WorldWideScience

Sample records for sand springs superfund

  1. 78 FR 47317 - Ore Knob Mine Superfund Site; Laurel Springs, Ashe County, North Carolina; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Ore Knob Mine Superfund Site; Laurel Springs, Ashe County, North Carolina; Notice of Settlement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of Settlement. SUMMARY: Under 122(h) of the...

  2. 75 FR 11938 - Gerdau Ameristeel, Sand Springs, OK; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Gerdau Ameristeel, Sand Springs, OK; Notice of Termination of... Ameristeel, Sand Springs, Oklahoma. The petitioner has requested that the petition be withdrawn. Consequently...

  3. Superfund Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer represents active Superfund Sites published by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). These data were extracted from the Superfund Enterprise...

  4. Growth of legume and nonlegume catch crops and residual-N effects in spring barley on coarse sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askegaard, Margrethe; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2007-01-01

    Askegaard, M. and Eriksen, E. 2007. Growth of legume and nonlegume catch crops and residual-N effects in spring barley on coarse sand. J. Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 170, 733-780.......Askegaard, M. and Eriksen, E. 2007. Growth of legume and nonlegume catch crops and residual-N effects in spring barley on coarse sand. J. Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 170, 733-780....

  5. Digital Data from the Great Sand Dunes and Poncha Springs Aeromagnetic Surveys, South-Central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenth, B.J.; Grauch, V.J.S.; Bankey, Viki; New Sense Geophysics, Ltd.

    2009-01-01

    This report contains digital data, image files, and text files describing data formats and survey procedures for two high-resolution aeromagnetic surveys in south-central Colorado: one in the eastern San Luis Valley, Alamosa and Saguache Counties, and the other in the southern Upper Arkansas Valley, Chaffee County. In the San Luis Valley, the Great Sand Dunes survey covers a large part of Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve and extends south along the mountain front to the foot of Mount Blanca. In the Upper Arkansas Valley, the Poncha Springs survey covers the town of Poncha Springs and vicinity. The digital files include grids, images, and flight-line data. Several derivative products from these data are also presented as grids and images, including two grids of reduced-to-pole aeromagnetic data and data continued to a reference surface. Images are presented in various formats and are intended to be used as input to geographic information systems, standard graphics software, or map plotting packages.

  6. Superfund Query

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Superfund Query allows users to retrieve data from the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) database.

  7. Potential impacts to perennial springs from tar sand mining, processing, and disposal on the Tavaputs Plateau, Utah, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, William P.; Frederick, Logan E.; Millington, Mallory R. [University of Utah, Department of Geology & Geophysics, Salt lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Vala, David [Murray High School, Murray, UT 84107 (United States); Reese, Barbara K. [Butler Middle School, Cottonwood Heights, UT 84121 (United States); Freedman, Dina R. [Hillside Middle School, Salt Lake City, UT 84108 (United States); Stenten, Christina J. [Draper Park Middle School, Draper, UT 84020 (United States); Trauscht, Jacob S.; Tingey, Christopher E.; Kip Solomon, D.; Fernandez, Diego P.; Bowen, Gabriel J. [University of Utah, Department of Geology & Geophysics, Salt lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Similar to fracking, the development of tar sand mining in the U.S. has moved faster than understanding of potential water quality impacts. Potential water quality impacts of tar sand mining, processing, and disposal to springs in canyons incised approximately 200 m into the Tavaputs Plateau, at the Uinta Basin southern rim, Utah, USA, were evaluated by hydrogeochemical sampling to determine potential sources of recharge, and chemical thermodynamic estimations to determine potential changes in transfer of bitumen compounds to water. Because the ridgetops in an area of the Tavaputs Plateau named PR Spring are starting to be developed for their tar sand resource, there is concern for potential hydrologic connection between these ridgetops and perennial springs in adjacent canyons on which depend ranching families, livestock, wildlife and recreationalists. Samples were collected from perennial springs to examine possible progression with elevation of parameters such as temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, isotopic tracers of phase change, water-rock interaction, and age since recharge. The groundwater age dates indicate that the springs are recharged locally. The progression of hydrogeochemical parameters with elevation, in combination with the relatively short groundwater residence times, indicate that the recharge zone for these springs includes the surrounding ridges, and thereby suggests a hydrologic connection between the mining, processing, disposal area and the springs. Estimations based on chemical thermodynamic approaches indicate that bitumen compounds will have greatly enhanced solubility in water that comes into contact with the residual bitumen–solvent mixture in disposed tailings relative to water that currently comes into contact with natural tar. - Highlights: • The potential water quality impacts of the first US tar sand development are considered. • Analyses of perennial springs in adjacent canyons indicate hydrologic

  8. Markers inside wood : tree rings as archives of insect outbreaks, drift-sand dynamics, and spring flooding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Copini, P.

    2015-01-01

    MARKERS INSIDE WOOD – TREE RINGS AS ARCHIVES OF INSECT OUTBREAKS, DRIFT-SAND DYNAMICS AND SPRING FLOODING Trees are long-living organisms that record ecologically relevant information in their xylem that can be accessed by dendrochronology, the study of tree rings. Specific environmental

  9. Superfund Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides information on the superfund enforcement cleanup program and finding the companies or people responsible for contamination at a site, and negotiating with them to do the clean up themselves, or to pay for the clean up done by another party.

  10. Strip plantings planted in Spring of 1938 : Sand Lake Migratory Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains a record of vegetation planted on Sand Lake NWR in 1938. The date of the planting, the count of each species that was planted, and a survival...

  11. Superfund Site Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes a number of individual data sets related to site-specific information for Superfund, which is governed under the Comprehensive Environmental...

  12. Superfund Technical Assistance Grants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes data related to the Superfund Technical Assistance Grant program, including grant number, award amounts, award dates, period of performance,...

  13. Superfund Redevelopment Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provides information at the national level to ensure that at every Superfund site, EPA and its partners have an effective process and the necessary tools and information needed to return the country’s most hazardous sites to productive use.

  14. Superfund Contract Laboratory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Laboratory Program (CLP) is a national network of EPA personnel, commercial laboratories, and support contractors whose primary mission is to provide data of known and documented quality to the Superfund program.

  15. Superfund: Contaminated Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contaminated sediments are a significant environmental problem and contribute to the over 3,200 fish consumption advisories nationwide. The Superfund program cleans up sediment sites that present an unacceptable risk to human health or the environment.

  16. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access Database contains a selected set of...

  17. 75 FR 49414 - Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 35 RIN 2050-AG58 Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund... addition, this amendment allows the recipient of a Superfund State Contract (SSC) to request that EPA apply... Superfund Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts. DATES: This rule is effective October 12...

  18. Superfund Cleanups and Infant Health

    OpenAIRE

    Janet Currie; Michael Greenstone; Enrico Moretti

    2011-01-01

    We are the first to examine the effect of Superfund cleanups on infant health rather than focusing on proximity to a site. We study singleton births to mothers residing within 5km of a Superfund site between 1989–2003 in five large states. Our “difference in differences” approach compares birth outcomes before and after a site clean-up for mothers who live within 2,000 meters of the site and those who live between 2,000– 5,000 meters of a site. We find that proximity to a Superfund site befor...

  19. SUPERFUND CLEANUPS AND INFANT HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Janet; Greenstone, Michael; Moretti, Enrico

    2011-05-01

    We are the first to examine the effect of Superfund cleanups on infant health rather than focusing on proximity to a site. We study singleton births to mothers residing within 5km of a Superfund site between 1989-2003 in five large states. Our "difference in differences" approach compares birth outcomes before and after a site clean-up for mothers who live within 2,000 meters of the site and those who live between 2,000- 5,000 meters of a site. We find that proximity to a Superfund site before cleanup is associated with a 20 to 25% increase in the risk of congenital anomalies.

  20. LaJolla Spring Cave Complex - Meramec Caverns

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Region 7 is directing the potentially responsible party at a groundwater contamination Superfund site in Franklin County, Mo., to perform additional work to protect workers and visitors from potentially harmful exposures at LaJolla Springs Cave Complex

  1. 40 CFR 35.6800 - Superfund State Contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Superfund State Contract. 35.6800... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Cooperative Agreements and Superfund State Contracts for Superfund Response Actions Requirements for Administering A Superfund State Contract (ssc) § 35.6800 Superfund State...

  2. Implementation of an ex situ stabilization technique at the Sand Springs superfund site to solidify and stabilize acid tar sludges involving a quick-lime based stabilization process and innovative equipment design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McManus, R.W. [SOUND Environmental Services, Inc., Dallas, TX (United States); Grajczak, P. [ARCO, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wilcoxson, J.C. [ARCO, Plano, TX (United States); Webster, S.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An old refinery site was safely remediated a year before schedule and for 25% less than final engineering estimates for the stabilization remedy thanks to energetic project management and innovative design involving ex situ stabilization/solidification of acid tar sludges. A quicklime based process, Dispersion by Chemical Reaction (DCR{trademark}), was employed to solidify and stabilize (SS) over 103,000 cubic meters (135,000 cubic yards) of petroleum waste, mostly acidic tarry sludge. The SS process was selected over competing methods because it afforded minimal volume increase, could readily achieve Record of Decision (ROD) specified physical and chemical treatment goals, could be implemented with treatment equipment that minimized emissions, and could be performed with low reagent usage and at low cost. To ensure treatment goals were achieved and an accelerated schedule met, a custom designed and fabricated transportable treatment unit (TTU) was employed to implement the process. The treated material was visually soil-like in character, it was left in stockpiles for periods of time, and it was placed and compacted in the on site landfill using standard earth-moving equipment.

  3. Superfund Site Information - Site Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes Superfund site-specific sampling information including location of samples, types of samples, and analytical chemistry characteristics of...

  4. CERCLIS (Superfund) ASCII Text Format - CPAD Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access Database (CPAD) contains a selected set...

  5. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund) - NPL Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — National Priorities List (NPL) Sites - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access...

  6. EPA Public Notice: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Reviews Cleanup at Niagara Mohawk Power Corp. Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is conducting its third five-year review of the Niagara Mohawk Power Corp. Superfund Site, located in the city of Saratoga Springs, Saratoga County, New York. This review seeks to confirm that the cleanup acti

  7. Fontainebleau Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Caspar Thrane

    2006-01-01

    The report is a summary of results from laboratory tests in the geotechncial research group on Fontainebleau sand.......The report is a summary of results from laboratory tests in the geotechncial research group on Fontainebleau sand....

  8. Superfund National Priority List (NPL) Site Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — A set of site boundaries for each site in EPA Region 1 (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont) on EPA's Superfund National...

  9. Superfund Chemical Data Matrix (SCDM) Query

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site allows you to to easily query the Superfund Chemical Data Matrix (SCDM) and generate a list of the corresponding Hazard Ranking System (HRS) factor values, benchmarks, and data elements that you need.

  10. Superfund Chemical Data Matrix (SCDM) Query - Popup

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site allows you to to easily query the Superfund Chemical Data Matrix (SCDM) and generate a list of the corresponding Hazardous Ranking System (HRS) factor values, benchmarks, and data elements that you need.

  11. Sand Lake WMD vegetation mapping project update

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Final report on the vegetation mapping project at Sand Lake Wetland Management District. This project is being completed by the use of SPRING software and ground...

  12. Diffusive flux of PAHs across sediment-water and water-air interfaces at urban superfund sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minick, D James; Anderson, Kim A

    2017-09-01

    Superfund sites may be a source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the surrounding environment. These sites can also act as PAH sinks from present-day anthropogenic activities, especially in urban locations. Understanding PAH transport across environmental compartments helps to define the relative contributions of these sources and is therefore important for informing remedial and management decisions. In the present study, paired passive samplers were co-deployed at sediment-water and water-air interfaces within the Portland Harbor Superfund Site and the McCormick and Baxter Superfund Site. These sites, located along the Willamette River (Portland, OR, USA), have PAH contamination from both legacy and modern sources. Diffusive flux calculations indicate that the Willamette River acts predominantly as a sink for low molecular weight PAHs from both the sediment and the air. The sediment was also predominantly a source of 4- and 5-ring PAHs to the river, and the river was a source of these same PAHs to the air, indicating that legacy pollution may be contributing to PAH exposure for residents of the Portland urban center. At the remediated McCormick and Baxter Superfund Site, flux measurements highlight locations within the sand and rock sediment cap where contaminant breakthrough is occurring. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2281-2289. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  13. Northern Sand Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form. This VIS image was taken at 82 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. The image is completely dominated by dunes. In sand seas, it is very common for a single type of dune to occur, and for a single predominate wind to control the alignment of the dunes. Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.2, Longitude 152.5 East (207.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution. Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  14. Superfund Sites as Anti-landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    2017-01-01

    Americans have used a range of narratives to make sense of their settlement and use of natural resources. This article focuses on narratives of environmental degradation after the United States passed legislation mandating the cleanup of toxic sites and provided a Superfund for that purpose. Three...

  15. Spring in the Arab Spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, G.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Column Gert Borg | Spring in the Arab Spring door dr. Gert Borg, onderzoeker bij Islam en Arabisch aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en voormalig directeur van het Nederlands-Vlaams Instituut Caïro Spring If, in Google, you type "Arab Spring" and hit the button, you get more than

  16. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund) - Non-NPL Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Non-NPL Sites - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access Database contains a...

  17. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) - Contaminants at CERCLIS (Superfund) Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Contaminants at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Sites - The CERCLIS Public Access Database...

  18. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund) - Responsible Parties at CERCLIS Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Responsible Parties at CERCLIS Sites - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access...

  19. Framework Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Bobkov, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to introduce reader to the Spring framework and describe it as a convenient tool for rapid application development and launching projects. It is necessary to grab the Spring issue in a broader context. That's why thesis is trying to note all the relevant technologies that are closely related to Spring, or which is Spring based on. The first step to understanding Spring is a basic knowledge of Java EE. Thesis presents the architecture of Java EE while arguing its flaws...

  20. 78 FR 23563 - LWD, Inc. Superfund Site; Calvert City, Marshall County, Kentucky; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... AGENCY LWD, Inc. Superfund Site; Calvert City, Marshall County, Kentucky; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Agencies addressing past costs concerning the LWD, Inc., Superfund Site located in Calvert City, Marshall...., Superfund Site by one of the following methods: www.epa.gov/region4/superfund/programs/enforcement...

  1. 78 FR 57852 - Warrior Rosin Spill Superfund Site, Holt, Tuscaloosa County, Alabama ; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... AGENCY Warrior Rosin Spill Superfund Site, Holt, Tuscaloosa County, Alabama ; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... costs concerning the Warrior Rosin Spill Superfund Site located in Holt, Tuscaloosa County, Alabama. The.../superfund/programs/enforcement/enforcement.html . U.S. Mail: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Superfund...

  2. 78 FR 14543 - Ward Transformer Superfund Site; Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-06

    ... AGENCY Ward Transformer Superfund Site; Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Agency has entered into a settlement at the Ward Transformer Superfund Site located in Raleigh, Wake... Superfund Site by one of the following methods: ] www.epa.gov/region4/superfund/programs/enforcement...

  3. Sands styrke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, H. Moust; Jørgensen, Mogens B.; Poulsen, H. Serup

    1975-01-01

    På grundlag af triaxialforsøg med D=7 og 20 cm og varierende højde på løse og faste lejringer af Blokhussand kan effekten af varierende højde-breddeforhold og spændingsniveau samt skalaeffekten bestemmes. Ved sammenligning med pladeforsøg med overfladelast op til 8 t/m2 kan den almindelige fremga...... fremgangsmåde ved bæreevneberegninger på sand undersøges....

  4. sand mold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačević, Lazar; Terek, Pal; Miletić, Aleksandar; Kakaš, Damir

    2014-08-01

    Interfacial heat transfer coefficient at the metal-mold interface (IHTC) was estimated by an iterative algorithm based on the function specification method. An Al-9 wt% Si alloy plate casting was made in a sand mold prepared by CO2 process. Thermal history obtained from the experiment was used to solve an inverse heat conduction problem. Acquired transient IHTC values are then given in function of the casting surface temperature at the interface. By comparing the obtained results with previous findings, the influence of grain fineness number and consequently of mold roughness on maximum IHTC values is revealed.

  5. Challenges to superfund community nutrition programs in kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaetke, Lisa; Gaetke, Kara; Bowen, Christa

    2008-03-01

    Since 2000, the University of Kentucky's (UK's) Superfund Basic Research Program (SBRP) Community Outreach Core has provided support and guidance through Superfund Community Action through Nutrition (SCAN) programs, which meet the needs of individuals and communities affected by environmental contaminants. It has been shown that nutrition may modulate the toxicity of Superfund chemicals. SCAN programs integrate nutrition education, nutrition science research, and health communication to increase understanding of health risks associated with residing near Superfund sites. Two critical tasks must be accomplished. SCAN personnel must identify and recruit affected community members, and then, offer meaningful programs. Certain quantitative outcome measures and legal issues presented both challenges and opportunities. Community members preferred qualitative evaluation discussions, which showed increased knowledge and improved attitudes following SCAN programs. SCAN, in full partnership with affected communities, translates safe, effective nutrition information to reduce health risks associated with exposure to Superfund pollutants.

  6. Beginning Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Caliskan, Mert

    2015-01-01

    Get up to speed quickly with this comprehensive guide toSpring Beginning Spring is the complete beginner's guide toJava's most popular framework. Written with an eye towardreal-world enterprises, the book covers all aspects of applicationdevelopment within the Spring Framework. Extensive samples withineach chapter allow developers to get up to speed quickly byproviding concrete references for experimentation, building askillset that drives successful application development byexploiting the full capabilities of Java's latest advances. Spring provides the exact toolset required to build anent

  7. Just Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Konda, Madhusudhan

    2011-01-01

    Get a concise introduction to Spring, the increasingly popular open source framework for building lightweight enterprise applications on the Java platform. This example-driven book for Java developers delves into the framework's basic features, as well as advanced concepts such as containers. You'll learn how Spring makes Java Messaging Service easier to work with, and how its support for Hibernate helps you work with data persistence and retrieval. Throughout Just Spring, you'll get your hands deep into sample code, beginning with a problem that illustrates dependency injection, Spring's co

  8. Sand Diver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Alan J.

    2005-01-01

    A few years ago, I was preparing to teach a summer enrichment program for middle school students at the University of Wisconsin-Stout. With swimming on the minds of most kids during the summer, I thought buoyancy would be a fun topic to discuss. An interesting way to introduce this concept is by discussing the beer-drinking balloonist who, in a lawn chair, floated to 11,000 feet above Los Angeles in 1997. However, I needed a hands-on project and was not about to go purchase some lawn chairs to duplicate this experiment. A simple submersible called the "Sand Diver" was designed and is now used as a hands-on activity for my introductory physics course.

  9. Superfund amendment should protect the cleanup industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alpert, C.S. (Earth Technology Corp., Long Beach, CA (United States))

    1994-05-01

    Congress finally is close to amending Superfund. Judging from published reports, everyone seems ready for a new approach. The Clinton administration has recommended that contaminated sites be cleaned up no more than necessary for their intended uses. Congress also seems ready to deal with the thorny problems posed by Superfund liability. Ironically, at the moment reform is in the air, the environmental services industry is faced with a threat of which Washington seems to be unaware. At stake is the industry's survival, and Congress must be urged to address the problem immediately. This threat is a recent federal court ruling that an environmental engineer and a remediation contractor face joint and several liability for their client's pollution. The owner of an industrial facility contaminated with PCBs wanted to sell the property and hired an environmental contractor to clean up the site. The owner also hired an engineering company as its onsite representative and consultant. The owner subsequently sold the site to another company and was sued after the buyer found more PCB contamination at the site. The original owner, in turn, filed a cross-claim against its engineering consultant and remediation contractor. In this case, the original site owner alleged that the engineer and remediation contractor were responsible under CERCLA for the contamination. The contractor and engineering company asked the court to dismiss them from the lawsuit, but the court refused, holding that the engineers and remediation contractor may be considered potentially responsible parties under Superfunds as operators'' or transporters''.

  10. It's in the sand

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive

    2016-01-01

    Sand is sand isn’t it? Sand gets everywhere but rather than a nuisance it is a valuable, high-purity raw material. Clive Mitchell, Industrial Minerals Specialist at the British Geological Survey (BGS), talks us through what sand is, what it can be used for and how to find it. His exploration of sand takes us from the deserts of Arabia to the damp sand pits of Mansfield!

  11. Feasibility study for the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lincoff, A.H. [US Environmental Protection Agency, San Francisco, CA (United States). Region IX; Costan, G.P.; Montgomery, M.S.; White, P.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    The United Heckathom Superfund Site in Richmond, California, was used to formulate pesticides from approximately 1947 to 1966. Soils at the site and sediments in the harbor were contaminated with various chlorinated pesticides, primarily DDT, as a result of these activities. The US Environmental Protection Agency listed the site on the Superfund National Priorities List in 1990. This document is part of the Remedial Investigation and Feasibility Study phase of the Superfund response, which will provide the basis for selection of a final remedy that will protect human health and the environment and achieve compliance with federal and state envirorunental laws.

  12. Region 9 NPL Sites (Superfund Sites) Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    NPL site POLYGON locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup under the Superfund program. Eligibility is determined by a scoring method called Hazard Ranking System. Sites with high scores are listed on the NPL. Area covered by this data set include Arizona, California, Nevada, Hawaii, Guam, American Samoa, Northern Marianas and Trust Territories. Attributes include NPL status codes, NPL industry type codes and environmental indicators. Related table, NPL_Contaminants contains information about contaminated media types and chemicals. This is a one-to-many relate and can be related to the feature class using the relationship classes under the Feature Data Set ENVIRO_CONTAMINANT. Generally, each NPL polygon has a separate source. Information about sources for each polygon can be found in the related table, NPL_POLY_METADATA. This table contains a record for each site that has information about the source. Polygons for non-Federal Facility sites were updated in January, 2007 for the Superfund Work Load Models project. Each polygon was approved by the site RPM. Where available, the majority of these polygons represent the surface expression of the extent of the contamination. All Federal Facilities are represented by the facility boundary. The following sites currently have no polygon data available at this time: Alameda Naval Air Station, Jet Pr

  13. Human Health Toxicity Values in Superfund Risk Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    This memorandum revises the hierarchy of human health toxicity values generally recommended for use inr isk assessments, originally presented in Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund Volume I, Part A.

  14. Strategy to Ensure Institutional Control Implementation at Superfund Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document sets forth EPA’s strategy (Strategy) for ensuring that institutional controls (ICs) are successfully implemented at Superfund sites, with an emphasis on evaluating ICs at sites where all construction of all remedies is complete (construction complete sites).

  15. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Enforcement Superfund Tracking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Enforcement Superfund Tracking System (ESTS) collects publicly available information from the California Secretary of State on businesses. Learn how this data is collected, how it will be used, access to the data, and the purpose of data collection.

  16. Superfund Chemical Data Matrix (SCDM) Query - April 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    This site allows you to to easily query the Superfund Chemical Data Matrix (SCDM) and generate a list of the corresponding Hazardous Ranking System (HRS) factor values, benchmarks, and data elements that you need.

  17. Remediation System Evaluation, Savage Municipal Water Supply Superfund Site (PDF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Savage Municipal Water Supply Superfund Site, located on the western edge of Milford, New Hampshire, consists of a source area and an extended plume that is approximately 6,000 feet long and 2,500 feet wide.

  18. Report: Remedial Project Manager Turnover at Superfund Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2001-M-000015, June 15, 2001. We determined that EPA Region III did not have formal procedures in place to mitigate continuity problems caused by turnover of EPA personnel in the Superfund program.

  19. Industrial sand and gravel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolley, T.P.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2012 was about 49.5 Mt (55 million st), increasing 13 percent compared with that of 2011. Some important end uses for industrial sand and gravel include abrasives, filtration, foundry, glassmaking, hydraulic fracturing sand (frac sand) and silicon metal applications.

  20. Spring performance tester for miniature extension springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzbrenner, Bradley; Boyce, Brad

    2017-05-16

    A spring performance tester and method of testing a spring are disclosed that has improved accuracy and precision over prior art spring testers. The tester can perform static and cyclic testing. The spring tester can provide validation for product acceptance as well as test for cyclic degradation of springs, such as the change in the spring rate and fatigue failure.

  1. Eastern Scheldt Sand, Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. T; Madsen, E. B.; Schaarup-Jensen, A. L.

    The present data report contains data from 13 drained triaxial tests, performed on two different sand types in the Soil Mechanics Laboratory at Aalborg University in March, 1997. Two tests have been performed on Baskarp Sand No. 15, which has already ken extensively tested in the Soil Mechanics...... Laboratory. The remaining 11 triaxial tests have ben performed on Eastern Scheldt Sand, which is a material not yet investigated at the Soil Mechanics Laboratory. In the first pari of this data report, the characteristics of the two sand types in question will be presented. Next, a description...

  2. 48 CFR 1426.7103 - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (Superfund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (Superfund Minority Contractors Utilization... Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) (Superfund Minority Contractors Utilization...

  3. Centredale Manor Superfund Site in Rhode Island included on EPA List of Targeted for Immediate Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency released the list of Superfund sites that Administrator Pruitt has targeted for immediate and intense attention. The Centredale Manor Restoration Project superfund site is one of the 21 sites on the list.

  4. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Superfund National Priority List (NPL) Sites, National Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer provides access to Superfund National Priority List Sites as part of the CIMC web service. Superfund is a program administered by the EPA to locate,...

  5. U.S. EPA Proposes to Add California Mine Site to Superfunds National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is proposing to add eight hazardous waste sites to the Superfund program's National Priorities List (NPL), including California's Argonaut Mine. Superfund is the federal program that investiga

  6. 78 FR 76143 - Proposed CERCLA Settlement Relating to the Paul's Tank Cleaning Service Superfund Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Settlement Relating to the Paul's Tank Cleaning Service Superfund Site, Burlington... incurred at or in connection Paul's Tank Cleaning Service Superfund Site (``Site''), located in Burlington... should reference the Paul's Tank Cleaning Service Superfund Site, located in Burlington County, New...

  7. 78 FR 44119 - Circle Environmental #1 Superfund Site; Dawson, Terrell County, Georgia; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... AGENCY Circle Environmental 1 Superfund Site; Dawson, Terrell County, Georgia; Notice of Settlement... Environmental 1 Superfund Site located in Dawson, Terrell County, Georgia. The settlement addresses cost... referencing the Site's name through one of the following methods: Internet: www.epa.gov/region4/superfund...

  8. 78 FR 13056 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; in re: Factory H Superfund Site, Meriden...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; in re: Factory H Superfund Site, Meriden...)(1) concerning the Factory H Superfund Site in Meriden, Connecticut (``Site'') with the following... the Hazardous Substance Superfund. The settlement includes a covenant not to sue the settling party...

  9. 77 FR 16548 - Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ...] Florida Petroleum Reprocessors Superfund Site; Davie, Broward County, FL; Notice of Settlements AGENCY... Superfund Site located in Davie, Broward County, Florida. DATES: The Agency will consider public comments on... Reprocessors by one of the following methods: www.epa.gov/region4/superfund/programs/enforcement/enforcement...

  10. 78 FR 70551 - Macalloy Superfund Site, North Charleston, Charleston County, South Carolina; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ...] Macalloy Superfund Site, North Charleston, Charleston County, South Carolina; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... LTD., addressing past costs and a portion of future costs concerning the Macalloy Superfund Site... of the following methods: Internet: www.epa.gov/region4/superfund/programs/enforcement/enforcement...

  11. 75 FR 81269 - Ward Transformer Superfund Site Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of Settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... AGENCY Ward Transformer Superfund Site Raleigh, Wake County, NC; Notice of Settlements AGENCY... Ward Transformer Superfund Site located in Raleigh, Wake County, North Carolina for publication. DATES... Superfund Site by one of the following methods: http://www.regulations.gov : Follow the on-line instructions...

  12. 77 FR 8255 - Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site, Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... AGENCY Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site, Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... entered into a settlement for past response costs concerning the Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site... available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site...

  13. 78 FR 729 - Leonard Chemical Superfund Site; Catawba, York County, SC; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... AGENCY Leonard Chemical Superfund Site; Catawba, York County, SC; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... participate in a previous Consent Decree to perform a Remedial Action at the Leonard Chemical Superfund Site... available from Ms. Paula V. Painter. Submit your comments by Site name Leonard Chemical Superfund Site by...

  14. 40 CFR 300.505 - EPA/State Superfund Memorandum of Agreement (SMOA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false EPA/State Superfund Memorandum of... (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS... Superfund Memorandum of Agreement (SMOA). (a) The SMOA may establish the nature and extent of EPA and state...

  15. 76 FR 68439 - BCX Tank Superfund Site; Jacksonville, Duval County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... AGENCY BCX Tank Superfund Site; Jacksonville, Duval County, FL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Tank Superfund Site located in Jacksonville, Duval County, Florida for publication. DATES: The Agency... name BCX Tank Superfund Site by one of the following methods: http://www.epa.gov/region4/waste/sf...

  16. 76 FR 9349 - Auclair Superfund Site; Notice of Proposed Administrative Settlement Pursuant to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... AGENCY Auclair Superfund Site; Notice of Proposed Administrative Settlement Pursuant to the Comprehensive... 122(h) of CERCLA, concerning the Auclair Superfund Site (the ``Site''), located on the Torres Martinez.... ADDRESSES: The proposed settlement agreement may be obtained from the U.S. EPA Superfund Records Center...

  17. 78 FR 5801 - Operating Industries, Inc. Superfund Site, Monterey Park, CA; Notice of Proposed CERCLA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... AGENCY Operating Industries, Inc. Superfund Site, Monterey Park, CA; Notice of Proposed CERCLA... concerning the Operating Industries, Inc. Superfund Site in Monterey Park, California. The settlement is... Operating Industries, Inc. Superfund Site in Monterey Park, California and EPA Docket No. 2011-06 and should...

  18. 77 FR 13603 - Anniston PCB Superfund Site; Anniston, Calhoun County, AL; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... AGENCY Anniston PCB Superfund Site; Anniston, Calhoun County, AL; Correction AGENCY: Environmental... concerning the Anniston PCB Superfund Site located in Anniston. The settlement is not an amendment, but a new... name Anniston PCB by one of the following methods: www.epa.gov/region4/superfund/programs/enforcement...

  19. 77 FR 2981 - Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site; Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... AGENCY Constitution Road Drum Superfund Site; Atlanta, Dekalb County, GA; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Superfund Site located in Atlanta, Dekalb County, Georgia. DATES: The Agency will consider public comments... Superfund Site by one of the following methods: www.epa.gov/region4/waste/sf/enforce.htm . Email. Painter...

  20. 77 FR 11533 - Anniston PCB Superfund Site, Anniston, Calhoun County, Alabama; Notice of Amended Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... AGENCY Anniston PCB Superfund Site, Anniston, Calhoun County, Alabama; Notice of Amended Settlement... Agency has entered into a settlement for past response costs concerning the Anniston PCB Superfund Site... methods: www.epa.gov/region4/superfund/programs/enforcement/enforcement.html . Email. [email protected

  1. 78 FR 729 - Ellman Battery Superfund Site; Orlando, Orange County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... AGENCY Ellman Battery Superfund Site; Orlando, Orange County, FL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... concerning a previous Removal Action at the Ellman Battery Superfund Site located in Orlando, Orange County.... Submit your comments by Site name Ellman Battery Superfund Site by one of the following methods: www.epa...

  2. 76 FR 11779 - Puckett Smelter Superfund Site; Mountainboro, Etowah County, AL; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... AGENCY Puckett Smelter Superfund Site; Mountainboro, Etowah County, AL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... Puckett Smelter Superfund Site located in Mountainboro, Etowah county, Alabama for publication. DATES: The..., identified by Docket ID No. EPA-RO4- SFUND-2011-0149 or Site name Puckett Smelter Superfund Site by one of...

  3. 77 FR 9652 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Lake Linden Superfund Site in Lake...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; Lake Linden Superfund Site in Lake Linden... administrative settlement for recovery of past response costs concerning the Lake Linden Superfund Site in Lake... settling party to pay $357,149.47 to the Hazardous Substance Superfund. The settlement includes a covenant...

  4. 76 FR 45738 - Regulated Navigation Area; Pacific Sound Resources and Lockheed Shipyard EPA Superfund Cleanup...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... Lockheed Shipyard EPA Superfund Cleanup Sites, Elliott Bay, Seattle, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION... Resources (PSR) and Lockheed Shipyard superfund cleanup remediation efforts. This RNA would prohibit... that involve disrupting the integrity of the sediment caps that cover the superfund sites. It will not...

  5. 75 FR 30831 - Cooksey Brothers Landfill Fire Superfund Site; Ashland, Boyd County, KY; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... AGENCY Cooksey Brothers Landfill Fire Superfund Site; Ashland, Boyd County, KY; Notice of Settlement... costs concerning the Cooksey Brothers Landfill Fire Superfund Site located in Ashland, Boyd County... Brothers Landfill Superfund Site by one of the following methods: http://www.regulations.gov : Follow the...

  6. Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Marianne; Hedegaard, Jette

    The Soil Mechanics Laboratory has started performing tests with a new sand, Baskarp No 15. Baskarp No 15 is a graded sand from Sweden. The shapes of the largest grains are round, while the small grains have sharp edges. The main part of of Baskarp No 15 is quarts, but it also contains feldspar...... and biotit. Mainly the sand will be used for tests concerning the development og the theory of building up pore pressure in sand, L. B. Ibsen 1993....

  7. Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Bødker, Lars Bødker

    The Soil Mechanics Laboratory has started performing tests with a new sand, Baskarp No 15. Baskarp No 15 is a graded sand from Sweden. The shapes of the largest grains are round, while the small grains have sharp edges. The main part of of Baskarp No 15 is quarts, but it also contains feldspar...... and biotit. Mainly the sand will be used for tests concerning the development of the theory of building up pore pressure in sand....

  8. Lund Sand No 0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Jakobsen, Finn Rosendal

    During the last 15 years the Geotechnical Engineering Group (GEG) at Aalborg University has performed triaxial tests with a sand called Lund No 0. Lund No 0 is a graded sand from a gravel pit near Horsens in Denmark. For the classification of the sand the following tests have been performed: Sieve...

  9. In Situ Oxalic Acid Injection to Accelerate Arsenic Remediation at a Superfund Site in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wovkulich, Karen; Stute, Martin; Mailloux, Brian J; Keimowitz, Alison R; Ross, James; Bostick, Benjamin; Sun, Jing; Chillrud, Steven N

    2014-09-25

    Arsenic is a prevalent contaminant at a large number of US Superfund sites; establishing techniques that accelerate As remediation could benefit many sites. Hundreds of tons of As were released into the environment by the Vineland Chemical Co. in southern New Jersey during its manufacturing lifetime (1949-1994), resulting in extensive contamination of surface and subsurface soils and sediments, groundwater, and the downstream watershed. Despite substantial intervention at this Superfund site, sufficient aquifer cleanup could require many decades if based on traditional pump and treat technologies only. Laboratory column experiments have suggested that oxalic acid addition to contaminated aquifer solids could promote significant As release from the solid phase. To evaluate the potential of chemical additions to increase As release in situ and boost treatment efficiency, a forced gradient pilot scale study was conducted on the Vineland site. During spring/summer 2009, oxalic acid and bromide tracer were injected into a small portion (~50 m2) of the site for 3 months. Groundwater samples indicate that introduction of oxalic acid led to increased As release. Between 2.9 and 3.6 kg of As were removed from the sampled wells as a result of the oxalic acid treatment during the 3-month injection. A comparison of As concentrations on sediment cores collected before and after treatment and analyzed using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy suggested reduction in As concentrations of ~36% (median difference) to 48% (mean difference). While further study is necessary, the addition of oxalic acid shows potential for accelerating treatment of a highly contaminated site and decreasing the As remediation time-scale.

  10. California Superfund sites: Insights from a computerized database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layefsky, M.E.; Smith, D.F.; Mendell, M.J.; Schlag, R.D.; Neutra, R.R. (California Department of Health Services, Berkeley (USA))

    A computerized database of 93 California State Superfund waste sites was created to assess the feasibility of using such a system for a variety of public health purposes. Though available data were limited in many respects, analysis of the database proved useful in summarizing features of hazardous waste sites that could be of considerable public health interest.

  11. Influence green sand system by core sand additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Špirutová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, about two thirds of iron alloys casting (especially for graphitizing alloys of iron are produced into green sand systems with usually organically bonded cores. Separation of core sands from the green sand mixture is very difficult, after pouring. The core sand concentration increase due to circulation of green sand mixture in a closed circulation system. Furthermore in some foundries, core sands have been adding to green sand systems as a replacement for new sands. The goal of this contribution is: “How the green sand systems are influenced by core sands?”This effect is considered by determination of selected technological properties and degree of green sand system re-bonding. From the studies, which have been published yet, there is not consistent opinion on influence of core sand dilution on green sand system properties. In order to simulation of the effect of core sands on the technological properties of green sands, there were applied the most common used technologies of cores production, which are based on bonding with phenolic resin. Core sand concentration added to green sand system, was up to 50 %. Influence of core sand dilution on basic properties of green sand systems was determined by evaluation of basic industrial properties: moisture, green compression strength and splitting strength, wet tensile strength, mixture stability against staling and physical-chemistry properties (pH, conductivity, and loss of ignition. Ratio of active betonite by Methylene blue test was also determined.

  12. Modelling sand wave variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterlini-Van der Meer, Fenneke

    2009-01-01

    The sea floor of shallow seas is rarely flat and often dynamic. A widely occurring bedform type is the sand wave. Sand waves form more or less regular wavelike patterns on the seabed with crests up to one third of the water depth, wave lengths of hundreds of metres and a migration rate of metres up

  13. Sands cykliske styrke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1992-01-01

    Sands cykliske styrke kan beskrives ved Cyclic Liquefaction, Mobilisering, Stabilization og Instant Stabilization. I artiklen beskrives hvorfor Stabilization og Instant Stabilization ikke observeres, når sands udrænede styrke undersøges i triaxial celler, der anvender prøver med dobbelt prøvehøjde....

  14. Technical Guidelines on Performing a Sediment Erosion and Deposition Assessment (SEDA) at Superfund Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    ER D C TR -1 4- 9 Technical Guidelines on Performing a Sediment Erosion and Deposition Assessment (SEDA) at Superfund Sites En gi ne er... Superfund Sites Earl Hayter and Karl Gustavson Environmental Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center 3909 Halls Ferry Road...Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199 Steve Ells Office of Superfund Remediation and Technology Innovation US Environmental Protection Agency, OSRTI 1200

  15. Guidelines for asbestos remediation at Italian superfund sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglietti, F; Malinconico, S; Di Molfetta, V; Giangrasso, M

    2012-01-01

    Asbestos is now banned in 52 countries. Although Italy banned asbestos in 1992, up until that date it had been one of the main producer nations of asbestos and asbestos-containing materials, and asbestos-related contamination is still widespread in the country. To reduce asbestos-related health effects, Italy has adopted many laws and regulations regarding exposure thresholds and remediation tools. Even so, there are legislative gaps that are making it difficult to manage related risks especially in the operative phase. The lack of standard procedures at a national level regarding emergency shutdown and remediation as well as reference thresholds for specific risk situations creates difficulties and different actions when dealing with the cleanup of Italian asbestos superfund sites. The authors propose operative guidelines for asbestos remediation at Italian superfund sites. INAIL, the reference national organization for asbestos-related matters, acting as an advisor to a number of state, regional, and local authorities, examined the main asbestos-related risk situations in Italy and proposed the most appropriate actions to take. The detailed analysis of many actual cases of risk, in part through inspections and the management of cleanup actions at asbestos Italian superfund sites, resulted in proposals to modify existing procedures and thresholds, which were subsequently discussed with all national, regional, and local scientific bodies. After more than two years of work and discussion at a national level, INAIL-DIPIA-Asbestos Group drafted new Guidelines for Asbestos Remediation at Italian Superfund sites, and officially submitted them to the Environment Ministry. The Ministry then adopted the document in regard to all asbestos Italian superfunds. This recently released document is also a useful reference for contaminated sites at a regional and local level. The operative Guidelines for Asbestos Remediation at Italian Superfund sites may also be of use at an

  16. Superfund Removal Site Points, Region 9, 2012, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of CERCLA (Superfund) Removal sites. CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act)...

  17. Superfund, Hedonics, and the Scales of Environmental Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Douglas S.; Turaga, Rama Mohana R.; Baden, Brett M.

    2009-11-01

    Environmental justice (EJ) is prominent in environmental policy, yet EJ research is plagued by debates over methodological procedures. A well-established economic approach, the hedonic price method, can offer guidance on one contentious aspect of EJ research: the choice of the spatial unit of analysis. Environmental managers charged with preventing or remedying inequities grapple with these framing problems. This article reviews the theoretical and empirical literature on unit choice in EJ, as well as research employing hedonic pricing to assess the spatial extent of hazardous waste site impacts. The insights from hedonics are demonstrated in a series of EJ analyses for a national inventory of Superfund sites. First, as evidence of injustice exhibits substantial sensitivity to the choice of spatial unit, hedonics suggests some units conform better to Superfund impacts than others. Second, hedonic estimates for a particular site can inform the design of appropriate tests of environmental inequity for that site. Implications for policymakers and practitioners of EJ analyses are discussed.

  18. Proposed shelter plantings : Spring, 1938 : Sand Lake Waterfowl Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This planting program is recommended for shelter strips, permanent snow protection, and clump plantings during 1938 to supplement existing groves and the planting...

  19. Sand and Gravel Deposits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a statewide polygon coverage of sand, gravel, and stone resources. This database includes the best data available from the VT Agency of Natural...

  20. Vestled - Hvide Sande

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel-Christiansen, Carsten; Hesselbjerg, Marianne; Schønherr, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Værket Vestled i Hvide Sande præsenteret i sammenhæng af 1000 nutidige landskabsarkitektoniske arbejder fra hele verden, hvor hvert værk vises på én side......Værket Vestled i Hvide Sande præsenteret i sammenhæng af 1000 nutidige landskabsarkitektoniske arbejder fra hele verden, hvor hvert værk vises på én side...

  1. MECHANICAL REGENERATION OF SAND WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Gnir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental activation of the sand regenerator of the firm SINTO is carried out at ОАО “MZOO". It is shown that sand grains are cleared from films of binding agents, that allows to use the treated sand for preparation of agglutinant and core sands.

