus, and Arenaria interpres) were related to fitness endpoints: adult body condition, blood-parasite load, egg size, eggshell thickness, nest duration, and hatching success. To facilitate comparison to other sites, we summarise the published data on toxic metals in shorebird blood and egg contents. Element concentrations and invertebrate composition differed strongly among habitats, and habitat use and element concentrations differed among shorebird species. Hg, Se, Cd, Cu, and Zn bioconcentrated from soil to invertebrates, and Hg, Se and Fe biomagnified from invertebrates to shorebird blood. As, Ni, Pb, Co and Mn showed significant biodilution from soil to invertebrates to shorebirds. Soil element levels were within Canadian guidelines, and invertebrate Hg levels were below dietary levels suggested for the protection of wildlife. However, maximum Hg in blood and eggs approached levels associated with toxicological effects and Hg-pollution in other bird species. Parental blood-Hg was negatively related to egg volume, although the relationship varied among species. No other elements approached established toxicological thresholds. In conclusion, whereas we found little evidence that exposure to elements at this site is leading to the declines of the species studied, Hg, as found elsewhere in the Canadian Arctic, is of potential

  16. Resource potential of bamboo, challenges and future directions towards sustainable management and utilization in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew Desalegn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Bamboo, the fastest growing and high yielding perennial plant of the world has more than 1500 species and 1500 versatile socio-economic uses and ecological services. Ethiopia has two indigenous bamboo species namely Yushania alpina and Oxytenantheria abyssinica, covering about one million ha with a wide distribution. The objective of this paper is to highlight the potential of bamboo resources, challenges including biodeterioration damage, opportunities and future research directions towards its sustainable management and rational utilization.Area of study: Bamboo resources of EthiopiaMaterial and Methods: Reconnaissance survey was done to some parts of the bamboo growing potential areas in Ethiopia besides the literature review. Main results: The bamboo resource, despite its socio-economic and environmental benefits, currently, in most areas has been under high pressure due to land use changes, bamboo mass- flowering, poor processing with low value addition, and damage by biodeteriorating agents (termites, beetles and fungi. The preservative tests on Ethiopian bamboos revealed low natural durability and highlighted the paramount importance of appropriate protection measures such as Tanalith and vehicles used motor oil to increase durability, service life and rational utilization of bamboo-based products and structures as potential alternative construction and furniture material.Research highlights: Therefore, integrated research and development interventions involving different propagation and managements techniques, harvesting season, processing, value addition including proper seasoning and preservation technologies and marketing are recommended to fill the information and technological gaps on sustainable management and rational utilization of this fast growing and multipurpose bamboo resources in Ethiopia.Key words: Bamboo; challenges; management; socio-economic and environmental significance; utilization.

  17. Avian BMR in marine and non-marine habitats: a test using shorebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Jorge S; Abad-Gómez, José M; Sánchez-Guzmán, Juan M; Navedo, Juan G; Masero, José A

    2012-01-01

    Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is closely linked to different habitats and way of life. In birds, some studies have noted that BMR is higher in marine species compared to those inhabiting terrestrial habitats. However, the extent of such metabolic dichotomy and its underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Migratory shorebirds (Charadriiformes) offer a particularly interesting opportunity for testing this marine-non-marine difference as they are typically divided into two broad categories in terms of their habitat occupancy outside the breeding season: 'coastal' and 'inland' shorebirds. Here, we measured BMR for 12 species of migratory shorebirds wintering in temperate inland habitats and collected additional BMR values from the literature for coastal and inland shorebirds along their migratory route to make inter- and intraspecific comparisons. We also measured the BMR of inland and coastal dunlins Calidris alpina wintering at a similar latitude to facilitate a more direct intraspecific comparison. Our interspecific analyses showed that BMR was significantly lower in inland shorebirds than in coastal shorebirds after the effects of potentially confounding climatic (latitude, temperature, solar radiation, wind conditions) and organismal (body mass, migratory status, phylogeny) factors were accounted for. This indicates that part of the variation in basal metabolism might be attributed to genotypic divergence. Intraspecific comparisons showed that the mass-specific BMR of dunlins wintering in inland freshwater habitats was 15% lower than in coastal saline habitats, suggesting that phenotypic plasticity also plays an important role in generating these metabolic differences. We propose that the absence of tidally-induced food restrictions, low salinity, and less windy microclimates associated with inland freshwater habitats may reduce the levels of energy expenditure, and hence BMR. Further research including common-garden experiments that eliminate phenotypic plasticity

  18. Identification & Characterization of Fungal Ice Nucleation Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheel, Jan Frederik; Kunert, Anna Theresa; Kampf, Christopher Johannes; Mauri, Sergio; Weidner, Tobias; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2016-04-01

    Freezing of water at relatively warm subfreezing temperatures is dependent on ice nucleation catalysis facilitated by ice nuclei (IN). These IN can be of various origins and although extensive research was done and progress was achieved, the nature and mechanisms leading to an effective IN are to date still poorly understood. Some of the most important processes of our geosphere like the water cycle are highly dependent on effective ice nucleation at temperatures between -2°C - -8°C, a temperature range which is almost exclusively covered by biological IN (BioIN). BioIN are usually macromolecular structures of biological polymers. Sugars as well as proteins have been reported to serve as IN and the best characterized BioIN are ice nucleation proteins (IN-P) from gram negative bacteria. Fungal strains from Fusarium spp. were described to be effective IN at subfreezing temperatures up to -2°C already 25 years ago and more and more fungal species are described to serve as efficient IN. Fungal IN are also thought to be proteins or at least contain a proteinaceous compound, but to date the fungal IN-P primary structure as well as their coding genetic elements of all IN active fungi are unknown. The aim of this study is a.) to identify the proteins and their coding genetic elements from IN active fungi (F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, M. alpina) and b.) to characterize the mechanisms by which fungal IN serve as effective IN. We designed an interdisciplinary approach using biological, analytical and physical methods to identify fungal IN-P and describe their biological, chemical, and physical properties.

  19. The LIFE Project “Monitoring of insects with public participation” (MIPP: aims, methods and conclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Maria Carpaneto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Life Project “Monitoring of insects with public participation” (LIFE11 NAT/IT/000252 had as the main objective to develop and test methods for the monitoring of five beetle species listed in the Annexes of the Habitats Directive (92/43/EEC: Osmoderma eremita (hermit beetle, Scarabaeidae, Lucanus cervus (European stag beetle, Lucanidae, Cerambyx cerdo (great capricorn beetle, Cerambycidae, Rosalia alpina (rosalia longicorn, Cerambycidae and Morimus asper/funereus (morimus longicorn, Cerambycidae. The data gathered represent an important contribution to the monitoring of these target species in Italy. The methods developed for monitoring of the target species are intended for use by the local management authorities and staff of protected areas. These developed methods are the result of extensive fieldwork and ensure scientific validity, ease of execution and limited labour costs. The detailed description of methods and the results for each species are published in separate articles of this special issue of Nature Conservation. A second objective of the project was to gather faunistic data with a Citizen Science approach, using the web and a mobile application software (app specifically built for mobile devices. The validation of the records collected by the citizens was carried out by experts, based on photographs, which were obligatory for all records. Dissemination activities represented the principal way to contact and engage citizens for the data collection and also offered the possibility of providing information on topics such as Natura 2000, the Habitats Directive, the role of monitoring in nature conservation, the importance of forest ecosystems and the ecological role of the saproxylic insects. An innovative method tested during the project was the training of a dog for searching and monitoring the elusive hermit beetle; the trained dog also added a “curiosity” factor to attract public attention towards this rare insect and

  20. By Improving Regional Cortical Blood Flow, Attenuating Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Sequential Apoptosis Galangin Acts as a Potential Neuroprotective Agent after Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Cheng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is a devastating disease with a complex pathophysiology. Galangin is a natural flavonoid isolated from the rhizome of Alpina officinarum Hance, which has been widely used as an antioxidant agent. However, its effects against ischemic stroke have not been reported and its related neuroprotective mechanism has not really been explored. In this study, neurological behavior, cerebral infarct volumes and the improvement of the regional cortical blood flow (rCBF were used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of galangin in rats impaired by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO-induced focal cerebral ischemia. Furthermore, the determination of mitochondrial function and Western blot of apoptosis-related proteins were performed to interpret the neuroprotective mechanism of galangin. The results showed that galangin alleviated the neurologic impairments, reduced cerebral infarct at 24 h after MCAO and exerted a protective effect on the mitochondria with decreased production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS. These effects were consistent with improvements in the membrane potential level (Dym, membrane fluidity, and degree of mitochondrial swelling in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, galangin significantly improved the reduced rCBF after MCAO. Western blot analysis revealed that galangin also inhibited apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner concomitant with the up-regulation of Bcl-2 expression, down-regulation of Bax expression and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, a reduction in cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol, the reduced expression of activated caspase-3 and the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP. All these data in this study demonstrated that galangin might have therapeutic potential for ischemic stroke and play its protective role through the improvement in rCBF, mitochondrial protection and inhibiting caspase-dependent mitochondrial cell death pathway for the first time.

  1. Wind effects on prey availability: How northward migrating waders use brackish and hypersaline lagoons in the sivash, Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuil, Yvonne; Koolhaas, Anita; Van Der Winden, Jan

    Large numbers of waders migrating northward in spring use the Sivash, a large system of shallow, brackish and hypersaline lagoons in the Black Sea and Azov Sea region (Ukraine). The bottoms of these lagoons are often uncovered by the wind. Hence, for waders the time and space available for feeding depend on wind conditions. In hypersaline lagoons the benthic and pelagic fauna was very poor, consisting mainly of chironomid larvae (0.19 g AFDM·m -2) and brine shrimps Artemia salina, respectively. Brine shrimp abundance was correlated with salinity, wind force, wind direction and water depth. Dunlin Calidris alpina and curlew sandpiper Calidris ferruginea were the only species feeding on brine shrimp. As brine shrimp densities are higher in deeper water, smaller waders such as broad-billed sandpipers Limicola falcinellus are too short-legged to reach exploitable densities of brine shrimp. In brackish lagoons the benthic and pelagic fauna was rich, consisting of polychaetes, bivalves, gastropods, chironomid larvae, isopods and amphipods (8.9 to 30.5 g AFDM·m -2), but there were no brine shrimps. Prey biomass increased with the distance from the coast, being highest on the site that was most frequently inundated. Dunlin, broad-billed sandpiper and grey plover Pluvialis squatarola were the most abundant birds in the brackish lagoon. Due to the effects of wind-tides only a small area was usually available as a feeding site. Gammarus insensibilis was the alternative prey resource in the water layer, and their density varied with wind direction in the same way as brine shrimp. Curlew sandpipers and dunlins in the hypersaline lagoons and broad-billed sandpipers in the brackish lagoons often changed feeding sites, probably following the variation in prey availability. Only because of the large size and variety of lagoons are waders in the Sivash always able to find good feeding sites.

  2. Winter body mass and over-ocean flocking as components of danger management by Pacific dunlins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ydenberg, Ronald C; Dekker, Dick; Kaiser, Gary; Shepherd, Philippa C F; Ogden, Lesley Evans; Rickards, Karen; Lank, David B

    2010-01-21

    We compared records of the body mass and roosting behavior of Pacific dunlins (Calidris alpina pacifica) wintering on the Fraser River estuary in southwest British Columbia between the 1970s and the 1990s. 'Over-ocean flocking' is a relatively safe but energetically-expensive alternative to roosting during the high tide period. Fat stores offer protection against starvation, but are a liability in escape performance, and increase flight costs. Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) were scarce on the Fraser River estuary in the 1970s, but their numbers have since recovered, and they prey heavily on dunlins. The increase has altered the balance between predation and starvation risks for dunlins, and thus how dunlins regulate roosting behavior and body mass to manage the danger. We therefore predicted an increase in the frequency of over-ocean flocking as well as a decrease in the amount of fat carried by dunlins over these decades. Historical observations indicate that over-ocean flocking of dunlins was rare prior to the mid-1990s and became common thereafter. Residual body masses of dunlins were higher in the 1970s, with the greatest difference between the decades coinciding with peak peregrine abundance in October, and shrinking over the course of winter as falcon seasonal abundance declines. Whole-body fat content of dunlins was lower in the 1990s, and accounted for most of the change in body mass. Pacific dunlins appear to manage danger in a complex manner that involves adjustments both in fat reserves and roosting behavior. We discuss reasons why over-ocean flocking has apparently become more common on the Fraser estuary than at other dunlin wintering sites.

