WorldWideScience

Sample records for sand shinnery oak

  1. Causes of mortality and temporal patterns in breeding season survival of lesser prairie-chickens in shinnery oak prairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, Blake A.; Boal, Clint W.

    2015-01-01

    Baseline survival and mortality data for lesser prairie-chickens (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) are lacking for shinnery oak (Quercus havardii) prairies. An understanding of the causes and timing of mortalities and breeding season survival in this ecoregion is important because shinnery oak prairies have hotter and drier environmental conditions, as well as different predator communities compared with the northern distribution of the species. The need for this information has become more pressing given the recent listing of the species as threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. We investigated causes of mortality and survival of lesser prairie-chickens during the 6-month breeding season (1 Mar–31 Aug) of 2008–2011 on the Texas Southern High Plains, USA. We recorded 42 deaths of radiotagged individuals, and our results indicated female mortalities were proportionate among avian and mammalian predation and other causes of mortality but survival was constant throughout the 6-month breeding season. Male mortalities were constant across avian and mammalian predation and other causes, but more mortalities occurred in June compared with other months. Male survival also varied by month, and survival probabilities were lower in June–August. We found predation on leks was rare, mortalities from fence collisions were rare, female survival did not decrease during incubation or brood-rearing, and survival was influenced by drought. Our study corroborated recent studies that suggested lesser prairie-chickens are living at the edge of their physiological tolerances to environmental conditions in shinnery oak prairies. As such, lesser prairie-chickens in our study experienced different patterns of mortality and survival that we attributed to hot, dry conditions during the breeding season. Specifically, and converse to other studies on lesser prairie-chicken survival and mortality, drought positively influenced female survival because females did not incubate eggs

  2. Development of ground water from the Carrizo sand and Wilcox group in Dimmit, Zavala, Maverick, Frio, Atacosa, Median, Bexar, Live Oak, McMullen, La Salle, and Webb Counties, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulder, E.A.

    1957-01-01

    The development of ground water for irrigation from the Carrizo sand south and southwest of San Antonio, Tex., has increased rapidly during the past few years. Declining pumping water levels in irrigation wells, caused by increased withdrawals, have caused considerable concern among the residents of the area. In response, the Nueces River Conservation and Reclamation District entered into a cooperative agreement with the Texas Board of Water Engineers and the United States Geological Survey to determine the extent of development and the rate of withdrawal that has cause the decline. All wells that discharged more than 150 gallons per minute for extended periods of time in 1955 from either the Carrizo sand or sands of the Wilcox group were studied and are shown on [late 1. Estimates were made of the total withdrawals by county and are given in table 2. Similar estimates of withdrawals in some of the counties for the irrigation years 1929-30, 1938-39, 1944-45, and 1947-48 are presented for comparison in table 3. Although the Carrizo sand is the principal source of ground water pumped in the area, estimate of withdrawals of water from the Wilcox were included in this inventory because (1) the formation appears to be hydraulically connected to the Carrizo sand, (2) the quality of water generally is good in the outcrop area of the Wilcox, and (3) appreciable withdrawals are being made from the Wilcox for irrigation in a few areas. The investigation covered an area of about 7,500 square miles and included all or parts of the following counties: Dimmit, Zavala, Maverick, Frio, Atascosa, Medina, Bexar, Live Oak, McMullen, La Salle, and Webb (fig. 1).

  3. Dendrogeomorphology - a new tool to study drift-sand dynamics Netherlands Journal of Geosciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouden, den J.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Copini, P.

    2007-01-01

    dendrogeomorphological approach is presented, using wood characteristics of native oak (Quercus robur L.) to infer dynamics of aeolian sediment transport in drift-sand areas. Wood samples, taken from oaks in two drift-sand areas, were analysed to study changes in tree-ring pattern and wood anatomy a

  4. Fontainebleau Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Caspar Thrane

    2006-01-01

    The report is a summary of results from laboratory tests in the geotechncial research group on Fontainebleau sand.......The report is a summary of results from laboratory tests in the geotechncial research group on Fontainebleau sand....

  5. Sands styrke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, H. Moust; Jørgensen, Mogens B.; Poulsen, H. Serup

    1975-01-01

    På grundlag af triaxialforsøg med D=7 og 20 cm og varierende højde på løse og faste lejringer af Blokhussand kan effekten af varierende højde-breddeforhold og spændingsniveau samt skalaeffekten bestemmes. Ved sammenligning med pladeforsøg med overfladelast op til 8 t/m2 kan den almindelige fremga...... fremgangsmåde ved bæreevneberegninger på sand undersøges....

  6. Bur oak savanna

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of research and activities related to bur oak savanna on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2006. Titles of studies summarized in...

  7. Poison ivy - oak - sumac

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002886.htm Poison ivy - oak - sumac To use the sharing features ... the plant, if known Amount swallowed (if swallowed) Poison Control Your local poison center can be reached ...

  8. Tar sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLendon, T.R.; Bartke, T.C.

    1990-01-01

    Research on tar sand is briefly discussed. The research program supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE) includes a variety of surface extraction schemes. The University of Utah has process development units (PDU) employing fluidized bed, hot, water-assisted, and fluidized-bed/heat-pipe, coupled combustor technology. Considerable process variable test data have been gathered on these systems: (1) a rotary kiln unit has been built recently; (2) solvent extraction processing is being examined; and (3) an advanced hydrogenation upgrading scheme (hydropyrolysis) has been developed. The University of Arkansas, in collaboration with Diversified Petroleum, Inc., has been working on a fatty acid, solvent extraction process. Oleic acid is the solvent/surfactant. Solvent is recovered by adjusting processing fluid concentrations to separate without expensive operations. Western Research Institute has a PDU-scale scheme called the Recycle Oil Pyrolysis and Extraction (ROPE) process, which combines solvent (hot recycle bitumen) and pyrolytic extraction. 14 refs., 19 figs.

  9. It's in the sand

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive

    2016-01-01

    Sand is sand isn’t it? Sand gets everywhere but rather than a nuisance it is a valuable, high-purity raw material. Clive Mitchell, Industrial Minerals Specialist at the British Geological Survey (BGS), talks us through what sand is, what it can be used for and how to find it. His exploration of sand takes us from the deserts of Arabia to the damp sand pits of Mansfield!

  10. Conversion of an oak seed orchard to oak silvopasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Connor; L. Dimov; R. Barlow; M. Smith; E. Kirkland

    2013-01-01

    The potential of hardwood silvopasture has yet to be realized in the Southeastern United States. The decommissioning of the Stauffer Nursery, Opelika, AL, provided the opportunity to intensively research hardwood silvopasture using various oak species. Average crown diameter ranged from 5.9 feet in white oak (Quercus alba) to 10.7 feet in Nuttall oak...

  11. Cork oak woodlands patchiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Augusta; Madeira, Manuel; Plieninger, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The cork oak (Quercus suber L.) woodlands of the agroforestry landscapes of Southwestern Iberia are undergoing drastic change due to severe natural and anthropogenic disturbances. These may eventually result in woodland loss or deforestation, the final step of an ongoing process of woodland...... degradation. Monitoring changes in the spatial patterns of woodlands - especially fractional canopy cover of woodlands and/or their patchiness in the landscape mosaic - potentially enables forecasting of loss and responding to it at an early stage. We examine the degradation process in two cork oak woodlands...

  12. Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Poison Ivy/Oak/Sumac Print A A A The oil in poison ivy /oak/sumac plants (called urushiol ) can cause ...

  13. Industrial sand and gravel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolley, T.P.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic production of industrial sand and gravel in 2012 was about 49.5 Mt (55 million st), increasing 13 percent compared with that of 2011. Some important end uses for industrial sand and gravel include abrasives, filtration, foundry, glassmaking, hydraulic fracturing sand (frac sand) and silicon metal applications.

  14. Cork oak woodlands patchiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Augusta; Madeira, Manuel; Plieninger, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The cork oak (Quercus suber L.) woodlands of the agroforestry landscapes of Southwestern Iberia are undergoing drastic change due to severe natural and anthropogenic disturbances. These may eventually result in woodland loss or deforestation, the final step of an ongoing process of woodland degra...

  15. Management of oak forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löf, Magnus; Brunet, Jörg; Filyushkina, Anna

    2016-01-01

    uses. Management for the production of high-value timber species like oaks and management to conserve biodiversity, or for cultural services can be in conflict with each other. This study evaluates the capacity of three contrasting management regimes to provide societies with economic revenue from...

  16. Eastern Scheldt Sand, Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, A. T; Madsen, E. B.; Schaarup-Jensen, A. L.

    The present data report contains data from 13 drained triaxial tests, performed on two different sand types in the Soil Mechanics Laboratory at Aalborg University in March, 1997. Two tests have been performed on Baskarp Sand No. 15, which has already ken extensively tested in the Soil Mechanics...... Laboratory. The remaining 11 triaxial tests have ben performed on Eastern Scheldt Sand, which is a material not yet investigated at the Soil Mechanics Laboratory. In the first pari of this data report, the characteristics of the two sand types in question will be presented. Next, a description...

  17. Oak mortality associated with crown dieback and oak borer attack in the Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhaofei Fan; John M. Kabrick; Martin A. Spetich; Stephen R. Shifley; Randy G. Jensen

    2008-01-01

    Oak decline and related mortality have periodically plagued upland oak–hickory forests, particularly oak species in the red oak group, across the Ozark Highlands of Missouri, Arkansas and Oklahoma since the late 1970s. Advanced tree age and periodic drought, as well as Armillaria root fungi and oak borer attack are believed to contribute to oak decline and mortality....

  18. Influence green sand system by core sand additions

    OpenAIRE

    N. Špirutová; J. Beňo; V. Bednářová; J. Kříž; M. Kandrnál

    2012-01-01

    Today, about two thirds of iron alloys casting (especially for graphitizing alloys of iron) are produced into green sand systems with usually organically bonded cores. Separation of core sands from the green sand mixture is very difficult, after pouring. The core sand concentration increase due to circulation of green sand mixture in a closed circulation system. Furthermore in some foundries, core sands have been adding to green sand systems as a replacement for new sands. The goal of this co...

  19. Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Marianne; Hedegaard, Jette

    The Soil Mechanics Laboratory has started performing tests with a new sand, Baskarp No 15. Baskarp No 15 is a graded sand from Sweden. The shapes of the largest grains are round, while the small grains have sharp edges. The main part of of Baskarp No 15 is quarts, but it also contains feldspar...... and biotit. Mainly the sand will be used for tests concerning the development og the theory of building up pore pressure in sand, L. B. Ibsen 1993....

  20. Lund Sand No 0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Jakobsen, Finn Rosendal

    During the last 15 years the Geotechnical Engineering Group (GEG) at Aalborg University has performed triaxial tests with a sand called Lund No 0. Lund No 0 is a graded sand from a gravel pit near Horsens in Denmark. For the classification of the sand the following tests have been performed: Sieve...

  1. Linking irreplaceable landforms in a self-organizing landscape to sensitivity of population vital rates for an ecological specialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg, Wade A; Hill, Michael T; Painter, Charles W; Fitzgerald, Lee A

    2015-06-01

    Irreplaceable, self-organizing landforms and the endemic and ecologically specialized biodiversity they support are threatened globally by anthropogenic disturbances. Although the outcome of disrupting landforms is somewhat understood, little information exists that documents population consequences of landform disturbance on endemic biodiversity. Conservation strategies for species dependent upon landforms have been difficult to devise because they require understanding complex feedbacks that create and maintain landforms and the consequences of landform configuration on demography of species. We characterized and quantified links between landform configuration and demography of an ecological specialist, the dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus), which occurs only in blowouts (i.e., wind-blown sandy depressions) of Shinnery oak (Quercus havardii) sand-dune landforms. We used matrix models to estimate vital rates from a multisite mark-recapture study of 6 populations occupying landforms with different spatial configurations. Sensitivity and elasticity analyses demonstrated demographic rates among populations varied in sensitivity to different landform configurations. Specifically, significant relationships between blowout shape complexity and vital rate elasticities suggested direct links between S. arenicolus demography and amount of edge in Shinnery oak sand-dune landforms. These landforms are irreplaceable, based on permanent transition of disturbed areas to alternative grassland ecosystem states. Additionally, complex feedbacks between wind, sand, and Shinnery oak maintain this landform, indicating restoration through land management practices is unlikely. Our findings that S. arenicolus population dynamics depended on landform configuration suggest that failure to consider processes of landform organization and their effects on species' population dynamics may lead to incorrect inferences about threats to endemic species and ineffective habitat

  2. The red oak - white oak forests of the Anthracite Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. F. Burnham; M. J. Ferree; F. E. Cunningham

    1947-01-01

    The red oak - white oak forests of the Anthracite Region occupy as substantial portion - 28.6 percent or 915,200 acres - of the region's 3,198,400 acres of forest land. These forests have been so heavily cut for lumber and mine timbers during the past 100 years and have been so badly ravaged by fire following these heavy cuttings that in their present condition...

  3. Influence green sand system by core sand additions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Špirutová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, about two thirds of iron alloys casting (especially for graphitizing alloys of iron are produced into green sand systems with usually organically bonded cores. Separation of core sands from the green sand mixture is very difficult, after pouring. The core sand concentration increase due to circulation of green sand mixture in a closed circulation system. Furthermore in some foundries, core sands have been adding to green sand systems as a replacement for new sands. The goal of this contribution is: “How the green sand systems are influenced by core sands?”This effect is considered by determination of selected technological properties and degree of green sand system re-bonding. From the studies, which have been published yet, there is not consistent opinion on influence of core sand dilution on green sand system properties. In order to simulation of the effect of core sands on the technological properties of green sands, there were applied the most common used technologies of cores production, which are based on bonding with phenolic resin. Core sand concentration added to green sand system, was up to 50 %. Influence of core sand dilution on basic properties of green sand systems was determined by evaluation of basic industrial properties: moisture, green compression strength and splitting strength, wet tensile strength, mixture stability against staling and physical-chemistry properties (pH, conductivity, and loss of ignition. Ratio of active betonite by Methylene blue test was also determined.

  4. Sands cykliske styrke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1992-01-01

    Sands cykliske styrke kan beskrives ved Cyclic Liquefaction, Mobilisering, Stabilization og Instant Stabilization. I artiklen beskrives hvorfor Stabilization og Instant Stabilization ikke observeres, når sands udrænede styrke undersøges i triaxial celler, der anvender prøver med dobbelt prøvehøjde....

  5. Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Bødker, Lars Bødker

    The Soil Mechanics Laboratory has started performing tests with a new sand, Baskarp No 15. Baskarp No 15 is a graded sand from Sweden. The shapes of the largest grains are round, while the small grains have sharp edges. The main part of of Baskarp No 15 is quarts, but it also contains feldspar...

  6. Sand and Gravel Deposits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a statewide polygon coverage of sand, gravel, and stone resources. This database includes the best data available from the VT Agency of Natural...

  7. Sand and Gravel Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes sand and gravel operations in the United States. These data were obtained from information reported voluntarily to the USGS by the aggregate...

  8. Vestled - Hvide Sande

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel-Christiansen, Carsten; Hesselbjerg, Marianne; Schønherr, Torben

    2009-01-01

    Værket Vestled i Hvide Sande præsenteret i sammenhæng af 1000 nutidige landskabsarkitektoniske arbejder fra hele verden, hvor hvert værk vises på én side......Værket Vestled i Hvide Sande præsenteret i sammenhæng af 1000 nutidige landskabsarkitektoniske arbejder fra hele verden, hvor hvert værk vises på én side...

  9. Sustaining northern red oak forests: managing oak from regeneration to canopy dominance in mature stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Gary W. Miller; John M. Kabrick

    2008-01-01

    Across the range of northern red oak, managers have problems sustaining current stocking of northern red oak in forests. Oak species are adapted to frequent stand disturbances that reduce the abundance of shade tolerant competitors and control fast-growing pioneer species. A widely recommended approach to regenerating northern red oak is to develop relatively large...

  10. Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 2004 with the mission of standing up a supercomputer 100 times...

  11. MECHANICAL REGENERATION OF SAND WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Gnir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental activation of the sand regenerator of the firm SINTO is carried out at ОАО “MZOO". It is shown that sand grains are cleared from films of binding agents, that allows to use the treated sand for preparation of agglutinant and core sands.

  12. Contact allergy to oak moss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernard, Guillaume; Giménez-Arnau, Elena; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra

    2003-01-01

    a method developed for the identification of contact allergens present in natural complex mixtures to oak moss absolute. The method is based on the combination of bioassay-guided chemical fractionation, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and structure-activity relationship studies. Our first......In addition to pure synthetic fragrance materials several natural extracts are still in use in the perfume industry. Among them oak moss absolute, prepared from the lichen Evernia prunastri (L.) Arch., is considered a major contact sensitizer and is therefore included in the fragrance mix used...

  13. The Hibernation of the oak Mildew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerling, L.C.P.

    1966-01-01

    The oak mildew invaded Western Europa in the years 1908 and 1909. Since then this parasite, Microsphaera alphitoides Griff. & Maubl. (syn. M. quercina (Schw.) Burr.) has occurred regularly in the Netherlands on oak seedlings and oak coppice, mainly Quercus pedunculata Ehr. (syn. Q. robur L. ). After

  14. Oaks belowground: mycorrhizas, truffles, and small mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan Frank; Seth Barry; Joseph Madden; Darlene Southworth

    2008-01-01

    Oaks depend on hidden diversity belowground. Oregon white oaks (Quercus garryana) form ectomycorrhizas with more than 40 species of fungi at a 25-ha site. Several of the most common oak mycorrhizal fungi form hypogeous fruiting bodies or truffles in the upper layer of mineral soil. We collected 18 species of truffles associated with Oregon white...

  15. Quercus kelloggii Newb., California black oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.M. McDonald

    1990-01-01

    California black oak (Quercus kelloggii) exceeds all other California oaks in volume, distribution, and altitudinal range. Yet this deciduous hardwood has had little sustained commercial use and almost no management, even though its wood closely resembles that of its valuable, managed, and heavily used counterpart-northern red oak (...

  16. Bituminous sands : tax issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, B. [PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This paper examined some of the tax issues associated with the production of bitumen or synthetic crude oil from oil sands. The oil sands deposits in Alberta are gaining more attention as the supplies of conventional oil in Canada decline. The oil sands reserves located in the Athabasca, Cold Lake and Peace River areas contain about 2.5 trillion barrels of highly viscous hydrocarbons called bitumen, of which nearly 315 billion barrels are recoverable with current technology. The extraction method varies for each geographic area, and even within zones and reservoirs. The two most common extraction methods are surface mining and in-situ extraction such as cyclic steam stimulation (CSS); low pressure steam flood; pressure cycle steam drive; steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD); hot water flooding; and, fire flood. This paper also discussed the following general tax issues: bituminous sands definition; bituminous sands leases and Canadian development expense versus Canadian oil and gas property expense (COGPE); Canadian exploration expense (CEE) for surface mining versus in-situ methods; additional capital cost allowance; and, scientific research and experimental development (SR and ED). 15 refs.

  17. Oak Ridge callibration recall program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falter, K.G.; Wright, W.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pritchard, E.W. [Oak Ridge Centers for Manufacturing Technology, TN (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    A development effort was initiated within the Oak Ridge metrology community to address the need for a more versatile and user friendly tracking database that could be used across the Oak Ridge complex. This database, which became known as the Oak Ridge Calibration Recall Program (ORCRP), needed to be diverse enough for use by all three Oak Ridge facilities, as well as the seven calibration organizations that support them. Various practical functions drove the initial design of the program: (1) accessible by any user at any site through a multi-user interface, (2) real-time database that was able to automatically generate e-mail notices of due and overdue measuring and test equipment, (3) large memory storage capacity, and (4) extremely fast data access times. In addition, the program needed to generate reports on items such as instrument turnaround time, workload projections, and laboratory efficiency. Finally, the program should allow the calibration intervals to be modified, based on historical data. The developed program meets all of the stated requirements and is accessible over a network of computers running Microsoft Windows software.

  18. Acorn production in red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey

    1995-01-01

    Manipulation of stand stocking through thinning can increase the amount of oak in the upper crown classes and enhance individual tree characteristics that promote good acorn production. Identification of good acorn producers before thinning or shelterwood harvests can be used to retain them in a stand. Stocking charts can be used to time thinnings and to estimate acorn...

  19. Poison ivy - oak - sumac rash

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to identify poison ivy, oak, and sumac. Teach children to identify them as soon as they are able to learn about these plants. Remove these plants if they grow near your home (but never burn them). Be aware of plant resins carried by ...

  20. Lund Sand No 0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Jakobsen, Finn Rosendal

    During the last 15 years the Geotechnical Engineering Group (GEG) at Aalborg University has performed triaxial tests with a sand called Lund No 0. Lund No 0 is a graded sand from a gravel pit near Horsens in Denmark. For the classification of the sand the following tests have been performed: Sieve...... test, Grain density, ds, Maximum, emax, and minimum, emin, void ratio. The strength parameters of Lund No 0 are detennined by some drained and undrained triaxial tests in the Danish Triaxial Cell. The Danish Triaxial Cell prescribes smooth pressure heads and specimens with equal height and diameter....... Four series with Id equal to 0.92, 0.87 0.76 and 0.55 have been performed....

  1. UK Frac Sand Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, C J

    2015-01-01

    Although still just a glimmer in the gas man’s eye, the prospect of shale hydrocarbon (oil and gas) development in the UK has many companies thinking about the industrial minerals it will require. Chief amongst these is silica sand which is used as a ‘proppant’ in the hydraulic fracturing, or ‘fracking’, of shales to help release the gas. The UK has large resources of sand and sandstone, of which only a small proportion have the necessary technical properties that classify them as ‘silica san...

  2. Building with Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Children playing in damp sand invariably try to make a tower or a tunnel. By providing experiences with a variety of materials, alone and together, teachers set up the conditions for children to learn through their senses and ensure that a class approaches a topic with a common set of experiences to build on. Learning about the properties of…

  3. Faraday, Jets, and Sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandtke, M.; van der Meer, Roger M.; Versluis, Andreas Michel; Lohse, Detlef

    2003-01-01

    When a 6-mm layer of fine sand with an average grain size of 40 µm is poured into a cylindrical container and shaken vertically, thin jets are seen to emerge from an airy cloud of grains, almost like protuberances from the corona of the sun. A quasi two-dimensional setup reveals the jet-formation

  4. Building with Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    Children playing in damp sand invariably try to make a tower or a tunnel. By providing experiences with a variety of materials, alone and together, teachers set up the conditions for children to learn through their senses and ensure that a class approaches a topic with a common set of experiences to build on. Learning about the properties of…

  5. Speleothems and Sand Castles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hance, Trevor; Befus, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The idea of building sand castles evokes images of lazy summer days at the beach, listening to waves crash, enjoying salty breezes, and just unplugging for a while to let our inner child explore the wonderful natural toys beneath our feet. The idea of exploring caves might evoke feelings and images of claustrophobia or pioneers and Native…

  6. Virksomhedens sande ansigt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundholt, Marianne Wolff

    2017-01-01

    Er modhistorier en byrde eller en styrke i forandringsprocesser? Hvad stiller vi op, når adgangen til organisationens sande identitet går gennem medarbejdernes modhistorier? Når vi sammenholder denne erkendelse med vores viden om, at medarbejdere helt naturligt afholder sig fra at videregive disse...

  7. Sand (CSW4)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Estuarine and Coastal Research Unit

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available This report is one of a series on Cape Estuaries being published under the general title "The Estuaries of the Cape, Part 2". The report provides information on sand estuary: historical background, abiotic and biotic characteristics. It is pointed...

  8. Sand supply to beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Troels

    2017-04-01

    In most cases, beaches and dunes are built by sand that has been transported onshore from the shoreface. While this has been known for a long time, we are still not able to quantitatively predict onshore sediment transport and sand supply to beaches. Sediment transport processes operating during brief, high-energy stormy conditions - when beaches erode and sand moves offshore - are fairly well known and they can be modelled with a reasonable degree of confidence. However, the slower onshore sand transport leading to beach recovery under low-to-moderate energy conditions - and the reason why beaches and dunes exist in the first place - is not yet well understood. This severely limits our capability to understand and predict coastal behaviour on long time scales, for example in response to changing sea level or wave conditions. This paper will discuss issues and recent developments in sediment transport measurement and prediction on the lower and upper shoreface and into the swash zone. The focus will be on the integration and upscaling of small-scale deterministic process measurements into parametric models that may increase modelling capabilities of coastal behaviour on larger temporal and spatial scales.

  9. Erosion phenomena in sand moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chojecki

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Authors studicd the erosion phcnorncna in sand moulds pured with cast iron. Thc study comprises an evaluation of erosionresistance of thc three sands: grccn sand. sand bondcd with inorganic or organic bindcr. It was concluded that thc most resistant is [heclassic green sand with thc addition of 5 B coal dust. Resistance of the sand with organic binder is generally weak and dcvnds onkind of used raisin. Spccinl nztcntion was paid to the sands with no organic bindcr watcr glass and phospha~c. It was Sound that thcirrcsistance depends on dehydratation conditions. When the mould is stored in law humidity of atmosphcrc the very strong crosion canbe expected. It rcsul ts hrn thc micro fractures in the bridges of binders, joining the grains of the sable. This phcnomcna facilitates thetearing away of fragments of sand [tom the surface

  10. On Pluvial Compaction of Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Moust

    At the Institute of Civil Engineering in Aalborg model tests on dry sand specimens have been carried out during the last five years. To reduce deviations in test results, the sand laying technique has been carefully studied, and the sand mass spreader constructed. Preliminary results have been...

  11. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, C.; Pearce, J.; Zucker, A. (eds.)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents brief descriptions of the following programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: The effects of pollution and climate change on forests; automation to improve the safety and efficiency of rearming battle tanks; new technologies for DNA sequencing; ORNL probes the human genome; ORNL as a supercomputer research center; paving the way to superconcrete made with polystyrene; a new look at supercritical water used in waste treatment; and small mammals as environmental monitors.

  12. Cork oak (Quercus suber L.) site rating

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Ana Cristina; Saraiva Dias, Susana; Gonçalves Ferreira, Alfredo; Ribeiro, Nuno de Almeida

    2004-01-01

    Alentejo cork oak stands are crucial in terms of cork production and sustainability of agrosilvopastoral systems, therefore the development of a tool that allows site zoning, according to cork oak establishment and growth potentials is worthwhile. The site potential and consequently tree development are mainly governed by soil characteristics such as depth, permeability, chemistry, internal drainage, runoff and climate characteristics such as precipitation and temperature. A cork oak site-rat...

  13. Sand hazards on tourist beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggie, Travis W

    2013-01-01

    Visiting the beach is a popular tourist activity worldwide. Unfortunately, the beach environment is abundant with hazards and potential danger to the unsuspecting tourist. While the traditional focus of beach safety has been water safety oriented, there is growing concern about the risks posed by the sand environment on beaches. This study reports on the death and near death experience of eight tourists in the collapse of sand holes, sand dunes, and sand tunnels. Each incident occurred suddenly and the complete burial in sand directly contributed to the victims injury or death in each case report.

  14. Oak wilting in Slovakia. [Ophiostoma; ceratocystis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecontovyc, R.; Capek, M.

    1987-03-01

    Wilt disease, a tracheomykosis, is triggered and spread by a complex of detrimental factors involving both natural and anthropogenic environmental influences. These developments and their impact on the health of the oaks are discussed separately. The inadequate water supply, which has multiple causes, leads to outbreaks of phytophagous and xylophagus insect pests; these insects predispose the oak stands to mycosis infection and may even function as vectors. Oak wilt disease-causing fungi of the genera Ophiostoma/Ceratocystis are listed and their different effect on the various oak species as well as measures to combat them presented.

  15. Long-term lesser prairie-chicken nest ecology in response to grassland management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritts, Sarah R.; Grisham, Blake A.; Haukos, David A.; Boal, Clint W.; Patten, Michael; Wolfe, Don H.; Dixon, Charles; Cox, Robert D.; Heck, Willard R.

    2016-01-01

    Long-term population and range declines from habitat loss and fragmentation caused the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) to be a species of concern throughout its range. Current lesser prairie-chicken range in New Mexico and Texas is partially restricted to sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii; hereafter shinnery oak) prairies, on which cattle grazing is the main socioeconomic driver for private landowners. Cattle producers within shinnery oak prairies often focus land management on shrub eradication using the herbicide tebuthiuron to promote grass production for forage; however, herbicide application alone, and in combination with grazing, may affect nest site selection and nest survival of lesser prairie-chickens through the reduction of shinnery oak and native grasses. We used a controlled, paired, completely randomized design study to assess the influence of grazing and tebuthiuron application and their combined use on nest site selection and nest survival from 2001 to 2010 in Roosevelt County, New Mexico, USA at 2 spatial scales (i.e., treatment and microhabitat) in 4 treatments: tebuthiuron with grazing, tebuthiuron without grazing, no tebuthiuron with grazing, and a control of no tebuthiuron and no grazing. Grazing treatment was a short-duration system in which plots were grazed once during the dormant season and once during the growing season. Stocking rate was calculated each season based on measured forage production and applied to remove ≤25% of available herbaceous material per season. At the treatment scale, we compared nest site selection among treatments using 1-way χ2 tests and nest survival among treatments using a priori candidate nest survival models in Program MARK. At the microhabitat scale, we identified important habitat predictors of nest site selection and nest survival using logistic regression and a priori candidate nest survival models in Program MARK, respectively. Females typically used treatments as expected and

  16. PROCESSING OF MONAZITE SAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, G.D.; Bohlmann, E.G.

    1957-12-01

    A process for the recovery of thorium, uranium, and rare earths from monazite sands is presented. The sands are first digested and dissolved in concentrated NaOH, and the solution is then diluted causing precipitation of uranium, thorium and rare earth hydroxides. The precipitate is collected and dissolved in HCl, and the pH of this solution is adjusted to about 6, precipitating the hydroxides of thorium and uranium but leaving the rare earths in solution. The rare earths are then separated from the solution by precipitation at a still higher pH. The thorium and uranium containing precipitate is redissolved in HNO/sub 3/ and the two elements are separated by extraction into tributyl phosphate and back extraction with a weakly acidic solution to remove the thorium.

  17. Moving sand dunes

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    In several desert areas, the slow motion of sand dunes can be a challenge for modern human activities and a threat for the survival of ancient places or archaeological sites. However, several methods exist for surveying the dune fields and estimate their migration rate. Among these methods, the use of satellite images, in particular of those freely available on the World Wide Web, is a convenient resource for the planning of future human settlements and activities.

  18. Booming Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, Nathalie

    "Booming" sand dunes are able to produce low-frequency sound that resembles a pure note from a music instrument. The sound has a dominant audible frequency (70-105 Hz) and several higher harmonics and may be heard from far distances away. A natural or induced avalanche from a slip face of the booming dune triggers the emission that may last for several minutes. There are various references in travel literature to the phenomenon, but to date no scientific explanation covered all field observations. This thesis introduces a new physical model that describes the phenomenon of booming dunes. The waveguide model explains the selection of the booming frequency and the amplification of the sound in terms of constructive interference in a confined geometry. The frequency of the booming is a direct function of the dimensions and velocities in the waveguide. The higher harmonics are related to the higher modes of propagation in the waveguide. The experimental validation includes quantitative field research at the booming dunes of the Mojave Desert and Death Valley National Park. Microphone and geophone recordings of the acoustic and seismic emission show a variation of booming frequency in space and time. The analysis of the sensor data quantifies wave propagation characteristics such as speed, dispersion, and nonlinear effects and allows the distinction between the source mechanism of the booming and the booming itself. The migration of sand dunes results from a complicated interplay between dune building, wind regime, and precipitation. The morphological and morphodynamical characteristics of two field locations are analyzed with various geophysical techniques. Ground-penetrating radar images the subsurface structure of the dunes and reveal a natural, internal layering that is directly related to the history of dune migration. The seismic velocity increases abruptly with depth and gradually increases with downhill position due to compaction. Sand sampling shows local

  19. Sediment mathematical model for sand ridges and sand waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Daming; WANG Xiao; WANG Xin; LI Yangyang

    2016-01-01

    A new theoretical model is formulated to describe internal movement mechanisms of the sand ridges and sand waves based on the momentum equation of a solid-liquid two-phase flow under a shear flow. Coupling this equation with two-dimensional shallow water equations and wave reflection-diffraction equation of mild slope, a two-dimensional coupling model is established and a validation is carried out by observed hydrogeology, tides, waves and sediment. The numerical results are compared with available observations. Satisfactory agreements are achieved. This coupling model is then applied to the Dongfang 1-1 Gas Field area to quantitatively predict the movement and evolution of submarine sand ridges and sand waves. As a result, it is found that the sand ridges and sand waves movement distance increases year by year, but the development trend is stable.

  20. Occupational poison ivy and oak dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, W L

    1994-07-01

    Among the growing and diverse groups of outdoor and environmental workers, poison ivy and poison oak continue to be the major cause of occupational contact dermatitis. This article reviews the practical and theoretic means to prevent poison ivy and poison oak dermatitis in workers occupationally exposed to these weeds.

  1. Compressive behavior of fine sand.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Bradley E. (Air Force Research Laboratory, Eglin, FL); Kabir, Md. E. (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN); Song, Bo; Chen, Wayne (Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN)

    2010-04-01

    The compressive mechanical response of fine sand is experimentally investigated. The strain rate, initial density, stress state, and moisture level are systematically varied. A Kolsky bar was modified to obtain uniaxial and triaxial compressive response at high strain rates. A controlled loading pulse allows the specimen to acquire stress equilibrium and constant strain-rates. The results show that the compressive response of the fine sand is not sensitive to strain rate under the loading conditions in this study, but significantly dependent on the moisture content, initial density and lateral confinement. Partially saturated sand is more compliant than dry sand. Similar trends were reported in the quasi-static regime for experiments conducted at comparable specimen conditions. The sand becomes stiffer as initial density and/or confinement pressure increases. The sand particle size become smaller after hydrostatic pressure and further smaller after dynamic axial loading.

  2. Sand dollar sites orogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Dee

    2013-04-01

    The determinology of the humble sand dollars habitat changing from inception to the drastic evolution of the zone to that of present day. Into the cauldron along the southern Californian 'ring of fire' lithosphere are evidence of geosynclinals areas, metasedimentary rock formations and hydrothermal activity. The explanation begins with 'Theia' and the Moon's formation, battles with cometary impacts, glacial ages, epochs with evolutionary bottlenecks and plate tectonics. Fully illustrated the lecture includes localised diagrams and figures with actual subject photographic examples of plutonic, granitic, jade and peridodite. Finally, the origins of the materials used in the lecture are revealed for prosecution by future students and the enjoyment of interested parties in general.

  3. Sand Storms Trigger Alarm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ After an unusually humid winter with at least 10 snowfalls in Beijing, a severe andstorm blown by strong winds bringing with it thousands of tons of desert sand took many residents of the city by surprise.On the morning of March 20, Beijingers woke up to see clouds of yellow dust in the air and a sky that was an ominous orange in color.The loose soil and dust that had traveled htmdreds of miles from deserts in Mongolia and China's northwest blanketed Beijing's streets, covering parked vehicles, bikes, roofs and even plant life,as well as making its way into people's homes.

  4. Fortune Cookie Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-432, 25 July 2003This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a field of small barchan sand dunes in the north polar region near 71.7oN, 51.3oW. Some of them are shaped like fortune cookies. The message these dunes provide: winds blow through this region from the lower right toward the upper left. The steep slip face slopes of these dunes, which point toward the upper left, indicate the wind direction. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the upper right. The image is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  5. A family of sand automata

    CERN Document Server

    Faulkner, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    We study some dynamical properties of a family of two-dimensional cellular automata: those that arise from an underlying one dimensional sand automaton whose local rule is obtained using a latin square. We identify a simple sand automaton G whose local rule is algebraic, and classify this automaton as having equicontinuity points, but not being equicontinuous. We also show it is not surjective. We generalise some of these results to a wider class of sand automata.

  6. Dilatometric Characterization of Foundry Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Břuska

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this contribution is summary of physical – chemistry properties of usually used foundry silica and no – silica sands in Czech foundries. With the help of dilatometry analysis theoretical assumptions of influence of grain shape and size on dilatation value of sands were confirmed. Determined was the possibility of dilatometry analysis employment for preparing special (hybrid sands with lower and/or more linear character of dilatation.

  7. Triaxial tests in Fontainebleau sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latini, Chiara; Zania, Varvara

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this internal report is to examine the influence of relative density on the strength and deformation characteristics of Fontainebleau sand. Compression triaxial tests were performed on saturated sand samples with different densities and initial confining pressure. Note that the tes......The purpose of this internal report is to examine the influence of relative density on the strength and deformation characteristics of Fontainebleau sand. Compression triaxial tests were performed on saturated sand samples with different densities and initial confining pressure. Note...... that the testing procedure and the data processing were carried out according to the specifications of ETCS-F1.97....

  8. Oak moss extracts in the diagnosis of fragrance contact allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Heydorn, Siri; Menné, Torkil

    2002-01-01

    Oak moss absolute is one of the eight ingredients of the fragrance mix (FM) used for diagnosing perfume allergy. Oak moss absolute is an extract prepared from the lichen Evernia prunastri growing on oak trees. It has been shown that the oak moss patch test material from one producer contained resin...

  9. A sand wave simulation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nemeth, A.A.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.; Damme, van R.M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Sand waves form a prominent regular pattern in the offshore seabeds of sandy shallow seas. A two dimensional vertical (2DV) flow and morphological numerical model describing the behaviour of these sand waves has been developed. The model contains the 2DV shallow water equations, with a free water su

  10. Regeneration of dredged sand waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Knaapen, Michiel; Scholl, Olaf; Scholl, O.; Trenteseaux., A.; Garlan, T.

    2000-01-01

    Sand waves form a wavy pattern in the offshore sandy seabed. Since their crests reduce the navigability, it is important to know their evolution. A simple model is presented to estimate the recovery of sand wave amplitudes. This model is partially based on the similarity with sea ripples and

  11. Namibia : triaxial test on sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfelt, Jørgen S.; Jacobsen, Kim P.

    In connection with a harbour project the friction angle of a fine sand is required. On Friday 13 March 1998 the Danish Geotechnical Institute (DGI) delivered app. 2.5 kg sand for testing at the Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University. The present Data Report summarises the results...

  12. Sand swimming lizard: sandfish

    CERN Document Server

    Maladen, Ryan D; Kamor, Adam; Goldman, Daniel I

    2009-01-01

    We use high-speed x-ray imaging to reveal how a small (~10cm) desert dwelling lizard, the sandfish (Scincus scincus), swims within a granular medium [1]. On the surface, the lizard uses a standard diagonal gait, but once below the surface, the organism no longer uses limbs for propulsion. Instead it propagates a large amplitude single period sinusoidal traveling wave down its body and tail to propel itself at speeds up to ~1.5 body-length/sec. Motivated by these experiments we study a numerical model of the sandfish as it swims within a validated soft sphere Molecular Dynamics granular media simulation. We use this model as a tool to understand dynamics like flow fields and forces generated as the animal swims within the granular media. [1] Maladen, R.D. and Ding, Y. and Li, C. and Goldman, D.I., Undulatory Swimming in Sand: Subsurface Locomotion of the Sandfish Lizard, Science, 325, 314, 2009

  13. 2010 oil sands performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    With the depletion of traditional energy resources and the rising demand for energy, oil sands have become an important energy resource for meeting energy needs. Oil sands are a mixture of water, sand, clay and bitumen which is recovered either through open pit mining or in situ drilling techniques. The bitumen is then converted into syncrude or sold to refineries for the production of gasoline, diesel or other products. Shell has oil sands operations in Alberta and the aim of this report is to present its 2010 performance in terms of CO2, water, tailings, land, and reclamation and engagement. This document covers several of Shell's operations in the Muskeg River and Jackpine mines, Scotford upgrader, Peace River, Orion, Seal, Cliffdale and Chipmunk. It provides useful information on Shell's oil sands performance to governments, environmental groups, First Nations, local communities and the public.

  14. Sand harm in taklimakan Desert highway and sand control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HANZhiwen; WANGTao; SUNQingwei; DONGZhibao; WANGXunming

    2003-01-01

    Reputed as a wonderful achievement of the world’s highway construction history,the Taklimakan Desert highway is nor facing serious sand drift encroachment problems due to its 447-km-long passage of sand sea consisting of crescent dunes,barchan chains,compound transverse dune ridges and complex megadunes.To solve some technical problems in the protection of the highway from sang drift encroachment,desert experts have been conducting the theoretical and applied studies on sand movement laws;causes,severities and time-space differentiation of sand drift damages;and control ways including mechanical,chemical and biological measures.In this paper the authors give an overall summry on the research contents and recent progress in the control of sand drift damages in China and hold that the theoretical researc results and practices in the prevention of sand drift encroachment on the cross-desert highway represnt a breakthrough and has an cpoch-making significance.Since the construction of protective forest along the cross-desert highway requires large amount of ground water,what will be its environmental consequence and whether it can effectively halt sand drift encroachment on the highway forever are the questions to be studied urgently.

  15. Oak Ridge TNS Program: system description manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, R.L.; Becraft, W.R.; Brown, T.G.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Sardella, C.; Shannon, T.E.; Steiner, D.; Wells, W.M.; Wiseman, G.W.

    1979-05-01

    This document provides a systems description of the Reference Design for The Next Step (TNS) evolved at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during FY 1978. The description is presented on the basis of 24 individual device and facility systems. Additional information on these systems, the Reference Design, and the FY 1978 Oak Ridge TNS activities can be found in the associated technical memoranda, ORNL/TM-6720 and ORNL/TM-6722--ORNL/TM-6733.

  16. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R. (eds.)

    1990-10-01

    This two-volume report, the Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental Report for 1989, is the nineteenth in an annual series that began in 1971. It reports the results of a comprehensive, year-round program to monitor the impact of operations at the three major US Department of Energy (DOE) production and research installations in Oak Ridge on the immediate areas' and surrounding region's groundwater and surface waters, soil, air quality, vegetation and wildlife, and through these multiple and varied pathways, the resident human population. Information is presented for the environmental monitoring Quality Assurance (QA) Program, audits and reviews, waste management activities, land special environmental studies. Data are included for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP). Volume 1 presents narratives, summaries, and conclusions based on environmental monitoring at the three DOE installations and in the surrounding environs during calendar year (CY) 1989. Volume 1 is intended to be a stand-alone'' report about the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for the reader who does not want an in-depth review of 1989 data. Volume 2 presents the detailed data from which these conclusions have been drawn and should be used in conjunction with Volume 1.