  2. 77 FR 58989 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement for the Buckbee-Mears Co. Superfund Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement for the Buckbee-Mears Co. Superfund Site.... Superfund Site located in Cortland, Cortland County, New York, (the ``Site'') with the State Bank of India... the Buckbee- Mears Co. Superfund Site located in Cortland, New York, Cortland County, EPA Region II...

  3. 76 FR 44912 - Callaway and Son Drum Service Superfund Site; Lake Alfred, Polk County, FL; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ...] Callaway and Son Drum Service Superfund Site; Lake Alfred, Polk County, FL; Notice of Settlement AGENCY... concerning the Callaway and son Drum Service Superfund Site located in Lake Alfred, Polk County, Florida for.... Submit your comments by Site name Callaway and Son Drum Service Superfund Site by one of the following...

  4. 77 FR 52322 - McClellan Air Force Base Superfund Site Proposed Notice of Administrative Order on Consent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... AGENCY McClellan Air Force Base Superfund Site Proposed Notice of Administrative Order on Consent AGENCY... Base Superfund Site (``Site'') in McClellan, California has been negotiated by the Agency and the..., San Francisco, California 94105, and should reference ``FOSET 2 Privatization, McClellan Superfund...

  5. 75 FR 30753 - Regulated Navigation Area; Thea Foss and Wheeler-Osgood Waterways EPA Superfund Cleanup Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Waterways EPA Superfund Cleanup Site, Commencement Bay, Tacoma, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION...) Commencement Bay Nearshore/Tideflats superfund cleanup remediation efforts. To more effectively protect those... ] Superfund Cleanup Site, Commencement Bay, Tacoma, WA'' in the Federal Register (73 FR 162, Aug. 20, 2008...

  6. 77 FR 46433 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlements for the Buckbee-Mears Co. Superfund Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-03

    ... AGENCY Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlements for the Buckbee-Mears Co. Superfund Site... administrative settlements for recovery ] of past response costs concerning the Buckbee-Mears Co. Superfund Site.... Superfund Site located in Cortland, New York, Cortland County, EPA Region II Docket No.'s CERCLA-02-2012...

  7. 76 FR 35742 - Superfund Site, New Bedford Harbor, New Bedford, MA: Anchorage Ground and Regulated Navigation Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... 165 [Docket No. USCG-2010-1119] RIN 1625-AA01; 1625-AA11 Superfund Site, New Bedford Harbor, New... Superfund Site in New Bedford, MA. The Coast Guard is also establishing a regulated navigation area (RNA... April 12, 2011, we published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled ``Superfund Site, New...

  8. APPLICATION ANALYSIS REPORT - DEMONSTRATION OF A TRIAL EXCAVATION AT THE MCCOLL SUPERFUND SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 1990, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Region IX Superfund Program, in cooperation with EPA’s Air and Energy Engineering Research Laboratory (AEERL), and EPA’s Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program performed a trial excavation of approximatel...

  9. 40 CFR 35.4040 - How many groups can receive a TAG at one Superfund site?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How many groups can receive a TAG at one Superfund site? 35.4040 Section 35.4040 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Eligible? § 35.4040 How many groups can receive a TAG at one Superfund site? (a) Only one TAG may be...

  10. 33 CFR 165.905 - USX Superfund Site Safety Zones: St. Louis River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false USX Superfund Site Safety Zones: St. Louis River. 165.905 Section 165.905 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... USX Superfund Site Safety Zones: St. Louis River. (a) The following areas of the St. Louis River...

  11. Thermal springs of Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckenridge, R.M.; Hinckley, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    This bulletin attempts, first, to provide a comprehensive inventory of the thermal springs of Wyoming; second, to explore the geologic and hydrologic factors producing these springs; and, third, to analyze the springs collectively as an indicator of the geothermal resources of the state. A general discussion of the state's geology and the mechanisms of thermal spring production, along with a brief comparison of Wyoming's springs with worldwide thermal features are included. A discussion of geothermal energy resources, a guide for visitors, and an analysis of the flora of Wyoming's springs follow the spring inventory. The listing and analysis of Wyoming's thermal springs are arranged alphabetically by county. Tabulated data are given on elevation, ownership, access, water temperature, and flow rate. Each spring system is described and its history, general characteristics and uses, geology, hydrology, and chemistry are discussed. (MHR)

  12. Instant Spring Tool Suite

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A tutorial guide that walks you through how to use the features of Spring Tool Suite using well defined sections for the different parts of Spring.Instant Spring Tool Suite is for novice to intermediate Java developers looking to get a head-start in enterprise application development using Spring Tool Suite and the Spring framework. If you are looking for a guide for effective application development using Spring Tool Suite, then this book is for you.

  13. Sand (CSW4)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Estuarine and Coastal Research Unit

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available This report is one of a series on Cape Estuaries being published under the general title "The Estuaries of the Cape, Part 2". The report provides information on sand estuary: historical background, abiotic and biotic characteristics. It is pointed...

  14. Virksomhedens sande ansigt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundholt, Marianne Wolff

    2017-01-01

    Er modhistorier en byrde eller en styrke i forandringsprocesser? Hvad stiller vi op, når adgangen til organisationens sande identitet går gennem medarbejdernes modhistorier? Når vi sammenholder denne erkendelse med vores viden om, at medarbejdere helt naturligt afholder sig fra at videregive disse...

  15. Speleothems and Sand Castles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hance, Trevor; Befus, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The idea of building sand castles evokes images of lazy summer days at the beach, listening to waves crash, enjoying salty breezes, and just unplugging for a while to let our inner child explore the wonderful natural toys beneath our feet. The idea of exploring caves might evoke feelings and images of claustrophobia or pioneers and Native…

  16. Sand Filter Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    EXWC) performed the evaluation at the Naval Air Station Lemoore, CA . The two year evaluation period began with one year of sand filter operation...appear dirty? If you answered “ yes ” to the first question and “ yes ” to either of the other questions, investigate this technology for your

  17. Building with Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Children playing in damp sand invariably try to make a tower or a tunnel. By providing experiences with a variety of materials, alone and together, teachers set up the conditions for children to learn through their senses and ensure that a class approaches a topic with a common set of experiences to build on. Learning about the properties of…

  18. Triaxial tests in Fontainebleau sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latini, Chiara; Zania, Varvara

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this internal report is to examine the influence of relative density on the strength and deformation characteristics of Fontainebleau sand. Compression triaxial tests were performed on saturated sand samples with different densities and initial confining pressure. Note...

  19. Geology, hydrology, and ground-water quality at the Byron Superfund site near Byron, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Robert T.; Yeskis, Douglas J.; Bolen, William J.; Rauman, James R.; Prinos, Scott T.

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to define the geohydrology and contaminant distribution at a Superfund site near Byron, Illinois. Geologic units of interest beneath the site are the St. Peter Sandstone; the shale, dolomite and sandstone of the Glenwood Formation; the dolomite of the Platteville and Galena Groups; and sands, gravels, tills and loess of Quaternary age. The hydrologic units of interest are the unconsolidated aquifer, Galena-Platteville aquifer, Harmony Hill Shale semiconfining unit, and the St. Peter aquifer. Ground-water flow generally is from the upland areas northwest and southwest toward the Rock River. Water levels indicate the potential for downward ground-water flow in most of the area except near the Rock River. The Galena-Platteville aquifer can be subdivided into four zones characterized by differing water-table altitudes, hydraulic gradients, and vertical and horizontal permeabilities. Geophysical, hydraulic, and aquifer-test data indicate that lithology, stratigraphy, and tectonic structures affect the distribution of primary and secondary porosity of dolomite in the Galena and Platteville Groups, which affects the permeability distribution in the Galena-Platteville aquifer. The distribution of cyanide, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, and aromatic hydrocarbons in ground water indicates that these contaminants are derived from multiple sources in the study area. Contaminants in the northern part of this area migrate northwest to the Rock River. Contaminants in the central and southern parts of this area appear to migrate to the southwest in the general direction of the Rock River.

  20. Water Treatment Technology - Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…

  1. On Pluvial Compaction of Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Moust

    At the Institute of Civil Engineering in Aalborg model tests on dry sand specimens have been carried out during the last five years. To reduce deviations in test results, the sand laying technique has been carefully studied, and the sand mass spreader constructed. Preliminary results have been...

  2. The Portland Harbor Superfund Site Sustainability Project: Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Anne G; Apitz, Sabine E; Harrison, David; Ruffle, Betsy; Edwards, Deborah A

    2018-01-01

    This article introduces the Portland Harbor Superfund Site Sustainability Project (PHSP) special series in this issue. The Portland Harbor Superfund Site is one of the "mega-sediment sites" in the United States, comprising about 10 miles of the Lower Willamette River, running through the heart of Portland, Oregon. The primary aim of the PHSP was to conduct a comprehensive sustainability assessment, integrating environmental, economic, and social considerations of a selection of the remedial alternatives laid out by the US Environmental Protection Agency. A range of tools were developed for this project to quantitatively address environmental, economic, and social costs and benefits based upon diverse stakeholder values. In parallel, a probabilistic risk assessment was carried out to evaluate the risk assumptions at the core of the remedial investigation and feasibility study process. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:17-21. © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC). © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).

  3. Region 9 NPL Sites (Superfund Sites 2013) Polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    NPL site POLYGON locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup under the Superfund program. Eligibility is determined by a scoring method called Hazard Ranking System. Sites with high scores are listed on the NPL. Area covered by this data set include Arizona, California, Nevada, Hawaii, Guam, American Samoa, Northern Marianas and Trust Territories. Attributes include NPL status codes, NPL industry type codes and environmental indicators. Related table, NPL_Contaminants contains information about contaminated media types and chemicals. This is a one-to-many relate and can be related to the feature class using the relationship classes under the Feature Data Set ENVIRO_CONTAMINANT. Generally, each NPL polygon has a separate source. Information about sources for each polygon can be found in the related table, NPL_POLY_METADATA. This table contains a record for each site that has information about the source. Polygons for non-Federal Facility sites were updated in January, 2007 for the Superfund Work Load Models project. Each polygon was approved by the site RPM. Where available, the majority of these polygons represent the surface expression of the extent of the contamination. All Federal Facilities are represented by the facility boundary. The following sites currently have no polygon data available at this time: Alameda Naval Air Station, Jet Pr

  4. Environmental Impacts of Sand Exploitation. Analysis of Sand Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Dan Gavriletea

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sand is an indispensable natural resource for any society. Despite society’s increasing dependence on sand, there are major challenges that this industry needs to deal with: limited sand resources, illegal mining, and environmental impact of sand mining. The purpose of this paper is twofold: to present an overview of the sand market, highlighting the main trends and actors for production, export and import, and to review the main environmental impacts associated with sand exploitation process. Based on these findings, we recommend different measures to be followed to reduce negative impacts. Sand mining should be done in a way that limits environmental damage during exploitation and restores the land after mining operations are completed.

  5. Pro Spring Batch

    CERN Document Server

    Minella, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  6. Moving sand dunes

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    In several desert areas, the slow motion of sand dunes can be a challenge for modern human activities and a threat for the survival of ancient places or archaeological sites. However, several methods exist for surveying the dune fields and estimate their migration rate. Among these methods, the use of satellite images, in particular of those freely available on the World Wide Web, is a convenient resource for the planning of future human settlements and activities.

  7. Booming Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, Nathalie

    "Booming" sand dunes are able to produce low-frequency sound that resembles a pure note from a music instrument. The sound has a dominant audible frequency (70-105 Hz) and several higher harmonics and may be heard from far distances away. A natural or induced avalanche from a slip face of the booming dune triggers the emission that may last for several minutes. There are various references in travel literature to the phenomenon, but to date no scientific explanation covered all field observations. This thesis introduces a new physical model that describes the phenomenon of booming dunes. The waveguide model explains the selection of the booming frequency and the amplification of the sound in terms of constructive interference in a confined geometry. The frequency of the booming is a direct function of the dimensions and velocities in the waveguide. The higher harmonics are related to the higher modes of propagation in the waveguide. The experimental validation includes quantitative field research at the booming dunes of the Mojave Desert and Death Valley National Park. Microphone and geophone recordings of the acoustic and seismic emission show a variation of booming frequency in space and time. The analysis of the sensor data quantifies wave propagation characteristics such as speed, dispersion, and nonlinear effects and allows the distinction between the source mechanism of the booming and the booming itself. The migration of sand dunes results from a complicated interplay between dune building, wind regime, and precipitation. The morphological and morphodynamical characteristics of two field locations are analyzed with various geophysical techniques. Ground-penetrating radar images the subsurface structure of the dunes and reveal a natural, internal layering that is directly related to the history of dune migration. The seismic velocity increases abruptly with depth and gradually increases with downhill position due to compaction. Sand sampling shows local

  8. The NIEHS Superfund Research Program: 25 Years of Translational Research for Public Health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Landrigan, Philip J; Wright, Robert O; Cordero, Jose F; Eaton, David L; Goldstein, Bernard D; Hennig, Bernhard; Maier, Raina M; Ozonoff, David M; Smith, Martyn T; Tukey, Robert H

    2015-01-01

    The Superfund Research Program (SRP) is an academically based, multidisciplinary, translational research program that for 25 years has sought scientific solutions to health and environmental problems associated with hazardous waste sites...

  9. EPA announces additional groundwater investigation at Delaware City PVC Superfund site

    Science.gov (United States)

    PHILADELPHIA (Oct. 15, 2015) - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced a new investigation to determine the nature and extent of groundwater contamination at the Delaware City PVC Superfund site in New Castle County.

  10. Report: EPA’s Distribution of Superfund Human Resources Does Not Support Current Regional Workload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #17-P-0397, September 19, 2017. Due to insufficient human resources to cover all Superfund site work, some regions have had to slow down or discontinue their efforts to protect human health and the environment.

  11. Optimization Review: Ogallala Ground Water Contamination Superfund Site, Operable Unit 2 (Tip Top Cleaners), Ogallala, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ogallala Ground Water Contamination Superfund site was identified in 1989 through municipal well sampling. Tetrachloroethene (PCE), a solvent commonly used in dry cleaner operations, was the primary ground water target chemical of concern (COC) that..

  12. Optimization Evaluation, North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site, Lansdale, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    The North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site (NPA6 Site) addresses multiple sources of contamination and a broad contaminant plume that underlies a large portion of Lansdale, Pennsylvania. Tetrachloroethene (PCE), trichloroethene (TCE), and associated....

  13. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Superfund Sites, National Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer provides access to Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) Superfund Sites as part of the CIMC web service. EPA works with DoD to facilitate the reuse...

  14. Preliminary estimate of natural resource damage : Rocky Mountain Arsenal Superfund Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a preliminary estimate of natural resource damages associated with uncontrolled release of hazardous materials at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal Superfund Site...

  15. Superfund and mining megasites: lessons from the Coeur d'Alene River basin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Division on Earth and Life Studies; Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology; Committee on Superfund Site Assessment and Remediation in the Coeur d' Alene River Basin; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    2005-01-01

    ...) listed a 21-square mile mining area in northern Idaho as a Superfund site. EPA extended those boundaries in 1998 to include areas throughout the 1500-square mile area Coeur d'Alene River Basin project area...

  16. Towards identifying the next generation of superfund and hazardous waste site contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ela, Wendell P.; Sedlak, David L.; Barlaz, Morton A.; Henry, Heather F.; Muir, Derek C.G.; Swackhamer, Deborah L.; Weber, Eric J.; Arnold, Robert G.; Ferguson, P. Lee; Field, Jennifer A.; Furlong, Edward T.; Giesy, John P.; Halden, Rolf U.; Henry, Tala; Hites, Ronald A.; Hornbuckle, Keri C.; Howard, Philip H.; Luthy, Richard G.; Meyer, Anita K.; Saez, A. Eduardo; vom Saal, Frederick S.; Vulpe, Chris D.; Wiesner, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Background This commentary evolved from a workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences titled "Superfund Contaminants: The Next Generation" held in Tucson, Arizona, in August 2009. All the authors were workshop participants.

  17. Cleanups In My Community (CIMC) - Federal facilities that are also Superfund sites, National Layer

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Federal facilities are properties owned by the federal government. This data layer provides access to Federal facilities that are Superfund sites as part of the CIMC...

  18. Spring 5 & reactive streams

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva; Clozel, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Spring is a framework widely used by the world-wide Java community, and it is also extensively used at CERN. The accelerator control system is constituted of 10 million lines of Java code, spread across more than 1000 projects (jars) developed by 160 software engineers. Around half of this (all server-side Java code) is based on the Spring framework. Warning: the speakers will assume that people attending the seminar are familiar with Java and Spring’s basic concepts. Spring 5.0 and Spring Boot 2.0 updates (45 min) This talk will cover the big ticket items in the 5.0 release of Spring (including Kotlin support, @Nullable and JDK9) and provide an update on Spring Boot 2.0, which is scheduled for the end of the year. Reactive Spring (1h) Spring Framework 5.0 has been released - and it now supports reactive applications in the Spring ecosystem. During this presentation, we'll talk about the reactive foundations of Spring Framework with the Reactor project and the reactive streams specification. We'll al...

  19. Perchlorate and Superfund Response to Uncertainty and the Geochemical Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, K. P.

    2007-12-01

    Perchlorate, a chemical that had been known both in nature and through synthesis since the nineteenth century, only emerged into the limelight as an environmental contaminant in 1997. US EPA's Superfund Program became involved in perchlorate issues in the late 1980s and early 1990s due to the chemical's presence mixed with other contaminants at cleanup sites. Relying largely on pharmaceutical studies primarily from the 1950s and 1960s, EPA scientists in 1992 made a provisional estimate of toxicity and estimated that about 4 micrograms per liter (parts per billion or ppb) in drinking water would be protective. "Uncertainty factors" were incorporated to address for several identified information gaps. Results of new animal and human studies funded by the Defense Department and industry in the late 1990s shifted the concern from affects on adults with unhealthy thyroids to the potential developmental health risks to infants and children. EPA's January, 2002, draft toxicity assessment was referred to a committee of the National Research Council. In January, 2005, this committee recommended a "reference dose" based primarily on human clinical data. Many decisions remain on interpretation of the scientific recommendations for regulatory applications. After California's 1997 development of an analytical method to detect perchlorate in water to 4 ppb, EPA and state officials quickly discovered this chemical at 10 Superfund sites in the Pacific Southwest Region and at more than 30 other locations in California, Arizona and Nevada. Even before current research on the potential for natural sources of this anion, reported detections of perchlorate were investigated with reasonable care and appropriate skepticism. A brief overview of the search for likely sources of perchlorate detected in California water supplies is presented from a regional Superfund perspective. Some are clearly anthropogenic and others may be unrelated to industrial or disposal practices. Currently, there

  20. Effect of gritting sand quality on road dust pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Babiuc, Octavian

    2016-01-01

    Pollution of air represents the contamination with matter that can affect both humanhealth and the environment. Road dust has been recognized as a dominant source ofparticulate matter and one of the factors that contributes to its development is the useof gritting sand. Gritting sand is being used during snowy winter conditions as atraction control method. During spring season, when snow and ice melt and surfacesdry out, and the influence of traffic, asphalt surface wear, particle ejection fr...

  1. Framework Spring MVC

    OpenAIRE

    Jindráček, Petr

    2011-01-01

    The topic of this bachelor thesis is the web application framework Spring MVC which is an integral part of the Spring platform. That means it offers many options of adjustment and support of other significant technologies. The aim is to introduce basic principles of this framework on a theoretical level and subsequently examine them on a real example of application. The thesis is divided into three main parts. The first part is focused on Spring framework in general to introduce basic princip...

  2. Spring integration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Chandan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for developers who are either already involved with enterprise integration or planning to venture into the domain. Basic knowledge of Java and Spring is expected. For newer users, this book can be used to understand an integration scenario, what the challenges are, and how Spring Integration can be used to solve it. Prior experience of Spring Integration is not expected as this book will walk you through all the code examples.

  3. Pro Spring Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lui, M; Chan, Andy; Long, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Pro Spring Integration is an authoritative book from the experts that guides you through the vast world of enterprise application integration (EAI) and application of the Spring Integration framework towards solving integration problems. The book is:. * An introduction to the concepts of enterprise application integration * A reference on building event-driven applications using Spring Integration * A guide to solving common integration problems using Spring Integration What makes this book unique is its coverage of contemporary technologies and real-world information, with a focus on common p

  4. Field Investigation to Determine the Extent of Sediment Recontamination at the United Heckathorn Superfund Site, Richmond, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, Nancy P.; Gilmore, Tyler J.

    2001-11-16

    This field investigation was undertaken to determine the present condition of sediment in Lauritzen Channel and Parr Canal approximately 2 years after completion of sediment remedial actions at the United Heckathorn Superfund site. The study was designed to supplement the post-remediation monitoring program by determining the extent and identifying potential sources of observed pesticide contamination in marine sediments near the site. Core samples collected from Lauritzen Channel and Parr Canal in July 1999 were described geologically, and samples were prepared from different sediment types, such as younger bay mud or older bay mud. Sediment samples were analyzed for grain size, organic carbon, and DDT compounds. Only minor changes have occurred in Parr Canal since remedial actions were taken in 1996-1997, but in Lauritzen Channel, DDT concentrations exceed the remedial goal of 590 ug/kg dry weight in nearly all the unconsolidated sediment (younger bay mud, sand, and disturbed older bay mud). The source of contaminated sediment could not be confirmed by this study; there was no clear correlation between high DDT concentrations and sediment remaining between the pilings, as was originally suspected. There also was no correlation between high DDT concentrations in sediment and the locations of outfalls, although some of the contamination retained by the creosote-treated wood appeared to be highest close to the known outfalls.

  5. Laboratory singing sand avalanches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagois-Bohy, Simon; Ngo, Sandrine; du Pont, Sylvain Courrech; Douady, Stéphane

    2010-02-01

    Some desert sand dunes have the peculiar ability to emit a loud sound up to 110 dB, with a well-defined frequency: this phenomenon, known since early travelers (Darwin, Marco Polo, etc.), has been called the song of dunes. But only in late 19th century scientific observations were made, showing three important characteristics of singing dunes: first, not all dunes sing, but all the singing dunes are composed of dry and well-sorted sand; second, this sound occurs spontaneously during avalanches on a slip face; third this is not the only way to produce sound with this sand. More recent field observations have shown that during avalanches, the sound frequency does not depend on the dune size or shape, but on the grain diameter only, and scales as the square root of g/d--with g the gravity and d the diameter of the grains--explaining why all the singing dunes in the same vicinity sing at the same frequency. We have been able to reproduce these singing avalanches in laboratory on a hard plate, which made possible to study them more accurately than on the field. Signals of accelerometers at the flowing surface of the avalanche are compared to signals of microphones placed above, and it evidences a very strong vibration of the flowing layer at the same frequency as on the field, responsible for the emission of sound. Moreover, other characteristics of the booming dunes are reproduced and analyzed, such as a threshold under which no sound is produced, or beats in the sound that appears when the flow is too large. Finally, the size of the coherence zones emitting sound has been measured and discussed.

  6. Fortune Cookie Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-432, 25 July 2003This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a field of small barchan sand dunes in the north polar region near 71.7oN, 51.3oW. Some of them are shaped like fortune cookies. The message these dunes provide: winds blow through this region from the lower right toward the upper left. The steep slip face slopes of these dunes, which point toward the upper left, indicate the wind direction. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper right. The image is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  7. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Bradley E. (Air Force Research Laboratory, Eglin, FL); Kabir, Md. E. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2010-04-01

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  8. Spring A Developer's Notebook

    CERN Document Server

    Tate, Bruce A

    2009-01-01

    This no-nonsense book quickly gets you up to speed on the new Spring open source framework. Favoring examples and practical application over theory, Spring: A Developer's Notebook features 10 code-intensive labs that'll reveal the many assets of this revolutionary, lightweight architecture. In the end, you'll understand how to produce simple, clean, and effective applications.

  9. Mockito for Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Sujoy

    2015-01-01

    If you are an application developer with some experience in software testing and want to learn more about testing frameworks, then this technology and book is for you. Mockito for Spring will be perfect as your next step towards becoming a competent software tester with Spring and Mockito.

  10. Masters of the springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    flanked by villages that relied on these water recourses for agricultural production. The springs emerged in the zone separating the cemeteries from the settlements. The freshwater springs were actively incorporated into the religious landscape of the dead, by consistently erecting mounds of a particular...

  11. Complexity confers stability: Climate variability, vegetation response and sand transport on longitudinal sand dunes in Australia's deserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Paul P.; Telfer, Matt W.; Farebrother, Will

    2017-04-01

    The relationship between antecedent precipitation, vegetation cover and sand movement on sand dunes in the Simpson and Strzelecki Deserts was investigated by repeated (up to four) surveys of dune crest plots (≈25 × 25 m) over a drought cycle (2002-2012) in both winter (low wind) and spring (high wind). Vegetation varied dramatically between surveys on vegetated and active dune crests. Indices of sand movement had significant correlations with vegetation cover: the depth of loose sand has a strong inverse relationship with crust (cyanobacterial and/or physical) while the area covered by ripples has a strong inverse relationship with the areal cover of vascular plants. However, the relationship between antecedent rainfall and vegetation cover was found to be complex. We tentatively identify two thresholds; (1) >10 mm of rainfall in the preceding 90 days leads to rapid and near total cover of crust and/or small plants 400 mm of rainfall in the preceding three years leads to higher cover of persistent and longer-lived plants >50 cm tall. These thresholds were used to predict days of low vegetation cover on dune crests. The combination of seasonality of predicted bare-crest days, potential sand drift and resultant sand drift direction explains observed patterns of sand drift on these dunes. The complex vegetation and highly variable rainfall regime confer meta-stability on the dunes through the range of responses to different intervals of antecedent rainfall and non-linear growth responses. This suggests that the geomorphic response of dunes to climate variation is complex and non-linear.

  12. Namibia : triaxial test on sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfelt, Jørgen S.; Jacobsen, Kim P.

    In connection with a harbour project the friction angle of a fine sand is required. On Friday 13 March 1998 the Danish Geotechnical Institute (DGI) delivered app. 2.5 kg sand for testing at the Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University. The present Data Report summarises the results...

  13. Superfund Technology Evaluation Report: SITE Program Demonstration Test Shirco Pilot-Scale Infrared Incineration System at the Rose Township Demode Road Superfund Site Volume I

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Shirco Pilot-Scale Infrared Incineration System was evaluated during a series of seventeen test runs under varied operating conditions at the Demode Road Superfund Site located in Rose Township, Michigan. The tests sought to demonstrate the effectiveness of the unit and the t...

  14. Wind regime and sand transport in the corridor between the Badain Jaran and Tengger deserts, central Alxa Plateau, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, YanYan; Qu, ZhiQiang; Shi, PeiJun; Liu, LianYou; Zhang, GuoMing; Tang, Yan; Hu, Xia; Lv, YanLi; Xiong, YiYing; Wang, JingPu; Shen, LingLing; Lv, LiLi; Sun, Shao

    2014-03-01

    The Alxa Plateau in north China is characterized by frequent sand dust storm activity, desertification, various blown sand hazards and extensive sand dunes. Three of China's major sand deserts, the Badain Jaran (BJ), Tengger and Ulan Buh (UB), are distributed in this region. The BJ desert lies to the northwest and is separated from the other two deserts by mountains Yabrai and Alateng. However, the dominant northwest wind could transport sand from the BJ to the other two deserts through several corridors. Locating the sand source for these deserts is fundamental in understanding the formation and evolution of the aeolian landforms. It has been proposed that the sand in the Tengger desert is from the BJ desert. However, evidence supporting the hypothesis is still limited. To estimate the sand contribution of the BJ to the Tengger desert, we measured wind speeds at a 2 m height above the ground for the period from November 2010 to December 2011. We then calculated the amount of sand transport and observed the speed of dune migration in the junction part of the two deserts. Sand-transporting winds (⩾6.0 m s-1) occurred mostly in spring and winter, and accounted for 16.4% of the total of the year. The prevailing wind directions were NW, WNW and NNW, and were occupied 61.9% of the total frequency of sand-transporting winds. The frequencies of winds decreased with increasing wind speed, and strong wind frequencies (⩾17.0 m s-1) were 5.3% of the sand-transporting winds. In comparison to adjacent areas, the drift potential in the corridor was several times higher, indicating an obvious effect of narrowing. During the period of observation, 752 sand-transporting events occurred with durations from 10 to 1940 min (32 h). In the corridor, the sand transport flux was 372 tons m-1 yr-1, an order of magnitude larger than previous estimation, and the annual total amount of sand transported through the corridor was over 5 million tons, indicating a substantial sand supply from

  15. Atlas of Dutch drift sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riksen, Michel; Jungerius, Pieter

    2013-04-01

    The Netherlands is well known for its aeolian landscapes. Frequent storms during the High Middle Ages (1000-1300 AD) reactivated Pleistocene coversands and river dunes and are responsible for the formation of the Holocene drift sands at a scale which is unique for Europe. A hypothesized relationship with farmer practices for making plaggensoils has recently been refuted, because drift sand formation began centuries earlier. The coastal dune belt with their parabolic dunes dates from the same period as the drift sand. An estimate of the extent of drift sands can be made from soil maps: drift sands are too young to show much profile development (Regosols). With this method Koster estimated the maximum extent of Holocene drift sands in the Netherlands to be about 800 km2 (Koster 2005). Laser altimetry allows a more precise estimate of the total surface affected by wind from the characteristic relief patterns produced by the Holocene wind, which is different from the smooth surface of cover sand deposits. Laser altimetry has been used before to investigate the mechanism of drift sand formation (Jungerius & Riksen 2010). Most of the surface affected by wind is not active anymore, but the tell-tale rough surface survived ages of different landuse. The total affected surface amounts to 825 km2. It is noteworthy that both methods give comparable results. We recorded a total number of 367 of affected areas of varying shapes, ranging in size from 1.6 ha to a large complex of drif sands of 7,119.5 ha. As is to be expected from their mode of origin, most occurrences are associated with cover sands, and with river dunes along the river Meuse and smaller rivers in other parts of the country. Particularly the final phases of cover sand and river dunes that show more relief as parabolic dunes were affected. There are also small aeolian deposits at the lee side blown from fallow agricultural fields but they are (sub)recent. Most of the relief is irregular, but the larger

  16. 2010 oil sands performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of traditional energy resources and the rising demand for energy, oil sands have become an important energy resource for meeting energy needs. Oil sands are a mixture of water, sand, clay and bitumen which is recovered either through open pit mining or in situ drilling techniques. The bitumen is then converted into syncrude or sold to refineries for the production of gasoline, diesel or other products. Shell has oil sands operations in Alberta and the aim of this report is to present its 2010 performance in terms of CO2, water, tailings, land, and reclamation and engagement. This document covers several of Shell's operations in the Muskeg River and Jackpine mines, Scotford upgrader, Peace River, Orion, Seal, Cliffdale and Chipmunk. It provides useful information on Shell's oil sands performance to governments, environmental groups, First Nations, local communities and the public.

  17. 77 FR 2720 - Proposed Agreement and Covenant Not To Sue for the Colville Post & Poles Superfund Site, Stevens...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Proposed Agreement and Covenant Not To Sue for the Colville Post & Poles Superfund Site, Stevens..., Seattle, Washington 98101; (206) 553-0242. Comments should refer to the Colville Post & Poles Superfund...

  18. ANCHOR HILL PIT LAKE IN SITU TREATMENT, GILT EDGE MINE SUPERFUND SITE, S. DAKOTA, USA - A RETROSPECTIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Region VII Superfund office and the EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) Mine Waste Technology Program (MWTP)have been conducting a field scale technology demonstration of an in situ treatment of the Anchor Hill Pit Lake at the Gilt Edge Mine Superfund...

  19. Learning Spring application development

    CERN Document Server

    Soni, Ravi Kant

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who are interested in learning the core features of the Spring Framework. Prior knowledge of Java programming and web development concepts with basic XML knowledge is expected.

  20. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  1. Geologic map of Great Sand Dunes National Park, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madole, Richard F.; VanSistine, D. Paco; Romig, Joseph H.

    2016-10-20

    Geologic mapping was begun after a range fire swept the area of what is now the Great Sand Dunes National Park in April 2000. The park spans an area of 437 square kilometers (or about 169 square miles), of which 98 percent is blanketed by sediment of Quaternary age, the Holocene and Pleistocene Epochs; hence, this geologic map of the Great Sand Dunes National Park is essentially a surficial geologic map. These surficial deposits are diverse and include sediment of eolian (windblown), alluvial (stream and sheetwash), palustrine (wetlands and marshes), lacustrine (lake), and mass-wasting (landslides) origin. Sediment of middle and late Holocene age, from about 8,000 years ago to the present, covers about 80 percent of the park.Fluctuations in groundwater level during Holocene time caused wetlands on the nearby lowland that bounds the park on the west to alternately expand and contract. These fluctuations controlled the stability or instability of eolian sand deposits on the downwind (eastern) side of the lowland. When groundwater level rose, playas became lakes, and wet or marshy areas formed in many places. When the water table rose, spring-fed streams filled their channels and valley floors with sediment. Conversely, when groundwater level fell, spring-fed streams incised their valley floors, and lakes, ponds, and marshes dried up and became sources of windblown sand.Discharge in streams draining the west flank of the Sangre de Cristo Range is controlled primarily by snowmelt and flow is perennial until it reaches the mountain front, beyond which streams begin losing water at a high rate as the water soaks into the creek beds. Even streams originating in the larger drainage basins, such as Sand and Medano Creeks, generally do not extend much more than 4 km (about 2.5 miles) beyond where they exit the mountains.The Great Sand Dunes contain the tallest dunes (maximum height about 750 feet, or 230 m) in North America. These dunes cover an area of 72 square kilometers

  2. The Springs at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona (pisp_springs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 5 points representing the springs, natural and man-made, at Pipe Spring National Monument, Arizona. The springs were...

  3. Assessing human metal accumulations in an urban superfund site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailer, M Katie; Peck, Christopher P; Calhoun, Michael W; West, Robert F; James, Kyle J; Siciliano, Steven D

    2017-09-01

    Butte, Montana is part of the largest superfund site in the continental United States. Open-pit mining continues in close proximity to Butte's urban population. This study seeks to establish baseline metal concentrations in the hair and blood of individuals living in Butte, MT and possible routes of exposure. Volunteers from Butte (n=116) and Bozeman (n=86) were recruited to submit hair and blood samples and asked to complete a lifestyle survey. Elemental analysis of hair and blood samples was performed by ICP-MS. Three air monitors were stationed in Butte to collect particulate and filters were analyzed by ICP-MS. Soil samples from the yards of Butte volunteers were quantified by ICP-MS. Hair analysis revealed concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Cu, Mn, Mo, and U to be statistically elevated in Butte's population. Blood analysis revealed that the concentration of As was also statistically elevated in the Butte population. Multiple regression analysis was performed for the elements As, Cu, and Mn for hair and blood samples. Soil samples revealed detectable levels of As, Pb, Cu, Mn, and Cd, with As and Cu levels being higher than expected in some of the samples. Air sampling revealed consistently elevated As and Mn levels in the larger particulate sampled as compared to average U.S. ambient air data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sand Drift Potential by Wind in Shileh Plain of Sistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Poormand

    2016-02-01

    directions from 1992 to 2003 in order to predict the volume of sand transportation and its direction using sand-rose and wind-rose softwares. As described earlier, in this research, the drift potential (DP is estimated for all possible wind speed categories, summed up for all categories of each direction sector using Fryberger’s Equation. The sand drift potential in Shileh was estimated about 3439 vector units with a resultant drift direction along the Southeast, which places it in the high class of wind erosive power based on the Fryberger and Dean (1979 classification method. The sand drift potential values show that the resultant drift direction is from the Northwest towards the Southeast. It was also found that the most powerful winds (the prevailing winds blow in the summer and the spring seasons, respectively. In contrast, the percentage of calm winds increases during autumn and winter times. The sand transport discharge was predicted to be 20.422 t m-1 year-1 using Lattau and Lattau Equation. With regard to the monthly sand rose, it was seen that the resultant drift potential was low in December and January and high in June and July. The prevailing wind direction ranged from North to Northwest in all seasons. The winds with the highest velocities were observed in the summer, while the winds with lower velocities were observed during the winter. Wind velocities higher than 11 m s-1 had the largest frequencies in the summer and the lowest frequencies in the winter. Wind unidirectional index (UDI is estimated to be 0.95, implying that the index provides a suitable condition for the creation of transverse (barchanoid dunes. Conclusion: The Sistan plain is one of the windiest places in the world that is exposed to wind erosion and dust storms. The result of this study is very important due to the construction of an international roadway that connects Chabahar port to Sistan plain and continues towards the Afghanistan border. Therefore, the practical result of this

  5. Spectroscopic characterization of a Nigerian standard sand: Igbokoda sand

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ojuri, OO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available the Middle Ordovician St. Peter Sandstone near Ottawa, Illinois, had been picked by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) as the reference sand to employ in testing cement and strength of concrete [9]. To the best of our knowledge... and magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques due to its importance in cement, geotechnical/geo-environmental research in Nigeria. This should halt importation of standard silica sand for mortar and concrete testing...

  6. Characterization of sand lenses embedded in tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Timo Christian; Klint, K.E.S.; Nilsson, B.

    2012-01-01

    Tills dominate large parts of the superficial sediments on the Northern hemisphere. These glacial diamictons are extremely heterogeneous and riddled with fractures and lenses of sand or gravel. The frequency and geometry of sand lenses within tills are strongly linked to glaciodynamic processes...... occurring in various glacial environments. This study specifically focuses on the appearance and spatial distribution of sand lenses in tills. It introduces a methodology on how to measure and characterize sand lenses in the field with regard to size, shape and degree of deformation. A set of geometric...... parameters is defined to allow characterization of sand lenses. The proposed classification scheme uses a stringent terminology to distinguish several types of sand lenses based on the geometry. It includes sand layers, sand sheets, sand bodies, sand pockets and sand stringers. The methodology has been...

  7. Reclaimability of the spent sand mixture – sand with bentonite – sand with furfuryl resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dańko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of new binding materials and new technologies of their hardening in casting moulds and cores production requires theapplication of reclamation methods adequate to their properties as well as special devices realizing tasks. The spent sands circulationsystem containing the same kind of moulding and core sands is optimal from the point of view of the expected reclamation results.However, in the face of a significant variability of applied technologies and related to them various reclamation methods, the need - of theobtained reclamation products assessment on the grounds of systematic criteria and uniform bases – arises, with a tendency of indicatingwhich criteria are the most important for the given sand system. The reclaimability results of the mixture of the spent moulding sand withGeko S bentonite and the spent core sand with the Kaltharz 404U resin hardened by acidic hardener 100 T3, are presented in the paper.Investigations were performed with regard to the estimation of an influence of core sands additions (10 –25% on the reclaimed materialquality. Dusts and clay content in the reclaim, its chemical reaction (pH and ignition loss were estimated. The verification of the reclaiminstrumental assessment was performed on the basis of the technological properties estimation of moulding sand with bentonite, where the reclaimed material was used as a matrix.

  8. Management recommendations: Sand Lake Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review of land management practices at the Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge, by a land use specialist. Recommendations, time frame and...

  9. Sensuous Communism: Sand with Marx

    OpenAIRE

    White, Claire

    2015-01-01

    This article reads George Sand's Le Compagnon du Tour de France (1840) alongside Karl Marx's “Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844.” It considers how these contemporaries bring to bear on their accounts of labor, estrangement, and the structures of property an attention to the fate of the senses under capitalism. Both elaborate a critique of political economy—Sand's voiced by her worker-hero—that demonstrates how the individual's sensuous life is circumscribed by the pressures of mate...

  10. Walking with springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugar, Thomas G.; Hollander, Kevin W.; Hitt, Joseph K.

    2011-04-01

    Developing bionic ankles poses great challenges due to the large moment, power, and energy that are required at the ankle. Researchers have added springs in series with a motor to reduce the peak power and energy requirements of a robotic ankle. We developed a "robotic tendon" that reduces the peak power by altering the required motor speed. By changing the required speed, the spring acts as a "load variable transmission." If a simple motor/gearbox solution is used, one walking step would require 38.8J and a peak motor power of 257 W. Using an optimized robotic tendon, the energy required is 21.2 J and the peak motor power is reduced to 96.6 W. We show that adding a passive spring in parallel with the robotic tendon reduces peak loads but the power and energy increase. Adding a passive spring in series with the robotic tendon reduces the energy requirements. We have built a prosthetic ankle SPARKy, Spring Ankle with Regenerative Kinetics, that allows a user to walk forwards, backwards, ascend and descend stairs, walk up and down slopes as well as jog.

  11. 2010 weather and aeolian sand-transport data from the Colorado River corridor, Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dealy, Timothy P.; East, Amy E.; Fairley, Helen C.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements of weather parameters and aeolian sand transport were made in 2010 near selected archeological sites in the Colorado River corridor through Grand Canyon, Arizona. Data collected in 2010 indicate event- and seasonal-scale variations in rainfall, wind, temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure. Differences in weather patterns between 2009 and 2010 included a slightly later spring windy season, greater spring precipitation and annual rainfall totals, and a later onset and length of the reduced diurnal barometric-pressure fluctuations commonly associated with summer monsoon conditions. The increase in spring precipitation was consistent with the 2010 spring El Niño conditions compared to the 2009 spring La Niña conditions, whereas the subsequent transition to an El Niño-Southern Oscillation neutral phase appeared to delay the reduction in diurnal barometric fluctuations.

  12. Damper Spring For Omega Seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclaughlin, Scott T.; Montgomery, Stuart K.

    1993-01-01

    Damper spring reduces deflections of omega-cross-section seal, reducing probability of failure and extending life of seal. Spring is split ring with U-shaped cross section. Placed inside omega seal and inserted with seal into seal cavity. As omega seal compressed into cavity, spring and seal make contact near convolution of seal, and spring becomes compressed also. During operation, when seal dynamically loaded, spring limits deflection of seal, reducing stress on seal.

  13. Spring of women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Castillo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Terms such as “Islamic feminism” and “women’s movement” refer to those social movements of women that seek to assert their rights in Islamic societies. This brief study focuses on theses social movements of women and will presentan overview of the role and participation of women in the Arab Spring by examining news, events, press articles and opinions in order to contextualize the participation of women and feminists in the Arab Spring from a perspective of the social networking phenomenon as apparent drivers of the revolution.