  3. UJI PENDAHULUAN PENGARUH EKSTRAK AIR DARI TUMBUHAN TERHADAP KETERJADIAN KARAT PADA CAKRAM DAUN KOPI DI LABORATORIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cipta Ginting

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary test on the effect of water extract from plants on rust incidence on coffee leaf disks at the latroratory. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of several water extract from plants on rust incidence on coffee leaf disk a laboratory condition. The study was done from March to June 2003. Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications, One experimental unit consisted of eight leaf disks with 2 cm in diameter. To prepare water extract, 1 00 g of plant or its part was homogenized with 100 ml sterilized distilled water.  After being passed through four layers of sterilized cheesecloth, the mixture was defined as the aliquot. Ten percent of the aliquot was sparyed on leaf disks before inoculation. As inoculum, uredospores developed on leaves under field condition were taken with sterilized scalpel and placed in sterilized distilled water and counted with hemacyometer to get suspension (4x105 uredospores per ml spores per ml. Data on disease incidence were analyzed with ANOVA and Duncan test. The results showed that disease incidence was significantly reduced by water extract processed from the leaves of Piper betle, Azadirachta indica, and Eugeni aromatica, the rhizomes of Zingiber afficinale and Curcumq longa, stem of Cymbopogon citratus, Allium ascalonium, A.sativa, and copper fungicide. Disease was not significantly reduced in leaf disks sprayed with extract prepares from the leaves of Piper retrofractum, P. nigrum,  the rhizomes of Imperata cylindrica and Alpina galanga, A. cepa,Ageratum comysoides, and Elephantopus scaber.

  4. By improving regional cortical blood flow, attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction and sequential apoptosis galangin acts as a potential neuroprotective agent after acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaojing; Wu, Chuanhong; Zhu, Li; Gao, Jian; Fang, Jing; Li, Defeng; Fu, Meihong; Liang, Rixin; Wang, Lan; Cheng, Ming; Yang, Hongjun

    2012-11-09

    Ischemic stroke is a devastating disease with a complex pathophysiology. Galangin is a natural flavonoid isolated from the rhizome of Alpina officinarum Hance, which has been widely used as an antioxidant agent. However, its effects against ischemic stroke have not been reported and its related neuroprotective mechanism has not really been explored. In this study, neurological behavior, cerebral infarct volumes and the improvement of the regional cortical blood flow (rCBF) were used to evaluate the therapeutic effect of galangin in rats impaired by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced focal cerebral ischemia. Furthermore, the determination of mitochondrial function and Western blot of apoptosis-related proteins were performed to interpret the neuroprotective mechanism of galangin. The results showed that galangin alleviated the neurologic impairments, reduced cerebral infarct at 24 h after MCAO and exerted a protective effect on the mitochondria with decreased production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS). These effects were consistent with improvements in the membrane potential level (Dym), membrane fluidity, and degree of mitochondrial swelling in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, galangin significantly improved the reduced rCBF after MCAO. Western blot analysis revealed that galangin also inhibited apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner concomitant with the up-regulation of Bcl-2 expression, down-regulation of Bax expression and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, a reduction in cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol, the reduced expression of activated caspase-3 and the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). All these data in this study demonstrated that galangin might have therapeutic potential for ischemic stroke and play its protective role through the improvement in rCBF, mitochondrial protection and inhibiting caspase-dependent mitochondrial cell death pathway for the first time.

  5. Environmental and ecological conditions at Arctic breeding sites have limited effects on true survival rates of adult shorebirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Emily L.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Brown, Stephen C.; Gates, H. River; Bentzen, Rebecca L.; Bêty, Joël; Boldenow, Megan L.; English, Willow B.; Franks, Samantha E.; Koloski, Laura; Kwon, Eunbi; Lamarre, Jean-Francois; Lank, David B.; Liebezeit, Joseph R.; McKinnon, Laura; Nol, Erica; Rausch, Jennie; Saalfeld, Sarah T.; Senner, Nathan R.; Ward, David H.; Woodard, Paul F.; Sandercock, Brett K.

    2018-01-01

    Many Arctic shorebird populations are declining, and quantifying adult survival and the effects of anthropogenic factors is a crucial step toward a better understanding of population dynamics. We used a recently developed, spatially explicit Cormack–Jolly–Seber model in a Bayesian framework to obtain broad-scale estimates of true annual survival rates for 6 species of shorebirds at 9 breeding sites across the North American Arctic in 2010–2014. We tested for effects of environmental and ecological variables, study site, nest fate, and sex on annual survival rates of each species in the spatially explicit framework, which allowed us to distinguish between effects of variables on site fidelity versus true survival. Our spatially explicit analysis produced estimates of true survival rates that were substantially higher than previously published estimates of apparent survival for most species, ranging from S = 0.72 to 0.98 across 5 species. However, survival was lower for the arcticolasubspecies of Dunlin (Calidris alpina arcticola; S = 0.54), our only study taxon that migrates through the East Asian–Australasian Flyway. Like other species that use that flyway, arcticola Dunlin could be experiencing unsustainably low survival rates as a result of loss of migratory stopover habitat. Survival rates of our study species were not affected by timing of snowmelt or summer temperature, and only 2 species showed minor variation among study sites. Furthermore, although previous reproductive success, predator abundance, and the availability of alternative prey each affected survival of one species, no factors broadly affected survival across species. Overall, our findings of few effects of environmental or ecological variables suggest that annual survival rates of adult shorebirds are generally robust to conditions at Arctic breeding sites. Instead, conditions at migratory stopovers or overwintering sites might be driving adult survival rates and should be the

  6. Establishment of zygomorphy on an ontogenic spiral and evolution of perianth in the tribe Delphinieae (Ranunculaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbour, Florian; Ronse De Craene, Louis P; Nadot, Sophie; Damerval, Catherine

    2009-10-01

    Ranunculaceae presents both ancestral and derived floral traits for eudicots, and as such is of potential interest to understand key steps involved in the evolution of zygomorphy in eudicots. Zygomorphy evolved once in Ranunculaceae, in the speciose and derived tribe Delphinieae. This tribe consists of two genera (Aconitum and Delphinium s.l.) comprising more than one-quarter of the species of the family. In this paper, the establishment of zygomorphy during development was investigated to cast light on the origin and evolution of this morphological novelty. METHODS; The floral developmental sequence of six species of Ranunculaceae, three actinomorphic (Nigella damascena, Aquilegia alpina and Clematis recta) and three zygomorphic (Aconitum napellus, Delphinium staphisagria and D. grandiflorum), was compared. A developmental model was elaborated to break down the successive acquisitions of floral organ identities on the ontogenic spiral (all the species studied except Aquilegia have a spiral phyllotaxis), giving clues to understanding this complex morphogenesis from an evo-devo point of view. In addition, the evolution of symmetry in Ranunculaceae was examined in conjunction with other traits of flowers and with ecological factors. In the species studied, zygomorphy is established after organogenesis is completed, and is late, compared with other zygomorphic eudicot species. Zygomorphy occurs in flowers characterized by a fixed merism and a partially reduced and transformed corolla. It is suggested that shifts in expression of genes controlling the merism, as well as floral symmetry and organ identity, have played a critical role in the evolution of zygomorphy in Delphinieae, while the presence of pollinators able to exploit the peculiar morphology of the flower has been a key factor for the maintenance and diversification of this trait.

  7. Predicting breeding shorebird distributions on the Arctic Coastal Plain of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfeld, Sarah T.; Lanctot, Richard B.; Brown, Stephen C.; Saalfeld, David T.; Johnson, James A.; Andres, Brad A.; Bart, Jonathan R.

    2013-01-01

    The Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska is an important region for millions of migrating and nesting shorebirds. However, this region is threatened by climate change and increased human development (e.g., oil and gas production) that have the potential to greatly impact shorebird populations and breeding habitat in the near future. Because historic data on shorebird distributions in the ACP are very coarse and incomplete, we sought to develop detailed, contemporary distribution maps so that the potential impacts of climate-mediated changes and development could be ascertained. To do this, we developed and mapped habitat suitability indices for eight species of shorebirds (Black-bellied Plover [Pluvialis squatarola], American Golden-Plover [Pluvialis dominica], Semipalmated Sandpiper [Calidris pusilla], Pectoral Sandpiper [Calidris melanotos], Dunlin [Calidris alpina], Long-billed Dowitcher [Limnodromus scolopaceus], Red-necked Phalarope [Phalaropus lobatus], and Red Phalarope [Phalaropus fulicarius]) that commonly breed within the ACP of Alaska. These habitat suitability models were based on 767 plots surveyed during nine years between 1998 and 2008 (surveys were not conducted in 2003 and 2005), using single-visit rapid area searches during territory establishment and incubation (8 June, 1 July). Species specific habitat suitability indices were developed and mapped using presence-only modeling techniques (partitioned Mahalanobis distance) and landscape environmental variables. For most species, habitat suitability was greater at lower elevations (i.e., near the coast and river deltas) and lower within upland habitats. Accuracy of models was high for all species, ranging from 65 -98%. Our models predicted that the largest fraction of suitable habitat for the majority of species occurred within the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, with highly suitable habitat also occurring within coastal areas of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge west to Prudhoe Bay.

  8. Planning the Brown Bear Ursus arctos reintroduction in the Adamello Brenta Natural Park. A tool to establish a metapopulation in the Central-Eastern Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mustoni

    2003-10-01

    differences between municipalities with and without bears in human population density and intensity of tourism. The importance of a wide-scale and detailed analysis of human attitude towards the project and of education strategies to increase acceptance by local people are discussed. Riassunto La reintroduzione dell'orso bruno (Ursus arctos nel Parco Naturale Adamello Brenta: uno strumento per il ripristino di una metapopolazione nelle Alpi centro-orientali Nel XVII secolo gli orsi (Ursus arctos erano ancora abbondanti ed ampiamente distribuiti in tutta l'area alpina dell'Italia settentrionale e nelle aree densamente forestate delle Prealpi e della Pianura Padana. Il declino delle popolazioni ebbe inizio a partire dal XVIII secolo con l'aumentare della deforestazione per ottenere maggiori aree coltivabili e, nel XIX secolo, si ebbero fenomeni di estinzione locale, causati principalmente da abbattimenti. La popolazione alpina residua, composta esclusivamente da 3 individui che non si riproducono dal 1989, occupa oggi l'area coincidente con il Parco Naturale Adamello-Brenta ed è da considersarsi biologicamente estinta. Nel presente lavoro vengono analizzati rischi e benefici della reintroduzione, intesa come strumento ritenuto maggiormente idoneo per il recupero dell'orso bruno sulle Alpi italiane, con una valutazione più ampia sulla conservazione della specie estesa all'intero contesto della regione alpina. Le aree maggiormente adatte alla reintroduzione sono state identificate mediante un modello di valutazione della qualità dell'habitat basato su di un Sistema Informativo Territoriale. Il modello ha preso in considerazione tutte le segnalazioni di presenza dell'orso bruno relative agli ultimi 20 anni registrate nell'area del Parco Naturale Adamello-Brenta (6500 km², unitamente ad alcune variabili ambientali associate ad unità discrete di 25 ha ciascuna rilevate entro il territorio occupato dal nucleo residuo (645 km

  9. Sistemas de producción caprina y ovina en la subregión Costa Oriental del Lago de Maracaibo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Timaure-Jiménez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Para caracterizar los sistemas de producción caprina y ovina de la Costa Oriental del Lago de Maracaibo, se aplicó una metodología de investigación de acción participativa en las comunidades agrícolas del Municipio Simón Bolívar. Se consultaron líderes de la zona, al Equipo Zuliano de Criadores de Cabras y Ovejas, se aplicó un instrumento a 60 productores. La subregión COLM es zona petrolera, sin embargo, persiste la actividad agropecuaria arraigada en forma tradicional. En el Municipio Miranda existe una población de 16.137 caprinos y 7.526 ovejas, en Quisiro se analizaron 30 productores con 2.250 hectáreas, además de 1.300 caprinos y 675 ovinos. En Los Cilantrillos y La Esperanza se estudiaron 30 productores con 320 hectáreas, 375 caprinos y 430 ovejas, ocupando el 1 % del total regional, lo cual es importante por la persistencia e interés de los productores a pesar de las dificultades derivadas de la explotación petrolera. El grupo familiar se muestra participativo en el manejo de rebaños, el 88,3 % de los productores utiliza el pastoreo extensivo, hay tradición familiar, conocimiento de manejo de rebaños que pasa por cada generación, el 56,7 % están inscritos en la Misión Agro-Venezuela, las razas de cabra son principalmente nubian, alpina, criolla, en cuanto a ovejas, persa, mestiza o criolla, los productores trabajan más de 10 horas diarias los 7 días de la semana, el 56,7 % producen queso de cabra a puerta de finca para los mercados locales. Se recomienda continuar con los estudios y análisis participativos para el mejoramiento integral de este sistema productivo.

  10. Unidades tectónicas y estructura general de la Sierra de Gádor y zonas adyacentes (Cordillera Bética, provincia de Almería: implicaciones paleogeográficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado Salazar, F.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Sierra de Gádor (Almeria province terrains belonging to the Internal Betic Zone crop out. According to stratigraphic, structural and petrologic features we have recognised five tectonic units. These units are called, from bottom to top, Gádor-Turón, Laujar, Murtas, Felix and Chirán unit. The lower fourth are ascribed to the Alpujárride Complex, whilst the last one is ascribed to the Maláguide Complex. We also discuss if the Felix unit may be included in the Intermediate Units. The Felix unit represents the Triassic palaeogeographic transition between the Alpujárride and the Maláguide, and it was located between both complexes during the alpine tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Betic Cordillera.En la Sierra de Gádor (provincia del Almería afloran rocas pertenecientes a la Zona Interna de la Cordillera Bética. En este sector hemos reconocido un total de cinco unidades tectónicas, en función de sus características estratigráficas, estructurales y petrológicas. Estas unidades se denominan, de abajo a arriba, unidad de Gádor-Turón, unidad de Laujar, unidad de Murtas, unidad de Felix y unidad de Chirán. Las cuatro más bajas las asignamos al Complejo Alpujárride, mientras que la más alta la asignamos al Complejo Maláguide. Se discute además la posible inclusión de la unidad de Felix dentro de las denominadas Unidades Intermedias. La unidad de Felix representa el tránsito paleogeográfico durante el Triásico entre el dominio Alpujárride y el Maláguide, y estaría situada entre ambos complejos durante la evolución tectono-metamórfica alpina de la Cordillera Bética.