  17. Sand engine quells the coast's hunger for sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, T.

    2012-01-01

    An artificial peninsula at Ter Heijde is designed to feed the coast with sediment. Scientists are investigating whether this kind of sand engine could be the Netherlands’ answer to rising sea levels.

  18. Sand engine quells the coast's hunger for sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dijk, T.

    2012-01-01

    An artificial peninsula at Ter Heijde is designed to feed the coast with sediment. Scientists are investigating whether this kind of sand engine could be the Netherlands’ answer to rising sea levels.

  19. Spectroscopic characterization of a Nigerian standard sand: Igbokoda sand

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ojuri, OO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available the Middle Ordovician St. Peter Sandstone near Ottawa, Illinois, had been picked by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) as the reference sand to employ in testing cement and strength of concrete [9]. To the best of our knowledge... and magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques due to its importance in cement, geotechnical/geo-environmental research in Nigeria. This should halt importation of standard silica sand for mortar and concrete testing...

  20. Saltation of Non-Spherical Sand Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengshi; Ren, Shan; Huang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Saltation is an important geological process and the primary source of atmospheric mineral dust aerosols. Unfortunately, no studies to date have been able to precisely reproduce the saltation process because of the simplified theoretical models used. For example, sand particles in most of the existing wind sand movement models are considered to be spherical, the effects of the sand shape on the structure of the wind sand flow are rarely studied, and the effect of mid-air collision is usually neglected. In fact, sand grains are rarely round in natural environments. In this paper, we first analyzed the drag coefficients, drag forces, and starting friction wind speeds of sand grains with different shapes in the saltation process, then established a sand saltation model that considers the coupling effect between wind and the sand grains, the effect of the mid-air collision of sand grains, and the effect of the sand grain shape. Based on this model, the saltation process and sand transport rate of non-spherical sand particles were simulated. The results show that the sand shape has a significant impact on the saltation process; for the same wind speed, the sand transport rates varied for different shapes of sand grains by as much as several-fold. Therefore, sand shape is one of the important factors affecting wind-sand movement. PMID:25170614

  1. Winter habitat use and survival of lesser prairie-chickens in West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirius, Nicholas E.; Boal, Clint W.; Haukos, David A.; Wallace, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    The lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) has experienced declines in population and occupied range since the late 1800s and is currently proposed for Federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. Populations and the distribution of lesser prairie-chickens in Texas, USA, are thought to be at or near all-time lows. Currently, there is a paucity of data on the wintering ecology of the species. We measured home range, habitat use, and survival of lesser prairie-chickens during the non-breeding seasons (1 Sep-28 Feb) of 2008-2009, 2009-2010, and 2010-2011 in sand shinnery oak (Quercus havardii) landscapes in the West Texas panhandle region. Home range size did not differ among years or between females (503 ha) andmales (489 ha). Over 97% of locations of both male and female prairie-chickens were within 3.2 km of the lek of capture, and 99.9% were within 3.2 km of an available water source (i.e., livestock water tank). Habitat cover types were not used proportional to occurrence within the home ranges; grassland-dominated areas with co-occurring sand shinnery oak were used more than available, but sand sagebrush (Artemisia filifolia)-dominated areas with grassland and sand sagebrush-dominated areas with bare ground were both used less than available. Survival rates during the first 2 non-breeding seasons (>80%) were among the highest reported for the species. However, survival during the third non-breeding season was only 57%, resulting in a 3-year average of 72%. It does not appear that non-breeding season mortality is a strong limiting factor in lesser prairie-chicken persistence in the study area.

  2. Reclaimability of the spent sand mixture – sand with bentonite – sand with furfuryl resin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dańko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of new binding materials and new technologies of their hardening in casting moulds and cores production requires theapplication of reclamation methods adequate to their properties as well as special devices realizing tasks. The spent sands circulationsystem containing the same kind of moulding and core sands is optimal from the point of view of the expected reclamation results.However, in the face of a significant variability of applied technologies and related to them various reclamation methods, the need - of theobtained reclamation products assessment on the grounds of systematic criteria and uniform bases – arises, with a tendency of indicatingwhich criteria are the most important for the given sand system. The reclaimability results of the mixture of the spent moulding sand withGeko S bentonite and the spent core sand with the Kaltharz 404U resin hardened by acidic hardener 100 T3, are presented in the paper.Investigations were performed with regard to the estimation of an influence of core sands additions (10 –25% on the reclaimed materialquality. Dusts and clay content in the reclaim, its chemical reaction (pH and ignition loss were estimated. The verification of the reclaiminstrumental assessment was performed on the basis of the technological properties estimation of moulding sand with bentonite, where the reclaimed material was used as a matrix.

  3. Fire in upper Midwestern oak forest ecosystems: an oak forest restoration and management handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee E. Frelich; Peter B. Reich; David W. Peterson

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed the literature to synthesize what is known about the use of fire to maintain and restore oak forests, woodlands, and savannas of the upper Midwestern United States, with emphasis on Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan. Included are (1) known physical and ecological effects of fire on oaks from acorn through seedling, established sapling, and mature stages of...

  4. Comparison of oak and sugar maple distribution and regeneration in central Illinois upland oak forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Frey; Scott J. Meiners

    2014-01-01

    Changes in disturbance frequencies, habitat fragmentation, and other biotic pressures are allowing sugar maple (Acer saccharum) to displace oak (Quercus spp.) in the upland forest understory. The displacement of oaks by sugar maples represents a major management concern throughout the region. We collected seedling microhabitat data...

  5. Transpiration of oak trees in the oak savannas of the Southwestern Borderlands region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Cody L. Stropki; Aaron T. Kauffman; Gerald J. Gottfried

    2008-01-01

    Transpiration of oak trees on the Cascabel watersheds in the savannas on the eastern slope of the Peloncillo Mountains in southwestern New Mexico has been estimated by the sap-flow method. Transpiration represents the largest loss of gross precipitation falling on a watershed in approximations of water budgets for the more densely stocked oak woodlands of the...

  6. Management recommendations: Sand Lake Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review of land management practices at the Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge, by a land use specialist. Recommendations, time frame and...

  7. The development of an aquatic spill model for the White Oak Creek watershed, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.O.

    1996-05-01

    This study develops an aquatic spill model applicable to the White Oak Creek watershed draining the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hazardous, toxic, and radioactive chemicals are handled and stored on the laboratory reservation. An accidental spill into the White Oak Creek watershed could contaminate downstream water supplies if insufficient dilution did not occur. White Oak Creek empties into the Clinch River, which flows into the Tennessee River. Both rivers serve as municipal water supplies. The aquatic spill model provides estimates of the dilution at sequential downstream locations along White Oak creek and the Clinch River after an accidental spill of a liquid containing a radioactively decaying constituent. The location of the spill on the laboratory is arbitrary, while hydrologic conditions range from drought to extreme flood are simulated. The aquatic spill model provides quantitative estimates with which to assess water quality downstream from the site of the accidental spill, allowing an informed decision to be made whether to perform mitigating measures so that the integrity of affected water supplies is not jeopardized.

  8. Working and Learning Among California Oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietje, B.; Gingg, B.; Zingo, J.; Huntsinger, L.

    2009-04-01

    With tremendous support from collaborators and enthusiastic volunteers, "Learning Among the Oaks" at the historic Santa Margarita Ranch has become a favorite outdoor learning experience for hundreds of Santa Margarita School students, along with their teachers and families. Oaks are at the center of this unique and cost effective public education program. From getting to know local oaks to exploring conservation issues within the context of a historic working cattle ranch, students take pride in expanding their awareness and knowledge of the local oak woodland community. Santa Margarita School families representing the varied demographics of the community come together on the trail. For many, the program provides a first opportunity to get to know those who make a living on the land and to understand that this land around their school is more than a pretty view. "Learning Among the Oaks" also addresses the need for quality, hands-on science activities and opportunities to connect children with the outdoor world. Using a thematic approach and correlating lessons with State Science Standards, we've engaged students in a full-spectrum of exciting outdoor learning adventures. As students progress through the grades, they find new challenges within the oak trail environment. We've succeeded in establishing an internship program that brings highly qualified, enthusiastic university students out to practice their science teaching skills while working with elementary school students. In the future, these university student interns may assist with the development of interpretive displays, after-school nature activities and monitoring projects. We've benefited from proximity to Cal Poly State University and its "learn-by-doing" philosophy. We've also succeeded in building a dedicated network of volunteers and collaborators, each with a special interest satisfied through participation in the oak trail program. While "Learning Among the Oaks" has focused on educating school

  9. Photosynthetic efficiency of Pedunculate oak seedlings under simulated water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Zorica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic performance of seedlings of Quercus robur exposed to short-term water stress in the laboratory conditions was assessed through the method of induced fluorometry. The substrate for seedlings was clayey loam, with the dominant texture fraction made of silt, followed by clay and fine sand, with total porosity 68.2%. Seedlings were separated in two groups: control (C (soil water regime in pots was maintained at the level of field water capacity and treated (water-stressed, WS (soil water regime was maintained in the range of wilting point and lentocapillary capacity. The photosynthetic efficiency was 0.642±0.25 and 0.522±0.024 (WS and C, respectively, which was mostly due to transplantation disturbances and sporadic leaf chlorosis. During the experiment Fv/Fm decreased in both groups (0.551±0.0100 and 0.427±0.018 in C and WS, respectively. Our results showed significant differences between stressed and control group, in regard to both observed parameters (Fv/Fm and T½. Photosynthetic efficiency of pedunculate oak seedlings was significantly affected by short-term water stress, but to a lesser extent than by sufficient watering.

  10. Phylogeographical Variation of Chloroplast DNA in Cork Oak (Quercus suber)

    OpenAIRE

    Lumaret, Roselyne; TRYPHON-DIONNET, MATHIEU; MICHAUD, HENRI; SANUY, AURÉLIE; IPOTESI, EMILIE; Born, Céline; MIR, CÉLINE

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims In the last decades, the geographical location of the centre of origin of Quercus suber (cork oak), a strictly western Mediterranean oak species, has been the subject of controversy.

  11. Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.; Suter, G.W.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located in the White Oak Creek Watershed and is composed of White Oak Creek Embayment, White Oak Lake and associated floodplain, and portions of White Oak Creek (WOC) and Melton Branch downstream of ORNL facilities. Contaminants leaving other ORNL WAGs in the WOC watershed pass through WAG 2 before entering the Clinch River. Health and ecological risk screening analyses were conducted on contaminants in WAG 2 to determine which contaminants were of concern and would require immediate consideration for remedial action and which contaminants could be assigned a low priority or further study. For screening purposes, WAG 2 was divided into four geographic reaches: Reach 1, a portion of WOC; Reach 2, Melton Branch; Reach 3, White Oak Lake and the floodplain area to the weirs on WOC and Melton Branch; and Reach 4, the White Oak Creek Embayment, for which an independent screening analysis has been completed. Screening analyses were conducted using data bases compiled from existing data on carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic contaminants, which included organics, inorganics, and radionuclides. Contaminants for which at least one ample had a concentration above the level of detection were placed in a detectable contaminants data base. Those contaminants for which all samples were below the level of detection were placed in a nondetectable contaminants data base.

  12. Disturbance of the inclined inserting-type sand fence to wind-sand flow fields and its sand control characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jian-jun; Lei, Jia-qiang; Li, Sheng-yu; Wang, Hai-feng

    2016-06-01

    The inclined inserting-type sand fence is a novel sand retaining wall adopted along the Lanxin High-Speed Railway II in Xinjiang for controlling and blocking sand movement. To verify the effectiveness of the new fence structure for sand prevention, a wind tunnel test was used for flow field test simulation of the sand fence. The results indicate that the inclined inserting-type sand fence was able to deflect the flow of the sand and was able to easily form an upward slant acceleration zone on the leeward side of the sand fence. As shown by the percentage change in sand collection rates on the windward side and the leeward side of the sand fence, the sand flux per unit area at 4 m height in the slant upward direction increased on the leeward side of the inclined inserting-type sand fence. By comparing the flow fields, this site is an acceleration zone, which also reaffirms the correspondence of wind-sand flow fields with the spatial distribution characteristic of the wind-carried sand motion. The field sand collection data indicates that under the effects of the inclined inserting-type sand fence, the sandy air currents passing in front and behind the sand fence not only changed in quality, but the grain composition and particle size also significantly changed, suggesting that the inclined inserting-type sand fence has a sorting and filtering effect on the sandy air currents that passed through. The fence retained coarse particulates on the windward side and fine particulates within the shade of the wind on the leeward side.

  13. Optimal array of sand fences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Izael A; Araújo, Ascânio D; Parteli, Eric J R; Andrade, José S; Herrmann, Hans J

    2017-03-24

    Sand fences are widely applied to prevent soil erosion by wind in areas affected by desertification. Sand fences also provide a way to reduce the emission rate of dust particles, which is triggered mainly by the impacts of wind-blown sand grains onto the soil and affects the Earth's climate. Many different types of fence have been designed and their effects on the sediment transport dynamics studied since many years. However, the search for the optimal array of fences has remained largely an empirical task. In order to achieve maximal soil protection using the minimal amount of fence material, a quantitative understanding of the flow profile over the relief encompassing the area to be protected including all employed fences is required. Here we use Computational Fluid Dynamics to calculate the average turbulent airflow through an array of fences as a function of the porosity, spacing and height of the fences. Specifically, we investigate the factors controlling the fraction of soil area over which the basal average wind shear velocity drops below the threshold for sand transport when the fences are applied. We introduce a cost function, given by the amount of material necessary to construct the fences. We find that, for typical sand-moving wind velocities, the optimal fence height (which minimizes this cost function) is around 50 cm, while using fences of height around 1.25 m leads to maximal cost.

  14. Comparative analysis of some bioecological characteristics of Hungarian oak and Turkey oak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukin Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an in-depth study of some bioecological characteristics of the Hungarian and Turkey oak, autochthonous oak species and edificators of climatogenic communities of central Serbia. Today, these forest complexes are mostly of coppice origin and as such, they require implementation of reclamation operations. In order to determine biological dominance, select the optimal reclamation operations and finally improve the state of these forests, we studied the environmental conditions, stand state, development and position of individual trees in a mixed coppice stand of Hungarian and Turkey oak in a suburban zone of the city of Belgrade.

  15. Oak woodland conservation management planning in southern CA - lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi Dagit

    2015-01-01

    The California Oak Woodlands Conservation Act (AB 242 2001) established requirements for the preservation and protection of oak woodlands and trees, and allocated funding managed by the Wildlife Conservation Board. In order to qualify to use these funds, counties and cities need to adopt an oak conservation management plan. Between 2008 and 2011, a team of concerned...

  16. Managing California black oak for tribal ecocultural restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan W. Long; Ron W. Goode; Raymond J. Gutteriez; Jessica J. Lackey; M. Kat Anderson

    2017-01-01

    Many tribes in California and Oregon value California black oak (Quercus kelloggii) as a traditional source of food and other values. Over centuries or millennia, Native Americans learned that they could enhance production of desired resources by regularly igniting low-intensity surface fires in stands of black oak. Although black oak is likely to...

  17. Fire in Eastern North American Oak Ecosystems: Filling the Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian (Morgan) Varner; Mary Arthur; Stacy Clark; Daniel C. Dey; Justin Hart; Callie Schweitzer

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of Fire Ecology is focused on the fire ecology of eastern USA oak (Quercus L.) forests, woodlands, and savannas. The papers were presented as part of the Fifth Fire in Eastern Oak Forests Conference in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA, in 2015. The topic of fire in eastern oak ecosystems is one that has received insufficient interest from the...

  18. The economic drivers behind residential conversion in the oak woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Stewart; James Spero; Shawn Saving

    2008-01-01

    Acre for acre, oak woodlands provide habitats for a greater range of wildlife species than grasslands and irrigated agricultural lands. Oak woodlands also are highly valued as open space around residential development. The rich habitat diversity and the physical attractiveness drives residential interest in living in or adjacent to oak woodlands as well as preservation...

  19. Flood tolerance of oak seedlings from bottomland and upland sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael P. Walsh; Jerry Van Sambeek; Mark Coggeshall; David. Gwaze

    2009-01-01

    Artificial regeneration of oak species in floodplains presents numerous challenges because of the seasonal flooding associated with these areas. Utilizing not only flood-tolerant oak species, but also flood tolerant seed sources of the oak species, may serve to enhance seedling survival and growth rates. Despite the importance of these factors to hardwood forest...

  20. Sands at Gusev Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol, Nathalie A.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Knoll, Andrew H.; Farmer, Jack D.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Grin, E.A.; Li, Ron; Fenton, Lori; Cohen, B.; Bell, J.F.; Yingst, R. Aileen

    2014-01-01

    Processes, environments, and the energy associated with the transport and deposition of sand at Gusev Crater are characterized at the microscopic scale through the comparison of statistical moments for particle size and shape distributions. Bivariate and factor analyses define distinct textural groups at 51 sites along the traverse completed by the Spirit rover as it crossed the plains and went into the Columbia Hills. Fine-to-medium sand is ubiquitous in ripples and wind drifts. Most distributions show excess fine material, consistent with a predominance of wind erosion over the last 3.8 billion years. Negative skewness at West Valley is explained by the removal of fine sand during active erosion, or alternatively, by excess accumulation of coarse sand from a local source. The coarse to very coarse sand particles of ripple armors in the basaltic plains have a unique combination of size and shape. Their distribution display significant changes in their statistical moments within the ~400 m that separate the Columbia Memorial Station from Bonneville Crater. Results are consistent with aeolian and/or impact deposition, while the elongated and rounded shape of the grains forming the ripples, as well as their direction of origin, could point to Ma'adim Vallis as a possible source. For smaller particles on the traverse, our findings confirm that aeolian processes have dominated over impact and other processes to produce sands with the observed size and shape patterns across a spectrum of geologic (e.g., ripples and plains soils) and aerographic settings (e.g., wind shadows).

  1. An ecologically based approach to oak silviculture: a synthesis of 50 years of oak ecosystem research in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Alejandro A. Royo; Patrick H. Brose; Todd F. Hutchinson; Martin A. Spetich; Scott H. Stoleson

    2010-01-01

    Oak (Quercus L.) is an abundant and widely distributed genus in eastern North America. A history of periodic fire, grazing, canopy disturbance and timber harvesting has favored oak's dominance. But, changes in this regime toward much less fire or complete fire suppression, and selective cutting are causing the successional replacement of oak....

  2. The oak woodland bird conservation plan: a strategy for protecting and managing oak woodland habitats and associated birds in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Zack; Mary K. Chase; Geoffrey R. Geupel

    2002-01-01

    Over 330 species of birds, mammals, reptiles, and amphibians depend on oak woodlands in California at some stage in their life cycle. California oak woodlands may rank among the top three habitat types in North America for bird richness. Oak woodlands are able to sustain such abundant wildlife primarily because they produce acorns, a high quality and frequently copious...

  3. Extended Cold Testing of a Russian Pulsating Mixer Pump at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, BE

    2002-12-23

    The effectiveness of a mixer is dependent on the size of the tank to be mixed, the characteristics of the waste, and the operating conditions. Waste tanks throughout the U.S. Department of Energy Complex require mixing and mobilization systems capable of (1) breaking up and suspending materials that are difficult to mix and pump, without introducing additional liquids into the tank; (2) complementing and augmenting the performance of other remotely operated and/or robotic waste retrieval systems; and (3) operating in tanks with various quantities of waste. The Oak Ridge Russian pulsating mixer pump (PMP) system was designed with the flexibility to permit deployment in a variety of cylindrical tanks. The PMP was installed at the Tanks Technology Cold Test Facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assess the performance of the system over an extended range of operating conditions, including supply pressures up to 175 psig. Previously conducted cold tests proved the applicability of the PMP for deployment in ORNL gunite tank TH-4. The previous testing and hot demonstrations had been limited to operating at air supply pressures of <100 psig. The extended cold testing of the Russian PMP system showed that the system was capable of mobilizing waste simulants in tanks in excess of 20-ft diam. The waste simulant used in these tests was medium-grain quartz sand. The system was successfully installed, checked out, and operated for 406 pulse discharge cycles. Only minor problems (i.e., a sticking air distributor valve and a few system lockups) were noted. Some improvements to the design of the air distributor valve may be needed to improve reliability. The air supply requirements of the PMP during the discharge cycle necessitated the operation of the system in single pulse discharge cycles to allow time for the air supply reservoir to recharge to the required pressure. During the test program, the system was operated with sand depths of 2, 4, and 4.5 in.; at

  4. Macrofungi diversity in cork-oak and holm-oak Woodlands in Alentejo (Southern Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Santos-Silva,Celeste; Louro, Rogério

    2011-01-01

    With the purpose of contributing to a better knowledge of the Portuguese mycota, a compilation study of the macrofungal diversity of cork-oak and holm-oak woodlands (montado/dehesas) of Alentejo, Southern Portugal was made. This work is based on a series of macrofungi surveys, carried out by the authors, between 2005 and 2011, in six representative sites. Taxonomy and nomenclature follows Kirk et al. (2001) and Kirk (2004-2011). Current species distribution was consulted in: online intern...

  5. How oaks respond to water limitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael F. Allen

    2015-01-01

    Oaks are extremely resilient trees. They have persisted since the mid-Cretaceous, with life forms ranging from shrubs to large trees, from evergreen to deciduous. They have two distinct, but critical, adaptations to drought that make this "mesic" taxon adaptable to dry hot environments. First, they form both arbuscular and ectotrophic mycorrhizae, with a high...

  6. Chloroplast DNA variation of northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne Romero-Severson; Preston Aldrich; Yi Feng; Weilin Sun; Charles Michler

    2003-01-01

    Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variation was examined in 48 northern red oaks at 14 sites representing contrasting glacial histories and age structures within the state of Indiana in the United States. PCR-RFLP of three intergenic regions revealed five haplotypes. Haplotype I was common to seven sites and was the most frequent (17 trees). Haplotype II was common to five sites...

  7. Oak Ridge reservation land-use plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibb, W. R.; Hardin, T. H.; Hawkins, C. C.; Johnson, W. A.; Peitzsch, F. C.; Scott, T. H.; Theisen, M. R.; Tuck, S. C.

    1980-03-01

    This study establishes a basis for long-range land-use planning to accommodate both present and projected DOE program requirements in Oak Ridge. In addition to technological requirements, this land-use plan incorporates in-depth ecological concepts that recognize multiple uses of land as a viable option. Neither environmental research nor technological operations need to be mutually exclusive in all instances. Unique biological areas, as well as rare and endangered species, need to be protected, and human and environmental health and safety must be maintained. The plan is based on the concept that the primary use of DOE land resources must be to implement the overall DOE mission in Oak Ridge. This document, along with the base map and overlay maps, provides a reasonably detailed description of the DOE Oak Ridge land resources and of the current and potential uses of the land. A description of the land characteristics, including geomorphology, agricultural productivity and soils, water courses, vegetation, and terrestrial and aquatic animal habitats, is presented to serve as a resource document. Essentially all DOE land in the Oak Ridge area is being fully used for ongoing DOE programs or has been set aside as protected areas.

  8. Consort contact dermatitis due to oak moss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, J L; Ruszkowski, A M; Deleo, V A

    1988-02-01

    An allergic contact dermatitis in a woman was found to be due to oak moss in her husband's after-shave lotion. When routine patch testing reveals a positive reaction, the dermatologist should consider exposure to the antigen not only in the patient but also through contact with the patient's consort.

  9. Oak Ridge Reservation Waste Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, J.W. [ed.

    1995-02-01

    This report presents the waste management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation facilities. The primary purpose is to convey what facilities are being used to manage wastes, what forces are acting to change current waste management systems, and what plans are in store for the coming fiscal year.

  10. DPTM simulation of aeolian sand ripple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Aeolian sand ripple and its time evolution are simulated by the discrete particle tracing method (DPTM) presented in this paper. The difference between this method and the current methods is that the former can consider the three main factors relevant to the formation of natural aeolian sand ripples,which are the wind-blown sand flux above the sand bed formed by lots of sand particles with different di-ameters,the particle-bed collision and after it the rebound and ejection of sand particles in the sand bed,the saltation of high-speed sand particles and the creep of low-speed sand particles,respectively. The simulated aeolian sand ripple is close to the natural sand ripple not only in basic shape and characteristic,particle size segregation and stratigraphy,but also in formation stages. In addition,three important speeds can be obtained by this method,which are the propagation speed of the saturated aeolian sand ripple and the critical frictional wind speeds of emergence and disappearance of sand ripple.

  11. DPTM simulation of aeolian sand ripple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG XiaoJing; BO TianLi; XIE Li

    2008-01-01

    Aeolian sand ripple and its time evolution are simulated by the discrete particle tracing method (DPTM) presented in this paper.The difference between this method and the current methods is that the former can consider the three main factors relevant to the formation of natural aeolian sand ripples, which are the wind-blown sand flux above the sand bed formed by lots of sand particles with different di-ameters, the particle-bed collision and after it the rebound and ejection of sand particles in the sand bed, the saltation of high-speed sand particles and the creep of low-speed sand particles, respectively.The simulated aeolian sand ripple is close to the natural sand ripple not only in basic shape and characteristic, particle size segregation and stratigraphy, but also in formation stages.In addition, three important speeds can be obtained by this method, which are the propagation speed of the saturated aeolian sand ripple and the critical frictional wind speeds of emergence and disappearance of sand ripple.

  12. Dry reusing and wet reclaiming of used sodium silicate sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of used sodium silicate sand and the different use requirements for recycled sand, "dry reusing and wet reclaiming of used sodium silicate sand" is considered as the most suitable technique for the used sand. When the recycled sand is used as support sand, the used sand is only reused by dry process including breaking, screening, dust-removal, etc., and it is not necessary that the used sand is reclaimed with strongly rubbing and scraping method, but when the recycled sand is used as facing sand (or single sand), the used sand must be reclaimed by wet method for higher removal rate of the residual binders. The characteristics and the properties of the dry reused sand are compared with the wet reclaimed sand after combining the different use requirements of support sand and facing sand (or single sand), and above the most adaptive scheme has also been validated.

  13. Seismic hazard evaluation for Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservations, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, R.K.; Toro, G.F. [Risk Engineering, Inc., Golden, CO (United States); Hunt, R.J. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Center for Natural Phenomena Engineering

    1992-09-30

    This study presents the results of an investigation of seismic hazard at the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservations (K-25 Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratories, and Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant), located in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Oak Ridge is located in eastern Tennessee, in an area of moderate to high historical seismicity. Results from two separate seismic hazard analyses are presented. The EPRI/SOG analysis uses the input data and methodology developed by the Electric Power Research Institute, under the sponsorship of several electric utilities, for the evaluation of seismic hazard in the central and eastern United States. The LLNL analysis uses the input data and methodology developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Both the EPRI/SOG and LLNL studies characterize earth-science uncertainty on the causes and characteristics of earthquakes in the central and eastern United States. This is accomplished by considering multiple hypotheses on the locations and parameters of seismic source zones and by considering multiple attenuation functions for the prediction of ground shaking given earthquake size and location. These hypotheses were generated by multiple expert teams and experts. Furthermore, each team and expert was asked to generate multiple hypotheses in order to characterize his own internal uncertainty. The seismic-hazard calculations are performed for all hypotheses. Combining the results from each hypothesis with the weight associated to that hypothesis, one obtains an overall representation of the seismic hazard at the Oak Ridge site and its uncertainty.

  14. Sand and Water Table Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ann H.; White, Mary J.; Stone, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    The authors observed preschoolers engaged at the sand and water table to determine if math could be found within their play. Wanting to understand how children interact with provided materials and what kinds of math ideas they explore during these interactions, the authors offer practical examples of how such play can promote mathematical…

  15. Sand and Water Table Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Ann H.; White, Mary J.; Stone, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    The authors observed preschoolers engaged at the sand and water table to determine if math could be found within their play. Wanting to understand how children interact with provided materials and what kinds of math ideas they explore during these interactions, the authors offer practical examples of how such play can promote mathematical…

  16. Impact on sand and water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann, R.P.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate the impact of a body on sand and water. When a body impacts a free surface in the inertial regime the series of events is the following: On impact material is blown away in all directions and an impact cavity forms. Due to the hydrostatic pressure from the sides the cav

  17. Silo model tests with sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Andersen, Jørgen

    Tests have been carried out in a large silo model with Leighton Buzzard Sand. Normal pressures and shear stresses have been measured during tests carried out with inlet and outlet geometry. The filling method is a very important parameter for the strength of the mass and thereby the pressures...

  18. experimental studies of sand production from unconsolidated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ES Obe

    Production of sand during oil and gas exploration causes severe operational prob- ... duction such as risk of well failure, erosion of pipelines and surface facilities, sand separa- tion and disposal ... ment, theoretical and numerical analysis have.

  19. UK silica sand resources for fracking

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive

    2013-01-01

    UK silica sand resources for fracking Clive Mitchell, Industrial Minerals Specialist, British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, NG12 5GG Email: Silica sand is high purity quartz sand that is mainly used for glass production, as foundry sand, in horticulture, leisure and other industrial uses. One specialist use is as a ‘proppant’ to enhance oil and gas recovery. This presentation will focus on this application, particularly for shale gas recovery where it is mo...

  20. White Oak Creek watershed: Melton Valley area Remedial Investigation report, at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 2, Appendixes A and B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This document contains Appendixes A ``Source Inventory Information for the Subbasins Evaluated for the White Oak Creek Watershed`` and B ``Human Health Risk Assessment for White Oak Creek / Melton Valley Area`` for the remedial investigation report for the White Oak Creek Watershed and Melton Valley Area. Appendix A identifies the waste types and contaminants for each subbasin in addition to the disposal methods. Appendix B identifies potential human health risks and hazards that may result from contaminants present in the different media within Oak Ridge National Laboratory sites.

  1. Real-Time Mass Spectrometry Monitoring of Oak Wood Toasting: Elucidating Aroma Development Relevant to Oak-aged Wine Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Ross R.; Wellinger, Marco; Gloess, Alexia N.; Nichols, David S.; Breadmore, Michael C.; Shellie, Robert A.; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2015-11-01

    We introduce a real-time method to monitor the evolution of oak aromas during the oak toasting process. French and American oak wood boards were toasted in an oven at three different temperatures, while the process-gas was continuously transferred to the inlet of a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer for online monitoring. Oak wood aroma compounds important for their sensory contribution to oak-aged wine were tentatively identified based on soft ionization and molecular mass. The time-intensity profiles revealed toasting process dynamics illustrating in real-time how different compounds evolve from the oak wood during toasting. Sufficient sensitivity was achieved to observe spikes in volatile concentrations related to cracking phenomena on the oak wood surface. The polysaccharide-derived compounds exhibited similar profiles; whilst for lignin-derived compounds eugenol formation differed from that of vanillin and guaiacol at lower toasting temperatures. Significant generation of oak lactone from precursors was evident at 225 oC. Statistical processing of the real-time aroma data showed similarities and differences between individual oak boards and oak wood sourced from the different origins. This study enriches our understanding of the oak toasting process and demonstrates a new analytical approach for research on wood volatiles.

  2. Treating tar sands formations with karsted zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX)

    2010-03-09

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may have one or more karsted zones. Methods may include providing heat from one or more heaters to one or more karsted zones of the tar sands formation to mobilize fluids in the formation. At least some of the mobilized fluids may be produced from the formation.

  3. Sand Waves. Report 1. Sand Wave Shoaling in Navigation Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    heights range from 0.8 m in the Minas Basin, Bay of Fundy (Dalrymple 1984) to 6.0 m in the Bahia Blanca Estuary, Argentina (Aliotta and Perillo 1987...26 PART IV: SITE-SPECIFIC SAND WAVE SHOALING PROBLEMS .. ........ 30 Columbia River Navigation Channel ........ ............... .. 30 Panama ...problem location discussed in this report is at St. Andrew Bay near Panama City, Florida. A relatively short section of the jettied inlet channel requires

  4. Relationships between biotic and abiotic factors and regeneration of chestnut oak, white oak, and northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songlin Fei; Kim C. Steiner; James C. Finley; Marc E. McDill

    2003-01-01

    A series of substantial field surveys of 38 mixed-oak stands in central Pennsylvania were carried out during 1996-2000. All the stands were surveyed 1 year prior to harvest, and 16 stands have been surveyed 1 year after harvest. Three abiotic factors at stand scale, four abiotic factors at plot scale, and two biotic factors and one abiotic factor at subplot scale was...

  5. Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, October 1990--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borders, D.M.; Gregory, S.M.; Clapp, R.B.; Frederick, B.J.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-06-01

    This report summarizes for the 15-month period of October 1990-- December 1991 the available dynamic hydrologic data collected, primarily on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, along with information collected on the surface flow systems that affect the quality or quantity of surface water. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to: (1) characterize the quantity and quality of water in the flow systems; (2) assist with the planning and assessment of remedial action activities; and, (3) provide long-term availability of data and quality assurance. Characterization of the hydrology of the WOC watershed is critical for understanding the processes that drive contaminant transport in the watershed. Identification of spatial and temporal trends in hydrologic parameters and mechanisms that affect the movement of contaminants supports the development of interim corrective measures and remedial restoration alternatives. In addition, hydrologic monitoring supports long-term assessment of the effectiveness of remedial actions in limiting the transport of contaminants across Waste Area Grouping (WAG) boundaries and ultimately to the off-site environment. For these reasons, it is of paramount importance to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) to collect and report hydrologic data activities that contribute to the Site Investigations component of the ERP. (White Oak Creek is also referred to as Whiteoak'' Creek).

  6. Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, October 1990--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borders, D.M.; Gregory, S.M.; Clapp, R.B.; Frederick, B.J.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-06-01

    This report summarizes for the 15-month period of October 1990-- December 1991 the available dynamic hydrologic data collected, primarily on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, along with information collected on the surface flow systems that affect the quality or quantity of surface water. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to: (1) characterize the quantity and quality of water in the flow systems; (2) assist with the planning and assessment of remedial action activities; and, (3) provide long-term availability of data and quality assurance. Characterization of the hydrology of the WOC watershed is critical for understanding the processes that drive contaminant transport in the watershed. Identification of spatial and temporal trends in hydrologic parameters and mechanisms that affect the movement of contaminants supports the development of interim corrective measures and remedial restoration alternatives. In addition, hydrologic monitoring supports long-term assessment of the effectiveness of remedial actions in limiting the transport of contaminants across Waste Area Grouping (WAG) boundaries and ultimately to the off-site environment. For these reasons, it is of paramount importance to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) to collect and report hydrologic data activities that contribute to the Site Investigations component of the ERP. (White Oak Creek is also referred to as ``Whiteoak`` Creek).

  7. METHOD OF PROCESSING MONAZITE SAND

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welt, M.A.; Smutz, M.

    1958-08-26

    A process is described for recovering thorium, uranium, and rare earth values from monazite sand. The monazite sand is first digested with sulfuric acid and the resulting "monazite sulfate" solution is adjusted to a pH of between 0.4 and 3.0, and oxalate anions are added causing precipitation of the thorium and the rare earths as the oxalates. The oxalate precipitate is separated from the uranium containing supernatant solution, and is dried and calcined to the oxides. The thorium and rare earth oxides are then dissolved in nitric acid and the solution is contacted with tribntyl phosphate whereby an organic extract phase containing the cerium and thorium values is obtained, together with an aqueous raffinate containing the other rare earth values. The organic phase is then separated from the aqueous raffinate and the cerium and thorium are back extracted with an aqueous medium.

  8. Marketing for Oak Ridge technology transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prosser, G.A.

    1989-06-15

    Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., which manages major research and production facilities in Oak Ridge, Tennessee for the Department of Energy, has implemented a systematic approach to marketing for technology transfer. Unique mechanisms have been created to address the need for market research and analysis, strategy formulation, and the execution of plans designed to engender the broadest commercial use of government-funded technologies. Establishment of formal ties with the University of Tennessee Graduate School of Business has resulted in an expanded role for marketing in support of the Oak Ridge program. The creation of graduate research positions has enabled MBA students to contribute to, and learn from, a program which is at the forefront of an important national initiative.

  9. A Review of Polyphenolics in Oak Woods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenolics, which are ubiquitous in plants, currently are among the most studied phytochemicals because of their perceptible chemical properties and antioxidant activity. Oak barrels and their alternatives, which are widely used in winemaking nowadays, contribute polyphenolics to wines and are thought to play crucial roles in the development of wines during aging. This study summarizes the detailed information of polyphenolics in oak woods and their products by examining their structures and discussing their chemical reactions during wine aging. This paper evaluates the most recent developments in polyphenolic chemistry by summarizing their extraction, separation, and their identification by the use of chromatographic and spectral techniques. In addition, this paper also introduces polyphenol bioactive ingredients in other plant foods.

  10. Characterization of sand lenses embedded in tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessler, Timo Christian; Klint, K.E.S.; Nilsson, B.

    2012-01-01

    of the various types of sand lenses is discussed, primarily in relation to the depositional and glaciotectonic processes they underwent. Detailed characterization of sand lenses facilitates such interpretations. Finally, the observations are linked to a more general overview of the distribution of sand lenses......Tills dominate large parts of the superficial sediments on the Northern hemisphere. These glacial diamictons are extremely heterogeneous and riddled with fractures and lenses of sand or gravel. The frequency and geometry of sand lenses within tills are strongly linked to glaciodynamic processes...... occurring in various glacial environments. This study specifically focuses on the appearance and spatial distribution of sand lenses in tills. It introduces a methodology on how to measure and characterize sand lenses in the field with regard to size, shape and degree of deformation. A set of geometric...

  11. A compact topology for sand automata

    CERN Document Server

    Dennunzio, Alberto; Masson, Benoît

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we exhibit a strong relation between the sand automata configuration space and the cellular automata configuration space. This relation induces a compact topology for sand automata, and a new context in which sand automata are homeomorphic to cellular automata acting on a specific subshift. We show that the existing topological results for sand automata, including the Hedlund-like representation theorem, still hold. In this context, we give a characterization of the cellular automata which are sand automata, and study some dynamical behaviors such as equicontinuity. Furthermore, we deal with the nilpotency. We show that the classical definition is not meaningful for sand automata. Then, we introduce a suitable new notion of nilpotency for sand automata. Finally, we prove that this simple dynamical behavior is undecidable.

  12. Rheological Characterization of Green Sand Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud; Spangenberg, Jon; Hovad, Emil

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to characterize experimentally the flow behaviour of the green sand that is used for casting of sand moulds. After the sand casting process is performed, the sand moulds are used for metal castings. The rheological properties of the green sand is important to quantify...... module for characterizing granular materials. The new module enables viscosity measurements of the green sand as function of the shear rate at different flow rates, i.e. 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 15 L/min. The results show generally that the viscosity decreases with both the shear- and flow rate....... In addition, the measurements show that the green sand flow follows a shear-thinning behaviour even after the full fluidization point....

  13. Silo model tests with sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch-Andersen, Jørgen

    Tests have been carried out in a large silo model with Leighton Buzzard Sand. Normal pressures and shear stresses have been measured during tests carried out with inlet and outlet geometry. The filling method is a very important parameter for the strength of the mass and thereby the pressures...... as well as the flow pattern during discharge of the silo. During discharge a mixed flow pattern has been identified...

  14. Formation of Craters in Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanissra Boonyaleepun

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The diameter of craters formed by spheres of varying mass dropped into sand at low speed was studied. The relationship between the diameter of the crater formed and the kinetic energy of the projectile at impact was found to be of the same general form as that for planetary meteor craters. The relationship is shown to be a power law with exponent 0.17.

  15. Formation of Craters in Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanissra Boonyaleepun

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The diameter of craters formed by spheres of varying mass dropped into sand at low speed was studied. The relationship between the diameter of the crater formed and the kinetic energy of the projectile at impact was found to be of the same general form as that for planetary meteor craters. The relationship is shown to be a power law with exponent 0.17

  16. Thermal Properties of oil sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    LEE, Y.; Lee, H.; Kwon, Y.; Kim, J.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal recovery methods such as Cyclic Steam Injection or Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) are the effective methods for producing heavy oil or bitumen. In any thermal recovery methods, thermal properties (e.g., thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity) are closely related to the formation and expansion of steam chamber within a reservoir, which is key factors to control efficiency of thermal recovery. However, thermal properties of heavy oil or bitumen have not been well-studied despite their importance in thermal recovery methods. We measured thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and volumetric heat capacity of 43 oil sand samples from Athabasca, Canada, using a transient thermal property measurement instrument. Thermal conductivity of 43 oil sand samples varies from 0.74 W/mK to 1.57 W/mK with the mean thermal conductivity of 1.09 W/mK. The mean thermal diffusivity is 5.7×10-7 m2/s with the minimum value of 4.2×10-7 m2/s and the maximum value of 8.0×10-7 m2/s. Volumetric heat capacity varies from 1.5×106 J/m3K to 2.11×106 J/m3K with the mean volumetric heat capacity of 1.91×106 J/m3K. In addition, physical and chemical properties (e.g., bitumen content, electric resistivity, porosity, gamma ray and so on) of oil sand samples have been measured by geophysical logging and in the laboratory. We are now proceeding to investigate the relationship between thermal properties and physical/chemical properties of oil sand.

  17. Embryogenesis in Oak species. A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranzazu Gomez-Garay

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: A review on the propagation methods of four Quercus species, namely Q. suber, Q. robur, Q. ilex and Q. canariensis, through somatic embryogenesis and anther embryogenesis are presented.Area of study: The study comprises both Mediterranean and Atlantic oak species located in Spain.Material and Methods: Somatic embryogenesis was induced on immature zygotic embryos of diverse oak species, permitting the multiplication of half-sib families. Induction of haploid embryos and doubled haploids was assayed in both Q. suber and Q. ilex by temperature stress treatments of anthers containing late vacuolated microspores. The haploid origin of the anther embryos has been evaluated by quantitative nuclear DNA analysis through flow cytometry and by DNA microsatellite markers. Genetic transformation of cork oak has also been performed by means of Agrobacterium tumefaciens vectors. Proteomic analysis has been conducted to screen the diverse protein profiles followed by in vitro derived embryos during their development.Research highlights: Successful plant regeneration from both somatic and haploid embryos has been achieved. In the particular case of cork oak, doubled-haploid plants were obtained. Plantlets regenerated from selected parent trees through somatic embryogenesis were acclimated in the greenhouse and in the nursery, and were planted in an experimental plot in the field. Preliminary evaluation of the cork quality of the plants showed a good heritability correlation with the parent trees. This article revises the work of and is dedicated to Dr. M.A. Bueno, who devoted much of her professional life to the research on Biotechnology and Genetics of forest species, leading the Laboratory of Forest Biotechnology at the Spanish Institute of Agronomic Research (INIA.Key words: anther embryogenesis; microspore; pollen; Quercus canariensis; Quercus ilex; Quercus robur; Quercus suber; somatic embryogenesis. 