  14. Pro Spring security

    CERN Document Server

    Scarioni, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Security is a key element in the development of any non-trivial application. The Spring Security Framework provides a comprehensive set of functionalities to implement industry-standard authentication and authorization mechanisms for Java applications. Pro Spring Security will be a reference and advanced tutorial that will do the following: Guides you through the implementation of the security features for a Java web application by presenting consistent examples built from the ground-up. Demonstrates the different authentication and authorization methods to secure enterprise-level applications

  15. Instant Spring security starter

    CERN Document Server

    Jagielski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to-follow format following the Starter guide approach.This book is for people who have not used Spring Security before and want to learn how to use it effectively in a short amount of time. It is assumed that readers know both Java and HTTP protocol at the level of basic web programming. The reader should also be familiar with Inversion-of-Control/Dependency Injection, preferably with the Spring framework itsel

  16. EFFECTIVENESS OF THE SANDPITS SECURITY SYSTEM AGAINST MICROORGANISMS AND INTESTINAL PARASITES SAND CONTAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Błaszak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Playgrounds and sandpits (small architecture objects according to the Construction Law are subject to meticulous supervision, both at the design stage and subsequent status checks of the objects. One of the requirements arising from the need to protect playgrounds from animals is the necessity for fencing the object (Regulation of 31 December 2002 On Safety and Hygiene in Public and Private Schools and Institutions; Polish Standard PN-EN 1176 Playground equipment and surfacing. Does fencing playgrounds really reduce contamination of sand? To verify this hypothesis, the studies have been conducted on the residential areas’ sandpits, both fence secured and unsecured, located in close proximity to one another. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of fences and nets as protection from microbial and parasite contamination of sandpits, mainly due to the access of animals to them. For several seasons of spring and summer the sand was examined in terms of the total number of heterotrophic bacteria and fungi (organic matter contamination of sand indicators and for the presence of coliform bacteria (including Escherichia coli, bacteria of the Salmonella genus and the eggs of intestinal parasites. It can be concluded that fencing playgrounds affects sand pollution less with waste and plant material (as a consequence, it has been reported statistically significantly less heterotrophic bacteria and fungi in the fenced sandpits’ sand. Unfortunately, the fence does not eliminate the risks associated with sand pollution of coliform bacteria. Cats and birds, but also dogs, still have a continuous access to sand. Due to the repeatedly stated carelessness of children and their caregivers, gates left open to the playground do not constitute an obstacle for domestic and stray animals. Another source of sand pollution with intestinal pathogens can be a manner of carriage of new sand, as there is no legislation governing the issue of transport

  17. A Quadratic Spring Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Temple H.

    2010-01-01

    Through numerical investigations, we study examples of the forced quadratic spring equation [image omitted]. By performing trial-and-error numerical experiments, we demonstrate the existence of stability boundaries in the phase plane indicating initial conditions yielding bounded solutions, investigate the resonance boundary in the [omega]…

  18. Editors' Spring Picks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Journal, 2011

    2011-01-01

    While they do not represent the rainbow of reading tastes American public libraries accommodate, Book Review editors are a wildly eclectic bunch. One look at their bedside tables and ereaders would reveal very little crossover. This article highlights an eclectic array of spring offerings ranging from print books to an audiobook to ebook apps. It…

  19. Spring batch essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  20. Energy Matters - Spring 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-03-01

    Quarterly newsletter from DOE's Industrial Technologies Program to promote the use of energy-efficient industrial systems. The focus of the Spring 2002 Issue of Energy Matters focuses on premium energy efficiency systems, with articles on new gas technologies, steam efficiency, the Augusta Newsprint Showcase, and more.

  1. Springing of ships waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gunsteren, F.F.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis is the result of an investigation of the assumptions underlying the general applied method for the calculation of springing of ships in waves, which has been proposed by the author some decade ago. It has been found that, contrary to the general practice in seakeeping research, the

  2. Optimization Evaluation: Lee Chemical Superfund Site, City Of Liberty, Clay County, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lee Chemical Superfund Site (site) is located along Missouri Highway 210 in Liberty, Missouri, approximately 15 miles east of Kansas City, Missouri. Currently, the site is a vacant lot of approximately2.5 acres in a flat alluvial plain.

  3. 75 FR 38100 - National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Superfund Hazardous Substance Research and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... areas: Human health effects, assessment of risks, detection technologies, and remediation approaches... strategies and technologies to provide solutions to the magnitude and complexity of Superfund assessment and... negative impacts of hazardous waste sites. In order to fulfill its mandates, the SRP has developed a...

  4. A General Chemistry Assignment Analyzing Environmental Contamination for the Depue, IL, National Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslow Gomez, Sarah A.; Faurie-Wisniewski, Danielle; Parsa, Arlen; Spitz, Jeff; Spitz, Jennifer Amdur; Loeb, Nancy C.; Geiger, Franz M.

    2015-01-01

    The classroom exercise outlined here is a self-directed assignment that connects students to the environmental contamination problem surrounding the DePue Superfund site. By connecting chemistry knowledge gained in the classroom with a real-world problem, students are encouraged to personally connect with the problem while simultaneously…

  5. Remediation System Evaluation, Vineland Chemical Company Superfund Site, Vineland, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Vineland Chemical Company Superfund Site was selected by EPA OSRTI based on recommendations from the EPA Remedial Project Manager for the site and from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Philadelphia District that provides oversight of remedial..

  6. Remediation System Evaluation, GCL Tie and Treating Superfund Site, Sidney, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    The GCL Tie and Treating Superfund Site is located along the outskirts of Sidney in Delaware County, New York. The site is a former wood treating facility that was operated between the early 1950s and 1988 when the property was abandoned by the owners.

  7. EPA Seeks Public Comments on Addition of Subsurface Intrusion Component to the Superfund Hazard Ranking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is seeking public comment on the proposed addition of a subsurface intrusion (SsI) component to the Superfund Hazard Ranking System (HRS). The HRS is a scoring system EPA uses to identify

  8. Technology Demonstration Summary Shirco Electric Infrared Incineration At The Peak Oil Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under the auspices of the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation or SITE Program, a critical assessment is made of the performance of the transportable Shirco Infrared Thermal Destruction System during three separate test runs at an operating feed rate of 100 tons per day. Th...

  9. Medical costs and lost productivity from health conditions at volatile organic compound-contaminated Superfund sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lybarger, J.A.; Spengler, R.F.; Brown, D.R. [Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA (United States). Div. of Health Studies; Lee, R.; Vogt, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Joint Inst. for Energy and Environment, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perhac, R.M. Jr. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)]|[Joint Inst. for Energy and Environment, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1998-10-01

    This paper estimates the health costs at Superfund sites for conditions associated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in drinking water. Health conditions were identified from published literature and registry information as occurring at excess rates in VOC-exposed populations. These health conditions were: (1) some categories of birth defects, (2) urinary tract disorders, (3) diabetes, (4) eczema and skin conditions, (5) anemia, (6) speech and hearing impairments in children under 10 years of age, and (7) stroke. Excess rates were used to estimate the excess number of cases occurring among the total population living within one-half mile of 258 Superfund sites. These sites had evidence of completed human exposure pathways for VOCs in drinking water. For each type of medical condition, an individual`s expected medical costs, long-term care costs, and lost work time due to illness or premature mortality were estimated. Costs were calculated to be approximately $330 million per year, in the absence of any remediation or public health intervention programs. The results indicate the general magnitude of the economic burden associated with a limited number of contaminants at a portion of all Superfund sites, thus suggesting that the burden would be greater than that estimated in this study if all contaminants at all Superfund sites could be taken into account.

  10. 75 FR 68788 - Ore Knob Mine Superfund Site; Jefferson, Ashe County, North Carolina; Notice of Settlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... Doc No: 2010-28260] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [Docket EPA-RO4-SFUND-2010-0893, FRL-9223-8] Ore Knob Mine Superfund Site; Jefferson, Ashe County, North Carolina; Notice of Settlement AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency. ACTION: Notice of settlement. SUMMARY: Under Section 122(h)(1) of the...

  11. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 5): Ormet Corporation, Hannibal, OH, September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-12

    The Record of Decision presents the selected remedy for the Ormet Corporation Superfund Site. The purpose of this remedy is to eliminate or reduce contamination in soils, sediments and ground water, and to reduce the risks associated with exposure to contaminated materials. This is the first and final remedy planned for the Site.

  12. Ecology of the Sand Roller (Percopsis transmontana) in a lower Snake River Reservoir, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffan, Kenneth F.; Erhardt, John M.; Rhodes, Tobyn N.; Hemingway, Rulon J.

    2017-01-01

    The Sand Roller (Percopsis transmontana), has not been abundant in the Snake River since it was first found in the system in the 1950s, but its population has apparently increased in recent years. As a result, we initiated a study to better understand its ecology in habitats of Lower Granite Reservoir. From November 2014 to October 2015, Sand Rollers were present along shorelines, with peak abundance being observed during spring months. Logistic regression analyses showed that Sand Rollers were more likely to be present in shoreline habitats at temperatures ≤18.4°C. Fish were found over a range of substrates, with the lowest odds of fish presence being associated with riprap, which is common in hydropower reservoirs. From length-frequency analysis, we suggest that Sand Roller spawning occurs primarily in May and early June. Assessment of Sand Roller diets found dipteran (chironomid) larvae and pupae were the most important prey consumed by all sizes of Sand Rollers, but Opossum Shrimp (Neomysis mercedis) were also prominent in diets of larger fish in shoreline and offshore habitats. At a time when the populations of so many native species are in decline, the increase of the Sand Roller population in the lower Snake River represents a positive, yet curious occurrence.

  13. Disturbance of the inclined inserting-type sand fence to wind-sand flow fields and its sand control characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jian-jun; Lei, Jia-qiang; Li, Sheng-yu; Wang, Hai-feng

    2016-06-01

    The inclined inserting-type sand fence is a novel sand retaining wall adopted along the Lanxin High-Speed Railway II in Xinjiang for controlling and blocking sand movement. To verify the effectiveness of the new fence structure for sand prevention, a wind tunnel test was used for flow field test simulation of the sand fence. The results indicate that the inclined inserting-type sand fence was able to deflect the flow of the sand and was able to easily form an upward slant acceleration zone on the leeward side of the sand fence. As shown by the percentage change in sand collection rates on the windward side and the leeward side of the sand fence, the sand flux per unit area at 4 m height in the slant upward direction increased on the leeward side of the inclined inserting-type sand fence. By comparing the flow fields, this site is an acceleration zone, which also reaffirms the correspondence of wind-sand flow fields with the spatial distribution characteristic of the wind-carried sand motion. The field sand collection data indicates that under the effects of the inclined inserting-type sand fence, the sandy air currents passing in front and behind the sand fence not only changed in quality, but the grain composition and particle size also significantly changed, suggesting that the inclined inserting-type sand fence has a sorting and filtering effect on the sandy air currents that passed through. The fence retained coarse particulates on the windward side and fine particulates within the shade of the wind on the leeward side.

  14. Optimal array of sand fences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Izael A.; Araújo, Ascânio D.; Parteli, Eric J. R.; Andrade, José S.; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2017-03-01

    Sand fences are widely applied to prevent soil erosion by wind in areas affected by desertification. Sand fences also provide a way to reduce the emission rate of dust particles, which is triggered mainly by the impacts of wind-blown sand grains onto the soil and affects the Earth’s climate. Many different types of fence have been designed and their effects on the sediment transport dynamics studied since many years. However, the search for the optimal array of fences has remained largely an empirical task. In order to achieve maximal soil protection using the minimal amount of fence material, a quantitative understanding of the flow profile over the relief encompassing the area to be protected including all employed fences is required. Here we use Computational Fluid Dynamics to calculate the average turbulent airflow through an array of fences as a function of the porosity, spacing and height of the fences. Specifically, we investigate the factors controlling the fraction of soil area over which the basal average wind shear velocity drops below the threshold for sand transport when the fences are applied. We introduce a cost function, given by the amount of material necessary to construct the fences. We find that, for typical sand-moving wind velocities, the optimal fence height (which minimizes this cost function) is around 50 cm, while using fences of height around 1.25 m leads to maximal cost.

  15. Fish Springs molluscan studies: House and Percy Springs

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the findings of a limited survey of House and Percy Springs molluscan fauna within Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Various...

  16. Leaf spring, and electromagnetic actuator provided with a leaf spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Lemmen, Remco Louis Christiaan

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to a leaf spring for an electromagnetic actuator and to such an electromagnetic actuator. The leaf spring is formed as a whole from a disc of plate-shaped, resilient material. The leaf spring comprises a central fastening part, an outer fastening part extending therearound and

  17. Studying Springs in Series Using a Single Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Juan D.; Joshi, Amitabh

    2011-01-01

    Springs are used for a wide range of applications in physics and engineering. Possibly, one of their most common uses is to study the nature of restoring forces in oscillatory systems. While experiments that verify Hooke's law using springs are abundant in the physics literature, those that explore the combination of several springs together are…

  18. Sands at Gusev Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Farmer, Jack D.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Grin, E.A.; Li, Ron; Fenton, Lori; Cohen, B.; Bell, J.F.; Yingst, R. Aileen

    2014-01-01

    Processes, environments, and the energy associated with the transport and deposition of sand at Gusev Crater are characterized at the microscopic scale through the comparison of statistical moments for particle size and shape distributions. Bivariate and factor analyses define distinct textural groups at 51 sites along the traverse completed by the Spirit rover as it crossed the plains and went into the Columbia Hills. Fine-to-medium sand is ubiquitous in ripples and wind drifts. Most distributions show excess fine material, consistent with a predominance of wind erosion over the last 3.8 billion years. Negative skewness at West Valley is explained by the removal of fine sand during active erosion, or alternatively, by excess accumulation of coarse sand from a local source. The coarse to very coarse sand particles of ripple armors in the basaltic plains have a unique combination of size and shape. Their distribution display significant changes in their statistical moments within the ~400 m that separate the Columbia Memorial Station from Bonneville Crater. Results are consistent with aeolian and/or impact deposition, while the elongated and rounded shape of the grains forming the ripples, as well as their direction of origin, could point to Ma'adim Vallis as a possible source. For smaller particles on the traverse, our findings confirm that aeolian processes have dominated over impact and other processes to produce sands with the observed size and shape patterns across a spectrum of geologic (e.g., ripples and plains soils) and aerographic settings (e.g., wind shadows).

  19. Sands at Gusev Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Knoll, Andrew H.; Farmer, Jack; Arvidson, Raymond; Grin, Edmond; Li, Ronxing; Fenton, Lori; Cohen, Barbara; Bell, James F.; Aileen Yingst, R.

    2014-05-01

    Processes, environments, and the energy associated with the transport and deposition of sand at Gusev Crater are characterized at the microscopic scale through the comparison of statistical moments for particle size and shape distributions. Bivariate and factor analyses define distinct textural groups at 51 sites along the traverse completed by the Spirit rover as it crossed the plains and went into the Columbia Hills. Fine-to-medium sand is ubiquitous in ripples and wind drifts. Most distributions show excess fine material, consistent with a predominance of wind erosion over the last 3.8 billion years. Negative skewness at West Valley is explained by the removal of fine sand during active erosion, or alternatively, by excess accumulation of coarse sand from a local source. The coarse to very coarse sand particles of ripple armors in the basaltic plains have a unique combination of size and shape. Their distribution display significant changes in their statistical moments within the ~400 m that separate the Columbia Memorial Station from Bonneville Crater. Results are consistent with aeolian and/or impact deposition, while the elongated and rounded shape of the grains forming the ripples, as well as their direction of origin, could point to Ma'adim Vallis as a possible source. For smaller particles on the traverse, our findings confirm that aeolian processes have dominated over impact and other processes to produce sands with the observed size and shape patterns across a spectrum of geologic (e.g., ripples and plains soils) and aerographic settings (e.g., wind shadows).

  20. Issuance of Final Guidance: Ecological Risk Assessment and Risk Management Principles for Superfund Sites, October 7, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guidance is intended to help Superfund risk managers make ecological risk management decisions that are based on sound science, consistent across Regions, and present a characterization of site risks that is transparent to the public.

  1. Long-Term Monitoring Network Optimization Evaluation for Operable Unit 2, Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents a description and evaluation of the ground water and surface water monitoring program associated with the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex Superfund Site (Bunker Hill) Operable Unit (OU) 2.

  2. Long-Term Groundwater Monitoring Optimization, Clare Water Supply Superfund Site, Permeable Reactive Barrier and Soil Remedy Areas, Clare, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report contains a review of the long-term groundwater monitoring network for the Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) and Soil Remedy Areas at the Clare Water Supply Superfund Site in Clare, Michigan.

  3. HISTORY AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF THE US EPA'S SUPERFUND INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION (SITE) MONITORING AND MEASUREMENT (MMT) PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript presents the history and evolution of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Monitoring and Measurement Technology (MMT) Program. This includes a discussion of how the fundamental concepts of a performanc...

  4. Spring magnet films.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, S. D.; Fullerton, E. E.; Gornakov, V. S.; Inomata, A.; Jiang, J. S.; Nikitenko, V. I.; Shapiro, A. J.; Shull, R. D.; Sowers, C. H.

    1999-03-29

    The properties of exchange-spring-coupled bilayer and superlattice films are highlighted for Sm-Co hard magnet and Fe or Co soft magnet layers. The hexagonal Sm-Co is grown via magnetron sputtering in a- and b-axis epitaxial orientations. In both cases the c-axis, in the film plane, is the easy axis of magnetization. Trends in coercivity with film thickness are established and related to the respective microstructure of the two orientations. The magnetization reversal process for the bilayers is examined by magnetometry and magneto-optical imaging, as well as by simulations that utilize a one-dimensional model to provide the spin configuration for each atomic layer. The Fe magnetization is pinned to that of the Sm-Co at the interface, and reversal proceeds via a progressive twisting of the Fe magnetization. The Fe demagnetization curves are reversible as expected for a spring magnet. Comparison of experiment and simulations indicates that the spring magnet behavior can be understood from the intrinsic properties of the hard and soft layers. Estimated are made of the ultimate gain in performance that can potentially be realized in this system.

  5. Settling Tube Analysis of Sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geldof, H.J.; Slot, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    For various reasons particle-size analysis of sediment is used in many fields of science and technology, a.o. earth sciences, agricultural and civil engineering. Relatively coarse-grained sediment like sand, with dimensions ranging from 0.06 till 2 mm, is analyzed almost exclusively by sieving. The

  6. Silo model tests with sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Andersen, Jørgen

    Tests have been carried out in a large silo model with Leighton Buzzard Sand. Normal pressures and shear stresses have been measured during tests carried out with inlet and outlet geometry. The filling method is a very important parameter for the strength of the mass and thereby the pressures...

  7. Sand and Water Table Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ann H.; White, Mary J.; Stone, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    The authors observed preschoolers engaged at the sand and water table to determine if math could be found within their play. Wanting to understand how children interact with provided materials and what kinds of math ideas they explore during these interactions, the authors offer practical examples of how such play can promote mathematical…

  8. V-2 at White Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1947-01-01

    A V-2 rocket is hoisted into a static test facility at White Sands, New Mexico. The German engineers and scientists who developed the V-2 came to the United States at the end of World War II and continued rocket testing under the direction of the U. S. Army, launching more than sixty V-2s.

  9. Suspended and Bedload Sand dynamics in the Mekong River Channel and Export to the Coastal Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, J. D.; Di Leonardo, D. R.; Weathers, H. D., III; Allison, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    Two field campaigns were conducted in the tidal and estuarine reach of the Song Hau distributary of the Mekong River to examine the dynamics of sand transport and export to the coastal ocean. This study examines variation in suspended sand concentration and net transport with respect to changes in discharge between the October 2014 high discharge and March 2015 low discharge studies, and over semi-diurnal and spring-neap tidal cycles between Can Tho and the Tran De and Dinh An distributary channels in the Mekong Delta. Suspended sand concentrations were measured using a P-61 isokinetic suspended sediment sampler and a Sequoia Scientific LISST-100X used in vertical profiling mode. Stationary ADCP data are used to examine bed stress at cast sites. Bed load transport rates were calculated using a repeat multibeam transect methodology and dune translation rates with flow. Preliminary results indicate that suspended sand concentration increases towards the bed and is positively correlated with increasing shear stress controlled by river discharge and tides. However, sites with non-sandy bottoms, as indicated by multibeam bathymetry, have low suspended sand concentrations, suggesting a close linkage with a bed sand source. Bed load transport rates vary cross-sectionally with shear stress and are linked to dune size. Most bed load transport is taking place in or near the thalweg. The reduction in ebb flows at low discharge and the mantling of sand fields by salinity driven mud deposition, is suspected to control the low suspended sand concentrations observed in March. Results to date suggest that net sand export (suspended plus bed load) to the ocean occurs predominantly during the high discharge monsoon season.

  10. The eolian sand problems arising from desertification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bofah, K K; Owusu, Y A

    1986-05-01

    Eolian (wind blown) sand constitutes a very serious problem to development in sandy desert lands and causes equally serious problems in lands that are undergoing desertification. In this paper, eolian sand movement due to bulk movement such as sand dune and ripple movement, sand drift by saltation, and sand storms by strong winds are discussed. Associated problems such as eolian sand encroachment on highways, farms, communities and industrial complexes are also discussed and workable solutions are offered. Solutions include chemical stabilization of the surface grains, fences to trap the blown sand and vegetation to prevent soil deflation. Vegetation is emphasized and recommended as the ultimate viable solution to combat desertification and eolian sand problems.

  11. experimental studies of sand production from unconsolidated

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    consolidated samples has been used to simulate the effect of flow rates, confining pressure, pressure drawdown and fluid viscosity on sand production in the Niger. Delta. The model was also used to determine the ability of using the flow rate to control the production of sand. Sand sample from an unconsolidated reser-.

  12. Sand lance: A review of biology and predator relations and annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, Martin D.; Willson, Mary F.; Armstrong, Robert H.; Piatt, John F.

    1999-01-01

    Six species of sand lance (Ammodytes) in temperate and boreal regions are currently recognized. Sand lance can occupy a wide range of environmental conditions, but all appear to be dormant predominantly in winter, and one species is in summer also. They lack a swim bladder and spend much of their time buried in specific substrates. Copepods are the primary food. Spawning usually occurs in fall or winter (although some species also spawn in spring), eggs are demersal, and larvae may hatch at times of low food abundance. Sand lance usually occur in schools and are regarded as a relatively high-quality forage fish.Sand lance constitute a major prey for at least some populations of over 100 species of consumer, including 40 species of birds, 12 species of marine mammals, 45 species of fishes, and some invertebrates. Variation in the availability of sand lance (and other forage fishes) can have major effects on the breeding success and survival of their predators. Commercial fishing and other pressures on sand lance populations potentially have ramifying effects on many species of wildlife.The bibliography contains over 1,700 references on the family Ammodytidae, with an emphasis on the genus Ammodytes. Keywords are provided for each reference and have been further organized into taxonomic, geographic, subject, and predator indexes.

  13. Economic deprivation and racial segregation: comparing Superfund sites in Portland, Oregon and Detroit, Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chad L

    2009-09-01

    The research presented here weighs the ability of two major explanations of social inequality-Massey and Denton's racial segregation explanation and Wilson's emphasis on economic deprivation (concentrated poverty)-to predict environmental inequality. Two sets of logistic regression analyses are used to predict the location of Superfund sites in Portland, Oregon and Detroit, Michigan providing a conditional understanding of environmental inequality within a larger sociological context. The analysis includes a general examination of the two theories in all census tracts in both cities and a set of analyses focusing upon Black neighborhoods in Detroit. The findings indicate that there is support for explanations of environmental inequality that include both racial segregation and economic deprivation, but that the more powerful of the two is economic deprivation. The results suggest that even though African-American neighborhoods disproportionately house Superfund sites, these facilities are more likely to be located in Black neighborhoods that are economically deprived.

  14. Reframing the Canadian Oil Sands

    OpenAIRE

    Patchett, Merle M; Lozowy, A

    2012-01-01

    Reframing the Canadian Oil Sands” is a collaborative exchange between photographer Andriko Lozowy and cultural geographer Merle Patchett that engages photography and photographic theory to evoke a more critical and politically meaningful visual engagement with the world’s largest capital oil project. Since the appearance of Edward Burtynsky’s aerial and abstracted photographic-mappings of the region, capturing the scale of the Oil Sands from ‘on high’ has become the dominant visual imaginary....

  15. Rheological Characterization of Green Sand Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud; Spangenberg, Jon; Hovad, Emil

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to characterize experimentally the flow behaviour of the green sand that is used for casting of sand moulds. After the sand casting process is performed, the sand moulds are used for metal castings. The rheological properties of the green sand is important to quantify...... module for characterizing granular materials. The new module enables viscosity measurements of the green sand as function of the shear rate at different flow rates, i.e. 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 15 L/min. The results show generally that the viscosity decreases with both the shear- and flow rate....... In addition, the measurements show that the green sand flow follows a shear-thinning behaviour even after the full fluidization point....

  16. Groundwater Discharges to Rivers in the Western Canadian Oil Sands Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J.; Jasechko, S.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater discharges into rivers impacts the movement and fate of nutrients and contaminants in the environment. Understanding groundwater-surface water interactions is especially important in the western Canadian oil sands, where groundwater contamination risks are elevated and baseline water chemistry data is lacking, leading to substantial uncertainties about anthropogenic influences on local river quality. High salinity groundwater springs sourced from deep aquifers, comprised of Pleistocene-aged glacial meltwater, are known to discharge into many rivers in the oil sands. Understanding connections between deep aquifers and surficial waterways is important in order to determine natural inputs into these rivers and to assess the potential for injected wastewater or oil extraction fluids to enter surface waters. While these springs have been identified, their spatial distribution along rivers has not been fully characterized. Here we present river chemistry data collected along a number of major river corridors in the Canadian oil sands region. We show that saline groundwater springs vary spatially along the course of these rivers and tend to be concentrated where the rivers incise Devonian- or Cretaceous-aged aquifers along an evaporite dissolution front. Our results suggest that water sourced from Devonian aquifers may travel through bitumen-bearing Cretaceous units and discharge into local rivers, implying a strong groundwater-surface water connection in specialized locations. These findings indicate that oil sands process-affected waters that are injected at depth have the potential to move through these aquifers and reach the rivers at the surface at some time in the future. Groundwater-surface water interactions remain key to understanding the risks oil sands activities pose to aquatic ecosystems and downstream communities.

  17. Electrochemical peroxidation of PCBs and VOCs in superfund site water and sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrudato, R.J.; Chiarenzelli, J.R. [SUNY, Oswego, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    An electrochemical peroxidation (ECP) process has been developed and used to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and volatile organic compounds (VOC)-contaminated water, sludge, and sediments at a New York State Federal and State Superfund Site. The process involves passing an oscillating low-amperage (<10 amps) current through steel electrodes immersed in an acidified water or sediment slurry into which hydrogen peroxide (<1,000 ppm) is added. The generated free radicals attack organic compounds, including organo-metallic complexes and refractory compounds including PCBs. PCB degradation ranged from about 30% to 80% in experiments involving Federal Superfund Site sediments; total PCBs were reduced by {approximately}97% to 68%, respectively, in water and slurry collected from a State Superfund subsurface storage tank. VOC bench-scale experiments involved chloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethane, dichloromethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and acetone and after a 3-min ECP treatment, degradation ranged from >94% to about 99.9%. Results indicate the ECP is a viable process to degrade organic contaminants in water and sediment suspensions. Because the treated water suspensions are acidified, select trace metal sorbed to the particulates is solubilized and therefore can be segregated from the particulates, offering a process that simultaneously degrades organic contaminants and separates trace metals. 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  18. Spatial and temporal variation of freely dissolved PAHs in an urban river undergoing Superfund remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sower, GJ; Anderson, K.A.

    2014-01-01

    Urban rivers with a history of industrial use can exhibit spatial and temporal variations in contaminant concentrations that may significantly affect risk evaluations and even the assessment of remediation efforts. Concentrations of 15 biologically available priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured over five years along 18.5 miles of the lower Willamette River using passive sampling devices and HPLC. The study area includes the Portland Harbor Superfund megasite with several PAH sources including remediation operations for coal tar at RM 6.3 west and an additional Superfund site, McCormick and Baxter, at RM 7 east consisting largely of creosote contamination. Study results show that organoclay capping at the McCormick and Baxter Superfund Site reduced PAHs from a pre-cap average of 440 ± 422 ng/L to 8 ± 3 ng/L post-capping. Results also reveal that dredging of submerged coal tar nearly tripled nearby freely dissolved PAH concentrations. For apportioning sources, fluoranthene/ pyrene and phenanthrene/anthracene diagnostic ratios from passive sampling devices were established for creosote and coal tar contamination and compared to published sediment values. PMID:19174872

  19. Supporting Superfund community based decision making: Large group decision making models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Community involvement is a cornerstone of the Superfund Program. Forums supporting community based decision-making have been established across the country. The challenge facing the Superfund program is how to effectively support the decision-making processes necessary to accelerate site cleanup and reuse of Superfund sites. This paper examines models of large group decision making; self-organizing processes; principles from the latest management theories; and experiences in the international development community. The convergence of these experiences offer new paradigms to frame the community based decision-making process being implemented across the country. This paper illustrates the value of stakeholder participation in understanding and resolving issues within a whole system framework. Since the 1900s, management theory has moved from ``experts solving problems`` to ``everybody improving whole systems``. When everybody understands the whole, fragmentation is reduced, stakeholders share a common understanding, and decision are made within a common context. Two models of large group decision making will be detailed: ``The Future Search Model`` and the ``Appreciation, Influence and Control Model (AIC) Self Organizing Model``. This paper applies these techniques to existing community involvement activity.

  20. Incorporating ToxCast and Tox21 datasets to rank biological activity of chemicals at Superfund sites in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley, Sloane K; Reif, David M; Fry, Rebecca C

    2017-04-01

    The Superfund program of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established in 1980 to address public health concerns posed by toxic substances released into the environment in the United States. Forty-two of the 1328 hazardous waste sites that remain on the Superfund National Priority List are located in the state of North Carolina. We set out to develop a database that contained information on both the prevalence and biological activity of chemicals present at Superfund sites in North Carolina. A chemical characterization tool, the Toxicological Priority Index (ToxPi), was used to rank the biological activity of these chemicals based on their predicted bioavailability, documented associations with biological pathways, and activity in in vitro assays of the ToxCast and Tox21 programs. The ten most prevalent chemicals found at North Carolina Superfund sites were chromium, trichloroethene, lead, tetrachloroethene, arsenic, benzene, manganese, 1,2-dichloroethane, nickel, and barium. For all chemicals found at North Carolina Superfund sites, ToxPi analysis was used to rank their biological activity. Through this data integration, residual pesticides and organic solvents were identified to be some of the most highly-ranking predicted bioactive chemicals. This study provides a novel methodology for creating state or regional databases of biological activity of contaminants at Superfund sites. These data represent a novel integrated profile of the most prevalent chemicals at North Carolina Superfund sites. This information, and the associated methodology, is useful to toxicologists, risk assessors, and the communities living in close proximity to these sites. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Spring viremia of carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahne, W.; Bjorklund, H.V.; Essbauer, S.; Fijan, N.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    pring viremia of carp (SVC) is an important disease affecting cyprinids, mainly common carp Cyprinus carpio. The disease is widespread in European carp culture, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality. Designated a notifiable disease by the Office International des Epizooties, SVC is caused by a rhabdovirus, spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). Affected fish show destruction of tissues in the kidney, spleen and liver, leading to hemorrhage, loss of water-salt balance and impairment of immune response. High mortality occurs at water temperatures of 10 to 17°C, typically in spring. At higher temperatures, infected carp develop humoral antibodies that can neutralize the spread of virus and such carp are protected against re-infection by solid immunity. The virus is shed mostly with the feces and urine of clinically infected fish and by carriers. Waterborne transmission is believed to be the primary route of infection, but bloodsucking parasites like leeches and the carp louse may serve as mechanical vectors of SVCV. The genome of SVCV is composed of a single molecule of linear, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA containing 5 genes in the order 3¹-NPMGL-5¹ coding for the viral nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein, and polymerase, respectively. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the viral proteins, and sequence homologies between the genes and gene junctions of SVCV and vesicular stomatitis viruses, have led to the placement of the virus as a tentative member of the genus Vesiculovirus in the family Rhabdoviridae. These methods also revealed that SVCV is not related to fish rhabdoviruses of the genus Novirhabdovirus. In vitro replication of SVCV takes place in the cytoplasm of cultured cells of fish, bird and mammalian origin at temperatures of 4 to 31°C, with an optimum of about 20°C. Spring viremia of carp can be diagnosed by clinical signs, isolation of virus in cell culture and molecular methods. Antibodies directed

  2. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.

    2017-06-27

    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  3. Spring security 3.x cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Mankale, Anjana

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a cookbook style exploring various security solutions provided by Spring Security for various vulnerabilities and threat scenarios that web applications may be exposed to at the authentication and session level layers.This book is for all Spring-based application developers as well as Java web developers who wish to implement robust security mechanisms into web application development using Spring Security.Readers are assumed to have a working knowledge of Java web application development, a basic understanding of the Spring framework, and some knowledge of the fundamentals o

  4. Water availability for development of major tar sands areas in Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keefer, T.N.; McQuivey, R.S.

    1979-05-01

    The Sutron Corporation, under contract with Colorado State University, has conducted a study for the Laramie Energy Technology Center (LETC) to determine the availability of water for future extraction of viscous petroleum (bitumen) from the six major tar sands deposits in Utah. Specifically, the areas are: Asphalt Ridge and Whiterocks, which lie immediately west of Vernal, Utah; P.R. Spring, a large area extending from the Colorado River to the White River along Utah's eastern border; Hill Creek, adjacent to P.R. Spring to the west; Sunnyside, immediately across the Green River from Hill Creek between the Price and Green Rivers; and Tar Sand Triangle, near the confluence of the Colorado and Dirty Devil Rivers. The study, conducted between September and December of 1978, was a fact-finding effort involving the compilation of information from publications of the US Geological Survey (USGS), Utah State Engineer, Utah Department of Natural Resources, and other federal and state agencies. The information covers the general physiographic and geologic features of the total area, the estimated water requirements for tar sands development, the availability of water in each of the six areas, and the legal and sociological restraints and impacts. The conclusions regarding water availability for tar sands development in each of the six areas and specific recommendations related to the development of each area are presented also.

  5. Role of Sand Grains in Sorption Processes by Surface Layers of Components of Sand Moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaźnica N.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of researches of sorption processes of surface layers of components of sand moulds covered by protective coatings are presented in the hereby paper. Investigations comprised various types of sand grains of moulding sands with furan resin: silica sand, reclaimed sand and calcined in temperature of 700°C silica sand. Two kinds of alcoholic protective coatings were used - zirconium and zirconium - graphite. Tests were performed under condition of a constant temperature within the range 30 - 35°C and high relative air humidity 75 - 80%. To analyze the role of sand grains in sorption processes quantitavie moisture sorption with use of gravimetric method and ultrasonic method were used in measurements. The tendency to moisture sorption of surface layers of sand moulds according to the different kinds of sand grains was specified. The effectiveness of protective action of coatings from moisture sorption was analyzed as well.

  6. Evaluation of Durability Parameters of Concrete with Manufacture Sand and River Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangoju, Bhaskar; Ramesh, G.; Bharatkumar, B. H.; Ramanjaneyulu, K.

    2017-09-01

    Most of the states in our country have banned sand quarrying from the river beds, causing a scarcity of natural river sand for the construction sector. Manufacture sand (M-sand) is one of the alternate solutions to replace the river sand (R-sand) in concrete. The main aim of the present study is to evaluate the durability parameters of concrete with M-sand when compared to that of concrete with R-sand. Corrosion of reinforcement is one of the main deteriorating mechanisms of reinforced concrete due to the ingress of chloride ions or carbon-di-oxide. For comparative evaluation of durability parameters, accelerated tests such as Rapid Chloride Permeability Test, Rapid Chloride Migration Test and accelerated carbonation test were carried out on specimens of R-sand and M-sand. All tests were carried out after 90 days of casting. Test results reveal that the durability parameters of the concrete with M-sand in chloride induced environment is relatively better than that of concrete with R-sand and hence is recommended to use M-sand as a replacement to R-sand.

  7. Bedrock geology and outcrop fracture trends in the vicinity of the Savage Municipal Well Superfund site, Milford, New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, William C.; Harte, Philip T.

    2013-01-01

    The Savage Municipal Well Superfund site consists of an eastward-directed plume of volatile organic compounds, principally tetrachloroethylene (PCE), in alluvium and glacial sand and gravel in the Souhegan River valley, just south of the river and about 4 kilometers west of the town of Milford, New Hampshire. Sampling of monitoring wells at the site has helped delineate the extent of the plume and has determined that some contaminant has migrated into the underlying crystalline bedrock, including bedrock north of the river within 200 meters of a nearby residential development that was constructed in 1999. Borehole geophysical logging has identified a northeast preferential trend for bedrock fractures, which may provide a pathway for the migration of contaminant under and north of the Souhegan River. The current study investigates the bedrock geologic setting for the site, including its position relative to known regional geologic structures, and compiles new strike and dip measurements of joints in exposed bedrock to determine if there are dominant trends in orientation similar to what was found in the boreholes. The site is located on the northwestern limb of a northeast-trending regional anticlinorium that is southeast of the Campbell Hill fault zone. The Campbell Hill fault zone defines the contact between granite and gneiss of the anticlinorium and granite and schist to the northwest and is locally marked by lenses of massive vein quartz, minor faults, and fracture zones that could potentially affect plume migration. The fault zone was apparently not intercepted by any of the boreholes that were drilled to delineate the contaminant plume and therefore passes to the north of the northernmost borehole in the vicinity of the new residential area. Joints measured in surface exposures indicate a strong preferred direction of strike to the north-northeast corroborating the borehole data and previous outcrop and geophysical studies. The north-northeast preferred

  8. SAND

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Grete

    Der er udført et konsolideringsforsøg med bakkesand fra Lunds grusgrav, Lund no. O. forsøget er udført i samme konsolideringsapparat, som er anvendt til måling af deformationsegenskaberne af mange forskellige danske jordarter. Forsøgsresultaterne er søgt tolket som ved forsøg med andre jordarter....

  9. Fatigue behaviour of technical springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, B.; Berger, C. [Institut fuer Werkstoffkunde und Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt Darmstadt, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Grafenstrasse 2, 64283 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-11-01

    Technical Springs belong to the components with the highest cyclic and superposed static load. Nevertheless they have to fulfill the requirements of lightweight constructions. This is only possible, if high strength materials with special properties are carefully manufactured to well designed springs and special additional treatments are carried out, which impose an advantageous residual stress profile in the surface layers of the springs. After a short historical view on the spring research activities in Professor Thums area, some aspects of the fatigue behaviour of hot formed parabolic leaf springs are presented. Then the fatigue properties of cold formed helical compression springs made of different steel spring wires are discussed. Finally some results on the fatigue behaviour of helical springs at a very high number of load cycles are reported. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Technische Federn gehoeren zu den am hoechsten zyklisch beanspruchten Bauteilen mit gleichzeitig hoher Vorspannung bzw. Mittelspannung. Trotzdem sollen sie den Forderungen des Leichtbaus genuegen. Realisierbar ist dies nur durch hochfeste Federwerkstoffe mit speziellen Eigenschaften, die sorgfaeltig zu ueberlegt konstruierten Federn verarbeitet werden, und wenn zusaetzliche Behandlungen durchgefuehrt werden, die einen guenstigen Eigenspannungszustand in der Federrandschicht erzeugen. Nach einem kurzen historischen Rueckblick auf die Forschungsaktivitaeten zur Zeit von August Thum wird zunaechst das Ermuedungsverhalten warm geformter Parabelfedern behandelt. Der folgende Abschnitt befasst sich mit den Schwingfestigkeitseigenschaften kalt geformter Schraubendruckfedern aus verschiedenen Federstahldraehten. Abschliessend wird ueber das Ermuedungsverhalten von Schraubenfedern bei sehr hohen Schwingspielzahlen berichtet. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Experimenting with Inexpensive Plastic Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Leander; Marques, Adriana; Sánchez, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Acommon undergraduate laboratory experience is the determination of the elastic constant of a spring, whether studying the elongation under a static load or studying the damped harmonic motion of the spring with a suspended mass. An alternative approach to this laboratory experience has been suggested by Menezes et al., aimed at studying the…

  11. Crest line minimal model for sand dune

    OpenAIRE

    Guignier, Lucie; Valance, Alexandre; Lague, Dimitri

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In desert, complex patterns of dunes form. Under unidirectional wind, transverse rectilinear dunes or crescent shaped dunes called barchan dunes can appear, depending on the amount of sediment available. Most rectilinear transverse sand dunes are observed to fragment, for example at White Sands (New Mexico, United States of America) or Walvis Bay (Namibia). We develop a reduced complexity model to investigate the morphodynamics of sand dunes migrating over a non-erodib...

  12. A bountiful spring harvest

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Although we recently put the clocks forward and spring has officially begun, the view from my window looks more autumnal – befitting of the season of mists and mellow fruitfulness, rather than that of sowing seeds for the future. Which, in a way is appropriate. With the LHC paused, we are reaping a kind of harvest in the form of recognition for our efforts.   Two weeks ago, I was in Edinburgh, on behalf of everyone at CERN, to collect the Edinburgh medal, which we shared with Peter Higgs. I particularly like the citation for this honour: “The Edinburgh Medal is awarded each year to men and women of science and technology whose professional achievements are judged to have made a significant contribution to the understanding and well-being of humanity.” I like this, because it underlines a fact that needs to be shouted louder – that fundamental science does more than build the sum of human knowledge, it is also the foundation of human well-being. A few d...

  13. Spring comes for ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Butin, F.

    2004-01-01

    (First published in the CERN weekly bulletin 24/2004, 7 June 2004.) A short while ago the ATLAS cavern underwent a spring clean, marking the end of the installation of the detector's support structures and the cavern's general infrastructure. The list of infrastructure to be installed in the ATLAS cavern from September 2003 was long: a thousand tonnes of mechanical structures spread over 13 storeys, two lifts, two 65-tonne overhead travelling cranes 25 metres above cavern floor, with a telescopic boom and cradle to access the remaining 10 metres of the cavern, a ventilation system for the 55 000 cubic metre cavern, a drainage system, a standard sprinkler system and an innovative foam fire-extinguishing system, as well as the external cryogenic system for the superconducting magnets and the liquid argon calorimeters (comprising, amongst other things, two helium refrigeration units, a nitrogen refrigeration unit and 5 km of piping for gaseous or liquid helium and nitrogen), not to mention the handling eq...