  11. Salto de Vinon, Francia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vié, G.

    1966-05-01

    Full Text Available The hydroelectric exploitation of the Verdon stream, which is the most important of those flowing into the Durance river, is achieved by means of the Vinon Dam, and other dams. The combined water supply from the Greoux dam and the Vinon dam provide a controlled flow for the Provence canal, which is fed through the Maurras gallery. In this Alpine zone a general study is being conducted at present to coordinate in the best possible manner the use of the torrential water, available in the various valleys, both for irrigation and power producing purposes. The most important aspects of the Vinon project are the drilling of the very long galleries. This work has been done with very modem equipment of high efficiency. The author describes this in detail. The Vinon power plant is partly underground, and has a central cylindrical section, of 19 m diameter. This power station has a Francis unit, of 27.800 kw, operated by a water supply of 40 m3/sec under a hydrostatic head of 78 m.El aprovechamiento hidroeléctrico del arroyo Verdón, afluente más importante del río Durance, se realiza por medio del salto de Vinon. Las aguas combinadas de la restitución y embalse de Gréoux suministrarán un caudal regulado al canal de Provenza, para lo cual se aprovechará la galería de Maurras. Esta zona alpina es objeto, actualmente, de un estudio general que coordinará las aguas torrenciales de las distintas cuencas afectadas para un mejor aprovechamiento, tanto hidroeléctrico como para riegos, además de asegurar una regulación de caudales. Los trabajos más importantes del salto de Vinon se centran en la perforación de galerías de gran longitud, trabajo que se ha realizado con material moderno de gran rendimiento que el autor describe. La central de Vinon, semiexterior, presenta en su núcleo central una forma cilíndrica de 19 m de diámetro. Esta central se ha equipado con un grupo Francis de 27.800 kW de potencia, dispone de un salto hidrostático de 78

  12. Concentrations of 17 elements, including mercury, in the tissues, food and abiotic environment of Arctic shorebirds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargreaves, Anna L.; Whiteside, Douglas P.; Gilchrist, Grant

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to contaminants is one hypothesis proposed to explain the global decline in shorebirds, and is also an increasing concern in the Arctic. We assessed potential contaminants (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, V, and Zn) at a shorebird breeding site in Nunavut, Canada. We compared element levels in soil, invertebrates and shorebird blood to assess evidence for bioconcentration and biomagnification within the Arctic-based food chain. We tested whether elements in blood, feathers and eggs of six shorebird species (Pluvialis squatarola, Calidris alpina, C. fuscicollis, Phalaropus fulicarius, Charadrius semipalmatus, and Arenaria interpres) were related to fitness endpoints: adult body condition, blood-parasite load, egg size, eggshell thickness, nest duration, and hatching success. To facilitate comparison to other sites, we summarise the published data on toxic metals in shorebird blood and egg contents. Element concentrations and invertebrate composition differed strongly among habitats, and habitat use and element concentrations differed among shorebird species. Hg, Se, Cd, Cu, and Zn bioconcentrated from soil to invertebrates, and Hg, Se and Fe biomagnified from invertebrates to shorebird blood. As, Ni, Pb, Co and Mn showed significant biodilution from soil to invertebrates to shorebirds. Soil element levels were within Canadian guidelines, and invertebrate Hg levels were below dietary levels suggested for the protection of wildlife. However, maximum Hg in blood and eggs approached levels associated with toxicological effects and Hg-pollution in other bird species. Parental blood-Hg was negatively related to egg volume, although the relationship varied among species. No other elements approached established toxicological thresholds. In conclusion, whereas we found little evidence that exposure to elements at this site is leading to the declines of the species studied, Hg, as found elsewhere in the Canadian Arctic, is of potential

  13. Concentrations of 17 elements, including mercury, in the tissues, food and abiotic environment of Arctic shorebirds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargreaves, Anna L., E-mail: alhargreaves@gmail.com [Calgary Zoo, Centre for Conservation Research, 1300 Zoo Rd NE, Calgary, AB, T2E 7V6 (Canada); Whiteside, Douglas P. [Calgary Zoo, Animal Health Centre, 1300 Zoo Rd NE, Calgary, AB, T2E 7V6 (Canada); University of Calgary, Department of Ecosystem and Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, 2500 University Dr. NW, Calgary, AB, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Gilchrist, Grant [Carleton University, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, KIA OH3 (Canada)

    2011-09-01

    Exposure to contaminants is one hypothesis proposed to explain the global decline in shorebirds, and is also an increasing concern in the Arctic. We assessed potential contaminants (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, V, and Zn) at a shorebird breeding site in Nunavut, Canada. We compared element levels in soil, invertebrates and shorebird blood to assess evidence for bioconcentration and biomagnification within the Arctic-based food chain. We tested whether elements in blood, feathers and eggs of six shorebird species (Pluvialis squatarola, Calidris alpina, C. fuscicollis, Phalaropus fulicarius, Charadrius semipalmatus, and Arenaria interpres) were related to fitness endpoints: adult body condition, blood-parasite load, egg size, eggshell thickness, nest duration, and hatching success. To facilitate comparison to other sites, we summarise the published data on toxic metals in shorebird blood and egg contents. Element concentrations and invertebrate composition differed strongly among habitats, and habitat use and element concentrations differed among shorebird species. Hg, Se, Cd, Cu, and Zn bioconcentrated from soil to invertebrates, and Hg, Se and Fe biomagnified from invertebrates to shorebird blood. As, Ni, Pb, Co and Mn showed significant biodilution from soil to invertebrates to shorebirds. Soil element levels were within Canadian guidelines, and invertebrate Hg levels were below dietary levels suggested for the protection of wildlife. However, maximum Hg in blood and eggs approached levels associated with toxicological effects and Hg-pollution in other bird species. Parental blood-Hg was negatively related to egg volume, although the relationship varied among species. No other elements approached established toxicological thresholds. In conclusion, whereas we found little evidence that exposure to elements at this site is leading to the declines of the species studied, Hg, as found elsewhere in the Canadian Arctic, is of potential

  14. FORMAS E PROCESSOS CÁRSICOS NOS MACIÇOS CALCÁRIOS DO CENTRO DE PORTUGAL. O CASO PARTICULAR DO MACIÇO DE SICÓ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcio Cunha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available No Centro Litoral de Portugal continental, no espaço que estruturalmente pertence à chamada Bacia Lusitânica, as rochas carbonatadas jurássicas são responsáveis por um conjunto de pequenos Maciços Calcários, salientes na paisagem, quer pelo comportamento diferencial das litologias, quer pela atuação da tectónica alpina. Nestes maciços, os processos de evolução cársica, relacionados com a solubilidade da rocha e com a sua permeabilidade “em grande” são responsáveis por paisagens com características bem particulares, em que a tendência para a formação de bacias fechadas à superfície se adequa à proliferação de cavidades subterrâneas. Destes, o Maciço de Sicó, apesar da sua reduzida dimensão (pouco mais de 400 km2 apresenta nos seus diferentes compartimentos uma enorme variedade de formas cársicas (lapiás, dolinas, canhões fluviocársicos, grutas, abrigos sob rocha, exsurgências, muitas das quais com elevado valor em termos patrimoniais, mas também com alguns problemas de geoconservação. A especificidade morfológica do Maciço de Sicó advém sobretudo de se tratar de um carso coberto, com uma exumação incompleta em que os processos cársicos e fluviais interagiram e interagem na construção de uma paisagem em que os vales fluviocársicos, as formas superficiais fechadas, as grutas, as “buracas” e os lapiás coexistem num sistema complexo resultante de uma evolução polifásica e poligénica em que se encontram refletidos diferentes tempos e distintos ambientes.

  15. Population dynamics along a primary succession gradient: do alpine species fit into demographic succession theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcante, Silvia; Winkler, Eckart; Erschbamer, Brigitta

    2009-05-01

    Understanding processes and mechanisms governing changes in plant species along primary successions has been of major importance in ecology. However, to date hardly any studies have focused on the complete life cycle of species along a successional gradient, comparing pioneer, early and late-successional species. In this study it is hypothesized that pioneer species should initially have a population growth rate, lambda, greater than one with high fecundity rates, and declining growth rates when they are replaced by late-successional species. Populations of late-successional species should also start, at the mid-successional stage (when pioneer species are declining), with growth rates greater than one and arrive at rates equal to one at the late successional stage, mainly due to higher survival rates that allow these species to persist for a long time. The demography of pioneer- (Saxifraga aizoides), early (Artemisia genipi) and late-successional species (Anthyllis vulneraria ssp. alpicola) was investigated together with that of a ubiquitous species (Poa alpina) along the Rotmoos glacier foreland (2300-2400 m a.s.l., Central Alps, Austria) over 3 years. A matrix modelling approach was used to compare the main demographic parameters. Elasticity values were plotted in a demographic triangle using fecundity, individual growth and survival as vital rates contributing to the population growth rates. The results largely confirmed the predictions for population growth rates during succession. However, high survival rates of larger adults characterized all species, regardless of where they were growing along the succession. At the pioneer site, high mortality rates of seedlings, plantlets and young individuals were recorded. Fecundity was found to be of minor relevance everywhere, but it was nevertheless sufficient to increase or maintain the population sizes. Demographically, all the species over all sites behaved like late-successional or climax species in secondary

  16. Demandas territoriales del pueblo Mapuche en área Parques Nacionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Valverde

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En el año 1934 en la región cordillerana de Norpatagonia, se conformó el "Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi", lo cual traería importantes consecuencias para "chilenos" e "indígenas", ya que produciría la migración y expulsión de las áreas rurales de estos pobladores. Desde el imaginario promovido por la elite conservadora de los años '30, se consolidaría la impronta de esta zona -y sus centros urbanos de referencia, San Carlos de Bariloche y Villa la Angostura- como un área pretendidamente "natural", "virgen", con reminiscencias "alpinas", construcción simbólica que cimentó el proceso de despojo. A partir del año 2003, diversos grupos familiares mapuche han iniciado un proceso de reafirmación identitaria y territorial en sus ámbitos ancestrales en el área de Parques Nacionales. Nos proponemos como objetivo analizar las dinámicas que han dado origen a estos procesos asignando centralidad a las diversas políticas estatales.The "Nahuel Huapi National Park" was created in 1934, in the mountain range of North Patagonia. This brought important consequences for the "Chileans" and "Indigenous" because it gave rise to migration and eviction of the rural areas of these populations. The collective imaginary of the conservative elite of the 30's, consolidated the imprint of this area and its urban centres of reference, such as: "San Carlos de Bariloche" and "Villa la Angostura" as a supposedly "natural", "virgin" area, with "alpine" reminiscence. This symbolic construction strengthened the eviction process. Since 2006, several groups of Mapuche families have begun a process of identity and territorial reaffirmation in their ancestral ranges in the National Parks area. It is our goal to analyze the dynamics that have given rise to these processes by assigning centrality to the various state policies.

  17. Danngarrd-Oscar events recorded in a terrestrial sequence in central British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, B. C.; Geertsema, M.; Telka, A.; Mathewes, R.

    2012-12-01

    The Indianpoint section, 90 km southeast of Prince George, presents a >25 ka record of paleoenvironmental changes from non-glacial MIS 3 time to just before Late Wisconsinan (MIS2) ice from the Cordilleran Ice Sheet overran the site. Detailed plant and insect macrofossil and pollen analyses were carried out on a 5-6 m thick fine-grained unit. It represents a small lake, based on aquatic plants and insects, and taxa indicative of riparian or shoreline environments. A total of 11 radiocarbon ages, most obtained on willow (Salix) twigs provide chronological control for 8 levels. Radiocarbon ages of >44 ka (CAMS-96170) and 46.5 ka (CAMS 93938) were obtained near the base and are associated with spruce macrofossils (abundant needles, seeds and seed wings) and high spruce pollen. Between 37.0 ka (CAMS115785) and 25.9 ka (CAMS117312) alternations between open spruce forest and tundra with minor willow and birch occur. In the upper 2.5 m of the section, between 24.5 ka (CAMS 93940) and 20.4 ka (CAMS 93939), the vegetation changes to dry shrub tundra, dominated again by willow with minor birch. Most pollen from this interval comes from herbs such as sedges, grasses and Artemisia. Also present are characteristic insects such as the weevil Vitavitus thulius and the ground beetles Trichocellus mannerheimi, Pteriostichus (Cryobius) nivalis, and Amara alpina that are presently only found in dry tundra habitats. The decrease in the occurrence of willow and birch in the upper 40-50 cm reflects increasingly harsh conditions as glaciers approached the site. An age of 19.9 ka (AA44045) has been obtained on a willow twig 20-30 cm below where the unit is truncated by a Late Wisconsinan till. The lacustrine unit of the Indianpoint section spans >25 ka and records climatic variation during MIS 3 and deterioration associated with the growth of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet during the Late Wisconsinan (MIS 2). The alternations in the middle portion of the record are thought to represent

  18. Environmental changes around the Jurassic/Cretaceous transition: New nannofossil, chemostratigraphic and stable isotope data from the Lókút section (Transdanubian Range, Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, J.; Haas, J.; Stoykova, K.; Wierzbowski, H.; Brański, P.