  18. ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory) 89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.D.; Appleton, B.R.; Jefferson, J.W.; Merriman, J.R.; Mynatt, F.R.; Richmond, C.R.; Rosenthal, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    This is the inaugural issues of an annual publication about the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Here you will find a brief overview of ORNL, a sampling of our recent research achievements, and a glimpse of the directions we want to take over the next 15 years. A major purpose of ornl 89 is to provide the staff with a sketch of the character and dynamics of the Laboratory.

  19. Some Chemical Compositional Changes in Miscanthus and White Oak Sawdust Samples during Torrefaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Richard Hess

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Torrefaction tests on miscanthus and white oak sawdust were conducted in a bubbling sand bed reactor to see the effect of temperature and residence time on the chemical composition. Process conditions for miscanthus and white oak sawdust were 250–350 °C for 30–120 min and 220–270 °C for 30 min, respectively. Torrefaction of miscanthus at 250 °C and a residence time of 30 min resulted in a significant decrease in moisture—about 82.68%—but the other components—hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and volatiles—changed only marginally. Increasing torrefaction temperatures to 350 °C with a residence time of 120 min further reduced the moisture content to 0.54%, with a significant decrease in the hydrogen, nitrogen, and volatiles by 58.29%, 14.28%, and 70.45%, respectively. Regression equations developed for the moisture, hydrogen, nitrogen, and volatile content of the samples with respect to torrefaction temperature and time have adequately described the changes in chemical composition based on R2 values of >0.82. Surface plots based on the regression equation indicate that torrefaction temperatures of 280–350 °C with residence times of 30–120 min can help reduce moisture, nitrogen, and volatile content from 1.13% to 0.6%, 0.27% to 0.23%, and 79% to 23%, with respect to initial values. Trends of chemical compositional changes in white oak sawdust are similar to miscanthus. Torrefaction temperatures of 270 °C and a 30 min residence time reduced the moisture, volatiles, hydrogen, and nitrogen content by about 79%, 17.88%, 20%, and 5.88%, respectively, whereas the carbon content increased by about 3.5%.

  20. Evaluation of Durability Parameters of Concrete with Manufacture Sand and River Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangoju, Bhaskar; Ramesh, G.; Bharatkumar, B. H.; Ramanjaneyulu, K.

    2017-06-01

    Most of the states in our country have banned sand quarrying from the river beds, causing a scarcity of natural river sand for the construction sector. Manufacture sand (M-sand) is one of the alternate solutions to replace the river sand (R-sand) in concrete. The main aim of the present study is to evaluate the durability parameters of concrete with M-sand when compared to that of concrete with R-sand. Corrosion of reinforcement is one of the main deteriorating mechanisms of reinforced concrete due to the ingress of chloride ions or carbon-di-oxide. For comparative evaluation of durability parameters, accelerated tests such as Rapid Chloride Permeability Test, Rapid Chloride Migration Test and accelerated carbonation test were carried out on specimens of R-sand and M-sand. All tests were carried out after 90 days of casting. Test results reveal that the durability parameters of the concrete with M-sand in chloride induced environment is relatively better than that of concrete with R-sand and hence is recommended to use M-sand as a replacement to R-sand.

  1. Sand deposit-detecting method and its application in model test of sand flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎伟; 房营光; 莫海鸿; 谷任国; 陈俊生

    2013-01-01

    Against the background of the sand-flow foundation treatment engineering of Guangzhou Zhoutouzui variable cross-section immersed tunnel, a kind of sand deposit-detecting method was devised on the basis of full-scale model test of sand-flow method. The real-time data of sand-deposit height and radius were obtained by the self-developed sand-deposit detectors. The test results show that the detecting method is simple and has high precision. In the use of sand-flow method, the sand-carrying capability of fluid is limited, and sand particles are all transported to the sand-deposit periphery through crater, gap and chutes after the sand deposit formed. The diffusion range of the particles outside the sand-deposit does not exceed 2.0 m. Severe sorting of sand particles is not observed because of the unique oblique-layered depositing process. The temporal and spatial distributions of gap and chutes directly affect the sand-deposit expansion, and the expansion trend of the average sand-deposit radius accords with quadratic time-history curve.

  2. Oak moss extracts in the diagnosis of fragrance contact allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Heydorn, Siri; Menné, Torkil

    2002-03-01

    Oak moss absolute is one of the eight ingredients of the fragrance mix (FM) used for diagnosing perfume allergy. Oak moss absolute is an extract prepared from the lichen Evernia prunastri growing on oak trees. It has been shown that the oak moss patch test material from one producer contained resin acids which are ingredients of another lichen, tree moss. Resin acids, e.g. abietic acid and dehydroabietic acid, are also the main allergens in colophonium. The aim of the study was to assess whether the contamination of oak moss absolute and thus the FM with resin acids had affected their diagnostic value so that they, instead of indicating fragrance allergy, had become indicators of allergy to resin acids and thus colophonium. Two studies were undertaken. First the relationship between patch test reactions to FM, oak moss absolute, both with contents of resin acids, and colophonium were assessed in 885 consecutive patients. A significant relationship between reactions to colophonium and FM was seen (p < 0.001) as well as a significant relationship between oak moss absolute and colophonium (p < 0.001). The relationship between colophonium and FM was still significant when all reactions to oak moss absolute were disregarded (p < 0.001), showing a relationship also between colophonium and fragrance ingredients other than oak moss absolute. Second, 119 consecutive patients were tested with an old and a new version of oak moss absolute containing resin acid (0.05%) and no measurable resin acid, respectively, and with the corresponding FM. No overall difference in reactivity to the old and new version of oak moss absolute/FM was seen. It is concluded the diagnostic value of oak moss absolute as indicator fragrance contact allergy has been and is unaffected by the resin acid contamination.

  3. 76 FR 78908 - Environmental Management Site-Specific Advisory Board, Oak Ridge Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ..., Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office, P.O. Box 2001, EM-90, Oak Ridge, TN 37831. Phone (865) 241... and Reuse. The speaker will be Brian Henry, DOE Oak Ridge. Public Participation: The EM SSAB,...

  4. US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Environmental Management Public Involvement Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This document was prepared in accordance with CERCLA requirements for writing community relations plans. It includes information on how the DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office prepares and executes Environmental Management Community relations activities. It is divided into three sections: the public involvement plan, public involvement in Oak Ridge, and public involvement in 1995. Four appendices are also included: environmental management in Oak Ridge; community and regional overview; key laws, agreements, and policy; and principal contacts.

  5. SAND

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Grete

    Der er udført et konsolideringsforsøg med bakkesand fra Lunds grusgrav, Lund no. O. forsøget er udført i samme konsolideringsapparat, som er anvendt til måling af deformationsegenskaberne af mange forskellige danske jordarter. Forsøgsresultaterne er søgt tolket som ved forsøg med andre jordarter....

  6. Liquefaction of Sand under Low Confining Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shaoli; Rolf Sandven; Lars Grande

    2003-01-01

    Undrained behaviour of sand under low cell pressure was studied in static and cyclic triaxial tests. It was found that very loose sand liquefies under static loading with the relative density being a key parameter for the undrained behaviour of sand. In cyclic triaxial tests, pore water pressures built up during the cyclic loading and exceeded the confining cell pressure. This process was accompanied by a large sudden increase in axial deformation. The necessary number of cycles to obtain liquefaction was related to the confining cell pressure, the amplitude of cyclic loading and the relative density of sand.In addition, the patterns of pore water pressure response are different from those of sand samples with different relative densities. The test results are very useful for expounding scour mechanism around coastal structures since they relate to the low stress behaviour of the sand.

  7. Creep Behavior of Frozen Sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    temperature and stress range. There was a 2strong stress dependance to S (r =0.95) for saturated Manchester Fine Sand which does not agree with RPT. The...Curves at High Stress 161 Ratio D/Du = 0.505 for Frozen HF’S at w=10% IV-20 Minimum Strain Rate Dependance on Stress 162 Ratio for Frozen MFS IV-21 Minimum...Strain Rate Dependance on Relative 163 Density for Frozen MFS IV-22 Temperature Stage Test on Frozen Saturated 164 MFS under a Load of D=9.24MPa Fig

  8. Evaluation of Propiconazole Application Methods for Control of Oak Wilt in Texas Live Oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Dan Wilson; D.G. Lester

    1996-01-01

    Four fungicide application methods using the microencapsulated (blue) 14.3% EC formulation of propiconazole (Alamo), including a low-concentration high volume method, two high-concentration low volume microinjection methods, and a low-concentration intermediate volume soil drench method, were tested for effectiveness in controlling oak wilt in a mature natural stand of...

  9. Comprehensive integrated planning: A process for the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Oak Ridge Comprehensive Integrated Plan is intended to assist the US Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor personnel in implementing a comprehensive integrated planning process consistent with DOE Order 430.1, Life Cycle Asset Management and Oak Ridge Operations Order 430. DOE contractors are charged with developing and producing the Comprehensive Integrated Plan, which serves as a summary document, providing information from other planning efforts regarding vision statements, missions, contextual conditions, resources and facilities, decision processes, and stakeholder involvement. The Comprehensive Integrated Plan is a planning reference that identifies primary issues regarding major changes in land and facility use and serves all programs and functions on-site as well as the Oak Ridge Operations Office and DOE Headquarters. The Oak Ridge Reservation is a valuable national resource and is managed on the basis of the principles of ecosystem management and sustainable development and how mission, economic, ecological, social, and cultural factors are used to guide land- and facility-use decisions. The long-term goals of the comprehensive integrated planning process, in priority order, are to support DOE critical missions and to stimulate the economy while maintaining a quality environment.

  10. Recent advances in waterglass sand technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Chun-xi

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports some new understandings and advances in waterglass sand technologies. The multiple chemical modification process can increase the binding strength of the waterglass sand by up to 50%-70%.Therefore, the additions of the modified waterglass can be decreased to 3.0%-4.0% for CO2 process and to 2.0%-2.5% for organic ester hardening process, and greatly improve the collapsibility and reclaimability of the sand. Based on the new understandings and experimental results reported in this paper, several original ideas, such as nano modification, have been proposed to promote advances of waterglass sand technologies,

  11. PROSPECTS FIXATION DRIFT SANDS PHYSICOCHEMICAL METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maujuda MUZAFFAROVA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the theoretical foundations of secure mobile sand being considered for reducing the negative impact of one of the manifestations of exogenous plains on such an important natural-technical system as a railroad. It suggests practical measures to build a system of design protection against sand drifts. The article also suggests ways to conserve resources and rational use of machinery and performers as well as the consolidation of mobile sand wet with water soluble waste of local production of waste dextrin. Consolidation is exposed on dry and wet sand.

  12. Innovative developments in sand reclamation technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dañko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Proper sand management and efficient sand reclamation system are two main factors influencing economical and ecological side of modern foundry plant. It is well known fact that the production of 1 metric ton of casting from ferrous alloys generates circa 1 metric ton of waste [1], which due to containing certain amounts of harmful and dangerous compounds should undergo a reclamation – at least of the main component, which means a silica sand grains. The paper present problems of scientific and development research concerning the innovative reclamation technologies of used foundry sands such as: mechanical-cryogenic reclamation and innovative thermal reclamation.

  13. Field Use of NMIS at Oak Ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, L.G.; Conger, M.; Hughes, S.S.; Mattingly, J.K.; McEvers, J.A.; Mihalczo, J.T.; Mullens, J.A.; Perez, R.B.; Turner, C.R.; Uckan, T.; Valentine, T.E.

    1999-08-26

    The Nuclear Materials Identification System (NMIS), developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (Y-12), has been successfully used at Y-12 for nuclear material control and accountability (NMC&A). It is particularly useful in the high gamma-ray background of storage arrays and for shielded HEU. With three systems in use at Y-12, NMIS has enhanced the NMC&A capability for verification and for confirmation of materials in storage and for HEU receipts by providing capability not available or practical by other NDA methods for safeguards. It has recently cost-effectively quantified the HEU mass and enrichment of hundreds of HEU metal items to within a total spread of {+-} 5% (3 sigma) with and mean deviations for all HEU verified of + 0.2% for mass and {minus}0.2% for enrichment. Three cart portable systems are easily moved around with minimal impact on facility operations since no permanent dedicated floor space is required. The positive impact of NMIS at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is improved and more cost effective NMC&A as well as the resolution of NMC&A findings. Its operation at the Y-12 Plant is essential for compliance with the NMC&A requirements of the US Department of Energy. NMIS portability has allowed one system to be moved temporarily to the former K-25 Gaseous Diffusion Plant for characterization of a large deposit of hydrated uranyl fluoride. The impact of this NMIS application was enhanced and verified nuclear criticality safety that led to the safe removal of a large deposit originally estimated by gamma-ray spectrometry and neutron counting to contain 1300 kg of 3.3 wt% {sup 235}U material. NMIS has also been operational at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Pantex.

  14. Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility Position Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Hill, Jason J [ORNL; Thach, Kevin G [ORNL; Podhorszki, Norbert [ORNL; Klasky, Scott A [ORNL; Rogers, James H [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the business, administration, reliability, and usability aspects of storage systems at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). The OLCF has developed key competencies in architecting and administration of large-scale Lustre deployments as well as HPSS archival systems. Additionally as these systems are architected, deployed, and expanded over time reliability and availability factors are a primary driver. This paper focuses on the implementation of the Spider parallel Lustre file system as well as the implementation of the HPSS archive at the OLCF.

  15. Toxicodendron dermatitis: poison ivy, oak, and sumac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladman, Aaron C

    2006-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by the Toxicodendron (formerly Rhus) species-poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac-affects millions of North Americans every year. In certain outdoor occupations, for example, agriculture and forestry, as well as among many outdoor enthusiasts, Toxicodendron dermatitis presents a significant hazard. This review considers the epidemiology, identification, immunochemistry, pathophysiology, clinical features, treatment, and prevention of this common dermatologic problem. Recent research in prevention is emphasized, and resources to help in the identification of plants are provided in the bibliography. The literature was searched using a MEDLINE query for "Toxicodendron dermatitis", and the identified article bibliographies were searched as well.

  16. Sand Failure Mechanism and Sanding Parameters in Niger Delta Oil Reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Sunday Isehunwa,; Andrew Farotade

    2010-01-01

    Sand production is a major issue during oil and gas production from unconsolidated reservoirs. In predicting the onset of sand production, it is important to accurately determine the failure mechanism and the contributing parameters. The aim of this study was to determine sand failure mechanism in the Niger-Delta, identify themajor contributing parameters and evaluate their effects on sanding.Completion and production data from 78 strings completed on 22 reservoirs in a Niger Delta oil Field ...

  17. Fragmentation patterns of evergreen oak woodlands in Southwestern Iberia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, A.; Madeira, M.; Lima Santos, J.

    2014-01-01

    Mediterranean evergreen oak woodlands (composed of Quercus suber L. and Quercus rotundifolia Lam.) are becoming increasingly fragmented in the human-modified landscapes of Southwestern Portugal and Spain. Previous studies have largely neglected to assess the spatial changes of oak woodlands in re...

  18. Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site environmental report summary for 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This document presents a summary of the information collected for the Oak Ridge Reservation 1994 site environmental report. Topics discussed include: Oak Ridge Reservation mission; ecology; environmental laws; community participation; environmental restoration; waste management; radiation effects; chemical effects; risk to public; environmental monitoring; and radionuclide migration.

  19. 60 Years of Great Science (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This issue of Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review (vol. 36, issue 1) highlights Oak Ridge National Laboratory's contributions in more than 30 areas of research and related activities during the past 60 years and provides glimpses of current activities that are carrying on this heritage.

  20. Pollination biology of northern red and black oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Cecich; William W. Haenchen

    1995-01-01

    Pistillate flower abortion in northern red oak and black oak was evaluated in relation to pollination and fertilization. The presence, position, and characteristics of the pollen grains, pollen tubes, and ovules were determined with bright field and fluorescence microscopy. Flower survival counts were made weekly, from late April to mid- September. Both species have...

  1. Effects of fire and browsing on regeneration of blue oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bartolome; Mitchel P. McClaran; Barbara H. Allen-Diaz; Jim Dunne; Lawrence D. Ford; Richard B. Standiford; Neil K. McDougald; Larry C. Forero

    2002-01-01

    Blue oaks (Quercus douglasii) are not regenerating well over much of California. The roles of fire and browsing in regeneration are probably significant, but poorly understood. We burned two foothill blue oak woodland sites which contained significant numbers of small trees between 40 and 70 cm tall, then compared height growth over 14 years among 48...

  2. Pathways for resilience in Mediterranean cork oak land use systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acácio, V.C.; Holmgren, M.

    2014-01-01

    Context Loss of woodlands and degradation of vegetation and soil have been described for all Mediterranean-type ecosystems worldwide. In the Western Iberian Peninsula, overexploitation of evergreen cork oak land use systems has led to soil erosion, failures in oak recruitment, and loss of forests.

  3. Blue Oak Canopy Effect on Seasonal Forage Production and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Frost; Neil K. McDougald; Montague W. Demment

    1991-01-01

    Forage production and forage quality were measured seasonally beneath the canopy of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) and in open grassland at the San Joaquin Experimental Range. At the March and peak standing crop sampling dates forage production was significantly greater (p=.05) beneath blue oak compared to open grassland. At most sampling dates, the...

  4. Pathways for resilience in Mediterranean cork oak land use systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acácio, V.C.; Holmgren, M.

    2014-01-01

    Context Loss of woodlands and degradation of vegetation and soil have been described for all Mediterranean-type ecosystems worldwide. In the Western Iberian Peninsula, overexploitation of evergreen cork oak land use systems has led to soil erosion, failures in oak recruitment, and loss of forests. D

  5. Management of California Oak Woodlands: Uncertainties and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay E. Noel; Richard P. Thompson

    1995-01-01

    A mathematical policy model of oak woodlands is presented. The model illustrates the policy uncertainties that exist in the management of oak woodlands. These uncertainties include: (1) selection of a policy criterion function, (2) woodland dynamics, (3) initial and final state of the woodland stock. The paper provides a review of each of the uncertainty issues. The...

  6. Study of Black Sand Particles from Sand Dunes in Badr, Saudi Arabia Using Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haider Abbas Khwaja

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Particulate air pollution is a health concern. This study determines the microscopic make-up of different varieties of sand particles collected at a sand dune site in Badr, Saudi Arabia in 2012. Three categories of sand were studied: black sand, white sand, and volcanic sand. The study used multiple high resolution electron microscopies to study the morphologies, emission source types, size, and elemental composition of the particles, and to evaluate the presence of surface “coatings or contaminants” deposited or transported by the black sand particles. White sand was comprised of natural coarse particles linked to wind-blown releases from crustal surfaces, weathering of igneous/metamorphic rock sources, and volcanic activities. Black sand particles exhibited different morphologies and microstructures (surface roughness compared with the white sand and volcanic sand. Morphological Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM analyses revealed that the black sand contained fine and ultrafine particles (50 to 500 nm ranges and was strongly magnetic, indicating the mineral magnetite or elemental iron. Aqueous extracts of black sands were acidic (pH = 5.0. Fe, C, O, Ti, Si, V, and S dominated the composition of black sand. Results suggest that carbon and other contaminant fine particles were produced by fossil-fuel combustion and industrial emissions in heavily industrialized areas of Haifa and Yanbu, and transported as cloud condensation nuclei to Douf Mountain. The suite of techniques used in this study has yielded an in-depth characterization of sand particles. Such information will be needed in future environmental, toxicological, epidemiological, and source apportionment studies.

  7. Evaluation of spectral light management on growth of container-grown willow oak, nuttall oak and summer red maple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant response to blue, red, gray or black shade cloth was evaluated with willow oak (Quercus phellos L.), Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii Palmer, Nuttall) and Summer Red maple (Acer rubrum L. ‘Summer Red’) liners. Light transmitted through the colored shade cloth had no influence on germination of ...

  8. Monitoring for pests and diseases in native oak woodlands: the case of acute oak decline in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan Brown; Stephen Parnell; Frank van den Bosch; Mike Jeger; Sandra Denman

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, a novel form of decline has been observed in southern and central England. This syndrome has been termed acute oak decline (AOD) and affects native oak, Quercus petraea and Q. robur. Typical symptoms include bark cracks that weep dark exudates, which are caused by necrotic patches in the...

  9. Performance of nutrient-loaded red oak and white oak seedlings on mine lands in southern Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. Francis Salifu; Douglass F. Jacobs; Zonda K. D. Birge

    2008-01-01

    Exponential nutrient loading was used to build nutrient reserves in northern red oak (Quercus rubra) and white oak (Q. alba) seedlings during standard bareroot nursery culture at the Vallonia State Nursery, Indiana. Nursery grown seedlings were outplanted the following year onto a mine reclamation site in southern Indiana to...

  10. Pattern formation - Instabilities in sand ripples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J. L.; v. Hecke, M.; Haaning, A.

    2001-01-01

    Sand ripples are seen below shallow wavy water and are formed whenever water oscillates over a bed of sand. Here we analyse the instabilities that can upset this perfect patterning when the ripples are subjected to large changes in driving amplitude or frequency, causing them to deform both...

  11. Pilot Project Sand Groynes Delfland Coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.; Walstra, D.J.R.; Swinkels, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    In October and November 2009 a pilot project has been executed at the Delfland Coast in the Netherlands, constructing three small sandy headlands called Sand Groynes. Sand Groynes are nourished from the shore in seaward direction and anticipated to redistribute in the alongshore due to the impact of

  12. Silica sand resources in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, M.J. van der; Westerhoff, W.E.; Menkovic, A.; Gruijters, S.H.L.L.; Dubelaar, C.W.; Maljers, D.

    2009-01-01

    Silica sand, (almost) pure quartz sand, is a valuable and scarce mineral resource within the shallow Dutch subsurface. High-grade deposits are exploited in the southeastemmost part of the country, as raw material for the glass, ceramic, chemical and other process industries. Dutch land-use policy re

  13. Pilot Project Sand Groynes Delfland Coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.; Walstra, D.J.R.; Swinkels, C.S.

    2012-01-01

    In October and November 2009 a pilot project has been executed at the Delfland Coast in the Netherlands, constructing three small sandy headlands called Sand Groynes. Sand Groynes are nourished from the shore in seaward direction and anticipated to redistribute in the alongshore due to the impact of

  14. Understanding Colombian Amazonian white sand forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peñuela-Mora, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Although progress has been made in studies on white sand forests in the Amazon, there is still a considerable gap in our knowledge of the unique species composition of white sand forests and their structure and dynamics, especially in Western Amazon. This thesis aims to fill this gap by addressing t

  15. Sand transportation and reverse patterns over leeward face of sand dune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Dun, Hongchao; Tong, Ding; Huang, Ning

    2017-04-01

    Sand saltation has complex interactions with turbulent flow and dune form. Most models of wind-blown sand consider ideal circumstances such as steady wind velocity and a flat surface, and the bulk of data on wind flow and sand transport over an individual dune has focused mostly on the influence of dune shape or inter-dune space on the wind flow, neglecting the effect of morphology on sand saltation, particularly airflow and sand transportation over the leeward slope. Wind flow structures over the leeward slope of sand dunes have a fundamental influence on the organization of sand dunes. In order to understand sand dune dynamics, lee face airflow and sediment transportation should be paid more attention. Previous field observations could not measure turbulent flow structure well because of the limited observation points and the influence of experiment structure on wind field. In addition, the reverse sand particles over leeward face could not be collected by sand trap in field. Numerous field observations could not measure turbulent flow structure because of the limited observation points and the influence of experimental structures on the wind field. In addition, the reverse transport of sand particles over leeward face could not be collected by sand traps in field. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the turbulent flow structure and sand transport pattern over the leeward slope. A numerical model of sand saltation over slope terrain is constructed, which also considers the coupling effects between air flow and sand particles. The large eddy simulation method is used to model turbulent flow. Sand transport is simulated by tracking the trajectory of each sand particle. The results show that terrain significantly alters the turbulent air flow structure and wind-blown sand movement, especially over the leeward slope. Here, mass flux increases initially and then decreases with height in the reversed flow region in the direction of wind flow, and the mass flux

  16. Choosing an optimum sand control method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Khamehchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Formation sand control is always one of the main concerns of production engineers. There are some different methods to prevent sand production. Choosing a method for preventing formation sand production depends on different reservoir parameters and politic and economic conditions. Sometimes, economic and politic conditions are more effective to choose an optimum than reservoir parameters. Often, simultaneous investigation of politic and economic conditions with reservoir parameters has different results with what is expected. So, choosing the best sand control method is the result of thorough study. Global oil price, duration of sand control project and costs of necessary equipment for each method as economic and politic conditions and well productivity index as reservoir parameter are the main parameters studied in this paper.

  17. Altitude of the top of the Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand in three areas of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Aaron L.; Westerfield, Paul W.; Gonthier, Gerard; Poynter, David T.

    1998-01-01

    The Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand form the second most productive aquifer in Arkansas. The Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand range in thick- ness from 0 to 900 feet, consisting of fine- to medium-grained sands interbedded with layers of silt, clay, shale, and minor amounts of lignite. Within the three areas of interest, the top surface of the Sparta Sand and Memphis Sand dips regionally east and southeast towards the axis of the Mississippi Embayment syncline and Desha Basin. Local variations in the top surface may be attributed to a combination of continued development of structural features, differential compaction, localized faulting, and erosion of the surface prior to subsequent inundation and deposition of younger sediments.

  18. Sand Failure Mechanism and Sanding Parameters in Niger Delta Oil Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Isehunwa,

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sand production is a major issue during oil and gas production from unconsolidated reservoirs. In predicting the onset of sand production, it is important to accurately determine the failure mechanism and the contributing parameters. The aim of this study was to determine sand failure mechanism in the Niger-Delta, identify themajor contributing parameters and evaluate their effects on sanding.Completion and production data from 78 strings completed on 22 reservoirs in a Niger Delta oil Field were evaluated. Sand failure mechanisms and contributing parameters were identified and compared with published profiles. The results showed that cohesive stress is the predominant sand failure mechanism. Water cut, bean size and gas oil ratio (GOR impact sand production in the Niger Delta.

  19. Global sand trade is paving the way for a tragedy of the sand commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A.; Brandt, J.; Lear, K.; Liu, J.

    2016-12-01

    In the first 40 years of the 21st century, planet Earth is highly likely to experience more urban land expansion than in all of history, an increase in transportation infrastructure by more than a third, and a great variety of land reclamation projects. While scientists are beginning to quantify the deep imprint of human infrastructure on biodiversity at large scales, its off-site impacts and linkages to sand mining and trade have been largely ignored. Sand is the most widely used building material in the world. With an ever-increasing demand for this resource, sand is being extracted at rates that far exceed its replenishment, and is becoming increasingly scarce. This has already led to conflicts around the world and will likely lead to a "tragedy of the sand commons" if sustainable sand mining and trade cannot be achieved. We investigate the environmental and socioeconomic interactions over large distances (telecouplings) of infrastructure development and sand mining and trade across diverse systems through transdisciplinary research and the recently proposed telecoupling framework. Our research is generating a thorough understanding of the telecouplings driven by an increasing demand for sand. In particular, we address three main research questions: 1) Where are the conflicts related to sand mining occurring?; 2) What are the major "sending" and "receiving" systems of sand?; and 3) What are the main components (e.g. causes, effects, agents, etc.) of telecoupled systems involving sand mining and trade? Our results highlight the role of global sand trade as a driver of environmental degradation that threatens the integrity of natural systems and their capacity to deliver key ecosystem services. In addition, infrastructure development and sand mining and trade have important implications for other sustainability challenges such as over-fishing and global warming. This knowledge will help to identify opportunities and tools to better promote a more sustainable use

  20. Source document for waste area groupings at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, P.L.; Kuhaida, A.J., Jr.

    1996-09-01

    This document serves as a source document for Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and other types of documents developed for and pertaining to Environmental Restoration (ER) Program activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). It contains descriptions of the (1) regulatory requirements for the ORR ER Program, (2) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) ER Program, (3) ORNL site history and characterization, and (4) history and characterization of Waste Area Groupings (WAGS) 1-20. This document was created to save time, effort, and money for persons and organizations drafting documents for the ER Program and to improve consistency in the documents prepared for the program. By eliminating the repetitious use of selected information about the program, this document will help reduce the time and costs associated with producing program documents. By serving as a benchmark for selected information about the ER Program, this reference will help ensure that information presented in future documents is accurate and complete.

  1. Melton Valley Storage Tanks Capacity Increase Project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and maintain additional storage capacity at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, for liquid low-level radioactive waste (LLLW). New capacity would be provided by a facility partitioned into six individual tank vaults containing one 100,000 gallon LLLW storage tank each. The storage tanks would be located within the existing Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) facility. This action would require the extension of a potable water line approximately one mile from the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) area to the proposed site to provide the necessary potable water for the facility including fire protection. Alternatives considered include no-action, cease generation, storage at other ORR storage facilities, source treatment, pretreatment, and storage at other DOE facilities.

  2. Oak Ridge Health Studies phase 1 report, Volume 1: Oak Ridge Phase 1 overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbrough, M.I.; Van Cleave, M.L.; Turri, P.; Daniel, J.

    1993-09-01

    In July 1991, the State of Tennessee initiated the Health Studies Agreement with the United States Department of Energy to carry out independent studies of possible adverse health effects in people living in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge Reservation. The health studies focus on those effects that could have resulted or could result from exposures to chemicals and radioactivity released at the Reservation since 1942. The major focus of the first phase was to complete a Dose Reconstruction Feasibility Study. This study was designed to find out if enough data exist about chemical and radionuclide releases from the Oak Ridge Reservation to conduct a second phase. The second phase will lead to estimates of the actual amounts or the ``doses`` of various contaminants received by people as a result of off-site releases. Once the doses of various contaminants have been estimated, scientists and physicians will be better able to evaluate whether adverse health effects could have resulted from the releases.

  3. Technical background information for the environmental and safety report, Volume 4: White Oak Lake and Dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakes, T.W.; Kelly, B.A.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Eldridge, J.S.; Bird, J.C.; Shank, K.E.; Tsakeres, F.S.

    1982-03-01

    This report has been prepared to provide background information on White Oak Lake for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental and Safety Report. The paper presents the history of White Oak Dam and Lake and describes the hydrological conditions of the White Oak Creek watershed. Past and present sediment and water data are included; pathway analyses are described in detail.

  4. Influence of Scale on the Management of Wildlife in California Oak Woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    William M. Block; Michael L. Morrison

    1991-01-01

    Distributions, abundances, and patterns of resource use of amphibians, reptiles, birds, and small mammals varied spatially and temporally in California oak woodlands. Spatial variations occurred within stands, between stands of a similar type (e.g., canyon live oak [Quercus chrysolepis], blue oak [Q. douglasii], or valley oak [

  5. Tiger team assessment of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1990-02-01

    This document contains findings identified during the Tiger Team Compliance Assessment of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Y-12 Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The Y-12 Plant Tiger Team Compliance Assessment is comprehensive in scope. It covers the Environmental, Safety, and Health (including Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) compliance), and Management areas and determines the plant's compliance with applicable federal (including DOE), state, and local regulations and requirements. 4 figs., 12 tabs.

  6. Spatial distribution of oak mistletoe as it relates to habits of oak woodland frugivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan A Wilson

    Full Text Available This study addresses the underlying spatial distribution of oak mistletoe, Phoradendron villosum, a hemi-parasitic plant that provides a continuous supply of berries for frugivorous birds overwintering the oak savanna habitat of California's outer coast range. As the winter community of birds consuming oak mistletoe varies from group-living territorial species to birds that roam in flocks, we asked if mistletoe volume was spatially autocorrelated at the scale of persistent territories or whether the patterns predicted by long-term territory use by western bluebirds are overcome by seed dispersal by more mobile bird species. The abundance of mistletoe was mapped on trees within a 700 ha study site in Carmel Valley, California. Spatial autocorrelation of mistletoe volume was analyzed using the variogram method and spatial distribution of oak mistletoe trees was analyzed using Ripley's K and O-ring statistics. On a separate set of 45 trees, mistletoe volume was highly correlated with the volume of female, fruit-bearing plants, indicating that overall mistletoe volume is a good predictor of fruit availability. Variogram analysis showed that mistletoe volume was spatially autocorrelated up to approximately 250 m, a distance consistent with persistent territoriality of western bluebirds and philopatry of sons, which often breed next door to their parents and are more likely to remain home when their parents have abundant mistletoe. Using Ripley's K and O-ring analyses, we showed that mistletoe trees were aggregated for distances up to 558 m, but for distances between 558 to 724 m the O-ring analysis deviated from Ripley's K in showing repulsion rather than aggregation. While trees with mistletoe were aggregated at larger distances, mistletoe was spatially correlated at a smaller distance, consistent with what is expected based on persistent group territoriality of western bluebirds in winter and the extreme philopatry of their sons.

  7. Site descriptions of environmental restoration units at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhaida, A.J. Jr.; Parker, A.F.

    1997-02-01

    This report provides summary information on Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) sites as listed in the Oak Ridge Reservation Federal Facility Agreement (FFA), dated January 1, 1992, Appendix C. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory was built in 1943 as part of the World War II Manhattan Project. The original mission of ORNL was to produce and chemically separate the first gram-quantities of plutonium as part of the national effort to produce the atomic bomb. The current mission of ORNL is to provide applied research and development in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs in nuclear fusion and fission, energy conservation, fossil fuels, and other energy technologies and to perform basic scientific research in selected areas of the physical, life, and environmental sciences. ER is also tasked with clean up or mitigation of environmental impacts resulting from past waste management practices on portions of the approximately 37,000 acres within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Other installations located within the ORR are the Gaseous Diffusion Plant (K-25) and the Y-12 plant. The remedial action strategy currently integrates state and federal regulations for efficient compliance and approaches for both investigations and remediation efforts on a Waste Area Grouping (WAG) basis. As defined in the ORR FFA Quarterly Report July - September 1995, a WAG is a grouping of potentially contaminated sites based on drainage area and similar waste characteristics. These contaminated sites are further divided into four categories based on existing information concerning whether the data are generated for scoping or remedial investigation (RI) purposes. These areas are as follows: (1) Operable Units (OU); (2) Characterization Areas (CA); (3) Remedial Site Evaluation (RSE) Areas; and (4) Removal Site Evaluation (RmSE) Areas.

  8. Site descriptions of environmental restoration units at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goddard, P.L.; Legeay, A.J.; Pesce, D.S.; Stanley, A.M.

    1995-11-01

    This report, Site Descriptions of Environmental Restoration Units at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is being prepared to assimilate information on sites included in the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program of the K-25 Site, one of three major installations on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) built during World War III as part of the Manhattan Project. The information included in this report will be used to establish program priorities so that resources allotted to the K-25 ER Program can be best used to decrease any risk to humans or the environment, and to determine the sequence in which any remedial activities should be conducted. This document will be updated periodically in both paper and Internet versions. Units within this report are described in individual data sheets arranged alphanumerically. Each data sheet includes entries on project status, unit location, dimensions and capacity, dates operated, present function, lifecycle operation, waste characteristics, site status, media of concern, comments, and references. Each data sheet is accompanied by a photograph of the unit, and each unit is located on one of 13 area maps. These areas, along with the sub-area, unit, and sub-unit breakdowns within them, are outlined in Appendix A. Appendix B is a summary of information on remote aerial sensing and its applicability to the ER program.

  9. Cold Testing of a Russian Pulsating Mixer Pump at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, BE

    2002-01-29

    Russian pulsating mixer pump (PMP) technology was identified in FY 1996 during technical exchanges between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Tanks Focus Area Retrieval and Closure program, the DOE Environmental Management International Programs, and delegates from Russia as a technology that could be implemented in tank waste retrieval operations in the United States. The PMP is basically a jet mixer powered by a pressure/vacuum supply system. A prototype PMP was provided by the Russian Mining and Chemical Combine and evaluated as a potential retrieval tool in FY 1997 at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Based on this evaluation, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and DOE staff determined that a modified PMP would meet project needs for bulk mobilization of sludge from one or more of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) at ORNL. In FY 1998, PMP technology was selected for deployment in one of the GAAT to mobilize settled solids. Deployment of the PMP was expected to reduce operation and maintenance costs required to utilize more expensive retrieval systems. The following series of cold tests and inspections were conducted on one of the three PMP units provided to verify the acceptability and readiness of the mixing system for operation in the GAATs at ORNL: (1) Inspections and measurements designed to evaluate the integrity of the equipment: Fabrication shop inspections, Equipment inspections, Vibration/oscillation measurements, Hydrostatic pressure tests. (2) Functionality of the system components: Tank riser interface functionality, Decontamination spray ring (DSR) functionality, Valves, actuator, sensors, and control system functionality, Support fixture tests; and Contamination control assessment. (3) Mixing and operational performance of the PMP system: DSR performance, PMP debris tolerance, PMP performance with water only, PMP cleaning radius determination, and PMP performance with sludge surrogates. The results from these tests indicate

  10. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, V.A.; Wilson, A.R. (eds.)

    1990-10-01

    The first two volumes of this report are devoted to a presentation of environmental data and supporting narratives for the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding environs during 1989. Volume 1 includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a stand-alone'' report for the ORR for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1989 data. Volume 2 includes the detailed data summarized in a format to ensure that all environmental data are represented in the tables. Narratives are not included in Vol. 2. The tables in Vol. 2 are addressed in Vol. 1. For this reason, Vol. 2 cannot be considered a stand-alone report but is intended to be used in conjunction with Vol. 1. 16 figs., 194 tabs.

  11. Oak Ridge Reservation Environmental report for 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, A.R. (ed.)

    1991-09-01

    The first two volumes of this report are devoted to a presentation of environmental data and supporting narratives for the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and surrounding environs during 1990. Volume 1 includes all narrative descriptions, summaries, and conclusions and is intended to be a stand-alone'' report for the ORR for the reader who does not want to review in detail all of the 1990 data. Volume 2 includes the detailed data summarized in a format to ensure that all environmental data are represented in the tables. Narratives are not included in Vol. 2. The tables in Vol. 2 are addressed in Vol. 1. For this reason, Vol. 2 cannot be considered a stand-alone report but is intended to be used in conjunction with Vol. 1.

  12. Adsorption of dyes on Sahara desert sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlikli, Canan; Bekiari, Vlasoula; Kus, Mahmut; Boduroglu, Numan; Oner, Ilker; Lianos, Panagiotis; Lyberatos, Gerasimos; Icli, Siddik

    2009-10-15

    Sahara desert sand (SaDeS) was employed as a mineral sorbent for retaining organic dyes from aqueous solutions. Natural sand has demonstrated a strong affinity for organic dyes but significantly lost its adsorption capacity when it was washed with water. Therefore, characterization of both natural and water washed sand was performed by XRD, BET, SEM and FTIR techniques. It was found that water-soluble kyanite, which is detected in natural sand, is the dominant factor affecting adsorbance of cationic dyes. The sand adsorbs over 75% of cationic dyes but less than 21% for anionic ones. Among the dyes studied, Methylene Blue (MB) demonstrated the strongest affinity for Sahara desert sand (Q(e)=11.98 mg/g, for initial dye solution concentration 3.5 x 10(-5)mol/L). The effects of initial dye concentration, the amount of the adsorbent, the temperature and the pH of the solution on adsorption capacity were tested by using Methylene Blue as model dye. Pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion models were applied. It was concluded that adsorption of Methylene Blue on Sahara desert sand followed pseudo-second order kinetics. Gibbs free energy, enthalpy change and entropy change were calculated and found -6411 J/mol, -30360 J/mol and -76.58 J/mol K, respectively. These values indicate that the adsorption is an exothermic process and has a spontaneous nature at low temperatures.

  13. Critical state of sand matrix soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marto, Aminaton; Tan, Choy Soon; Makhtar, Ahmad Mahir; Kung Leong, Tiong

    2014-01-01

    The Critical State Soil Mechanic (CSSM) is a globally recognised framework while the critical states for sand and clay are both well established. Nevertheless, the development of the critical state of sand matrix soils is lacking. This paper discusses the development of critical state lines and corresponding critical state parameters for the investigated material, sand matrix soils using sand-kaolin mixtures. The output of this paper can be used as an interpretation framework for the research on liquefaction susceptibility of sand matrix soils in the future. The strain controlled triaxial test apparatus was used to provide the monotonic loading onto the reconstituted soil specimens. All tested soils were subjected to isotropic consolidation and sheared under undrained condition until critical state was ascertain. Based on the results of 32 test specimens, the critical state lines for eight different sand matrix soils were developed together with the corresponding values of critical state parameters, M, λ, and Γ. The range of the value of M, λ, and Γ is 0.803-0.998, 0.144-0.248, and 1.727-2.279, respectively. These values are comparable to the critical state parameters of river sand and kaolin clay. However, the relationship between fines percentages and these critical state parameters is too scattered to be correlated.

  14. Sand Flies and Their Control Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Hüseyin; Özbel, Yusuf

    2017-06-01

    The main aim of managing arthropod vectors that carry the disease agents is interrupting the infection cycle. Therefore, the management of the disease implies that all precautions related to all elements (i.e., human, arthropod vector, and reservoir) in the infection cycle need to be taken. There are important points that need to be considered while dealing with sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae), which in many regions worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical areas, are vectors of diseases such as leishmaniasis and sand fly fever and are the arthropods of the infection cycle. Because the larval control of the sand flies is very difficult and almost impossible, the management is mainly conducted for the adults. The most effective strategy for reducing both sand fly fever and leishmaniasis is managing sand flies, particularly in areas where humans are located. In this review, the morphology, biology, and taxonomy of sand flies; the integrated fighting and management methods such as insecticide-impregnated bed nets and use of curtains, zooprophylaxis, indoor and outdoor residual applications, larvicides, repellents, and insecticide-impregnated dog collars; and data regarding many issues such as insecticide resistance in sand flies have been emphasized on in the review.