  14. Crushed rock sand – An economical and ecological alternative to natural sand to optimize concrete mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Mundra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the use of crushed rock sand as viable alternative to Natural River sand that is being conventionally used as fine aggregate in cement concrete. Various mix designs were developed for different grades of concrete based on IS, ACI and British codes using Natural River sand and crushed rock sand. In each case, the cube compressive strength test, and beam flexure tests were conducted. The results of the study show that, the strength properties of concrete using crushed rock sand are nearly similar to the conventional concrete. The study has shown that crushed stone sand can be used as economic and readily available alternative to river sand and can therefore help to arrest the detrimental effects on the environment caused due to excessive mining of river sand.

  15. Simulating and understanding sand wave variation: a case study of the Golden Gate sand waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterlini-Van der Meer, Fenneke; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Hanes, D.M

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a detailed comparison between measured features of the Golden Gate sand wave field and the results of a nonlinear sand wave model. Because the Golden Gate sand waves exhibit large variation in their characteristics and in their environmental physics, this area gives us the

  16. Regional economic impact assessment: Evaluating remedial alternatives for the Portland Harbor Superfund Site, Portland, Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, David; Coughlin, Conor; Hogan, Dylan; Edwards, Deborah A; Smith, Benjamin C

    2018-01-01

    The present paper describes a methodology for evaluating impacts of Superfund remedial alternatives on the regional economy in the context of a broader sustainability evaluation. Although economic impact methodology is well established, some applications to Superfund remedial evaluation have created confusion because of seemingly contradictory results. This confusion arises from failure to be explicit about 2 opposing impacts of remediation expenditures: 1) positive regional impacts of spending additional money in the region and 2) negative regional impacts of the need to pay for the expenditures (and thus forgo other expenditures in the region). The present paper provides a template for economic impact assessment that takes both positive and negative impacts into account, thus providing comprehensive estimates of net impacts. The paper also provides a strategy for identifying and estimating major uncertainties in the net impacts. The recommended methodology was applied at the Portland Harbor Superfund Site, located along the Lower Willamette River in Portland, Oregon, USA. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) developed remedial alternatives that it estimated would cost up to several billion dollars, with construction durations possibly lasting decades. The economic study estimated regional economic impacts-measured in terms of gross regional product (GRP), personal income, population, and employment-for 5 of the USEPA alternatives relative to the "no further action" alternative. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2018;14:32-42. © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC). © 2017 The Authors. Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society of Environmental Toxicology & Chemistry (SETAC).

  17. Unusual leg malformations in screech owls from a South Carolina Superfund site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, P.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Brisbin, I.L.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995, the discovery of leg malformations in several screech owl (Otis asio) nestlings and in their female parent at a Department of Energy (DOE) Superfund site in South Carolina prompted an investigation into the nature of the observed abnormalities. Surviving nestlings and the female parent were transferred to a captive screech owl breeding colony at the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD. The malformed female parent and her offspring were each mated with normal owls from the colony for 3 yr. Matings of the malformed female produced five malformed and six normal owls; all owls produced by matings of normal offspring were normal. Malformed offspring were euthanized when it became apparent that their physical distress precluded survival under normal conditions of colony care. Euthanized owls were necropsied and examined for skeletal development. Detailed descriptions of eight malformed owls are presented. Results of the matings indicated that the leg malformations were caused by a genetic trait in the female parent that was heterozygous dominant. The characteristic was lethal except in occasional mild manifestations and resembled an extreme form of a dominant abnormality previously described for domestic fowl called duplicate polydactyly. Other reports of skeletal abnormalities in wild birds and potential environmental causes of genetic mutations at the DOE Super-fund site are presented. Other studies performed at the DOE Superfund site do not implicate elevated (above background) ionizing radiation from '37Cs, the dominant radio-nuclide where the owls were captured, as the cause of the mutation. The cause of this genetic abnormality remains unknown.

  18. Study of Black Sand Particles from Sand Dunes in Badr, Saudi Arabia Using Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Abbas Khwaja

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Particulate air pollution is a health concern. This study determines the microscopic make-up of different varieties of sand particles collected at a sand dune site in Badr, Saudi Arabia in 2012. Three categories of sand were studied: black sand, white sand, and volcanic sand. The study used multiple high resolution electron microscopies to study the morphologies, emission source types, size, and elemental composition of the particles, and to evaluate the presence of surface “coatings or contaminants” deposited or transported by the black sand particles. White sand was comprised of natural coarse particles linked to wind-blown releases from crustal surfaces, weathering of igneous/metamorphic rock sources, and volcanic activities. Black sand particles exhibited different morphologies and microstructures (surface roughness compared with the white sand and volcanic sand. Morphological Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM analyses revealed that the black sand contained fine and ultrafine particles (50 to 500 nm ranges and was strongly magnetic, indicating the mineral magnetite or elemental iron. Aqueous extracts of black sands were acidic (pH = 5.0. Fe, C, O, Ti, Si, V, and S dominated the composition of black sand. Results suggest that carbon and other contaminant fine particles were produced by fossil-fuel combustion and industrial emissions in heavily industrialized areas of Haifa and Yanbu, and transported as cloud condensation nuclei to Douf Mountain. The suite of techniques used in this study has yielded an in-depth characterization of sand particles. Such information will be needed in future environmental, toxicological, epidemiological, and source apportionment studies.

  19. Aquatic assessment of the Ely Copper Mine Superfund site, Vershire, Vermont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, Robert R.; Kiah, Richard G.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Besser, John M.; Coles, James F.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Argue, Denise M.; Levitan, Denise M.; Deacon, Jeffrey R.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    The Ely Mine, which operated from 1821 to 1905, and its area of downstream impact constitute the Ely Copper Mine Superfund site. The site was placed on the National Priorities List in 2001. The mine comprises underground workings, foundations from historical structures, several waste-rock piles, roast beds associated with the smelting operation, and slag piles resulting from the smelting. The mine site is drained by Ely Brook, which includes several tributaries, one of which drains a series of six ponds. Ely Brook empties into Schoolhouse Brook, which flows 3.3 kilometers and joins the Ompompanoosuc River.

  20. Geophysical logging at the Cristex Drum National Priorities List Superfund Site near Oxford, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolino, Dominick J.

    2017-01-01

    The collection of borehole geophysical logs data was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey South Atlantic Water Science Center in the vicinity of the Cristex Drum National Priorities List Superfund Site near Oxford, North Carolina, during January through March 2016. In an effort to assist the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the development of a conceptual groundwater model for the assessment of current contaminant distribution and future migration of contaminants, borehole geophysical log and image data collection, which included the delineation of more than 150 subsurface features (primarily fracture orientations) in 3 open borehole wells.

  1. Understanding Colombian Amazonian white sand forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peñuela-Mora, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Although progress has been made in studies on white sand forests in the Amazon, there is still a considerable gap in our knowledge of the unique species composition of white sand forests and their structure and dynamics, especially in Western Amazon. This thesis aims to fill this gap by addressing

  2. Pattern formation - Instabilities in sand ripples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J. L.; v. Hecke, M.; Haaning, A.

    2001-01-01

    Sand ripples are seen below shallow wavy water and are formed whenever water oscillates over a bed of sand. Here we analyse the instabilities that can upset this perfect patterning when the ripples are subjected to large changes in driving amplitude or frequency, causing them to deform both...

  3. Silica sand resources in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, M.J. van der; Westerhoff, W.E.; Menkovic, A.; Gruijters, S.H.L.L.; Dubelaar, C.W.; Maljers, D.

    2009-01-01

    Silica sand, (almost) pure quartz sand, is a valuable and scarce mineral resource within the shallow Dutch subsurface. High-grade deposits are exploited in the southeastemmost part of the country, as raw material for the glass, ceramic, chemical and other process industries. Dutch land-use policy

  4. Excerpt of the Interview with Mathew Sands

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 9. Excerpt of the Interview with Mathew Sands. Mathew Sands Finn Aaserud. Face to Face Volume 16 Issue 9 September 2011 pp 881-885. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  5. Seasonal fluctuations of phlebotomines sand fly populations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An entomological survey of phlebotomine sand flies was conducted in the Moulay Yacoub province, central Morocco. An anthropic niche (Ouled Aid) and a wild niche (Zliligh) were selected. Sand flies were collected twice a month between April 2011 and March 2012, using sticky traps and CDC light traps. 3675 specimens ...

  6. Review of Sand Production Prediction Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Rahmati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sand production in oil and gas wells can occur if fluid flow exceeds a certain threshold governed by factors such as consistency of the reservoir rock, stress state and the type of completion used around the well. The amount of solids can be less than a few grams per cubic meter of reservoir fluid, posing only minor problems, or a substantial amount over a short period of time, resulting in erosion and in some cases filling and blocking of the wellbore. This paper provides a review of selected approaches and models that have been developed for sanding prediction. Most of these models are based on the continuum assumption, while a few have recently been developed based on discrete element model. Some models are only capable of assessing the conditions that lead to the onset of sanding, while others are capable of making volumetric predictions. Some models use analytical formulae, particularly those for estimating the onset of sanding while others use numerical models, particularly in calculating sanding rate. Although major improvements have been achieved in the past decade, sanding tools are still unable to predict the sand mass and the rate of sanding for all field problems in a reliable form.

  7. Sand transportation and reverse patterns over leeward face of sand dune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Dun, Hongchao; Tong, Ding; Huang, Ning

    2017-04-01

    Sand saltation has complex interactions with turbulent flow and dune form. Most models of wind-blown sand consider ideal circumstances such as steady wind velocity and a flat surface, and the bulk of data on wind flow and sand transport over an individual dune has focused mostly on the influence of dune shape or inter-dune space on the wind flow, neglecting the effect of morphology on sand saltation, particularly airflow and sand transportation over the leeward slope. Wind flow structures over the leeward slope of sand dunes have a fundamental influence on the organization of sand dunes. In order to understand sand dune dynamics, lee face airflow and sediment transportation should be paid more attention. Previous field observations could not measure turbulent flow structure well because of the limited observation points and the influence of experiment structure on wind field. In addition, the reverse sand particles over leeward face could not be collected by sand trap in field. Numerous field observations could not measure turbulent flow structure because of the limited observation points and the influence of experimental structures on the wind field. In addition, the reverse transport of sand particles over leeward face could not be collected by sand traps in field. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the turbulent flow structure and sand transport pattern over the leeward slope. A numerical model of sand saltation over slope terrain is constructed, which also considers the coupling effects between air flow and sand particles. The large eddy simulation method is used to model turbulent flow. Sand transport is simulated by tracking the trajectory of each sand particle. The results show that terrain significantly alters the turbulent air flow structure and wind-blown sand movement, especially over the leeward slope. Here, mass flux increases initially and then decreases with height in the reversed flow region in the direction of wind flow, and the mass flux

  8. The Effect of Sand on Strength of Mixtures of Bentonite-Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakbaz, Mohammad C.; Khayat, Navid

    The main purpose of this research is to evaluate the effect of sand on strength of compacted samples of bentonite sand mixtures. Samples of bentonite with 10,30,50,70, and 80 percent by weight of sand at standard proctor optimum water content were compacted and tested to measure confined and unconfined strength. Unconfined strength of mixtures increased with percentage of sand until 50 percent and then it decreased thereafter. On the other hand, the confined strength of mixtures tested in triaxial UU increased with percentage of sand.

  9. Hematite Outlier and Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 4 December 2003This image shows a crater just south of the edge of the famous hematite-bearing surface, which is visible in the context image as a smooth area to the north. The crater has two features of immediate note. The first is a layered mound in the north part of the crater floor. This mound contains hematite, and it is an outlying remnant of the greater deposits to the north that have otherwise completely disappeared in this crater. The second feature is a dune field in the center of the crater floor, with dark dunes indicating winds from the northwest. The dunes grade into a dark sand sheet with no coherent structure, indicating that the sand layer thins out to the south and east.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -4.4, Longitude 357.3 East (2.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  10. Flowability in crushed sand mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera, O. A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present experimental study explored the relationship between mortar flowability and the voids content in crushed sand to determine the effect of grain shape and surface texture as well as dust content on the behaviour of fresh mortar. The findings revealed a close correlation between voids content and the volume of paste needed for mortar to begin to flow as a continuous material, mortar flowability and the water content needed to attain a given flowability. The comparison of the empirical findings to the results obtained with the Larrard (1, 2 model provided further information on the effect of sand grain morphology on fresh mortars.

    En el presente trabajo se plantea un estudio experimental de la fluidez de morteros basado en el contenido de vacíos de arenas machacadas, para comprender la influencia de la forma y textura superficial de los granos de arena y del contenido de polvo de las mismas sobre el estado fresco de morteros. Los resultados muestran la estrecha relación entre el contenido de vacíos entre granos y los volúmenes de pasta necesarios para iniciar el escurrimiento como un material continuo, la fluidez de los morteros, el contenido de agua para alcanzar una determinada fluidez, etc. El comportamiento evaluado se compara con resultados obtenidos aplicando el modelo de F. de Larrard (1, 2, permitiendo de este modo obtener mayor información de la influencia de la morfología de los granos de la arena sobre el estado fresco de los morteros.

  11. Fish Springs weather CY 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Weather data for calendar year 2010 at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Data is provided for each month and includes maximum temperature, minimum temperature,...

  12. Steller's Eider spring migration surveys

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Annual spring aerial surveys were conducted most years from 1992 to 2008, to monitor the population status and habitat use of Steller's eiders (Polysticta stelleri)...

  13. Preserving inland drift sands in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riksen, M.; Sparrius, L.; Nijssen, M.; Keestra, S.

    2012-04-01

    Inland drift sands in the Netherlands are an important landscape type within the Dutch nature. They represent an important pioneer habitat which has become rare in European nature. Under current climate and environmental conditions (i.e. high N-deposition) these inland drift sands tend to be rapid colonialized by vegetation and therefor lose their aeolian activity. To maintain the area bare sand, managers regularly remove the vegetation. Lack of proper knowledge about the geomorphological processes and even more important on the geomorphological structure of these drift sands, could lead to the loss of characteristic dune structure. In an interdisciplinary research project a new management strategy was developed in which the geomorphological processes and structure form the base for the planning process. To improve the awareness of these aspects among nature managers we developed a management tool "PROMME". Several activities were taken to communicate this with the people involved in the management of drift sands like a brochure and field workshops.

  14. Ecological release in White Sands lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roches, S Des; Robertson, J M; Harmon, L J; Rosenblum, E B

    2011-12-01

    Ecological opportunity is any change that allows populations to escape selection from competition and predation. After encountering ecological opportunity, populations may experience ecological release: enlarged population size, broadened resource use, and/or increased morphological variation. We identified ecological opportunity and tested for ecological release in three lizard colonists of White Sands, New Mexico (Sceloporus undulatus, Holbrookia maculata, and Aspidoscelis inornata). First, we provide evidence for ecological opportunity by demonstrating reduced species richness and abundance of potential competitors and predators at White Sands relative to nearby dark soils habitats. Second, we characterize ecological release at White Sands by demonstrating density compensation in the three White Sands lizard species and expanded resource use in White Sands S. undulatus. Contrary to predictions from ecological release models, we observed directional trait change but not increased trait variation in S. undulatus. Our results suggest that ecological opportunity and ecological release can be identified in natural populations, especially those that have recently colonized isolated ecosystems.

  15. Choosing an optimum sand control method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Khamehchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Formation sand control is always one of the main concerns of production engineers. There are some different methods to prevent sand production. Choosing a method for preventing formation sand production depends on different reservoir parameters and politic and economic conditions. Sometimes, economic and politic conditions are more effective to choose an optimum than reservoir parameters. Often, simultaneous investigation of politic and economic conditions with reservoir parameters has different results with what is expected. So, choosing the best sand control method is the result of thorough study. Global oil price, duration of sand control project and costs of necessary equipment for each method as economic and politic conditions and well productivity index as reservoir parameter are the main parameters studied in this paper.

  16. Ecological release in White Sands lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roches, S Des; Robertson, J M; Harmon, L J; Rosenblum, E B

    2011-01-01

    Ecological opportunity is any change that allows populations to escape selection from competition and predation. After encountering ecological opportunity, populations may experience ecological release: enlarged population size, broadened resource use, and/or increased morphological variation. We identified ecological opportunity and tested for ecological release in three lizard colonists of White Sands, New Mexico (Sceloporus undulatus, Holbrookia maculata, and Aspidoscelis inornata). First, we provide evidence for ecological opportunity by demonstrating reduced species richness and abundance of potential competitors and predators at White Sands relative to nearby dark soils habitats. Second, we characterize ecological release at White Sands by demonstrating density compensation in the three White Sands lizard species and expanded resource use in White Sands S. undulatus. Contrary to predictions from ecological release models, we observed directional trait change but not increased trait variation in S. undulatus. Our results suggest that ecological opportunity and ecological release can be identified in natural populations, especially those that have recently colonized isolated ecosystems. PMID:22393523

  17. Global sand trade is paving the way for a tragedy of the sand commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A.; Brandt, J.; Lear, K.; Liu, J.

    2016-12-01

    In the first 40 years of the 21st century, planet Earth is highly likely to experience more urban land expansion than in all of history, an increase in transportation infrastructure by more than a third, and a great variety of land reclamation projects. While scientists are beginning to quantify the deep imprint of human infrastructure on biodiversity at large scales, its off-site impacts and linkages to sand mining and trade have been largely ignored. Sand is the most widely used building material in the world. With an ever-increasing demand for this resource, sand is being extracted at rates that far exceed its replenishment, and is becoming increasingly scarce. This has already led to conflicts around the world and will likely lead to a "tragedy of the sand commons" if sustainable sand mining and trade cannot be achieved. We investigate the environmental and socioeconomic interactions over large distances (telecouplings) of infrastructure development and sand mining and trade across diverse systems through transdisciplinary research and the recently proposed telecoupling framework. Our research is generating a thorough understanding of the telecouplings driven by an increasing demand for sand. In particular, we address three main research questions: 1) Where are the conflicts related to sand mining occurring?; 2) What are the major "sending" and "receiving" systems of sand?; and 3) What are the main components (e.g. causes, effects, agents, etc.) of telecoupled systems involving sand mining and trade? Our results highlight the role of global sand trade as a driver of environmental degradation that threatens the integrity of natural systems and their capacity to deliver key ecosystem services. In addition, infrastructure development and sand mining and trade have important implications for other sustainability challenges such as over-fishing and global warming. This knowledge will help to identify opportunities and tools to better promote a more sustainable use

  18. Reproductive cycle of free-living male Saharan sand vipers, Cerastes vipera (Viperidae) in the Negev desert, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivan, Jaim; Kam, Michael; Hadad, Shlomo; Allan Degen, A; Rozenboim, Israel; Rosenstrauch, Avi

    2012-11-01

    The Saharan sand viper, Cerastes vipera (Linnaeus, 1758), is distributed in all Saharan countries, being confined to sand and dune systems. This relatively small snake, up to 35 cm, is nocturnal, is active from spring to autumn (April to October) and hibernates during the winter (November to March). We predicted that C. vipera would have peak plasma testosterone concentration at mating and that the vas deferens would contain abundant spermatozoa at that time. To test our predictions, we collected information on the time of mating and measured monthly testosterone concentration, testes size and testicular activity in free-living male C. vipera during its active period from April to October. Mating occurred only during spring. The pattern of plasma testosterone concentration, testes volume, seminiferous tubule diameter and spermatogenesis all followed the general pattern of high values in autumn and spring and low values in early summer. Our predictions were partially supported. There was a high plasma testosterone concentration at mating in spring and the vas deferens contained abundant spermatozoa, as predicted, but there was also a high plasma testosterone concentration in autumn without mating. We concluded that: (1) males are both aestival in that they produce spermatozoa in autumn, which they store over the winter hibernation period, and vernal in that they produce spermatozoa in spring prior to mating; (2) matings are associated with spermatogenesis; and (3) the high plasma testosterone concentration is concomitant with both matings and spermatogenesis in spring and with spermatogenesis in autumn. We propose that C. vipera has a single peak of testicular activity and plasma testosterone concentration which start in autumn and end in spring. We also propose that spermatogenesis is prior to spring mating and, consequently, is prenuptial. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Lead (Pb) in biota and perceptions of Pb exposure at a recently designated Superfund beach site in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Donio, Mark; Pittfield, Taryn

    2012-01-01

    The Raritan Bay Slag Site (New Jersey) was designated a Superfund site in 2009 because the seawall, jetties, and sediment contained lead (Pb). Our objective was to compare Pb and mercury (Hg) levels in biota and public perceptions of exposure at the Superfund and reference sites. Samples (algae, invertebrates, fish) were collected from the Raritan Bay Slag Site and reference sites and analyzed for Pb and Hg. Waterfront users were interviewed using a standard questionnaire. Levels of Pb in aquatic organisms were compared to ecological and human health safety standards. Lead levels were related to location, trophic level, and mobility. Lead levels in biota were highest at the western side of the West Jetty. Mean Pb levels were highest for algae (Fucus = 53,600 ± 6990 ng/g = ppb [wet weight], Ulva = 23,900 ± 2430 ppb), intermediate for grass shrimp (7270 ± 1300 ppb, 11,600 ± 3340 ppb), and lowest for fish (Atlantic silversides 218 ± 44 ppb). Within species, Pb levels varied significantly across the sampling sites. Lead levels in algae, sometimes ingested by individuals, were sufficiently high to exceed human safety levels. Mercury levels did not differ between the Superfund and reference sites. Despite the fence and warnings, people (1) used the Superfund and reference sites similarly, (2) had similar fish consumption rates, and (3) were not concerned about Pb, although most individuals knew the metal was present. The fish sampled posed no apparent risk for human consumers, but the algae did.

  20. LEAD (Pb) IN BIOTA AND PERCEPTIONS OF Pb EXPOSURE AT A RECENTLY DESIGNATED SUPERFUND BEACH SITE IN NEW JERSEY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Donio, Mark; Pittfield, Taryn

    2014-01-01

    The Raritan Bay Slag Site (New Jersey) was designated a Superfund site in 2009 because the seawall, jetties, and sediment contained lead (Pb). Our objective was to compare Pb and mercury (Hg) levels in biota and public perceptions of exposure at the Superfund and reference sites. Samples (algae, invertebrates, fish) were collected from the Raritan Bay Slag Site and reference sites and analyzed for Pb and Hg. Waterfront users were interviewed using a standard questionnaire. Levels of Pb in aquatic organisms were compared to ecological and human health safety standards. Lead levels were related to location, trophic level, and mobility. Lead levels in biota were highest at the western side of the West Jetty. Mean Pb levels were highest for algae (Fucus = 53,600 ± 6990 ng/g = ppb [wet weight], Ulva = 23,900 ± 2430 ppb), intermediate for grass shrimp (7270 ± 1300 ppb, 11,600 ± 3340 ppb), and lowest for fish (Atlantic silversides 218 ± 44 ppb). Within species, Pb levels varied significantly across the sampling sites. Lead levels in algae, sometimes ingested by individuals, were sufficiently high to exceed human safety levels. Mercury levels did not differ between the Superfund and reference sites. Despite the fence and warnings, people (1) used the Superfund and reference sites similarly, (2) had similar fish consumption rates, and (3) were not concerned about Pb, although most individuals knew the metal was present. The fish sampled posed no apparent risk for human consumers, but the algae did. PMID:22409490

  1. ASSESSMENT OF VAPOR INTRUSION IN HOMES NEAR THE RAYMARK SUPERFUND SITE USING BASEMENT AND SUB-SLAB AIR SAMPLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the results of an investigation conducted to assist EPA’s New England Regional Office in evaluating vapor intrusion at 15 homes and one commercial building near the Raymark Superfund Site in Stratford, Connecticut. Methods were developed to sample sub-slab ...

  2. EPA Proposes to Add Dorado, Puerto Rico Site to the Federal Superfund List, Drinking Water Contaminated with Solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    (New York, N.Y.) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today proposed adding the Dorado Groundwater Contamination Site in the municipality of Dorado, Puerto Rico to its Superfund National Priorities List of the country's most hazardous waste sites. Samp

  3. EPA Proposes to Add N.J. Pesticides Manufacturing Facility to Superfund List of Hazardous Waste Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    (New York, N.Y.) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today proposed adding the former Kil-Tone Company site in Vineland, N.J. to its Superfund list of the country's most hazardous waste sites. Pesticides were manufactured at the now defunct Kil-Tone C

  4. Freshwater springs on intertidal sand flats cause a switch in dominance among polychaete worms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zipperle, A; Reise, K

    Effects of freshwater seepage on benthic macrofauna were investigated on the sandy tidal flats near the island of Sylt (German Wadden Sea) in 2002. Several permanent seepage areas (50 to 200 m offshore; up to 200 m 2 in area) were examined, in which salinity ranged from 22-29 outside to 0-16 psu

  5. Scaling laws in sand launch process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Li; Yang, Zhang

    2017-04-01

    As the bond linking the micro research to the macro research in wind-sand flow, the scaling laws on sand mean launch velocity and mean launch angle can be used to calculate the mean velocity and the transport rate, and they also play an important role in understanding saltation. However, universal scaling laws are still absent. In analogy to the fluid flows, the wind-sand flow is divided into three periods based on the way of sand taking off from sand bed, and the hypothesis on the scaling laws in each period is proposed. Then according to the hypothesis we deduce the sand concentration piece-wise function for saltation layer and also the critical shields numbers dividing three periods. The comparisons between the predictions and the experimental observations show that under a lower shields number the vertical mean launch velocity and the mean launch angle scale with the wind shear velocity and the square root of shields number respectively. However, under a higher shields number the vertical mean launch velocity scale with the sand diameter and the mean launch angle is almost constant at 700 or so.

  6. The Influence of Sand Grains Properties on Electrical Properties of Moulding Sand with Inorganic Binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opyd B.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of basic research on the influence of the properties of sand grains on electrical properties of water glass moulding sands. It shows electrical properties of the main component – sand grains, crucial to the kinetics of moulding sands heating, such as permittivity εr and loss factor tgδ. Measurements were carried out with the use of the perturbation method for silica, chromite and olivine sands of different mineral, chemical composition and particle size distribution, as well as for moulding sands with water glass grade 145. Analysis of the results of measurements of electrical properties shows that all moulding sands are characterized by a similar permittivity εr and loss factor tgδ. It was found that the electrical properties and the quantity and quality of other components may have a decisive influence on the effectiveness and efficiency of the microwave heating of moulding sands with sand grains. In determining the ability to efficiently absorb the microwave radiation for mixtures which moulding sands are, the impact of all components influencing their individual technological parameters should be taken into account.

  7. Fecal indicators in sand, sand contact, and risk of enteric illness among beachgoers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Sams, Elizabeth; Dufour, Alfred P.; Brenner, Kristen P.; Haugland, Richard A.; Chern, Eunice; Wing, Steve; Marshall, Stephen; Love, David C.; Serre, Marc; Noble, Rachel; Wade, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Beach sand can harbor fecal indicator organisms and pathogens, but enteric illness risk associated with sand contact remains unclear. Methods In 2007, visitors at two recreational marine beaches were asked on the day of their visit about sand contact. Ten to 12 days later, participants answered questions about health symptoms since the visit. F+ coliphage, Enterococcus, Bacteroidales, fecal Bacteroides, and Clostridium spp. in wet sand were measured using culture and molecular methods. Results We analyzed 144 wet sand samples and completed 4,999 interviews. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were computed, comparing those in the highest tertile of fecal indicator exposure with those who reported no sand contact. Among those digging in sand compared with those not digging in sand, a molecular measure of Enterococcus spp. (calibrator cell equivalents/g) in sand was positively associated with gastrointestinal (GI) illness (aOR = 2.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2–3.2]) and diarrhea (2.4 [1.4–4.2]). Among those buried in sand, point estimates were greater for GI illness (3.3 [1.3–7.9]) and diarrhea (4.9 [1.8–13]). Positive associations were also observed for culture-based Enterococcus (colony-forming units/g) with GI illness (aOR digging = 1.7 [1.1–2.7]) and diarrhea (2.1 [1.3–3.4]). Associations were not found among non-swimmers with sand exposure. Conclusions We observed a positive relationship between sand contact activities and enteric illness as a function of concentrations of fecal microbial pollution in beach sand. PMID:22157306

  8. Murzuk Sand Sea, Sahara Desert, Libya, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This near vertical view of the Murzuk Sand Sea, Sahara Desert, Libya (22.5N, 13.0E) shows the very diverse landscape that is part of the great Sahara Desert of North Africa. The vast expanse of sand dunes known as the Murzuk sand Sea of Libya and the adjacent rock outcrops support little human habitation. In fact, the tiny village of Murzuk with its center pivot, swing arm irrigated agriculture complex is the only sign of life in the region.

  9. Harry Sands (1917-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochroch, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    To everyone who knew and had worked with him, the death of Harry Sands on January 3, 2007, three days before his 90th birthday, resounded as though a mighty oak had fallen. Harry was a giant of a man, both as a human being and as a psychologist. Harry was born January 6, 1917, on the Lower East Side of Manhattan to Russian immigrant parents who ran a laundry. His bachelor's degree in psychology (1941) and his doctoral degree (1952) were both earned at New York University. Harry became a member of the American Psychological Association (APA) in 1943. With his breadth of experience and knowledge, as well as his firm foundation in management and finance, he eventually became a financial advisor to the APA Practice Directorate as well as to the American Psychological Foundation. As the executive director of the Postgraduate Center for Mental Health, Harry made creative strides to improve both the public awareness of the organization as well as its fiscal health. Harry was an active writer and researcher, with a particular interest in epilepsy and various psychoanalytic topics. 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  10. Displacement pile installation effects in sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijer-Lundberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Installation effects govern the post-installation behaviour of displacement piles in sand. These effects are currently not completely understood. Suitable experimental techniques to model these installation effects include field, laboratory and experimental models. In the current thesis a

  11. Administrative Settlement Agreement and Order on Consent for Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study - Holtra Chem/Honeywell Inc. Superfund Site. CERCLA-04-2009-3980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contains legal agreement for the LCP-Holtrachem Superfund site under CERCLA Sections 104, 107, and 122, Riegelwood, Columbus County, North Carolina , September 15, 2009 Region ID: 04 DocID: 10453068, DocDate: 09-15-2009

  12. Environmental contaminants in fish and mussels from Meddybemps Lake, the Dennys River, and East Machias River - Eastern Surplus Superfund Site, Meddybemps, Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From 1946 to the early 1980s, the 3-acre Eastern Surplus Superfund Site in Meddybemps, Maine, was used for the disposal and storage of surplus military equipment and...

  13. EPA Proposes to Add Washington Parish, LA, Creosote Site to National Priorities List of Superfund Sites, Two hazardous waste sites added, six proposed nationally

    Science.gov (United States)

    (DALLAS - March 24, 2015) The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed to add the Colonial Creosote site in Washington Parish, LA, to the National Priorities List (NPL) of Superfund sites, a list of sites that pose risks to people's health and

  14. Instant Spring for Android starter

    CERN Document Server

    Dahanne, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Packt Instant Starter: get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.This is a Starter which gives you an introduction to Spring for Android with plenty of well-explained practical code examples.If you are an Android developer who wants to learn about RESTful web services and OAuth authentication and authorization, and you also want to know how to speed up your development involving those architectures using Spring for Android abstractions, then this book is for you.But core Java developers

  15. Supercritical solvent extraction of oil sand bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanbayev, Ye. I.; Ongarbayev, Ye. K.; Tileuberdi, Ye.; Mansurov, Z. A.; Golovko, A. K.; Rudyk, S.

    2017-08-01

    The supercritical solvent extraction of bitumen from oil sand studied with organic solvents. The experiments were performed in autoclave reactor at temperature above 255 °C and pressure 29 atm with stirring for 6 h. The reaction resulted in the formation of coke products with mineral part of oil sands. The remaining products separated into SARA fractions. The properties of the obtained products were studied. The supercritical solvent extraction significantly upgraded extracted natural bitumen.

  16. Laboratory evaluation of selected tar sand asphalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Button, J.W.; Epps, J.A.; Gallaway, B.M.

    1980-12-01

    Three tar sand asphalts of similar grades prepared from one syncrude by three different refining methods were characterized by tests commonly used to specify paving asphalts together with certain special tests. Asphalt-aggregate mixtures were prepared using these asphalts and tested in the laboratory to determine strength stiffness stability, tensile properties, temperature effects and water susceptibility. Comparison of the tar sand asphalt properties to conventional petroleum asphalt properties reveal no striking differences.

  17. Pragmatics of reclaimed sand quality assessment recovered nowadays from various used sand systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dańko

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of the reclamation degree of used sands is not a simple, clearly defined issue. The great variety of technologies ofmoulding and core sands, based on the organic and inorganic binders does not allow the use of a single, universal index assessing thedegree of reclamation. The article presents the problems of research relating to selection of proper criteria for assessing the degree ofreclamation process of used moulding and core sands deriving from different technologies. The most often applied in practice types ofused sands and the most adequate in practice methods of assessing the degrees of their reclamation were characterized.

  18. Sand Dune Encroachment and Desertification Processes of the Rigboland Sand Sea, Central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmady-Birgani, Hesam; McQueen, Kenneth G; Moeinaddini, Mazaher; Naseri, Hamidreza

    2017-05-08

    Early studies on sand dune movement and desertification in Iran have not always been convincingly demonstrated because of problems with the field-based measurements. In some areas where various land uses have been engulfed by aeolian sand dunes, desertification is clear, but in other less settled areas, it may not be so obvious. The objective of this study is to demonstrate encroachments of the Rigboland sand sea, central Iran, in its different directions and variable magnitude rates. Determining the rate and direction of the sand sea movements is critical for specifying which lands should be prioritized and quickly protected. The study has trialed a change detection technique which uses a Cross-Tabulation module to compare two available LandsatTM images over the Rigboland sand sea. This indicates that within a ten-year span (from 1988 to 1998) more than 200 ha/yr were added to the Rigboland sand sea, from the alluvial fan landforms in the eastern upstream, outer margins of the Rigboland sand sea. Coupled with GIS techniques, this type of analysis of the remote sensing (RS) images provides an effective tool for the monitoring and prognostication of sand dune movement and sand sea change.

  19. Layers, Landslides, and Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 27 October 2003This image shows the northern rim of one of the Valles Marineris canyons. Careful inspection shows many interesting features here. Note that the spurs and gullies in the canyon wall disappear some distance below the top of the canyon wall, indicating the presence of some smooth material here that weathers differently from the underlying rocks. On the floor of the canyon, there are remains from a landslide that came hurtling down the canyon wall between two spurs. Riding over the topography of the canyon floor are many large sand dunes, migrating generally from the lower right to upper left.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -14.1, Longitude 306.7 East (53.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  20. Research Synopsis: Spring 1983 Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peralta Community Coll. District, Oakland, CA. Office of Research, Planning and Development.

    An analysis of spring 1983 retention rates and grade distributions within the Peralta Community College District (PCCD) revealed: (1) College of Alameda had the highest successful retention rate in the PCCD, defined as the total of all students who completed the term with a grade of A, B, C, D, or CR (credit); (2) the PCCD's successful retention…

  1. Spring for It: First Novels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffert, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    How do publishers describe the first novels they will be releasing this spring and summer? "Amazing," "fabulous," and "unique" are words that pop up frequently, though hats off to one publicist forthright or cheeky enough to call a work "weird Western/horror." The proof of such praise is in the reading, but why not check out this preview of first…

  2. A Laboratory of Spring. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Wachowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to a special issue published on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the premiere of 'The Rite of Spring' by Igor Stravinsky. The articles cover the field of musicology as well as history, philosophy, psychology, sociology, ethnography and cognitive science of music.

  3. Finding Spring on Planet X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoson, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    For a given orbital period and eccentricity, we determine the maximum time lapse between the winter solstice and the spring equinox on a planet. In addition, given an axial precession path, we determine the effects on the seasons. This material can be used at various levels to illustrate ideas such as periodicity, eccentricity, polar coordinates,…

  4. Contribution of laser altimetry images to the geomorphology of the Late Holocene inland drift sands of the European Sand Belt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungerius, P.D.; Riksen, M.J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper explores the possibilities of applying the analysis of laser altimetry images to Dutch drift sands. All along the European Sand Belt, which stretches from Great Britain to the Ural Mountains, Late Glacial cover sands, river dunes and other ice-age deposits were reactivated as drift sand

  5. Contribution of laser altimetry images to the geomorphology of the Late Holocene inland drift sands of the European Sand Belt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungerius, P.D.; Riksen, M.J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper explores the possibilities of applying the analysis of laser altimetry images to Dutch drift sands. All along the European Sand Belt, which stretches from Great Britain to the Ural Mountains, Late Glacial cover sands, river dunes and other ice–age deposits were reactivated as drift sand

  6. Sediment quality assessment and Toxicity Identification Evaluation studies in Lavaca Bay, Texas -- An estuarine Superfund site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R.S.; Biedenbach, J. [National Biological Service, Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Texas Gulf Coast Field Station; Hooten, R.; May, L.; Teas, T. [Texas A and M Univ., Corpus Christi, TX (United States). Center for Coastal Studies

    1995-12-31

    A sediment quality assessment survey was conducted in the Lavaca Bay system which has been designated a Superfund site because of elevated concentrations of mercury and other contaminants (e.g., PAHs) in the sediments. Twenty-four stations were sampled in the initial survey. Sediment pore water was extracted pneumatically and the toxicity of the pore water determined using the sea urchin fertilization and embryological development assays. Based on the results of the toxicity tests, aliquots of the toxic sediments were analyzed for metals, PAHs, and pesticides. Based on these results, several of the most toxic sites were resampled and a preliminary Toxicity Identification Evaluation (TIE) was performed with the pore water using the sea urchin fertilization test. Preliminary results indicated that the toxic components were removed by adsorption on a C-18 column but were not affected by EDTA additions and, therefore, the primary toxicants are hydrophobic in nature.

  7. Continued geophysical logging near the GMH Electronics National Priorities List Superfund site near Roxboro, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolino, Dominick J.; Chapman, Melinda J.

    2017-01-06

    The U.S. Geological Survey South Atlantic Water Science Center collected borehole geophysical logs and images and continuous water-level data near the GMH Electronics National Priorities List Superfund site near Roxboro, North Carolina, during December 2012 through July 2015. Previous work by the U.S. Geological Survey South Atlantic Water Science Center at the site involved the collection of borehole geophysical log data in 15 wells, in addition to surface geologic mapping and passive diffusion bag sampling. In a continued effort to assist the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in developing a conceptual groundwater model to assess current contaminant distribution and future migration of contaminants, more than 900 subsurface features (primarily fracture orientations) in 10 open borehole wells were delineated and continuous water-level data information from 14 monitoring wells within close proximity of the initially drilled boreholes was collected to observe any induced water-level fluctuations during drilling operations

  8. Raman spectroscopy of efflorescent sulfate salts from Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobron, Pablo; Alpers, Charles N.

    2013-01-01

    The Iron Mountain Mine Superfund Site near Redding, California, is a massive sulfide ore deposit that was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, and pyrite intermittently for nearly 100 years. As a result, both water and air reached the sulfide deposits deep within the mountain, producing acid mine drainage consisting of sulfuric acid and heavy metals from the ore. Particularly, the drainage water from the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain is among the most acidic waters naturally found on Earth. The mineralogy at Iron Mountain can serve as a proxy for understanding sulfate formation on Mars. Selected sulfate efflorescent salts from Iron Mountain, formed from extremely acidic waters via drainage from sulfide mining, have been characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy. Gypsum, ferricopiapite, copiapite, melanterite, coquimbite, and voltaite are found within the samples. This work has implications for Mars mineralogical and geochemical investigations as well as for terrestrial environmental investigations related to acid mine drainage contamination.

  9. Optimization of holddown spring in KOFA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jung Sik; Lee, Jae Kyung; Sohn, Dong Sung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-08-01

    As a part of establishment of capability for design change and optimization of fuel components, the analysis method of holddown spring was improved and the optimization capability for the holddown spring was established. With the improved analysis method the characteristics of 17 x 17 holddown spring of KOFA and straight type holddown spring were analyzed and the results were compared with test results. It showed that the improved analysis method predicts the spring characteristic well agree with the test results. As an example of an optimization, the thickness of straight type holddown spring was optimized and the characteristic with this thickness was discussed. (Author) 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Cotransport of microorganisms and metallic colloids in quartz sand or iron oxide-coated sand under real site hydrogeological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tong; Wen, Yujuan; Yang, Xinyao; Yang, Yuesuo

    2017-04-01

    The need for studying the fate and transport of engineered and naturally-occurring nanoparticles is of great concern in the past decade. Wudalianchi scenic spot as a famous International Geological Park has the biggest cold spring in China, which is also one of the three biggest cold spring in the world, with a history of over 200 years using in drinking and medical purpose. Thousands of tourists all over the world travelling here each year to enjoy the high quality mineral water and take a bath in the cold spring and "mud-bath" with special medication purposes. Recreation activities gave rise to the engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) releasing into the water environment and increase the risk of contamination. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the effect of ENMs-exposure in natural environment and how it influences the transport of microorganisms of Wudalianchi in/without the presence of natural colloids (humic acid) under a series of ion strength. A thorough critical literature review of both work in the study site and the bio/nano-particle transport in porous media was a kick-off of the study. With support of the site investigations and sampling of groundwater, surface water and surface mud/soils, further numerical modelling of the hydrogeochemical speciation of the groundwater was carried out, indicating comprehensive water-rock interactions of this particular region. Metallic nanoparticles (MNPs), including metals, metal oxides and other metal-containing nanoparticles, are produced and ubiquitously applied to medical, cosmetic, photonics and catalysis industries, etc. TiO2, a widely used raw material for cosmetic industries (e.g., sunscreens), was used in this study to represent MNPs. The microorganisms used in this study were extracted from the soil in Wudalianchi. Humic acid (HA), a key component of dissolved organic matter (DOM) chosen as the natural colloids in this study, are ubiquitous and significant constituents in soils and water environment that

  11. Sensemaking, stakeholder discord, and long-term risk communication at a US Superfund site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Anna Goodman

    2017-03-01

    Risk communication can help reduce exposures to environmental contaminants, mitigate negative health outcomes, and inform community-based decisions about hazardous waste sites. While communication best practices have long guided such efforts, little research has examined unintended consequences arising from such guidelines. As rhetoric informs stakeholder sensemaking, the language used in and reinforced by these guidelines can challenge relationships and exacerbate stakeholder tensions. This study evaluates risk communication at a U.S. Superfund site to identify unintended consequences arising from current risk communication practices. This qualitative case study crystallizes data spanning 6 years from three sources: 1) local newspaper coverage of site-related topics; 2) focus-group transcripts from a multi-year project designed to support future visioning of site use; and 3) published blog entries authored by a local environmental activist. Constant comparative analysis provides the study's analytic foundation, with qualitative data analysis software QSR NVivo 8 supporting a three-step process: 1) provisional coding to identify broad topic categories within datasets, 2) coding occurrences of sensemaking constructs and emergent intra-dataset patterns, and 3) grouping related codes across datasets to examine the relationships among them. Existing risk communication practices at this Superfund site contribute to a dichotomous conceptualization of multiple and diverse stakeholders as members of one of only two categories: the government or the public. This conceptualization minimizes perceptions of capacity, encourages public commitment to stances aligned with a preferred group, and contributes to negative expectations that can become self-fulfilling prophecies. Findings indicate a need to re-examine and adapt risk communication guidelines to encourage more pluralistic understanding of the stakeholder landscape.