    2017-10-01

    New biostratigraphical, chemical and stable isotope (C, O) data are presented from the Lókút section (Transdanubian Range, Hungary) representing a ca. 13 m thick continuous succession of Lower Tithonian-Lower Berriasian pelagic limestones. The study is conducted to verify timing of nannofossil events and major palaeoenvironmental changes at the Jurassic/Cretaceous transition including lithogenic input, palaeoredox and palaeoproductivity variations. Nannofossil zones from NJT 16b to NKT have been identified in the Lókút section and correlated with magnetostratigraphy, covering an interval from polarity zone M21r to M18r. The nannofossil Zone NJT 16b spans the interval from the upper part of M21r to lowermost part of M19n2n but its lower limit is poorly defined due to large diachronism in first occurrence (FO) of Nannoconus infans in various Tethyan sections. FOs of N. kamptneri minor and N. steinmannii minor are situated in the topmost part of the M19n2n and lowermost part of M19n1r magnetozones, respectively. They are located ca. 2-2.5 m above the J/K boundary defined as Intermedia/Alpina subzonal boundary, which falls within the lower half of magnetozone M19n2n. The position of first occurrences of these taxa is similar to that from the Puerto Escaño section (southern Spain) and slightly lower than in Italian sections (Southern Alps). Concentrations of chemical element proxies of terrigenous transport (Al, K, Rb, Th) decrease towards the top of the Lókút section, which suggests a decrease in input of terrigenous material and increasing carbonate productivity during the Early Tithonian and the Berriasian. Slight oxygen depletion at the sea bottom (decrease of Th/U ratio), and large increase in concentrations of productive elements (P, Ba, Ni, Cu) is observed upsection. Nutrients supply via upwelling seems to be the most likely explanation. Increase in phosphorus accumulation rate and a microfacies change from Saccocoma to calpionellid dominated took place in

  19. Quantifying the contribution of the root system of alpine vegetation in the soil aggregate stability of moraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csilla Hudek

    2017-03-01

    stability was significantly increased by the presence of roots. The lowest soil aggregate stability was found with Epilobium fleischeri followed by Minuartia recurva and Leucanthemopsis alpina. The highest aggregate stability was found with the graminoid species. These results show a close relationship between the development of root systems of the studied species and soil aggregate stability, a factor which can be taken into consideration in order to improve the accuracy of existing susceptibility mapping for early warning and civilian protection.

  20. Desempenho produtivo de cabritos alimentados com diferentes dietas líquidas, associadas com promotor de crescimento Effects of feeding different liquid diets with or without growth promoter on performance of kid goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bento Mancio

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para se avaliar o desempenho de cabritos tratados com leite de cabra integral ou colostro de vaca fermentado com ou sem óleo de soja, e com aplicação ou não do promotor de crescimento Zeranol. Vinte e quatro cabritos da raça Alpina foram dispostos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 3 x 2. Cada animal recebeu, pela manhã, 1 L da dieta líquida e 250 g/animal/dia de concentrado. Foram avaliados o ganho de peso dos animais, os consumos de concentrado e de matéria seca, a conversão alimentar e o tamanho dos órgãos. Houve diferenças entre as dietas líquidas, com ou sem a aplicação de Zeranol, para ganho de peso aos 29, 36, e 50 dias de idade, mas não para o ganho médio diário. A não aplicação de Zeranol nos tratamentos com leite de cabra e colostro fermentado com óleo de soja proporcionou diferença média de 8% no ganho de peso dos animais alimentados com leite de cabra. Não se observou diferença nos consumos de concentrado e de matéria seca e na conversão alimentar dos animais entre as diferentes dietas líquidas avaliadas. Não houve influência do Zeranol ou do óleo de soja nas dietas líquidas sobre nenhum dos órgãos estudadosThe objective of this experiment was to study the effects of feeding whole goat milk or fermented cow colostrum supplemented or not with soy oil and with or without the growth promoter Zeranol on performance of kid goats. Twenty-four Alpine kid goats assigned to a completely randomized design in a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement were used in this trial. The following variables were investigated: weight gain, intakes of dry matter and concentrate, feed conversion, and organ sizes. Significant differences were observed among liquid diets with or without Zeranol for weight gain at 29, 36, and 50 days old, but not for the average daily gain. No significant differences for intake of both dry matter and concentrate as well as for feed conversion were

  1. Estudio y evolución de la calidad de leche cruda en tambos de la zona noroeste de Santa Fe y sur de Santiago del Estero, Argentina (1993–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REVELLI, G.R.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Un total de 10.704 muestras de leche cruda de pool de tanque, correspondientes a 55 establecimientos lecheros asociados a la Cooperativa Tambera y Agropecuaria Nueva Alpina Ltda., fueron recolectadas entre los años 1993 y 2009. En el marco del Programa de Mejoramiento Integral de Calidad de Leche, se analizaron parámetros físico-químicos, microbiológicos y sanitarios, obteniéndose valores medios que caracterizan la zona, a saber: acidez: 16,30 ± 0,96 °D, pH: 6,68 ± 0,04, grasa butirosa: 3,48 ± 0,24%, proteína verdadera:3,11 ± 0,12%, lactosa: 4,74 ± 0,16%, cenizas: 0,70 ± 0,09%, sólidos totales: 12,18 ± 0,42%, descenso crioscópico: -0,530 ± 0,02 °C, recuento de bacterias totales: 9,6 x 104 ± 2,2 x 105 UFC/ml, recuento de células somáticas: 407.000 ± 230.000 CS/ml e inhibidores (Antibióticos: 99,64% negativo. Las correlaciones más significativas resultaron para: grasa butirosa vs sólidos totales (r = 0,784; P < 0,001 y proteína verdadera vs sólidos totales (r = 0,557; P < 0,001. Durante 17 años de experiencia se estudió la calidad composicional en leche cruda de tambos que pertenecen a la zona noroeste de Santa Fe y sur de Santiago del Estero, observándoseun significativo mejoramiento, especialmente en aquellos indicadores que infieren un alto valor industrial. Optimizar la capacidad de gestión de los productores y la calidad operativa de los tamberos, contribuyó en el logro de los resultados obtenidos.

  2. Floristic diversity in relation to geomorphological and climatic factors in the subalpinealpine belt of the Rodna Mountains (the Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coldea, G.

    2004-12-01

    , Rebra. Dans le cas où l'altitude des sommets subalpins-alpins est 100 m plus élevée, on a constaté une réduction du nombre desespèces de plantes vascidaires avec 10%. La fréquence et le recouvrement les plus élevées dans ces associations appartiennent aux espèces arctico-alpines (Carex curvida, Juncus trifidus, Hieracium alpinum, Oreochloa disticha etc. et à une espèce régionale carpato-balkanique (Rhododendron myrtifolium. Dans les aires de versants nord et est, où le recouvrement de la végétation est 15-30% plus bas que sur les versants ensoleillés, et où la température dans le sol est, généralement, 1-3° C plus réduite dans la saison de végétation (juin-août, le nombre des espèces sur un mètre carré est, en moyenne, de 25% plus grand que dans les aires de versants sud et ouest. [es] En el marco del proyecto GLORIA EUROPE hemos estudiado la diversidad florística, la frecuencia y la cobertura de las especies en relación con los principales gradientes ecológicos (altitud, exposición, con las asociaciones de pastos alpinos (Primulo-Caricetum curvulae, Oreochloo-Juncetum trifidi y con los matorrales bajos subalpinos (Rhododendro myrtifolii – Vaccinietum, todo ello en cuatro cimas del macizo Pietrosul Mare (Cárpatos Rumanos. La diversidad florística es mayor en las asociaciones de las cimas más bajas (Golgota, Gropile y menor en las asociaciones de las cimas elevadas (Buhaiescu, Rebra. Cuando el intervalo altitudinal de las cimas subalpinas-alpinas es de 100 m la disminución en el número de plantas vasculares es aproximadamente del 10%. La mayor frecuencia y el más importante recubrimiento corresponden a las especies ártico-alpinas (Carex curvula, Juncus trifidus, Hieracium alpinum, Oreochloa disticha etc. así como a una especie regional carpato-balcánica (Rhododendron myrtifolium. En las subparcelas de laderas norte y este, donde el recubrimiento vegetal es 15-30% menor que en las laderas soleadas, y donde la

  3. Efeito do aleitamento artificial à base de soro de queijo de leite cabra sobre as características da carcaça e da carne de cabritos "mamão" do tipo genético three cross Influence of the replacement of cow milk by goat milk cheese whey on meat composition carcass characteristics of three cross suckling kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico José Beserra

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência da substituição parcial na etapa de alimentação líquida do leite de vaca por soro de queijo de cabra (SLC sobre alguns aspectos qualitativos da carne e quantitativos da carcaça de cabritos "mamão" Three cross (½ Anglonubiana x ¼ Pardo-Alpina x ¼ Moxotó, em quatro níveis: 0% (Tratamento1; 20% (Tratamento2; 40% (Tratamento3 60% (Tratamento 4. Os pesos vivos ao abate (84 dias mostraram-se homogêneos (10,88 a 13,42kg, assim como o rendimento de carcaça (44,62 a 47,86% e a área do Longíssimus dorsi (9,55 a 10,80cm². 0 Tratamento 2 apresentou os maiores teores de tecido muscular (48,37%. A composição centesimal mostrou valores médios entre 76,78 a 77,62% de umidade; 20,39 a 21,43% de proteína; 4,86 a 6,59% de gordura e 1,06 a 1,14% de cinza. Para os minerais estudados, os valores médios variaram de 16,77 a 35,68mg/100g para o cálcio; 110,33 a 153,90mg/100g para o fósforo; 1,29 a 2,17mg/100g para o ferro; 0,72 a 1,30mg/100g para magnésio; 128,86 a 165,94mg/100g para o sódio e 404,88 a 504,73mg/100g para o potássio. Concluiu-se que os níveis de soro de leite de cabra utilizados, de uma maneira geral, não tendo influenciado de forma significativa (PIn this study, the influence of the replacement of cow milk by goat cheese whey on some quality aspects of meat and on some aspects of carcass composition of suckling kids Three cross (½ Anglonubiana x ¼ Pardo-Alpina x ¼ Moxotó was evaluated. The replacements goat cheese whey levels were: 0% (treatment 1; 20% (treatment 2; 40% (treatment 3; 60% (treatment 4. The values of live weight for all were statistically similar (10.88 to 13.42kg; the same happened to the carcass yield which ranged from 44.62 to 47.86% and to the Longissimus dorsi area (9.55 to 10.80cm². The treatment 2 showed the highest contents of muscular tissue (48.37%. Proximal composition of the meat showed mean values ranging from 76.78 to 77.62% for moisture; 20.39 to 21.43% for protein

  4. EVALUATION OF MILLET GRAIN (Pennisetun americanum IN SUBSTITUTION TO CORN IN DAIRY GOAT RATIONS AVALIAÇÃO DO GRÃO DE MILHETO (Pennisetum americanum EM SUBSTITUIÇÃO AO MILHO (Zea mays EM RAÇÕES PARA CABRAS EM LACTAÇÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldi Fernandes de souza França

    2007-09-01

    ção do milho pelo grão de rnilheto, na formulação de rações para cabras em lactação. Dezesseis cabras da raça Alpina foram distribuídas em um delineamento em quadrado latino e submetidas a quatro tratamentos com níveis crescentes de substituição, assim constituídos: T1 - 0%; T2 - 33%; T3 - 66% e T4 - 99%. Os resultados obtidos pelas análises foram tabulados e, posteriormente, submetidos à análise de variância, que evidenciou efeito não significativo (P>0,05 dos tratamentos sobre a produção de leite, matéria graxa (MG, matéria mineral (MM, extrato seco total (EST, extrato seco desengordurado (ESD, acidez (AC e crioscopia (CRIO, enquanto a proteína bruta não foi influenciada (P>0,05.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Milheto; ração; cabras; lactação.

  5. Generalization of heterogeneous alpine vegetation in air photo-based image classification, Latnjajaure catchment, northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindblad, K. E. M.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Mapping alpine vegetation at a meso-scale (catchment level using remote sensing presents difficulties due to a patchy distribution and heterogeneous spectral appearance of the plant cover. We discuss issues of generalization and accuracy assessment in this case study when using a digital CIR air photo for an automatic classification of the dominant plant communities. Spectral information from an aerial photograph was supplemented by classified plant communities in field and by topographical information derived from a DEM. 150 control points were tracked in the field using a GPS. The outcome from three alternative classifications was analysed by Kappa statistics, user’s and producer’s accuracy. Overall accuracy did not differ between the classifications although producer’s and user’s accuracy for separate classes differed together with total surface (ha and distribution. Manual accuracy assessment when recording the occurrence of the correct class within a radius of 5 meters from the control points generated an improvement of 16 % of the total accuracy. About 10 plant communities could be classified with acceptable accuracy where the chosen classification scheme determined the final outcome. If a high resolution pixel mosaic is generalized to units that match the positional accuracy of simple GPS this generalization may also influence the information content of the image.