  15. Critical State of Sand Matrix Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminaton Marto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Critical State Soil Mechanic (CSSM is a globally recognised framework while the critical states for sand and clay are both well established. Nevertheless, the development of the critical state of sand matrix soils is lacking. This paper discusses the development of critical state lines and corresponding critical state parameters for the investigated material, sand matrix soils using sand-kaolin mixtures. The output of this paper can be used as an interpretation framework for the research on liquefaction susceptibility of sand matrix soils in the future. The strain controlled triaxial test apparatus was used to provide the monotonic loading onto the reconstituted soil specimens. All tested soils were subjected to isotropic consolidation and sheared under undrained condition until critical state was ascertain. Based on the results of 32 test specimens, the critical state lines for eight different sand matrix soils were developed together with the corresponding values of critical state parameters, M, λ, and Γ. The range of the value of M, λ, and Γ is 0.803–0.998, 0.144–0.248, and 1.727–2.279, respectively. These values are comparable to the critical state parameters of river sand and kaolin clay. However, the relationship between fines percentages and these critical state parameters is too scattered to be correlated.

  16. Accumulation of Glycoconjugates of 3-Methyl-4-hydroxyoctanoic Acid in Fruits, Leaves, and Shoots of Vitis vinifera cv. Monastrell following Foliar Applications of Oak Extract or Oak Lactone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Garcia, Ana I; Wilkinson, Kerry L; Culbert, Julie A; Lloyd, Natoiya D R; Alonso, Gonzalo L; Salinas, M Rosario

    2015-05-13

    Grapevines are capable of absorbing volatile compounds present in the vineyard during the growing season, and in some cases, volatiles have been found to accumulate in fruits or leaves in glycoconjugate forms, that is, with one or more sugar moieties attached. The presence of oak lactone in wine is usually attributable to oak maturation, but oak lactone has been detected in wines made with fruit from grapevines treated with oak extract or oak lactone. This study investigated the accumulation of glycoconjugates of 3-methyl-4-hydroxyoctanoic acid (i.e., the ring-opened form of oak lactone) in the fruits, leaves, and shoots of Monastrell grapevines following foliar application of either oak extract or oak lactone at approximately 7 days postveraison. Fruits, leaves, and shoots were collected at three different time points, including at maturity. The oak lactone content of fruit was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, with declining concentrations observed in fruit from grapevines treated with oak lactone with ripening. The concentrations of a β-d-glucopyranoside of 3-methyl-4-hydroxyoctanoic acid in fruits, leaves, and shoots was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, with the highest oak lactone glucoside levels observed in leaves of grapevines treated with oak lactone. A glucose-glucose disaccharide was also tentatively identified. These results demonstrate both ring-opening and glycosylation of oak lactone occurred after experimental treatments were imposed.

  17. Invasive plants on disturbed Korean sand dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kee Dae

    2005-01-01

    The sand dunes in coastal regions of South Korea are important ecosystems because of their small size, the rare species found in this habitat, and the beautiful landscapes they create. This study investigated the current vegetative status of sand dunes on three representative coasts of the Korean peninsula, and on the coasts of Cheju Island, and assessed the conditions caused by invasive plants. The relationships between the degree of invasion and 14 environmental variables were studied. Plots of sand dunes along line transects perpendicular to the coastal lines were established to estimate vegetative species coverage. TWINSPAN (Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis), CCA (Canonical Correspondence Analysis), and DCCA (Detrended Canonical Correspondence Analysis) were performed to classify communities on sand dunes and assess species composition variation. Carex kobomugi, Elymus mollis, and Vitex rotundifolia were found to be the dominant species plotted on the east, the west, and the peripheral coasts of Cheju Island, respectively. Vegetation on the south coast was totally extinct. The 19 communities, including representative C. kobomugi, C. kobomugi- Ixeris repens, C. kobomugi- Oenothera biennis, E. mollis, Lolium multiflorum- Calystegia soldanella, and V. rotundifolia- C. kobomugi, were all classified according to TWINSPAN. Oenothera biennis and L. multiflorum were exotics observed within these native communities. CCA showed that invasive native and exotic species distribution was segregated significantly, according to disturbance level, exotic species number, gravel, sand and silt contents, as well as vegetation size. It further revealed that human disturbance can strongly favor the settlement of invasive and exotic species. Restoration options to reduce exotic plants in the South Korean sand dune areas were found to be the introduction of native plant species from one sand dune into other sand dune areas, prohibition of building and the introduction of exotic

  18. Four-year comparison of water contents beneath a grass ley and a deciduous oak wood overlying Triassic sandstone in lowland England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Julian C.; Reid, Ian; Calder, Ian R.; Nisbet, Thomas R.

    2006-09-01

    SummaryDifferences in the seasonal water dynamics of a sand soil overlying Triassic sandstone have been investigated to a depth of 9 m beneath both a grass ley and a pendunculate oak woodland within Clipstone Forest, Nottinghamshire, England. Fortnightly measurements with a neutron-probe over a four-year period allowed a comparison of the soil-rock water content to depths rarely reported. In spring, the rate of decrease of water content of the uppermost 2 m of soil was much greater under grass than oak woodland. In contrast, the rate of decrease under oak was greater after leafing out in May, while the rate of rewetting in early autumn was lower for this land-use until senescence and leaf-fall in late autumn. In the uppermost 2 m of soil - a depth that includes all plant roots - the soil moisture minima were between 47 and 58 mm lower under oak than grass in each year of monitoring. As a result of both these drier conditions and the comparatively late leaf fall of this species, penetration of the winter-season wetting front to 2 m was delayed by between one and three months at the oak site relative to grass in years of near-average rainfall. Rewetting at 9 m lags by 10-12 months, compared to the surface, giving an average penetration rate for the wetting front to this depth of 25-30 mm day -1, with little observable differences between the land-uses. Preferential flow is evident under both sites, affecting the profile to 3 m in all years and to at least 6 m following winters experiencing exceptional rainfall.

  19. Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.; Suter, G.W.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-07-01

    Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located in the White Oak Creek Watershed and is composed of White Oak Creek Embayment, White Oak Lake and associated floodplain, and portions of White Oak Creek (WOC) and Melton Branch downstream of ORNL facilities. Contaminants leaving other ORNL WAGs in the WOC watershed pass through WAG 2 before entering the Clinch River. Health and ecological risk screening analyses were conducted on contaminants in WAG 2 to determine which contaminants were of concern and would require immediate consideration for remedial action and which contaminants could be assigned a low priority or further study. For screening purposes, WAG 2 was divided into four geographic reaches: Reach 1, a portion of WOC; Reach 2, Melton Branch; Reach 3, White Oak Lake and the floodplain area to the weirs on WOC and Melton Branch; and Reach 4, the White Oak Creek Embayment, for which an independent screening analysis has been completed. Screening analyses were conducted using data bases compiled from existing data on carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic contaminants, which included organics, inorganics, and radionuclides. Contaminants for which at least one ample had a concentration above the level of detection were placed in a detectable contaminants data base. Those contaminants for which all samples were below the level of detection were placed in a nondetectable contaminants data base.

  20. Formation mechanism of cracks in saturated sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaobing Lu; Zhemin Zheng; Yongren Wu

    2006-01-01

    The formation mechanism of "water film" (or crack) in saturated sand is analyzed theoretically and numerically.The theoretical analysis shows that there will be no stable "water film" in the saturated sand if the strength of the skeleton is zero and no positions are choked.It is shown by numerical simulation that stable water films initiate and grow if the choking state keeps unchanged once the fluid velocities decrease to zero in the liquefied sand column.The developments of "water film" based on the model presented in this paper are compared with experimental results.

  1. Lund Sand No 0:part 2

    OpenAIRE

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Jakobsen, Finn Rosendal

    1996-01-01

    During the last 15 years the Geotechnical Engineering Group (GEG) at Aalborg University has performed triaxial tests with a sand called Lund No 0. Lund No 0 is a graded sand from a gravel pit near Horsens in Denmark. For the classification of the sand the following tests have been performed: Sieve test, Grain density, ds, Maximum, emax, and minimum, emin, void ratio. The strength parameters of Lund No 0 are detennined by some drained and undrained triaxial tests in the Danish Triaxial Cell. T...

  2. Lund Sand No 0:part 1

    OpenAIRE

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Jakobsen, Finn Rosendal

    1996-01-01

    During the last 15 years the Geotechnical Engineering Group (GEG) at Aalborg University has performed triaxial tests with a sand called Lund No 0. Lund No 0 is a graded sand from a gravel pit near Horsens in Denmark. For the classification of the sand the following tests have been performed: Sieve test, Grain density, ds, Maximum, emax, and minimum, emin, void ratio. The strength parameters of Lund No 0 are detennined by some drained and undrained triaxial tests in the Danish Triaxial Cell. T...

  3. Biodegradable materials as foundry moulding sands binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Major - Gabryś

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to show the possibility of using biodegradable materials as part of the composition of foundry moulding and core sand binders. Research shows that moulding sands with biodegradable materials selected as binders are not only less toxic but are also better suited to mechanical reclamation than moulding sands with phenol-furfuryl resin. The use of biodegradable materials as additives to typical synthetic resins can result in their decreased toxicity and improved ability to reclamation as well as in accelerated biodegradation of binding material leftovers of mechanical reclamation.

  4. Watching Faults Grow in Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Accretionary sandbox experiments provide a rich environment for investigating the processes of fault development. These experiments engage students because 1) they enable direct observation of fault growth, which is impossible in the crust (type 1 physical model), 2) they are not only representational but can also be manipulated (type 2 physical model), 3) they can be used to test hypotheses (type 3 physical model) and 4) they resemble experiments performed by structural geology researchers around the world. The structural geology courses at UMass Amherst utilize a series of accretionary sandboxes experiments where students first watch a video of an experiment and then perform a group experiment. The experiments motivate discussions of what conditions they would change and what outcomes they would expect from these changes; hypothesis development. These discussions inevitably lead to calculations of the scaling relationships between model and crustal fault growth and provide insight into the crustal processes represented within the dry sand. Sketching of the experiments has been shown to be a very effective assessment method as the students reveal which features they are analyzing. Another approach used at UMass is to set up a forensic experiment. The experiment is set up with spatially varying basal friction before the meeting and students must figure out what the basal conditions are through the experiment. This experiment leads to discussions of equilibrium and force balance within the accretionary wedge. Displacement fields can be captured throughout the experiment using inexpensive digital image correlation techniques to foster quantitative analysis of the experiments.

  5. Effect of Chromite-Silica Sands Characteristics on Performance of Ladle Filler Sands for Continuous Casting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Free opening rate is mainly determined by the performance of the ladle filler sand. High free opening rates of ladles are required in steel making to improve steel quality. Chromite ladle filler sands are one of the most widely used ladle filler sand. Several operative variables and materials characteristics affect the performance of the sands. Three sets of chromite ladle filler sands were selected and researches were focused on the sintering hehaviour and per- formance of the sands under operative conditions. The effect of particle size distribution on sintering, microstruc- ture, flowability, and permeability were presented. In all cases, the particle size varies from 0.1 to 1.5 mm corre- sponding to free flowing powders. One of the samples has higher permeability factor in comparison with others due to low particle size distribution. The other sample presents very good free opening due to its very good flowability and permeability factor.

  6. Technical Evaluation of Oak Ridge Filter Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Kriskovich, J R

    2002-01-01

    Two evaluations of the Oak Ridge Department of Energy (DOE) Filter Test Facility (FTF) were performed on December 11 and 12, 2001, and consisted of a quality assurance and a technical evaluation. This report documents results of the technical evaluation.

  7. Baskett Slough - Oregon White Oak Restoration- North Butte

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Willamette Valley National Wildlife Refuge Complex (WVNWRC) holds some of the largest and best examples of Oregon white oak habitat remaining in the Valley....

  8. Narrative report Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge: January - April, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1959. The report begins by summarizing...

  9. Narrative report Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge: September - December, 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1960. The report begins by...

  10. Narrative report Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge: September - December, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1959. The report begins by...

  11. Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge : Interim Plans : 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This interim plan for Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge cover an interim comprehensive conservation plan, a hunting and fishing plan and an interim compatibility...

  12. Recognizing the Toxicodendrons (poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guin, J D; Gillis, W T; Beaman, J H

    1981-01-01

    Poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac are now classified in the genus Toxicodendron which is readily distinguished from Rhus. In the United States, there are two species of poison oak, Toxicodendron diversilobum (western poison oak) and Toxicodendron toxicarium (eastern poison oak). There are also two species of poison ivy, Toxicodendron rydbergii, a nonclimbing subshrub, and Toxicodendron radicans, which may be either a shrub or a climbing vine. There are nine subspecies of T. radicans, six of which are found in the United States. One species of poison sumac, Toxicodendron vernix, occurs in the United States. Distinguishing features of these plants and characteristics that separate Toxicodendron from Rhus are outlined in the text and illustrated in color plates.

  13. Narrative report Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge: September - December, 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1962. The report begins by...

  14. Narrative report Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge: May - August, 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1963. The report begins by summarizing the...

  15. Narrative report Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge: May - August, 1959

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1959. The report begins by summarizing the...

  16. Narrative report Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge: September - December, 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1963. The report begins by...

  17. Narrative report Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge: May - August, 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1960. The report begins by summarizing the...

  18. Narrative report Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge: January - April, 1960

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1960. The report begins by summarizing...

  19. Narrative report Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge: May - August, 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1961. The report begins by summarizing the...

  20. Narrative report Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge: January - April, 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1961. The report begins by summarizing...

  1. Narrative report Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge: January - April, 1963

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1963. The report begins by summarizing...

  2. Narrative report Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge: January - April, 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from January through April of 1962. The report begins by summarizing...

  3. Narrative report Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge: September - December, 1961

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from September through December of 1961. The report begins by...

  4. Narrative report Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge: May - August, 1962

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Oak Orchard National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments from May through August of 1962. The report begins by summarizing the...

  5. Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge : Interim Public Access Plan : 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This interim plan covers public access for Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge. Sections include introduction, safety briefing protocols, entry procedure, types of...

  6. 60 years of great science [Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2003-01-01

    This issue highlights Oak Ridge National Laboratory's contributions in more than 30 areas of research and related activities during the past 60 years and provides glimpses of current activities that are carrying on this heritage.

  7. Thinning Pine Plantations to Reestablish Oak Openings Species in Northwestern Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Scott R.

    2010-09-01

    Globally the area in forest plantations is rising by 2% annually, increasing the importance of plantations for production of human goods and services and for ecological functions such as carbon storage and biodiversity conservation. Specifically in the Great Lakes states and provinces of Midwestern North America, thousands of hectares of pine plantations were established in the early and mid-1900s to revegetate abandoned agricultural fields that had replaced mixed-species forests and oak-prairie ecosystems. Plantation establishment also was intended to bolster the timber base. Management priorities have shifted, with many resource managers currently seeking to manage existing plantations for promoting mixed-species ecosystems. The purpose of this study was to assess plant succession and the reestablishment of oak savanna and prairie species after thinning 14 plantations of Pinus resinosa and strobus in northwestern Ohio, USA. Thinning reduced tree basal area by an average of 75%. Plant communities were sampled on 0.05-ha plots one and 3 years after thinning and compared to 10 unthinned control plantations. By 3 years after thinning, thinned plots contained 2-3 times more species and 14 times more plant cover than control plots. The species composition of colonizing plants was most strongly correlated with residual pine basal area and soil variables related to drainage (e.g., sand concentration, available water capacity). Although plant composition was dominated by widespread colonizers such as Erechtites hieraciifolia, the coefficient of conservatism (indicative of species of more intact, undisturbed communities) significantly increased on thinned plots from year 1 to 3. This finding, coupled with the presence of four rare, state-listed Ohio species whose eight plot occurrences all were on thinned plots, suggests that plant composition is moving towards species typifying more high-quality savanna and prairie habitats.

  8. Thinning pine plantations to reestablish oak openings species in northwestern Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, Scott R

    2010-09-01

    Globally the area in forest plantations is rising by 2% annually, increasing the importance of plantations for production of human goods and services and for ecological functions such as carbon storage and biodiversity conservation. Specifically in the Great Lakes states and provinces of Midwestern North America, thousands of hectares of pine plantations were established in the early and mid-1900s to revegetate abandoned agricultural fields that had replaced mixed-species forests and oak-prairie ecosystems. Plantation establishment also was intended to bolster the timber base. Management priorities have shifted, with many resource managers currently seeking to manage existing plantations for promoting mixed-species ecosystems. The purpose of this study was to assess plant succession and the reestablishment of oak savanna and prairie species after thinning 14 plantations of Pinus resinosa and strobus in northwestern Ohio, USA. Thinning reduced tree basal area by an average of 75%. Plant communities were sampled on 0.05-ha plots one and 3 years after thinning and compared to 10 unthinned control plantations. By 3 years after thinning, thinned plots contained 2-3 times more species and 14 times more plant cover than control plots. The species composition of colonizing plants was most strongly correlated with residual pine basal area and soil variables related to drainage (e.g., sand concentration, available water capacity). Although plant composition was dominated by widespread colonizers such as Erechtites hieraciifolia, the coefficient of conservatism (indicative of species of more intact, undisturbed communities) significantly increased on thinned plots from year 1 to 3. This finding, coupled with the presence of four rare, state-listed Ohio species whose eight plot occurrences all were on thinned plots, suggests that plant composition is moving towards species typifying more high-quality savanna and prairie habitats.

  9. Sand Lake WMD vegetation mapping project update

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Final report on the vegetation mapping project at Sand Lake Wetland Management District. This project is being completed by the use of SPRING software and ground...

  10. Bioaugmentation of flow-through sand filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsen, Elin Djurhuus

    Global applications of pesticides in agricultural production have led to the detection of trace amounts of pesticides in groundwater resources in levels exceeding the EU threshold limit for drinking water of 0.1 µg L-1. Pesticide-polluted groundwater may be remediated by inoculating waterworks sand...... for degradation performances in flow-through sand columns, with the aim of identifying a suitable inoculant strain for future environmental applications. Another aim was to identify a suitable genetic marker to monitor phenoxy acid degradation in strain Sphingobium sp. PM2. We were not able to link motility...... and biofilm formation to the strains´ ability to adhere to sand. Nevertheless, a correlation was found between cell surface hydrophobicity and adhesion and overall degradation performances in flow-through sand columns. We identified S phingobium sp. PM2 as a promising inoculant strain, displaying efficient...

  11. Petrophysical Analysis of Oil Sand in Athabasca

    Science.gov (United States)

    cheong, S.; Lee, H.

    2013-12-01

    Oil sands are the major unconventional energy sources which have great reserves in Alberta, Canada. Recovery techniques such as CSS (Cyclic Steam Stimulation) and SAGD (Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage) enabled to develop deeper bitumen about several hundred meter depth. Before applying CSS and SAGD, reservoir heterogeneity of mud barriers or shale breccias should be clarified to establish injection and production wells successfully. We conducted the integrated petro-physical analysis for oil sands deposits in Athabasca by correlating well logs with seismic data. From 33 well logs and 3D seismic, we have made P-wave impedance by recursive inversion. Target formations of our analysis were the top of Wabiskaw member. Using inverted impedance and multi-attributes, porosity volume was derived at a target depth. Porosity of time slice 375 ms ranged 20 ~ 40 % stretching porous sand body from NE to SW direction. Characteristics of porosity distribution may be useful to design optimum oil sands recovery in Athabasca.

  12. Carbon cycle: New pathways in the sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Organic carbon decomposition in anoxic marine sediments was thought to be dominated by bacteria, but experimental data and microbial culture studies now show that microalgae buried in coastal sands may also play an important role in carbon turnover.

  13. The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report Summary, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-02-28

    The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report is prepared and published each year to inform the public of the environmental activities that take place on the reservation and in the surrounding areas. It is written to comply with DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting. This document has been prepared to present the highlights of the Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report 2007 in an easy-to-read, summary format.

  14. CRADE OF SAND AND DUST STORM WEATHER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Ruoyun; Tian Cuiying; Bi Baogui; Yang Keming; Wang Youheng; Tuo Ya; Ding Haifang; Zhang Tairen

    2011-01-01

    Background Sand and dust storm,as one of the main disastrous weathers that affect northern China,not only affect the people health and normal life,but cause the short-term climatic changes due to the direct and indirect radiation of the earth-atmosphere system through the dust floating in the sky.The sand end dust weather and its potential harm on the national economy,ecological environment,social activities and other aspects have aroused worldwide concern.

  15. Laboratory evaluation of selected tar sand asphalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Button, J.W.; Epps, J.A.; Gallaway, B.M.

    1980-12-01

    Three tar sand asphalts of similar grades prepared from one syncrude by three different refining methods were characterized by tests commonly used to specify paving asphalts together with certain special tests. Asphalt-aggregate mixtures were prepared using these asphalts and tested in the laboratory to determine strength stiffness stability, tensile properties, temperature effects and water susceptibility. Comparison of the tar sand asphalt properties to conventional petroleum asphalt properties reveal no striking differences.

  16. Response to Oil Sands Products Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Tailings ponds are an operating facility common to all types of surface mining. For oil sands, tailings consisting of water , sand, clay, and residual ...oil, are pumped to these basins—or ponds— where settling occurs and water is recycled for reuse in the process. When the ponds are no longer required...of crude oil transported by tank vessel in Washington waters . In a 2013 Bloomburg Business news article , Dan Murtaugh states, “The dock probably

  17. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may include dolomite and hydrocarbons. Methods may include providing heat at less than the decomposition temperature of dolomite from one or more heaters to at least a portion of the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids are mobilized in the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  18. Pragmatics of reclaimed sand quality assessment recovered nowadays from various used sand systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dańko

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of the reclamation degree of used sands is not a simple, clearly defined issue. The great variety of technologies ofmoulding and core sands, based on the organic and inorganic binders does not allow the use of a single, universal index assessing thedegree of reclamation. The article presents the problems of research relating to selection of proper criteria for assessing the degree ofreclamation process of used moulding and core sands deriving from different technologies. The most often applied in practice types ofused sands and the most adequate in practice methods of assessing the degrees of their reclamation were characterized.

  19. Sand Dune Encroachment and Desertification Processes of the Rigboland Sand Sea, Central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmady-Birgani, Hesam; McQueen, Kenneth G; Moeinaddini, Mazaher; Naseri, Hamidreza

    2017-05-08

    Early studies on sand dune movement and desertification in Iran have not always been convincingly demonstrated because of problems with the field-based measurements. In some areas where various land uses have been engulfed by aeolian sand dunes, desertification is clear, but in other less settled areas, it may not be so obvious. The objective of this study is to demonstrate encroachments of the Rigboland sand sea, central Iran, in its different directions and variable magnitude rates. Determining the rate and direction of the sand sea movements is critical for specifying which lands should be prioritized and quickly protected. The study has trialed a change detection technique which uses a Cross-Tabulation module to compare two available LandsatTM images over the Rigboland sand sea. This indicates that within a ten-year span (from 1988 to 1998) more than 200 ha/yr were added to the Rigboland sand sea, from the alluvial fan landforms in the eastern upstream, outer margins of the Rigboland sand sea. Coupled with GIS techniques, this type of analysis of the remote sensing (RS) images provides an effective tool for the monitoring and prognostication of sand dune movement and sand sea change.

  20. Analysis of sand particles' lift-off and incident velocities in wind-blown sand flux

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-Li Bo; Xiao-Jing Zheng; Shao-Zhen Duan; Yi-Rui Liang

    2013-01-01

    In the research of windblown sand movement,the lift-off and incident velocities of saltating sand particles play a significant role in bridging the spatial and temporal scales from single sand particle's motion to windblown sand flux.In this paper,we achieved wind tunnel measurements of the movement of sand particles near sand bed through improving the wind tunnel experimental scheme of paticle image velocimetry (PIV) and data processing method.And then the influence of observation height on the probability distributions of lift-off and incident velocities of sand particles was analyzed.The results demonstrate that the observation height has no obvious influence on the distribution pattern of the lift-off and incident velocities of sand particles,i.e.,the probability distribution of horizontal and vertical velocities of lift-off and incident sand particles follow a Gaussian distribution and a negative exponential distribution,respectively.However,it influences the center of the Gaussian distribution,the decay constant and the amplitude of the negative exponential distribution.

  1. Chloroplast DNA Diversity of Oak Species in Eastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Calin MOLDOVAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The chloroplast DNA of 34 sessile oak (Quercus petraea and 27 pedunculate oak (Q. robur populations covering the entire natural distribution of the two oak species in Eastern Romania was investigated using four large regions of the chloroplast genome by PCR and RFLP technique. A total of seven chloroplast DNA haplotypes sensu lato have been observed by analysing 305 mature trees. However, due to the high resolution of the electrophoresis method a total of 22 chloroplast variants could have been detected, with new mutations and fragment combinations in two of the amplified regions: psbC/trnD and trnT/trnF. All of the haplotypes belong to the phylogenetic lineages A and E, which originate from the Balkan Peninsula. Most of genetic diversity is distributed among populations (GST=0.779. The chloroplast DNA haplotypes are shared by the two oak species. Different dispersal abilities may explain the higher value of genetic differentiation among populations in sessile oak than in pedunculate oak.

  2. Acorn Production Characteristics of Southern Appalachian Oaks: A Simple Method to Predict Within-Year Crop Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Bernard R. Parresol

    2000-01-01

    We examined acorn production from 1993-97 by black oak (Quercus velutina Lam.), northern red oak (Q. rubra L.), scarlet oak (Q. coccinea Muenchh.), chestnut oak (Q. prinus L.), and white oak (Q. alba L.) in the Southern Appalichians to determine how frequency of acorn...

  3. Recent Sand Avalanching on Rabe Crater Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Dark streaks on the steep, down-wind slopes of sand dunes in Rabe Crater are seen at several locations in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image. These streaks indicate relatively recent (i.e., in the past few years or less) movement of sand down these slopes.Sand dunes move forward by the combined action of wind that drives sand up the shallow slope on the windward side of the dune (in this case, the slopes that face toward the lower right) and the avalanching of this sand down the steeper, lee-side slope. The steep slope is also known as the slip face. The dark streaks indicated by arrows are evidence for sand avalanches that occurred within a few months or years of the time when the picture was taken in March 1999. Other streaks which are seen criss-crossing the dunes may be the result of passing dust devils. This image is illuminated from the upper left and located in Rabe Crater of the Hellespontus-Noachis region near 44.2oS, 325.6oW.

  4. Discrete particle simulation of mixed sand transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fengjun Xiao; Liejin Guo; Debiao Li; Yueshe Wang

    2012-01-01

    An Eulerian/Lagrangian numerical simulation is performed on mixed sand transport.Volume averaged Navier-Stokes equations are solved to calculate gas motion,and particle motion is calculated using Newton's equation,involving a hard sphere model to describe particle-to-particle and particle-to-wall collisions.The influence of wall characteristics,size distribution of sand particles and boundary layer depth on vertical distribution of sand mass flux and particle mean horizontal velocity is analyzed,suggesting that all these three factors affect sand transport at different levels.In all cases,for small size groups,sand mass flux first increases with height and then decreases while for large size groups,it decreases exponentially with height and for middle size groups the behavior is in-between.The mean horizontal velocity for all size groups well fits experimental data,that is,increasing logarithmically with height in the middle height region.Wall characteristics greatly affects particle to wall collision and makes the flat bed similar to a Gobi surface and the rough bed similar to a sandy surface.Particle size distribution largely affects the sand mass flux and the highest heights they can reach especially for larger particles.

  5. Predicting the occurrence of sand banks in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der Henriët H.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.

    2009-01-01

    Sand banks have a wavelength between 1 and 10 km, and they are up to several tens of meters high. Also, sand banks may have an impact on large-scale human activities that take place in the North Sea like sand mining, shipping, offshore wind farms, etc. Therefore, it is important to know where sand b

  6. Effects of fire and thinning on oak and other hardwood species regeneration in mixed oak forests of southeastern Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian C. McCarthy; Matthew A. Albrecht

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a study of hardwood regeneration in the mixed oak forests of unglaciated southeastern Ohio following various silvicultural practices. Our study was conducted at three separate forests within the region.

  7. Layers, Landslides, and Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Released 27 October 2003This image shows the northern rim of one of the Valles Marineris canyons. Careful inspection shows many interesting features here. Note that the spurs and gullies in the canyon wall disappear some distance below the top of the canyon wall, indicating the presence of some smooth material here that weathers differently from the underlying rocks. On the floor of the canyon, there are remains from a landslide that came hurtling down the canyon wall between two spurs. Riding over the topography of the canyon floor are many large sand dunes, migrating generally from the lower right to upper left.Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -14.1, Longitude 306.7 East (53.3 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  8. Some Chemical Compositional Changes in Miscanthus and White Oak Sawdust Samples During Torrefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Richard D. Boardman; Christopher T. Wright; J. Richard Hess

    2012-10-01

    Torrefaction tests on miscanthus and white oak sawdust were carried out in a bubbling sand bed reactor to see the effect of temperature and residence time on the chemical composition. Process conditions for miscanthus and white oak saw dust are 250–350°C and 30–120 minutes, and 220 and 270°C and 30 minutes, respectively. Composition of the torrefied samples studied includes moisture content and moisture-free carbon (%), hydrogen (%), nitrogen (%), sulfur (%), and volatiles. Torrefaction at 250°C and a residence time of 30 minutes resulted in a significant decrease in moisture—about 82.68%—but the other components, C, H, N, S, and V, changed only marginally. Increasing the torrefaction temperature to 350°C and residence time to 120 minutes further reduced the moisture to a final value of 0.54% (a 93.2% reduction compared to the original) and also resulted in a significant decrease in the other components, H, N, and V, by 58.29%, 14.28%, and 70.45%, respectively. The carbon content at 350°C and 120 minutes increased by about 4% and sulfur values were below detection limits. The H/C ratio decreased with an increase in torrefaction temperature, where a minimum value of 0.6 was observed at 350°C and 120 minutes. The regression equations developed with respect to torrefaction temperature and times have adequately described the changes in chemical composition based on r2 value. The surface plots developed based on the regression equations indicate that torrefaction temperatures of 300–350°C and residence times of 30–120 minutes can help increase carbon content to >49.4% and reduce moisture, nitrogen, volatile, and the H/C ratio from 1.13 to 0.6 %, 0.27 to 0.23 %, 79 to 23 %, and 1.3 to 0.6%, respectively. Torrefaction studies on white oak sawdust (woody biomass) at 220 and 270°C for 30 minutes indicated a similar trend where moisture, volatiles, hydrogen, and nitrogen decreased with increased torrefaction temperature from initial values of 8.53%, 80

  9. Development of the Gran Desierto sand sea, northwestern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, Grady; Lancaster, Nicholas

    1990-08-01

    Three major eolian sand populations can be recognized in the Gran Desierto sand sea of northwestern Mexico by using spectral data from the Landsat thematic mapper in conjunction with textural and mineralogical studies of surface sands. Each sand population has distinct textural, mineralogic, and spectral properties that can be related to sand-dune morphology and position with reference to source areas and transport paths of the sands. The oldest eolian sediment in the sand sea was derived from the early to middle Pleistocene Colorado River that flowed through the area of the western Gran Desierto. Subsequent inputs of eolian sands came from the area of the present Colorado River valley and the coast south of the sand sea. The spatial and temporal pattern of eolian deposition in the region has been controlled by Quaternary tectonic and climatic changes, resulting in the episodic input and deposition of sand.

  10. Decomposition of oak leaf litter and millipede faecal pellets in soil under temperate mixed oak forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajovský, Karel; Šimek, Miloslav; Háněl, Ladislav; Šantrůčková, Hana; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The millipedes Glomeris hexasticha (Diplopoda, Glomerida) were maintained under laboratory conditions and fed on oak leaf litter collected from a mixed oak forest (Abieto-Quercetum) in South Bohemia, Czech Republic. Every fourth day litter was changed and produced faecal pellets were separated and afterwards analysed. Content of organic carbon and C:N ratio lowered in faecal pellets as compared with consumed litter. Changes in content of chemical elements (P, K, Ca, Mg, Na) were recognised as those characteristic for the first stage of degradation of plant material. Samples of faecal pellets and oak leaf litter were then exposed in mesh bags between the F and H layers of forest soil for up to one year, subsequently harvested and analysed. A higher rate of decomposition of exposed litter than that of faecal pellets was found during the first two weeks. After 1-year exposure, the weight of litter was reduced to 51%, while that of pellets to 58% only, although the observed activity of present biotic components (algae, protozoans, nematodes; CO2 production, nitrogenase activity) in faecal pellets was higher as compared with litter. Different micro-morphological changes were observed in exposed litter and in pellets although these materials originated from the same initial sources. Comparing to intact leaf litter, another structural and functional processes occurred in pellets due to the fragmentation of plant material by millipedes. Both laboratory and field experiments showed that the millipede faecal pellets are not only a focal point of biodegradation activity in upper soil layers, but also confirmed that millipede feces undergo a slower decomposition than original leaf litter.

  11. Project plan for the Background Soil Characterization Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    The Background Soil characterization Project (BSCP) will provide background concentration levels of selected metals, organic compounds, and radionuclides in soils from uncontaminated on-site areas at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), and off-site in the western part of Roane County and the eastern part of Anderson County. The BSCP will establish a database, recommend how to use the data for contaminated site assessment, and provide estimates of the potential human health and environmental risks associated with the background level concentrations of potentially hazardous constituents.

  12. Data Sharing Report Characterization of Isotope Row Facilities Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge TN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Phyllis C. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-12-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM-OR) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support using funds provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Specifically, DOE EM-OR requested ORAU to plan and implement a survey approach, focused on characterizing the Isotope Row Facilities located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for future determination of an appropriate disposition pathway for building debris and systems, should the buildings be demolished. The characterization effort was designed to identify and quantify radiological and chemical contamination associated with building structures and process systems. The Isotope Row Facilities discussed in this report include Bldgs. 3030, 3031, 3032, 3033, 3033A, 3034, 3036, 3093, and 3118, and are located in the northeast quadrant of the main ORNL campus area, between Hillside and Central Avenues. Construction of the isotope production facilities was initiated in the late 1940s, with the exception of Bldgs. 3033A and 3118, which were enclosed in the early 1960s. The Isotope Row facilities were intended for the purpose of light industrial use for the processing, assemblage, and storage of radionuclides used for a variety of applications (ORNL 1952 and ORAU 2013). The Isotope Row Facilities provided laboratory and support services as part of the Isotopes Production and Distribution Program until 1989 when DOE mandated their shutdown (ORNL 1990). These facilities performed diverse research and developmental experiments in support of isotopes production. As a result of the many years of operations, various projects, and final cessation of operations, production was followed by inclusion into the surveillance and maintenance (S&M) project for eventual decontamination and decommissioning (D&D). The

  13. Geophysical Surveys of a Known Karst Feature, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, P.J.; Carr, B.J.; Doll, W.E.; Kaufmann, R.D.; Nyquist, J.E.

    1999-11-14

    Geophysical data were acquired at a site on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Tennessee to determine the characteristics of a mud-filled void and to evaluate the effectiveness of a suite of geophysical methods at the site. Methods that were used included microgravity, electrical resistivity, and seismic refraction. Both microgravity and resistivity were able to detect the void as well as overlying structural features. The seismic data provide bedrock depth control for the other two methods, and show other effects that are caused by the void.

  14. INDEPENDENT VERIFICATION OF THE BUILDING 3550 SLAB AT OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Phyllis C.

    2012-05-08

    The Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) has completed the independent verification survey of the Building 3550 Slab. The results of this effort are provided. The objective of this verification survey is to provide independent review and field assessment of remediation actions conducted by Safety and Ecology Corporation (SEC) to document that the final radiological condition of the slab meets the release guidelines. Verification survey activities on the Building 3550 Slab that included scans, measurements, and the collection of smears. Scans for alpha, alpha plus beta, and gamma activity identified several areas that were investigated.

  15. Effects of advanced oxidation on green sand properties via iron casting into green sand molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujue; Cannon, Fred S; Voigt, Robert C; Komarneni, Sridhar; Furness, J C

    2006-05-01

    The effects of advanced oxidation (AO) processing on the properties of green sand were studied via pouring cast iron into green sand molds. Upon cooling, the green sand molds were autopsied at various distances from the metal-sand interface. Autopsy green sand samples collected from a mold that incorporated AO water were characterized and compared to controlled samples collected from a similar autopsied mold made with conventional tap water (TAP). It was found that the AO processing removed a coating of coal pyrolysis products from the clay surface that typically accumulated on the clay surface. As a result, the AO-conditioned green sand retained 10-15% more active clay as measured bythe standard ultrasonic methylene blue titration than did the TAP-conditioned green sand. The AO processing also nearly doubled the generation of activated carbon from the normalized amount of coal composition of the green sand during the casting process. The AO-enhanced activated carbon generation and the AO-incurred clay surface cleaning provided the AO-conditioned green sand with higher normalized pore volume, and thus higher normalized m-xylene adsorption capacity, i.e., relative to before-metal-pouring conditions. Furthermore, mathematical analysis indicated that the AO-conditioned green sand better retained its important properties after pouring than did the TAP-conditioned green sand. Effectively, this meant after metal pouring, the AO-conditioned sample offered about the same net properties as the TAP-conditioned sample, even though the AO-conditioned sample contained less clay and coal before metal pouring. These results conformed to the full-scale foundry empirical finding that when AO is used, foundries need less makeup clay and coal addition through each casting cycle, and they release less air emissions.

  16. Contribution of laser altimetry images to the geomorphology of the Late Holocene inland drift sands of the European Sand Belt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungerius, P.D.; Riksen, M.J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper explores the possibilities of applying the analysis of laser altimetry images to Dutch drift sands. All along the European Sand Belt, which stretches from Great Britain to the Ural Mountains, Late Glacial cover sands, river dunes and other ice-age deposits were reactivated as drift sand du

  17. Contribution of laser altimetry images to the geomorphology of the Late Holocene inland drift sands of the European Sand Belt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungerius, P.D.; Riksen, M.J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper explores the possibilities of applying the analysis of laser altimetry images to Dutch drift sands. All along the European Sand Belt, which stretches from Great Britain to the Ural Mountains, Late Glacial cover sands, river dunes and other ice–age deposits were reactivated as drift sand du

  18. Contribution of laser altimetry images to the geomorphology of the Late Holocene inland drift sands of the European Sand Belt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungerius, P.D.; Riksen, M.J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    The paper explores the possibilities of applying the analysis of laser altimetry images to Dutch drift sands. All along the European Sand Belt, which stretches from Great Britain to the Ural Mountains, Late Glacial cover sands, river dunes and other ice–age deposits were reactivated as drift sand

  19. Oak Ridge Reservation environmental report for 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, A.R. (ed.)

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to the public about the impact of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) facilities located on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) on the public and the environment. It describes the environmental surveillance and monitoring activities conducted at and around the DOE facilities operated by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. Preparation and publication of this report is in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1. The order specifies a publication deadline of June of the following year for each calendar year of data. The primary objective of this report is to summarize all information collected for the previous calendar year regarding effluent monitoring, environmental surveillance, and estimates of radiation and chemical dose to the surrounding population. When multiple years of information are available for a program, trends are also evaluated. The first seven sections of Volume 1 of this report address this objective. The last three sections of Volume 1 provide information on solid waste management, special environmental studies, and quality assurance programs.

  20. SEASONAL AND DIURNAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS IN ANT (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE) COMMUNITIES IN A VEGETATION TRANSITION REGION OF SOUTHEASTERN NEW MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    The densities of active ant colonies were estimated in three habitats: creosotebush shrubland, grassland, and shinnery-oak mesquite dunes. Diurnal foraging patterns were studied at bait boards. Species richness of ant communities in this transitional region (8-12 species) was co...

  1. Bright sand/dark dust: The identification of active sand surfaces on the Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blount, H. G., II; Greeley, R.; Christensen, P. R.; Arvidson, R.

    1987-05-01

    Field studies and analysis of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data in the Gran Desierto, Mexico may shed light on a technique to distinguish active from inactive (relict) sand surfaces. Active sand bodies in the study area are consistently brighter (by an average of 20%) at visual and near infrared wavelengths and darker at thermal infrared wavelengths than compositionally similar inactive sands. The reasons for the albedo difference between active and inactive sands are reviewed and the mixing model of Johnson et al. is examined for tracing the provenance of sands based on albedo and spectral variations. Portions of the wavelengths covered by the Mars Orbiter correspond to the Thematic Mapper data. The identification of active sands on Earth, with a priori knowledge of bulk composition and grain size distribution, may allow the remote mapping of active sand surfaces on Mars. In conjuction with thermal infrared remote sensing for composition, it may also provide a method for the remote determination of grain size distributions within sand/silt mixtures.

  2. Simulating and understanding sand wave variation: A case study of the Golden Gate sand waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterlini, F.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.; Hanes, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a detailed comparison between measured features of the Golden Gate sand wave field and the results of a nonlinear sand wave model. Because the Golden Gate sand waves exhibit large variation in their characteristics and in their environmental physics, this area gives us the opportunity to study sand wave variation between locations, within one well-measured, large area. The nonlinear model used in this paper is presently the only tool that provides information on the nonlinear evolution of large-amplitude sand waves. The model is used to increase our understanding of the coupling between the variability in environmental conditions and the sand wave characteristics. Results show that the model is able to describe the variation in the Golden Gate sand waves well when both the local oscillating tidal current and the residual current are taken into account. Current and water depth seem to be the most important factors influencing sand wave characteristics. The simulation results give further confidence in the underlying model hypothesis and assumptions. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SAND FRACTION IN A SAND GRAIN IMAGE CAPTURE SYSTEM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimar Arruda Viana

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Morphology studies assume significant importance in analysis of phenomena of granular systems packaging, in particular with a view to the use of the technique of soil stabilization named particle size correction in forest roads. In this context, this study aimed to develop and operationalize a Sand Grain Image Capture System and, hereby, determine the morphological indices of the sand fractions of two sandy soils called João Pinheiro (JP and Cachoeira da Prata (CP. Soil samples, air-dried, were sieved (2.0 mm nominal mesh size for removal of gravels. The materials that passed through the sieve were subjected to dispersion, washing in 0.053 mm nominal mesh size sieve, removal of organic matter and iron oxides to obtain the clean sand fractions. Subsequently, each soil sample was sieved for separation into twelve classes, between the diameters of 0.149 mm and 1.190 mm, using a Rotap shaker. Next, tests were carried out to characterize the morphometric attributes of the twelve classes of sand fractions of the soils studied. For validation of the performance of the Sand Grain Image Capture System, the results were compared to those obtained using a standard procedure for image analysis. The analysis of the results led to the following conclusions: (i the sand fraction of the JP soil presented higher values for the morphometric indices roundness, elongation and compactness compared to sand fraction of the CP soil; and (ii the Sand Grain Image Capture System worked properly, with practicality.