  12. Nuclear energy in the oils sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenault, J.E.

    2014-09-15

    The major Canadian oil sands are located in Alberta and Saskatchewan, with most production from the strata along the Athabasca River in Alberta. The economically recoverable oil sands reserves are estimated to be 168 billion barrels which at a current production rate of 1.8 million barrels per day (2012), are projected to last a very long time. Canada has been blessed with vast energy resources which make it potentially energy-independent and able to provide significant exports but there are concerns that their development cannot be managed in a wholly acceptable manner. Comparable concerns have been applied to nuclear energy in the past and in recent times to the oil sands. The technologies associated with these energy sources have always been controversial because they are at the confluence of economics and politics where finding a balance between risk and reward is difficult. So it should be no surprise that when these technologies get linked together in certain proposals their prospect for success is doubly difficult. The possible use of nuclear energy for production of oil from the oil sands dates back to the late 1950s, when an experiment to mine the oil by detonating an underground nuclear device was proposed. It was predicted that the heat and pressure released from such a device would create a large cavern into which oil would flow, and from where it would be pumped to the surface. Almost at the same time, oil sands research using conventional sources of energy had culminated with the development of practical refining processes, essentially those still in use today. These methods require large amounts of heat energy in the form of hot water and steam. In this century nuclear energy was proposed as the source for the heat required by the oil sands production processes. To date neither of these nuclear proposals for oil sands projects have been successful, because the economic and political balance could not be struck. (author)

  13. An evaluation of aeolian sand transport models using four different sand traps at the Hors, Texel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijma, M.P.; Lodder, Quirijn J.

    2001-01-01

    This report shows the result of an evaluation of how 12 aeolian sand transport models perform on a beach in Northwest-Europe. Their predictions are compared to measured rates of sand transport using four different traps. The efficiency of the different types of traps was also evaluated. From this it

  14. Simulating and understanding sand wave variation: A case study of the Golden Gate sand waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterlini, F.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.; Hanes, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a detailed comparison between measured features of the Golden Gate sand wave field and the results of a nonlinear sand wave model. Because the Golden Gate sand waves exhibit large variation in their characteristics and in their environmental physics, this area gives us the opportunity to study sand wave variation between locations, within one well-measured, large area. The nonlinear model used in this paper is presently the only tool that provides information on the nonlinear evolution of large-amplitude sand waves. The model is used to increase our understanding of the coupling between the variability in environmental conditions and the sand wave characteristics. Results show that the model is able to describe the variation in the Golden Gate sand waves well when both the local oscillating tidal current and the residual current are taken into account. Current and water depth seem to be the most important factors influencing sand wave characteristics. The simulation results give further confidence in the underlying model hypothesis and assumptions. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SAND FRACTION IN A SAND GRAIN IMAGE CAPTURE SYSTEM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimar Arruda Viana

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Morphology studies assume significant importance in analysis of phenomena of granular systems packaging, in particular with a view to the use of the technique of soil stabilization named particle size correction in forest roads. In this context, this study aimed to develop and operationalize a Sand Grain Image Capture System and, hereby, determine the morphological indices of the sand fractions of two sandy soils called João Pinheiro (JP and Cachoeira da Prata (CP. Soil samples, air-dried, were sieved (2.0 mm nominal mesh size for removal of gravels. The materials that passed through the sieve were subjected to dispersion, washing in 0.053 mm nominal mesh size sieve, removal of organic matter and iron oxides to obtain the clean sand fractions. Subsequently, each soil sample was sieved for separation into twelve classes, between the diameters of 0.149 mm and 1.190 mm, using a Rotap shaker. Next, tests were carried out to characterize the morphometric attributes of the twelve classes of sand fractions of the soils studied. For validation of the performance of the Sand Grain Image Capture System, the results were compared to those obtained using a standard procedure for image analysis. The analysis of the results led to the following conclusions: (i the sand fraction of the JP soil presented higher values for the morphometric indices roundness, elongation and compactness compared to sand fraction of the CP soil; and (ii the Sand Grain Image Capture System worked properly, with practicality.

  16. Eolian sand transport at three stations on a dune backed coastline in northern Indiana and their relationships to weather-related and site-specific controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, S.W.; Olyphant, G.A. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Continuous measurements of eolian sand transport (using Automated Sand Traps) and wind speed/direction at 1.5 m above the surface were achieved on a dune backed coastline near Gary, Indiana. Data were collected on an hourly basis for a 6 month period during which 55 major sand movement events were observed. The sandstorms lasted from 1 to 16 hours with an average length of 4 hours and produced total transport quantities of up to 227 kg/m. the largest sand movement totals occurred when the wind was northerly; indeed 75% of the total sand captured at the authors station in a small blowout occurred during periods when the wind was from north. Northerly winds also dominated overall sand movement at their station on the crest of a vegetated foredune, but the total amount of transported sand was only 6.5% of that in the blowout. Hourly sand transport efficiency, expressed as the ratio of measured transport to theoretical transport (based on Bagnold's equation), averaged 0.34 at the blowout station during the spring of 1992, whereas averages for the dune crest station and a station on the backshore were 0.04 and 0.15, respectively, during the same period. Efficiencies were highly variable, even during individual storms, and exhibited no obvious systematic trend. However, storm-wind direction, topography, and sand surface character (e.g. vegetation and surface moisture conditions) were all observed to have an influence on the efficiency of sand transport at the study site.

  17. Portrait of a Geothermal Spring, Hunter's Hot Springs, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castenholz, Richard W

    2015-01-27

    Although alkaline Hunter's Hot Springs in southeastern Oregon has been studied extensively for over 40 years, most of these studies and the subsequent publications were before the advent of molecular methods. However, there are many field observations and laboratory experiments that reveal the major aspects of the phototrophic species composition within various physical and chemical gradients of these springs. Relatively constant temperature boundaries demark the upper boundary of the unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus at 73-74 °C (the world-wide upper limit for photosynthesis), and 68-70 °C the upper limit for Chloroflexus. The upper limit for the cover of the filamentous cyanobacterium, Geitlerinema (Oscillatoria) is at 54-55 °C, and the in situ lower limit at 47-48 °C for all three of these phototrophs due to the upper temperature limit for the grazing ostracod, Thermopsis. The in situ upper limit for the cyanobacteria Pleurocapsa and Calothrix is at ~47-48 °C, which are more grazer-resistant and grazer dependent. All of these demarcations are easily visible in the field. In addition, there is a biosulfide production in some sections of the springs that have a large impact on the microbiology. Most of the temperature and chemical limits have been explained by field and laboratory experiments.

  18. Elution of Mixed Moulding Sands with the GEOPOL Binder and Core Sands with the Phenolic Resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holtzer M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Out of moulding and core sands used in the foundry industry, sands with organic binders deserve a special attention. These binders are based on synthetic resins, which ensure obtaining the proper technological properties and sound castings, however, they negatively influence the environment. Depending on the kind of the applied resin under an influence of a temperature such compounds as for example BTEX group and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs can be formed and released. During storing or economic utilization of used sand is possibility of eluting harmful substances into the environment. Therefore at assessing an influence of the used sand on the environment two above elements should be taken into consideration. Only such investigations provide the complete assessment of the given sand harmfulness.

  19. Fracturing in the oil-sands reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Y.; Yang, B. [Society of Petroleum Engineers (Canada); Xu, B. [BitCan G and E Inc (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Oil sands reservoirs stimulation requires the use of steam or solvent in order to reduce oil viscosity, making for better recovery. Injection of these stimulants is generally achieved by hydro-fracturing and, given concerns over the impact of this on caprock integrity, a better understanding is needed of the phenomena involved during fracturing. Based on a review of the literature and on analytical, numerical and field data, this paper aims to explore the phenomena involved during hydro-fracturing of oil sands. Review of existing test data shows that oil sands have a clear dilatation tendency. Analytical derivation then compares the effects and occurrence of dilatation and tensile parting during hydro-fracturing, showing a dominance of dilatation, resulting in much higher porosity in the sands formation. Field data then confirmed these derivations, thus giving them an experimental validation. Glaciation is proposed as a cause for the presence of these phenomena in oil sands, thus the results can safely be extrapolated to other similar rock formations.

  20. Triangular springs for modeling nonlinear membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delingette, Hervé

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a formal connexion between springs and continuum mechanics in the context of one-dimensional and two-dimensional elasticity. In a first stage, the equivalence between tensile springs and the finite element discretization of stretching energy on planar curves is established. Furthermore, when considering a quadratic strain function of stretch, we introduce a new type of springs called tensile biquadratic springs. In a second stage, we extend this equivalence to non-linear membranes (St Venant-Kirchhoff materials) on triangular meshes leading to triangular biquadratic and quadratic springs. Those tensile and angular springs produce isotropic deformations parameterized by Young modulus and Poisson ratios on unstructured meshes in an efficient and simple way. For a specific choice of the Poisson ratio, 0.3, we show that regular spring-mass models may be used realistically to simulate a membrane behavior. Finally, the different spring formulations are tested in pure traction and cloth simulation experiments.

  1. Fish Springs NWR Water Use Report : 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report contains locations and water use at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) for 2010. A general background is presented on historical spring water...

  2. Imaging Near-Surface Controls on Hot Spring Expression Using Shallow Seismic Refraction in Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A. N.; Lindsey, C.; Fairley, J. P., Jr.; Larson, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    We used shallow seismic refraction to image near-surface materials in the vicinity of a small group of hot springs, located in the Morning Mist Springs area of Lower Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. Seismic velocities in the area surveyed range from a low of 0.3 km/s to a high of approximately 2.5 km/s. The survey results indicate an irregular surface topography overlain by silty sediments. The observed seismic velocities are consistent with a subsurface model in which sorted sands and gravels, probably outwash materials from the Pinedale glaciation, are overlain by silts and fine sands deposited in the flat-lying areas of the Morning Springs area. These findings are supported by published geologic maps of the area and well logs from a nearby borehole. The near-surface materials appear to be saturated with discharging hydrothermal fluids of varying temperature, and interbedded with semi-lithified geothermal deposits (sinter). We hypothesize that the relatively low-conductivity deposits of fines at the surface may serve to confine a shallow, relatively low-temperature (sub-boiling) hydrothermal aquifer, and that the distribution of sinter in the shallow subsurface plays an important role in determining the geometry of hydrothermal discharge (hot springs) at the land surface. Few studies of the shallow controls on hot spring expression exist for the Yellowstone caldera, and the present study therefore offers a unique glimpse into near-subsurface fluid flow controls.

  3. Spring Framework 5: Themes & Trends

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Spring Framework 5.0/5.1, scheduled for release in early/late 2017, focuses on several key themes: reactive web applications based on Reactive Streams, comprehensive support for JDK 9 and HTTP/2, as well as the latest API generations in the Enterprise Java ecosystem. This talk presents the overall story in the context of wider industry trends, highlighting Spring’s unique programming model strategy.

  4. The first CERN Spring Campus

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    From 14 to 16 April, the first edition of the CERN Spring Campus took place in Spain. Taking place over three intensive days, this event brought experts from CERN together at the University of Oviedo, where they met the engineers and scientists of the future in a programme of scientific and technological dissemination and cultural exchange.   The young participants of the first CERN Spring Campus and their instructors show their enthusiasm after the intensive three-day course. “This three-day school focuses on preparing young engineers for the job market, with a particular emphasis on computing,” explains Derek Mathieson, Advanced Information Systems Group Leader in the GS Department and Head of the CERN Spring Campus organising committee. “We organised talks on entrepreneurship and IT, as well as on job interviews and CV writing. It was also an important opportunity for the participants to meet CERN computing engineers to find out what it is like to work in I...

  5. Planet-wide sand motion on mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, N.T.; Bourke, M.C.; Geissler, P.E.; Banks, M.E.; Colon, C.; Diniega, S.; Golombek, M.P.; Hansen, C.J.; Mattson, S.; McEwen, A.S.; Mellon, M.T.; Stantzos, N.; Thomson, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Prior to Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter data, images of Mars showed no direct evidence for dune and ripple motion. This was consistent with climate models and lander measurements indicating that winds of sufficient intensity to mobilize sand were rare in the low-density atmosphere. We show that many sand ripples and dunes across Mars exhibit movement of as much as a few meters per year, demonstrating that Martian sand migrates under current conditions in diverse areas of the planet. Most motion is probably driven by wind gusts that are not resolved in global circulation models. A past climate with a thicker atmosphere is only required to move large ripples that contain coarse grains. ?? 2012 Geological Society of America.

  6. Thermoluminescent dosimetric properties of Descalvado sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, M.I.; Caldas, L.V.E

    2006-07-01

    Sand samples proceeding from Descalvado, Sao Paulo, were studied with regard to their dosimetric properties using the thermoluminescence technique (TL) for high doses. These sand samples present steady physical and chemical characteristics to the end items, and they are used in the glass industry and for casting. The TL curves of the samples were obtained after an irradiation at the Gamma-Cell system ({sup 60} Co), of IPEN. The glow curves present two peaks at 80 C and 220 C approximately. Calibration curves were obtained for doses between 50 Gy and 5 kGy. The results indicate that the sand samples can be used for high-doses dosimetry in several areas of applications of ionizing radiation. (Author)

  7. On the Size Distribution of Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    by Bagnold and confirmed in numerous empirical studies. The model implies that the size distribution of a sand deposit is a logarithmic normal-inverse Gaussian (NIG) distribution, which is one of the generalized hyperbolic distributions. The model modifies a previous model, which implied a log-normal size-distribution......, variance and skewness of the log-size distribution to the physical parameters of the model. The results might be useful when comparing empirical size-distributions from different deposits. It is argued that size-distributions with the same general shape as the NIG-distributions can be obtained also when......A model is presented of the development of the size distribution of sand while it is transported from a source to a deposit. The model provides a possible explanation of the log-hyperbolic shape that is frequently found in unimodal grain size distributions in natural sand deposits, as pointed out...

  8. Permeability Tests on Silkeborg Sand No. 0000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Willy; Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends on the charact......The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends...... on the characteristics of the soil matrix, the permeability is determined for different void ratios. All tests are performed on reconstituted specimens of Silkeborg Sand No. 0000. The permeability is determined by use of a falling head apparatus. The apparatus, test procedures and the analysis method are described...

  9. Permeability Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends on the charact......The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends...... on the characteristics of the soil matrix, the permeability is determined for different void ratios. All tests are performed on reconstituted specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand. The permeability is determined by use of a falling head apparatus. Finally the test results are briefly summarised and a relationship between...

  10. Development tendencies of moulding and core sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw M. Dobosz1

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Further development of the technology for making moulding and core sands will be strictly limited by tough requirements due to protection of the natural environment. These tendencies are becoming more and more tense, so that we will reach a point when even processes, that from technological point of view fulfill high requirements of the foundry industry, must be replaced by more ecologically-friendly solutions. Hence, technologies using synthetic resins as binding materials will be limited. This paper presents some predictable development tendencies of moulding and core sands. The increasing role of inorganic substances will be noticed, including silicate binders with significantly improved properties, such as improved knock-out property or higher reclamation strength. Other interesting solutions might also be moulding sands bonded by geo-polymers and phosphate binders or salts and also binders based on degradable biopolymers. These tendencies and the usefulness of these binders are put forward in this paper.

  11. Sand transport, erosion and granular electrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrison, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The transport of granular materials by wind has a major impact on our environment through sand/soil erosion and the generation and transport of atmospheric dust aerosols. Terrestrially the transport of dust involves billions of tons of material every year, influencing the global climate...... can affect grain transport through the generation of intense electric fields and processes of electrostatic assembly. Importantly the transport of sand is characterized by saltation, which is known to be an active process for erosion and therefore a source for dust and sand formation. Using novel...... erosion simulation techniques the link between grain transport rates and erosion rates has been quantified. Furthermore this can be linked to production rates for dust and has been associated with chemical and mineral alteration through a process of mechanical activation of fractured surfaces. This work...

  12. Bioaugmentation of flow-through sand filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsen, Elin Djurhuus

    MCPA degradation for prolonged periods in flow-through sand columns. In an expression study of catabolic genes with putative roles in phenoxy acid degradation, we observed a marked upregulation of catabolic genes cadA and tfdC upon exposure to MCPA, 2,4-D, dichlorprop and mecoprop in strain PM2, which...... coincided with efficient mineralisation/degradation, and proposed the tfdC gene as a suitable marker for monitoring phenoxy acid degradation in strain PM2. Furthermore, when testing strain PM2s degradation performance in flow-through sand columns, we found that strain PM2 was able to sustain induced...... for degradation performances in flow-through sand columns, with the aim of identifying a suitable inoculant strain for future environmental applications. Another aim was to identify a suitable genetic marker to monitor phenoxy acid degradation in strain Sphingobium sp. PM2. We were not able to link motility...

  13. 75 FR 39241 - Hooper Springs Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Bonneville Power Administration Hooper Springs Project AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA... Hooper Springs Project). The new BPA substation would be called Hooper Springs Substation and would be... 115-kV Lane Creek Substation, east of the City of Wayan, Idaho. The proposed project would address...

  14. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their original position...

  15. A Threshold Continuum for Aeolian Sand Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, C.; Ewing, R. C.; Sherman, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The threshold of motion for aeolian sand transport marks the initial entrainment of sand particles by the force of the wind. This is typically defined and modeled as a singular wind speed for a given grain size and is based on field and laboratory experimental data. However, the definition of threshold varies significantly between these empirical models, largely because the definition is based on visual-observations of initial grain movement. For example, in his seminal experiments, Bagnold defined threshold of motion when he observed that 100% of the bed was in motion. Others have used 50% and lesser values. Differences in threshold models, in turn, result is large errors in predicting the fluxes associated with sand and dust transport. Here we use a wind tunnel and novel sediment trap to capture the fractions of sand in creep, reptation and saltation at Earth and Mars pressures and show that the threshold of motion for aeolian sand transport is best defined as a continuum in which grains progress through stages defined by the proportion of grains in creep and saltation. We propose the use of scale dependent thresholds modeled by distinct probability distribution functions that differentiate the threshold based on micro to macro scale applications. For example, a geologic timescale application corresponds to a threshold when 100% of the bed in motion whereas a sub-second application corresponds to a threshold when a single particle is set in motion. We provide quantitative measurements (number and mode of particle movement) corresponding to visual observations, percent of bed in motion and degrees of transport intermittency for Earth and Mars. Understanding transport as a continuum provides a basis for revaluating sand transport thresholds on Earth, Mars and Titan.

  16. Sand control systems used in completing wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Wittenberger

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Expandable Tubular Technology is transforming the face of well completion and construction. This technology provides: a substantially higher hydrocarbon production rates from the reservoir, a reduced well drilling and construction costs, new possibilities for previously unreachable or uneconomic reservoirs, and step a change towards the single diameter well. ESS (Expandable Sand Screen has an unrivalled performance worldwide for delivering a reliable sand control in a wide range of applications. Well costs typically cut by over 20 %, and the productivity increases up to 70 %.

  17. Undrained Cyclic Behaviour of Dense Frederikshavn Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Kjær; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Sørensen, Kris Wessel

    2013-01-01

    A modified contour diagram is created for the Frederikshavn Sand in the undrained case for a relative density of ID = 80 %. It can be used to estimate the number of cycles to failure for a given combination of pore pressure, average and cyclic load ratio. The diagram is based on a series of undra......A modified contour diagram is created for the Frederikshavn Sand in the undrained case for a relative density of ID = 80 %. It can be used to estimate the number of cycles to failure for a given combination of pore pressure, average and cyclic load ratio. The diagram is based on a series...

  18. Sand dunes - a study of the different dune formations in the Namib Sand Sea, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangunji, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Sand dunes - a study of the different dune formations in the Namib Sand Sea, Namibia By: Antonio Sangunji, Academia Secondary School, Windhoek, Namibia The Namib Sand Sea has spectacular dunes, some of which are 5700 years old. Large, complex, linear dune in the northern part of the Namib Sand Sea provide new information on the age and internal sedimentary structures of these dunes, with important implications for interpretations of paleoclimates and the rock record of eolian sandstones. Academia Secondary School learners study several science subjects including Life and Physical sciences. As part of their Science course, they study the environment and landforms. To better understand the dune dynamics, several grade 8 pupils, 35 learners in total were taken to the field to demonstrate the formation of dunes. One of the highest points in the Namib Sand Sea - Dune 7 which is 388 meters was visited. Learners made models of the dunes in the classroom with different types of modeling clay, such as oil-based, polymer, dough and pottery clay. The learners also carried out hands-on exercises on the link between different types of sand, wind speed, size and altitude of the dunes. Field trips are a great opportunity for learners to learn how sand dunes are formed and show how simple experiments can be used to demonstrate dune formation.

  19. Spring Recipes A Problem-solution Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Josh; Mak, Gary

    2010-01-01

    With over 3 Million users/developers, Spring Framework is the leading "out of the box" Java framework. Spring addresses and offers simple solutions for most aspects of your Java/Java EE application development, and guides you to use industry best practices to design and implement your applications. The release of Spring Framework 3 has ushered in many improvements and new features. Spring Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach, Second Edition continues upon the bestselling success of the previous edition but focuses on the latest Spring 3 features for building enterprise Java applications.

  20. Geochemical, isotopic, and dissolved gas characteristics of groundwater in a fractured crystalline-rock aquifer, Savage Municipal Well Superfund site, Milford, New Hampshire, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Philip T.

    2013-01-01

    Tetrachloroethylene (PCE), a volatile organic compound, was detected in groundwater from deep (more than (>) 300 feet (ft) below land surface) fractures in monitoring wells tapping a crystalline-rock aquifer beneath operable unit 1 (OU1) of the Savage Municipal Well Superfund site (Weston, Inc., 2010). Operable units define remedial areas of contaminant concern. PCE contamination within the fractured-rock aquifer has been designated as a separate operable unit, operable unit 3 (OU3; Weston, Inc., 2010). PCE contamination was previously detected in the overlying glacial sand and gravel deposits and basal till, hereafter termed the Milford-Souhegan glacial-drift (MSGD) aquifer (Harte, 2004, 2006). Operable units 1 and 2 encompass areas within the MSGD aquifer, whereas the extent of the underlying OU3 has yet to be defined. The primary original source of contamination has been identified as a former manufacturing facility—the OK Tool manufacturing facility; hence OU1 sometimes has been referred to as the OK Tool Source Area (New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, undated). A residential neighborhood of 30 to 40 houses is located in close proximity (one-quarter of a mile) from the PCE-contaminated monitoring wells. Each house has its own water-supply well installed in similar rocks as those of the monitoring wells, as indicated by the New Hampshire State geologic map (Lyons and others, 1997). An investigation was initiated in 2010 by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) region 1, and the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) to assess the potential for PCE transport from known contaminant locations (monitoring wells) to the residential wells. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the NHDES entered into a cooperative agreement in 2011 to assist in the evaluation of PCE transport in the fractured-rock aquifer. Periodic sampling over the last decade by the USEPA and NHDES has yet to detect PCE in groundwater from the

  1. Operating sand and environment: can harmonising?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriton Geraldo Vieira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mining is considered one of the basic sectors of Brazil's economy. The mining activity provides basic raw material for industry, and several products from the simplest to the most complex have mineral origin. Most products mined in Brazil, by volume, are sand and crushed stone. The sand extraction activities are of great importance for social development, but equally responsible for negative environmental impacts, sometimes irreversible. Due to the location’s rigidity, the sand miner is forced to mine where there is mineral occurrence, which constantly is near the bottom of valleys and rivers, often coinciding with the riparian forests, which are considered to be permanently protected areas (APP. In this context, objective is to demonstrate through a dialectical approach, procedurally developed through literature the possibility of conciliating the exploration of ore sand in permanently protected areas. Thus, will be analyzed the rules established in the Law 12.651/12 (New forest law, as well as will be demonstrated the socioeconomic and environmental impacts of mining activities which have to be observed to achieve the environmental function of property. The research was supported by the qualitative method and its construction we used the technique of bibliographical and documentary review.

  2. A Triaxial Characteristic State Model for Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, S.; Borup, M.; Hedegaard, J.

    A non-associated plasticity model for sand is presented. The loading surface is a closed two-parameter surface in the principal stress space, determined by a size and a shape parameter. The shape parameter is determined explicitly from the slope of the characteristic line. For small mean stress...

  3. Sublittoral sand dollar (Echillodiscus bisperforatus) communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *To whom cnrrespondence should he addressed. **Prc~cnt Jddrcss: Sea hsheries Research Institute, Privsand communities and a numher of morphologically simi- lar species inhabit a variety of relatively sheltered habitats.

  4. Our Footprints on the Sands of Time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 1. Our Footprints on the Sands of Time. Partha P Majumder D Balasubramanian. General Article Volume 11 Issue 1 January 2006 pp 32-50. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  5. experimental investigation of sand minimum transport velocity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The production of reservoir fluid through long tiebacks/pipelines has emerged as one of the cost effective alternative especially for many marginal fields which can now be produced as clusters into a common processing facility. However, sand is often co-produced with the reservoir fluid especially when produced from ...

  6. Fatal toxoplasmosis in sand cats (Felis margarita).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pas, An; Dubey, J P

    2008-09-01

    The sand cat (Felis margarita) is a small-sized felid occurring in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The sand cat captive-breeding program at the Breeding Centre for Endangered Arabian Wildlife in Sharjah, UAE, has until recently been severely compromised by very high newborn mortality rates. Two different pairs of sand cats gave birth, respectively, to one and two litters (with a total of eight kittens) between 1999 and 2006. Seven out of eight kittens died between the third and 21st wk of life. Toxoplasmosis was confirmed as the cause of death in these two litters. Adult cats had high antibody titers to Toxoplasma gondii before pregnancy, suggesting that maternal immunity did not protect the kittens against infection with T. gondii and that maternal immunity might not have prevented transplacental transmission of the parasite. This observation contrasts with what is seen in domestic cats. To date, this is the first report on confirmed fatal toxoplasmosis and prevalence of T. gondii in sand cats.

  7. V-2 Rocket at White Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-01-01

    A V-2 rocket takes flight at White Sands, New Mexico, in 1946. The German engineers and scientists who developed the V-2 came to the United States at the end of World War II and continued rocket testing under the direction of the U. S. Army, launching more than sixty V-2s.

  8. Sublittoral sand dollar ( Echinodiscus bisperforatus ) communities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macrofauna, meiofauna and sediment parameters together with sand dollar abundance and distribution were recorded along transects with stations at 2 m depth intervals from 4 m to 12 m. A wave-induced, depth-related turbulence gradient was evident with both mean particle size and sediment sorting decreasing with ...

  9. Soil and humus development in drift sands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevink, J.; de Waal, R.W.; Fanta, J.; Siepel, H.

    2010-01-01

    In drift sand, incipient mineral soils with a very thin endorganic horizon develop towards highly acid soils with a thick, differentiated, mor to moder type ectorganic horizon and incipient podzolisation, within a period of about 100 years. This is due slow litter decomposition and associated soil

  10. Undrained Triaxial Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    of frictional materials during monotonic loading. The tests conducted includes undrained and constant volume tests, starting from different initial states of stress and following various stress paths. All the tests are performed on reconstituted loose to medium dense specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand....

  11. UV-deprived coloration reduces success in mate acquisition in male sand lizards (Lacerta agilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Olsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent work on animal signals has revealed a wide occurrence of UV signals in tetrapods, in particular birds, but also in lizards (and perhaps other Squamate reptiles. Our previous work on the Swedish sand lizard (Lacerta agilis has verified, both in correlative selection analyses in the wild and with laboratory and field experiments, the importance of the green 'badge' on the body sides of adult males for securing mating opportunities, probably mostly through deterring rival males rather than attracting females. The role of UV in communication has, however, never been examined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that when measured immediately after spring skin shedding, there is also signaling in the UV. By UV-depriving the signal (reflectance with sun block chemicals fixated with permeable, harmless spray dressing, we show that males in the control group (spray dressing only had significantly higher success in mate acquisition than UV-deprived males. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that at least two colour traits in sand lizards, badge area and UV, contribute to rival deterrence and/or female choice on UV characters, which elevates success in mate acquisition in UV intact male sand lizards.

  12. Dark grains of sand: a geological storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo Maresca, Magda

    2017-04-01

    In the secondary Italian school the Earth science learning begins at first year, in synergy with other natural science subjects such as Astronomy, Chemistry and Biology. Italian teachers have to focus on the landscape geomorphological aspects and often Earth processes are difficult to display since they are related to certain phenomena happened during the past and often far from the involved country. In order to better understand the environment surrounding us, very simple and poor materials, like sands, allow the teachers to create attractive lab experiences. According to the IBSE (Inquiry Based Science Education) approach, a learning unit has been implemented starting from a walking along the light carbonate beaches of the Adriatic sea: a smart look to the sands ("engage step"), stroke the students fantasy pushing them to explore some strange black grains on the sands. Dirty sands? Or rock landscape, soil degradation and Ofanto river and coastal processes (erosion, transportation and deposition)? This was the teaching challenge. Due to the youngest age, a third level, guided inquiry, was adopted so the teacher is the "guide of inquiry" encouraging the students using the research question ("Why is the sand dark?", "Do all sands look the same?", "Where does it come from?") and driving the students around their investigation plans ("How can I measure grain size?"). A procedure to answer the above questions and validate the results and explanations has been implemented to allow the students to be proactive in their study. During the learning activities will be the students to ask for field trip to elaborate their new knowledge, verify and visualize the speculated processes. The teaching skills allow to address several geosciences domains such as mineralogy, petrology, regional geology and geodynamics as well as other scientific disciplines such as mathematics (more specifically statistics), forensic science and even life sciences (the presence of bioclasts might

  13. CACTUS SPRING ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Kuizon, Lucia

    1984-01-01

    Geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies together with a review of historic mining and prospecting activities indicate that the Cactus Spring Roadless Area in California has little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Marble bodies occur in the northern part of the roadless area and are possible resources for building stone, crushed and quarried aggregate, and lime and magnesium for Portland cement and industrial applications. It is recommended that the terrane of marble be mapped and sampled carefully in order to evaluate the quantity and quality of the carbonate resources.

  14. Characteristics of SCC with Fly Ash and Manufactured Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen Kumar, K.; Radhakrishna

    2016-09-01

    Self compacting concrete (SCC) of M40 grade was designed. The binder in SCC consists of OPC and fly ash in the ratio of 65:35. River sand was replaced by manufactured sand (M-sand) at replacement levels of 20,40,60,80 and 100%. An attempt was made to evaluate the workability and strength characteristics of self compacting concrete with river sand and manufactured sand as fine aggregates. For each replacement level, constant workability was maintained by varying the dosage of superplasticizer. T50 flow time, V Funnel time, V-funnel T5 time as well as compressive, split tensile and flexural strength of SCC were found at each replacement level of M-sand. They were compared to SCC with river sand. Results indicate favourable use of M-sand in preparation of Self Compacting Concrete.

  15. Triaxial and Torsional Shear Test Results for Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Hettler & Vardoulais Compression Behavior of dry sand (1994)__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Vaid & Chem (1985) Cyclic...1, 2 and 3, ELE Internationa Limited, 1985. Hettler , A. W., and Vardoulakis, I., "Behavior of Dry Sand Tested in a Larger Triaxial Apparatus

  16. Fiber-reinforced sand strength and dilation characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham M. Eldesouky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Randomly distributed fiber reinforcement is used to provide an isotropic increase in the sand shear strength. The previous studies were not consistent regarding the fibers effect on the volumetric change behavior of fiber-reinforced sand. In this paper, direct shear tests are conducted on 108 specimens to investigate the effects of the fibers content, relative density, normal stress and moisture content on the shear strength and volumetric change behaviors of fiber-reinforced sand. The study investigates also the possibility of using dry fiber-reinforced sand as an alternative to heavily compacted unreinforced moist sand. The results indicate that the fibers inclusion increases the shear strength and dilation of sand. Moisture suppresses the fibers effect on the peak and post-peak shear strengths, and dilation. Dry loose fiber-reinforced sand achieves the same shear strength of heavily compacted unreinforced moist sand, yet at more than double the horizontal displacement.

  17. Mineral resource of the month: industrial sand and gravel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolley, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    With many diverse uses, industrial sand and gravel, also known as silica sand, is one of the most important nonmetallic minerals in the world. Industrial sand and gravel is a mining industry term used for sands that have a very high percentage of silicon dioxide, or greater than 95 percent quartz. Deposits of industrial sand and gravel can be found virtually everywhere on Earth, but are less widespread than deposits of common construction sand and gravel. Industrial sand and gravel is distinctive in grain size, hardness, inertness and resistance to high temperature and chemical action. Beverage containers, fiberglass insulation, fiber-optic cables and light bulbs are just some of today’s many products produced from industrial sand and gravel.

  18. Oil sands fever : the environmental implications of Canada's oil sands rush

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woynillowicz, D.; Severson-Baker, C.; Raynolds, M.

    2005-11-01

    This report puts forward recommendations to improve the environmental management of oil sands while calling for an accelerated transition towards sustainable energy in Canada. It presents a historical discussion and background of Canada's oil sands rush and discusses making oil from tar, fuel consumption by oil sand operations, and transportation to refineries. Climate change consequences such as escalating greenhouse gas emissions, emissions intensity, the Kyoto commitment and taking meaningful action are identified along with the cumulative environmental impacts on water, land and air. The paper addressed the issue of managing these cumulative impacts and protecting the environment. Government assistance and subsidies were discussed with reference to Alberta's favourable royalty regime and federal tax breaks. Last, the report discussed stewardship and leadership for responsible oil sand use, climate protection, regional environment protection and establishment of an equitable fiscal regime. 266 refs., 7 tabs., 34 figs.

  19. Incipient Motion of Sand and Oil Agglomerates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, T. R.; Dalyander, S.; Jenkins, R. L., III; Penko, A.; Long, J.; Frank, D. P.; Braithwaite, E. F., III; Calantoni, J.

    2016-12-01

    Weathered oil mixed with sediment in the surf zone in the northern Gulf of Mexico after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, forming large mats of sand and oil. Wave action fragmented the mats into sand and oil agglomerates (SOAs) with diameters of about 1 to 10 cm. These SOAs were transported by waves and currents along the Gulf Coast, and have been observed on beaches for years following the spill. SOAs are composed of 70%-95% sand by mass, with an approximate density of 2107 kg/m³. To measure the incipient motion of SOAs, experiments using artificial SOAs were conducted in the Small-Oscillatory Flow Tunnel at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory under a range of hydrodynamic forcing. Spherical and ellipsoidal SOAs ranging in size from 0.5 to 10 cm were deployed on a fixed flat bed, a fixed rippled bed, and a movable sand bed. In the case of the movable sand bed, SOAs were placed both proud and partially buried. Motion was tracked with high-definition video and with inertial measurement units embedded in some of the SOAs. Shear stress and horizontal pressure gradients, estimated from velocity measurements made with a Nortek Vectrino Profiler, were compared with observed mobility to assess formulations for incipient motion. For SOAs smaller than 1 cm in diameter, incipient motion of spherical and ellipsoidal SOAs was consistent with predicted critical stress values. The measured shear stress at incipient motion of larger, spherical SOAs was lower than predicted, indicating an increased dependence on the horizontal pressure gradient. In contrast, the measured shear stress required to move ellipsoidal SOAs was higher than predicted, even compared to values modified for larger particles in mixed-grain riverine environments. The laboratory observations will be used to improve the prediction of incipient motion, transport, and seafloor interaction of SOAs.

  20. The National Environmental Committee: A Proposal to Relieve Regulatory Gridlock at Federal Facility Superfund Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-01

    environment. 5 6 In the early 1960s, the public began to notice the effects on the country’s natural resources. Rachel Carson’s epic Silent Spring •7 in... SILENT SPRING (1962). Carson , an American marine biologist, was employed from 1936 through 1952 as an aquatic biologist for the United States Bureau...ENVIRONMENTAL LAW 23 (2d ed. 1972) see also infra note 65 (discussing the effects of population and conservation on the environment). 5*7 RACHEL CARSON

  1. Geochemical evidence for a Cretaceous oil sand (Bima oil sand) in the Chad Basin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bata, Timothy; Parnell, John; Samaila, Nuhu K.; Abubakar, M. B.; Maigari, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    Paleogeographic studies have shown that Earth was covered with more water during the Cretaceous than it is today, as the global sea level was significantly higher. The Cretaceous witnessed one of the greatest marine transgressions in Earth's history, represented by widespread deposition of sands directly on underlying basement. These sand bodies hold much of the world's heavy oil. Here, we present for the first time, geochemical evidence of a Cretaceous oil sand (Bima oil sand) in the Chad Basin, Nigeria. Bima oil sand is similar to other Cretaceous oil sands, predominantly occurring at shallow depths on basin flanks and generally lacking a seal cover, making the oil susceptible to biodegradation. The bulk properties and distribution of molecular features in oils from the Bima oil sand suggest that they are biodegraded. Sterane maturity parameters and the trisnorhopane thermal indicator for the oils suggest thermal maturities consistent with oils generated as conventional light oils, which later degraded into heavy oils. These oils also show no evidence of 25-norhopane, strongly suggesting that biodegradation occurred at shallow depths, consistent with the shallow depth of occurrence of the Bima Formation at the study locality. Low diasterane/sterane ratios and C29H/C30H ratios greater than 1 suggest a carbonate source rock for the studied oil. The Sterane distribution further suggests that the oils were sourced from marine carbonate rocks. The C32 homohopane isomerization ratios for the Bima oil sand are 0.59-0.60, implying that the source rock has surpassed the main oil generation phase, consistent with burial depths of the Fika and Gongila Formations, which are both possible petroleum source rocks in the basin.

  2. Advanced testing and characterization of transportation soils and bituminous sands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Modulus with Hydrostatic Stress for Oil Sands at 30oC. .......... 79 FIGURE 4.7 Bulk Modulus Model 3 Performances for Oil Sand Samples at 20oC................... 82 FIGURE 4.8 Bulk Modulus Model 3 Performances for Oil Sand Samples at 30o... of Resilient Modulus with Applied Deviator Stress at Two Test Temperatures for AU-14 Sample............................................................................................. 140 FIGURE 6.15 Performances of the SE-09 Oil sand Sample Resilient...

  3. Research on the evaporation of gasoline on beach sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berqueiro, J.R.; Dominguez, F.; Pons, J.M

    Gasoline evaporation is an importent factor in spill behavour. When a gasoline spill occurs on beach sand, part of the gasoline is spread over the sand surface while the rest is being absorbed. The spread and absorption rate depend on, amoung other things, the permeability of the sand which in turn also depends on it's water content. It is important to study the effects of gasoline evaporation on sand beaches in order to determine when risk of explosion is low, so that cleaning of the polluted beach surface can be carried out without danger. The effects of the evaporation of 90 and 97 octane (normal and super) gasoline on beach sand have been studied using the tray evaporation technique as described in the literature. The size of the sand particles have been included along with temperature and air speed as variables in the evaporation process. The effects of gasoline on the retention capacity of three distinct types of sand particles, as well as the effects of water in the sand, have been studied for normal and super gasolines. The following conclusions can be drawn: sand retention capacity is inversely proportional to sand particle size; when sand is moistened, its gasoline retention capacity increases proportionally with the decreasing particle size; with the same sand fractions and air speed conditions; the evaporation rate increases with increasing air speeds; with the same sand fractions and air speed conditions the evaporation rate increases with temperature; given the same temperature and air conditions, a gasoline spill on coarse sand evaporates faster than one on medium sand; and given the same temperatures and air speed conditions, the evaporation rate of normal gasoline spreading over any of the three types of sand is always higher than super gasoline due to the higher volatility of the 90 octane gasoline. 10 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  4. Evaluation of an Intergrated / Biocoagulant-sand filter Drum for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2015-03-18

    Mar 18, 2015 ... pilot scale up was carried out using 120 L (120,000 ml) of water from Mezam River pretreated with 2400 g of powdered M. oleifera seeds for 15 min retention time and filtered through a sand filter drum made of fine sand, coarse sand, charcoal and gravel for 1 h filtration time. The total mean values of ...

  5. Dewatering Behaviour of Fine Oil Sands Tailings : An Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Oil sands tailings are a warm aqueous suspension of sand, silt, clay, residual bitumen and naphtha. The tailings are hydraulically transported and stored in tailing ponds where they segregate, with the sand settling from suspension forming beaches and the remaining tailings flowing to the middle of

  6. Permanent deformation behavior of naturally occurring bituminous sands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil sand, or tar sand, is a generic name given to bituminous sand deposits that are rich in bitumen or asphalt content to the extent that oil can be extracted from these deposits. The typical 8% to 15% presence of bitumen in the soil composition...

  7. Design and Fabrication of a Foundry Sand Mixer Using Locally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most small foundry shops mix their sand manually which is not efficient since homogenous mix cannot be guaranteed and even when foundry mixer are available most of them are imported costing the nation huge foriegn exchange. A foundry sand mixer capable of mixing foundry sand has been designed and fabricated ...