    Hemos llevado a cabo la cartografía de la vegetación alpina a escala media (nivel de cuenca experimental mediante interpretación remota. Esta metodología plantea dificultades debido a la distribución en mosaico de la vegetación y a la heterogeneidad del espetro obtenido. Se discuten las posibilidades de generalización de los resultados y el grado de precisión alcanzado en este caso experimental mediante fotografía aérea digital CIR aplicada a una clasificación automática de

  6. Levels of Tritium in a Variety of New Zealand Waters and Some Tentative Conclusions from these Results; Concentration du tritium dans diverses eaux de Nouvelle-Zelande et conclusions provioires tirees des resultats obtenus; Urovni tritiya v razlichnykh vodakh novoj Zelandii i predvaritel'noe zaklyuchenie po etim rezul'tatam; Concentraciones de tritio en diferentes aguas de Nueva Zelandia y conclusiones provisionales basadas en los resultados obtenidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bainbridge, A E; O' Brien, B J [Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Gracefield (New Zealand)

    1962-01-15

    grifo en el Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, a fin de calcular el tiempo de permanencia de las aguas en el deposito artesiano del Valle de Hutt. Se expone un numero limitado de resultados de las mediciones de tritio en nieves alpinas y en aguas de pozo geotermicas, aguas oceanicas y aguas de lluvia caidas sobre Wellington. (author) [Russian] Bol'shoe kolichestvo razlichnykh prob prirodnykh vod bylo otobrano dlya izucheniya s tsel'yu opredelit' izbytok tritiya. Seriya izmerenij tritiya v vodakh Akataravy bliz Vellingtona s aprelya 1956 po dekabr' 1960 goda pokazali nalichie v dozhdevykh vodakh, vypadayushchikh v Novoj Zelandii, tritiya, voznikshego v rezul'tate ispytaniya atomnykh bomb. Sravnenie ehtogo urovnya soderzhaniya tritiya s izmereniyami, proizvedennymi s vodoprovodnoj vodoj v Institute yadernykh issledovanij, bylo ispol'zovano dlya opredeleniya vremeni khraneniya vody v artezianskom bassejne KHut-Vallej. Budet predstavleno nekotoroe chislo rezul'tatov izmerenij tritiya v podzemnykh vodakh, v okeane, v dozhdevykh vodakh Vellingtona i v al'pijskikh snegakh. (author)

  7. Alimentazione di Marmota marmota in praterie altimontane delle dolomiti bellunesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Rudatis

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The diet of Marmota marmota in the mountain prairie of south-eastern Italian Alps. Diet composition of two family groups of alpine marmots was investigated in two areas of the Agordino’s Dolomites (Italian Alps in June-September 2001, by means of microscopic analysis of faeces and of direct observation of feeding activity. During the whole period of activity, a high consume of Angiosperms was confirmed, especially plants in flower; among them the “graminoids” seemed to play an important role only during the initial part of the active period. Generally vegetative parts predominated over flowers. The ingestion of animal preys was not confirmed by the analysis of droppings. Comparing diet composition of the two groups, Graminaceae (Poa, Phleum, Compositae (Achillea, Cyperaceae/Juncaceae, Leguminosae (Anthyllis, Rosaceae, and Labiatae (Prunella, Stachys formed the bulk of marmot diet in the study areas. Diet showed low diversity considering the abundance of plant species in the surrounding environment. Food resources were probably used in relation to their easy digestibility, with a high content in proteins, sugar and water. The knowledge of vegetation features in relation to marmot trophic habits can represent a useful tool for the management of this species. Riassunto Il regime alimentare di due gruppi di Marmotta alpina è stato studiato in giugno-settembre 2001 in due aree delle Dolomiti agordine (SE Italia, attraverso l’analisi microscopica delle feci e l’osservazione diretta dell’attività alimentare. Durante tutto il periodo di attività si è notato un forte consumo di Angiosperme, specialmente piante a fiore, mentre le ”graminoidi” sembra giochino un ruolo importante all’inizio della stagione. In generale le parti vegetali predominano sui fiori. L’ingestione di prede animali non è stata

  8. Resposta ovariana de cabras submetidas a implantes de progesterona seguidos de aplicações de gonadotrofina coriônica equina Ovarian response of goats submitted to implants of progesterone followed by administration of equine corionic gonadotrophin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Uribe-Velásquez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se comparar os efeitos de diferentes doses de gonadotrofina coriônica equina (eCG na dinâmica folicular e nas concentrações hormonais em cabras alpinas. Durante a estação reprodutiva, as cabras foram submetidas à sincronização do estro e da ovulação com um dispositivo de progesterona por 14 dias. As cabras (n=24 foram divididas aleatoriamente, em quatro grupos de seis e, no dia da remoção do dispositivo, receberam 0 (controle, 200, 300 e 400 UI de eCG. O desenvolvimento folicular foi observado via ultrassonografia um dia antes da administração da eCG até a ovulação seguinte. Determinaram-se diariamente as concentrações plasmáticas de estradiol e progesterona por radioimunoensaio. Todos os animais tratados manifestaram estro. Observaram-se ciclos estrais com três e quatro ondas de crescimento folicular. O tamanho do maior folículo nos animais controle na terceira onda (5,5 ± 0,50 mm foi menor que naqueles tratados com 300 UI de eCG (7,17 ± 0,35 mm. A aplicação de gonadotrofina aumentou o número de folículos pequenos e médios em relação ao grupo controle, uma vez que o número médio de corpos lúteos foi maior nas fêmeas tratadas com 400 UI (4,27 ± 0,23 em comparação àquelas tratadas com 200 UI (1,95 ± 0,19. A concentração plasmática de progesterona e estradiol diferiu entre os grupos experimentais. A combinação de progestágenos e eCG é uma alternativa adequada para a sincronização do estro e suporta o desenvolvimento de novos protocolos de técnicas reprodutivas, como a superovulação e a transferência de embriões em cabras.The objective of the present study was to compare the effect of different dosages of equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG on the follicular dynamics and hormonal concentrations in Alpine goats. During the breeding season, the goats were submitted to estrous and ovulation synchronization with a device containing progesterone for 14 days. Female goats (n=24 were divided

  9. The Effect of Different Type of Herbivores, Grazing Types and Grazing Intensities on Alpine Basiphillous Vegetation of the Romanian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballová, Zuzana; Pekárik, Ladislav; Šibík, Jozef

    2017-04-01

    increased the most in restricted areas compared to irregularly and regularly grazed sites. When analyzing soil properties, Generalized mixed models revealed reliable results in the differences among categories of grazing types and intensity. These differences were only noticeable in calcium concentration being calcium the most decreased by medium grazing intensity and the most increased by irregular grazing. Grazing had significant effects on individual plant species occurrences and covers. Horses decreased presence of Anthoxanthum odoratum and regular grazing sites as well as fences had significantly higher occurrence of trampling tolerant species Nardus stricta compared to sites with irregular grazing. The type of grazing herbivores influenced covers of Agrostis capillaris, A. rupestris, Campanula rotundifolia, Festuca supina, Luzula multiflora, and Ranunculus pseudomontanus. The grazing types significantly altered covers of Agrostis capillaris, Alchemilla sp. div., Campanula rotundifolia, Festuca supina, Luzula multiflora, Nardus stricta, and Potentilla ternata (Potentilla aurea subsp. chrysocraspeda). The intensity of grazing had important impact on covers of Agrostis rupestris, Alchemilla sp. div., Campanula rotundifolia, Festuca supina, Luzula multiflora, Poa alpina, Potentilla ternata, and Ranunculus pseudomontanus. Key words: alpine meadows; pastures; GLMM; NMDS; (nested) PERMANOVA

  10. Use of high moisture corn silage replacing dry corn on intake, apparent digestibility, production and composition of milk of dairy goats Utilização da silagem de grãos úmidos de milho em substituição ao milho seco no consumo, digestibilidade aparente, produção e composição do leite de cabras leiteiras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.l.L. Canizares

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty primiparous and multiparous Alpine breed goats at approximately 80 days of lactation were used in this experiment. The animals were housed individually in metal cages and distributed according to milk production in five 4 × 4 Latin squares. The experimental diets used in the experiment presented concentrate:forage ratio of 65:35. The treatments were characterized by increasing levels of 0, 33, 67 and 100% of high moisture corn silage (HMCS replacing corn dry grain (CDG. Average intake of DM (1.62 kg/day, 3.90 % BW, CP (0.22 kg/day, NFC (0.76 kg/day and TDN (1.29 kg/day were not influenced by levels of HMCS. However, intake of NDF (0.53 kg/day was significant for the different level of HMCS. Daily milk production and production of milk correct at 3.5% of fat, feed efficiency (MP/DMI, fat percentage, protein, lactose, total solids and milk urea nitrogen, with means of 1.86; 1.69; 1.11; 2.96; 2.85; 4.36; 10.96 and 17.1, respectively, were not influenced by the levels of HMCS. Percentage of non fat solids (8.00% was affected by replacing levels of HMCS. The use of high moisture corn silage in the diet does not change milk production and it can be applied in total or partial substitution to dry corn grain in the feeding of milk goats.Foram utilizadas 20 cabras da raça Alpina, primíparas e multíparas, com aproximadamente 80 dias em lactação, alojadas individualmente em gaiolas metálicas e distribuídas, de acordo com a produção de leite, em cinco quadrados latinos 4 × 4. As dietas experimentais utilizadas apresentaram relação concentrado:volumoso 65:35. Os tratamentos foram caracterizados por níveis crescentes 0, 33, 67 e 100% de silagem de grãos úmidos de milho (SGUM em substituição ao grão seco de milho (GSM. As médias de consumo de MS (1,62 kg/dia, 3,90 %PV, proteína bruta (0,22 kg/dia, carboidratos não fibrosos (0,76 kg/dia e nutrientes digestíveis totais (1,29 kg/dia não foram influenciadas pelos níveis de SGUM

  11. COLPOCITOLOGY AND SERUM CONCENTRATIONS OF PROGESTERONE IN NULIPAROUS GOATS SUBMMITED TO ARTIFICIAL PHOTOPERIODS COLPOCITOLOGIA E CONCENTRAÇÕES SÉRICAS DE PROGESTERONA EM CABRAS NULÍPARAS SUBMETIDAS AO FOTOPERÍODO ARTIFICIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Rocha de Oliveira Lima

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present work was to evaluate the changes of cervico-vaginal epithelial cells and progesterone levels of nuliparous goats submitted to artificial photoperiod, in Middle-West of Brazil. Seventh Alpine and six crossbreed nuliparous goats were used, distributed in two groups: control (GC, maintained at isolated stall and submitted to natural light for the time of the year, and treated (GT, submitted to an alternate regime among natural and artificial light, for 24 hours and 35 uninterrupted days. Cérvico-vaginal content was collected, prepared on glass slides and differential cellular counts were carried out on Papanicolau smears. The progesterone concentration in blood serum was measurement by ELISA. Parabasal were the most frequent cell type present, followed by intermediate cells, mainly in the end of metaestrus and diestrus. Superficial cornified cells were present during proestrus and estrus. The cellular profile and progesterone concentrations oscillated in agreement with estrus cycle phase in control animals, but confuse on the begin of experimental period for treated animals. Cytological evaluation of cervico-vaginal content could be of value for a hormonal bioassay of estrus cycle of goats submitted to artificial photoperiod just after the adaptation period.

     

    KEY WORDS: Artificial photoperiod, caprine, hormone, vaginal cytology.