  4. Probability of rebound and eject of sand particles in wind-blown sand movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xie; Xiaojing Zheng

    2007-01-01

    When incident particles impact into a sand bed in wind-blown sand movement, rebound of the incident particles and eject of the sand particles by the incident particles affect directly the development of wind sand flux. In order to obtain rebound and eject lift-off probability of the sand particles, we apply the particle-bed stochastic collision model presented in our pervious works to derive analytic solutions of velocities of the incident and impacted particles in the postcollision bed. In order to describe randomness inherent in the real particle-bed collision, we take the incident angle, theimpact position and the direction of resultant action of sand particles in sand bed on the impacted sand particle as random variables, and calculate the rebound and eject velocities,angles and coefficients (ratio of rebound and eject velocity to incident velocity). Numerical results are found in accordance with current experimental results. The rebound and eject lift-off probabilities versus the incident and creeping velocities are predicted.

  5. Pretreatment of turkey fat-containing wastewater in coarse sand and gravel/coarse sand bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Rashmi Singh; Cai, Ling; Tuovinen, Olli H; Mancl, Karen M

    2010-02-01

    Fat, oil and grease in wastewater can be difficult to treat because of their slow decomposition. Traditional pretreatment facilities to remove fat, oil and grease from wastewater are increasingly costly. The hypothesis in this study was that pretreatment of animal fat-containing wastewater in sand and sand/gravel filters facilitates the conversion of slowly degradable organic matter measured as the difference between chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)) for subsequent biological treatment. The pretreatment was evaluated using simulated turkey-processing wastewater and coarse sand and sand/gravel filters at a constant hydraulic loading rate of 132L/m(2)/day. Two types of fixed media reactors were employed: (i) one set with a varying depth of coarse sand, and (ii) the second was similar but with an additional pea gravel cap. The results indicated that the relative removal of COD was slightly improved in the sand bioreactors with a pea gravel cap irrespective of the depth of coarse sand, but partial conversion to BOD(5) was not consistently demonstrated. Pea gravel may act as a sieve to entrap organic matter including fat globules from the wastewater. Multiple dosing at the same daily loading rate slightly improved the treatment efficiency of the sand bioreactors. The ratios of influent-COD/effluent-COD were always greater than 1.0 following a change in the dosing frequency after a rest period, suggesting that organic matter, specifically fat globules in this case, was retained by the column matrix.

  6. The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae and light on Wisconsin (USA) sand savanna understories 2. Plant competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Frank C; Gargas, Andrea; Givnish, Thomas J

    2005-11-01

    Wisconsin (USA) oak savannas are endangered plant communities that have remarkably high plant species diversity. To investigate factors underlying this richness, we experimentally investigated the potentially interacting effects of light gradients and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on plant competition in the greenhouse, using a fully randomized block design. We used four plant species, soil, and AMF from a remnant sand savanna, under two light and five AMF treatments. Plants were grown four per pot under two competition treatments (either one or four species per pot) for 20 weeks. Using ANOVA, we found that all species showed significant treatment effects on total and shoot biomass, primarily due to differences in competition and light, less to AMF. However, effects were the opposite of predictions. Putatively mycorrhizal plants showed neutral to negative responses to AMF, and a nonmycorrhizal species outcompeted AMF species in infected pots. We concluded that our experimental setup of small pots, sandy soil, and long growing period had induced parasitism by the AMF on susceptible hosts. This unexpected result is consistent with field data from the sand savanna, and may help explain how nonmycorrhizal plants can compete successfully with AMF species in established, species-rich communities.

  7. Sand incursion into temperate (Lithuania) and tropical (the Bahamas) maritime vegetation: Georadar visualization of target-rich aeolian lithosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buynevich, Ilya V.; Savarese, Michael; Curran, H. Allen; Bitinas, Albertas; Glumac, Bosiljka; Pupienis, Donatas; Kopcznski, Karen; Dobrotin, Nikita; Gnivecki, Perry; Boush, Lisa Park; Damušytė, Aldona

    2017-08-01

    Interaction of windblown sand with maritime vegetation, either as dune migration or episodic grain transport is a common phenomenon along many sandy coasts. Vegetation introduces antecedent surface roughness, especially when scaled to the landform height, but its role may be concealed if overwhelmed by aeolian incursion and burial. Where field observations and cores lack detail for characterizing this complex process, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) offers continuous visualization of aeolian sequences. Along the Curonian Spit, Lithuania, dune reactivation phases resulted in massive invasion of siliciclastic sand triggered by natural perturbations and land clearance. Massive (>30 m high) dunes entombed mature pine, oak, and alder stands and this process is ongoing. Mid-frequency (200 MHz) georadar surveys reveal landward-dipping lateral accretion surfaces interrupted by high-amplitude point-source anomalies produced by recently buried trees. In tropical regions, dense vegetation and potential for rapid lithification of carbonate sand results in more complex internal structures. Along the windward coast of San Salvador Island, the Bahamas, a massive dune has buried several generations of maritime scrubland, resulting in highly chaotic reflection pattern and high target density. On a nearby Little Exuma Island, numerous reentrants in aeolianites promoted formation of blowouts and incursion of windblown sand 10-25 m into a silver thatch palm forest. High-frequency (800 MHz) GPR images resolve diffractions from trunks and roots buried by > 2 m of oolitic sand. Basal refection morphology helps differentiate the irregular dune/beachrock surface from a smooth palm-frond mat. Aside from detecting and mapping buried vegetation, geophysical images capture its effect on sediment accumulation. This has the potential for differentiating its effect from other discordant structures within dunes (clasts, dissolution voids, trunk molds, burrows, and cultural remains).

  8. Characterization plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Area-Wide Groundwater Program, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This characterization plan has been developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) investigation of the Groundwater Operable Unit (GWOU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first iteration of the characterization plan is intended to serve as a strategy document to guide subsequent GWOU remedial investigations. The plan provides a rationale and organization for groundwater data acquisition, monitoring, and remedial actions to be performed during implementation of environmental restoration activities associated with the ORNL GWOU. It is important to note that the characterization plan for the ORNL GWOU is not a prototypical work plan. As such, remedial investigations will be conducted using annual work plans to manage the work activities, and task reports will be used to document the results of the investigations. Sampling and analysis results will be compiled and reported annually with a review of data relative to risk (screening level risk assessment review) for groundwater. This characterization plan outlines the overall strategy for the remedial investigations and defines tasks that are to be conducted during the initial phase of investigation. This plan is presented with the understanding that more specific addenda to the plan will follow.

  9. Effects of declining oak vitality on ecosystem functions: Lessons from a Spanish oak woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sánchez, Aida; Bareth, Georg; Bolten, Andreas; Linstädter, Anja

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean oak woodlands have a great ecological and socio-economic importance. Today, these fragile ecosystems are facing unprecedented degradation threats from Novel Oak Diseases (NODs). Among NOD drivers, maladapted land management practices and climate change are most important. Although it is generally believed that NOD-related declines in tree vitality will have detrimental effects on ecosystem functions, little is known on the magnitude of change, and whether different functions are affected in a similar way. Here we analyzed effects of tree vitality on various ecosystem functions, comparing subcanopy and intercanopy habitats across two oak species (Quercus ilex and Q. suber) in a Spanish oak woodland. We asked how functions - including aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP), taxonomic diversity, and litter decomposition rates - were affected by oak trees' size and vitality. We also combined measurements in the ecosystem function habitat index (MEFHI), a proxy of ecosystem multifunctionality. Field research was carried out in 2016 on a dehesa in southern Spain. We used a stratified random sampling to contrast trees of different species affiliation, size and vitality. Tree vitality was estimated as crown density (assessed via hemispherical photography), and as tree vigor, which combines the grade of canopy defoliation with proxies for tree size (dbh, height, crown height and crown radius). For each tree (n = 34), two plots (50 x 50 cm) were located; one in the subcanopy habitat, and the other in the intercanopy area beyond the tree crown's influence. On all 68 plots, moveable cages were placed during the main growth period (March to May) to estimate ANPP under grazed conditions. Litter decomposition rates were assessed via the tea bag index. ANPP and the biomass of grasses, forbs and legumes were recorded via destructive sampling. To take plots' highly variable environmental conditions into account, we recorded a suite of abiotic and biotic

  10. Capturing phosphates with iron enhanced sand filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Andrew J; Gulliver, John S; Weiss, Peter T

    2012-06-01

    Most treatment practices for urban runoff capture pollutants such as phosphorus by either settling or filtration while dissolved phosphorus, typically as phosphates, is untreated. Dissolved phosphorus, however, represents an average 45% of total phosphorus in stormwater runoff and can be more than 95%. In this study, a new stormwater treatment technology to capture phosphate, called the Minnesota Filter, is introduced. The filter comprises iron filings mixed with sand and is tested for phosphate removal from synthetic stormwater. Results indicate that sand mixed with 5% iron filings captures an average of 88% phosphate for at least 200 m of treated depth, which is significantly greater than a sand filter without iron filings. Neither incorporation of iron filings into a sand filter nor capture of phosphates onto iron filings in column experiments had a significant effect on the hydraulic conductivity of the filter at mixtures of 5% or less iron by weight. Field applications with up to 10.7% iron were operated over 1 year without detrimental effects upon hydraulic conductivity. A model is applied and fit to column studies to predict the field performance of iron-enhanced sand filters. The model predictions are verified through the predicted performance of the filters in removing phosphates in field applications. Practical applications of the technology, both existing and proposed, are presented so stormwater managers can begin implementation.

  11. Cleaning oil sands drilling waste in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikic, N.; Nilsen, C.; Markabi, M. [Mi SWACO, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The waste generated from steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) wells is brought to the surface and separated by shale shakers. The waste can include drilling fluids and sand contaminated with bitumen. This paper described a new technology developed to treat waste using the addition of hot water and various mixing and separation technologies to reduce the viscosity of the bitumen and separate it from the sand. The bitumen-contaminated drill cuttings were mixed with hot water to form a slurry that was then separated through the G-force created by a hydrocyclone. A secondary separation was then conducted in an elutriation column to remove residual contaminants from the sand. The flow rate of the process was controlled by the fine solids composition of the cuttings, the temperature of the cleaning process, and the performance of the individual components. Laboratory tests conducted to tests the method showed that the sand particles produced using the method were clean enough to be safely disposed in the environment. A pilot study will be conducted to test the sand cleaning technology at a commercial scale. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Mitigating in situ oil sands carbon costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theriault, D.J.; Peterson, J. [Laricina Energy Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Heinrichs, H. [Canadian Chemical Technology Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Carbon capture and sequestration is a complex problem with a variety of dimensions that need to be considered. The political, social, and regulatory pressures are forcing carbon costs on the oil sands industry in an effort to reduce the carbon footprint of oil sands operations. This paper reviewed the political, social, and regulatory pressures and obligations for the in-situ oil sands industry. It presented the views and insights of Laricina Energy on the carbon challenge. It also described the initiatives that Laricina Energy is taking to manage these imperatives and outlined the challenges the industry is facing. The purpose of the paper was to encourage dialogue and collaboration by the oil sands industry. The paper also described the dimensions of the carbon problem and how the industry can contribute to a solution. Last, the paper reviewed the parameters of carbon dioxide or greenhouse gas containment and storage issues. It was concluded that the regulatory and policy requirements need to be clarified so that industry understands the new business landscape as well as the requirements that influence the economics of in-situ oil sands development. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  13. White Oak Creek Watershed: Melton Valley Area Remedial Investigation Report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 3 Appendix C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This report provides details on the baseline ecological risk assessment conducted in support of the Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for the Melton Valley areas of the White Oak Creek watershed (WOCW). The RI presents an analysis meant to enable the US Department of Energy (DOE) to pursue a series of remedial actions resulting in site cleanup and stabilization. The ecological risk assessment builds off of the WOCW screening ecological risk assessment. All information available for contaminated sites under the jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy`s Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Federal Facilities Agreement within the White Oak Creek (WOC) RI area has been used to identify areas of potential concern with respect to the presence of contamination posing a potential risk to ecological receptors within the Melton Valley area of the White Oak Creek watershed. The risk assessment report evaluates the potential risks to receptors within each subbasin of the watershed as well as at a watershed-wide scale. The WOC system has been exposed to contaminant releases from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and associated operations since 1943 and continues to receive contaminants from adjacent waste area groupings.

  14. Interspecific gene flow and maintenance of species integrity in oaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Gailing

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oak species show a wide variation in morphological and physiological characters, and species boundaries between closely related species are often not clear-cut. Still, despite frequent interspecific gene flow, oaks maintain distinct morphological and physiological adaptations. In sympatric stands, spatial distribution of species with different ecological requirements is not random but constrained by soil and other microenvironmental factors. Pre-zygotic isolation (e.g. cross incompatibilities, asynchrony in flowering, pollen competition and post-zygotic isolation (divergent selection contribute to the maintenance of species integrity in sympatric oak stands. The antagonistic effects of interspecific gene flow and divergent selection are reflected in the low genetic differentiation between hybridizing oak species at most genomic regions interspersed by regions with signatures of divergent selection (outlier regions. In the near future, the availability of high-density genetic linkage maps anchored to scaffolds of a sequenced Q. robur genome will allow to characterize the underlying genes in these outlier regions and their putative role in reproductive isolation between species. Reciprocal transplant experiments of seedlings between parental environments can be used to characterize selection on outlier genes. High transferability of gene-based markers will enable comparative outlier screens in different oak species.

  15. Interspecific gene flow and maintenance of species integrity in oaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Gailing

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oak species show a wide variation in morphological and physiological characters, and species boundaries between closely related species are often not clear-cut. Still, despite frequent interspecific gene flow, oaks maintain distinct morphological and physiological adaptations. In sympatric stands, spatial distribution of species with different ecological requirements is not random but constrained by soil and other microenvironmental factors. Pre-zygotic isolation (e.g. cross incompatibilities, asynchrony in flowering, pollen competition and post-zygotic isolation (divergent selection contribute to the maintenance of species integrity in sympatric oak stands. The antagonistic effects of interspecific gene flow and divergent selection are reflected in the low genetic differentiation between hybridizing oak species at most genomic regions interspersed by regions with signatures of divergent selection (outlier regions. In the near future, the availability of high-density genetic linkage maps anchored to scaffolds of a sequenced Q. robur genome will allow to characterize the underlying genes in these outlier regions and their putative role in reproductive isolation between species. Reciprocal transplant experiments of seedlings between parental environments can be used to characterize selection on outlier genes. High transferability of gene-based markers will enable comparative outlier screens in different oak species.

  16. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Core Competencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberto, J.B.; Anderson, T.D.; Berven, B.A.; Hildebrand, S.G.; Hartman, F.C.; Honea, R.B.; Jones, J.E. Jr.; Moon, R.M. Jr.; Saltmarsh, M.J.; Shelton, R.B. [and others

    1994-12-01

    A core competency is a distinguishing integration of capabilities which enables an organization to deliver mission results. Core competencies represent the collective learning of an organization and provide the capacity to perform present and future missions. Core competencies are distinguishing characteristics which offer comparative advantage and are difficult to reproduce. They exhibit customer focus, mission relevance, and vertical integration from research through applications. They are demonstrable by metrics such as level of investment, uniqueness of facilities and expertise, and national impact. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has identified four core competencies which satisfy the above criteria. Each core competency represents an annual investment of at least $100M and is characterized by an integration of Laboratory technical foundations in physical, chemical, and materials sciences; biological, environmental, and social sciences; engineering sciences; and computational sciences and informatics. The ability to integrate broad technical foundations to develop and sustain core competencies in support of national R&D goals is a distinguishing strength of the national laboratories. The ORNL core competencies are: 9 Energy Production and End-Use Technologies o Biological and Environmental Sciences and Technology o Advanced Materials Synthesis, Processing, and Characterization & Neutron-Based Science and Technology. The distinguishing characteristics of each ORNL core competency are described. In addition, written material is provided for two emerging competencies: Manufacturing Technologies and Computational Science and Advanced Computing. Distinguishing institutional competencies in the Development and Operation of National Research Facilities, R&D Integration and Partnerships, Technology Transfer, and Science Education are also described. Finally, financial data for the ORNL core competencies are summarized in the appendices.

  17. Permeability Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends on the charact......The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends...... on the characteristics of the soil matrix, the permeability is determined for different void ratios. All tests are performed on reconstituted specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand. The permeability is determined by use of a falling head apparatus. Finally the test results are briefly summarised and a relationship between...... void ratio and permeability is established....

  18. Sand Dunes Fixation in Baiji District, Iraq

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This study was carried out at Sand Dunes Stabilization Researches Station in Baiji district (230 ln north of Baghdad, Iraq) to evaluate the effects of local soil conditioners manufactured from oil derivatives and plant residuals on sand dunes fixation as the first step for sand dunes stabilization. The results indicate that the fuel oil has the first place in improving wind erosion parameters in the study area, such as increasing mean weight diameter, dry aggregates percentage, the needed time for complete disaggregation by dry sieving, and decreasing the disaggregation rates. Bitumen emulsion occupies the second place, while the plant residuals occupies the third place and has slight effects on the studied parameters. Effects of conditioners on natural vegetation cover are negative in oil derivatives treatments,while positive in plants residuals treatments.

  19. Thermoluminescent dosimetric properties of Descalvado sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, M.I.; Caldas, L.V.E

    2006-07-01

    Sand samples proceeding from Descalvado, Sao Paulo, were studied with regard to their dosimetric properties using the thermoluminescence technique (TL) for high doses. These sand samples present steady physical and chemical characteristics to the end items, and they are used in the glass industry and for casting. The TL curves of the samples were obtained after an irradiation at the Gamma-Cell system ({sup 60} Co), of IPEN. The glow curves present two peaks at 80 C and 220 C approximately. Calibration curves were obtained for doses between 50 Gy and 5 kGy. The results indicate that the sand samples can be used for high-doses dosimetry in several areas of applications of ionizing radiation. (Author)

  20. Development tendencies of moulding and core sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw M. Dobosz1

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Further development of the technology for making moulding and core sands will be strictly limited by tough requirements due to protection of the natural environment. These tendencies are becoming more and more tense, so that we will reach a point when even processes, that from technological point of view fulfill high requirements of the foundry industry, must be replaced by more ecologically-friendly solutions. Hence, technologies using synthetic resins as binding materials will be limited. This paper presents some predictable development tendencies of moulding and core sands. The increasing role of inorganic substances will be noticed, including silicate binders with significantly improved properties, such as improved knock-out property or higher reclamation strength. Other interesting solutions might also be moulding sands bonded by geo-polymers and phosphate binders or salts and also binders based on degradable biopolymers. These tendencies and the usefulness of these binders are put forward in this paper.

  1. Planet-wide sand motion on mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, N.T.; Bourke, M.C.; Geissler, P.E.; Banks, M.E.; Colon, C.; Diniega, S.; Golombek, M.P.; Hansen, C.J.; Mattson, S.; McEwen, A.S.; Mellon, M.T.; Stantzos, N.; Thomson, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Prior to Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter data, images of Mars showed no direct evidence for dune and ripple motion. This was consistent with climate models and lander measurements indicating that winds of sufficient intensity to mobilize sand were rare in the low-density atmosphere. We show that many sand ripples and dunes across Mars exhibit movement of as much as a few meters per year, demonstrating that Martian sand migrates under current conditions in diverse areas of the planet. Most motion is probably driven by wind gusts that are not resolved in global circulation models. A past climate with a thicker atmosphere is only required to move large ripples that contain coarse grains. ?? 2012 Geological Society of America.

  2. A comparison of seed banks across a sand dune successional gradient at Lake Michigan dunes (Indiana, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht-Young, S. A.; Pavlovic, N.B.; Grundel, R.; Frohnapple, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    In habitats where disturbance is frequent, seed banks are important for the regeneration of vegetation. Sand dune systems are dynamic habitats in which sand movement provides intermittent disturbance. As succession proceeds from bare sand to forest, the disturbance decreases. At Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, we examined the seed banks of three habitat types across a successional gradient: foredunes, secondary dunes, and oak savanna. There were differences among the types of species that germinated from each of the habitats. The mean seed bank density increased across the successional gradient by habitat, from 376 to 433 to 968 seeds m-2, but with foredune and secondary dune seed bank densities being significantly lower than the savanna seed bank density. The number of seeds germinated was significantly correlated with soil organic carbon, demonstrating for this primary successional sequence that seed density increases with stage and age. The seed bank had much lower species richness than that of the aboveground vegetation across all habitats. Among sites within a habitat type, the similarity of species germinated from the seed banks was very low, illustrating the variability of the seed bank even in similar habitat types. These results suggest that restoration of these habitats cannot rely on seed banks alone. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  3. Undrained Cyclic Behaviour of Dense Frederikshavn Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Kjær; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Sørensen, Kris Wessel

    2013-01-01

    A modified contour diagram is created for the Frederikshavn Sand in the undrained case for a relative density of ID = 80 %. It can be used to estimate the number of cycles to failure for a given combination of pore pressure, average and cyclic load ratio. The diagram is based on a series of undra......A modified contour diagram is created for the Frederikshavn Sand in the undrained case for a relative density of ID = 80 %. It can be used to estimate the number of cycles to failure for a given combination of pore pressure, average and cyclic load ratio. The diagram is based on a series...

  4. Sand control systems used in completing wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Wittenberger

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Expandable Tubular Technology is transforming the face of well completion and construction. This technology provides: a substantially higher hydrocarbon production rates from the reservoir, a reduced well drilling and construction costs, new possibilities for previously unreachable or uneconomic reservoirs, and step a change towards the single diameter well. ESS (Expandable Sand Screen has an unrivalled performance worldwide for delivering a reliable sand control in a wide range of applications. Well costs typically cut by over 20 %, and the productivity increases up to 70 %.

  5. On the Size Distribution of Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    -distribution, by taking into account that individual grains do not have the same travel time from the source to the deposit. The travel time is assumed to be random so that the wear on the individual grains vary randomly. The model provides an interpretation of the parameters of the NIG-distribution, and relates the mean......A model is presented of the development of the size distribution of sand while it is transported from a source to a deposit. The model provides a possible explanation of the log-hyperbolic shape that is frequently found in unimodal grain size distributions in natural sand deposits, as pointed out...

  6. George Sand [Reseña

    OpenAIRE

    Jack, Belinda; Thomas, Florence

    2002-01-01

    Belinda Jack nos cuenta en ese libro la vida de George Sand (de su verdadero nombre Aurora Dupin), esa mujer libertaria del siglo XIX, lo años de su nacimiento, su infancia, su adolescencia y su vida adulta. Una vida tan llena tanto por sus luchas interiores -Sand es una mujer que desde su adolescencia tratará de romper los fatalismos ligados a la condición de mujer del siglo XIX, un siglo profundamente familista y maternalista- como por su inmensa obra literaria que cuenta más de cincuenta n...

  7. Investigation of Sand-Cement Grouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-09-01

    the sianAS. Ho-4, VVers thia 𔃽pacification ,Jlowi -inI r.ver,4 e ofl 3 :*- cen~t to be retain(v,- on1 the NO,. 1E6 sieve. 3y * :.Oviiq- (1),, sc...325 material as does the traprock or silica sand. This j J: i3 -robably the reason for the difference in the quantity of sand founud pmrnable. The three...deficient in material assing th.e ±,e h DOsieve, Ath the addition of percentages of fŕ. ash was test-ilwped. in the other to-ts in this phase, tne

  8. TURBULENT COHERENT STRUCTURES IN CHANNELS WITH SAND WAVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Sand wave bed is one of the typical shape of complicated boundaries in hydraulics and river dynamics, and sand wave motion is the main form of the bed load motion in-rivers, thence the study of turbulent structures over sand waves is of importance both in theory and practice. In this paper turbulent coherent structures over single-and multi-sand waves were studied experimentally, the formulae for the separation length and vortex shedding period of the turbulent flow over single-sand wave were suggested, and the characteristics of turbulent coherent structures over multi-sand waves were also given.

  9. Exposition of cork oak roots to cryptogein reduced the Infection by Phytophtora cinnamomi

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, I.; Medeira, C.; Candeias, I.; A.C. Moreira; Melo, Eduardo P.; Cravador, A.

    2009-01-01

    The oomycete P. cinnamomi has been described as strong contributing factor to the decline of cork oak and holm oak stands occurring in the Iberian Peninsula. There are no eradication methods available against this pathogen.

  10. Baskett Slough/William L. Finley - Oregon White Oak Restoration, Douglas-fir Removal, Phase III

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — With less than 7% of historic oak woodland habitat and 1% of oak savanna currently remaining in the Willamette Valley, the WV NWRC holds some of the largest and best...

  11. Threshold for sand mobility on Mars calibrated from seasonal variations of sand flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, F.; Avouac, J.-P.; Newman, C. E.; Richardson, M. I.; Lucas, A.; Leprince, S.; Bridges, N. T.

    2014-09-01

    Coupling between surface winds and saltation is a fundamental factor governing geological activity and climate on Mars. Saltation of sand is crucial for both erosion of the surface and dust lifting into the atmosphere. Wind tunnel experiments along with measurements from surface meteorology stations and modelling of wind speeds suggest that winds should only rarely move sand on Mars. However, evidence for currently active dune migration has recently accumulated. Crucially, the frequency of sand-moving events and the implied threshold wind stresses for saltation have remained unknown. Here we present detailed measurements of Nili Patera dune field based on High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment images, demonstrating that sand motion occurs daily throughout much of the year and that the resulting sand flux is strongly seasonal. Analysis of the seasonal sand flux variation suggests an effective threshold for sand motion for application to large-scale model wind fields (1-100 km scale) of τs=0.01±0.0015 N m-2.

  12. The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Joan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thompson, Sharon [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Page, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2008-09-30

    The Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) consists of three major government-owned, contractor-operated facilities: the Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and East Tennessee Technology Park. The ORR was established in the early 1940s as part of the Manhattan Project, a secret undertaking that produced materials for the first atomic bombs. The reservation’s role has evolved over the years, and it continues to adapt to meet the changing defense, energy, and research needs of the United States. Both the work carried out for the war effort and subsequent research, development, and production activities have involved, and continue to involve, the use of radiological and hazardous materials. The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report and supporting data are available at Http://www.ornl.gov/sci/env_rpt or from the project director.

  13. Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction annual report for calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    Calendar year 1997 was the third full year of work on the Oak Ridge Dose Reconstruction. Activities are summarized on the following individual project tasks: Task 1 -- Investigation of radioiodine releases from X-10 radioactive lanthanum processing; Task 2 -- Investigation of mercury releases from Y-12 lithium enrichment; Task 3 -- Investigation of PCBs in the environment near Oak Ridge; Task 4 -- Investigation of radionuclides released from White Oak Creek to the Clinch River; Task 5 -- Systematic searching of records repositories; Task 6 -- Evaluation of the quality of uranium monitoring data and a screening evaluation of potential off-site health risks; and Task 7 -- Performance of screening for additional materials not evaluated in the feasibility study.

  14. Response of Holm oak (Quercus ilex subsp. ballota) and mastic shrub (Pistacia lentiscus L.) seedlings to high concentrations of Cd and Tl in the rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, María T; Marañón, Teodoro; Murillo, José Manuel; Redondo-Gómez, Susana

    2011-05-01

    The impairment of root growth and photosynthetical functioning are the main impacts of trace elements on woody plant seedlings. In this work, we assessed the response of Holm oak (Quercusilex subsp. ballota) and mastic shrub (Pistacia lentiscus) seedlings to high concentrations of Cd and Tl in the rhizosphere. These are non-essential trace elements, with a potential high mobility in the soil-plant system. Seedlings of these species are frequently used in the afforestation of degraded soils in mining areas. Plants were exposed to different levels of Cd (20, 80 and 200 mg L(-1)) and Tl (2, 10 and 20 mg L(-1)) in a sand culture. Biomass allocation, growth rates, chlorophyll fluorescence and gas exchange were studied. Both metals affected root biomass. Cadmium produced an increase in the root mass ratio and a decrease in the specific leaf area of the plants in oak seedlings, while Tl did not provoke such response. Mastic plants were more sensitive to Tl and Cd than oak plants. Between elements, Tl provoked more severe toxic effects in the plants, affecting the antennae complexes and reaction centers of the photosystem II. Both elements decreased net assimilation rates (down to a 20% of the control plants) and stomatal conductance (5-10% of the values for the control plants). Cadmium was highly retained in the roots of both species, while Tl was highly translocated into the leaves. In general, Holm oak showed a higher tolerance for Cd than for Tl, and a higher resistance to both metals than mastic shrub, due to a high capacity for Cd retention at the root level. However, such accumulation in roots may induce water stress in the seedling exposed to Cd.

  15. MouldingSandDB – a modern database storing moulding sands properties research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jakubski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of foundry processes requires the use of modern, advanced IT tools for optimization, storage and analysis of t echnicaldata. Properties of moulding and core sands that are collected in research laboratories, manufacturers, and finally in the foundries, are not in use later on. It seems important to create a database that will allow to use the results stored, along with the possibility of searching according to set criteria, adjusted to casting practice. This paper presents part of the database named „MouldingSandDB”, which allows to collect and search data for synthetic moulding sands.

  16. Real-Time Simulation of Aeolian Sand Movement and Sand Ripple Evolution: A Method Based on the Physics of Blown Sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Wang; Bao-Gang Hu

    2012-01-01

    Simulation and visualization of aeolian sand movement and sand ripple evolution are a challenging subject.In this paper,we propose a physically based modeling and simulating method that can be used to synthesize sandy terrain in various patterns.Our method is based on the mechanical behavior of individual sand grains,which are widely studied in the physics of blown sand.We accounted significant mechanisms of sand transportation into the sand model,such as saltation,successive saltation and collapsing,while simplified the vegetation model and wind field model to make the simulation feasible and affordable.We implemented the proposed method on the programming graphics processing unit (GPU) to get real-time simulation and rendering.Finally,we proved that our method can reflect many characteristics of sand ripple evolution through several demonstrations.We also gave several synthesized desert scenes made from the simulated height field to display its significance on application.

  17. Level 3 Baseline Risk Assessment for Building 3515 at Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollert, D.A.; Cretella, F.M.; Golden, K.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    The baseline risk assessment for the Fission Product Pilot Plant (Building 3515) at the Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) provides the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program at ORNL and Building 3515 project managers with information concerning the results of the Level 3 baseline risk assessment performed for this building. The document was prepared under Work Breakdown Structure 1.4.12.6.2.01 (Activity Data Sheet 3701, Facilities D&D) and includes information on the potential long-term impacts to human health and the environment if no action is taken to remediate Building 3515. Information provided in this document forms the basis for the development of remedial alternatives and the no-action risk portion of the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Analysis report.

  18. Design demonstrations for category B tank systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This document presents design demonstrations conducted of liquid low-level waste (LLLW) storage tank systems located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Demonstration of the design of these tank systems has been stipulated by the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-Region IV; the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC); and the DOE. The FFA establishes four categories of tanks. These are: Category A -- New or replacement tank systems with secondary containment; Category B -- Existing tank systems with secondary containment; Category C -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment; Category D -- Existing tank systems without secondary containment that are removed from service. This document provides a design demonstration of the secondary containment and ancillary equipment of 11 tank systems listed in the FFA as Category B. The design demonstration for each tank is presented.

  19. Resource Management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 28, Wetlands on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, M. [Science Applications International Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pounds, Larry [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1991-12-01

    A survey of wetlands on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was conducted in 1990. Wetlands occurring on ORR were identified using National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) maps and field surveys. More than 120 sites were visited and 90 wetlands were identified. Wetland types on ORR included emergent communities in shallow embayments on reservoirs, emergent and aquatic communities in ponds, forested wetland on low ground along major creeks, and wet meadows and marshes associated with streams and seeps. Vascular plant species occurring on sites visited were inventoried, and 57 species were added to the checklist of vascular plants on ORR. Three species listed as rare in Tennessee were discovered on ORR during the wetlands survey. The survey provided an intensive ground truth of the wetlands identified by NWI and offered an indication of wetlands that the NWI remote sensing techniques did not detect.

  20. Management of spent nuclear fuel on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    On June 1, 1995, DOE issued a Record of Decision [60 Federal Register 28680] for the Department-wide management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF); regionalized storage of SNF by fuel type was selected as the preferred alternative. The proposed action evaluated in this environmental assessment is the management of SNF on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) to implement this preferred alternative of regional storage. SNF would be retrieved from storage, transferred to a hot cell if segregation by fuel type and/or repackaging is required, loaded into casks, and shipped to off-site storage. The proposed action would also include construction and operation of a dry cask SNF storage facility on ORR, in case of inadequate SNF storage. Action is needed to enable DOE to continue operation of the High Flux Isotope Reactor, which generates SNF. This report addresses environmental impacts.

  1. Management of spent nuclear fuel on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    On June 1, 1995, DOE issued a Record of Decision [60 Federal Register 28680] for the Department-wide management of spent nuclear fuel (SNF); regionalized storage of SNF by fuel type was selected as the preferred alternative. The proposed action evaluated in this environmental assessment is the management of SNF on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) to implement this preferred alternative of regional storage. SNF would be retrieved from storage, transferred to a hot cell if segregation by fuel type and/or repackaging is required, loaded into casks, and shipped to off-site storage. The proposed action would also include construction and operation of a dry cask SNF storage facility on ORR, in case of inadequate SNF storage. Action is needed to enable DOE to continue operation of the High Flux Isotope Reactor, which generates SNF. This report addresses environmental impacts.

  2. Simulation of aeolian sand saltation with rotational motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ning; Wang, Cong; Pan, Xiying

    2010-11-01

    In this work, we propose a theoretical model based on the distribution functions of initial liftoff velocity and angular velocity of sand grains to describe a sand saltation process in which both wind field-sand grain coupling and the Magnus force experienced by saltating sand grains have been incorporated. The computation results showed that the Magnus force had significant effects on sand grain saltation. In particular, when the Magnus force was incorporated, the calculated sand transport fluxes and sand transport rate per unit width were closer to the experimental value than when this force was excluded. The sand transport flux is enhanced because the Magnus force owing to particle rotation causes the particles to have higher and longer trajectories, so the particles can get more speed and energy from the wind, which leads to a larger sand transport flux. In addition, it was found that when taking the Magnus force into account, the probability density of the impact velocity and angular velocity of saltating sand grains followed an exponential distribution and a unimodal asymmetric distribution, respectively. Moreover, the sand energy flux increased with the height above the sand surface until the energy flux reached its maximum and then decreased. Furthermore, the energy flux near the ground surface decreased as the grain diameter increased, but beyond a specific height the energy flux increased with the grain diameter. Finally, for the same sand grain diameter, the energy flux increased with the friction velocity.

  3. Survey of protected vascular plants on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awl, D.J.; Pounds, L.R.; Rosensteel, B.A.; King, A.L.; Hamlett, P.A.

    1996-06-01

    Vascular plant surveys were initiated during fiscal year 1992 by the environmentally sensitive areas program to determine the baseline condition of threatened and endangered (T&E) vascular plant species on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). T&E species receive protection under federal and state regulations. In addition, the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires that federally-funded projects avoid or mitigate impacts to listed species. T&E plant species found on or near the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) are identified. Twenty-eight species identified on the ORR are listed by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation as either endangered, threatened, or of special concern. Four of these have been under review by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service for possible listing (listed in the formerly-used C2 candidate category). Additional species listed by the state occur near and may be present on the ORR. A range of habitats support the rare taxa on the ORR: river bluffs, sinkholes, calcareous barrens, wetlands, utility corridors, and forests. The list of T&E plant species and their locations on the ORR should be considered provisional because the entire ORR has not been surveyed, and state and federal status of all species continues to be updated. The purpose of this document is to present information on the listed T&E plant species currently known to occur on the ORR as well as listed species potentially occurring on the ORR based on geographic range and habitat availability. For the purpose of this report, {open_quotes}T&E species{close_quotes} include all federal- and state-listed species, including candidates for listing, and species of special concern. Consideration of T&E plant habitats is an important component of resource management and land-use planning; protection of rare species in their natural habitat is the best method of ensuring their long-term survival.

  4. Stimulation of Armillaria rhizomorph growth by oak root fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Kwaśna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Thirty one different genera of fungi were isolated from the wood of roots of 5O·year·old oak (Quercus robur. The most frequently isolated fungi were: Mycelium radicis atrovirens alpha (MRAA, Clonostachys sp. and Penicillium daleae, Beauveria bassiana, Clonostachys sp., Cryplosporiopsis rodicicolo, Geotrichum candidum, Mortierella vinacea, MRAA, P. daleae, P. janczewskii P. spinulosum, Sporothrix schenckii and Tolypocladium niveum significantly enhanced Armillaria mellea rhizomorph initiation and growth from oak branch segments in vitro. The biggest stimulation effect was noticed when the dematiaceous hyphomycetes, e.g. MRAA, P. dimorphospora and S. schenckii were studied.

  5. Improved genetic transformation of cork oak (Quercus suber L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Fernández, Rubén; Ordás, Ricardo-Javier

    2012-01-01

    An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for selected mature Quercus suber L. trees has been established. Leaf-derived somatic embryos in an early stage of development are inoculated with an AGL1 strain harboring a kanamycin-selectable plasmid carrying the gene of interest. The transformed embryos are induced to germinate and the plantlets transferred to soil. This protocol, from adult cork oak to transformed plantlet, can be completed in about one and a half years. Transformation efficiencies (i.e., percentage of inoculated explants that yield independent transgenic embryogenic lines) vary depending on the cork oak genotype, reaching up to 43%.

  6. Correlation of isolability of the oak wilt pathogen with leaf wilt and vascular water flow resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garold F. Gregory

    1971-01-01

    Isolations and water flow-rate measurements made on short stem sections of young red oak seedlings inoculated with the oak wilt pathogen, Ceratocystis fagacearum, about 1 to 2 inches above the soil line, revealed that the oak wilt pathogen was isolable first near the inoculation site. As time after inoculation increased, the pathogen was isolated...

  7. 27 CFR 9.161 - Oak Knoll District of Napa Valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oak Knoll District of Napa... Areas § 9.161 Oak Knoll District of Napa Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Oak Knoll District of Napa Valley”. (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps...

  8. Short-term response of small mammals following oak regeneration silviculture treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amy L. Raybuck; Christopher E. Moorman; Christopher S. DePerno; Kevin Gross; Dean M. Simon; Gordon S. Warburton

    2012-01-01

    Upland, mixed-oak forests in the eastern United States have experienced widespread oak regeneration failure, largely due to cessation of anthropogenic disturbance. Silvicultural practices used to promote advance oak regeneration may affect ground-dwelling mammals. From May to August 2008 (pre-treatment), 2010 (first year post-treatment), and 2011 (second year post-...

  9. Using ecological land types to examine landscape-scale oak regeneration dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Kabrick; Eric K. Zenner; Daniel C. Dey; David Gwaze; Randy G. Jensen

    2008-01-01

    The long-standing interest in regenerating oaks stimulated the development of a number of research studies during the past several decades. Most studies have focused on addressing oak regeneration problems and many of these suggested that oak regeneration failures occur where site conditions favor the establishment and growth of competing species that capture the...

  10. Performance of two oak species and three planting stocks on lands damaged by hurricane Katrina

    Science.gov (United States)

    John A. Conrad III; Andrew W. Ezell; Emily B. Schultz; John D. Hodges

    2015-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina had a devastating impact on bottomland hardwood forests in 2005. Artificial regeneration was considered the most appropriate method for reforesting these areas, but few studies have evaluated methods for artificially regenerating oaks on clear cut sites in the southern United States. First-year survival and growth of two oak species, live oak (Quercus...

  11. Using 13C and 15N isotopes to study allocation patterns in oak seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura M. Suz; María V. Albarracín; Caroline S. Bledsoe

    2008-01-01

    In California’s oak woodlands, survival and growth of oaks may depend on a symbiosis between oak roots and fungi that form ectomycorrhizas. Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi are major players in carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) utilization and cycling because they facilitate water and nutrient uptake from the soil into the plant. The ECM fungi also benefit because plants supply...

  12. Biology and Sampling of Red Oak Borer Populations in the Ozark Mountains of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon Crook; Fred Stephen; Melissa Fierke; Dana Kinney; Vaughn Silisbury

    2004-01-01

    A complex interaction of multiple factors has resulted in >75 percent mortality/decline of more than 1 million acres of red oak (Quercus, subgenus Erythrobalanus) on the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests. The most striking feature of this oak decline event is an unprecedented outbreak of red oak borer. A visual stand assessment...

  13. Comparison of three sampling methods in the characterization of cork oak stands for management purpose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulo, M.J.; Tomé, M.; Otten, A.; Stein, A.

    2005-01-01

    The cork oak (Quercus suber L.) is an evergreen oak that has the ability to produce a continuous layer of cork tissue which regenerates after being removed. Cork oak stands can be diverse in structure. Young stands are often regularly spaced, whereas older stands usually show clustering and can be

  14. The role of environmental factors in oak decline and mortality in the Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Kabrick; Daniel C. Dey; Randy G. Jensen; Michael Wallendorf

    2008-01-01

    Oak decline is a chronic problem in Missouri Ozark forests. Red oak group species are most susceptible and decline is reportedly more severe on droughty, nutrient-poor sites. However, it was not clear whether greater decline severity was caused by poor site conditions or is simply due to the greater abundance of red oak group species found on poorer sites. We conducted...

  15. Evaluation of oak stump sprouting in the Missouri Ozarks ten years after harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy G. Jensen; Daniel C. Dey

    2008-01-01

    Managers in Missouri often want to manage forests to retain oak in the future. Oaks are valuable for timber and many wildlife species depend on acorns. Large advance reproduction and stump sprouts are the most competitive sources of regeneration. It is well known that oak stump sprouts contribute to future stands in even-age clearcuts in the Missouri Ozarks, but there...