  8. Dredging Processes I : The Cutting of Sand, Clay & Rock - Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, S.A.

    2013-01-01

    This book gives an overview of cutting theories. It starts with a generic model, which is valid for all types of soil (sand, clay and rock) after which the specifics of dry sand, water saturated sand, clay, rock and hyperbaric rock are covered. For each soil type small blade angles and large blade

  9. Interactions between microbial activity and distribution and mineral coatings on sand grains from rapid sand filters treating groundwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gülay, Arda; Tatari, Karolina; Musovic, Sanin

    Rapid sand filtration is a traditional and widespread technology for drinking water purification which combines biological, chemical and physical processes together. Granular media, especially sand, is a common filter material that allows several oxidized compounds to accumulate on its surface...

  10. Assessment of environmentally persistent free radicals in soils and sediments from three Superfund sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dela Cruz, Albert Leo N; Cook, Robert L; Dellinger, Barry; Lomnicki, Slawomir M; Donnelly, Kirby C; Kelley, Matthew A; Cosgriff, David

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported the presence of environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) in pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated soils at a closed wood treatment facility site in Georgia. The reported EPFRs were pentachlorophenoxyl radicals formed on soils under ambient conditions via electron transfer from PCP to electron acceptors in the soil. In this study, we present results for soil and sediment samples from additional Superfund sites in Montana and Washington. Paramagnetic centers associated with different chemical environments were characterized by distinct g-factors and line widths (ΔHp-p). EPFR concentrations in contaminated samples were ~30×, ~12×, and ~2× higher than background samples at the Georgia, Montana, and Washington sites, respectively. EPR signals in the Montana contaminated soils were very similar to those previously observed for pentachlorophenol contaminated soils at the Georgia site, i.e., g = 2.00300 and ΔHp-p = 6.0 G, whereas signals in the Washington sediment samples were similar to those previously observed for other PAH contaminated soils, i.e., g = 2.00270 and ΔHp-p = 9.0 G. Total carbon content measurements exhibited direct correlation with EPFR concentration. The presence of radicals in sites contaminated a decade to a century ago suggests continuous formation of EPFRs from molecular contaminants in the soil and sediment.

  11. Review of ecological-based risk management approaches used at five Army Superfund sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poucher, Sherri L; Tracey, Gregory A; Johnson, Mark S; Haines, Laurie B

    2012-04-01

    Factors used in environmental remedial decision making concerning ecological risk are not well understood or necessarily consistent. Recent Records of Decision (RODs) for Army CERCLA sites were reviewed to select case studies where remedial management occurred in response to ecological risks. Thirty-four Army RODs were evaluated representing decisions promulgated between 1996 and 2004. Five were selected based on assessments that remedial actions were clearly linked to concern for ecological receptors. The Ecological Risk Assessment (ERA) approach and the subsequent risk management process were reviewed for each site. The case studies demonstrated that the ERA findings, as well as critical management decisions regarding interpretation of identified ecological risks, were determinants of remedial action objectives. Decisions regarding the selection of remedial alternatives were based on a set of criteria prescribed by Superfund requirements and guidance. Remedial alternative evaluations require protection of human health and the environment, but protective conditions were determined using different methods at each site. Examining the remedial management process for the 5 case study sites revealed that uncertainty in the risk assessment and decisions regarding appropriate spatial scales for both risk assessment and remediation were important factors influencing remedial action decisions. The case reviews also revealed that levels of documentation were variable from site to site. In the future, more detailed documentation of decision criteria and the development of criteria that consider the resilience of the site will result in more technically defensible ecological risk management. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  12. Integration of data systems and technology improves research and collaboration for a superfund research center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbie, Kevin A; Peterson, Elena S; Barton, Michael L; Waters, Katrina M; Anderson, Kim A

    2012-08-01

    Large collaborative centers are a common model for accomplishing integrated environmental health research. These centers often include various types of scientific domains (e.g., chemistry, biology, bioinformatics) that are integrated to solve some of the nation's key economic or public health concerns. The Superfund Research Center (SRP) at Oregon State University (OSU) is one such center established in 2008 to study the emerging health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons while using new technologies both in the field and laboratory. With outside collaboration at remote institutions, success for the center as a whole depends on the ability to effectively integrate data across all research projects and support cores. Therefore, the OSU SRP center developed a system that integrates environmental monitoring data with analytical chemistry data and downstream bioinformatics and statistics to enable complete "source-to-outcome" data modeling and information management. This article describes the development of this integrated information management system that includes commercial software for operational laboratory management and sample management in addition to open-source custom-built software for bioinformatics and experimental data management.

  13. Groundwater Fate and Transport Modeling for Texarkana Wood Preserving Company Superfund Site, Texarkana, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnett, Ronald Chester

    1999-08-01

    Fate and transport model results are presented for the Texarkana Wood Preserving Company (TWPC)superfund site. The conceptual model assumes two sources of contamination, specifically, the areas around the old and new process areas. Recent data show the presence of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL) in the aquifer that are also sources of dissolved contamination in the aquifer. A flow model was constructed and calibrated against measured hydraulic heads at permanent monitoring wells. Good matches were obtained between model simulated heads and most measured heads. An unexplained exception occurs at monitoring well MW-13 down gradient of the site beyond the measured contaminant plume where the model predicts heads that are more than 2 ft. lower than reported field measurements. Adjusting hydraulic parameters in the model could not account for this anomaly and still preserve the head matches at other wells. There is likely a moderate deficiency in the conceptual model or perhaps a data error. Other information such as substantial amounts of infiltrating surface water in the area or a correction in surveyed elevation would improve the flow model. A particle tracking model calculated a travel time from the new process area to the Day’s Creek discharge location on the order of 40 years. Travel times from the old process area to Day’s Creek were calculated to be on the order of 80 years. While these calculations are subject to some uncertainty, travel times of decades are indicated.

  14. Continued Geophysical Logging in the vicinity of the GMH Electronics Superfund Site near Roxboro, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolino, Dominick J.; Chapman, Melinda J.

    2016-01-01

    The collection of borehole geophysical logs and images and continuous water-level data was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey South Atlantic Water Science Center in the vicinity of the GMH Electronics Superfund site near Roxboro, North Carolina, during December 2012 through July 2015. The study purpose was part of a continued effort to assist the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the development of a conceptual groundwater model for the assessment of current contaminant distribution and future migration of contaminants. Previous work by the U.S. Geological Survey South Atlantic Water Science Center at the site involved similar data collection, in addition to surface geologic mapping and passive diffusion bag sampling within monitoring wells (Chapman and others, 2013). The continued data compilation efforts included the delineation of more than 900 subsurface features (primarily fracture orientations) in 10 open borehole wells. Geophysical logs, borehole imagery, pumping data, and heat-pulse flow measurements were collected and are presented within this data release.

  15. Fishing a superfund site: Dissonance and risk perception of environmental hazards by fishermen in Puerto Rico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M. (Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Risk perception studies show that individuals tend to underestimate significant risks, overestimate negligible ones, and distrust authorities. They also rely on a variety of strategies or heuristics to reach decisions regarding their risk-taking behavior. The authors report on a survey of fishermen and crabbers engaged in recreational and substance fishing in a Puerto Rican estuary (near Humacao), which has been declared a Superfund site because of suspected contamination by mercury, and at ecologically similar control sites. Nearly everyone interviewed at the Humacao site was aware of the mercury contamination, but either denied its importance, believed the contamination was restricted to a distant part of the estuary, or assumed that the estuary would be closed by the authorities if the threat was real. All site-users consumed the fish and crabs they caught. At Humacao, the average catch was 7 fish per fishermen (mostly tilapia, Tilapia mossambica, and tarpon, Megalops atlantica) and 13 crabs per crabber (all blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus). On average, the site-users returned to the lagoons about 3-4 times per month. At control sites, fewer fish were eaten. The worst case consumption of tarpon, a species which concentrated mercury at Eastern Puerto Rico, provided an exposure exceeding the EPA reference dose, whereas consumption of one tarpon per week did not entail excess exposure. Fortunately, few individuals caught tarpon exclusively. Unlike counterparts in the northeastern United States, they trusted authorities and indicated that they would have heeded warnings of mercury contamination posted where they fished.

  16. Morphology, structure, and metal binding mechanisms of biogenic manganese oxides in a superfund site treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, O W; Rivera, N A; Gardner, T G; Andrews, M Y; Santelli, C M; Polizzotto, M L

    2017-01-25

    Manganese oxides, which may be biogenically produced in both pristine and contaminated environments, have a large affinity for many trace metals. In this study, water and Mn oxide-bearing biofilm samples were collected from the components of a pump and treat remediation system at a superfund site. To better understand the factors leading to their formation and their effects on potentially toxic metal fate, we conducted a chemical, microscopic, and spectroscopic characterization of these biofilm samples. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of Mn oxides in close association with biological structures with morphologies consistent with fungi. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the oxides to be a mixture of layer and tunnel structure Mn(iv) oxides. In addition, XAS suggested that Ba, Co, and Zn all primarily bind to oxides in the biofilm in a manner that is analogous to synthetic or laboratory grown bacteriogenic Mn oxides. The results indicate that Mn oxides produced by organisms in the system may effectively scavenge metals, thus highlighting the potential utility of these organisms in designed remediation systems.

  17. Sand Needs and Resources Offshore New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashley, J. M.; Flood, R. D.; White, M.; Bokuniewicz, H.; Hinrichs, C.; Wilson, R. E.

    2016-02-01

    "Superstorm" Sandy (October, 2012) accentuated the persistent problem of coastal erosion on New York's ocean coast. The New York state Department of State in cooperation with the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management has initiated further identification and assessment of marine sand reserves required to improve the resiliency of coastal communities and the maintenance of coastal habitats. The historical demand for beach nourishment has been about 1.5 million cubic meters per year, but sea level rise and the occurrence of extreme conditions may increase the demand to over 5 million cubic meters annually. Forty-four historical and proposed borrow sites have been delineated. This inner shelf is both sand rich and data rich. Geophysical and geological data has been compiled and reassessed to support identification, characterization, and delineation of sand resources for potential use in future coastal restoration, beach nourishment, and/or wetland restoration efforts. The South Shore of Long Island is composed in part by the Fire Island National Seashore. Holocene sand ridges extending at an oblique angle to the cross shore in the seaward direction. Borrow pits among the sand ridges, excavated were apparent in the most recent surveys and it appears that natural replenishment of offshore borrow areas has been occurring although the rates need to be determined in order to assess their sustainability. Not only is the area one of intense societal attention, but the use of this resource for coastal resilience must fit into a diverse framework marine spatial planning including not only traditional components, like commercial fishing, but also new factors like the siting of offshore wind-farms. To extend this assessment will include a recent survey, sponsored by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management and the New York Department of State, providing approximately 700 km of geophysical survey lines located between 3 and 9 nautical miles offshore, and 46 geotechnical samples

  18. Testing Novel CR-39 Detector Deployment System For Identification of Subsurface Fractures, Soda Springs, ID

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLing, Travis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Carpenter, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Brandon, William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zavala, Bernie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has teamed with Battelle Energy Alliance, LLC (BEA) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to facilitate further testing of geologic-fracture-identification methodology at a field site near the Monsanto Superfund Site located in Soda Springs, Idaho. INL has the necessary testing and technological expertise to perform this work. Battelle Memorial Institute (BMI) has engaged INL to perform this work through a Work for Others (WFO) Agreement. This study continues a multi-year collaborative effort between INL and EPA to test the efficacy of using field deployed Cr-39 radon in soil portals. This research enables identification of active fractures capable of transporting contaminants at sites where fractures are suspected pathways into the subsurface. Current state of the art methods for mapping fracture networks are exceedingly expensive and notoriously inaccurate. The proposed WFO will evaluate the applicability of using cheap, readily available, passive radon detectors to identify conductive geologic structures (i.e. fractures, and fracture networks) in the subsurface that control the transport of contaminants at fracture-dominated sites. The proposed WFO utilizes proven off-the-shelf technology in the form of CR-39 radon detectors, which have been widely deployed to detect radon levels in homes and businesses. In an existing collaborative EPA/INL study outside of this workscope,. CR-39 detectors are being utilized to determine the location of active transport fractures in a fractured granitic upland adjacent to a landfill site at the Fort Devens, MA that EPA-designated as National Priorities List (NPL) site. The innovative concept of using an easily deployed port that allows the CR-39 to measure the Rn-222 in the soil or alluvium above the fractured rock, while restricting atmospheric Rn-222 and soil sourced Ra from contaminating the detector is unique to INL and EPA approach previously developed. By deploying a series of these

  19. Radiographic parameters for diagnosing sand colic in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egenvall Agneta

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ingestion of sand can cause colic, diarrhoea and weight loss in horses, but these signs are unspecific and can have many other causes. The amount of sand that induces disease may vary between individuals. To avoid over-diagnosing, it is important to determine the amount of sand that can be found in horses without clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease. The aim of this study was to use previously suggested parameters for establishing a radiographic diagnosis of sand colic, and compare these findings between a sand colic group and a control group. Methods Abdominal radiographs were obtained in 30 horses with a complaint unrelated to the gastrointestinal tract. In addition, archived abdominal radiographs of 37 clinical cases diagnosed with sand impaction were investigated. The size of the mineral opacity indicative of sand in the abdomen was measured and graded according to a previously published protocol based on height and length. Location, homogeneity, opacity and number of sand accumulations were also recorded. Results Twenty out of 30 control horses (66% had one or more sand accumulations. In the present study; height, length and homogeneity of the accumulations were useful parameters for establishing a diagnosis of sand colic. Radiographically defined intestinal sand accumulation grades of up to 2 was a common finding in horses with no clinical signs from the gastrointestinal tract whereas most of the clinical cases had much larger grades, indicating larger sand accumulations. Conclusion Further work to establish a reliable grading system for intestinal sand content is warranted, but a previously proposed grading system based on measurements of height and length may be an alternative for easy assessment of sand accumulations in the meantime. The present study indicates that a grade 1 – 2 sand accumulation in the intestine is a frequent finding in horses. When working up a case with clinical signs from the

  20. Porosity and packing of Holocene river, dune, and beach sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins, J.E. (Conoco, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK (United States)); McBride, E.F. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (United States))

    1991-03-01

    The porosity and packing of 174 samples of well-sorted surficial and shallowly buried (to 17 m), unconsolidated Holocene sands were determined by point counting the upper surface of thin sections of epoxy-impregnated samples in reflected light. Average depositional porosity for 124 surficial beach sands, river point-bar and braid-bar sands, and eolian dune sands is between 40% and 58%. Beach sands exhibit an average packing value (contact index = CI) of 0.79, river sands an average IC of 0.91, and eolian dune sands an average CI of 1.02. Packing gets tighter with depth, but the authors found no decrease in porosity with depth for river and beach sands buried to 17 m. Thus, packing is more sensitive to small changes in fabric than is porosity. Beach sands typically contain 5.5% oversized pores (OSP), river sands 3.8% OSP, and eolian dune sands 4.0% OSP. Most OSP are packing defects rather than dissolution pores, although trapped air bubbles are common in some beach sands. OSP decrease linearly with depth to 17 m, our deepest sample. Extrapolation of our data indicates that they will be destroyed at a depth less than 100 m. Significant differences in porosity, oversized-pore, and packing values exist between most point-bar and braid-bar deposits and between two heavily sampled point bars, but no significant differences in these values exist when braid-bar sands are compared to other braid-bar sands. Sands form different beaches have significant differences in porosity, oversized pores, and packing. The average porosity is 46% for eolian ripple strata, 50% for grain-fall strata, and 51% for grain-flow strata. Ripple strata are tighter packed than grain-fall and grain-flow strata.

  1. Robert oerley and Tuzla mineral springs

    OpenAIRE

    Ateş Can, Sevim

    2014-01-01

    In the Tuzla borough of İstanbul are located mineral springs of great importance which have been known and used since ancient times. Although the therapeutic value of Tuzla Mineral Springs has always been recognized, this value in terms of the history of architecture has not been very well understood. The current facilities in the springs were built in the Republican Period. The most important among them is the Spa Hotel, whose project was initiated by Robert Oerley. The oth...

  2. Hydrostratigraphic mapping of the Milford-Souhegan glacial drift aquifer, and effects of hydrostratigraphy on transport of PCE, Operable Unit 1, Savage Superfund Site, Milford, New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Philip T.

    2010-01-01

    The Savage Municipal Well Superfund site in the Town of Milford, New Hampshire, was underlain by a 0.5-square mile plume (as mapped in 1994) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), most of which consisted of tetrachloroethylene (PCE). The plume occurs mostly within highly transmissive stratified-drift deposits but also extends into underlying till and bedrock. The plume has been divided into two areas called Operable Unit 1 (OU1), which contains the primary source area, and Operable Unit 2 (OU2), which is defined as the extended plume area outside of OU1. The OU1 remedial system includes a low-permeability barrier wall that encircles the highest detected concentrations of PCE and a series of injection and extraction wells to contain and remove contaminants. The barrier wall likely penetrates the full thickness of the sand and gravel; in many places, it also penetrates the full thickness of the underlying basal till and sits atop bedrock.From 1998 to 2004, PCE concentrations decreased by an average of 80 percent at most wells outside the barrier wall. However, inside the barrier, PCE concentrations greater than 10,000 micrograms per liter (μg/L) still exist (2008). The remediation of these areas of recalcitrant PCE presents challenges to successful remediation.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Region 1, is studying the solute transport of VOCs (primarily PCE) in contaminated groundwater in the unconsolidated sediments (overburden) of the Savage site and specifically assisting in the evaluation of the effectiveness of remedial operations in the OU1 area. As part of this effort, the USGS analyzed the subsurface stratigraphy to help understand hydrostratigraphic controls on remediation.A combination of lithologic, borehole natural gamma-ray and electromagnetic (EM) induction logging, and test drilling has identified 11 primary

  3. Radon activity measurements around Bakreswar thermal springs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhuri, Hirok [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata, West Bengal 700 064 (India); Das, Nisith K., E-mail: nkdas@veccal.ernet.i [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Atomic Energy, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata, West Bengal 700 064 (India); Bhandari, Rakesh K. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Atomic Energy, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata, West Bengal 700 064 (India); Sen, Prasanta [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata, West Bengal 700 064 (India); Sinha, Bikash [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Atomic Energy, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata, West Bengal 700 064 (India)

    2010-01-15

    {sup 222}Rn concentrations were measured in the bubble gases, spring waters, soil gases and in ambient air around the thermal springs at Bakreswar in West Bengal, India. This group of springs lies within a geothermal zone having exceptionally high heat flow about 230 mW/m{sup 2}, resembling young oceanic ridges. The spring gas has a high radon activity (approx885 kBq/m{sup 3}) and is rich in helium (approx1.4 vol. %) with appreciably large flow rate. The measured radon exhalation rates in the soils of the spring area show extensive variations from 831 to 4550/mBqm{sup 2} h while {sup 222}Rn concentrations in the different spring waters vary from 3.18 to 46.9 kBq/m{sup 3}. Surface air at a radius of 40 m around the springs, within which is situated the Bakreswar temple complex and a group of dwellings, has radon concentration between 450 and 500 Bq/m{sup 3}. In the present paper we assess the radon activity background in and around the spring area due to the different contributing sources and its possible effect on visiting pilgrims and the people who reside close to the springs.

  4. Post-liquefaction reconsolidation of sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamidis, O; Madabhushi, G S P

    2016-02-01

    Loosely packed sand that is saturated with water can liquefy during an earthquake, potentially causing significant damage. Once the shaking is over, the excess pore water pressures that developed during the earthquake gradually dissipate, while the surface of the soil settles, in a process called post-liquefaction reconsolidation. When examining reconsolidation, the soil is typically divided in liquefied and solidified parts, which are modelled separately. The aim of this paper is to show that this fragmentation is not necessary. By assuming that the hydraulic conductivity and the one-dimensional stiffness of liquefied sand have real, positive values, the equation of consolidation can be numerically solved throughout a reconsolidating layer. Predictions made in this manner show good agreement with geotechnical centrifuge experiments. It is shown that the variation of one-dimensional stiffness with effective stress and void ratio is the most crucial parameter in accurately capturing reconsolidation.

  5. Longshore sediment transport at Golden Sands (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo Nikolov

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies on the qualitative and quantitative features of the littoral drift at Golden Sands (Bulgaria, carried out jointly by Polish and Bulgarian researchers. The mathematical modelling of physical coastal processes took wave transformation (wave diffraction and refraction; the effects of shoaling and wave breaking and longshore sediment transport into account. The computations were carried out for the mean statistical annual wave climate, determined on the basis of IO BAS wave data, simulated using the WAM method from long-term Black Sea wind data. The results of sediment transport computations clearly show that its direction off the Golden Sands shore is from north to south.

  6. Work Term Assignment Spring 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sico, Mallory

    2017-01-01

    My tour in the Engineering Robotics directorate exceeded my expectations. I learned lessons about Creo, manufacturing and assembly, collaboration, and troubleshooting. During my first tour, last spring, I used Creo on a smaller project, but had limited experience with it before starting in the Dynamic Systems Test branch this spring. I gained valuable experience learning assembly design, sheet metal design and designing with intent for manufacturing and assembly. These skills came from working both on the hatch and the floor. I also learned to understand the intent of other designers on models I worked with. While redesigning the floor, I was modifying an existing part and worked to understand what the previous designer had done to make it fit with the new model. Through working with the machine shop and in the mock-up, I learned much more about manufacturing and assembly. I used a Dremel, rivet gun, belt sander, and countersink for the first time. Through taking multiple safety training for different machine shops, I learned new machine shop safety skills specific to each one. This semester also gave me new collaborative opportunities. I collaborated with engineers within my branch as well as with Human Factors and the building 10 machine shop. This experience helped me learn how to design for functionality and assembly, not only for what would be easiest in my designs. In addition to these experiences, I learned many lessons in troubleshooting. I was the first person in my office to use a Windows 10 computer. This caused unexpected issues with NASA services and programs, such as the Digital Data Management Server (DDMS). Because of this, I gained experience finding solutions to lockout and freeze issues as well as Creo specific settings. These will be useful skills to have in the future and will be implemented in future rotations. This co-op tour has motivated me more to finish my degree and pursue my academic goals. I intend to take a machining Career Gateway

  7. Drained Triaxial Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praastrup, U.; Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    In the process of understanding and developing models for geomaterials, the stress-strain behaviour is commonly studied by performing triaxial tests. In the present study static triaxial tests have been performed to gain knowledge of the stress-strain behaviour of frictional materials during mono...... monotonic loading. The tests reported herein are all drained tests, starting from different initial states of stress and following various stress paths. AIl the tests are performed on reconstituted medium dense specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand....

  8. Response to Oil Sands Products Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    indoors or leave the area to limit their exposure to toxic fumes. Specific information about the diluent added to an oil sands mixture of concern would...known as upgraders. These refineries essentially strip much of the carbon from the bitumen and produce a light synthetic crude oil (known as Syncrude...Minnesota’s new law, states: (Douglass, 2014) “ Essentially , there’s no meaningful regulation or requirements or standards for oil spill response for

  9. Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penney, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  10. Energetic instability unjams sand and suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yimin; Liu, Mario

    2004-10-01

    Jamming is a phenomenon occurring in systems as diverse as traffic, colloidal suspensions, and granular materials. A theory on the reversible elastic deformation of jammed states is presented. First, an explicit granular stress-strain relation is derived that captures many relevant features of sand, including especially the Coulomb yield surface and a third-order jamming transition. Then this approach is generalized, and employed to consider jammed magnetorheological and electrorheological fluids, again producing results that compare well to experiments and simulations.

  11. Mineralogy of Eolian Sands at Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, C. N.; Vaniman, D. T.; Blake, D. F.; Bristow, T. F.; Rampe, E. B.; Ming, D. W.; Chipera, S. J.; Morris, R. V.; Morrison, S. M.; Downs, R. T.; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity has been exploring outcrop and regolith in Gale crater since August 6, 2012. During this exploration, the mission has collected 10 samples for mineralogical analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD), using the CheMin instrument. The CheMin (Chemistry and Mineralogy) instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity uses a CCD detector and a Co-anode tube source to acquire both mineralogy (from the pat-tern of Co diffraction) and chemical information (from energies of fluoresced X-rays). A detailed description of CheMin is provided in [1]. As part of the rover checkout after landing, the first sample selected for analysis was an eolian sand deposit (the Rocknest "sand shadow"). This sample was selected in part to characterize unconsolidated eolian regolith, but primarily to prove performance of the scoop collection system on the rover. The focus of the mission after Rocknest was on the consolidated sediments of Gale crater, so all of the nine subsequent samples were collected by drilling into bedrock com-posed of lithified sedimentary materials, including mudstone and sandstone. No scoop samples have been collected since Rocknest, but at the time this abstract was written the mission stands poised to use the scoop again, to collect active dune sands from the Bagnold dune field. Several abstracts at this conference outline the Bagnold dune campaign and summarize preliminary results from analyses on approach to the Namib dune sampling site. In this abstract we review the mineralogy of Rocknest, contrast that with the mineralogy of local sediments, and anticipate what will be learned by XRD analysis of Bagnold dune sands.

  12. Cyclic Triaxial Loading of Cohesionless Silty Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2015-01-01

    To engineer efficient structures offshore, we need to extend our knowledge of soil response. Cyclic loading and high water pressure encountered offshore greatly influence cohesionless soil performance. Silty sand from Frederikshavn wind turbine farm was tested using single diameter height samples...... with lubricated, smooth boundary piston heads in a Danish triaxial apparatus. Samples were successfully subjected to loading histories of high complexity. Loading include high strains and stresses, post liquefaction response, transitioning through multiple densities and restoring initial soil properties after...

  13. Sorption of Arsenite onto Mackinawite Coated Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, T. J.; Hayes, K. F.; Abriola, L. M.

    2004-05-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a widespread problem affecting aquifers in the United States as well as abroad. Recent strengthening of the US EPA MCL for arsenic has prompted the need for technology capable of removing both arsenite and arsenate from solution. Arsenite, the more toxic form of arsenic, is more difficult to remove from anoxic zones in the subsurface. Studies by others have demonstrated the affinity of some types of iron sulfides for arsenite, such as troilite, pyrite, amorphous iron sulfide and mackinawite. However, these studies have not provided a comprehensive investigation of the macroscopic behavior of arsenite in the presence of crystalline mackinawite in a form that can be readily applied to real-world treatment technologies. This study examines the behavior of arsenite in the presence of mackinawite coated sand. PH edge results demonstrate that arsenite sorption onto mackinawite coated sand increases with increasing pH, reaching maximum removal at pH 10. Arsenite removal, albeit slight, occurring below pH 5 is independent of pH indicative of a different removal mechanism. Isotherm studies show that at low concentrations, removal is Langmuirian in nature. Arsenite sorption abruptly converts to linear behavior at high concentrations, possibly attributed to the saturation of the monolayer. Ionic strength effects were assessed by comparing pH edge data developed for three different concentrations of NaCl background electrolyte solution. Increases in ionic strength enhance the removal of arsenite from solution, suggesting possible inner-sphere surface complexation removal mechanisms. Information gathered in this study can be used to further develop surface complexation models to describe and predict reactivity of arsenite in the presence of mackinawite coated sands in anoxic regions. Mackinawite coated sands investigated here may provide a feasible reactive medium for implementation in above-ground sorption reactors or subsurface

  14. Fusion of arkosic sand by intrusive andesite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Roy A.

    1954-01-01

    An andesite dike in the Valles Mountains of northern New Mexico has intruded and partly fused arkosic sediments for a distance of 50 feet from its contacts. The dike is semi-circular in form, has a maximum width of about 100 feet, and is about 500 feet long. Small associated arcuate dikes are arranged in spiral fashion around the main dike, suggesting that they were intruded along shear fractures similar to those described by Burbank (1941). The fused rocks surrounding the andesite dike are of three general types: 1) partly fused arkosic sand, 2) fused clay, and 3) hybrid rocks. The fused arkosic sand consists of relict detrital grains of quartz, orthoclose, and plagioclase, imbedded in colorless glass containing microlites of tridymite, cordierite, and magnetite. The relict quartz grains are corroded and embayed by glass; the orthoclase is sanidinized and partly fused; and the plagioclase is inverted to the high temperature form and is partly fused. The fused clay, which was originally a mixture of montmorillonite and hydromica, consists primarily of cordierite but also contains needle-like crystals of sillimanite (?) or mullite (?). The hybrid rocks originated in part by intermixing of fused arkosic sediments and andesitic liquid and in part by diffusion of mafic constituents through the fused sediments. They are rich in cordierite and magnetite and also contain hypersthene, augite, and plagioclase. The composition of pigeonite in the andesite indicates that the temperature of the andesite at the time of intrusion probably did not exceed 1200?C. Samples of arkosic sand were fused in the presence of water in a Morey bomb at 1050?C. Stability relations of certain minerals in the fused sand suggest that fusion may have taken place at a lower temperature, however, and the fluxing action of volatiles from the andesite are thought to have made this possible.

  15. Guide to preparing SAND reports. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, T.K. [ed.

    1996-04-01

    This guide contains basic information needed to produce a SAND report. Its guidelines reflect DOE regulation and Sandia policy. The guide includes basic writing instructions in an annotated sample report; guidance for organization, format, and layout of reports produced by line organizations; and information about conference papers, journal articles, and brochures. The appendixes contain sections on Sandia`s preferred usage, equations, references, copyrights and permissions, and publishing terms.

  16. Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Nazir

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21–31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18–75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted.

  17. Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Ashraf; Nasr, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21–31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18–75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted. PMID:25685412

  18. Research Implementation and Quality Assurance Project Plan: An Evaluation of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Technologies for the Detection of Fugitive Contamination at Selected Superfund Hazardous Waste Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.

    2009-01-01

    This project is a research collaboration between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Inspector General (OIG) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Eastern Geographic Science Center (EGSC), for the purpose of evaluating the utility of hyperspectral remote sensing technology for post-closure monitoring of residual contamination at delisted and closed hazardous waste sites as defined under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act [CERCLA (also known as 'Superfund')] of 1980 and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986.

  19. Graphic products used in the evaluation of traditional and emerging remote sensing technologies for the detection of fugitive contamination at selected superfund hazardous waste sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E. Terrence; Fisher, Gary B.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the overhead imagery and field sampling results used to prepare U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1050, 'Evaluation of Traditional and Emerging Remote Sensing Technologies for the Detection of Fugitive Contamination at Selected Superfund Hazardous Waste Sites'. These graphic products were used in the evaluation of remote sensing technology in postclosure monitoring of hazardous waste sites and represent an ongoing research effort. Soil sampling results presented here were accomplished with field portable x-ray fluoresence (XRF) technology and are used as screening tools only representing the current conditions of metals and other contaminants at selected Superfund hazardous waste sites.

  20. Study of the anti-sand sucker rod pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hangxin; Lv, Bingxin; Xi, Wenkui; Yi, Peng

    2017-06-01

    In order to solve the problem of sand stuck in the sucker rod pump, an anti-sand sucker rod pump is designed. The anti-sand sucker rod pump includes the conventional sucker rod pump and the swirl flow device. The sand particles can be separated from the oil in the swirl flow device, so the plunger of the sucker rod pump cannot be stuck. The motion equation of the sand particles in oil is deduced. The virtual model of the swirl flow device is built in GAMBIT software. And simulation of solid-liquid two phase flow is simulated in software FLUENT. The simulation results show that the swirl flow device can realize the sand particles separation from the oil completely. So the pump can have the effect of anti-sands.

  1. Optics At White Sands Missile Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczek, Ron C.; Hayslett, Charles R.

    1985-11-01

    We present an overview of the optics and optical data gathering programs conducted at White Sands Missile Range. Activities at White Sands Missile Range have always been diverse - the first test conducted there was the world's first nuclear explosion. In the forty years since that event the range has hosted a large assortment of vehicles including V2, Nike, Aerobee, Space Shuttle, Cruise, and the Copperhead. The last three of these devices illustrate the difficulty of the White Sands optical data gathering task. One is acquired in orbit, one as it crosses through a mountain pass, and one as it issues from the muzzle of a cannon. A combination of optical, radar, video, computer, and communications technology has produced a versatile system that can satisfy the data gathering requirements of most range users. Another example of the diverse optics programs at the range is the development of the High Energy Laser Systems Test Facility (HELSTF). Because of the nature of the systems being tested, the HELSTF is full of optics and optical systems including the TRW MIRACL laser and the Hughes SEA LITE Beam Director.

  2. New production techniques for alberta oil sands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigy, M A

    1986-12-19

    Low world oil prices represent a serious threat to expanded commercial development of the Canadian oil sands in the near term, as they do to all of the higher cost alternatives to crude oil such as oil shales and coal liquefaction. Nonetheless, research and field testing of new technology for production of oil from oil sands are being pursued by industry and government in Alberta. New production technology is being developed in Canada to produce synthetic oil from the vast resources of bitumen trapped in the oil sands and bituminous carbonates of northern Alberta. This technology includes improved methods of mining, extraction, and upgrading of bitumen from near-surface deposits as well as new drilling and production techniques for thermal production of bitumen from the more deeply buried reservoirs. Of particular interest are the cluster drilling methods designed to reduce surface disturbance and the techniques for horizontal drilling of wells from underground tunnels to increase the contact of injection fluids with the reservoir.

  3. Superfund record of decision amendment (EPA Region 9): J. H. Baxter and Company, Weed, CA, March 27, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This decision document presents the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) revised selected remedial actions for certain contaminated soils and groundwater at the J.H. Baxter Superfund Site in Weed, California. EPA concluded that it is not possible to achieve the 1990 ROD (PB91-921489) cleanup standards for groundwater within the DNAPL zone. The remedy consists of the 1990 ROD components plus enhancements, modifications, and additional containment measures as described in this amendment. Actions have also been selected to modify other aspects of the soils remedy previously selected for the site in the 1990 ROD.

  4. Rheological behavior of a confined bead-spring cube consisting of equal Fraenkel springs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denneman, A.I.M.; Denneman, A.I.M.; Jongschaap, R.J.J.; Mellema, J.

    2000-01-01

    A general bead-spring model is used to predict linear viscoelastic properties of a non-Hookean bead-spring cube immersed in a Newtonian fluid. This K×K×K cube consist of K 3 beads with equal friction coefficients and 3K 2(K–1) equal Fraenkel springs with length q. The cube has a topology based upon

  5. Upper Sand Mountain Parish Solar Construction Workshops. Final performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-02-01

    The Upper Sand Mountain Parish continues to employ its initial strategy for involving high school vocational students with the pre cutting and instructional assembly aid to area families. The parish project works with high school vocational classes in pre fabbing solar devices into kit form. Then, students are employed to serve as instructors for Saturday construction workshops at the local electric cooperative. Trained teams of older and unemployed adults work with youth in building solar greenhouses for those able to pay labor. Over three years, the project has assisted and built 50 to 60 attached solar greenhouses with construction teams realizing in excess of $26,000 in labor for newly developed skills. The project continues to assist owners in monitoring and developing horticulturally as well as energy producing greenhouses. During the spring of 1982, the parish assisted greenhouse owners in marketing over 60,000 bedding plants worth over $3000. Monthly Greenhouse Owner Fellowship meetings have been a helpful setting for sharing of ideas and exchange of insights. A low interest solar loan fund, offering 5% loans for three years, has assisted over 30 families in going solar. The principle for this revolving fund has almost reached the $15,000 mark. The track record for loan repayments has been exceptional. Through workshops and tours we have aquainted hundreds of people across the southeast with low cost/low technology solar projects and a workable strategy for involving community groups and students in them. With church involvement, we have provided over $25,000 in grants to over 200 area families. Workshop information and plans are available to those interested for bread box solar water heaters, food dryers, window box collectors, insulation panels, and greenhouses.

  6. 76 FR 13208 - Notice of Lodging of Settlement Agreement Under the Clean Air Act, Comprehensive Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... Dump Superfund Site in Maryland; 9. The Maryland Sand, Gravel, and Stone Superfund Site in Maryland; 10... West a/k/a Chevy in The Hole Site in Michigan; 13. The Forest Waste Disposal Superfund Site in Michigan...

  7. Inleiding symposium 'Silent Spring, 50 jaar later'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenteren, van J.C.; Hunneman, H.

    2013-01-01

    Een halve eeuw geleden publiceerde Rachel Carson het boek Silent Spring, dat de aandacht vestigde op milieuproblemen en het begin betekende van de milieubeweging. Op zaterdag 17 november 2012 vond in Leiden het symposium ‘Silent Spring, 50 jaar later’ plaats. De Nederlandse Entomologische Vereniging

  8. Nonlinear Vibration of a Magnetic Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Juhua; Cheng, Zhongqi; Ge, Ziming; Zhang, Yuelan; Lu, Wenqiang; Song, Feng; Li, Chuanyong

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate the different vibration characteristics of a magnetic spring compared with those of a metal one, a magnetic spring apparatus was constructed from a pair of circular magnets of the same size with an inside diameter of 2.07 cm and an outside diameter of 4.50 cm. To keep the upper magnet in a suspension state, the two magnets were…

  9. 1988 Hanford riverbank springs characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirkes, R.L.

    1990-12-01

    This reports presents the results of a special study undertaken to characterize the riverbank springs (i.e., ground-water seepage) entering the Columbia River along the Hanford Site. Radiological and nonradiological analyses were performed. River water samples were also analyzed from upstream and downstream of the Site as well as from the immediate vicinity of the springs. In addition, irrigation return water and spring water entering the river along the shoreline opposite Hanford were analyzed. Hanford-origin contaminants were detected in spring water entering the Columbia River along the Hanford Site. The type and concentrations of contaminants in the spring water were similar to those known to exist in the ground water near the river. The location and extent of the contaminated discharges compared favorably with recent ground-water reports and predictions. Spring discharge volumes remain very small relative to the flow of the Columbia. Downstream river sampling demonstrates the impact of ground-water discharges to be minimal, and negligible in most cases. Radionuclide concentrations were below US Department of Energy Derived Concentration Guides (DCGs) with the exception {sup 90}Sr near the 100-N Area. Tritium, while below the DCG, was detected at concentrations above the US Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standards in several springs. All other radionuclide concentrations were below drinking water standards. Nonradiological contaminants were generally undetectable in the spring water. River water contaminant concentrations, outside of the immediate discharge zones, were below drinking water standards in all cases. 19 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. The NIEHS Superfund Research Program: 25 Years of Translational Research for Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrigan, Philip J; Wright, Robert O; Cordero, Jose F; Eaton, David L; Goldstein, Bernard D; Hennig, Bernhard; Maier, Raina M; Ozonoff, David M; Smith, Martyn T; Tukey, Robert H

    2015-10-01

    The Superfund Research Program (SRP) is an academically based, multidisciplinary, translational research program that for 25 years has sought scientific solutions to health and environmental problems associated with hazardous waste sites. SRP is coordinated by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS). It supports multi-project grants, undergraduate and postdoctoral training programs, individual research grants, and Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Technology Transfer Research (STTR) grants. SRP has had many successes: discovery of arsenic's toxicity to the developing human central nervous system; documentation of benzene toxicity to hematologic progenitor cells in human bone marrow; development of novel analytic techniques such as the luciferase expression assay and laser fragmentation fluorescence spectroscopy; demonstration that PCBs can cause developmental neurotoxicity at low levels and alter the genomic characteristics of sentinel animals; elucidation of the neurodevelopmental toxicity of organophosphate insecticides; documentation of links between antimicrobial agents and alterations in hormone response; discovery of biological mechanisms through which environmental chemicals may contribute to obesity, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and cancer; tracking the health and environmental effects of the attacks on the World Trade Center and Hurricane Katrina; and development of novel biological and engineering techniques to facilitate more efficient and lower-cost remediation of hazardous waste sites. SRP must continue to address the legacy of hazardous waste in the United States, respond to new issues caused by rapid advances in technology, and train the next generation of leaders in environmental health science while recognizing that most of the world's worst toxic hot spots are now located in low- and middle-income countries.

  11. The New Bedford Harbor Superfund site long-term monitoring program (1993-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, William G; Bergen, Barbara J

    2012-12-01

    New Bedford Harbor (NBH), located in southeastern Massachusetts, was designated as a marine Superfund site in 1983 due to sediment contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Based on risks to human health and the environment, the first two phases of the site cleanup involved dredging PCB-contaminated sediments from the harbor. Therefore, a long-term monitoring program (LTM) was developed to measure spatial and temporal chemical and biological changes in sediment, water, and biota to assess the effects and effectiveness of the remedial activities. A systematic, probabilistic sampling design was used to select sediment sampling stations. This unbiased design allowed the three segments of the harbor to be compared spatially and temporally to quantify changes resulting from dredging the contaminated sediments. Sediment was collected at each station, and chemical (e.g., PCBs and metals), physical (e.g., grain size), and biological (e.g., benthic community) measurements were conducted on all samples. This paper describes the overall NBH-LTM approach and the results from the five rounds of sample collections. There is a decreasing spatial gradient in sediment PCB concentrations from the northern boundary (upper harbor) to the southern boundary (outer harbor) of the site. Along this same transect, there is an increase in biological condition (e.g., benthic community diversity). Temporally, the contaminant and biological gradients have been maintained since the 1993 baseline collection; however, since the onset of full-scale remediation, PCB concentrations have decreased throughout the site, and one of the benthic community indices has shown significant improvement in the lower and outer harbor areas.

  12. Magnetic Measurements and Heavy Metal Concentrations at Formosa Mine Superfund Site, Douglas County, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upton, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    Advances in the field of environmental magnetism have led to exciting new applications for this field. Magnetic minerals are ubiquitous in the environment and tend to have an affinity for heavy metals. It has been demonstrated that magnetic properties are often significantly related to concentrations of heavy metals and/or pollution loading index (PLI). As a result, magnetic techniques have been used as proxy for determining hot spots of several types of pollution produced from a diversity of anthropogenic sources. Magnetic measurements are non-destructive and relatively inexpensive compared to geochemical analyses. The utility of environmental magnetic methods varies widely depending on biological, chemical and physical processes that create and transform soils and sediments. Applications in the direction of mapping heavy metals have been studied and shown to be quite useful in countries such as China and India but to date, little research has been done in the US. As such, there is need to expand the scope of research to a wider range of soil types and land uses, especially within the US. This study investigates the application of environmental magnetic techniques to mapping of heavy metal concentrations and PLI at the Formosa Mine Superfund Site, an abandoned mine about 25 miles southwest of Roseburg, OR. Using hotspot analysis, correlation and cluster analyses, interactions between metals and magnetic parameters are examined in relation to environmental factors such as proximity to seeps and adits. Preliminary results suggest significant correlation of magnetic susceptibility with certain heavy metals, signifying that magnetic methods may be useful in mapping heavy metal hotspots at this site.