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar as alterações celulares do epitélio cérvico-vaginal e as concentrações de progesterona sérica em cabras nulíparas expostas ao fotoperíodo artificial, na região Centro-Oeste do Brasil. Dezessete cabras da raça Alpina e seis mestiças, nulíparas, foram aleatoriamente distribuídas em grupo-controle (GC, mantido em galpão isolado e submetido ao regime de luz natural para a época do ano, e grupo tratado (GT, submetido ao regime alternado entre luz natural e

  12. Fatores genéticos e ambientais que influenciam algumas características de reprodução e produção de leite em cabras no Distrito Federal Genetic and environmental factors which influence reproduction and milk production traits in goats in the Federal District, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Soares Filho

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi desenvolvido no Distrito Federal em dois capris, utilizando-se dados de 772 parições, com o objetivo de avaliar os fatores ambientais e genéticos que influenciam a reprodução e a produção leiteira em caprinos das raças Saanen, Parda Alpina, Toggenburg e seus mestiços, no período de 1995 a 1997. Os dados foram analisados usando o programa SAS com os procedimentos GLM e as herdabilidades foram estimadas usando o modelo animal individual pelo programa MTDFREML. As características avaliadas foram idade ao primeiro parto (IPP, intervalo de partos (IP, período de gestação (PG, produção de leite total (PLT e duração da lactação (DL. O modelo estatístico incluiu como fatores fixos o capril, a raça, o mês e o ano de parto, o tipo de parto, o sexo da cria (macho e fêmea e a covariável peso da cabra à cobertura. A raça Saanen teve a menor IPP e a maior PLT, enquanto a raça Toggenburg teve maior IP. As herdabilidades estimadas foram, em geral, baixas e variaram de acordo com a raça. Os fatores capril, raça, mês do parto e sexo da cria influenciaram os IP. A raça e o tipo de parto influenciaram a IPP. Somente a raça influenciou a PLT. Os resultados deste trabalho evidenciaram que existe grandeoportunidade para a melhoria no desempenho de caprinos no Distrito Federal, necessitando de controle mais rigoroso do rebanho e manejo para reduzir as IPP e os IP e aumentar os níveis de produção.This study was carried out in the Federal District of Brazil on two goat farms, using data collected on 772 parturitions. The objective was to evaluate genetic and environmental factors, which influenced the reproduction and milk production of Saanen, Parda Alpine, Toggenburg goats and their crosses, between 1995 and 1997. The data were analysed using SAS (Statistical Analysis System, GLM procedures and the heritabilities were estimated using MTDFREML with an Individual Animal Model. The studied traits were: age at first

  13. Fatores que influenciam os parâmetros das curvas de lactação em cabras no Distrito Federal Factors which influence parameters of goat lactation curves in the Federal District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta McManus

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de fatores ambientais sobre a forma de curvas de lactação (Quadrática, Gama, Linear Hiperbólica e Jenkins e Ferrel de cabras das raças Saanen, Parda Alpina, Toggenburg e seus mestiços. Foram usados registros de 299 lactações de 215 cabras criadas em dois criatórios localizados no Distrito Federal no período de 1995 a 1997. Os parâmetros das curvas de lactação (produção no início da lactação - a, taxa média de ascenção - b e taxa média de declínio após o pico - c foram estimados pelo programa "Table Curve" da companhia de Jandel Scientific. Estes parâmetros foram analisados usando o programa SAS com os procedimentos Corr e GLM. O modelo estatístico incluiu como fatores fixos o capril, a raça, o mês e o ano de parto, tipo de parto, sexo do cabrito, e o peso de cobertura foi utilizado como covariável. Os parâmetros a e c foram influenciados pela raça, pelo mês do parto e pelo tipo do parto. As curvas Quadrática e Linear Hiperbólica tiveram os maiores R². As correlações entre os parâmetros das curvas e os índices zootécnicos, no geral, foram altas e positivas. Este estudo mostra que qualquer uma das funções estudadas poderia representar a curva de lactação individual do rebanho, no entanto, a que melhor expressou os parâmetros na formação da curva foi a função Quadrática, enquanto aquelas que melhor descreveram a produtividade foram o Linear Hiperbólica e Jenkins e Ferrel.The objetive of this work was to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on the shape of lactation curves (Quadratic, Gama, Linear Hiperbolic and Jenkins & Ferrel of Saanen, Alpine and Toggenburg as well as mixed breed goats. Data from 299 lactations of 215 goats raised on two farms in the Federal District from 1995 to 1997 was used. The parameters of the lactation curves (yield at start of lactation- a, rate of increase of milk production - b e rate of decline of milk

  14. Concentrações plasmáticas de testosterona, triiodotironina (T3 e tiroxina (T4 em bodes submetidos ao estresse calórico Plasma concentrations of testosterone, triiodothyronine (T3, and thyroxine (T4 in bucks submitted to heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Coelho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Para verificar o efeito do estresse calórico (EC nas concentrações plasmáticas de testosterona, triiodotironina (T3 e tiroxina (T4, oito bodes, das raças Saanen (n=4 e Alpina (n=4, foram mantidos em câmara bioclimática, sob condições de termoneutralidade (13,0ºC a 26,7ºC durante 30 dias e, após um período (60 dias de descanso, submetidos ao EC (23,7ºC a 34,0ºC por 30 dias. Para minimizar as variações sazonais nos perfis hormonais devido ao fotoperíodo, durante toda fase experimental, incluindo a de adaptação em condições de termoneutralidade (30 dias, o fotoperíodo foi controlado utilizando-se alternância de dias longos (16h de luz e 8h de escuro e de dias curtos (8h de luz e 16h de escuro a cada 30 dias. As amostras de sangue foram coletadas duas vezes por semana durante cinco semanas. No conjunto das raças, o EC não influenciou (P>0,05 as concentrações de testosterona (1,8±0,2 vs 1,3±0,2ng/ml e nem a de T4 (52,7±2,8 vs 50,0±2,8ng/ml. Houve declínio (PTo verify the effect of heat stress (HS on plasma testosterone, triiodothyronine (T3, and thyroxine (T4 concentrations, eight Saanen (n=4 and Alpine Brown (n=4 bucks were kept in climate chamber under thermal neutral conditions (13.0ºC to 26.7ºC for 30 days. After a resting period (60 days, the same bucks were submitted to heat stress (23.7ºC to 34.0ºC for another 30 days. To neutralize the seasonal variations of hormonal profiles throughout the period, the photoperiod was controlled every 30 days altering long (16 hours of light and 8 hours of darkness and short days (8 hours of light and 16 hours of darkness. The blood samples were collected twice a week during five weeks. In both breeds, there was no effect of HS (P>0.05 on plasma concentrations of testosterone (1.8±0.2 vs 1.3±0.2ng/ml and T4 (52.7±2.8 vs 50.0±2.8ng/ml. There was a decline (P<0.01 of plasma T3 concentrations (1.3±0.1 vs 1.0±0.1ng/ml after HS treatment, but this reduction was only

  15. Características do ejaculado de caprinos sob estresse calórico em câmara bioclimática Sperm characteristics of bucks under heat stress in climatic chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Coelho

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Para verificar o efeito do estresse calórico (EC na produção espermática de caprinos, oito machos das raças Saanen (n=4 e Pardo-Alpina (n=4 foram mantidos em câmara bioclimática, sob condições de termoneutralidade (13,0ºC a 26,7ºC durante 30 dias e, após um período (60 dias de descanso, submetidos ao EC (23,7ºC a 34,0ºC por mais 30 dias. Para minimizar as variações sazonais na produção espermática, durante todo o período, o fotoperíodo foi controlado utilizando-se alternância de dias longos (16 horas de luz e 8 horas de escuro e de dias curtos (8 horas de luz e 16 horas de escuro a cada 30 dias. Avaliaram-se as temperaturas retal e testicular, o volume do ejaculado, a concentração espermática, as motilidades massal e individual progressiva (MIP, o vigor e a morfologia espermática. Houve aumento (P0,05 o percentual total de células anormais e nem a temperatura retal. Os machos da raça Saanen apresentaram temperaturas do testículo e retal mais elevadas (PTo verify the effect of heat stress (HS on caprine semen production eight male goats of Saanen (n=4 and Alpine Brown (n=4 breeds were kept in climate chamber under thermal neutral conditions (13.0ºC to 26.7ºC for 30 days. After a resting period (60 days, the same bucks were submitted to heat stress (23.7ºC to 34.0ºC for another 30 days. To neutralize the seasonal variations of sperm production throughout the period, the photoperiod was controlled every 30 days alterning long days (16 hours of light and 8 hours of darkness and short days (8 hours of light and 16 hours of darkness. The following variables were evaluated: rectal and testicular temperatures, volume of ejaculate, sperm concentration, mass motility, individual progressive motility, vigor and sperm morphology. There was an elevation (P0.05 on percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa and rectal temperature. The Saanen males showed higher testicular and rectal temperatures and produced more sperm

  16. La Trascendencia de la Biomedicina de altura en el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Guerra García

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available

    En Bogotá ha existido interés en estudios sobre el efecto de la altura en el hombre; así el trabajo del Dr. Francisco Gnecco Mozo, premiado por esta Academia en 1936 trató sobre “El trabajo del corazón en Bogotá”. En él Gnecco refuta a Corpas y también a Barriga con sus estudios pioneros de 1910 Y 1925 (Tesis de Grado de la Facultad de Medicina; en su conclusión, Gnecco, afirma “El corazón a la altura de Bogotá ha condicionado su trabajo tan fisiológicamente, que resulta sensiblemente igual al del nivel de! mar”. En 1941, Alfonso Bonilla Naar presentó su tesis para el doctorado en medicina y cirugía sobre “Fisiopatología de las alturas” y fue calificado de meritorio; en ella reconoce el aporte de la Escuela Peruana y de Carlos Monge Medrano.

    El tema era estudiado en las alturas del Perú y fue presentado también como tesis en la Facultad de Medicina de Bogotá por Hernán Torres; sin embargo no hay referencia alguna sobre los trabajos realizados en países vecinos, evidencia de la dificultad de comunicación de la época.

    La vida en la altura


    En los diversos continentes hay montañas elevadas, que el hombre las ha considerado en muy diversas maneras; así, dice Sarton que en Europa “los rigores y peligros alpinos habían inducido a las mentes medievales a creer que las altas montañas eran morada de gnomos y demonios. En ésto habían avanzado menos que los budistas en la India, la China y el Japón, quienes consideraban sagradas las montañas y construían templos en sus laderas o en las mismas cumbres”. Las primeras expediciones alpinas comenzaron muy tímidamente en el Siglo XIV pero no cobraron importancia antes del Siglo XVI. El primer hombre que subió a las montañas para entender el misterioso clip que prevalece en las elevadas altitudes y para observar la forma de las montañas y de las plantas y animales que las habitan, fue Leonardo Da Vinci

  17. Estudio comparativo del crecimiento y la ramificación de brotes anuales en dos especies de Nothofagus (Nothofagaceae y en híbridos inter-específicos Comparative study of annual shoot growth and branching in two species of Nothofagus (Nothofagaceae and inter-specific hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Torres

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Las ramas principales y secundarias se diferencian en mayor o menor medida según las especies, lo cual puede observarse en base al crecimiento primario de los brotes que las originan. En ejemplares de vivero juveniles-adultos de Nothofagus obliqua, N. nervosa e híbridos entre ambas especies, se compararon la dinámica de alargamiento, el tamaño y la morfología de dos brotes distales de ramas principales: uno que continúa el alargamiento de la rama principal y el otro que inicia una rama secundaria. En N. alpina y en híbridos, los dos brotes más distales se diferencian más que en N. obliqua. A pesar de la homogeneidad ambiental en el vivero y el origen geográfico común para los ejemplares de N. nervosa y los híbridos, hubieron diferencias fenológicas y morfológicas entre estas entidades. La duración y tasa de alargamiento y la longitud final de los brotes fueron altamente variables en cada entidad. Las variaciones entre entidades en la diferenciación de ejes podrían indicar diferencias en sus capacidades de uso del espacio circundante. La diferenciación entre ramas principales y secundarias se iniciaría en el estado de yema. La variación intra-específica fenológica y morfológica es útil para programas de selección artificial de individuos.Main and secondary branches are more or less differentiated according to the species and this could be observed during the primary growth of the shoots that produce them. In young-adult trees of Nothofagus obliqua, N. nervosa and hybrids between them growing in a common garden, growth dynamics, size and morphology were compared between two distal shoots produced by main branches: one of these shoots continued the extension of the main branch whereas the other initiated a secondary branch. The two distal shoots differed from each other more notably in N. nervosa and in the hybrids than in N. obliqua. Despite the environmental homogeneities at the nursery and the common geographic origin of

  18. Efeito da temperatura ambiental na densidade e ponto de congelamento do leite de cabra Effects of ambiental temperature on density and freezing point of goat's milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H.A. BRASIL

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Seis cabras Pardas Alpinas com produção média de leite de 2,5kg/dia, foram distribuídas aleatoriamente em dois grupos de três cada, submetidas a termoneutralidade ou estresse térmico. Usou-se um delineamento estatístico "crossover". Um período de adaptação de 28 dias foi seguido por quatro intervalos de 14 dias cada, durante os quais os animais sob estresse foram expostos à temperatura média do ar de 33,84ºC das 8 às 17 horas, incluindo radiação solar simulada das 10 às 15 horas. Na segunda semana de cada intervalo experimental amostras de leite individuais foram coletadas diariamente pela manhã e à tarde, adicionando-se conservador. No final da semana as amostras de cada ordenha foram misturadas formando-se amostras compostas nas quais foram efetuadas determinações de pH, acidez titulável, densidade e ponto crioscópico. Os resultados indicaram que os valores obtidos para densidade e ponto crioscópico são compatíveis aos encontrados por diversos autores em diferentes países. Constatou-se valor maior para densidade no leite ordenhado pela manhã, em relação ao da tarde, sendo que o intervalo desigual entre as ordenhas deve ter influído neste resultado. Não se verificou diferença estatística significativa para esta propriedade no leite das cabras em condições de termoneutralidade e de estresse térmico. Para o ponto crioscópico não se observou diferença estatística entre o leite ordenhado pela manhã e à tarde. Houve diferença estatística significativa para esta propriedade física entre o leite das cabras em condições de termoneutralidade e estresse térmico, sendo o valor médio maior, para as condições de termoneutralidade.Six alpine goats with milk average yield of 2,5 kg/day, were randomly settled in two groups of three and submitted to thermoneutrality (TN or heat stress (ST conditions. A crossover statistical delineation was used. An adjustment period of 28 days was followed by four intervals of

  19. Cold-stenothermic spring fauna in mountainous headwaters of the National Park Kellerwald-Edersee in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Martin; Zaenker, Stefan; Chifflard, Peter

    2017-04-01

    ,9). Due to nearly unaffected ecohydrological properties, in particular: relative consistently cold water temperature with low amplitudes (cold stenothermy), mostly low flow velocity and an intermittent discharge regime a very unique and specific adapted spring fauna composition for the German low mountain ranges can be characterized. Cold stenothermic and spring related species are very frequent in relative occurrence and abundance. We analyzed a map based and representative distribution for the entire large-scale protected area of the National Park Kellerwald-Edersee according to Bythinella dunkeri (spring snail), Crenobia alpina (planarian), Crunoecia irrorata (caddisfly) and Niphargus schellenbergi (groundwater amphipod). We discuss the potential of ecohydrological research on possible climate change predictions and consequences on the distribution of cold stenothermic and spring dwelling species within the special context of research goals in National Parks. Here, an idea of a new approach for an ecohydrological assessment by indicating cold stenothermic taxa is given as an outlook. References Reiss, M., Steiner, H. & S. Zaenker (2009): The Biospeleological Register of the Hesse Federation for Cave and Karst Research (Germany). Cave and Karst Science 35(1), pp.25-34.