  16. Comparison of three sampling methods in the characterization of cork oak stands for management purpose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulo, M.J.; Tomé, M.; Otten, A.; Stein, A.

    2005-01-01

    The cork oak (Quercus suber L.) is an evergreen oak that has the ability to produce a continuous layer of cork tissue which regenerates after being removed. Cork oak stands can be diverse in structure. Young stands are often regularly spaced, whereas older stands usually show clustering and can be m

  17. Californium Electrodepositions at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boll, Rose Ann [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Electrodepositions of californium isotopes were successfully performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the past year involving two different types of deposition solutions, ammonium acetate (NH4C2H3O2) and isobutanol ((CH3)2CHCH2OH). A californium product that was decay enriched in 251Cf was recovered for use in super-heavy element (SHE) research. This neutron-rich isotope, 251Cf, provides target material for SHE research for the potential discovery of heavier isotopes of Z=118. The californium material was recovered from aged 252Cf neutron sources in storage at ORNL. These sources have decayed for over 30 years, thus providing material with a very high 251Cf-to-252Cf ratio. After the source capsules were opened, the californium was purified and then electrodeposited using the isobutanol method onto thin titanium foils for use in an accelerator at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia. Another deposition method, ammonium acetate, was used to produce a deposition containing 1.7 0.1 Ci of 252Cf onto a stainless steel substrate. This was the largest single electrodeposition of 252Cf ever prepared. The 252Cf material was initially purified using traditional ion exchange media, such as AG50-AHIB and AG50-HCl, and further purified using a TEVA-NH4SCN system to remove any lanthanides, resulting in the recovery of 3.6 0.1 mg of purified 252Cf. The ammonium acetate deposition was run with a current of 1.0 amp, resulting in a 91.5% deposition yield. Purification and handling of the highly radioactive californium material created additional challenges in the production of these sources.

  18. Surface radiological investigation of Trench 5 in Waste Area Grouping 7 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, D.D.

    1991-08-01

    A surface radiological investigation of areas encompassing Trench 5 on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was conducted from May 1990 through November 1990. This survey was led by the author, assisted by various members of the Measurement Applications and Development (MAD) group of the Health and Safety Research Division (HASRD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the presence, nature, and extent of surface radiological contamination at Trench 5, the Homogeneous Reactor Experiment fuel wells, and surrounding areas. Based on the data obtained in the field, interim corrective measures were recommended to limit human exposure to radioactivity and to minimize insult to the environment. It should be stressed that this project was not intended to be a complete site characterization but rather to be a preliminary investigation into the potential contamination problem that might exist as a result of past operations at Trench 5.

  19. The impact of raindrops on sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Rianne

    2017-01-01

    When a raindrop hits a sand bed, it leaves behind a small crater with a mixture of liquid and grains located at the center. This event is frequently observed in nature, but when absent, sprinklers may artificially produce these impacting drops to facilitate irrigation. Also in industry, the interact

  20. Cumulative environmental management and the oil sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    In response to concerns regarding the cumulative environmental impacts of oil sands development within the Athabasca oil sands deposit, the government of Alberta established a Regional Sustainable Development Strategy (RSDS) to balance development with environmental protection. The environmental issues identified through the RSDS were addressed by the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA). CEMA's boundary is the Wood Buffalo region of northeastern Alberta. It identifies existing and future environmental effects in the region and proposes recommendations to regulatory bodies for reducing environmental impacts associated with oil sands development. This presentation outlined some of the 55 stakeholder representatives of CEMA, including Alberta government departments associated with resource development, oil sand developers within the region, and Aboriginal communities and First Nations. These stakeholders provide input on sector priorities and agree on environmental thresholds. Established working groups also address technical and scientific research issues identified in the RSDS such as sustainable ecosystems; surface waters; trace metals and air contaminants; nitrogen oxides and sulphur dioxides; and land reclamation. To date, CEMA has submitted more than 50 reports and has made 4 major environmental recommendations for trace metal management, ecosystem management tools, a framework for acid deposition management, and a landscape design checklist. tabs., figs.

  1. LEARNING ABOUT THE OCEANS FROM SAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    As a young geophysicist in the 1980s, Rob Holman attended a conference in San Francisco that included a field trip to a beach. Dr Holman, who grew up inland, stared at the ocean, assessing the strengths of the waves. But when he looked around, everyone else was studying the sand.

  2. Displacement pile installation effects in sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijer-Lundberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Installation effects govern the post-installation behaviour of displacement piles in sand. These effects are currently not completely understood. Suitable experimental techniques to model these installation effects include field, laboratory and experimental models. In the current thesis a small-scal

  3. Cyclic Triaxial Loading of Cohesionless Silty Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaliauskas, Tomas; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2015-01-01

    To engineer efficient structures offshore, we need to extend our knowledge of soil response. Cyclic loading and high water pressure encountered offshore greatly influence cohesionless soil performance. Silty sand from Frederikshavn wind turbine farm was tested using single diameter height samples...

  4. Galveston Island, Texas, Sand Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    68 Figure 28. Jetty segment used for computation of aeolian sand transport. Background photograph 22 May 2012...113 Figure 68 . Total shoreline change after 50 years for 500,000 yd3 placed every 2 years in different locations...The berm at Ft. Myers, FL, was constructed with dredged material from Matanzas Pass. The dredged material contained greater than 10% fines, which

  5. Building Whales in Sand and Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Carolyn

    1980-01-01

    Describes two-week summer workshops on evolution, adaptation, and behavior of whales, conducted for children by Cold Spring Harbor Whaling Museum (New York), and culminating in creation of life-size sand sculptures of whales. Provides selected list of periodicals, teaching materials, identification guides, records, and societies devoted to whales…

  6. Sand transport, erosion and granular electrification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrison, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    The transport of granular materials by wind has a major impact on our environment through sand/soil erosion and the generation and transport of atmospheric dust aerosols. Terrestrially the transport of dust involves billions of tons of material every year, influencing the global climate and impac......The transport of granular materials by wind has a major impact on our environment through sand/soil erosion and the generation and transport of atmospheric dust aerosols. Terrestrially the transport of dust involves billions of tons of material every year, influencing the global climate...... can affect grain transport through the generation of intense electric fields and processes of electrostatic assembly. Importantly the transport of sand is characterized by saltation, which is known to be an active process for erosion and therefore a source for dust and sand formation. Using novel...... erosion simulation techniques the link between grain transport rates and erosion rates has been quantified. Furthermore this can be linked to production rates for dust and has been associated with chemical and mineral alteration through a process of mechanical activation of fractured surfaces. This work...

  7. Sand Waves along the Dutch Coast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    Sand waves, defined as longshore wave-like movements of the shoreline, measured in a horizontal plane, are described along several stretches of the shoreline of The Netherlands. They have a celerity in the order of 50-200 m/yr, a period of 50- 150 years and an amplitude of 30- 500 m. They are found

  8. Building Whales in Sand and Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Carolyn

    1980-01-01

    Describes two-week summer workshops on evolution, adaptation, and behavior of whales, conducted for children by Cold Spring Harbor Whaling Museum (New York), and culminating in creation of life-size sand sculptures of whales. Provides selected list of periodicals, teaching materials, identification guides, records, and societies devoted to whales…

  9. Sand and Stone%沙与石

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄川; 孙静

    2006-01-01

    @@ Astory tells that two friends were walking through the desert. During some point of the journey they had an argument, and one friend slapped the other one in the face1. The one who got slapped was hurt, but without saying anything, he wrote in the sand: "TODAY MY BEST FRIEND SLAPPED ME IN THE FACE."

  10. Dark grains of sand: a geological storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo Maresca, Magda

    2017-04-01

    In the secondary Italian school the Earth science learning begins at first year, in synergy with other natural science subjects such as Astronomy, Chemistry and Biology. Italian teachers have to focus on the landscape geomorphological aspects and often Earth processes are difficult to display since they are related to certain phenomena happened during the past and often far from the involved country. In order to better understand the environment surrounding us, very simple and poor materials, like sands, allow the teachers to create attractive lab experiences. According to the IBSE (Inquiry Based Science Education) approach, a learning unit has been implemented starting from a walking along the light carbonate beaches of the Adriatic sea: a smart look to the sands ("engage step"), stroke the students fantasy pushing them to explore some strange black grains on the sands. Dirty sands? Or rock landscape, soil degradation and Ofanto river and coastal processes (erosion, transportation and deposition)? This was the teaching challenge. Due to the youngest age, a third level, guided inquiry, was adopted so the teacher is the "guide of inquiry" encouraging the students using the research question ("Why is the sand dark?", "Do all sands look the same?", "Where does it come from?") and driving the students around their investigation plans ("How can I measure grain size?"). A procedure to answer the above questions and validate the results and explanations has been implemented to allow the students to be proactive in their study. During the learning activities will be the students to ask for field trip to elaborate their new knowledge, verify and visualize the speculated processes. The teaching skills allow to address several geosciences domains such as mineralogy, petrology, regional geology and geodynamics as well as other scientific disciplines such as mathematics (more specifically statistics), forensic science and even life sciences (the presence of bioclasts might

  11. Assessing environmental impacts of inland sand mining in parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing environmental impacts of inland sand mining in parts of Ogun State, Nigeria. ... Sand is a valuable resource for construction and other purposes, however ... Natural resources particularly, land, water quality and quantity, air quality, ...

  12. Fiber-reinforced sand strength and dilation characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham M. Eldesouky

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Randomly distributed fiber reinforcement is used to provide an isotropic increase in the sand shear strength. The previous studies were not consistent regarding the fibers effect on the volumetric change behavior of fiber-reinforced sand. In this paper, direct shear tests are conducted on 108 specimens to investigate the effects of the fibers content, relative density, normal stress and moisture content on the shear strength and volumetric change behaviors of fiber-reinforced sand. The study investigates also the possibility of using dry fiber-reinforced sand as an alternative to heavily compacted unreinforced moist sand. The results indicate that the fibers inclusion increases the shear strength and dilation of sand. Moisture suppresses the fibers effect on the peak and post-peak shear strengths, and dilation. Dry loose fiber-reinforced sand achieves the same shear strength of heavily compacted unreinforced moist sand, yet at more than double the horizontal displacement.

  13. Gating Technology for Vertically Parted Green Sand Moulds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Per

    Gating technology for vertically parted green sand moulds. Literature study of different ways of designing gating systems.......Gating technology for vertically parted green sand moulds. Literature study of different ways of designing gating systems....

  14. Expandable sand screens: from novel concept to proven sand control technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalfe, Paul; Jones, Colin; Ballard, Tracey; Beare, Steve; Hillis, Dave [Weatherford International Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Expandable Sand Screens (ESS) have proved a viable alternative to gravel packing for sand control. With over 300 installations worldwide, analysis of their use has confirmed that ESS offers excellent production performance and sand control reliability in Open hole. This paper presents details of a global survey on ESS performance that gives accurate information on production performance, sand exclusion reliability and cost effectiveness in Open hole and cased hole application scenarios. This paper also discusses the role and effect of compliant expansion in observed productivity performance and skin values. The rock mechanical, reservoir characterization and metallurgical requirements of ESS systems are also investigated. Finally, the latest advances of the technology for use within the reservoir are explained. This paper demonstrates how the combination of ESS and Expandable Zonal Isolation devices can offer cased hole functionality (in terms of zonal isolation) in combination with Open hole levels of production performance (from the ESS). (author)

  15. Water management in the oil sands industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauls, R. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Water management issues at Alberta's 4 oil sand deposits were discussed. The 4 deposits include the Peace River, Athabasca, Wabasca and Cold Lake deposits, with the Athabasca deposit being the largest and the only surface-mineable deposit. Large quantities of water are needed to extract bitumen from oil sands. This paper addressed water volume withdrawal from the Athabasca River, the primary source of water for the surface-mining oil sands industry. It also addressed Muskeg River watershed integrity, quality of water withdrawn from reclaimed landscapes, groundwater contamination, and ecological viability of end-pit lakes. Currently, half of Syncrude's oil sand is transported from mine to extraction plant by conveyor belts. The other half is pipelined as a warm water slurry. By 2005, all transport will be by pipeline. The oil sand is mixed with hot water, steam and surfactants to condition it for extraction. Seventy-nine per cent of the water used by Syncrude is recycled water and the remainder comes from the Athabasca River. Syncrude diverts 2.5 to 3 barrels of water from the Athabasca River for every barrel of oil produced. This paper discussed the in-stream flow needs of the Athabasca River based on protection of aquatic ecosystems. Flow needs are addressed by the Cumulative Effects Management Association (CEMA). The paper states that the proportion of annual flow withdrawn from the Athabasca River is too low to have a significant impact on aquatic systems, but the main concern lies in water use during low flow periods, typically during the winter months. Developers will likely come under pressure to develop off-site reservoirs to store water for use during these low-flow periods. tabs., figs.

  16. Imaging of Acoustic Waves in Sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, Vance Albert; Telschow, Kenneth Louis; Watson, Scott Marshall

    2003-08-01

    There is considerable interest in detecting objects such as landmines shallowly buried in loose earth or sand. Various techniques involving microwave, acoustic, thermal and magnetic sensors have been used to detect such objects. Acoustic and microwave sensors have shown promise, especially if used together. In most cases, the sensor package is scanned over an area to eventually build up an image or map of anomalies. We are proposing an alternate, acoustic method that directly provides an image of acoustic waves in sand or soil, and their interaction with buried objects. The INEEL Laser Ultrasonic Camera utilizes dynamic holography within photorefractive recording materials. This permits one to image and demodulate acoustic waves on surfaces in real time, without scanning. A video image is produced where intensity is directly and linearly proportional to surface motion. Both specular and diffusely reflecting surfaces can be accomodated and surface motion as small as 0.1 nm can be quantitatively detected. This system was used to directly image acoustic surface waves in sand as well as in solid objects. Waves as frequencies of 16 kHz were generated using modified acoustic speakers. These waves were directed through sand toward partially buried objects. The sand container was not on a vibration isolation table, but sat on the lab floor. Interaction of wavefronts with buried objects showed reflection, diffraction and interference effects that could provide clues to location and characteristics of buried objects. Although results are preliminary, success in this effort suggests that this method could be applied to detection of buried landmines or other near-surface items such as pipes and tanks.

  17. Incipient Motion of Sand and Oil Agglomerates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, T. R.; Dalyander, S.; Jenkins, R. L., III; Penko, A.; Long, J.; Frank, D. P.; Braithwaite, E. F., III; Calantoni, J.

    2016-12-01

    Weathered oil mixed with sediment in the surf zone in the northern Gulf of Mexico after the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill, forming large mats of sand and oil. Wave action fragmented the mats into sand and oil agglomerates (SOAs) with diameters of about 1 to 10 cm. These SOAs were transported by waves and currents along the Gulf Coast, and have been observed on beaches for years following the spill. SOAs are composed of 70%-95% sand by mass, with an approximate density of 2107 kg/m³. To measure the incipient motion of SOAs, experiments using artificial SOAs were conducted in the Small-Oscillatory Flow Tunnel at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory under a range of hydrodynamic forcing. Spherical and ellipsoidal SOAs ranging in size from 0.5 to 10 cm were deployed on a fixed flat bed, a fixed rippled bed, and a movable sand bed. In the case of the movable sand bed, SOAs were placed both proud and partially buried. Motion was tracked with high-definition video and with inertial measurement units embedded in some of the SOAs. Shear stress and horizontal pressure gradients, estimated from velocity measurements made with a Nortek Vectrino Profiler, were compared with observed mobility to assess formulations for incipient motion. For SOAs smaller than 1 cm in diameter, incipient motion of spherical and ellipsoidal SOAs was consistent with predicted critical stress values. The measured shear stress at incipient motion of larger, spherical SOAs was lower than predicted, indicating an increased dependence on the horizontal pressure gradient. In contrast, the measured shear stress required to move ellipsoidal SOAs was higher than predicted, even compared to values modified for larger particles in mixed-grain riverine environments. The laboratory observations will be used to improve the prediction of incipient motion, transport, and seafloor interaction of SOAs.

  18. Bear Creek Valley Floodplain Hot Spot Removal Action Project Plan, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The Bear Creek Valley Floodplain Hot Spot Removal Action Project Plan, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (Y/ER-301) was prepared (1) to safely, cost-effectively, and efficiently evaluate the environmental impact of solid material in the two debris areas in the context of industrial land uses (as defined in the Bear Creek Valley Feasibility Study) to support the Engineering Evaluation/Cost Assessment and (2) to evaluate, define, and implement the actions to mitigate these impacts. This work was performed under Work Breakdown Structure 1.x.01.20.01.08.

  19. Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Creek watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, January--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borders, D.M.; Ziegler, K.S.; Reece, D.K.; Watts, J.A.; Frederick, B.J.; McCalla, W.L.; Pridmore, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    This report summarizes, for the 12-month period January through December 1994, the available dynamic hydrologic data collected on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed as well as information collected on surface flow systems in the surrounding vicinity that may affect the quality or quantity of surface water in the watershed. The collection of hydrologic data is one component of numerous, ongoing Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) environmental studies and monitoring programs and is intended to characterize the quantity and quality of water in the surface flow system, assist with the planning and assessment of remedial action activities, provide long-term availability of data and quality assurance of these data, and support long-term measures of contaminant fluxes at a spatial scale to provide a comprehensive picture of watershed performance that is commensurate with future remedial actions.

  20. Optical and radiocarbon ages of stacked paleosols and dune sands in the Nebraska Sand Hills, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, R. J.; Mason, Joseph A.; Loope, David B.; Swinehart, James B.

    2004-05-01

    Optical ages for eolian sands from the Nebraska Sand Hills indicate periods of extensive eolian activity at ca 115±25, 840±70, 2300±240, and 3560±340 a. Activity was also noted at single sampling locations at ca 6180±370, 8430±510 and 13110±800 a. Many of these ages are similar to those noted by earlier authors. Optical ages from samples collected within paleosols indicate shorter and possibly less extensive periods of eolian activity at approximately 1220±150, 1590±110, and possibly 1950±150 a, during which the paleosol sands accumulated. What was originally interpreted as a single 1.2 m thick paleosol is shown by optical dating to consist of three or more welded soils developed within eolian sands with optical ages of ca 3800±240, 2740±240, 1560±110, and possibly 1930±140 a, each of which match eolian pulses recognized elsewhere. Scatter in some optical ages is attributable to intersection of sand-filled rodent burrows extending in outcrop 1.5 m below the contact between paleosol and overlying topset beds. A 5310±360 a optical age for one probable intersected burrow provides evidence for upward or lateral transport of older sands.

  1. Evaluate of head loss, sediment value and copper removal in sand media (rapid sand filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daneshi Navab

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with the technology development and increasing consumption of water resources, we are experiencing low qualities in the mentioned resources. Copper brings about serious environment al pollution, threatening human health and ecosystem. This metal found variously in water resources and industrial activities. Therefore, it needs to treat the water resources from these excessive amounts. Different methods have used for this reason but the most used method during recent years has been the absorption by economic absorbers such as sand. Rapid sand filters usually used in water and wastewater treatment plants for water clarification. In this research, a single layer gravity rapid sand filter has used to reduce different concentrations of copper. sediment value and head loss arising in filter media is simulated by using combination of Carman-Kozeny, Rose and Gregory models in different discharges of rapid sand filter. Results have shown that with increasing in discharge and decreasing in input copper concentration, arriving time to given head loss, is increasing. In addition, results demonstrated that with increasing in copper concentration in influent, removal efficiency is decreasing somewhat. Results of this research can applied in an appropriate design of rapid sand filter to copper removal, a prediction of rapid sand filter ability to copper removal and an estimation of arising head loss during filter work thus evaluating of time interval backwash. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i2.10641 International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2 2014: 276-286

  2. Yield of a Choctawhatchee Sand Pine Plantation at Age 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell M. Burns; R.H. Brendemuehl

    1969-01-01

    A little-known tree, Choctawhatchee sand pine (Pinus clausa [Chapm.] Vasey), seems well adapted to the infertile, droughty soils common to the sandhills of Florida which now produce little value. Published yield data based on plantation-grown Choctawhatchee sand pine are not available. One 28-year-old plantation of this race of sand pine, growing...

  3. Fresh groundwater resources in a large sand replenishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizer, Sebastian; Oude Essink, G.H.P.; Bierkens, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The anticipation of sea-level rise and increases in extreme weather conditions has led to the initiation of an innovative coastal management project called the Sand Engine. In this pilot project a large volume of sand (21.5 million m3) – also called sand replenishment or nourishment – was placed on

  4. 77 FR 75007 - Importation of Sand Pears From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD42 Importation of Sand Pears From China AGENCY... and vegetables regulations to allow the importation of sand pears (Pyrus pyrifolia) from China into the United States. As a condition of entry, sand pears from areas in China in which the Oriental...

  5. Design and management of conventional fluidized-sand biofilters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluidized sand biofilters (FSBs) are relatively compact, efficient, and cost-competitive biofilters, especially in recirculating systems that require maintaining consistently low levels of ammonia and nitrite. Filter sand is low cost (often $70-200/m3 of sand delivered) and has a high specific surf...

  6. Mineral processing of heavy mineral sands from Malawi and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, C J

    1992-01-01

    Processing of heavy mineral sands involves many techniques including gravity, magnetic and electrostatic separation. As part of a laboratory programme to develop effective mineral processing techniques, two mineral sands from Malawi and Malaysia were processed using the standard techniques, with emphasis placed on the Carpco electrostatic separator. These sands were initially characterised mineralogically by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron microprobe analysis (EPMA...

  7. Identification, amounts, and kinetics of extraction of C-glucosidic ellagitannins during wine aging in oak barrels or in stainless steel tanks with oak chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdes, Michaël; Michel, Julien; Saucier, Cédric; Quideau, Stéphane; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2011-09-01

    The C-glucosidic ellagitannins are found in wine as a result of its aging in oak barrels or in stainless steel tanks with oak chips. Once dissolved in this slightly acidic solution, the C-glucosidic ellagitannins vescalagin can react with nucleophilic entities present in red wine, such as ethanol, catechin, and epicatechin, to generate condensed hybrid products such as the β-1-O-ethylvescalagin and the flavano-ellagitannins (acutissimin A/B and epiacutissimin A/B), respectively. During this study, we first monitored the extraction kinetic and the evolution of the eight major oak-derived C-glucosidic ellagitannins in red wines aged in oak barrels or in stainless steel tank with oak chips. Their extraction rates appeared to be faster during red wine aging in stainless steel tanks with oak chips. However, their overall concentrations in wines were found higher in the wine aged in barrels. The formation rates of the vescalagin-coupled derivatives were also estimated for the first time under both red wine aging conditions (i.e., oak barrels or stainless steel tanks with oak chips). As observed for the oak-native C-glucosidic ellagitannins, the concentrations of these vescalagin derivatives were higher in the red wine aged in oak barrels than in stainless steel tanks with oak chips. Despite these differences, their relative composition was similar under both red wine aging conditions. Finally, the impact of the oak chips size and toasting level on the C-glucosidic ellagitannins concentration in wine was also investigated.

  8. Anti nutritional evaluation of the flour of the nipples of holm oak (quercus ilex) and oak cork (quercus suber) Raw and pressure-sealed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Mahi, F. Z.

    2009-07-01

    The present study contributes to the development of the food potential of the nipples of oak like new resources likely to be exploited on an industrial scale for their use in animal feeds. Our work relates to two species S of nipples of oak, edible, the homl oak and the other fodder one, the oal cork known for their spontaneousness and their vey significant geographical distribution. (Author)

  9. Data base dictionary for the Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrology and Geology Study Groundwater Data Base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, B.K.

    1993-04-01

    The Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrology and Geology Study (ORRHAGS) Groundwater Data Base has been compiled to consolidate groundwater data from the three US Department of Energy facilities located on the Oak Ridge Reservation: the Oak Ridge K-25 Site, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Each of these facilities maintains its own groundwater and well construction data bases. Data were extracted from the existing data bases, converted to a consistent format, and integrated into the ORRHAGS Groundwater Data Base structures. This data base dictionary describes the data contained in the ORRHAGS Groundwater Data Base and contains information on data base structure, conventions, contents, and use.

  10. Canopy openness, understory light environments, and oak regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian C. McCarthy; Scott A. Robison

    2003-01-01

    Understory light environments were evaluated in four mixed-oak forests in southern Ohio using hemispherical photography. Within each forest, plots were divided into nine treatment combinations based on three pretreatment fire categories and three Integrated Moisture Index (IMI) categories. For each of 108 photographs we determined the percentage of open sky, direct...

  11. Environmental drivers of ectomycorrhizal communities in Europe's temperate oak forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suz, Laura M; Barsoum, Nadia; Benham, Sue; Dietrich, Hans-Peter; Fetzer, Karl Dieter; Fischer, Richard; García, Paloma; Gehrman, Joachim; Kristöfel, Ferdinand; Manninger, Miklós; Neagu, Stefan; Nicolas, Manuel; Oldenburger, Jan; Raspe, Stephan; Sánchez, Gerardo; Schröck, Hans Werner; Schubert, Alfred; Verheyen, Kris; Verstraeten, Arne; Bidartondo, Martin I

    2014-11-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are major ecological players in temperate forests, but they are rarely used in measures of forest condition because large-scale, high-resolution, standardized and replicated belowground data are scarce. We carried out an analysis of ectomycorrhizas at 22 intensively monitored long-term oak plots, across nine European countries, covering complex natural and anthropogenic environmental gradients. We found that at large scales, mycorrhizal richness and evenness declined with decreasing soil pH and root density, and with increasing atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Shifts in mycorrhizas with different functional traits were detected; mycorrhizas with structures specialized for long-distance transport related differently to most environmental variables than those without. The dominant oak-specialist Lactarius quietus, with limited soil exploration abilities, responds positively to increasing nitrogen inputs and decreasing pH. In contrast, Tricholoma, Cortinarius and Piloderma species, with medium-distance soil exploration abilities, show a consistently negative response. We also determined nitrogen critical loads for moderate (9.5-13.5 kg N/ha/year) and drastic (17 kg N/ha/year) changes in belowground mycorrhizal root communities in temperate oak forests. Overall, we generated the first baseline data for ectomycorrhizal fungi in the oak forests sampled, identified nitrogen pollution as one of their major drivers at large scales and revealed fungi that individually and/or in combination with others can be used as belowground indicators of environmental characteristics.

  12. Sudden oak death effects on the dynamics of dead wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard C. Cobb; Jo& atilde; o Filipe A.N.; Margaret R. Metz; Ross K. Meentemeyer; David M. Rizzo

    2013-01-01

    Sudden oak death has impacted forests notable for high-fire risk and contiguous host communities in California and Oregon coastal forest ecosystems. The disease continues to emerge in stands and landscapes with a large biomass of tanoak (Notholithocarpus densiflorus (Hook.&Arn.) Manos, Cannon & S.H.Oh), and we show that woody debris also...

  13. Microsatellite Primer Development for Post Oak, Quercus stellata (Fagaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren B. Chatwin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: The American Cross Timbers forest ecosystem runs from southeastern Kansas to Central Texas and is primarily composed of post oak (Quercus stellata. This old-growth forest currently occupies only about 2% of its ancestral range. To facilitate genetic research on this species, we developed microsatellite primers specific to post oak from reduced genomic libraries. Methods and Results: Two Q. stellata individuals, sampled from the northern and southern range of the post oak forest, were subject to genomic reduction and 454 pyrosequencing. Bioinformatic analysis identified putative microsatellites from which 12 polymorphic primer sets were screened on three populations. The number of alleles observed ranged from five to 20 across all populations, while observed and expected heterozygosity values ranged from 0.05 to 0.833 and 0.236 to 0.893, respectively, within individual populations. Conclusions: We report the development of microsatellite markers, specific to post oak, to aid the study of genetic diversity and population structure of extant forest remnants.

  14. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant groundwater protection program management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The Oak Ridge Y- 1 2 Plant (Y-12 Plant) is owned by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems) under contract No. DE-AC05-84OR21400. The Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP), which was initiated in 1975, provides for the protection of groundwater resources consistent with Federal, State, and local regulations, and in accordance with DOE orders and Energy Systems policies and procedures. The Y-12 Plant is located in Anderson County, Tennessee, and is within the corporate limits of the City of Oak Ridge. The Y-12 Plant is one of three major DOE complexes that comprise the 37,000-acre Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) located in Anderson and Roane counties. The Y-12 Plant is located in Bear Creek Valley at an elevation of about 950 feet (ft) above sea level. Bear Creek Valley is bounded on the northwest and southeast, and is isolated from populated areas of Oak Ridge, by parallel ridges that rise about 300 ft above the valley floor. The Y-12 Plant and its fenced buffer area are about 0.6 mile wide by 3.2 miles long and cover approximately 4,900 acres. The main industrialized section encompasses approximately 800 acres.

  15. Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site environmental report for 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koncinski, W.S. [ed.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This report presents the details of the environmental monitoring and management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Topics include: site and operations overview; environmental compliance strategies; environmental management program; effluent monitoring; environmental surveillance; radiation doses; chemical doses; ground water; and quality assurance.

  16. Stocking equations for regeneration in mixed oak stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Songlin Fei; Kim C. Steiner; James C. Finley

    2007-01-01

    Regeneration stocking equations for mixed-oak stands were developed based on data collected from nearly 14,000 plots in the central Appalachians. Maximum stand density was identified by plotting aggregate height against number of seedlings per plot, and was used as the reference level of the average maximum stand density (100 percent stocking or A-level stocking)....

  17. ECOLOGICAL MONITORING OF OAK GROVE IN VILLAGE V’YACHESLAVKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vel'cheva L. G.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the actuality of the realization of environmental monitoring of forests is considered in this article. The main task is to monitor and control the dynamics of the state of the forest plantations under the influence of anthropogenic factors and warning of critical situation, harmful or threatening their normal functioning and also the prediction of the changes in them. Oak grove of village Vyacheslavka of Primorsky district of Zaporozhye region is the object of the study. The main trees of oak groves, bonitas class, age class, completeness of the main trees, the average height and diameter of trees and also the number of trees to 1 ha are determined during the study. It was also analyzed condition of the soil factors and studied the degree of natural regeneration of oak groves, defined forest type and condition of soil cover. We have scientifically grounded the necessity of development of conservation area «Oak Grove» by comparing the factors of monitoring studies and developed the plan of measure for the conservation and natural regeneration of this natural object.

  18. Rooting Responses of Three Oak Species to Low Oxygen Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel A. Jacobs; James D. MacDonald; Alison M. Berry; Laurence R. Costello

    1997-01-01

    Rooting characteristics were compared in blue (Q. douglasii), valley (Q. lobata), and cork oak (Q. suber) seedlings under hypoxic (low oxygen) conditions. A 50 percent reduction in root growth occurred in all species at an oxygen level of 4 percent, or an oxygen diffusion rate of 0.3 mg cm-2...

  19. Decay fungi of oaks and associated hardwoods for western arborists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessie A. Glaeser; Kevin T. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Examination of trees for the presence and extent of decay should be part of any hazard tree assessment. Identification of the fungi responsible for the decay improves prediction of tree performance and the quality of management decisions, including tree pruning or removal. Scouting for Sudden Oak Death (SOD) in the West has drawn attention to hardwood tree species,...

  20. Economic evaluation of intermediate operations in oak stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry H. Webster; John C., Jr. Meadows

    1971-01-01

    Economic evaluation of forest-management opportunities is a vital ingredient of effective forestry programs. Choices among management opportunities are necessary because opportunities inevitably exceed funds available, and they are important because opportunities commonly range from highly productive to decidedly unproductive. Economic evaluation in oak stands shows a...

  1. Technology Solutions Case Study: Foundation Heat Exchanger, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-03-01

    The foundation heat exchanger, developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is a new concept for a cost-effective horizontal ground heat exchanger that can be connected to water-to-water or water-to-air heat pump systems for space conditioning as well as domestic water heating.

  2. Interannual consistency of gross energy in red oak acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.G. Leach; R.M. Kaminski; J.N. Straub; A.W. Ezell; T.S. Hawkins; T.D. Leininger

    2013-01-01

    Red oak Quercus spp., Subgenus Erythrobalanus acorns are forage for mallards Anas platyrhyncos, wood ducks Aix sponsa, and other wildlife that use bottomland hardwood forests in the southeastern United States. However, annual variation in true metabolizable energy from acorns would affect carrying-capacity estimates of bottomland hardwood forests for wintering ducks....

  3. Microsatellite markers for northern red oak (Fagaceae: Quercus rubra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston R. Aldrich; Charles H. Michler; Weilin Sun; Jeanne Romero-Severson

    2002-01-01

    We provide primer sequences for 14 (GA)n microsatellite loci developed from northern red oak, an important timber species. We screened loci using two sets of samples. A parent-offspring set included DNA from seven acorns collected from one mother tree along with maternal DNA, to determine that all progeny carried a maternal allele at each locus....

  4. Phytophthora ramorum causes cryptic bole cankers in Canyon line Oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unusual mortality of large canyon live oaks was observed in natural stands in San Mateo, California starting in 2007. A survey of affected stands showed that symptomatic trees were spatially associated with California bay, the primary source of Phytophthora ramorum spores in this forest type. Trunk ...

  5. Silvicultural considerations for managing fire-dependent oak woodland ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Kabrick; Daniel C. Dey; Carter O. Kinkead; Benjamin O. Knapp; Michael Leahy; Matthew G. Olson; Michael C. Stambaugh; Aaron P. Stevenson

    2014-01-01

    Oak woodlands are characterized by open understories and dense ground flora composed of forbs, grasses, and sedges. They once were common in the western Central Hardwood Forest region and the prairie-forest transition zone where low-intensity fires occurred frequently. In the absence of fire, many of the woodland ecosystems throughout much of this region have succeeded...

  6. Treatment of toxicodendron dermatitis (poison ivy and poison oak).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guin, J D

    2001-04-01

    Toxicodendron dermatitis results from a reaction to an oil soluble oleoresin that is present in many parts of the poison ivy and poison oak plants. Prophylactic measures include avoidance, protective clothing, barrier creams and hyposensitization. Treatments include washing the area immediately with a solvent suitable for lipids and the use of anti-inflammatory agents, especially corticosteroids.

  7. In vitro propagation of northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Vengadesan; Paula M. Pijut

    2009-01-01

    In vitro propagation of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) shoots was successful from cotyledonary node explants excised from 8-wk-old in vitro grown seedlings. Initially, four shoots per explant were obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 4.4 µM 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 0.45 ...

  8. Oak Ridge Reservation, annual site environmental report for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    The US DOE currently oversees activities on the Oak Ridge Reservation, a government-owned, contractor-operated facility. Three sites compose the reservation; Y-12, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and K-25. This document contains a summary of environmental monitoring activities on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and its surroundings. The results summarized in this report are based on the data collected during calendar year (CY) 1993 and compiled in; Environmental Monitoring in the Oak Ridge Reservation: CY 1993 Results. Annual environmental monitoring on the ORR consists of two major activities: effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance. Effluent monitoring is the collection and analysis of samples or measurements of liquid, gaseous, or airborne effluents for the purpose of characterizing and quantifying contaminants and process stream characteristics, assessing radiation and chemical exposures to members of the public, and demonstrating compliance with applicable standards. Environmental surveillance is the collection and analysis of samples of air, water, soil, foodstuffs, biota, and other media from DOE sites and their environs and the measurement of external radiation for purposes of demonstrating compliance with applicable standards, assessing radiation and chemical exposures to members of the public, and assessing effects, if any, on the local environment.

  9. Linking sudden oak death with spatial economic value transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tom Holmes; Bill Smith

    2008-01-01

    Sudden oak death (caused by Phytophthora ramorum) is currently having a dramatic impact on the flow of ecosystem services provided by trees and forests in California. Timber species in California are not thought to be at risk of mortality from this pathogen and, consequently, economic impacts accrue to non-market values of trees such as aesthetics,...

  10. Oak Ridge Reservation. Physical Characteristics and National Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parr, Patricia Dreyer [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Joan, F. Hughes [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2006-10-09

    The topology, geology, hydrology, vegetation, and wildlife of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) provide a complex and intricate array of resources that directly impact land stewardship and use decisions. The purpose of this document is to consolidate general information regarding the natural resources and physical characteristics of the ORR.

  11. Hydrology of southwestern encinal oak ecosystems: A review and more

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald J. Gottfried; Peter F. Ffolliott; Daniel G. Neary

    2007-01-01

    Information about the hydrology of oak ecosystems of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico is lacking (Lopes and Ffolliott 1992, Baker et al. 1995) even though the woodlands and savannas cover more than 31,000 square miles. These ecosystems generally are found between 4,000 and 7,300 feet in elevation. Precipitation occurs in the winter and summer and...

  12. Forest Management Plan, ERDA Oak Ridge Reservation: 1976--1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradburn, D. M.

    1977-06-01

    The ERDA Oak Ridge Reservation Forest Management Plan is utilized as a guide in the managing and administering of the natural resources of the forest. A revised management plan summarizes the goals and accomplishment of the previous plan while recommending necessary improvements and alternatives for the ensuing management cycle. The management plan contains programmatic assessments of silvicultural activities and their environmental impacts.

  13. Environmental Compliance and Protection Program Description Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Jacobs

    2009-02-26

    The objective of the Environmental Compliance and Protection (EC and P) Program Description (PD) is to establish minimum environmental compliance requirements and natural resources protection goals for the Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) Oak Ridge Environmental Management Cleanup Contract (EMCC) Contract Number DE-AC05-98OR22700-M198. This PD establishes the work practices necessary to ensure protection of the environment during the performance of EMCC work activities on the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, by BJC employees and subcontractor personnel. Both BJC and subcontractor personnel are required to implement this PD. A majority of the decontamination and demolition (D and D) activities and media (e.g., soil and groundwater) remediation response actions at DOE sites on the ORR are conducted under the authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). CERCLA activities are governed by individual CERCLA decision documents (e.g., Record of Decision [ROD] or Action Memorandum) and according to requirements stated in the Federal Facility Agreement for the Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE 1992). Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for the selected remedy are the requirements for environmental remediation responses (e.g., removal actions and remedial actions) conducted under CERCLA.

  14. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Institutional Plan, FY 1995--FY 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This report discusses the institutional plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the next five years (1995-2000). Included in this report are the: laboratory director`s statement; laboratory mission, vision, and core competencies; laboratory plan; major laboratory initiatives; scientific and technical programs; critical success factors; summaries of other plans; and resource projections.

  15. Statistical sampling and modelling for cork oak and eucalyptus stands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paulo, M.J.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the use of modern statistical methods to solve problems on sampling, optimal cutting time and agricultural modelling in Portuguese cork oak and eucalyptus stands. The results are contained in five chapters that have been submitted for publication as scientific manuscripts.The

  16. Management and long term storage of cork-oak acorns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.; Tesnier, K.

    2002-01-01

    Cork-oak trees can have unpredictable reproduction patterns, with some trees producing seeds only one every 2 to 5 years. The problem of the irregularity of mast-years is complicated by dormancy-related heterogeneity in germination of freshly harvested acorns. The long time taking by acorn to germin

  17. Lighting intensity of the soilsurface and restocking of oak groves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slepykh, Victor; Zubko, Anna; Povolotckaia, Nina

    2016-04-01

    Oak groves of Caucasian Mineral Vody region (CMVR) possess a high ecological and balneological potential which defines the significance of their preservation and reproduction [1]. The role assessment of lighting intensity on renewal of oak groves was carried out on four trial squares (ts) in natural sixty-seven years old forest stand with prevalence of English oak (Quercus robur L.) with unimodal sity (type of the habitat - C1). The illumination was measured at the grass level by the universal measuring instrument of meteoparameters ATT-9508 with an illumination sensor of ATA-1591. The assessment of reforestation was carried out according to the established standards [2]. In the winter of 2005 there was conducted a selecting cutting cabin of the forest stand according to a local method on ts2 with intensity 30%, on ts4 - 50% after which the illumination on the soil surface in relation to illumination of an open place in the summer of 2005 increased from 4.9% to 33.9% on ts2, and from 5.9% to 24.4% on ts4. But by 2014 the illumination decreased till 3.0% on ts2, till 5.4% on ts4 because of an intensive soil grassing down. The control was carried out by ts1 and ts3 on which from 2005 to 2014 the illumination of the soil surface decreased from 4 to 2% as a result of the development of all storeys. As a result due to an intensive soil grassing-down, the total quantity of young oak trees decreased from 2005 to 2014 from 25.6 thousand pcs/ha to 5.9 thousand pcs/ha on ts2; on from 17.3 thousand pcs/ha to 4.0 thousand pcs/ha on ts4. At the same time the total quantity of young oak trees on control squares increased respectively for 1.4% (from 18.8 thousand pcs/ha to 19.1 thousand pcs/ha) on ts1, for 38.7% (from 25.2 thousand pcs/ha to 41.1 thousand pcs/ha). The experiment showed that small young oak trees perishes in the first years of their life from a lack of light and competition from grasland vegetation without providing successful reforestation. Conclusion. So it is

  18. Field test of foliar-spray herbicides to control mountain laurel in mature mixed-oak forests in western Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary W. Miller; Patrick H. Brose; Jeffrey D. Kochenderfer; James N. Kochenderfer; Kurt W. Gottschalk; John R. Denning

    2016-01-01

    Successful oak (Quercus spp.) regeneration requires the presence of competitive sources of oak reproduction before parent oaks are harvested. Mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) in the understory of many Appalachian forests prevents new oak seedlings from receiving adequate sunlight to survive and grow into competitive size classes. This study examined the efficacy of...