  13. Sustainable exposure prevention through innovative detection and remediation technologies from the NIEHS Superfund Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Heather F; Suk, William A

    2017-03-01

    Innovative devices and tools for exposure assessment and remediation play an integral role in preventing exposure to hazardous substances. New solutions for detecting and remediating organic, inorganic, and mixtures of contaminants can improve public health as a means of primary prevention. Using a public health prevention model, detection and remediation technologies contribute to primary prevention as tools to identify areas of high risk (e.g. contamination hotspots), to recognize hazards (bioassay tests), and to prevent exposure through contaminant cleanups. Primary prevention success is ultimately governed by the widespread acceptance of the prevention tool. And, in like fashion, detection and remediation technologies must convey technical and sustainability advantages to be adopted for use. Hence, sustainability - economic, environmental, and societal - drives innovation in detection and remediation technology. The National Institute of Health (NIH) National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) Superfund Research Program (SRP) is mandated to advance innovative detection, remediation, and toxicity screening technology development through grants to universities and small businesses. SRP recognizes the importance of fast, accurate, robust, and advanced detection technologies that allow for portable real-time, on-site characterization, monitoring, and assessment of contaminant concentration and/or toxicity. Advances in non-targeted screening, biological-based assays, passive sampling devices (PSDs), sophisticated modeling approaches, and precision-based analytical tools are making it easier to quickly identify hazardous "hotspots" and, therefore, prevent exposures. Innovation in sustainable remediation uses a variety of approaches: in situ remediation; harnessing the natural catalytic properties of biological processes (such as bioremediation and phytotechnologies); and application of novel materials science (such as nanotechnology, advanced

  14. Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Selected Species of Mercury, Carson River Superfund Site, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thodal, C.; Morway, E. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Carson River Mercury Site in western Nevada was added to the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) "Superfund" List in 1990 due to contamination from mercury used to amalgamate silver and gold from Comstock Lode ores milled during the late 1800s. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has monitored concentrations of suspended sediment (SS), total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) as well as streamflow upstream and downstream of Lahontan Reservoir since 1997 in support of USEPA Remedial Investigations. Differences between inflow and outflow concentrations indicate that nearly 90 percent of SS and unfiltered THg, and at least 50 percent of unfiltered MeHg and filtered (<0.45 μm) THg and MeHg is retained in the reservoir. However, outflow MeHg concentrations exceeded mean inflow concentration (2.9 nanograms per liter; ng/L) in 10 of 135 samples, indicating augmented mercury methylation. During August 2010 and June-September 2011, limnological profiles were measured and water samples collected from discrete depths in each of the reservoir's 3 sub-basins, the inflow delta and 2 shallow and rarely inundated overflow basins to investigate mercury distribution and methylation. In most samples, MeHg concentrations were less than 5 ng/L and increased by less than 1 ng/L in deeper samples. After temperature, oxygen, and Eh profiles indicated thermal stratification in the deep (~25 m) lower basin, samples from the top 1 m still had less than 2 ng/L MeHg but samples collected from 2 m above the sediment-water interface yielded concentrations as high as 220 ng/L in filtered water samples, accounting for 100 percent of filtered and 65 percent of unfiltered THg concentrations in concurrently-sampled water. We hypothesize that anoxic conditions and decomposition of mercury-contaminated plankton and sulfate-reduction in the hypolimnion provide carbon and mercury necessary for mercury methylation that exceeds diffusion from bottom sediment.

  15. Residential cancer cluster investigation nearby a Superfund Study Area with trichloroethylene contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, David J; McKinley, Meg; Deapen, Dennis; Clarke, Christina A; Gomez, Scarlett Lin

    2016-05-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an industrial solvent associated with liver cancer, kidney cancer, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). It is unclear whether an excess of TCE-associated cancers have occurred surrounding the Middlefield-Ellis-Whisman Superfund site in Mountain View, California. We conducted a population-based cancer cluster investigation comparing the incidence of NHL, liver, and kidney cancers in the neighborhood of interest to the incidence among residents in the surrounding four-county region. Case counts and address information were obtained using routinely collected data from the Greater Bay Area Cancer Registry, part of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. Population denominators were obtained from the 1990, 2000, and 2010 US censuses. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with two-sided 99 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for time intervals surrounding the US Censuses. There were no statistically significant differences between the neighborhood of interest and the larger region for cancers of the liver or kidney. A statistically significant elevation was observed for NHL during one of the three time periods evaluated (1996-2005: SIR = 1.8, 99 % CI 1.1-2.8). No statistically significant NHL elevation existed in the earlier 1988-1995 (SIR = 1.3, 99 % CI 0.5-2.6) or later 2006-2011 (SIR = 1.3, 99 % CI 0.6-2.4) periods. There is no evidence of an increased incidence of liver or kidney cancer, and there is a lack of evidence of a consistent, sustained, or more recent elevation in NHL occurrence in this neighborhood. This evaluation included existing cancer registry data, which cannot speak to specific exposures incurred by past or current residents of this neighborhood.

  16. Transport of colloidal silica in unsaturated sand: Effect of charging properties of sand and silica particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Motoyoshi

    2016-07-01

    We have studied the transport of colloidal silica in various degrees of a water-saturated Toyoura sand column, because silica particles are widely used as catalyst carriers and abrasive agents, and their toxicity is reported recently. Since water-silica, water-sand, and air-water interfaces have pH-dependent negative charges, the magnitude of surface charge was controlled by changing the solution pH. The results show that, at high pH conditions (pH 7.4), the deposition of colloidal silica to the sand surface is interrupted and the silica concentration at the column outlet immediately reaches the input concentration in saturated conditions. In addition, the relative concentration of silica at the column outlet only slightly decreases to 0.9 with decreasing degrees of water saturation to 38%, because silica particles are trapped in straining regions in the soil pore and air-water interface. On the other hand, at pH 5 conditions (low pH), where sand and colloid have less charge, reduced repulsive forces result in colloidal silica attaching onto the sand in saturated conditions. The deposition amount of silica particles remarkably increases with decreasing degrees of water saturation to 37%, which is explained by more particles being retained in the sand column associated with the air-water interface. In conclusion, at higher pH, the mobility of silica particles is high, and the air-water interface is inactive for the deposition of silica. On the other hand, at low pH, the deposition amount increases with decreasing water saturation, and the particle transport is inhibited. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Properties of dune sand concrete containing coffee waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Guendouz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, an increase of coffee beverages consumption has been observed all over the world; and its consumption increases the waste coffee grounds which will become an environmental problems. Recycling of this waste to produce new materials like sand concrete appears as one of the best solutions for reduces the problem of pollution. This work aims to study the possibility of recycling waste coffee grounds (Spent Coffee Grounds (SCG as a fine aggregate by replacing the sand in the manufacturing of dune sand concrete. For this; sand concrete mixes were prepared with substitution of sand with the spent coffee grounds waste at different percentage (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% by volume of the sand in order to study the influence of this wastes on physical (Workability, bulk density and porosity, mechanical (compressive and flexural strength and Thermal (Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity properties of dune sand concrete. The results showed that the use of spent coffee grounds waste as partial replacement of natural sand contributes to reduce workability, bulk density and mechanical strength of sand concrete mixes with an increase on its porosity. However, the thermal characteristics are improved and especially for a level of 15% and 20% of substitution. So, it is possible to obtain an insulating material which can be used in the various types of structural components. This study ensures that reusing of waste coffee grounds in dune sand concrete gives a positive approach to reduce the cost of materials and solve some environmental problems.

  18. Numerical simulation of flow and compression of green sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovad, Emil

    with the flow of the sand particles and the deposition of sand dur-ing the production of sand molds using the sand shot in the DISAMATIC process. The deposition of the green sand in the chamber was investigated with a special cavity design where air vents were placed inside the cavities. The air vents are used...... to transport the green sand with an airflow during the sand shot. By changing the air vents settings in the chamber and in the cavities it was possible to improve the filling in the narrow passages in the cavity design, thereby improving the final sand mold as well. The sand shot with the cavity design...... was simulated by the discrete element method (DEM) modelling the flow of the green sand combined with classical computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for modelling the airflow in the chamber and the airflow through the air vents. These experiments and simulations gave beneficial insights to the DISAMATIC process...

  19. Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-09-01

    For those who support U.S. oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands industry is often identified as a model the U.S. might emulate, yielding financial and energy security benefits. For opponents of domestic oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands experience illustrates the risks that opponents of development believe should deter domestic policymakers from incenting U.S. oil sands development. This report does not seek to evaluate the particular underpinnings of either side of this policy argument, but rather attempts to delve into the question of whether the Canadian experience has relevance as a foundational model for U.S. oil sands development. More specifically, this report seeks to assess whether and how the Canadian oil sands experience might be predictive or instructive in the context of fashioning a framework for a U.S. oil sands industry. In evaluating the implications of these underpinnings for a prospective U.S. oil sands industry, this report concentrates on prospective development of the oil sands deposits found in Utah.

  20. Weldon Spring historical dose estimate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meshkov, N.; Benioff, P.; Wang, J.; Yuan, Y.

    1986-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the estimated radiation doses that individuals in five nearby population groups and the general population in the surrounding area may have received as a consequence of activities at a uranium processing plant in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The study is retrospective and encompasses plant operations (1957-1966), cleanup (1967-1969), and maintenance (1969-1982). The dose estimates for members of the nearby population groups are as follows. Of the three periods considered, the largest doses to the general population in the surrounding area would have occurred during the plant operations period (1957-1966). Dose estimates for the cleanup (1967-1969) and maintenance (1969-1982) periods are negligible in comparison. Based on the monitoring data, if there was a person residing continually in a dwelling 1.2 km (0.75 mi) north of the plant, this person is estimated to have received an average of about 96 mrem/yr (ranging from 50 to 160 mrem/yr) above background during plant operations, whereas the dose to a nearby resident during later years is estimated to have been about 0.4 mrem/yr during cleanup and about 0.2 mrem/yr during the maintenance period. These values may be compared with the background dose in Missouri of 120 mrem/yr.

  1. Discharge, water temperature, and water quality of Warm Mineral Springs, Sarasota County, Florida: A retrospective analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Patricia A.

    2016-09-27

    Warm Mineral Springs, located in southern Sarasota County, Florida, is a warm, highly mineralized, inland spring. Since 1946, a bathing spa has been in operation at the spring, attracting vacationers and health enthusiasts. During the winter months, the warm water attracts manatees to the adjoining spring run and provides vital habitat for these mammals. Well-preserved late Pleistocene to early Holocene-age human and animal bones, artifacts, and plant remains have been found in and around the spring, and indicate the surrounding sinkhole formed more than 12,000 years ago. The spring is a multiuse resource of hydrologic importance, ecological and archeological significance, and economic value to the community.The pool of Warm Mineral Springs has a circular shape that reflects its origin as a sinkhole. The pool measures about 240 feet in diameter at the surface and has a maximum depth of about 205 feet. The sinkhole developed in the sand, clay, and dolostone of the Arcadia Formation of the Miocene-age to Oligocene-age Hawthorn Group. Underlying the Hawthorn Group are Oligocene-age to Eocene-age limestones and dolostones, including the Suwannee Limestone, Ocala Limestone, and Avon Park Formation. Mineralized groundwater, under artesian pressure in the underlying aquifers, fills the remnant sink, and the overflow discharges into Warm Mineral Springs Creek, to Salt Creek, and subsequently into the Myakka River. Aquifers described in the vicinity of Warm Mineral Springs include the surficial aquifer system, the intermediate aquifer system within the Hawthorn Group, and the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Suwannee Limestone, Ocala Limestone, and Avon Park Formation. The Hawthorn Group acts as an upper confining unit of the Upper Floridan aquifer.Groundwater flow paths are inferred from the configuration of the potentiometric surface of the Upper Floridan aquifer for September 2010. Groundwater flow models indicate the downward flow of water into the Upper Floridan aquifer

  2. Weed infestation of crops in different soils in the protective zone of Roztocze National Park. Part I. Winter and spring cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Ziemińska-Smyk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study on weed infestation of crops in different soils in the protective zone of RPN was conducted in the years 1991-1995. The characterization of weed infestation of winter and spring cereals was based on 306 phytosociological records. made with the use of Braun-Blanquet method. The degree of weed infestation in the fields in the protective zone of RPN depended on environment conditions. Both winter and spring cereals in majority of soils were most infested by: Cenaturea cyanus, Apera spica-venti and Vicia hirsta. In the lightest podsolic soils, made of loose sand and slightly loamy sand. winter and spring cereals were additionally infested by Equisetum arvense and two acidophylic species: Seleranthus annuus and Spergula arvensis. The crops in brown loess soil were infested by Matricaria maritima subsp. inodora. The most difficult weed species in brown soil formed from gaizes and limestone soil were: Convolvulus arvensis, Papaver rhoeas and Galium aparine. Moreover winter cercals in limestone soil showed high or medium infestation with Consolida regalis, Aethusa cynapium, Lathyrus tuberosus and low infestation with Apera spica-venti and Centaurea cyanus. Spring cereals were less infested than winter cereals. Apera spica-venti and Centaurea cyanus were less common with spring cereals than with winter cereals. Also, spring cereals showed high or medium infestation with Convolvulus arvensis. Spring cereals in some soil units were infested by Chenopodium album and Stellaria media. There was also higher infestation of spring cereals in limestone soils with Avena fatua, Veronica persica, Sinapis arvensis and Sonchus arvensis, compared to winter cereals in limestone soils.

  3. Mars Rover Curiosity Traverses of Sand Ripples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, N.; Arvidson, R. E.; Zhou, F.; Heverly, M.; Maimone, M.; Hartman, F.; Bellutta, P.; Iagnemma, K.; Senatore, C.

    2014-12-01

    Martian sand ripples present a challenge for rover mobility, with drives over ripples often characterized by high wheel sinkage and slippage that can lead to incipient embedding. Since landing in Gale Crater, Curiosity has traversed multiple sand ripples, including the transverse aeolian ridge (TAR) straddling Dingo Gap on sols 533 and 535. On sol 672, Curiosity crossed backward over a series of sand ripples before ending its drive after high motor currents initiated visual odometry (VO) processing, which detected 77% slip, well in excess of the imposed 60% slip limit. At the end of the drive, the right front wheel was deeply embedded at the base of a ripple flank with >20 cm sinkage and the rear wheels were near a ripple crest. As Curiosity continues its approach to Mount Sharp it will have to cross multiple ripples, and thus it is important to understand Curiosity's performance on sol 672 and over similar ripples. To this end the sol 672 drive was simulated in ARTEMIS (Adams-Based Rover Terramechanics Interaction Simulator), a software tool consisting of realistic rover mechanical models, a wheel-terrain interaction module for deformable and non-deformable surfaces, and realistic terrain models. ARTEMIS results, Dumont Dunes tests performed in the Mojave Desert using the Scarecrow test rover, and single wheel tests performed at MIT indicate that the high slip encountered on sol 672 likely occurred due to a combination of rover attack angle, ripple geometry, and soil properties. When ripple wavelength approaches vehicle length, the rover can reach orientations in which the leading wheels carry minimal normal loads and the trailing wheels sink deeply, resulting in high slippage and insufficient thrust to propel the rover over ripples. Even on relatively benign (i.e. low tilt) terrains, local morphology can impose high sinkage, thus impeding rover motion. Work is underway to quantify Curiosity's drive performance over various ripple geometries to retrieve soil

  4. Influence of silicate on the transport of bacteria in quartz sand and iron mineral-coated sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhe; Yang, Haiyan; Wu, Dan; Ni, Jinren; Kim, Hyunjung; Tong, Meiping

    2014-11-01

    The influence of silicate on the transport and deposition of bacteria (Escherichia coli) in packed porous media were examined at a constant 20 mM ionic strength with different silicate concentrations (from 0 to 1 mM) at pH 7. Transport experiments were performed in two types of representative porous media, both bare quartz sand and iron mineral-coated quartz sand. In bare quartz sand, the breakthrough plateaus in the presence of silicate in suspensions were lower and the corresponding retained profiles were higher than those without silicate ions, indicating that the presence of silicate in suspensions decreased cell transport in bare quartz sand. Moreover, the decrease of bacteria transport in quartz sand induced by silicate was more pronounced with increasing silicate concentrations from 0 to 1 mM. However, when EPS was removed from cell surfaces, the presence of silicate in cell suspensions (with different concentrations) did not affect the transport behavior of bacteria in quartz sand. The interaction of silicate with EPS on cell surfaces negatively decreased the zeta potentials of bacteria, resulting in the decreased cell transport in bare quartz sand when silicate was copresent in bacteria suspensions. In contrast, the presence of silicate in suspensions increased cell transport in iron mineral-coated sand. Silicate ions competed with bacteria for the adsorption sites on mineral-coated sand, contributing to the increased cell transport in mineral-coated sand with silicate present in cell suspensions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Occurences and Fate of DDT Principal Isomers/Metabolites, DDA, and o,p'-DDD Enantiomers in Fish, Sediment and Water at a DDT-Impacted Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the 1950s and 60s, discharges from a DDT manufacturing plant contaminated a tributary system of the Tennessee River near Huntsville, Alabama, USA. Regulatory action resulted in declaring the area a Superfund site which required remediation and extensive monitoring. Monitoring ...

  6. DOJ News Release: New York Man Ordered to Pay Over $400,000 in Restitution and Fines for Role in Kickback Scheme at New Jersey Superfund Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON, D.C. – An Amherst, New York, man was ordered to pay over $400,000 in restitution and fines and placed on five years’ probation for his role in a kickback scheme at the Federal Creosote and Diamond Alkali Superfund sites in New Jersey.

  7. EPA Proposes to Add Dutchess County Creek, N.Y. to the Federal Superfund List, Sediment Contaminated with Mercury, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    (New York, N.Y.) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today proposed adding the Wappinger Creek in Dutchess County, N.Y. to its Superfund National Priorities List of the country's most hazardous waste sites. Sediment within the two mile long tidal port

  8. EPA Proposes to Add Burnet Co., TX, Groundwater Plume to National Priorities List of Superfund Sites, Two hazardous waste sites added, six proposed nationally

    Science.gov (United States)

    (DALLAS - March 24, 2015) The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed to add the Main Street Groundwater Plume site in Burnet Co., TX, to the National Priorities List (NPL) of Superfund sites, a list of sites that pose risks to people's healt

  9. EPA Proposes to Add Roswell, NM, Groundwater Plume to National Priorities List of Superfund Sites, Five hazardous waste sites added, seven proposed nationally

    Science.gov (United States)

    (DALLAS - Sept. 28, 2015) The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed to add the Lea and West Second Street Groundwater Plume site in Roswell, NM, to the National Priorities List (NPL) of Superfund sites, a list of sites that pose risks to pe

  10. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT, SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION TEST: SHIRCO PILOT-SCALE INFRARED INCINERATION SYSTEM ROSE TOWNSHIP DEMODE ROAD SUPERFUND SITE - VOLUME II

    Science.gov (United States)

    The performance of the Shirco pilot-scale infrared thermal destruction system has been evaluated at the Rose Township, Demode Road Superfund Site and is presented in the report. The waste tested consisted of solvents, organics and heavy metals in an illegal dump site. Volume I gi...

  11. Ethanol-Fed Or Solid-Phase Organic Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors For The National Tunnel Drainage, Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site (Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is planning to treat mining influenced water (MIW) from the National Tunnel Adit that discharges to North Clear Creek near the City of Blackhawk, Colorado. North Clear Creek is part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site, an...

  12. Ethanol-Fed Or Solid-Phase Organic Sulfate Reducing Bioreactors For The National Tunnel Drainage, Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is planning to treat mining influenced water (MIW) from the National Tunnel Adit that discharges to North Clear Creek near the City of Blackhawk, Colorado. North Clear Creek is part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund Site, an...

  13. 'Sharks Teeth' -- Sand Dunes in Proctor Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Sometimes, pictures received from Mars Global Surveyor's Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) are 'just plain pretty.' This image, taken in early September 2000, shows a group of sand dunes at the edge of a much larger field of dark-toned dunes in Proctor Crater. Located at 47.9oS, 330.4oW, in the 170 km (106 mile) diameter crater named for 19th Century British astronomer Richard A. Proctor (1837-1888), the dunes shown here are created by winds blowing largely from the east/northeast. A plethora of smaller, brighter ripples covers the substrate between the dunes. Sunlight illuminates them from the upper left.

  14. Sphere impact and penetration into wet sand

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.

    2012-08-07

    We present experimental results for the penetration of a solid sphere when released onto wet sand. We show, by measuring the final penetration depth, that the cohesion induced by the water can result in either a deeper or shallower penetration for a given release height compared to dry granular material. Thus the presence of water can either lubricate or stiffen the granular material. By assuming the shear rate is proportional to the impact velocity and using the depth-averaged stopping force in calculating the shear stress, we derive effective viscosities for the wet granular materials.

  15. Biogenic crust dynamics on sand dunes

    CERN Document Server

    Kinast, Shai; Yizhaq, Hezi; Ashkenazy, Yosef

    2012-01-01

    Sand dunes are often covered by vegetation and biogenic crusts. Despite their significant role in dune stabilization, biogenic crusts have rarely been considered in studies of dune dynamics. Using a simple model, we study the existence and stability ranges of different dune-cover states along gradients of rainfall and wind power. Two ranges of alternative stable states are identified: fixed crusted dunes and fixed vegetated dunes at low wind power, and fixed vegetated dunes and active dunes at high wind power. These results suggest a cross-over between two different forms of desertification.

  16. Heating tar sands formations while controlling pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemeier, George Leo [Houston, TX; Beer, Gary Lee [Houston, TX; Zhang, Etuan [Houston, TX

    2010-01-12

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. A pressure in the majority of the section may be maintained below a fracture pressure of the formation. The pressure in the majority of the section may be reduced to a selected pressure after the average temperature reaches a temperature that is above 240.degree. C. and is at or below pyrolysis temperatures of hydrocarbons in the section. At least some hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  17. Considerations on sand control in natural gas wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foidaş Ion

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanism of sand production in gas wells is complex and influenced by every operation performed into the well, starting from the opening of the production interval by drilling, and continuing with completion and putting into production as well as with the exploitation regime. Sand production along with fluids from gas reservoirs creates a series of potentially dangerous and costly problems. For selecting the most appropriate methods of sand-control all the data and information related to properties of reservoir rock, the history of sand production, the potential well flow rates as well as HSE and costs need to be evaluated. The conclusion of the authors is that the best results in sand control is achieved when the methods are applied before the production of sand may become an issue.

  18. Deformation and shock consolidation of various sands under explosive loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckert, S. A.; Resnyansky, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    The response of various geological materials to shock loading is important in both military and industrial applications. The composition of a real soil is complex and involves multiple constituents that undergo a number of physical and mechanical transformations during the shock loading. The present study analyzes several sands, a limestone sand both wet and dry, and a dry silica sand representing simplified model system for the soil. The sands are compressed using two different steel encapsulation assemblies subject to loading by explosive detonation products. These set-ups attempt to vary the magnitude and duration of applied pressure and temperature to the encapsulated sand. A comparative analysis of the recovered sand samples, including a microstructural analysis focusing on the grain breakage, compaction and consolidation, is correlated with a CTH numerical analysis employing a multi-phase rate sensitive material model.

  19. Environmental consequences of oil production from oil sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Lorenzo; Davis, Kyle F.; Rulli, Maria C.; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2017-02-01

    Crude oil from oil sands will constitute a substantial share of future global oil demand. Oil sands deposits account for a third of globally proven oil reserves, underlie large natural forested areas, and have extraction methods requiring large volumes of freshwater. Yet little work has been done to quantify some of the main environmental impacts of oil sands operations. Here we examine forest loss and water use for the world's major oil sands deposits. We calculate actual and potential rates of water use and forest loss both in Canadian deposits, where oil sands extraction is already taking place, and in other major deposits worldwide. We estimated that their exploitation, given projected production trends, could result in 1.31 km3 yr-1 of freshwater demand and 8700 km2 of forest loss. The expected escalation in oil sands extraction thus portends extensive environmental impacts.

  20. Spring/dimple instrument tube restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMario, Edmund E.; Lawson, Charles N.

    1993-01-01

    A nuclear fuel assembly for a pressurized water nuclear reactor has a spring and dimple structure formed in a non-radioactive insert tube placed in the top of a sensor receiving instrumentation tube thimble disposed in the fuel assembly and attached at a top nozzle, a bottom nozzle, and intermediate grids. The instrumentation tube thimble is open at the top, where the sensor or its connection extends through the cooling water for coupling to a sensor signal processor. The spring and dimple insert tube is mounted within the instrumentation tube thimble and extends downwardly adjacent the top. The springs and dimples restrain the sensor and its connections against lateral displacement causing impact with the instrumentation tube thimble due to the strong axial flow of cooling water. The instrumentation tube has a stainless steel outer sleeve and a zirconium alloy inner sleeve below the insert tube adjacent the top. The insert tube is relatively non-radioactivated inconel alloy. The opposed springs and dimples are formed on diametrically opposite inner walls of the insert tube, the springs being formed as spaced axial cuts in the insert tube, with a web of the insert tube between the cuts bowed radially inwardly for forming the spring, and the dimples being formed as radially inward protrusions opposed to the springs.

  1. Seasonal geomorphic processes and rates of sand movement at Mount Baldy dune in Indiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilibarda, Zoran; Kilibarda, Vesna

    2016-12-01

    Winds are very strong, frequent, and have high energy (annual DP ∼800 VU) along the southern shores of Lake Michigan, allowing the coexistence of fixed and active dunes. Six years (2007-13) of monitoring Mount Baldy in the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore reveals that this is the most active coastal dune in the Great Lakes region. This paper documents aeolian processes and changes in the dune's morphology that occur temporarily, following storms, or seasonally, due to weather (climate) variations. Most of the sand transport in this area takes place during strong storms with gale force (>17.5 m/s) winds, which occur in the autumn and winter months. A single storm, such as the October 28-31, 2013 event, can contribute 25% of the annual sand transport and dune movement inland. In its most active year (June 1, 2011 through May 31, 2012), Mount Baldy moved inland on average 4.34 m, with a maximum of 6.52 m along the blowout's axis (155° azimuth). During this particularly active season, there were six storms with sustained gale force winds, winter air temperatures were warmer than average, and shelf ice on Lake Michigan lasted only one day. The dune is least active during the summer season, when the winds are weakest. The late fall and winter winds are the strongest. But in a typical year, most of the dune's advance inland takes place during the spring thaw when sand is released from over-steepened and lumpy slip face, allowing it to avalanche to the toe of the slip face. However, with a warming air temperatures, a reduction in the duration of winter shelf ice, and rising Lake Michigan levels, the annual rates of sand transport and dune movement may increase. The recent Mount Baldy management strategy, which includes planting vegetation and installing wind barriers on the dune's stoss side in an effort to fix the dune and stop its further movement inland, may potentially cause the destruction of the mobile sand, open dune habitat, resulting in the extinction of rare

  2. Modeling the response of shoreface-connected sand ridges to sand extraction on an inner shelf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nnafie, A.; de Swart, Huib; Calvete, D.; Garnier, R.

    2014-01-01

    Shoreface-connected sand ridges are rhythmic bedforms that occur on many storm-dominated inner shelves. The ridges span several kilometers, are a few meters high, and they evolve on a timescale of centuries. A processbased model is used to gain a fundamental insight into the response of these ridges

  3. Microwave processing of oil sands and contribution of clay minerals

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, John; Binner, Eleanor; Saeid, Abdul; Al-Harahsheh, Mohammed; Kingman, Sam

    2014-01-01

    This study establishes the feasibility of microwave heating for extracting oil from Oil Sands in ex-situ processes. Previous studies in this area have shown some potential, but have not characterised the dielectric properties of the Oil Sands used, nor related them to the mineral composition, both of which are vital if successful scale up is to be achieved. In this work the fundamental interactions of microwave energy with Oil Sands are investigated and understood for the first time, and the ...

  4. MC-Parameter Calibration of Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Hanson, Mats; Hjort, T.

    The soil parameters are dependent on both confining pressure and density index. The density index of Baskarp Sand can be determined by conducting cone penetration tests with the mini-CPT cone used in the Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory at Aalborg University. The unit weight of Baskarp Sand No...... several conventional drained triaxial tests at two different density indices performed on Baskarp Sand No. 15 (Ibsen & Bødker, 1994). The used triaxial tests are listed in Table 1 and Table 2....

  5. Provenance of coastal dune sands along Red Sea, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Samir M.

    2017-06-01

    Texture, mineralogy, and major and trace element geochemistry of 26 coastal dune sand samples were studied to determine the provenance and tectonic environment of two dune fields close to the beaches of Safaga (SF) and Quseir (QS) at the Egyptian Red Sea coast. Onshore winds generate fine, moderate, moderately-well to well-sorted, coarse-skewed to near-symmetrical dune sands with mesokurtic distributions. Winds pick up and transport grains from nearby beach sands and alluvial deposits into a wide Red Sea coastal plain at the border of the beach. The mineralogical (Qt-Ft-Lt) and geochemical composition of the sands, indicate that SF and QS coastal dune sands are mature and influenced by quartz-rich sands. The average CIA values in SF and QS coastal dune sands are low relative to the range of the PAAS, suggesting an arid climate and a low intensity of chemical weathering. The SF and QS coastal dune sand samples are plotted in the recycled orogen and partly in craton interior fields suggesting recycled older sedimentary and partly metamorphic-plutonic sources. The high content of quartz with shell debris and carbonates in coastal dune sands support the recycled sedimentary beach and alluvial sand sources. The dominance of heavy minerals like amphiboles (hornblende) and biotite in the coastal dune sands also supports the effect of metamorphic-plutonic source rocks. The new tectonic discriminant-function diagrams suggest that the coastal dune sands were deposited in a passive margin of a synrift basin. The results provide a good evidence for the extension in the Red Sea rift system during Oligocene-post Pliocene, which is consistent with the general geology of Egypt.

  6. Adsorption of L-amino Acids on Sea Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaia Dimas A. M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of adsorption of L-alanine, L-tyrosine, L-glutamic acid, and L-lysine on sea sand was carried out. Only L-lysine showed adsorption on sea sand, probably due to the presence of the positively charged R group. Our results raise some doubts as to whether sand was important for the pre-concentration of amino acids prior to peptide condensation on the Pre-Biotic Earth.

  7. Investigations on Local Quartz Sand for Application in Glass Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dararutana, Pisutti; Chetanachan, Prukswan; Wathanakul, Pornsawat; Sirikulrat, Narin

    2009-03-01

    Silica or glass sand is a special type of quartz sand that is suitable for glass-making, because of its high silica content, and its low content of iron oxide and other compounds. In Thailand, deposits of quartz sand are found as the beach and the river sands in many areas; eastern, southern, northeastern and northern. In this work, grain-size distribution and chemical analyses were carried out on 10 sand samples taken from various localities in Thailand such as Chanthaburi, Trat, Rayong, Chumphon, Nakhon Si, Pattani, Phuket, Songkhla, Nong Khai, and Tak provinces. The geological resources show that most of them are the surface-to-near-surface glass sand deposits. The sand grains in most deposits were mainly angular-to-rounded, except in some areas of either angular or rounded grains. Chemical analysis showed that the sands contained more than 95wt% silica and low content of Fe, Al, Ca, Mg, Na, and K. The concentration levels of these components in the samples confirm with internationally acceptable standard for glass production. The quartz sand dressing plants that used the spiral classifier to improve the properties of the quartz sands to meet the standard specifications are mostly located in the eastern area. It can be concluded that most of the quartz sand deposits in Thailand investigated show well-sorted grain-size with considerable purity, i.e. high-grade quality. The advanced works resulted in that these raw quartz sands can be used as raw material for fabrication of soda-lime, lead crystal, and lead-free high refractive index glasses. The colorless and various colored glass products have been satisfactorily used in the domestic art and glass manufactures.

  8. Developing a Sand Management Plan for Galveston Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-16

    US Army Corps of Engineers BUILDING STRONG® Developing a Sand Management Plan for Galveston Island Ashley E. Frey, P. E. Research Civil...BUILDING STRONG® Problem Statement/Approach Recommend a long-term plan of actions to better manage sands on Galveston Island Initial Tasks...Formalize and document Galveston Island Sand Management Plan 3 Innovative solutions for a safer, better world BUILDING STRONG® Sediment

  9. Chemical and biological control of phlebotominae sand flies

    OpenAIRE

    Pružinová, Kateřina

    2010-01-01

    Phlebotominae sand flies (Diptera: Phlebotominae) are important vectors of leishmaniasis. Control measures are complicated by the fact that sand fly breeding sites and resting places are generally hard to find. Measures used to control adult sand flies include the use of chemical insecticides for insecticide-treated bednets or curtains, residual spraying of dwellings, eventually the space-spraying. Domestic dogs as reservoir host of visceral leishmaniosis can be protected by dog-collars impre...

  10. Hydrogeologic assessment—Figeh Spring, Damascus, Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamoreaux, P. E.; Hughes, Travis H.; Memon, Bashir A.; Lineback, Neal

    1989-03-01

    Hydrogeological studies at Figeh Springs were directed to determine groundwater flow paths, research, storage and discharge units, and the maximum reliable yield. The project was designed to provide information upon which to base pumpage to augment low-season flows from the spring which is the major water supply for the city of Damascus, Syria. As a basis for conclusions and recommendations, work included extensive surface geologic mapping, air photographic interpretation, a detailed well and spring inventory, and a quality of water sampling program. Geologic structural work included mapping and jointing, faulting, and folding, and an analysis of their impact on groundwater movement.

  11. Investigations of groundwater system and simulation of regional groundwater flow for North Penn Area 7 Superfund site, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Goode, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater in the vicinity of several industrial facilities in Upper Gwynedd Township and vicinity, Montgomery County, in southeast Pennsylvania has been shown to be contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the most common of which is the solvent trichloroethylene (TCE). The 2-square-mile area was placed on the National Priorities List as the North Penn Area 7 Superfund site by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1989. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical logging, aquifer testing, and water-level monitoring, and measured streamflows in and near North Penn Area 7 from fall 2000 through fall 2006 in a technical assistance study for the USEPA to develop an understanding of the hydrogeologic framework in the area as part of the USEPA Remedial Investigation. In addition, the USGS developed a groundwater-flow computer model based on the hydrogeologic framework to simulate regional groundwater flow and to estimate directions of groundwater flow and pathways of groundwater contaminants. The study area is underlain by Triassic- and Jurassic-age sandstones and shales of the Lockatong Formation and Brunswick Group in the Mesozoic Newark Basin. Regionally, these rocks strike northeast and dip to the northwest. The sequence of rocks form a fractured-sedimentary-rock aquifer that acts as a set of confined to partially confined layers of differing permeabilities. Depth to competent bedrock typically is less than 20 ft below land surface. The aquifer layers are recharged locally by precipitation and discharge locally to streams. The general configuration of the potentiometric surface in the aquifer is similar to topography, except in areas affected by pumping. The headwaters of Wissahickon Creek are nearby, and the stream flows southwest, parallel to strike, to bisect North Penn Area 7. Groundwater is pumped in the vicinity of North Penn Area 7 for industrial use, public supply, and residential supply. Results of field investigations

  12. Distribution, chemical speciation, and mobility of lead and antimony originating from small arms ammunition in a coarse-grained unsaturated surface sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jeffrey; Sjöström, Jan; Skyllberg, Ulf; Hägglund, Lars

    2010-01-01

    This study quantified the heavy metal contamination caused by firing 500 high-velocity 7.62-mm jacketed Swedish military rounds. Contamination of solid and aqueous phases was studied, with Pb and Sb being the two contaminants of primary interest. The distribution of the Pb and Sb were measured in terms of depth of penetration in sand and grain size distribution of the bullet particles. The Pb- and Sb-contaminated sand was then used as a source material in two bench-scale unsaturated lysimeters to measure the transport of Pb and Sb through two coarse-grained sands, which were taken from the berms on two Swedish military small arms ranges. The lysimeters were subjected to an infiltration cycle that reproduced spring snowmelt, which is the most significant infiltration event of the year in northern climates. The levels of mobile Pb and Sb were monitored in the effluent from the lysimeters. Extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy analysis was performed on the contaminated sands to determine Pb speciation before and after leaching. Ninety-three percent of the mass of bullets was found in the top 30 cm of sand. Lead oxide was the predominant species of Pb before and after leaching. Transport of Pb was small, with aqueous concentrations remaining stable at mobile, with solute breakthrough occurring between 5 and 14 d and concentrations rising to over 125 microg L(-1) within 1 month.

  13. Numerical modeling of wind-blown sand on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, HaoJie; Bo, TianLi; Zheng, XiaoJing

    2014-09-01

    Recent observation results show that sand ripples and dunes are movable like those on Earth under current Martian climate. And the aeolian process on Mars therefore is re-attracting the eyes of scientific researchers in different fields. In this paper, the spatial and temporal evolution of wind-blown sand on Mars is simulated by the large-eddy simulation method. The simulations are conducted under the conditions of both friction wind speed higher and lower than the "fluid threshold", respectively. The fluid entrainment of the sand particles, the processes among saltation sand particles and sand bed, and the negative feedback of sand movement to flow field are considered. Our results show that the "overshoot" phenomenon also exists in the evolution of wind-blown sand on Mars both temporally and spatially; impact entrainment affects the sand transport rate on Mars when the wind speed is smaller or larger than the fluid threshold; and both the average saltation length and height are one order of magnitudes larger than those on Earth. Eventually, the formulas describing the sand transport rate, average saltation length and height on Mars are given, respectively.

  14. [Influence of perlite sand on the skin in experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracheva, E E; Iatsyna, I V; Lapina, N E; Ianin, V A; Antoshina, L I; Zhadan, I Iu; Krasavina, E K

    2012-01-01

    In the present work influence of perlite sand has been studied on a skin of Sprague-Dawley male rat (300-350 g). The biopsy of intact rat skin has been used as control. Contact of the perlite sand with animals' skin causes the reaction of an inflammation amplifying with increase of duration of the influence of substance. Therefore, despite an inert chemical compound, long contact with perlite sand in conditions of production can promote development of skin diseases. From the result of this investigation it is concluded that perlite sand causes irritating action on the skin and it is necessary to apply additional protective means to workers contacting to this substance.

  15. Effective Laboratory Method of Chromite Content Estimation in Reclaimed Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignaszak Z.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an original method of measuring the actual chromite content in the circulating moulding sand of foundry. This type of material is applied for production of moulds. This is the case of foundry which most frequently perform heavy casting in which for the construction of chemical hardening mould is used, both the quartz sand and chromite sand. After the dry reclamation of used moulding sand, both types of sands are mixed in various ratios resulting that in reclaimed sand silos, the layers of varying content of chromite in mixture are observed. For chromite recuperation from the circulating moulding sand there are applied the appropriate installations equipped with separate elements generating locally strong magnetic field. The knowledge of the current ratio of chromite and quartz sand allows to optimize the settings of installation and control of the separation efficiency. The arduous and time-consuming method of determining the content of chromite using bromoform liquid requires operational powers and precautions during using this toxic liquid. It was developed and tested the new, uncomplicated gravimetric laboratory method using powerful permanent magnets (neodymium. The method is used in the production conditions of casting for current inspection of chromite quantity in used sand in reclamation plant.

  16. Direct numerical simulations of aeolian sand ripples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Orencio; Claudin, Philippe; Andreotti, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Aeolian sand beds exhibit regular patterns of ripples resulting from the interaction between topography and sediment transport. Their characteristics have been so far related to reptation transport caused by the impacts on the ground of grains entrained by the wind into saltation. By means of direct numerical simulations of grains interacting with a wind flow, we show that the instability turns out to be driven by resonant grain trajectories, whose length is close to a ripple wavelength and whose splash leads to a mass displacement toward the ripple crests. The pattern selection results from a compromise between this destabilizing mechanism and a diffusive downslope transport which stabilizes small wavelengths. The initial wavelength is set by the ratio of the sediment flux and the erosion/deposition rate, a ratio which increases linearly with the wind velocity. We show that this scaling law, in agreement with experiments, originates from an interfacial layer separating the saltation zone from the static sand bed, where momentum transfers are dominated by midair collisions. Finally, we provide quantitative support for the use of the propagation of these ripples as a proxy for remote measurements of sediment transport. PMID:25331873

  17. Guidelines to sand control. Pt. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, H.J.; Ramos, J.

    1972-10-01

    Well preparation is much more critical for consolidation processes than for most screen or pack applications. Of particular importance are (1) adequate cementing; (2) selectively perforating short intervals with clean perforating fluids; (3) cleaning perforations and face of formation; (4) proper isolation of zones; and (5) packing before consolidation. The desirable characteristics for a consolidation process include (1) minimum preparation time at well site; (2) low injection pressure; (3) short cure time before restoring well to production; (4) high compressive strength of resulting matrix; (5) high retained permeability; and (6) good resistance to deterioration from well fluids and commonly used treating fluids. For a given resin, some compromises are necessary. Methods are now available to control sand in nearly any well. A technique which has been growing in acceptance recently is the placement of sand and resin in a single operation. This service is available with several resins and is usually placed as a pressure pack. A wide variety of consolidation processes is available from a number of service companies. Each process has some advantages and each is probably adequate, if it is suited to the well conditions and good practice has been followed in preparing the well. (21 refs.)

  18. Avalanches of Singing Sand in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagois-Bohy, Simon; Courrech Du Pont, Sylvain; Douady, Stéphane

    2011-03-01

    The song of dunes is a natural phenomenon that has arisen travellers' curiosity for a long time, from Marco Polo to R.A. Bagnold. Scientific observations in the XXth century have shown that the sound is emitted during a shear flow of these particular grains, the free surface of the flow having coherent vibrations like a loud speaker. The sound emission is also submitted to a threshold effect with many parameters like humidity, flow speed, surface of the grains. The sound has been reproduced in laboratory avalanche experiments close to the natural phenomenon on field, but set in a channel with a hard bottom and a few centimeters of sand flowing, which contradicts explanations of the sound that involve a sand dune under the avalanche flow. Flow rates measurements also show the presence of a plug region in the flow above the sheared band, with the same characteristic length as the coherence zones of the sound. Finally we show experimentally that the Froude number, once modified to take into account the height of this plug band, is the parameter that sets the amplitude of the sound, and produces a threshold that depends on the grain type.