  20. Final results on the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in the Gresten Klippenbelt (Austria): Macro-, micro-, nannofossils, isotopes, geochemistry, susceptibility, gamma-log and palaeomagnetic data as environmental proxies of the early Penninic Ocean history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukeneder, A.; Halásová, E.; Kroh, A.; Mayrhofer, S.; Pruner, P.; Reháková, D.; Schnabl, P.; Sprovieri, M.

    2009-04-01

    and magnetostratigraphic data, the entire succession of the Nutzhof section embraces a duration of approx. 8 million years (approx. 150-142 Ma). The deposition of the limestones, marly limestones and marls in this interval occurred during depositionally (e.g. tectonics) unstable conditions.The ammonite fauna comprises 6 different genera, each apparently represented by a single species. The occurrence at the Nutzhof section is dominated by ammonites of the perisphinctid-type. Ammonitina are the most frequent component (60 per cent; Subplanites and Haploceras), followed by the Phylloceratina (25per cent; Ptychophylloceras and Phylloceras), and the Lytoceratina (15 per cent; represented by Lytoceras and Leptotetragonites). The ammonite fauna consists solely of Mediterranean elements. Crinoids. Only the Tithonian part of the section proved suitable for bulk sampling. Four crinoid taxa (Margocrinus cf. pentagonalis, Saccocoma tenella, Crassicoma ? sp., and Phyllocrinus belbekensis could be documented. Among these only S. tenella and probably Crassicoma ? sp. appear to be autochthonous, the others are interpreted as transported based on preservation and size range. Observed changes in lithology and microfauna may be reflect geodynamically induced palaeogeographic changes and/or basinal deepening. Microfossils. The biostratigraphic study based on the distribution of calpionellids allowed us to distinguish the Boneti Subzone of the Chitinoidella Zone in the Nutzhof section. The J/K boundary in this section is situated between the Crassicollaria and Calpionella Zone (interval limited by samples 7.0-5.6). This base is defined by the morphological change of Calpionella alpina tests. The base of the Crassicollaria Zone approximately coincides with the onset of Tintinnopsella remanei and the base of the standard Calpionella Zone, with the monospecific calpionellid association being dominated by Calpionella alpina. Two further Subzones (Ferasini and Elliptica) of the standard

  1. Photosynthetic performance of Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl. (Caryophyllaceae in a high-elevation site of the Andes of central Chile Desempeño fotosintético de Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl. (Caryophyllaceae en los Andes de Chile central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ANGÉLICA CASANOVA-KATNY

    2006-03-01

    midió la tasa de intercambio gaseoso y la fluorescencia de la clorofila en tres días típicos durante la estación de crecimiento (enero, marzo y mayo. Adicionalmente, se realizaron una serie de curvas de respuesta a incrementos en la intensidad lumínica a diferentes temperaturas para estimar la propensión de C. quitensis a la fotoinhibición. La fotosíntesis neta (Pn fue baja (ca. de 2,0 mmol CO2 m-2s-1 en la mañana y mediodía en días con alta radiación fotosintéticamente activa (PAR, sobre los 1.500 mmol fotones m-2s-1. La tasa de fotosíntesis aumentó en la tarde (3,5-4,8 mmol CO2 m-2s-1 cuando la radiación PAR disminuyó a alrededor de 1.000 mmol fotones m-2s-1. Fv/Fm osciló entre 0,7-0,75 en los registros de enero y marzo, decreciendo en mayo a 0,67. Hojas medidas a 15 y 22 °C mostraron un leve descenso en F PSII con el aumento en la intensidad de luz actínica, aunque la fracción de centros de reacción abiertos (expresados por qP fue mayor a 22 °C. NPQ fue saturado a intensidades lumínicas cercanas a 500 mmol photons m-2s-1 en hojas a 22 °C, y a intensidades mayores en hojas a 15 °C, sugiriendo que NPQ puede ser un mecanismo de disipación energética bajo condiciones de altas intensidades lumínicas y altas temperaturas en el campo. Nuestros resultados indican que C. quitensis no sufre fotodaño durante los ciclos diurnos, y probablemente, los bajos Pn registrados durante algunos periodos diurnos están relacionados con fotorrespiración, la cual ha sido sugerida como un mecanismo muy eficiente en la protección de plantas alpinas contra la fotoinhibición. Nuestros resultados también son comparados con el desempeño fotosintético de las poblaciones de C. quitensis en la Antártica marítima

  2. Uso de própolis e ácido ascórbico na criopreservação do sêmen caprino Use of propolis and ascorbic acid on goat semen cryopreservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Fonseca de Castilho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos neste estudo foram verificar se a própolis e o ácido ascórbico têm efeito sobre a integridade da membrana plasmática dos espermatozoides de caprinos e investigar o potencial desses antioxidantes no uso de meios diluidores de criopreservação de sêmen caprino. Foram utilizados cinco bodes adultos das raças Alpina (n = 2 e Saanen (n = 3. Após a coleta de sêmen, realizaram-se o exame físico do sêmen e morfológico dos espermatozoides, o teste supravital e o teste hiposmótico. Em seguida, o sêmen fresco foi diluído com o diluidor Bioxcell® (controle; Bioxcell® + 0,25% de extrato liofilizado de própolis; Bioxcell® + 0,5% de extrato liofilizado de própolis; Bioxcell® + 0,05% de ácido ascórbico; ou Bioxcell® + 0,25% de ácido ascórbico. Após as diluições finais, foram avaliados a motilidade e o vigor espermático obtidos com cada diluidor e posteriormente o sêmen foi submetido a envase, resfriamento e congelamento. No sêmen fresco, os aspectos físicos e morfológicos e os resultados dos testes supravital e hiposmótico não diferiram entre os animais nem entre raças. As médias gerais de motilidade e vigor espermático e dos testes supravital e hiposmótico obtidos logo após o descongelamento e após 3 horas de teste de termorresistência diferiram entre si, de modo que o diluidor contendo ácido ascórbico e o controle foram similares e superiores àqueles contendo própolis. O ácido ascórbico mantém a integridade estrutural da membrana dos espermatozoides durante o processo de criopreservação, bem como sua viabilidade após o teste de termorresistência, e pode ser uma alternativa na composição de diluentes para criopreservação de sêmen caprino; a própolis não é eficaz na manutenção da integridade e da viabilidade espermática pós-descongelamento e é tóxica aos espermatozoides nas concentrações de 0,25 e 0,5%.The objectives of this study were to verify whether propolis and ascorbic

  3. La costra biológica del suelo: Avances recientes en el conocimiento de su estructura y función ecológica Biological soil crusts: Recent advances in our knowledge of their structure and ecological function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREA P CASTILLO-MONROY

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La costra biológica del suelo (CBS es una comunidad biótica formada por la íntima asociación entre partículas de suelo, cianobacterias, algas, hongos, líquenes, hepáticas y briófitos. La CBS está ampliamente distribuida en muchos tipos de suelo y en casi todas las comunidades vegetales donde la luz alcanza la superficie del suelo, si bien predomina en zonas áridas, semiáridas, alpinas y polares. Este conjunto de organismos proporciona un aporte importante de carbono y nitrógeno al suelo, incrementa su estabilidad y lo protege frente a la acción erosiva de la lluvia y el viento. También modula la infiltración y afecta de manera directa a las plantas vasculares y otros organismos. El conocimiento de la biología, ecología y fisiología de la CBS ha aumentado ampliamente en los últimos años. No obstante, existe un vacío de información importante respecto a la influencia de la CBS en los ciclos biogeoquímicos, especialmente del fósforo y carbono, así como a todo lo referente a las interacciones bióticas, tanto entre los componentes de la CBS entre sí como entre la CBS y los microorganismos, plantas vasculares e invertebrados. Es necesario descentralizar la información y extenderla a otras áreas del mundo, ya que la mayoría de los estudios se han realizado en zonas áridas y semiáridas de los Estados Unidos de América, Australia, Israel y China. Es especialmente preocupante la falta de estudios en toda América Central y del Sur, pese a que la CBS debe ser un componente biótico de primera magnitud en países como Chile, Argentina, Perú y México, por citar solo unos ejemplos. Con el fin de despertar el interés de la comunidad científica de habla hispana sobre este importante conjunto de organismos, y de identificar los principales avances y lagunas existentes en nuestro conocimiento sobre su ecología, en el presente trabajo revisamos las características y distribución de la CBS, así como sus efectos en la

  4. New habitats, new menaces: Centaurea x kleinii (C. moncktonii x C. solstitialis, a new hybrid species between two alien weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna, A.

    2010-12-01

    origen híbrido. La nueva especie podría convertirse en una mala hierba invasora gracias a su reproducción vegetativa. La que suponemos especie materna, a la cual el híbrido se acerca morfológicamente y puede que fisiológicamente, es una mala hierba rastrera bien conocida de las praderas alpinas en toda Europa. [ct] L’alteració antròpica de l’hàbitat dóna pas a la cohabitació d’espècies importades que mai coexistirien en el seu àmbit natural. Centaurea solstitialis i Centaurea moncktonii són dues espècies invasores les distribucions de les quals a Euràsia gairebé no se solapen. Després de la seva introducció a Amèrica del Nord, l’expansió invasiva va portar a distribucions superposades. Malgrat que els requeriments ambientals de les dues espècies són diferents, la proximitat d’hàbitats diversos (dins de l’abast dels pol·linitzadors ha donat lloc a diversos casos d’hibridació natural entre ambdues. L’ encreuament resultant entre dues espècies, llunyanament emparentades, és una planta perenne estèril. Molts dels caràcters de l’híbrid són intermitjos entre les seves espècies parentals, però morfològicament és més semblant a Centaurea moncktonii (probablement l’espècie materna, i al seu torn també d’origen híbrid. La nova espècie podria convertir-se en una mala herba invasora gràcies a la seva reproducció vegetativa. La que suposem espècie materna, a la qual l’híbrid s’acosta morfològicament i potser fisiològicament, és una mala herba prostrada ben coneguda de les pastures alpines a tota Europa.