  19. The Rheology of Acoustically Fluidized Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, J. W.; Melosh, J.

    2013-12-01

    The collapse of large craters and the formation of central peaks and peak rings is well modeled by numerical computer codes that incorporate the acoustic fluidization mechanism to temporarily allow the fluid-like flow of rock debris immediately after crater excavation. Furthermore, long runout landslides require a similar mechanism to explain their almost frictionless movement, which is probably also a consequence of their granular composition coupled with internal vibrations. Many different investigators have now confirmed the ability of vibrations to fluidize granular materials. Yet it still remains to fully describe the rheology of vibrated sand as a function of stress, frequency and amplitude of the vibrations in the sand itself. We constructed a rotational viscometer to quantitatively investigate the relation between the stress and strain rate in a horizontal bed of strongly vibrated sand. In addition to the macroscopic stain rate, the amplitude and frequency of the vibrations produced by a pair of pneumatic vibrators were also measured with the aid of miniaturized piezoelectric accelerometers (B&K 4393) whose output was recorded on a digital storage oscilloscope. The initial gathering of the experimental data was difficult due to granular memory, but by having the sand compacted vibrationally for 8 minutes before each run the scatter of data was reduced and we were able to obtain consistent results. Nevertheless, our major source of uncertainty was variations in strain rate from run to run. We find that vibrated sand flows like a highly non-Newtonian fluid, in which the shear strain rate is proportional to stress to a power much greater than one, where the precise power depends on the amplitude and frequency of the applied vibrations. Rapid flow occurs at stresses less than half of the static yield stress (that is, the yield stress when no vibration is applied) when strong vibrations are present. For a Newtonian fluid, such as water, the relation between

  20. Genetic diversity increases insect herbivory on oak saplings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastien Castagneyrol

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence from community genetics studies suggests that ecosystem functions supported by plant species richness can also be provided by genetic diversity within plant species. This is not yet true for the diversity-resistance relationship as it is still unclear whether damage by insect herbivores responds to genetic diversity in host plant populations. We developed a manipulative field experiment based on a synthetic community approach, with 15 mixtures of one to four oak (Quercus robur half-sib families. We quantified genetic diversity at the plot level by genotyping all oak saplings and assessed overall damage caused by ectophagous and endophagous herbivores along a gradient of increasing genetic diversity. Damage due to ectophagous herbivores increased with the genetic diversity in oak sapling populations as a result of higher levels of damage in mixtures than in monocultures for all families (complementarity effect rather than because of the presence of more susceptible oak genotypes in mixtures (selection effect. Assemblages of different oak genotypes would benefit polyphagous herbivores via improved host patch location, spill over among neighbouring saplings and diet mixing. By contrast, genetic diversity was a poor predictor of the abundance of endophagous herbivores, which increased with individual sapling apparency. Plant genetic diversity may not provide sufficient functional contrast to prevent tree sapling colonization by specialist herbivores while enhancing the foraging of generalist herbivores. Long term studies are nevertheless required to test whether the effect of genetic diversity on herbivory change with the ontogeny of trees and local adaptation of specialist herbivores.

  1. Soil Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-03-02

    This Soil Management Plan applies to all activities conducted under the auspices of the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12) that involve soil disturbance and potential management of waste soil. The plan was prepared under the direction of the Y-12 Environmental Compliance Department of the Environment, Safety, and Health Division. Soil disturbances related to maintenance activities, utility and building construction projects, or demolition projects fall within the purview of the plan. This Soil Management Plan represents an integrated, visually oriented, planning and information resource tool for decision making involving excavation or disturbance of soil at Y-12. This Soil Management Plan addresses three primary elements. (1) Regulatory and programmatic requirements for management of soil based on the location of a soil disturbance project and/or the regulatory classification of any contaminants that may be present (Chap. 2). Five general regulatory or programmatic classifications of soil are recognized to be potentially present at Y-12; soil may fall under one or more these classifications: (a) Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) pursuant to the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Federal Facilities Agreement; (b) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA); (c) RCRA 3004(u) solid waste managements units pursuant to the RCRA Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments Act of 1984 permit for the ORR; (d) Toxic Substances and Control Act-regulated soil containing polychlorinated biphenyls; and (e) Radiologically contaminated soil regulated under the Atomic Energy Act review process. (2) Information for project planners on current and future planned remedial actions (RAs), as prescribed by CERCLA decision documents (including the scope of the actions and remedial goals), land use controls implemented to support or maintain RAs, RCRA post-closure regulatory requirements for

  2. Impact of acorn moisture content at sowing on germination and seedling growth of white oak and northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi-Jean Susana Sung; Paul P. Kormanik; Taryn L. Kormanik; Stanley J. Zarnoch

    2005-01-01

    Acorn quality is an integral part of artificial oak regeneration. Progeny from individual mother trees of similar geographic areas frequently exhibited a wide range of germination percentage. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the impact of acorn moisture content (MC) at sowing on germination and subsequent seedling growth.

  3. FY 1995 Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, D.R.; Herbes, S.E. [eds.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide key information needed by decision makers to expedite the process of environmental restoration and to provide the data base required by the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). WAG 2 is the major drainage system downgradient of other WAGs that contain significant sources of contamination at ORNL. Field activities to support the remedial investigation for the RI portion include characterization of the nature and extent of contamination in WAG 2 [consisting of White Oak Creek (WOC) and associated tributaries and floodplain, White Oak Lake (WOL), and White Oak Creek Embayment (WOCE)], specifically to support risk-based remediation decisions. The project consists of three phases: Phase 1, initial scoping characterization to determine the need for early action; Phase 2, interim activities during remediation of upslope WAGs to evaluate potential changes in the contamination status of WAG 2 that would necessitate revaluation of the need for early action; and Phase 3, completion of the RI process following remediation of upslope WAGs. Overall RI objectives, consistent with ORNL Environmental Restoration (ER) Program strategic objectives to reduce risks and comply with environmental regulations, are discussed in the WAG 2 Remedial Investigation Plan.

  4. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Site characterization plan for groundwater in Waste Area Grouping 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.R.; Curtis, A.H.; Houlberg, L.M.; Purucker, S.T.; Singer, M.L.; Tardiff, M.F.; Wolf, D.A.

    1994-07-01

    The Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, is undergoing a site characterization to identify environmental contamination that may be present. This document, Site Characterization Report for Groundwater in Waste Area Grouping I at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, identifies areas of concern with respect to WAG 1 groundwater and presents the rationale, justification, and objectives for conducting this continuing site characterization. This report summarizes the operations that have taken place at each of the areas of concern in WAG 1, summarizes previous characterization studies that have been performed, presents interpretations of previously collected data and information, identifies contaminants of concern, and presents an action plan for further site investigations and early actions that will lead to identification of contaminant sources, their major groundwater pathways, and reduced off-site migration of contaminated groundwater to surface water. Site characterization Activities performed to date at WAG I have indicated that groundwater contamination, principally radiological contamination, is widespread. An extensive network of underground pipelines and utilities have contributed to the dispersal of contaminants to an unknown extent. The general absence of radiological contamination in surface water at the perimeter of WAG 1 is attributed to the presence of pipelines and underground waste storage tank sumps and dry wells distributed throughout WAG 1 which remove more than about 40 million gal of contaminated groundwater per year.

  7. Locomotory transition from water to sand and its effects on undulatory kinematics in sand lances (Ammodytidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidmark, Nicholas J; Strother, James A; Horton, Jaquan M; Summers, Adam P; Brainerd, Elizabeth L

    2011-02-15

    Sand lances, fishes in the genus Ammodytes, exhibit a peculiar burrowing behavior in which they appear to swim rapidly into the substrate. They use posteriorly propagated undulations of the body to move in both water, a Newtonian fluid, and in sand, a non-Newtonian, granular substrate. In typical aquatic limbless locomotion, undulations of the body push against water, which flows because it is incapable of supporting the static stresses exerted by the animal, thus the undulations move in world space (slipping wave locomotion). In typical terrestrial limbless locomotion, these undulations push against substrate irregularities and move relatively little in world space (non-slipping wave locomotion). We used standard and X-ray video to determine the roles of slipping wave and non-slipping wave locomotion during burrowing in sand lances. We find that sand lances in water use slipping wave locomotion, similar to most aquatic undulators, but switch to non-slipping waves once they burrow. We identify a progression of three stages in the burrowing process: first, aquatic undulations similar to typical anguilliform locomotion (but without head yaw) push the head into the sand; second, more pronounced undulations of the aquatic portion of the body push most of the animal below ground; third, the remaining above-ground portion of the body ceases undulation and the subterranean portion takes over, transitioning to non-slipping wave locomotion. We find no evidence that sand lances use their body motions to fluidize the sand. Instead, as soon as enough of the body is underground, they undergo a kinematic shift and locomote like terrestrial limbless vertebrates.

  8. Longshore sediment transport at Golden Sands (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo Nikolov

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of studies on the qualitative and quantitative features of the littoral drift at Golden Sands (Bulgaria, carried out jointly by Polish and Bulgarian researchers. The mathematical modelling of physical coastal processes took wave transformation (wave diffraction and refraction; the effects of shoaling and wave breaking and longshore sediment transport into account. The computations were carried out for the mean statistical annual wave climate, determined on the basis of IO BAS wave data, simulated using the WAM method from long-term Black Sea wind data. The results of sediment transport computations clearly show that its direction off the Golden Sands shore is from north to south.

  9. Post-liquefaction reconsolidation of sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamidis, O; Madabhushi, G S P

    2016-02-01

    Loosely packed sand that is saturated with water can liquefy during an earthquake, potentially causing significant damage. Once the shaking is over, the excess pore water pressures that developed during the earthquake gradually dissipate, while the surface of the soil settles, in a process called post-liquefaction reconsolidation. When examining reconsolidation, the soil is typically divided in liquefied and solidified parts, which are modelled separately. The aim of this paper is to show that this fragmentation is not necessary. By assuming that the hydraulic conductivity and the one-dimensional stiffness of liquefied sand have real, positive values, the equation of consolidation can be numerically solved throughout a reconsolidating layer. Predictions made in this manner show good agreement with geotechnical centrifuge experiments. It is shown that the variation of one-dimensional stiffness with effective stress and void ratio is the most crucial parameter in accurately capturing reconsolidation.

  10. Three dimensional fabric evolution of sheared sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, Alsidqi; Alshibli, Khalid (UWA)

    2012-10-24

    Granular particles undergo translation and rolling when they are sheared. This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) experimental assessment of fabric evolution of sheared sand at the particle level. F-75 Ottawa sand specimen was tested under an axisymmetric triaxial loading condition. It measured 9.5 mm in diameter and 20 mm in height. The quantitative evaluation was conducted by analyzing 3D high-resolution x-ray synchrotron micro-tomography images of the specimen at eight axial strain levels. The analyses included visualization of particle translation and rotation, and quantification of fabric orientation as shearing continued. Representative individual particles were successfully tracked and visualized to assess the mode of interaction between them. This paper discusses fabric evolution and compares the evolution of particles within and outside the shear band as shearing continues. Changes in particle orientation distributions are presented using fabric histograms and fabric tensor.

  11. Rational approach to anisotropy of sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei

    1998-11-01

    The paper presents a constitutive model for the three-dimensional deformation-strength behaviour of inherently anisotropic sand. Based on non-linear tensorial functions, the model is developed without recourse to the concepts in plasticity theory such as yield surface and plastic potential. Benefited from the fact that no decomposition of strain into elastic and plastic parts is assumed, a unified treatment of anisotropic behaviour of deformation and strength is achieved. Anisotropy is characterized by a vector normal to the bedding plane. The extension of the constitutive model is furnished by incorporating the vector under consideration of the principle of objectivity and the condition of material symmetry. Distinct features of the model are its elegant formulation and its simple structure involving few material parameters. Model performance and comparison with experiments show that the model is capable of capturing the salient behaviour of anisotropic sand.

  12. Bioaugmentation of flow-through sand filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsen, Elin Djurhuus

    Global applications of pesticides in agricultural production have led to the detection of trace amounts of pesticides in groundwater resources in levels exceeding the EU threshold limit for drinking water of 0.1 µg L-1. Pesticide-polluted groundwater may be remediated by inoculating waterworks sand...... filters with specific degrading bacteria. However, degradation efficiency is often hampered by poor adhesion and a lack of sustained catabolic activity of the introduced bacteria. The overall objective of this thesis was to investigate the significance of selected bacterial surface properties...... coincided with efficient mineralisation/degradation, and proposed the tfdC gene as a suitable marker for monitoring phenoxy acid degradation in strain PM2. Furthermore, when testing strain PM2s degradation performance in flow-through sand columns, we found that strain PM2 was able to sustain induced...

  13. Analysis of Wind-blown Sand Movement over Transverse Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hong; Huang, Ning; Zhu, Yuanjian

    2014-12-01

    Wind-blown sand movement often occurs in a very complicated desert environment where sand dunes and ripples are the basic forms. However, most current studies on the theoretic and numerical models of wind-blown sand movement only consider ideal conditions such as steady wind velocity, flat sand surface, etc. In fact, the windward slope gradient plays a great role in the lift-off and sand particle saltation. In this paper, we propose a numerical model for the coupling effect between wind flow and saltating sand particles to simulate wind-blown sand movement over the slope surface and use the SIMPLE algorithm to calculate wind flow and simulate sands transport by tracking sand particle trajectories. We furthermore compare the result of numerical simulation with wind tunnel experiments. These results prove that sand particles have obvious effect on wind flow, especially that over the leeward slope. This study is a preliminary study on windblown sand movement in a complex terrain, and is of significance in the control of dust storms and land desertification.

  14. Field Measurements of Influence of Sand Transport Rate on Structure of Wind-sand Flow over Coastal Transverse Ridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yuxiang; S L NAMIKAS; P A HESP; MA Jun

    2008-01-01

    The structure of wind-sand flow under different total sand transport rates was measured with field vertical anemometer and sand trap on the crest of typical coastal transverse ridge in Changli Gold Coast of Hebei Province,which is one of the most typical coastal aeolian distribution regions in China and famous for the tall and typical coastal transverse ridges.The measurement results show that,on the conditions of approximate wind velocities and same surface materials and environments,some changes happen to the structure of wind-sand flow with the increase of total sand transport rate on the crest of coastal transverse ridge.First,the sand transport rates of layers at different heights in the wind-sand flow increase,with the maximum increase at the height layer of 4-8cm.Second,the ratios of sand transport rates of layers at different heights to total sand transport rate decrease at the low height layer (0-4cm),but increase at the high height layer (4-60cm).Third,the distribution of the sand transport rate in the wind-sand flow can be expressed by an exponential function at the height layer of 0-40cm,but it changes fi'om power function model to exponential function model in the whole height layer (0-60cm) and changes into polynomial function model at the height layer of 40-60cm with the increase of total sand transport rate.Those changes have a close relationship with the limit of sand grain size of wind flow transporting and composition of sand grain size in the wind-sand flow.

  15. Study of the anti-sand sucker rod pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hangxin; Lv, Bingxin; Xi, Wenkui; Yi, Peng

    2017-06-01

    In order to solve the problem of sand stuck in the sucker rod pump, an anti-sand sucker rod pump is designed. The anti-sand sucker rod pump includes the conventional sucker rod pump and the swirl flow device. The sand particles can be separated from the oil in the swirl flow device, so the plunger of the sucker rod pump cannot be stuck. The motion equation of the sand particles in oil is deduced. The virtual model of the swirl flow device is built in GAMBIT software. And simulation of solid-liquid two phase flow is simulated in software FLUENT. The simulation results show that the swirl flow device can realize the sand particles separation from the oil completely. So the pump can have the effect of anti-sands.

  16. Strength and sintering effects at ejection of explosively driven sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnyansky, A. D.; Weckert, S. A.

    2014-05-01

    A description of the response of sand to extreme loads is very important for the evaluation of the sand ejecta impact effects on various targets. Sand is a complex material to simulate because of its porosity where the inter-phase equilibrium is hard to achieve under transient shock wave loading. A previously developed two-phase model with strength has been implemented in CTH and applied to sand. The shock response of the sand, including the Hugoniot abnormality known from the literature for highly porous silica, is adequately described with the material model. The sand unloading effects appearing as the ejecta are observed in the present work using dynamic flash X-ray of an aluminium target plate loaded by limestone sand ejecta from the detonation of a buried high explosive charge. The CTH modelling results compared with the flash X-ray images have demonstrated good agreement, particularly, in the description of momentum transfer to the target.

  17. A transport-rate model of wind-blown sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Sand transport by wind plays an important role in environmental problems.Formulating the sand-transport rate model has been of continuing significance,because the majority of the existing models relate sand-transport rate to the wind-shear velocity.However,the wind-shear velocity readapted to blown sand is difficult to determine from the measured wind profiles when sand movement occurs,especially at high wind velocity.Detailed wind tunnel tests were carried out to reformulate the sand-transport rate model,followed by attempts to relate sand-transport rate to parameters of wind velocity,threshold shear-velocity,and grain size.Finally,we validated the model based on the data from field observations.

  18. Athabasca oil sands development : lessening the footprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, R. [Alberta Environment, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation provided an overview of the oil sands development footprint from the perspectives of industry, environmental associations and regulatory agencies. A map of regional oil sands developments was presented along with details of land disturbance to date. Industry strategies for lessening the impact of land disturbance include compact space-efficient mining operations; good planning; and effective, progressive reclamation. A closure and reclamation model was presented, along with key reclamation challenges such as overburden. Issues concerning tailings sands were examined. Details of Syncrude's closure vision were presented, including details of the Mildred Lake site. Details of the Fort McMurray Environmental Association were presented as well as various regional multi-stakeholder initiatives. A background of Syncrude and Suncor operations was presented as well as development projection forecasts. Impacts to the Boreal region were examined. Details of land reclamation by Syncrude were provided, as well as a chart of cumulative disturbances. It was noted that recent applications have indicated numerous reclamation uncertainties, including long-term performance of landforms and the feasibility of developing trafficable tailings landforms. It was suggested that the ecosystem dynamics of the Boreal are poorly understood. Exacerbating factors include the degraded state of soils; viability of end pit lakes; and climate change. It was suggested that operators are proposing to deal with landscape and technology uncertainty using adaptive management strategies. Government responses to the oil sand development footprint include the encouragement of more research into tailings technologies, end pit lake viability and reclamation; and the identification of regional landscape ecological thresholds by the Cumulative Environmental Management Association (CEMA). It was concluded that uncertainty needs to be addressed via a variety of policy and management options

  19. Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Ashraf; Nasr, Ahmed

    2013-03-01

    Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21-31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18-75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted.

  20. Kirsten Sand. Arkitekt for sin tid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Seip

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Towards the end of World War II the retreating Germans burnt down nearly all buildings and other constructions in the counties of Finnmark and the northern parts of Troms in North Norway. The population evacuated but many returned as soon as possible, only to find themselves homeless. At this very demanding point Kirsten Sand decided to travel north, and do whatever she could as an architect to help. The pre-war housing situation was generally difficult. Low building standards and lack of money forced families in the cities to live under bad conditions. Kirsten Sand studied these conditions and took part in the efforts to better the situation. This knowledge provided a good starting point for the work she undertook after the war, in particular her profound understanding of the situation of women, their working conditions and positions in the household and society. Houses designed by Sand and her helpmates are simple but adequate, taking into account these women’s point of view. Ingebjørg Hage has thrown light on the work of Kirsten Sand in Finnmark and Troms in several ways. This article aims at describing Sand’s background as an architect before she left Oslo to travel north. It describes how housing and housing policy since long had been central to architects, especially so within the group she belonged to. In pre-war Oslo she had been engaged in planning and designing hospitals. During a period as inspector for the health authorities she learned a lot about the living conditions of people in general. After establishing her own architect’s office she mostly designed family houses, and during the war she engaged in research that further deepened her knowledge in the field. Thus she was particularly well equipped for the demanding tasks she undertook in the summer of 1945.

  1. Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Nazir

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21–31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18–75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted.

  2. Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penney, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  3. Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penney, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  4. Guide to preparing SAND reports. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, T.K. [ed.

    1996-04-01

    This guide contains basic information needed to produce a SAND report. Its guidelines reflect DOE regulation and Sandia policy. The guide includes basic writing instructions in an annotated sample report; guidance for organization, format, and layout of reports produced by line organizations; and information about conference papers, journal articles, and brochures. The appendixes contain sections on Sandia`s preferred usage, equations, references, copyrights and permissions, and publishing terms.

  5. Sorption of Arsenite onto Mackinawite Coated Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, T. J.; Hayes, K. F.; Abriola, L. M.

    2004-05-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater is a widespread problem affecting aquifers in the United States as well as abroad. Recent strengthening of the US EPA MCL for arsenic has prompted the need for technology capable of removing both arsenite and arsenate from solution. Arsenite, the more toxic form of arsenic, is more difficult to remove from anoxic zones in the subsurface. Studies by others have demonstrated the affinity of some types of iron sulfides for arsenite, such as troilite, pyrite, amorphous iron sulfide and mackinawite. However, these studies have not provided a comprehensive investigation of the macroscopic behavior of arsenite in the presence of crystalline mackinawite in a form that can be readily applied to real-world treatment technologies. This study examines the behavior of arsenite in the presence of mackinawite coated sand. PH edge results demonstrate that arsenite sorption onto mackinawite coated sand increases with increasing pH, reaching maximum removal at pH 10. Arsenite removal, albeit slight, occurring below pH 5 is independent of pH indicative of a different removal mechanism. Isotherm studies show that at low concentrations, removal is Langmuirian in nature. Arsenite sorption abruptly converts to linear behavior at high concentrations, possibly attributed to the saturation of the monolayer. Ionic strength effects were assessed by comparing pH edge data developed for three different concentrations of NaCl background electrolyte solution. Increases in ionic strength enhance the removal of arsenite from solution, suggesting possible inner-sphere surface complexation removal mechanisms. Information gathered in this study can be used to further develop surface complexation models to describe and predict reactivity of arsenite in the presence of mackinawite coated sands in anoxic regions. Mackinawite coated sands investigated here may provide a feasible reactive medium for implementation in above-ground sorption reactors or subsurface

  6. PHYSICAL MODELING OF ODOMETRIC COMPRESSION OF SAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyashenko P. A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The odometric compression of sand with constant rate of loading (CRL or constant rate of deformation (CRD and continuous registration of the corresponding reaction allows to identify the effect of stepwise changes of deformation (at the CRL and the power reaction (at the CRD. Physical modeling of compression on the sandy model showed the same effect. The physical model was made of fine sand with marks, mimicking large inclusions. Compression of the soil at the CRD was uneven, stepwise, and the strain rate of the upper boundary of the sandy model changed cyclically. Maximum amplitudes of cycles passed through a maximum. Inside of the sand model, the uneven strain resulted in the mutual displacement of the adjacent parts located at the same depth. The growth of external pressure, the marks showed an increase or decrease in displacement and even move opposite to the direction of movement (settlement the upper boundary of the model ‒ "floating" of marks. Marks, at different depths, got at the same time different movements, including mutually contradictory. The mark settlements sudden growth when the sufficiently large pressure. These increments in settlements remained until the end of loading decreasing with depth. They were a confirmation of the hypothesis about the total destruction of the soil sample at a pressure of "structural strength". The hypothesis of the "floating" reason based on the obvious assumption that the marks are moved together with the surrounding sand. The explanation of the effect of "floating" is supported by the fact that the value of "floating" the more, the greater the depth

  7. Sand Ripple Dynamics on the Inner Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Sand Ripple Dynamics on the Inner Shelf Donald N. Slinn Department of Civil and Coastal Engineering, University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611...Florida,Department of Civil and Coastal Engineering,Gainesville,FL,32611-6590 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY...2002. 452: p. 1-24. Acrivos, A., Shear-Induced Particle Diffusion in Concentrated Suspensions of Noncolloidal Particles. Journal of Rheology , 1995

  8. Drawing a Line in the Sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    An Inner Mongolian woman takes on the desert and converts extensive arid regions into arable land by Ni Yanshuo CONVERTING vast tracks of desert into arable land is no easy task, even using the most advanced technology.Yet a woman who hails from north China’s Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region met this challenge head on.Using the helping hands of other determined women,she has made remarkable progress in pushing back the sands of time.

  9. Drained Triaxial Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praastrup, U.; Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    In the process of understanding and developing models for geomaterials, the stress-strain behaviour is commonly studied by performing triaxial tests. In the present study static triaxial tests have been performed to gain knowledge of the stress-strain behaviour of frictional materials during...... monotonic loading. The tests reported herein are all drained tests, starting from different initial states of stress and following various stress paths. AIl the tests are performed on reconstituted medium dense specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand....

  10. Waste foundry sand: Environmental implication and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Penkaitis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of analyses using Scanning Electron Microscopy in field samples of waste foundry sand, as well as the results of granulometric, chemical and groundwater analyses. Field data allowed to characterize waste foundry sand and showed that there are elevated concentrations of metals in the groundwater (iron, manganese, boron and selenium, in addition to other potentially toxic elements (chromium, copper, cobalt, nickel, zinc, aluminum, iron, manganese, which are present in the waste and are considered not hazardous by current standards. Even if these elements are not considered hazardous, their concentrations above the permissible limit compromise the environmental quality of the site, posing risks to the local population, since they work in agriculture and use groundwater. Two different types of waste foundry sands were identified using granulometric analyses. Electron microscopy showed features related to morphological, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of grains that make up the waste. Quartz was the dominant mineral. Waste foundry sand is composed of two types of grains: a rounded grain with almost no incrustations formed during alloy production, and a second type of grain, which is not rounded, has incrustations, and always has several metals derived from alloys and associated with these incrustations. Chemical elements detected in groundwater with concentrations above the limits established by the regulatory bodies were found in wells located in the landfill area. Most of these elements show higher concentrations downstream, some of them with concentrations above the regulatory limit, and others show an increase in concentration upstream, indicating that the landfill may be impacting the local environment.

  11. American Las Vegas Sands Corp. Visiting Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yinghong; Liu Jinliang

    2006-01-01

    @@ On August 29, Wan Jifei, Chairman of CCPIT, meets the visiting delegation led by Sheldon G. Adelson,Chairman of the Board and principal owner of Las Vegas Sands Corp. in CCPIT. Zhao Zhenge, Vice Director of International Connection Department of CCPIT, Luo Guoxiong from Beijing China Exhibition Investment Company, Xu Jingyi, Assistant Director of American and Oceanian Affairs Division of CCPIT, also attended the meeting.

  12. Phase I remedial investigation report of Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.E. [ed.

    1995-07-01

    This report presents the activities and findings of the first phase of a three-phase remedial investigation (RI) of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and updates the scope and strategy for WAG-2-related efforts. WAG 2 contains White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the ORNL main plant area, White Oak Lake, White Oak Creek Embayment on the Clinch River, and the associated floodplain and subsurface environment. Water, sediment, soil, and biota in WAG 2 are contaminated and continue to receive contaminants from upgradient WAGs. This report includes field activities completed through October 1992. The remediation of WAG 2 is scheduled to follow the cessation of contaminant input from hydrologically upgradient WAGs. While upgradient areas are being remediated, the strategy for WAG 2 is to conduct a long-term monitoring and investigation program that takes full advantage of WAG 2`s role as an integrator of contaminant fluxes from other ORNL WAGs and focuses on four key goals: (1) Implement, in concert with other programs, long-term, multimedia environmental monitoring and tracking of contaminants leaving other WAGs, entering WAG 2, and being transported off-site. (2) Provide a conceptual framework to integrate and develop information at the watershed-level for pathways and processes that are key to contaminant movement, and so support remedial efforts at ORNL. (3) Provide periodic updates of estimates of potential risk (both human health and ecological) associated with contaminants accumulating in and moving through WAG 2 to off-site areas. (4) Support the ORNL Environmental Restoration Program efforts to prioritize, remediate, and verify remedial effectiveness for contaminated sites at ORNL, through long-term monitoring and continually updated risk assessments.

  13. Phase I remedial investigation report of Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.E. [ed.

    1995-07-01

    This report presents the activities and findings of the first phase of a three-phase remedial investigation (RI) of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and updates the scope and strategy for WAG-2-related efforts. WAG 2 contains White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the ORNL main plant area, White Oak Lake, White Oak Creek Embayment on the Clinch River, and the associated floodplain and subsurface environment. Water, sediment, soil, and biota in WAG 2 are contaminated and continue to receive contaminants from upgradient WAGs. This report includes field activities completed through October 1992. The remediation of WAG 2 is scheduled to follow the cessation of contaminant input from hydrologically upgradient WAGs. While upgradient areas are being remediated, the strategy for WAG 2 is to conduct a long-term monitoring and investigation program that takes full advantage of WAG 2`s role as an integrator of contaminant fluxes from other ORNL WAGs and focuses on four key goals: (1) Implement, in concert with other programs, long-term, multimedia environmental monitoring and tracking of contaminants leaving other WAGs, entering WAG 2, and being transported off-site. (2) Provide a conceptual framework to integrate and develop information at the watershed-level for pathways and processes that are key to contaminant movement, and so support remedial efforts at ORNL. (3) Provide periodic updates of estimates of potential risk (both human health and ecological) associated with contaminants accumulating in and moving through WAG 2 to off-site areas. (4) Support the ORNL Environmental Restoration Program efforts to prioritize, remediate, and verify remedial effectiveness for contaminated sites at ORNL, through long-term monitoring and continually updated risk assessments.

  14. Environmental data for the White Oak Creek/White Oak Lake watershed: Environmental Sciences Division publication No. 2779

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, C.B.; Loar, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located in the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, which drains approximately 16.8 km/sup 2/ (6.5 mile/sup 2/). The waters of WOC are impounded by White Oak Dam at WOC's intersection with White Wing Road (State Route 95), 1.0 km (0.6 mile) upstream from the Clinch River. The resulting White Oak Lake (WOL) is a small, shallow impoundment, whose water level is controlled by a vertical sluice gate that remains in a fixed position during normal operations. White Oak Creek has been utilized for the discharge of treated and untreated wastes from routine operations since the Laboratory's inception. In addition, most of the more recent (1954 to date) liquid and solid low-level-waste disposal operations have been located in the drainage area of WOC. As a federally owned facility, ORNL is required to comply with all existing federal, state, and local environmental regulations regarding waste management. On July 15, 1985, the US Environmental Protection Agency published final rules to incorporate changes in the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 that resulted from the passage of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of 1984. As a part of the rule changes, a new Sect. 3004(u) was added. The new section requires that any facility permit issued after November 8, 1984, include planned corrective actions for all continuing releases of hazardous waste or constituents from any disposal unit at the facility, regardless of when the waste was placed at the disposal unit. This report was prepared to compile existing information on the content and quantity of hazardous substances (both radioactive and nonradioactive) in the WOC/WOL watershed and to provide background information on the geology, hydrology, and ecology of the site for use in planning future remedial actions. 109 refs., 45 figs., 33 tabs.

  15. Landscape dynamics in Mediterranean oak forests under global change: understanding the role of anthropogenic and environmental drivers across forest types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acácio, Vanda; Dias, Filipe S; Catry, Filipe X; Rocha, Marta; Moreira, Francisco

    2017-03-01

    The Mediterranean region is projected to be extremely vulnerable to global change, which will affect the distribution of typical forest types such as native oak forests. However, our understanding of Mediterranean oak forest responses to future conditions is still very limited by the lack of knowledge on oak forest dynamics and species-specific responses to multiple drivers. We compared the long-term (1966-2006) forest persistence and land cover change among evergreen (cork oak and holm oak) and deciduous oak forests and evaluated the importance of anthropogenic and environmental drivers on observed changes for Portugal. We used National Forest Inventories to quantify the changes in oak forests and explored the drivers of change using multinomial logistic regression analysis and an information theoretical approach. We found distinct trends among oak forest types, reflecting the differences in oak economic value, protection status and management schemes: cork oak forests were the most persistent (62%), changing mostly to pines and eucalypt; holm oak forests were less persistent (53.2%), changing mostly to agriculture; and deciduous oak forests were the least persistent (45.7%), changing mostly to shrublands. Drivers of change had distinct importance across oak forest types, but drivers from anthropogenic origin (wildfires, population density, and land accessibility) were always among the most important. Climatic extremes were also important predictors of oak forest changes, namely extreme temperatures for evergreen oak forests and deficit of precipitation for deciduous oak forests. Our results indicate that under increasing human pressure and forecasted climate change, evergreen oak forests will continue declining and deciduous oak forests will be replaced by forests dominated by more xeric species. In the long run, multiple disturbances may change competitive dominance from oak forests to pyrophytic shrublands. A better understanding of forest dynamics and the

  16. Removal site evaluation report for the Isotope Facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This removal site evaluation (RmSE) report of the Isotope Facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was prepared to provide the Environmental Restoration Program with information necessary to evaluate whether hazardous and/or radiological contaminants in and around the Isotopes Facility pose a substantial risk to human health or the environment and if remedial site evaluations (RSEs) or removal actions are required. The scope of the project included: (1) a review of historical evidence regarding operations and use of the facility; (2) interviews with facility personnel concerning current and past operating practices; (3) a site inspection; and (4) identification of hazard areas requiring maintenance, removal, or remedial actions. The results of RmSE indicate that no substantial risks exist from contaminants present in the Isotope Facilities because adequate controls and practices exist to protect human health and the environment. The recommended correction from the RmSE are being conducted as maintenance actions; accordingly, this RmSE is considered complete and terminated.

  17. Environmental Monitoring Plan for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This document presents the Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Based on the results of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) and on subsequent discussions with regulators, a decision was made to defer implementing source control remedial measures at the WAG. The alternative selected to address the risks associated with WAG 6 involves maintenance of site access controls prevent public exposure to on-site contaminants, continued monitoring of contaminant releases determine if source control measures are required, and development of technologies that could support the final remediation of WAG 6. Although active source control measures are not being implemented at WAG 6, environmental monitoring is necessary to ensure that any potential changes in contaminant release from the WAG are identified early enough to take appropriate action. Two types of environmental monitoring will be conducted: baseline monitoring and annual routine monitoring. The baseline monitoring will be conducted to establish the baseline contaminant release conditions at the WAG, confirm the site-related chemicals of concern (COCs), and gather data to confirm the site hydrologic model. The baseline monitoring is expected to begin in 1994 and last for 12--18 months. The annual routine monitoring will consist of continued sampling and analyses of COCs to determine off-WAG contaminant flux and risk, identify mills in releases, and confirm the primary contributors to risk. The annual routine monitoring will continue for {approximately} 4 years after completion of the baseline monitoring.

  18. Underground storage tank management plan, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The Underground Storage Tank (UST) Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant was established to locate UST systems at the facility and to ensure that all operating UST systems are free of leaks. UST systems have been removed or upgraded in accordance with Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) regulations and guidance. With the closure of a significant portion of the USTs, the continuing mission of the UST Management Program is to manage the remaining active UST systems and continue corrective actions in a safe regulatory compliant manner. This Program outlines the compliance issues that must be addressed, reviews the current UST inventory and compliance approach, and presents the status and planned activities associated with each UST system. The UST Program provides guidance for implementing TDEC regulations and guidelines for petroleum UST systems. The plan is divided into three major sections: (1) regulatory requirements, (2) active UST sites, and (3) out-of-service UST sites. These sections describe in detail the applicable regulatory drivers, the UST sites addressed under the Program, and the procedures and guidance for compliance.

  19. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (X-10), Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-07-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), X-10 site, conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team specialists are outside experts supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with ORNL. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. The on-site phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at ORNL, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by a DOE National Laboratory or a support contractor. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the Environmental Survey Interim Report for ORNL. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the ORNL Survey. 120 refs., 68 figs., 71 tabs.

  20. Removal site evaluation report on Building 7602 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This removal site evaluation report for Building 7602 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory was prepared to provide the Environmental Restoration Program with information necessary to evaluate whether hazardous and/or radiological contaminants in and around the facility pose a substantial risk to human health or the environment (i.e., a high probability of adverse effects) and whether remedial site evaluations or removal actions are, therefore, required. The scope of the project included (1) a search for, and review of, readily available historical records regarding operations and use of the facility (including hazardous substance usage and existing contamination); (2) interviews with facility personnel concerning current and past practices; and (3) a brief walk-through to visually inspect the facility and identify existing hazard areas requiring maintenance actions, removal actions, or remedial evaluation. The results of the removal site evaluation indicate that areas associated with Building 7602 pose no imminent hazards requiring maintenance actions. Adequate engineering and administrative controls are in place and enforced within the facility to ensure worker and environmental protection. Current actions that are being taken to prevent further release of contamination and ensure worker safety within Building 7602 are considered adequate until decontamination and decommissioning activities begin. Given the current status and condition of Building 7602, this removal site evaluation is considered complete and terminated.

  1. Site characterization report for the Old Hydrofracture Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    Several Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) structures (i.e., Building 7852, the bulk storage bins, the pump house, water tank T-5, and pump P-3) are surplus facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) slated for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D). OHF was constructed in 1963 to allow experimentation and operations with an integrated solids storage, handling, mixing, and grout injection facility. It was shut down in 1980 and transferred to ORNL`s Surveillance and Maintenance Program. The hydrofracture process was a unique disposal method that involved injecting waste materials mixed with grout and additives under pumping pressures of 2,000 psi or greater into a deep, low-permeability shale formation. The injected slurry spread along fractures and bedding planes for hundreds of feet from the injection points, forming thin grout sheets (often less than 1/8 in. thick). The grout ostensibly immobilized and solidified the liquid wastes. Site characterization activities were conducted in the winter and spring of 1994 to collect information necessary to plan the D and D of OHF structures. This site characterization report documents the results of the investigation of OHF D and D structures, presenting data from the field investigation and laboratory analyses in the form of a site description, as-built drawings, summary tables of radiological and chemical contaminant concentrations, and a waste volume estimate. 25 refs., 54 figs., 17 tabs.

  2. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) conducted March 14 through 25, 1988. The Survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental risk associated with ORGDP. The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at ORGDP, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during is on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). When completed, the results will be incorporated into the ORGDP Survey findings for in inclusion into the Environmental Survey Summary Report. 120 refs., 41 figs., 74 tabs.

  3. Oil sands mining water use and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, M.; Long, D.; Fitch, M. [Golder Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    There are currently 4 bitumen mining operations operating along the Athabasca River in northern Alberta. This paper presented details of the water licences, historical water use, present water use, and future plans for water management in relation to oil sands mining operations. The study was based on work currently conducted for the Oil Sands Developers Group (OSDG) and Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP), as well as on mine site water balance analyses for proposed mines in the region. Typical mine site water balances were discussed, and water use rates for the mining operations were reviewed. The new Athabasca River water management framework may require that mines provide additional water storage or delayed reclamation of mine areas in order to offset water losses during winter low-flow periods. New regulations may also reduce the requirement for make-up water. The study also noted that release criteria are still being developed for on-site water within closed-loop mine operations. The oil sands industry will need to balance various factors related to water use in the future. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  4. DYNAMIC EFFECTIVE SHEAR STRENGTH OF SATURATED SAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵生俊; 谢定义

    2002-01-01

    The dynamic effective shear strength of saturated sand under cyclic loading is discussed in this paper. The discussion includes the transient time dependency behaviors based on the analysis of the results obtained in conventional cyclic triaxial tests and cyclic torsional shear triaxial tests. It has been found that the dynamic effective shear strength is composed of effective frictional resistance and viscous resistance, which are characterized by the strain rate dependent feature of strength magnitude, the coupling of consolidation stress with cyclic stress and the dependency of time needed to make the soil strength suffciently mobilized, and can also be expressed by the extended Mohr-Coulomb's law. The two strength parameters of the dynamic effective internal frictional angle φd and the dynamic viscosity coefficient η are determined. The former is unvaried for different number of cyclic loading, dynamic stress form and consolidation stress ratio. And the later is unvaried for the different dynamic shear strain rate γt developed during the sand liquefaction, but increases with the increase of initial density of sand. The generalization of dynamic effective stress strength criterion in the 3-dimensional effective stress space is studied in detail for the purpose of its practical use.

  5. Collaborative production management for oil sands operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Andrew [Matrikon (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This paper gives an overview of the collaborative production management of oil sands operations. Some characteristics of oil sands operations include oil treatment, hydro treating, diluent addition, logistics, and environmental impact assessments. Some of the business challenges include regulatory uncertainty, a fluid workforce and a technology still in the process of being developed. Improvement is only possible when process is assessed and measured; hence, production data management is very important. Production data measurements encompass such areas as planning, documentation and transactions. Regulatory data reporting is represented using a flow chart. The concepts of business application architecture and functional reference modeling are also explained. Benchmarking plays a vital role, some aspects of which would be technology, automation and integration. Certain advantages of timely assessment are increased production, equity, and goodwill as well as reduction in costs, risk, and capital requirements. The relevance and importance of collaboration, awareness of web technology and aggregate information are also explained. From the study, it can be concluded that the key to overall improvement in the oil sands industry will be improved production management.

  6. Recycled sand in lime-based mortars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidou, M; Anastasiou, E; Georgiadis Filikas, K

    2014-12-01

    The increasing awareness of the society about safe guarding heritage buildings and at the same time protecting the environment promotes strategies of combining principles of restoration with environmentally friendly materials and techniques. Along these lines, an experimental program was carried out in order to investigate the possibility of producing repair, lime-based mortars used in historic buildings incorporating secondary materials. The alternative material tested was recycled fine aggregates originating from mixed construction and demolition waste. Extensive tests on the raw materials have been performed and mortar mixtures were produced using different binding systems with natural, standard and recycled sand in order to compare their mechanical, physical and microstructure properties. The study reveals the improved behavior of lime mortars, even at early ages, due to the reaction of lime with the Al and Si constituents of the fine recycled sand. The role of the recycled sand was more beneficial in lime mortars rather than the lime-pozzolan or lime-pozzolan-cement mortars as a decrease in their performance was recorded in the latter cases due to the mortars' structure.

  7. Permeability Tests on Silkeborg Sand No. 0000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Willy; Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends on the charact......The flow through porous media plays an important role in various engineering disciplines, as for example in ground water hydrology and soil mechanics. In the present study the permeability is determined for a fine, saturated sand. As the flow through a porous media strongly depends...... on the characteristics of the soil matrix, the permeability is determined for different void ratios. All tests are performed on reconstituted specimens of Silkeborg Sand No. 0000. The permeability is determined by use of a falling head apparatus. The apparatus, test procedures and the analysis method are described...... in the succeeding sections. Finally the test results are briefly summarised and a relationship between void ratio l and permeability is established....