  19. Development and validation of model for sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Church P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing requirement within QinetiQ to develop models for assessments when there is very little experimental data. A theoretical approach to developing equations of state for geological materials has been developed using Quantitative Structure Property Modelling based on the Porter-Gould model approach. This has been applied to well-controlled sand with different moisture contents and particle shapes. The Porter-Gould model describes an elastic response and gives good agreement at high impact pressures with experiment indicating that the response under these conditions is dominated by the molecular response. However at lower pressures the compaction behaviour is dominated by a micro-mechanical response which drives the need for additional theoretical tools and experiments to separate the volumetric and shear compaction behaviour. The constitutive response is fitted to existing triaxial cell data and Quasi-Static (QS compaction data. This data is then used to construct a model in the hydrocode. The model shows great promise in predicting plate impact, Hopkinson bar, fragment penetration and residual velocity of fragments through a finite thickness of sand.

  20. Microstructural characterization of a Canadian oil sand

    CERN Document Server

    Dinh, Hong Doan; Nauroy, Jean-François; Tang, Anh-Minh; Souhail, Youssef; 10.1139/T2012-072

    2013-01-01

    The microstructure of oil sand samples extracted at a depth of 75 m from the estuarine Middle McMurray formation (Alberta, Canada) has been investigated by using high resolution 3D X-Ray microtomography ($\\mu$CT) and Cryo Scanning Electron Microscopy (CryoSEM). $\\mu$CT images evidenced some dense areas composed of highly angular grains surrounded by fluids that are separated by larger pores full of gas. 3D Image analysis provided in dense areas porosity values compatible with in-situ log data and macroscopic laboratory determinations, showing that they are representative of intact states. $\\mu$CT hence provided some information on the morphology of the cracks and disturbance created by gas expansion. The CryoSEM technique, in which the sample is freeze fractured within the SEM chamber prior to observation, provided pictures in which the (frozen) bitumen clearly appears between the sand grains. No evidence of the existence of a thin connate water layer between grains and the bitumen, frequently mentioned in th...

  1. Executive summary: Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1992. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. The scope of the environmental monitoring program at the Weldon Spring site has changed since it was initiated. Previously, the program focused on investigations of the extent and level of contaminants in the groundwater, surface waters, buildings, and air at the site. In 1992, the level of remedial activities required monitoring for potential impacts of those activities, particularly on surface water runoff and airborne effluents. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site; estimates of effluent releases; and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Also, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1992 to support environmental protection programs are reviewed.

  2. Process for Forming a High Temperature Single Crystal Canted Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMange, Jeffrey J (Inventor); Ritzert, Frank J (Inventor); Nathal, Michael V (Inventor); Dunlap, Patrick H (Inventor); Steinetz, Bruce M (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A process for forming a high temperature single crystal canted spring is provided. In one embodiment, the process includes fabricating configurations of a rapid prototype spring to fabricate a sacrificial mold pattern to create a ceramic mold and casting a canted coiled spring to form at least one canted coil spring configuration based on the ceramic mold. The high temperature single crystal canted spring is formed from a nickel-based alloy containing rhenium using the at least one coil spring configuration.

  3. Comparison of buried sand ridges and regressive sand ridges on the outer shelf of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ziyin; Jin, Xianglong; Zhou, Jieqiong; Zhao, Dineng; Shang, Jihong; Li, Shoujun; Cao, Zhenyi; Liang, Yuyang

    2017-06-01

    Based on multi-beam echo soundings and high-resolution single-channel seismic profiles, linear sand ridges in U14 and U2 on the East China Sea (ECS) shelf are identified and compared in detail. Linear sand ridges in U14 are buried sand ridges, which are 90 m below the seafloor. It is presumed that these buried sand ridges belong to the transgressive systems tract (TST) formed 320-200 ka ago and that their top interface is the maximal flooding surface (MFS). Linear sand ridges in U2 are regressive sand ridges. It is presumed that these buried sand ridges belong to the TST of the last glacial maximum (LGM) and that their top interface is the MFS of the LGM. Four sub-stage sand ridges of U2 are discerned from the high-resolution single-channel seismic profile and four strikes of regressive sand ridges are distinguished from the submarine topographic map based on the multi-beam echo soundings. These multi-stage and multi-strike linear sand ridges are the response of, and evidence for, the evolution of submarine topography with respect to sea-level fluctuations since the LGM. Although the difference in the age of formation between U14 and U2 is 200 ka and their sequences are 90 m apart, the general strikes of the sand ridges are similar. This indicates that the basic configuration of tidal waves on the ECS shelf has been stable for the last 200 ka. A basic evolutionary model of the strata of the ECS shelf is proposed, in which sea-level change is the controlling factor. During the sea-level change of about 100 ka, five to six strata are developed and the sand ridges develop in the TST. A similar story of the evolution of paleo-topography on the ECS shelf has been repeated during the last 300 ka.

  4. Metal biogeochemistry in constructed wetlands based on fluviatile sand and zeolite- and clinopyroxene-dominated lava sand

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jen-How; Paul, Sonja; Mayer, Silke; Moradpour, Eloise; Hasselbach, Ralf; Gier?, Reto; Alewell, Christine

    2017-01-01

    For the first time, speciation of Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu and Pb was determined along the profiles of 8 constructed wetlands (CWs) consisting of fluviatile sand (Fluv), clinopyroxene-dominated lava sand (Cl-LS) and zeolite-dominated lava sand (Ze-LS), aiming at quantifying metal behaviour in CWs and the impact caused by different filter materials. With the exception of Mn, which underwent reductive dissolution, CWs were sinks for the studied metals. Metal accumulation rates differed in the followi...

  5. Preliminary Investigation of Paleochannels and Groundwater Specific Conductance using Direct-Current Resistivity and Surface-Wave Seismic Geophysical Surveys at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc., Superfund Site, Delaware City, Delaware, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, James R.; Brayton, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Region III of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the State of Delaware, is conducting an ongoing study of the water-quality and hydrogeologic properties of the Columbia and Potomac aquifers and the extent of cross-aquifer contamination with benzene; chlorobenzene; 1,2-dichlorobenzene; 1,4-dichlorobenzene; and hydrogen chloride (hydrochloric acid when dissolved in water) in the vicinity of the Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. (SCD), Superfund Site, Delaware City, Delaware. Surface geophysical surveys and well data were used to identify and correlate low-permeability units (clays) across the site and to search for sand and gravel filled paleochannels that are potential conduits and receptors of contaminated groundwater and (or) Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid (DNAPL) contaminants. The combined surveys and well data were also used to characterize areas of the site that have groundwater with elevated (greater than 1,000 microsiemens per centimeter) specific conductance (SC) as a result of contamination. The most electrically conductive features measured with direct-current (DC) resistivity at the SCD site are relatively impermeable clays and permeable sediment that are associated with elevated SC in groundwater. Many of the resistive features include paleochannel deposits consisting of coarse-grained sediments that are unsaturated, have low (less than 200 microsiemens per centimeter) SC pore water, or are cemented. Groundwater in uncontaminated parts of the Columbia aquifer and of the Potomac aquifer has a low SC. Specific-conductance data from monitoring wells at the site were used to corroborate the DC-resistivity survey results. For comparison with DC-resistivity surveys, multi-channel analysis of surface wave (MASW) surveys were used and were able to penetrate deep enough to measure the Columbia aquifer, which is known to have elevated SC in some places. MASW survey results respond to solid

  6. Fish Springs pond snail : Refuge communication scenario

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Communication scenario between the branch of Listing and Recovery, Fish and Wildlife Enhancement, and Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), in regards to the...

  7. Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge habitat map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Habitat map for Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. This habitat map was created along with the National Vegetation Classification (NVC) map of the refuge. Refuge...

  8. Pagosa Springs geothermal project. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-19

    This booklet discusses some ideas and methods for using Colorado geothermal energy. A project installed in Pagosa Springs, which consists of a pipeline laid down 8th street with service to residences retrofitted to geothermal space heating, is described. (ACR)

  9. Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring. Canticum sacrum

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1996-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Stravinsky: The Rite of Spring. Canticum sacrum. Requiem canticles. Choral Variations on "Vom Himmel hoch". Lausanne Pro Arte Choir, Suisse Romande Chamber Choir and Orchestra, Neeme Järvi" Chandos CHAN 9408 (75 minutes:DDD)

  10. SPring-8 and application of nuclear scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harami, Taikan [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kamigori, Hyogo (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    The SPring-8 has Linac synchrotron, incidence type facility and an accumulation ring. By preparing a beam line to take out light at the accumulation ring, the SPring-8 is supplied for common applications. Development of science adopting new method to study of properties and organisms by using high brightness source is expected. Construction of the SPring-8 accelerator was finished and adjusting test and commissioning of apparatuses are now in proceeding. At pre-use inspection of the accumulation ring on March, 1997, beam lines for R and D and crystalline structure analysis are applied to the Science and Technology Agency to inspect them simultaneously. And, by activating character of the SPring-8 radiation facility of high brightness and high energy X-ray generator, property study using Moessbauer nuclide to a probe can be conducted. (G.K.)

  11. Analysis of geophysical logs, at North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site, Lansdale, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Randall W.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as part of technical assistance to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), collected borehole geophysical log data in 34 industrial, commercial, and public supply wells and 28 monitor wells at the North Penn Area 6 Superfund Site, in Lansdale, Pa., from August 22, 1995, through August 29, 1997. The wells range in depth from 50 to 1,027 feet below land surface and are drilled in Triassic-age shales and siltstones of the Brunswick Group and Lockatong Formation. The geophysical log data were collected to help describe the hydrogeologic framework in the area and to provide guidance in the reconstruction of the 28 monitor wells drilled during summer 1997. At the time of logging, all wells had open-hole construction. The geophysical logs, caliper, fluid-resistivity, and fluid-temperature, and borehole video logs were used to determine the vertical distribution of water-bearing fractures. Heatpulse-flowmeter measurements were used to determine vertical borehole flow under pumping and nonpumping conditions. The most productive fractures generally could be determined from heatpulse-flowmeter measurements under pumping conditions. Vertical borehole flow was measured under nonpumping conditions in most wells that had more than one water-bearing fracture. Upward flow was measured in 35 wells and probably is a result of natural head differences between fractures in the local ground-water-flow system. Downward flow was measured in 11 wells and commonly indicated differences in hydraulic heads of the fractures caused by nearby pumping. Both upward and downward flow was measured in three wells. No flow was detected in eight wells. Natural-gamma-ray logs were used to estimate the attitude of bedding. Thin shale marker beds, shown as spikes of elevated radioactivity in the natural-gamma logs of some wells throughout the area, enable the determination of bedding-plane orientation from three-point correlations. Generally, the marker beds in

  12. Seasonal variations of selected biomarkers in sand gobies Pomatoschistus minutus from the Guadalquivir Estuary, Southwest Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, M; Kopecka, J; Parra, L M García de la

    2006-02-01

    Sand gobies, Pomatoschistus minutus, were collected monthly from September 2002 to August 2003 at a station situated 8 km upstream from the mouth of the Guadalquivir estuary (southwest Spain). Physical parameters of the water and selected biomarkers of organic pollution were recorded in the fish to discuss its potential as a sentinel species in estuaries. The biomarkers selected were the activities of catalase (CAT), 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in the liver and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and lipid peroxidation (LP) in the head. The results showed an increase in total protein synthesis in late spring and early summer coinciding with the reproductive period as well as the release of fresh water from a dam situated 110 km upstream. During the same period, a significant depletion of hepatic GST and head AChE but higher LP levels in this tissue suggest exposure to pesticides such as those applied to crops established along the course of the river and reaching the estuary mostly when the freshwater discharges occur. Changes in CAT and EROD activities fluctuated randomly and were not noted as seasonally dependent. Biomarker fluctuations in sand goby are discussed as normal seasonal variations, but other variables-such as potential local pollution inputs-cannot be disregarded.

  13. Temporal Chemical Data for Sediment, Water, and Biological Samples from the Lava Cap Mine Superfund Site, Nevada County, California-2006-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Andrea L.; Ona-Nguema, Georges; Tufano, Kate; White, Richard III

    2010-01-01

    The Lava Cap Mine is located about 6 km east of the city of Grass Valley, Nevada County, California, at an elevation of about 900 m. Gold was hosted in quartz-carbonate veins typical of the Sierran Gold Belt, but the gold grain size was smaller and the abundance of sulfide minerals higher than in typical deposits. The vein system was discovered in 1860, but production was sporadic until the 1930s when two smaller operations on the site were consolidated, a flotation mill was built, and a 100-foot deep adit was driven to facilitate drainage and removal of water from the mine workings, which extended to 366 m. Peak production at the Lava Cap occurred between 1934 and 1943, when about 90,000 tons of ore per year were processed. To facilitate removal of the gold and accessory sulfide minerals, the ore was crushed to a very fine sand or silt grain size for processing. Mining operations at Lava Cap ceased in June 1943 due to War Production Board Order L-208 and did not resume after the end of World War II. Two tailings retention structures were built at the Lava Cap Mine. The first was a log dam located about 0.4 km below the flotation mill on Little Clipper Creek, and the second, built in 1938, was a larger earth fill and rip-rap structure constructed about 2 km downstream, which formed the water body now called Lost Lake. The log dam failed during a storm that began on December 31, 1996, and continued into January 1997; an estimated 8,000-10,000 m3 of tailings were released into Little Clipper Creek during this event. Most of the fine tailings were deposited in Lost Lake, dramatically increasing its turbidity and resulting in a temporary 1-1.5 m rise in lake level due to debris blocking the dam spillway. When the blockage was cleared, the lake level quickly lowered, leaving a ?bathtub ring? of very fine tailings deposited substantially above the water line. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated emergency action in late 1997 at the mine site to reduce

  14. Inleiding symposium 'Silent Spring, 50 jaar later'

    OpenAIRE

    Lenteren, van, J.C.; Hunneman, H.

    2013-01-01

    Een halve eeuw geleden publiceerde Rachel Carson het boek Silent Spring, dat de aandacht vestigde op milieuproblemen en het begin betekende van de milieubeweging. Op zaterdag 17 november 2012 vond in Leiden het symposium ‘Silent Spring, 50 jaar later’ plaats. De Nederlandse Entomologische Vereniging (NEV) organiseerde deze dag met medewerking van de Uyttenboogaart-Eliasen Stichting, De Vlinderstichting, Stichting Natuur en Milieu, Vereniging Natuurmonumenten en de Faunabescherming. Het was ee...

  15. The Affective Legacy of Silent Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Lockwood

    2012-01-01

    In the fiftieth year since the publication of Silent Spring, the importance of Rachel Carson’s work can be measured in its affective influence on contemporary environmental writing across the humanities. The ground broken by Silent Spring in creating new forms of writing has placed affect at the very centre of contemporary narratives that call for pro-environmental beliefs and behaviours. A critical public-feelings framework is used to explore these issues and trace their passage from the pri...

  16. The diagnosis of pelvic fractures by 'springing'.

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, P. T.

    1990-01-01

    Thirty-six patients were studied prospectively to assess the benefit of 'springing' the pelvis in traumatized patients, to confirm or refute a fracture of the pelvis. None of the patients was multiply injured and half of those with fractures were elderly, sustaining their injuries in simple falls. Springing the pelvis was a poor predictor of the presence or absence of a pelvic fracture, at best it yielded a specificity of 71% and sensitivity of 59%. Its routine use in clinical examination sho...

  17. How sick is the Spring AGU Meeting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John A.

    I confess—I missed Spring AGU this year. But who can be surprised? After all, I am in the Tectonophysics Section, and almost none of us showed up.Recently skimming the Spring 2000 AGU abstract volume, I was stunned to see that the Tectonophysics abstracts constituted only a bit more than twelve pages—slightly less than Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism, and a touch more than Geodesy. What has become of us?

  18. Superfund Reauthorization 1994: DoD’s Opportunity to Clean Up Its Hazardous Waste Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-01

    more mundane utilitarian considerations, it is characteristic of man to bury that which he fears and 36 Albert Schweitzer, quoted in RACHEL CARSON ... SILENT SPRING i (1962). 123 wishes to rid himself of. In today’s industrialized society, however, the routine practice of burying highly toxic chemical...critics have dubbed CERCLA the "full employment act for lawyers." Rachel Giesber, Note, Foolish Consistency? Compliance with the National Contingency Plan

  19. Water quality modelling of Jadro spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margeta, J; Fistanic, I

    2004-01-01

    Management of water quality in karst is a specific problem. Water generally moves very fast by infiltration processes but far more by concentrated flows through fissures and openings in karst. This enables the entire surface pollution to be transferred fast and without filtration into groundwater springs. A typical example is the Jadro spring. Changes in water quality at the spring are sudden, but short. Turbidity as a major water quality problem for the karst springs regularly exceeds allowable standards. Former practice in problem solving has been reduced to intensive water disinfection in periods of great turbidity without analyses of disinfection by-products risks for water users. The main prerequisite for water quality control and an optimization of water disinfection is the knowledge of raw water quality and nature of occurrence. The analysis of monitoring data and their functional relationship with hydrological parameters enables establishment of a stochastic model that will help obtain better information on turbidity in different periods of the year. Using the model a great number of average monthly and extreme daily values are generated. By statistical analyses of these data possibility of occurrence of high turbidity in certain months is obtained. This information can be used for designing expert system for water quality management of karst springs. Thus, the time series model becomes a valuable tool in management of drinking water quality of the Jadro spring.

  20. A Mystery Unraveled: Booming Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, N. M.; Hunt, M. L.; Clayton, R. W.

    2007-12-01

    "Booming" sand dunes have intrigued travelers and scientist for centuries. These dunes emit a persistent, low-frequency sound during a slumping event or a natural avalanche on the leeward face of the dune. The sound can last for several minutes and be audible from miles away. The resulting acoustic emission is characterized by a dominant audible frequency (70 - 105 Hz) and several higher harmonics. In the work of Vriend et al. (2007), seismic refraction experiments proved the existence of a multi-layer internal structure in the dune that acts as a waveguide for the acoustic energy. Constructive interference between the reflecting waves enables the amplification and sets the frequency of each boom. A relationship was established that correctly predicts the measured frequency in terms of the thickness (~ 2.0 m) and the seismic body wave velocity of the loose, dry surficial layer (~ 240 m/s) and the substrate half-space (~ 350 m/s). The current work highlights additional measurements and simulations supporting the waveguide model for booming sand dunes. Experiments with ground penetrating radar continuously display the subsurface features which confirm the layered subsurface structure within the dune. Cross-correlation analysis shows that the booming sound propagates at speeds close to the measured body wave velocity. Squeaking sounds, which are generated during the onset of the slide and precede the sustained booming emission, have been found to have distinctly different characteristics. These short bursts of sound are emitted at a lower frequency (50 - 65 Hz) and propagate at a lower propagation speed (125 m/s) than the booming emission. The acoustic and elastic wave propagation in the dune has been simulated with a finite difference code. The interaction between the air and the ground produces a coupling wave along the surface. The reflections in the surficial layer propagate in a dispersive band at a group velocity that is slower than the phase velocity of the

  1. Properties of Desert Sand and CMAS Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Choi, Sung R.

    2014-01-01

    As-received desert sand from a Middle East country has been characterized for its phase composition and thermal stability. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the presence of quartz (SiO2), calcite (CaCO3), gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O), and NaAlSi3O8 phases in as-received desert sand and showed weight loss of approx. 35 percent due to decomposition of CaCO3 and CaSO4.2H2O when heated to 1400 C. A batch of as-received desert sand was melted into calcium magnesium aluminosilicate (CMAS) glass at approx. 1500 C. From inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, chemical composition of the CMAS glass was analyzed to be 27.8CaO-4MgO-5Al2O3-61.6SiO2-0.6Fe2O3-1K2O (mole percent). Various physical, thermal and mechanical properties of the glass have been evaluated. Bulk density of CMAS glass was 2.69 g/cc, Young's modulus 92 GPa, Shear modulus 36 GPa, Poisson's ratio 0.28, dilatometric glass transition temperature (T (sub g)) 706 C, softening point (T (sub d)) 764 C, Vickers microhardness 6.3 +/- 0.4 GPa, indentation fracture toughness 0.75 +/- 0.15 MPa.m (sup 1/2), and coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) 9.8 x 10 (exp -6)/degC in the temperature range 25 to 700 C. Temperature dependence of viscosity has also been estimated from various reference points of the CMAS glass using the Vogel-Fulcher-Tamman (VFT) equation. The glass remained amorphous after heat treating at 850 C for 10 hr but crystallized into CaSiO3 and Ca-Mg-Al silicate phases at 900 C or higher temperatures. Crystallization kinetics of the CMAS glass has also been investigated by differential thermal analysis (DTA). Activation energies for the crystallization of two different phases in the glass were calculated to be 403 and 483 kJ/mol, respectively.

  2. The source, discharge, and chemical characteristics of water from Agua Caliente Spring, Palm Springs, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contributors: Brandt, Justin; Catchings, Rufus D.; Christensen, Allen H.; Flint, Alan L.; Gandhok, Gini; Goldman, Mark R.; Halford, Keith J.; Langenheim, V.E.; Martin, Peter; Rymer, Michael J.; Schroeder, Roy A.; Smith, Gregory A.; Sneed, Michelle; Martin, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Agua Caliente Spring, in downtown Palm Springs, California, has been used for recreation and medicinal therapy for hundreds of years and currently (2008) is the source of hot water for the Spa Resort owned by the Agua Caliente Band of the Cahuilla Indians. The Agua Caliente Spring is located about 1,500 feet east of the eastern front of the San Jacinto Mountains on the southeast-sloping alluvial plain of the Coachella Valley. The objectives of this study were to (1) define the geologic structure associated with the Agua Caliente Spring; (2) define the source(s), and possibly the age(s), of water discharged by the spring; (3) ascertain the seasonal and longer-term variability of the natural discharge, water temperature, and chemical characteristics of the spring water; (4) evaluate whether water-level declines in the regional aquifer will influence the temperature of the spring discharge; and, (5) estimate the quantity of spring water that leaks out of the water-collector tank at the spring orifice.

  3. Effects of Diameter on Initial Stiffness of P-Y Curves for Large-Diameter Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Augustesen, Anders Hust

    2010-01-01

    For offshore wind turbines, monopile foundations with diameters of 4–6m are often employed. The Winkler model approach, where the soil resistance is modelled as uncoupled springs with spring stiffness’ given by p-y curves, is traditionally employed for the design of monopiles. However, this method...... is developed for slender piles with diameters up to approximately 2.0 m. Hence, the method is not validated for piles with diameters of 4–6 m. The aim of the paper is to extend the p-y curve method to large-diameter non-slender piles in sand by considering the effects of the pile diameter on the soil......-pile interaction. Hence, a modified expression for the p-y curves for statically loaded piles in sand is proposed in which the initial slope of the p-y curves depends on the depth below the soil surface, the pile diameter and the internal angle of friction. The evaluation is based on three-dimensional numerical...

  4. Provenance of coastal dune sands along Red Sea, Egypt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The average CIA values in SF and QS coastal dune sands are low relative to the range of the PAAS, suggesting an arid climate and a low intensity of chemical weathering. The SF and QS coastal dune sand samples are plotted in the recycled orogen and partly in craton interior fields suggesting recycled older sedimentary ...

  5. Sand-Laterite Mixtures for Road Construction (A Laboratory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained show that for all types of laterites tested, the addition of sand to laterites has beneficial effects in reducing the liquid limit, the optimum moisture content, the plasticity index, the linear shrinkage and in increasing the maximum dry density and the California Bearing Ratio. There is an optimum sand ...

  6. Pathogen removal using saturated sand colums supplemented with hydrochar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chung, J.W.

    2015-01-01

    This PhD study has evaluated hydrochars derived from biowastes as adsorbents for pathogen removal in water treatment. Pathogen removal experiments were conducted by carrying out breakthrough analysis using a simple sand filtration set-up. Glass columns packed by 10 cm sand bed supplemented with

  7. Cytotoxicity of yellow sand in lung epithelial cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The Asian dust storms (called as 'yellow sand') bring a large amount of soil particles from the deserts of Mongo- lia and China to East Asia and North America. Yellow sand is a dust-laden air mass, and its effect to the atmos- pheric environment is of large concern in the Asian-. Pacific area including Korea, Japan and China.

  8. Geophysical mapping of the occurrence of shallow oil sands in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    Oil sands are known to be an alternate source of energy and of great economic value. To map the occurrence of shallow oil sand deposits in Idiopopo, Okitipupa area in Ondo state southwestern. Nigeria, vertical electric sounding (VES) in 11 stations along 3 profiles were carried out using the. Schlumberger configuration.

  9. On Foundation Improvement By Sand Replacement | Abam | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a simple foundation improvement method involving the replacement of poor foundation bearing soils with sand and the resultant improvement in bearing capacity and the minimization of settlement at the site of a large storage tank. Minimum thickness of sand replacement for various foundation loads ...

  10. Effect of Crushed Sandstone Sand on the Properties of High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aggregates are the major constituents in the construction industry. With natural sand and gravel resources being rapidly depleted all over the world, the needs of construction industry will have to be met increasingly from crushed sand as fine aggregates. This paper presents results of the laboratory investigation on high ...

  11. The stable stiffness triangle - drained sand during deformation cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2017-01-01

    Cyclic, drained sand stiffness was observed using the Danish triaxial appa- ratus. New, deformation dependant soil property (the stable stiffness triangle) was detected. Using the the stable stiffness triangle, secant stiffness of drained sand was plausible to predict (and control) even during...

  12. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-07-01

    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  13. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-07-01

    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  14. Fine sand in motion: the influence of interstitial air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan, T.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Sand is a granular material, and therefore it consists of individual grains arranged in a packing. The pores in-between the grains are usually filled with a fluid, in this case air. Now, is this interstitial air able to influence the behavior of the sand bed as a whole? When a ball impacts on fine,

  15. Cavity prediction in sand mould production applying the DISAMATIC process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovad, Emil; Larsen, Per; Spangenberg, Jon

    2017-01-01

    The sand shot in the DISAMATIC process is simulated by the discrete element method (DEM) taking into account the influence and coupling of the airflow with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The DEM model is calibrated by a ring shear test, a sand pile experiment and a slump test. Subsequently, ...

  16. Modeling the dynamics of offshore tidal sand ridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuan, B.

    2017-01-01

    Tidal sand ridges are large-scale bedforms with horizontal dimensions of several kilometers and heights of tens of meters. They occur in the offshore area of shelf seas that have a wide range of water depths (10-200 m). Based on their present-day behavior, ridges are classified as `active' (sand

  17. Sand-Filtration System For Improving Water Quality For Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of a pilot sand filtration plant for a small town water supply was monitored over a seven month period to evaluate the physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of the filtered water from a system installed at Assin Praso in the Central Region of Ghana. The sand filter was effective in reducing turbidity by ...

  18. Geophysical mapping of the occurrence of shallow oil sands in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil sands are known to be an alternate source of energy and of great economic value. To map the occurrence of shallow oil sand deposits in Idiopopo, Okitipupa area in Ondo state southwestern Nigeria, vertical electric sounding (VES) in 11 stations along 3 profiles were carried out using the Schlumberger configuration.

  19. Journal of EEA, Vol. 30, 2013 SAND SINTERING PROBLEM ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    methods of sand sintering protection on the tin bronze impeller body and internal surfaces. The research ... causes of formation and protection of it [4, 5]. Based on the adhering characteristics of sand grain with ..... including pumps, pipes, taps and impellers .It is because they resist corrosion and impingent effect of water.

  20. Ecology and management of sand shinnery communities: a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger Peterson; Chad S. Boyd

    2000-01-01

    Sand shinnery is codominated by oak shrubs and mid and tallgrasses; the grasses are usually taller than the oaks. The shrubs are the small, visible shoots of massive underground stem systems, which are hundreds or thousands of years old. Sand shinnery occupies 5 to 7 M acres in western Oklahoma, western Texas, and southeastern New Mexico. This area is a decrease from...

  1. Coastal Sand Dune Plant Ecology: Field Phenomena and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, K.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of selecting coastal sand dunes as the location for field ecology studies. Presents a descriptive zonal model for seaboard sand dune plant communities, suggestions concerning possible observations and activities relevant to interpreting phenomena associated with these forms of vegetation, and additional…

  2. Microwaves energy in curing process of water glass molding sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granat K.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of investigation of microwave heating on hardening process of water glass molding sands. Essential influence of this heating process on basic properties such as: compression, bending and tensile strength as well as permeability and abrasion resistance has been found. It has been proved, that all investigated sorts of sodium water glass with a module between 2.0 and 3.3 can be used as a binder of molding sands in microwave curing process. It has been found during analysis of research results of sands with 2.5 % water glass addition that they are practically the same as in case of identical molding sands dried for 120 minutes at the temperature of 110°C, used for comparative purposes. Application of microwave curing of molding sands with water glass, however, guarantees reduction of hardening time (from 120 to 4 minutes as well as significant reduction of energy consumption. Attempts of two stage hardening of the investigated water glass molding sands have also been carried out, that is after an initial hardening during a classical CO2 process (identical sands have also been tested for comparison after CO2 blowing process and additional microwave heating. It has been found that application of this kind of treatment for curing sands with 2.5 % sodium water glass content and module from 2.0 up to 3.3 results in the improvement of properties in comparison to classical CO2 process.

  3. Assessing environmental impacts of inland sand mining in parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other impacts include loss of farmland, depreciation of land value, and destruction of infrastructural facilities. The study concluded that sand mining should be subject to planning and other controls in order to curtail its negative impacts. Keywords: Urbanization, Housing, GIS, Land degradation, Sand mining, Pollution ...

  4. Design, Construction and Testing of a Dry Sand Sieving Machine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    www.ajol.info and www.bioline.org.br/ja. Design, Construction and Testing of a Dry Sand Sieving Machine. OLADEJI AKANNI OGUNWOLE. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Minna, Nigeria. ABSTRACT: This paper reports on the design, construction and Testing of a dry sand sieving.

  5. Acetylcholinesterase mutations and organophosphate resistance in sand flies and mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sand fly, Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli) is a major vector of Leishamnia major, the principle causative agent of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Middle East, southern Europe, northern Africa, and Southern Asia. Sand fly bites and leishmaniasis significantly impacted U.S. military operations...

  6. An Old-Growth Definition for Sand Pine Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth W. Outcalt

    1997-01-01

    Sand pine scrub, Society of American Foresters cover type 69 (Eyre 1980), grows on deep, droughty, infertile sands of marine and aeolian origin. Water and wind formed these features as sea levels fluctuated during past glacial and interglacial periods (Kurz 1942, Laessle 1958, Brooks 1972). Because of washing and sorting during transport and deposition, soil parent...

  7. Provenance Study Of Bituminous Sands In Eastern Dahomey Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and twenty (120) tar sand samples were collected at 8 localities along the Nigerian tar sand belt for both quartz variety and heavy mineral analyses. The quartz variety study carried out on 30 samples revealed both polycrystalline and monocrystalline quartz types occurring in all samples but in different ...

  8. Thermal Conductivity of Compacted Bentonite and Bentonite-Sand Mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Jin; Lee, Jae Owan; Kwon, Sang Ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    For the Kyungju bentonite which is considered as a candidate material for the buffer and backfill in the high-level waste repository, the thermal conductivities of compacted bentonite and a bentonite-sand mixture were measured. The thermal conductivities of the compacted bentonite with a dry density of 1.2 to 1.8 Mg/m{sup 3}and the bentonite-sand mixture with a dry density of 1.6 and 1.8 Mg/m{sup 3} were measured within the gravimetric water content range of 10wt% to 20wt% and the sand fraction range of 10 to 30wt%. The thermal conductivity of compacted bentonite and a bentonite-sand mixture increases with increasing dry density and sand weight fraction in the case of constant water weight fraction, and increases with increasing water weight fraction and sand weight fraction in the case of constant dry density. The empirical correlations to describe the thermal conductivity of compacted bentonite and a bentonite-sand mixture as a function of water fraction at each dry density were suggested. These correlations can predict the thermal conductivities of bentonite and a bentonite-sand mixture with a difference below 10%.

  9. Test Setup for Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina

    The test setup for testing axially static and cyclic loaded piles in sand is described in the following. The purpose for the tests is to examine the tensile capacity of axially loaded piles in dense fully saturated sand. The pile dimensions are chosen to resemble full scale dimension of piles used...... in offshore pile foundations today....

  10. Constitutive Soil Properties for Unwashed Sand and Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael A.; Chitty, Daniel E.; Gildea, Martin L.; T'Kindt, Casey M.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate soil models are required for numerical simulations of land landings for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle. This report provides constitutive material models for one soil, unwashed sand, from NASA Langley's gantry drop test facility and three soils from Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The four soil models are based on mechanical and compressive behavior observed during geotechnical laboratory testing of remolded soil samples. The test specimens were reconstituted to measured in situ density and moisture content. Tests included: triaxial compression, hydrostatic compression, and uniaxial strain. A fit to the triaxial test results defines the strength envelope. Hydrostatic and uniaxial tests define the compressibility. The constitutive properties are presented in the format of LS-DYNA Material Model 5: Soil and Foam. However, the laboratory test data provided can be used to construct other material models. The four soil models are intended to be specific to the soil conditions discussed in the report. The unwashed sand model represents clayey sand at high density. The KSC models represent three distinct coastal sand conditions: low density dry sand, high density in-situ moisture sand, and high density flooded sand. It is possible to approximate other sands with these models, but the results would be unverified without geotechnical tests to confirm similar soil behavior.

  11. Compensation Grouting in Sand : Experiments, Field Experiences and Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezuijen, A.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis reports on experimental research on compensation grouting in sand. It is investigated in model tests, how the shape of the grout bodies made during injection depends on the grout properties, the density of the sand and the way the tubes are installed. The shape of the grout body affects

  12. Effects of oil sands sediments on fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrott, J.; Colavecchia, M.; Hewitt, L.; Sherry, J.; Headley, J. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Turcotte, D.; Liber, K. [Saskatchewan Univ., Regina, SK (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper described a collaborative project organized by Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) Panel of Energy Research and Development (PERD) with researchers from Environment Canada and the University of Saskatchewan. The 4-year study was conducted to assess the toxicity of oil sands sediments and river waters, and reclamation ponds and sediments on laboratory-raised fish. Three sediments from rivers were evaluated for their potential to cause adverse impacts on fathead minnow eggs and larvae for a period of 18 days. The study monitored hatching, larval survival, development, and growth. Naphthenic acids (NA), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals were measured in the sediments to determine if the compounds can be correlated with observed toxicity. The study will also assess walleye eggs exposed to sediments, and in situ fish exposures. Toxicity identification and evaluation (TIE) studies will be conducted to isolate the fractions that may affect fish development and growth.

  13. Direct Production of Silicones From Sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry N. Lewis; F.J. Schattenmann: J.P. Lemmon

    2001-09-30

    Silicon, in the form of silica and silicates, is the second most abundant element in the earth's crust. However the synthesis of silicones (scheme 1) and almost all organosilicon chemistry is only accessible through elemental silicon. Silicon dioxide (sand or quartz) is converted to chemical-grade elemental silicon in an energy intensive reduction process, a result of the exceptional thermodynamic stability of silica. Then, the silicon is reacted with methyl chloride to give a mixture of methylchlorosilanes catalyzed by cooper containing a variety of tract metals such as tin, zinc etc. The so-called direct process was first discovered at GE in 1940. The methylchlorosilanes are distilled to purify and separate the major reaction components, the most important of which is dimethyldichlorosilane. Polymerization of dimethyldichlorosilane by controlled hydrolysis results in the formation of silicone polymers. Worldwide, the silicones industry produces about 1.3 billion pounds of the basic silicon polymer, polydimethylsiloxane.

  14. The state of oil sands wetland reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, L. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The state of oil sand and wetlands reclamation was the subject of this presentation. Wildlife habitat and response, plant community and production, and microbial biology were examples of research areas surrounding this body of knowledge. Hydrological research and landscape ecology were discussed along with peatlands and marshes such as the Corvette and the Kia. A few examples of what has been learned in the area of wetlands reclamation was presented. Other topics were also discussed, such as timeframes, pragmatic policy approaches, reclamation costs, research needs and some ideas on maturing the field. It was concluded that environmental conditions change with time and area because of time, chemistry, physics, stoichiometry, as well as biotic mediation and facilitation. figs.

  15. Western Gas Sands Project status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C.H.

    1978-10-31

    This edition of the WGSP status report summarizes September 1978 progress of the government-sponsored projects directed towards increasing gas production from the low-permeability gas sands of the western United States. Background information is provided in the September 1977 Status Report, NVO/0655-100. The Williston Basin Symposium was held in Billings, Montana, the 24th through the 27th of September 1978. The USGS continued work on characterization and assessment of the resource in the four primary study areas and completed the 1978 field work in the Sand Wash and Green River Basins. CER Corporation is evaluating a Twin Arrow drill site, located on the Douglas Creek Arch for the possibility of obtaining core, and preparations are being made for the Logging Program meeting to be held at the CER offices the latter part of October, 1978. The design phase for the pressure coring system has been completed and work is progressing on the fabrication and testing of the improved system. The National Laboratories and Energy Technology Centers continued work on mathematical model development, new tools and instrumentation systems, data analysis techniques and rock mechanics. Work continued on the field tests and demonstrations aspect of the WGSP. Bids sent to several service companies by Mitchell Energy Corporation, for a massive fracture treatment, are due back in October and the treatment is expected to be performed in mid-November. Mobil Research and Development fractured Zone 8 of their PCU 31-13 well, then shut it in due to anticipated winter weather and work was started on Zone 9. Sandia's mineback program involved evaluation of the Hole No. 6 Formation Interface Fracture Experiment.

  16. Proceedings of the 7. annual Athabasca oil sands conference : oil sands trade show and conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The Athabasca Oil Sands Projects are considered a major source energy supply for North America, which means increased commitments from producing companies to improve environmental impact and enhance the technology used for extraction and refining. This annual conference, which was hosted by the world's leading group of experts in the unconventional oil industry, provided a venue to network, do business and discover new strategies and innovations for the industry. The presentations highlighted thermal recovery methods, transportation infrastructure, and government policies designed to ensure project success. The four sessions of the conference were entitled: the oil sands landscape, technology advances; project updates; and, research and development. The conference featured 12 presentations, of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. tabs., figs.

  17. Effect of Sand Wetting on Physically Hardened Moulding Sands Containing a Selected Inorganic Binder. Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stachowicz M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, an attempt was made to evaluate the effect of preliminary wetting of high-silica base during preparation of moulding sands containing a selected grade of sodium water-glass, designed for hardening by traditional drying or by electromagnetic microwaves at 2.45 GHz. In the research, some water was dosed during stirring the sandmix before adding 1.5 wt% of the binder that was unmodified sodium water-glass grade 137, characterised by high molar module within 3.2 to 3.4. Scope of the examinations included determining the effect of wetting the base on mechanical parameters like compression, bending and tensile strength, as well as on technological parameters like permeability, abrasion resistance and apparent density. The research revealed a significant positive effect of adding water to wet surfaces of high-silica base grains on mechanical properties and quality of moulding sands hardened by physical methods, in particular by microwave heating.

  18. Spring break versus spring broken: predictive utility of spring break alcohol intentions and willingness at varying levels of extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Dana M; Lewis, Melissa A; Patrick, Megan E; Rodriguez, Lindsey; Neighbors, Clayton; Kaysen, Debra L

    2014-02-01

    Within the domain of risk-related behavior, many times the decision to engage is not a product of premeditation or intention. The prototype willingness model was created to capture and explain the unintended element of risk behavior. The present study aimed to evaluate the importance of willingness versus intention, two important constructs within the prototype willingness model, in relation to spring break drinking behavior when assessed at both high and low extremities. College undergraduates (N = 275) completed questionnaires prior to spring break regarding their anticipated spring break activities. Willingness and intention were assessed for different levels of risk. Specifically, participants indicated the extent to which they intended to (a) get drunk and (b) drink enough to black out or pass out; and the extent to which they were willing to (a) get drunk and (b) drink enough to black out or pass out. When classes resumed following spring break, the students indicated the extent to which they actually (a) got drunk and (b) drank enough to black out or pass out. Results demonstrated that when the health-related risk was lower (i.e., getting drunk), intention was a stronger predictor of behavior than was willingness. However, as the level of risk increased (i.e., getting drunk enough to black out or pass out), willingness more strongly predicted behavior. The present study suggests that willingness and intentions differentially predict spring break alcohol-related behavior depending on the extremity of behavior in question. Implications regarding alcohol interventions are discussed.

  19. Laboratory Test Setup for Cyclic Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive description and the considerations regarding the design of a new laboratory test setup for testing cyclic axially loaded piles in sand. The test setup aims at analysing the effect of axial one-way cyclic loading on pile capacity and accumulated displacements....... Another aim was to test a large diameter pile segment with dimensions resembling full-scale piles to model the interface properties between pile and sand correctly. The pile segment was an open-ended steel pipe pile with a diameter of 0.5 m and a length of 1 m. The sand conditions resembled the dense sand...... determined from the API RP 2GEO standard and from the test results indicated over consolidation of the sand. Two initial one-way cyclic loading tests provided results of effects on pile capacity and accumulated displacements in agreement with other researchers’ test results....

  20. Compressive Strength of Compacted Clay-Sand Mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faseel Suleman Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of sand to improve the strength of natural clays provides a viable alternative for civil infrastructure construction involving earthwork. The main objective of this note was to investigate the compressive strength of compacted clay-sand mixes. A natural clay of high plasticity was mixed with 20% and 40% sand (SP and their compaction and strength properties were determined. Results indicated that the investigated materials exhibited a brittle behaviour on the dry side of optimum and a ductile behaviour on the wet side of optimum. For each material, the compressive strength increased with an increase in density following a power law function. Conversely, the compressive strength increased with decreasing water content of the material following a similar function. Finally, the compressive strength decreased with an increase in sand content because of increased material heterogeneity and loss of sand grains from the sides during shearing.