  5. Consecuencias de las variaciones microclimáticas sobre la visita de insectos polinizadores en dos especies de Chaetanthera (Asteraceae en los Andes de Chile central Consequences of microclimate variation on insect pollinator visitation in two species of Chaetanthera (Asteraceae in the central Chilean Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN TORRES-DÍAZ

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available La actividad de polinizadores puede ser afectada por factores bióticos (e.g., densidad floral en el parche, despliegue floral o por factores abióticos (e.g., temperatura, velocidad de viento, nubosidad. A pesar de la notable variación local, estacional e interanual en temperatura en zonas alpinas, las consecuencias de la variación microclimática local sobre la actividad de los polinizadores han recibido escasa atención en ambientes de alta montaña. En este estudio comparamos las tasas de visita a flores de polinizadores realizadas sobre poblaciones de exposición norte y oeste, en Chaetanthera apiculata (3.100 m de altitud, y en poblaciones de exposición este y oeste en C. lycopodioides (3.300 m de altitud. Se estudiaron los sistemas de reproducción de ambas especies para determinar su nivel de dependencia de un agente de polinización externo. En C. apiculata, la población que crece sobre la ladera de exposición norte estuvo sujeta a mayores temperaturas diurnas (1,8 °C y mayores tasas de visita (7,8 veces que la población sobre la ladera de exposición oeste. En C. lycopodioides, a su vez, la ladera de exposición este fue más cálida (3 °C y más visitada (cuatro veces que la población de exposición oeste. Mientras en C. apiculata, solo Faunula leucoglene (Lepidóptera: Satyridae presentó mayor actividad en la población más cálida, en C. lycopodioides, solo F. leucoglene y Liphantus sp. (Himenóptera: Andrenidae tuvieron mayor actividad en la población más cálida. La tasa de visitas de Faunula leucoglene fue afectada por la temperatura en C. apiculata y C. lycopodioides. Ambas especies, C. apiculata y C. lycopodioides, son parcialmente autocompatibles, y por lo tanto requieren polen exógeno para alcanzar una producción de semillas máxima. Nuestros resultados muestran que en ambientes de alta montaña las tasas de visita de polinizadores son altamente variables y que los factores microclimáticos pueden generar m

  6. Geoquímica de las aguas termales con CO2 del SE de las Cordilleras Béticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín-Vallejo, M.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydrothermalism of the south-east peninsular Alpine zone has been studied under different points of view, such as the geological control, the definition and systematising of its chemistry types and base temperatures, among others, showing always its notable development and its connection with geothermal anomalies of regional character. One of the problems that seems to carry important genetic implications, as well as implications for the utilisation of this water, is the content in carbon dioxide. Twenty-seven physicalchemical parameters in twenty-two water points on a fifty inventory have been studied. High temperatures were recorded for almost all the sampling points, varying between 20 and 41°C. The waters have conductivity between 771 and 5,030 μS cm-1 and increased to the east of the faults systems of Carboneras-Palomares-Guadalentín. In general, the concentration in bicarbonate was high, between 3 and 30 meq/l. The waters present high PC02, being arrived to measure values over 1.17 atmospheres and whose spatial variations are related to the proximity to the faults systems of Carboneras-Palomares-Guadalentín, the one which establishes a threshold between different thickness of the crust. Chemical equilibrium modelling shows that the waters are oversaturated in dolomite, in general saturated in calcite, and undersaturated in gypsum. The high content in CO2, besides the process of dedolomititation caused by the addition of S04~ to the system, helps the formation of travertines in many of the studied points. Isotopic studies show that δ13C values are in the range -S.I to -3.1‰, and reveals that there is an insignificant CO2 supply of deep origin The hydrothermal system of this zone is related to the proposed «C02 Alpine Belt», associated here with a series of grabens with seismic and neotectonic activities.El hidrotermalismo de las zonas alpinas peninsulares ha sido estudiado bajo diferentes puntos de vista, como son

  7. Assessing and comparing climatic control on distribution and reproduction of alpine and lowland species in the subalpine habitat of western Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meineri, Eric

    2012-02-15

    Aims and background: Species range shift is among the most well-documented responses to climate change. As a result, a growing number of studies model species climatic niches to predict how species ranges may displace in space and time (SDM studies). These studies are criticised because they do not include reproduction in their predictions. Other studies use empirical data to assess climatic control on reproductive life-stages. However, the climatic niche of reproductive life-stages may not determine the climatic niche of species, limiting the ability of both types of studies to assess the effect of climate change. In this synthesis, I compare the results of a SDM study (Paper I) with the results of two empirical studies focussing on flowering performance (Paper II) and seedling emergence (Paper III). The research focuses on the leading and rear altitudinal edges of lowland and alpine species ranges, respectively, as those are the two delimiting fronts that are expected to be specifically vulnerable to climate change. Reproduction response to climate is a complex process because it involves several sub-stages that can be affected by climate in several ways. Therefore, the results included in this synthesis integrate several direct and size-dependent climatic effects on flowering performance and report on the importance of both the climate conditions occurring at the recruitment sites and those experienced by the source populations for seedling emergence. Study area and species: This thesis makes use of the sub-alpine and alpine landscapes of western Norway to investigate climatic control on species occurrence and reproduction. This study area was chosen because it includes the leading altitudinal edge of lowland species ranges and the rear altitudinal edge of alpine species ranges. The research uses Viola biflora (alpine), Viola palustris (lowland), Veronica alpina (alpine), and Veronica officinalis (lowland) as study cases because these species are common in the

  8. Attempts of whole-rock K/Ar dating of mesozoic volcanic and hypabissal igneous rocks from the Central Subbetic (Southern Spain: A case of differential Argon loss related to very low-grade metamorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz de Galdeano, C.

    1988-04-01

    ólo satisfactorias en relación con un cierto número de muestras de rocas volcánicas, no obstante, con una concordancia respecto de las edades estratigráficas en el orden del 10% relativo; las del resto, fundamentalmente muestras de «ofitas», presentan una fuerte dispersión, con diferencias que pueden alcanzar valores superiores a los 30 Ma, incluso en conjuntos provenientes del mismo afloramiento o localidad. Se concluye que las pérdidas de Ar causantes de los rejuvenecimientos de las edades analíticas observados son debidos a la existencia de transformaciones metamórficas alpinas, de muy bajo grado, que afectaron con mayor intensidad a las ofitas que a las rocas volcánicas presentes en niveles estratigráficos más altos. Otros cambios posteriores al emplazamiento magmático, tales como el grado de oxidación secundaria, son así mismo distintivos en ambos grupos de muestras al tiempo que proveen de soporte adicional al concepto de que el medio de alteración de las «ofitas» debió haber producido condiciones favorables a una interacción roca/fluidos más penetrativa y, por tanto, una recristalización más homogénea. En conjunto, la actividad magmática de la que derivaron las «ofitas» podría haber comenzado en el Trias terminal y continuado en el Jurásico Inferior. Tanto las «ofitas» como las volcanitas se consideran el resultado de eventos magmáticos ligados a movimientos de distensivos a transtensivos que afectaron a las cuencas externas de las Cordilleras Béticas desde el Trías terminal hasta el Cretáceo inferior.

  9. Óleo de soja e própolis na alimentação de cabras leiteiras Soybean oil and propolis in the diets of dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério de Paula Lana

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste experimento, verificar os efeitos da adição de óleo de soja e/ou de extrato etanólico de própolis na alimentação de cabras leiteiras sobre o consumo, a digestibilidade de nutrientes, a produção e composição do leite e alguns parâmetros de fermentação ruminal. Foram utilizadas dezesseis cabras Alpinas (quatro fistuladas no rúmen. Os animais foram alocados em quatro quadrados latinos 4x4, em arranjo fatorial 2x2 dos tratamentos. Foram adicionados ao concentrado 0 ou 120 g de óleo de soja e 0 ou 10 mL de extrato etanólico de própolis/animal/dia (30% p/v de própolis bruta moída em solução alcoólica a 70% em água. As dietas foram isoprotéicas, com 11,5% de PB, e compostas de 67% de silagem de milho e 33% de concentrado à base de fubá de milho e farelo de soja. O óleo de soja reduziu os consumos de matéria seca (%PV e g/kg PV0,75, de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e de carboidratos não-fibrosos; diminuiu a digestibilidade da FDN; aumentou a digestibilidade da PB e do EE e o teor de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT; reduziu a produção e aumentou os percentuais de gordura, proteína e sólidos totais no leite; aumentou o pH; e reduziu a relação acetato:propionato no líquido ruminal. Houve interação entre óleo de soja e extrato etanólico de própolis, de modo que o óleo de soja reduziu os consumos de MS, MO e FDN (em kg/animal/dia somente na presença de própolis e aumentou o consumo de PB na ausência de própolis. O óleo de soja mostrou-se mais efetivo em alterar as variáveis analisadas que o extrato etanólico de própolis.The objective of this experiment was to verify the effects of soybean oil and/or ethanolic extract of propolis, in the diets of dairy goats, on intake, on digestibility of nutrients, on milk production and composition and some ruminal parameters. Sixteen Alpine female goats were used, in which four animals fistulated in the rumen. The animals were allocated in four 4

  10. Análise das metodologias diretas e indiretas para a contagem de células somáticas no leite de cabras hígidas Analysis of direct and indirect methods for somatic cell counts in the milk of healthy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Medici Madureira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A particularidade da secreção láctea caprina, do tipo apócrina, diferente da secreção merócrina da vaca, leva a erros de interpretação durante a realização de técnicas de avaliação da celularidade do leite de fêmeas desta espécie. Portanto, o presente trabalho teve o objetivo de determinar a contagem de células somáticas pelo método indireto California Mastitis Test (CMT, e por métodos diretos, incluindo a contagem por citometria de fluxo e a contagem microscópica direta, através da coloração de verde de metil e pironina-Y, além de comparar os métodos de contagem celular. Foram analisadas 102 amostras de 51 fêmeas caprinas, das raças Saanen, Parda Alpina e Toggenburg, criadas no Estado de São Paulo. Os animais foram categorizados segundo a fase da lactação, exame físico da glândula mamária e exame do leite. As amostras foram colhidas, após a realização do exame Califórnia Mastitis Test, em duas alíquotas, uma destinada à contagem celular automática e a outra, a contagem microscópica direta, utilizando-se o corante verde de metil e pironina- Y. De acordo com os diferentes escores do CMT, observou- se 74,5% de amostras negativas, 8,8% de amostras com escore traços, 8,8% de amostras ligeiramente positivas (+, 6,8% de amostras fracamente positivas (++ e 0,9% de amostras fortemente positivas (+++. Os valores medianos das contagens de células somáticas presentes no leite de cabras, avaliadas através de contador automático e microscopia direta, e analisadas de acordo com os diferentes escores do CMT, foram, respectivamente, 181.000, 578.000, 628.000, 1.421.500 e 5.542.000 células/mL de leite e 74.991, 271.396, 71.420, 640.995 e 5.049.394 células/ mL de leite, nos escores negativo, traços, +, ++ e +++. Os valores medianos obtidos através da contagem de células somáticas pelo método automático e microscópico direto, de acordo com as fases de lactação foram de 159.500, 508.000 e 277.500 c

  11. The spider family Micropholcommatidae (Arachnida: Araneae: Araneoidea: a relimitation and revision at the generic level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rix

    2010-02-01

    .; the 20 previously described species of Textricella are thus transferred into Eterosonycha or other newly described genera. The Textricellini includes 10 genera from Australasia and Chile: Eterosonycha has four species, including the type E. alpina Butler (=Textricella parva Hickman syn. n., E. complexa (Forster, E. aquilina sp. n. and E. ocellata sp. n.; Epigastrina gen. n. has three species, including the type E. fulva (Hickman, E. loongana sp. n. and E. typhlops sp. n.; Guiniella gen. n. is monotypic, with G. tropica (Forster; Raveniella gen. n. has three species, including the type R. luteola (Hickman, R. hickmani (Forster and R. peckorum sp. n.; Rayforstia gen. n. has 12 species, including the type R. vulgaris (Forster, the two new species R. lordhowensis sp. n. and R. raveni sp. n., and the nine additional species R. antipoda (Forster, R. insula (Forster, R. mcfarlanei (Forster, R. plebeia (Forster, R. propinqua (Forster, R. salmoni (Forster, R. scuta (Forster, R. signata (Forster and R. wisei (Forster; Normplatnicka gen. n. has three species, including the type N. lamingtonensis (Forster, N. chilensis sp. n. and N. barrettae sp. n.; Eperiella gen. n. has two species, including the type E. alsophila sp. n., and E. hastings sp. n.; Algidiella gen. n. is monotypic, with A. aucklandica (Forster; Taliniella gen. n. has two species, including the type T. nigra (Forster, and T. vinki sp. n.; and Tinytrella gen. n. is monotypic, with T. pusilla (Forster. The micropholcommatine tribe Patelliellini trib. n. includes only one monotypic genus, Patelliella gen. n., represented by the enigmatic species Patelliella adusta sp. n. from Lord Howe Island. The subfamily Taphiassinae subfam. n. includes two genera of distinctive, heavily punctate Micropholcommatidae from Australasia: Taphiassa Simon has six species, including the type T. impressa Simon, T. punctata (Forster, T. castanea sp. n., T. globosa sp. n., T. magna sp. n. and T. robertsi sp. n.; the genus Parapua Forster

  12. Origen, transporte y deposición del uranio en los yacimientos en pizarras de la provincia de Salamanca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arribas, A.

    1985-12-01

    ás importante de las que existen en España de esta clase , se discuten las hipótesis anteriores y se exponen los principales caracteres metalogénicos del yacimiento. Entre éstos, los más significativos son : el alto contenido geoquímico en U, de 30 a 200 ppm, de las pizarras ampelíticas, que son predominantes en la zona; la naturaleza y los procesos de alteración, cloritización y hematización, de las rocas encajantes; la paragénesis de baja temperatura; las peculiares texturas geopetales de los minerales filonianos tardíos; la edad radiométrica de la pechblenda, 37 a 57 m. a.; el rango de temperatura y salinidad de las inclusiones fluidas de los carbonatos de la ganga, variable entre 230º y menos de 70ºC y 0 y 25% equiv. NaCl respectivamente; y el carácter superficial de los procesos tectónicos que dieron lugar a la fracturación hidráulica y a las brechas que contienen la mineralización. Finalmente, se compara ésta con la de otros yacimientos españoles y extranjeros, y se atribuye su origen a una reconcentración del U de las filitas ampelíticas como consecuencia del bombeo sísmico provocado en los materiales del CEG por los contragolpes de la orogenia alpina.
    De acuerdo con esta idea , las tensiones tangenciales que se desarrollaron en el basamento hercínico durante la primera mitad del Terciario habrían dado lugar a episódicas removilizaciones del U de los metasedimentos fértiles, el cual, al producirse el colapso de las zonas de dilatación, habría sido expulsado hacia la superficie por los fluidos hidrotermales de carácter geotérmico que depositaron el U y los minerales acompañantes en las brechas y fracturas asociadas con las fallas de desgarre.