  8. The bituminous sands : a Canadian mirage?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousse, D.R. [Quebec Univ., Chicoutimi, PQ (Canada). Dept. des Sciences Appliquees; Nasr, G.J. [Lebanese Univ., Roumieh (Lebanon). Faculty of Engineering; Turcotte, S.F. [Quebec Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Centre d' Etudes Internationales et Mondialisation; Salah, N.B. [Ecole Superieure des Sciences et Techniques De Tunis, Tunis (Tunisia). LMMP

    2009-07-01

    This paper examined the controversy about the potential role of a significant increase in Canadian oil sands production in order to bridge the upcoming gap between the world's increasing energy demand and the total recoverable oil supply. The paper presented the actual potential of different scenarios and considered the prediction cost forecasts. A brief overview of environmental impacts and the real return on investments were also provided. Environmental impacts that were considered included land degradation; water contamination; ecosystem damage; and air pollution. Nuclear energy was also presented as a possible solution. The paper demonstrated that even in a very optimistic scenario, Canada's oil sands accelerated production has a negligible effect on the aforementioned gap, has a considerable impact on environment that has yet to be accounted for. Energy ratios that were presented included energy return on energy investment; energy available on energy used; and energy payback. It was concluded that enhanced recovery techniques are clearly needed for future sustainable exploitation of these bituminous sands. 32 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Summertime View of North Polar Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    10 October 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a suite of dunes in one of the several north polar dune fields. The bright surfaces adjacent to some of the dunes are patches of frost. These dunes spend much of the autumn, winter, and spring seasons covered with carbon dioxide frost. Only in late spring and in summer are the dark windblown sands fully exposed. Over the course of the 9+ years of the MGS mission, the MOC team has sought evidence that sand dunes may be migrating downwind over time. However, no clear examples of the movement of a whole dune have been identified. On Earth, such movement is typically detectable in air photos of the smallest active dunes over periods of a few years. Owing to the fact that the north polar dunes spend much of each martian year under a cover of frost, perhaps these move much more slowly than their frost-free, terrestrial counterparts. The sand may also be somewhat cemented by ice or minerals, likewise preventing vigorous dune migration in the present environment. This view covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left. The dunes are located near 79.8oN, 127.1oW, and the picture was acquired on 11 September 2006.

  10. The sedimentary structure of linear sand dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow; Bailey; Lancaster

    2000-07-06

    Linear sand dunes--dunes that extend parallel to each other rather than in star-like or crescentic forms--are the most abundant type of desert sand dune. But because their development and their internal structure are poorly understood, they are rarely recognized in the rock record. Models of linear dune development have not been able to take into account the sub-surface structure of existing dunes, but have relied instead either on the extrapolation of short-term measurements of winds and sediment transport or on observations of near-surface internal sedimentary structures. From such studies, it has not been clear if linear dunes can migrate laterally. Here we present images produced by ground penetrating radar showing the three-dimensional sedimentary structure of a linear dune in the Namib sand sea, where some of the world's largest linear dunes are situated. These profiles show clear evidence for lateral migration in a linear dune. Moreover, the migration of a sinuous crest-line along the dune produces divergent sets of cross-stratification, which can become stacked as the dune height increases, and large linear dunes can support superimposed dunes that produce stacked sets of trough cross-stratification. These clear structural signatures of linear dunes should facilitate their recognition in geological records.

  11. Shaly sand formation evaluation in tight gas sands using electrochemical potential measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M. M.; Jin, M.

    1991-08-01

    Equations are developed that directly relate the shaly conductivity to the electrochemical (membrane) potential (EP). The model is applied to both fully and partially saturated sands. The relationship between the resistivity index and the water saturation is also expressed in terms of a single membrane potential measurement. The Ep measured at different salinities are compared with model prediction using a single membrane potential measurement. Sigma (sub 0) versus Sigma (sub w) curves are then generated using the model equations and compared with measured curves. Experimental results are presented for electrochemical potential measurement made in the lab on 50 tight gs sand samples. It is shown that the measurements can be correlated with CEC although the CEC measured by grinding up the samples was always higher than that estimated from Ep measurements. The Ep measurements are combined with the equations for partial saturation developed in the report to obtain water saturations in a tight gas sand well. Through the example it is shown that it is possible to determine the water saturation in Shaly sands from one membrane potential measurement at a known salinity together with a set of resistivity logs. The results clearly demonstrate the applicability of the method as a practical procedure for Shaly sand information evaluation.

  12. Dendrochronological Investigations of Valonia Oak Trees in Western Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Papadopoulos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Valonia oak (Quercus ithaburensis subsp. macrolepis (Kotschy Hedge & Yalt. is an east Mediterranean endemic, xerothermic and deciduous tree of particular interest in forestry. There has been a growing demand lately to include the species in reforestations in Greece which also increased the interest to investigate its response to climate change. The main purpose of this research is to study valonia oak from a dendrochronological – dendroclimatological point of view within its Mediterranean distribution range. Materials and Methods: Sampling took place in characteristic valonia oak stands where cross sections or tree-cores were taken from 40 trees. The cross sections and the tree-cores were prepared and cross-dated using standard dendrochronological methods and tree-ring widths were measured to the nearest 0.001 mm using the Windendro software program. The ARSTAN program was used to standardize the tree-ring data and to calculate dendrochronological statistical parameters. The inter-annual variability of tree-ring width and the radial growth trend were examined. Finally, tree-ring widths to climate relationships were calculated by orthogonal regression in combination with the bootstrap procedure using master residual chronology and monthly precipitation, temperature data and scPDSI drought index, from October of the n-1 year up to November of the n year. Results: The master chronology of valonia oak trees in Western Greece reaches 365 years, with an average ring width of 0.89 mm and with mean sensitivity being 0.21. The variation of the tree-ring widths indicates the influence of climate and human intervention in the past. Tree-ring to climate relationships show that valonia oak growth is positively affected by precipitations in January and March and by drought reduction during June and July. Conclusions: Valonia oak in Western Greece is a species of great interest for dendrochronological and dendroclimatological studies

  13. Direct Effects of Carpophagous Insects on the Germination Ability and Early Abscission of Oak Acorns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CSÓKA, György

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Carpophagous insects play an important role in decreasing the viability of acorns in bothdirect and indirect ways. Therefore they significantly influence the reproductive potential of oaks. As adirect effect, their feeding on the embryo and on the cotyledons may prevent the germination of theacorn and on the other hand, their damage causes premature acorn abscission. During 3 years, 60acorn samples from five oak species (Turkey oak – Quercus cerris, pedunculate oak – Quercus robur,sessile oak – Quercus petraea, downy oak – Quercus pubescens, red oak – Quercus rubra have beeninvestigated. The average rate of damage varied a lot between years, but was always significant (2000:36%, 2001: 61%, 2002: 51%. The insects’ influence causing premature acorn abscission wassignificant both for pedunculate and Turkey oaks. The premature acorn abscission was 34% of thetotal crop in 2000 for pedunculate oak (Curculio spp. 26%, Cydia spp. 2% and Andricusquercuscalicis 6% and 39% in 2001 (Curculio spp. 14%, Cydia spp. 2%, Andricus quercuscalicis13%, Callirhytis glandium 10%. In case of Turkey oak it was 29% in 2001 (C. glandium 16%,Neuroterus saliens 13%, and 12% in 2002 (C. glandium 10%, N. saliens 2%.

  14. The ancient blue oak woodlands of California: longevity and hydroclimatic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahle, D.W.; Griffin, R.D.; Meko, D.M.; Therrell, M.D.; Edmondson, J.R.; Cleaveland, M.K.; Burnette, D.J.; Abatzoglou, J.T.; Redmond, K.T.; Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.

    2013-01-01

    Ancient blue oak trees are still widespread across the foothills of the Coast Ranges, Cascades, and Sierra Nevada in California. The most extensive tracts of intact old-growth blue oak woodland appear to survive on rugged and remote terrain in the south Coast Ranges and on the foothills west and southwest of Mt. Lassen. In our sampling of old-growth stands, most blue oak appear to have recruited to the canopy in the mid- to late-19th century. The oldest living blue oak tree sampled was over 459-years old and several dead blue oak logs had over 500 annual rings. Precipitation sensitive tree-ring chronologies up to 700-years long have been developed from old blue oak trees and logs. Annual ring-width chronologies of blue oak are strongly correlated with cool season precipitation totals, streamflow in the major rivers of California, and the estuarine water quality of San Francisco Bay. A new network of 36 blue oak chronologies records spatial anomalies in growth that arise from latitudinal changes in the mean storm track and location of landfalling atmospheric rivers. These long, climate-sensitive blue oak chronologies have been used to reconstruct hydroclimatic history in California and will help to better understand and manage water resources. The environmental history embedded in blue oak growth chronologies may help justify efforts to conserve these authentic old-growth native woodlands.

  15. STUDY ON HOT SAND COOLING EQUIPMENT WITH DAMPING SAND CASCADE AND VERTICAL SPOUTED-FLUIDIZED BED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.C. Wang; F. Wang; X.H. You

    2005-01-01

    A new kind of hot sand cooling equipment with vertical spouted-fluidized bed is developed in this paper. It is similar to the traditional horizontal vibrating fluidized boiling cooler in principle but different from it in structure. The processing principle of the cooler is analyzed. The influence of main structural and processing parameters on the cooling effect and its mechanism are researched. Other characteristics of the cooler are discussed also. Experiment results show that the cooling efficiency η is equal to or larger than 83%, the temperature of output sand is less than 40℃ with the temperature of input sand is about between 80 and 90℃, and the productivity is 5t/(h·m)

  16. Small Strain Behaviour and Viscous Effects on Sands and Sand-Clay Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Benedetto, H.

    This lecture paper focuses on sands and sand-clay mixtures behaviour in the small strain domain. Non viscous and viscous components are measured, identified and modelled within the framework of a 3 component model. Two precision prototype devices (triaxial and hollow cylinder) both equipped with piezoelectric sensors are used. Non viscous measured behaviour considering small quasi-static cycles and wave properties are compared with simulations obtained from 2 recently formulated anisotropic hypoelastic models (DBGS and DBGSP). Then, viscous experimental part is compared with the proposed model prediction. This model is an asymptotic expression, for the small strain domain, of a viscous evanescent formalism proposed by the author. It takes into account very peculiar behaviour observed on sands. Simulation for loadings with and without rotation of axes and for different rate histories, are quite satisfactory.

  17. Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-09-01

    For those who support U.S. oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands industry is often identified as a model the U.S. might emulate, yielding financial and energy security benefits. For opponents of domestic oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands experience illustrates the risks that opponents of development believe should deter domestic policymakers from incenting U.S. oil sands development. This report does not seek to evaluate the particular underpinnings of either side of this policy argument, but rather attempts to delve into the question of whether the Canadian experience has relevance as a foundational model for U.S. oil sands development. More specifically, this report seeks to assess whether and how the Canadian oil sands experience might be predictive or instructive in the context of fashioning a framework for a U.S. oil sands industry. In evaluating the implications of these underpinnings for a prospective U.S. oil sands industry, this report concentrates on prospective development of the oil sands deposits found in Utah.

  18. Cytotoxicity of yellow sand in lung epithelial cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Y H Kim; K S Kim; N J Kwak; K H Lee; S A Kweon; Y Lim

    2003-02-01

    The present study was carried out to observe the cytotoxicity of yellow sand in comparison with silica and titanium dioxide in a rat alveolar type II cell line (RLE-6TN). Yellow sand (China Loess) was obtained from the loess layer in the Gunsu Province of China. The mean particle diameter of yellow sand was about 0.003 ± 0.001 mm. Major elements of yellow sand were Si(27.7 ± 0.6%), Al(6.01 ± 0.17%), and Ca(5.83 ± 0.23%) in that order. Silica and yellow sand significantly decreased cell viability and increased [Ca2+]i. All three particles increased the generation of H2O2. TiO2 did not change Fenton activity, while silica induced a slight increase of Fenton activity. In contrast, yellow sand induced a significant increase of Fenton activity. Silica, yellow sand and TiO2 induced significant nitrite formations in RLE-6TN cells. Silica showed the highest increase in nitrite formation, while yellow sand induced the least formation of nitrite. Silica and yellow sand increased the release of TNF-. Based on these results, we suggest that yellow sand can induce cytotoxicity in RLE-6TN cells and reactive oxygen species, Fenton activity and reactive nitrogen species might be involved in this toxicity.

  19. Oak Ridge Reservation annual site environmental report summary for 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) requires an annual site environmental report from each of the sites operating under its authority. The reports present the results from the various environmental monitoring and surveillance programs carried out during the year. In addition to meeting the DOE requirement, the reports also document compliance with various state and federal laws and regulations. This report was published to fulfill those requirements for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) for calendar year 1995. The report is based on thousands of environmental samples collected on and around the ORR and analyzed during the year. The data on which the report is based are published in Environmental Monitoring and Surveillance on the Oak Ridge Reservation: 1995 Data (ES/ESH-71). Both documents are highly detailed. This summary report is meant for readers who are interested in the monitoring results but who do not need to review the details.

  20. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, R.L. (ed.)

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates envirorunental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. This volume, Volume 2, contains logic diagrams with an index. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use.

  1. Effects of the Hydrolysable Oak Tannins on the Quail Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesut Karaman

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study effects of different levels of hydrolyzed oak tannin on Japanese quail, live body weight and live body weight gain, food intake, food conversion efficiency and mortality rate were investigated. Therefore, a total of 240 quails were weighed and divided into 4 treatment groups each with 3 replicates containing 20 birds and reared in flat for 42 days as experimental period. While one of the groups was fed control diet with no additives (0% tannin A, other groups were fed with the different percentages of tannin on their diets, which are 0.5% (B, 1.0% (C, 1.5% (D respectively. It has been observed that Japanese quails that fed the oak tannin containing diet had slower growth rate and poorer feed conversion efficiency and high mortality rate than birds fed with a tannin-free diet.

  2. Oak Ridge K-25 Site Technology Logic Diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, R.L. (ed.)

    1993-02-26

    The Oak Ridge K-25 Technology Logic Diagram (TLD), a decision support tool for the K-25 Site, was developed to provide a planning document that relates environmental restoration and waste management problems at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD technique identifies the research necessary to develop these technologies to a state that allows for technology transfer and application to waste management, remedial action, and decontamination and decommissioning activities. The TLD consists of four separate volumes-Vol. 1, Vol. 2, Vol. 3A, and Vol. 3B. Volume 1 provides introductory and overview information about the TLD. Volume 2 contains logic diagrams. Volume 3 has been divided into two separate volumes to facilitate handling and use. This report is part A of Volume 3 concerning characterization, decontamination, and dismantlement.

  3. Native Grass Community Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryon, Michael G [ORNL; Parr, Patricia Dreyer [ORNL; Cohen, Kari [ORNL

    2007-06-01

    Land managers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory in East Tennessee are restoring native warm-season grasses and wildflowers to various sites across the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Some of the numerous benefits to planting native grasses and forbs include improved habitat quality for wildlife, improved aesthetic values, lower long-term maintenance costs, and compliance with Executive Order 13112 (Clinton 1999). Challenges to restoring native plants on the ORR include the need to gain experience in establishing and maintaining these communities and the potentially greater up-front costs of getting native grasses established. The goals of the native grass program are generally outlined on a fiscal-year basis. An overview of some of the issues associated with the successful and cost-effective establishment and maintenance of native grass and wildflower stands on the ORR is presented in this report.

  4. ORIS: the Oak Ridge Imaging System operation's manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, P. R.; Dillon, R. S.

    1977-12-01

    The Oak Ridge Imaging System (ORIS) programs are briefly described. This volume is intended as an operators manual, but it includes program abstracts and instructions for assembling the modules and adding new ones. The instructions are specifically for the RK8E version, but they apply with minor changes to versions for other OS/8 devices. The system provides for access, storage, processing, and display of nuclear medicine images and for any other type of data displayable in image form. The system is not limited to square image arrays or to any specific size of data arrays below 16K elements. The complete code package for ORIS is available as MED-8/ORIS from the Biomedical Computing Technology Information Center (BCTIC), Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  5. Environmental Monitoring Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation, 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Sharon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) environmental surveillance is to characterize radiological and nonradiological conditions of the off-site environs and estimate public doses related to these conditions, confirm estimations of public dose based on effluent monitoring data, and, where appropriate, provide supplemental data to support compliance monitoring for applicable environmental regulations. This environmental monitoring plan (EMP) is intended to document the rationale, frequency, parameters, and analytical methods for the ORR environmental surveillance program and provides information on ORR site characteristics, environmental pathways, dose assessment methods, and quality management. ORR-wide environmental monitoring activities include a variety of media including air, surface water, vegetation, biota, and wildlife. In addition to these activities, site-specific effluent, groundwater, and best management monitoring programs are conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12), and the East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP). This is revision 5.

  6. Status report: A hydrologic framework for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, D.K.; Toran, L.E.; Dreier, R.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Moore, G.K.; McMaster, W.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1992-05-01

    This first status report on the Hydrologic Studies Task of the Oak Ridge Reservation Hydrology and Geology Study (ORRHAGS) revises earlier concepts of subsurface hydrology and hydrogeochemistry of the ORR. A new classification of hydrogeologic units is given, as well as new interpretations of the gydrogeologic properties and processes that influence contaminant migration. The conceptual hydrologic framework introduced in this report is based primarily on reinterpretations of data acquired during earlier hydrologic investigations of waste areas at and near the three US Department of Energy Oak Ridge (DOE-OR) plant facilities. In addition to describing and interpreting the properties and processes of the groundwater systems as they are presently understood, this report describes surface water-subsurface water relations, influences on contaminant migration,and implications to environmental restoration, environmental monitoring, and waste management.

  7. Diversity of Biscogniauxia mediterranea within Single Stromata on Cork Oak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Henriques

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal canker, caused by the fungus Biscogniauxia mediterranea, is one of the most frequent diseases of cork oak in Portugal. The pathogen has been considered a secondary invader that attacks only stressed hosts; however, in recent years, an increasing number of young trees exhibiting the disease symptoms have been recorded. A collection of monoascosporic cultures isolated from single stromata of B. mediterranea in cork oak from different locations was analyzed by means of microsatellite—Primed Polymerase Chain Reaction—using three microsatellite primers, in order to detect the genetic variation of the population thus discussing its plasticity and ability to adapt to different conditions. The results showed a high level of genetic variability among isolates obtained from the same stroma, being impossible to distinguish isolates from individual stromata neither from different geographical location.

  8. Level 3 baseline risk evaluation for Building 3506 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golden, K.M.; Robers, S.K.; Cretella, F.M.

    1994-12-01

    This report presents the results of the Level 3 Baseline Risk Evaluation (BRE) performed on Building 3506 located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This BRE is intended to provide an analysis of the potential for adverse health effects (current or future) posed by contaminants at the facility. The decision was made to conduct a Level 3 (least rigorous) BRE because only residual contamination exists in the building. Future plans for the facility (demolition) also preclude a rigorous analysis. Site characterization activities for Building 3506 were conducted in fall of 1993. Concrete core samples were taken from the floors and walls of both the cell and the east gallery. These cores were analyzed for radionuclides and organic and inorganic chemicals. Smear samples and direct radiation measurements were also collected. Sediment exists on the floor of the cell and was also analyzed. To adequately characterize the risks posed by the facility, receptors for both current and potential future land uses were evaluated. For the current land use conditions, two receptors were evaluated. The first receptor is a hypothetical maintenance worker who spends 250 days (8 hours/day) for 25 years working in the facility. The remaining receptor evaluated is a hypothetical S and M worker who spends 2 days (8 hours/day) per year for 25 years working within the facility. This particular receptor best exemplifies the current worker scenario for the facility. The two current exposure scenarios and parameters of exposure (e.g., inhalation and ingestion rates) have been developed to provide a conservative (i.e. health protective) estimate of potential exposure.

  9. Technology study of Gunite tank sludge mobilization at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVore, J.R.; Herrick, T.J.; Lott, K.E.

    1994-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Gunite Tank Sludge Mobilization Technology Study was initiated to support the Gunite Tank Treatability Study effort. The technology study surveyed the methods and technologies available for tank cleaning and sludge mobilization in a radioactive environment. Technologies were identified and considered for applicability to the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) problems. These were then either accepted for further study or rejected as not applicable. Technologies deemed applicable to the GAAT sludge removal project were grouped for evaluation according to (1) deployment method, (2) types of remotely operated end effector equipment applicable to removal of sludge, (3) methods for removing wastes from the tanks, and (4) methods for concrete removal. There were three major groups of deployment technologies: ``past practice`` technologies, mechanical arm-based technologies, and vehicle-based technologies. The different technologies were then combined into logical sequences of deployment platform, problem, end effector, conveyance, post-removal treatment required (if any), and disposition of the waste. Many waste removal options are available, but the best technology in one set of circumstances at one site might not be the best type to use at a different site. No single technology is capable of treating the entire spectrum of wastes that will be encountered in GAAT. None of the systems used in other industries appears to be suitable, primarily because of the nature of the sludges in the GAAT Operable Unit (OU), their radiation levels, and tank geometries. Other commercial technologies were investigated but rejected because the authors did not believe them to be applicable.

  10. Work plan for the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The purpose of the Isotopes Facilities Deactivation Project (IFDP) is to place former isotopes production facilities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in a safe, stable, and environmentally sound condition; suitable for an extended period of minimum surveillance and maintenance (S and M) and as quickly and economical as possible. Implementation and completion of the deactivation project will further reduce the risks to the environment and to public safety and health. Furthermore, completion of the project will result in significant S and M cost savings in future years. The IFDP work plan defines the project schedule, the cost estimate, and the technical approach for the project. A companion document, the EFDP management plan, has been prepared to document the project objectives, define organizational relationships and responsibilities, and outline the management control systems to be employed in the management of the project. The project has adopted the strategy of deactivating the simple facilities first, to reduce the scope of the project and to gain experience before addressing more difficult facilities. A decision support system is being developed to identify the activities that best promote the project mission and result in the largest cost savings. This work plan will be reviewed and revised annually. Deactivation of EFDP Facilities was initiated in FY 1994 and will be completed in FY 2000. The schedule for deactivation of facilities is shown. The total cost of the project is estimated to be $51M. The costs are summarized. Upon completion of deactivation, annual S and M costs of these facilities will be reduced from the current level of $5M per year to less than $1M per year.

  11. Monolithic circuit development for RHIC at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alley, G.T.; Britton, C.L. Jr.; Kennedy, E.J.; Newport, D.F.; Wintenberg, A.L.; Young, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The work performed for RHIC at Oak Ridge National Laboratory during FY 91 is presented in this paper. The work includes preamplifier, analog memory, and analog-digital converter development for Dimuon Pad Readout, and evaluation and development of preamplifier-shapers for silicon strip readout. The approaches for implementation are considered as well as measured data for the various circuits that have been developed.

  12. Wettability and water uptake of holm oak leaf surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Plant trichomes play important protective functions and may have a major influence on leaf surface wettability. With the aim of gaining insight into trichome structure, composition and function in relation to water-plant surface interactions, we analyzed the adaxial and abaxial leaf surface of Quercus ilex L. (holm oak) as model. By measuring the leaf water potential 24 h after the deposition of water drops on to abaxial and adaxial surfaces, evidence for water penetration through the upper l...

  13. Oak Ridge Reservation annual site environmental report for 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2009-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) consists of three major government-owned, contractor-operated facilities: the Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and East Tennessee Technology Park. The ORR was established in the early 1940s as part of the Manhattan Project, a secret undertaking that produced materials for the first atomic bombs. The reservation’s role has evolved over the years, and it continues to adapt to meet the changing defense, energy, and research needs of the United States. Both the work carried out for the war effort and subsequent research, development, and production activities have involved, and continue to involve, the use of radiological and hazardous materials. The Oak Ridge Reservation Annual Site Environmental Report and supporting data are available at http://www.ornl.gov/sci/env_rpt or from the project director. This document is prepared annually to summarize environmental activities, primarily environmental monitoring activities, on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and within the ORR surroundings. The document fulfills the requirement of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting, for an annual summary of environmental data to characterize environmental performance. The environmental monitoring criteria are described in DOE Order 450.1A, Environmental Protection Program. The results summarized in this report are based on data collected prior to and through 2008. This report is not intended to provide the results of all sampling on the ORR. Additional data collected for other site and regulatory purposes, such as environmental restoration/remedial investigation reports, waste management characterization sampling data, and environmental permit compliance data, are presented in other documents that have been prepared in accordance with applicable DOE guidance and/or laws and are referenced herein as appropriate. Corrections to the report for the previous year are found in Appendix

  14. Autumn predation of northern red oak seed crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim C. Steiner

    1995-01-01

    Production and autumn predation of northern red oak acorns was measured over four years in five Pennsylvania stands dominated by this species. Mean annual production was 41,779/acre, of which an average of 7.9% was destroyed by insects or decay following insect attack, and an average of 38.6% was destroyed or removed by vertebrates. White-tailed deer appeared to be the...

  15. Monolithic circuit development for RHIC at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alley, G.T.; Britton, C.L. Jr.; Kennedy, E.J.; Newport, D.F.; Wintenberg, A.L.; Young, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The work performed for RHIC at Oak Ridge National Laboratory during FY 91 is presented in this paper. The work includes preamplifier, analog memory, and analog-digital converter development for Dimuon Pad Readout, and evaluation and development of preamplifier-shapers for silicon strip readout. The approaches for implementation are considered as well as measured data for the various circuits that have been developed.

  16. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Review. Volume 25, No. 1, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, C.; Pearce, J.; Zucker, A. [eds.

    1992-10-01

    This report presents brief descriptions of the following programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: The effects of pollution and climate change on forests; automation to improve the safety and efficiency of rearming battle tanks; new technologies for DNA sequencing; ORNL probes the human genome; ORNL as a supercomputer research center; paving the way to superconcrete made with polystyrene; a new look at supercritical water used in waste treatment; and small mammals as environmental monitors.

  17. Executive Order 12941 Implementation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, R.J.; Kroon, R.J.; Shaffer, K.E.

    1998-08-01

    Congress enacted the Earthquake Hazards Reduction Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-124, as amended) to reduce risks to life and property from future earthquakes in the US. To implement the provisions of the Act, the Interagency Committee on Seismic Safety in Construction (ICSSC) was chartered. Approximately thirty Federal agencies, including the Department of Energy (DOE), participate in the ICSSC. The ICSSC is chaired by the National Institute of Standards (NIST) which also provides the technical secretariat. EO 12941, Seismic Safety of Existing Federally Owned or Leased Buildings, were prepared and issued by the ICSSC to reduce the vulnerability to buildings owned or leased by agencies or departments for Federal use. This report documents the implementation of EO 12941 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. ORNL is managed and operated by Lockheed Martin Energy Research, Inc. (LMER) for the DOE-Oak Ridge Operations Office (DOE-ORO). The ORNL building inventory includes buildings that are physically located at ORNL, East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. This report addresses buildings physically located at the ORNL plant site. ORNL buildings located at ETTP and Y-12 plant sites will be included in the EO 12941 implementation reports for those sites. The scope of this effort included revising the building inventory for ORNL that was prepared prior to the development of the DOE management plan, evaluating owned buildings not exempt from the requirements of EO 12941, estimating the costs associated with the rehabilitation of vulnerable non-exempt buildings, and preparing this report in the TR-17 prescribed format (CNPE 1996). These activities were performed in accordance with the DOE management plan and as applicable, Phase I - Screening Guidelines To Determine The Structures Exempt From Executive Order 12941 (CNPE 1995).

  18. The Dumbarton Oaks Tlazolteotl: looking beneath the surface

    OpenAIRE

    MacLaren Walsh, Jane

    2014-01-01

    The Dumbarton Oaks Tlazolteotl: looking beneath the surface. Some of the earliest and most revered pre-Columbian artifacts in the world’s major museum and private collections were collected prior to the advent of systematic, scientific archaeological excavation, and have little or no reliable provenience data. They have consistently posed problems for researchers due to anomalies of theme, material, size, technical virtuosity and iconography. This paper offers a historical and scientific appr...

  19. Oak Ridge National Laboratory institutional plan, FY 1996--FY 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report discusses the institutional plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the next five years. Included in the report are: laboratory director`s statement; laboratory mission, vision, and core competencies; laboratory strategic plan; major laboratory initiatives; scientific and technical programs; critical success factors; summaries of other plans; resource projections; appendix which contains data for site and facilities, user facility, science and mathematic education and human resources; and laboratory organization chart.

  20. Public involvement plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This Public Information Plan is a user`s guide for getting involved in US Department of Energy environmental decisions in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. It outlines the many ways the public can help DOE find solutions to its environmental challenges. The plan focuses on DOE`s Environmental Management public involvement activities. Environmental Management is composed of the following programs: environmental restoration, technology development and waste management.

  1. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. Indexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Index provides a comprehensive list of site problems, problem area/constituents, remedial technologies, and regulatory terms discussed in the D&D sections of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology Logic Diagram. All entries provide specific page numbers, or cross-reference entries that provide specific page numbers, in the D&D volumes (Vol. 1, Pt. A; Vol. 2, Pt. A; and appropriate parts of Vol. 3). The Oak Ridge National Laboratory Technology (TLD) was developed to provide a decision-support tool that relates environmental restoration (ER) and waste management (WM) problems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to potential technologies that can remediate these problems. The TLD identifies the research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation needed to develop these technologies to a state that allows technology transfer and application to decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), remedial action (RA) and WM activities. It is essential that follow-on engineering studies be conducted to build on the output of this project. These studies will begin by selecting the most promising technologies identified in the TLD and finding an optimum mix of technologies that will provide a socially acceptable balance between cost and risk.

  2. Communities of fungi in decomposed wood of oak and pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwaśna Hanna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and diversity of wood decomposing fungi were investigated by isolating and cultivating filamentous fungi from wood and by detection of fruit bodies of ascomycetous and basidiomycetous fungi. The objective was to study the impact of forest management on fungi in 100-year-old oak and 87-year-old Scots pine forests in Northern Poland. Fungi were found on coarse woody debris of decayed stumps and fallen logs, boughs and branches in each of the three (managed and unmanaged examined stands. In total, 226 species of Oomycota and fungi were recorded. Oak wood was colonized by one species of Oomycota and 141 species of fungi including Zygomycota (19 species, Ascomycota (103 species and Basidiomycota (19 species. Scots pine wood was also colonized by one species of Oomycota and 138 species of fungi including Zygomycota (19 species, Ascomycota (90 species and Basidiomycota (29 species. In the first, second and third stages of decomposition, the oak wood was colonized by 101, 89 and 56 species of fungi respectively and pine wood was colonized by 82, 103 and 47 species respectively. Eighty three of the observed species (37% occurred on both types of wood, while the other species displayed nutritional preferences. A decrease in the number of species with advancing decay indicates the necessity for a continuous supply of dead wood to the forest ecosystem.

  3. Influence of silicate on the transport of bacteria in quartz sand and iron mineral-coated sand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhe; Yang, Haiyan; Wu, Dan; Ni, Jinren; Kim, Hyunjung; Tong, Meiping

    2014-11-01

    The influence of silicate on the transport and deposition of bacteria (Escherichia coli) in packed porous media were examined at a constant 20 mM ionic strength with different silicate concentrations (from 0 to 1 mM) at pH 7. Transport experiments were performed in two types of representative porous media, both bare quartz sand and iron mineral-coated quartz sand. In bare quartz sand, the breakthrough plateaus in the presence of silicate in suspensions were lower and the corresponding retained profiles were higher than those without silicate ions, indicating that the presence of silicate in suspensions decreased cell transport in bare quartz sand. Moreover, the decrease of bacteria transport in quartz sand induced by silicate was more pronounced with increasing silicate concentrations from 0 to 1 mM. However, when EPS was removed from cell surfaces, the presence of silicate in cell suspensions (with different concentrations) did not affect the transport behavior of bacteria in quartz sand. The interaction of silicate with EPS on cell surfaces negatively decreased the zeta potentials of bacteria, resulting in the decreased cell transport in bare quartz sand when silicate was copresent in bacteria suspensions. In contrast, the presence of silicate in suspensions increased cell transport in iron mineral-coated sand. Silicate ions competed with bacteria for the adsorption sites on mineral-coated sand, contributing to the increased cell transport in mineral-coated sand with silicate present in cell suspensions.

  4. Reduced content of chloroatranol and atranol in oak moss absolute significantly reduces the elicitation potential of this fragrance material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Andersen, Kirsten H; Bernois, Armand;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oak moss absolute, an extract from the lichen Evernia prunastri, is a valued perfume ingredient but contains extreme allergens. OBJECTIVES: To compare the elicitation properties of two preparations of oak moss absolute: 'classic oak moss', the historically used preparation, and 'new oak...... moss', with reduced contents of the major allergens atranol and chloroatranol. PATIENTS/MATERIALS/METHODS: The two preparations were compared in randomized double-blinded repeated open application tests and serial dilution patch tests in 30 oak moss-sensitive volunteers and 30 non-allergic control...... subjects. RESULTS: In both test models, new oak moss elicited significantly less allergic contact dermatitis in oak moss-sensitive subjects than classic oak moss. The control subjects did not react to either of the preparations. CONCLUSIONS: New oak moss is still a fragrance allergen, but elicits less...

  5. AEROSOL FILTRATION USING QUARTZ SAND FILTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas H. Sulaymon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cement industry is the major source of cement dust which contains heavy metals like nickel, cobalt, lead, chromium, arsenic and hazardous substances like dioxins and furans. Exposure to these substances can cause health problems to human, animals and vegetation. A continuous pilot scale quartz sand filter was constructed and uses to study the effect of important design parameters (temperature, pre-loaded dust on the collector, diameter of the filter, bed depth, collector size and superficial velocity on its performance for cleaning of cement dust from air. Initial penetration and initial pressure drop (after 180s were measured and compared for different variables used in this study. The dirty bed was cleaned by means of reverse air flow when the pressure drop across the filter rises to 20 cmH2O. A macroscopic model describes the filter clogging was used to predict the effluent histories based on initial collection efficiency (η0exp which was determined from experimental data. A removal efficiency of more than 99% was obtained. The results show that 0.4% of cement dust still adheres on the quartz sand bed after 5 min of cleaning cycle. The presence of 0.4% of pre-load dust on the quartz sand filter enhanced the efficiency and low initial penetration, moderate initial pressure drop was obtained. At given Empty Bed Contact Time (EBCT, with different filter diameters 30 and 15 cm, a sharp decrease in initial penetration from 0.41-0.03 was obtained respectively. A nonlinear relationship between penetration and temperature was found. The initial penetration can be reduced by using smaller filter diameter, small collector size and collector with pre-load dust with 0.4%. The experiment that operates at a filter diameter of 15 cm and temperature of 25°C represent the minimum penetration among all the experiments.

  6. Mars Rover Curiosity Traverses of Sand Ripples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, N.; Arvidson, R. E.; Zhou, F.; Heverly, M.; Maimone, M.; Hartman, F.; Bellutta, P.; Iagnemma, K.; Senatore, C.

    2014-12-01

    Martian sand ripples present a challenge for rover mobility, with drives over ripples often characterized by high wheel sinkage and slippage that can lead to incipient embedding. Since landing in Gale Crater, Curiosity has traversed multiple sand ripples, including the transverse aeolian ridge (TAR) straddling Dingo Gap on sols 533 and 535. On sol 672, Curiosity crossed backward over a series of sand ripples before ending its drive after high motor currents initiated visual odometry (VO) processing, which detected 77% slip, well in excess of the imposed 60% slip limit. At the end of the drive, the right front wheel was deeply embedded at the base of a ripple flank with >20 cm sinkage and the rear wheels were near a ripple crest. As Curiosity continues its approach to Mount Sharp it will have to cross multiple ripples, and thus it is important to understand Curiosity's performance on sol 672 and over similar ripples. To this end the sol 672 drive was simulated in ARTEMIS (Adams-Based Rover Terramechanics Interaction Simulator), a software tool consisting of realistic rover mechanical models, a wheel-terrain interaction module for deformable and non-deformable surfaces, and realistic terrain models. ARTEMIS results, Dumont Dunes tests performed in the Mojave Desert using the Scarecrow test rover, and single wheel tests performed at MIT indicate that the high slip encountered on sol 672 likely occurred due to a combination of rover attack angle, ripple geometry, and soil properties. When ripple wavelength approaches vehicle length, the rover can reach orientations in which the leading wheels carry minimal normal loads and the trailing wheels sink deeply, resulting in high slippage and insufficient thrust to propel the rover over ripples. Even on relatively benign (i.e. low tilt) terrains, local morphology can impose high sinkage, thus impeding rover motion. Work is underway to quantify Curiosity's drive performance over various ripple geometries to retrieve soil

  7. Western Gas Sands Project status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C.H.

    1978-09-30

    The status of government sponsored projects undertaken to increase gas production from low-permeability gas sands of the western United States during August 1978 is summarized. Background information is given in the September 1977 Status Report, NVO/0655-100. One of the largest massive Hydraulic Fracture (MHF) treatment to date was performed on Gas Producing Enterprises Well No. CIGE 2-29. C.H. Atkinson, Western Gas Sands Project (WGSP) Manager and D.C. Bleakly, CER Corporation were observers. Oriented coring operations on the Mitchell Energy well, Muse-Duke No. 1 were observed by Atkinson and Bleakly near Mexia, Texas. The Fourth Annual Department of Energy Symposium on Enhanced Oil and Gas Recovery and Improved Drilling Methods was held on August 29-31, 1978 in Tulsa, Oklahoma. The USGS continued geological and geophysical studies in the four primary study areas. Low-level oblique photography of Tertiary and Cretaceous rocks exposed in the Rock Springs Uplift area was completed, and core from the J.C. Paine well in Montana was sampled for petrograhic analysis. Bartlesville Energy Technology Center continued work on the improved pressure coring system and anticipates completion of the project by September 30, 1978. Preliminary work began on the Parametric Analysis of MHF Test Data, an Engineering Study of Western Gas Sands, by Intercomp. The National Laboratories, funded by DOE are continuing their work in the area of research and development. The emphasis is on instrumentation systems, rock mechanics, mathematical modeling, and data analysis. The Mitchell Energy well, Muse Duke No. 1, has reached total depth and was logged on August 31, 1978. The DOE well test facility was moved from the RB-MHF 3 well in Colorado to Vernal, Utah for trailer modifications and checkout.

  8. Western Gas Sands Project status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, C.H.

    1978-11-30

    Progress of government-sponsored projects directed toward increasing gas production from the low-permeability gas sands of the western United States is summarized. A Technology Implementation Plan (TIP) meeting was held at the CER office in Las Vegas, Nevada, October 16--19 to initiate the implementation phase of the Enhanced Gas Recovery (EGR) working group activities. A WGSP Logging Program meeting was conducted on October 24, 1978, at CER offices to define the problems associated with logs in tight gas sands. CER personnel and the project manager attended a two-day course on the fundamentals of core and reservoir analysis in Denver, Colorado, and met with USGS personnel to discuss USGS work on the WGSP. A meeting was held to discuss a contract for coring a Twin Arrow well on the Douglas Creek Arch, Colorado. CER Corporation personnel attended the Geological Society of America Annual Meeting held in Toronto, Canada, October 23--27 and a Gas Stimulation Workshop at Sandia Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, October 11 and 12 to discuss recent mineback experiments conducted at the Nevada Test Site. Fiscal year 1979 projects initiated by USGS and the Energy Technology Centers and National Laboratories are progressing as scheduled. Mobil Research and Development Corporation fractured zone 8 of the F-31-13G well in Rio Blanco County, Colorado. Colorado Interstate Gas Company poured the concrete pad for the compresser expected to be delivered in December and were laying pipeline between the wells at month end. The Mitchell Energy well, Muse Duke No. 1 was flowing on test at a rate of 2,100 Mcfd and preparations proceeded to fracture the well on November 15 with approximately 1,000,000 gal of fluid and 3,000,000 lb of sand. Terra Tek completed laboratory analyses of cores taken from the Mitchell Energy well.

  9. Effects of pedunculate oak tree vitality on gypsy moth preference and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanović Slobodan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gypsy moths and powdery mildew play a significant role in oak decline processes. However, information is lacking on the effects on the gypsy moth of impaired tree vitality caused by defoliation or parasite infection. We assessed how pedunculate oak leaves collected from vigorous, declining, and infected trees influenced gypsy moth preference and performance (growth and nutritional indices. We found a negative effect of powdery mildew-infected leaves on gypsy moth performance, while declining trees had positive effects on gypsy moth performance and preference. All examined parameters of larvae fed declining oak leaves were higher than those of larvae fed vigorous oak leaves. Increased growth on declining oak leaves was caused by both higher consumption and more efficient food utilization. The results of this research could help us to better understand multitrophic interactions in complex communities such as oak forests. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation

  10. TECHNIQUES ABOUT DIRECT OPTIMIZING CONTROL OF GREEN SAND QUALITY*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Green sand casting is still a main method in the world at present and it is very significant to develop the technology of controlling green sand quality. A new concept, from contents test to contents control, is advanced. In order to realize the new idea, a new method to on-line test active clay and moisture of green sand - double powers energizing alternately (DPEA) method is put forwards. The principle of the new method is to energize standard sand sample with AC and DC powers and to test the electric parameters, and then, to calculate active clay and moisture of green sand by using artificial neural network (ANN). Based on this new method, a direct optimizing system for controlling green sand quality is developed. Techniques about testing and controlling methods, hardware and software are discussed.

  11. Thermo-Insulating Moulding Sand for thin Walled Castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cholewa M.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In paper the selection of the composition and determination of main properties of novel moulding sand was described. The mail goal was to create moulding sand characterized by high thermal insulating properties in relations with low specific weight. This type of moulding sand will find application in thin walled castings with complex geometry, in particular for cores of the skeleton castings. In this work the results of the compressive strength, permeability and friability was presented. It was noted that aluminosilicate microspheres are suitable as moulding sand matrix. Influence of the polyglicol addition on quality and properties of the moulding sand was described. The use of the aluminosilicate microspheres allowed to obtain the moulding sand characterized by high insulation rate, low specific weight and good mechanical properties.

  12. Optimising the composition of natural moulding sands including thermal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy St. Kowalski

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the problem of the choice of the moulding sand mixture composition in terms of the sand behaviour in contact withmolten metal. Studies of high-temperature phenomena make assessment of the sand composition applicability under real operatingconditions possible, thus leading to the elimination of sand-originating casting defects. The research was conducted on selected moulding materials included in the composition of traditional moulding sand mixtures without the addition of carbon. The effect of moulding sand composition and moisture content on the linear dilatation and stress-induced allotropic changes of quartz was examined. The analysis of these phenomena was based on 3D charts and maps generated from data collected during the tests.

  13. Removal of heavy metals through adsorption using sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The removal of four heavy metals i.e. Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn from their aqueous solutions, using ordinary sand as an adsorbent, was studied at 20oC. The amount of metal adsorbed to form monolayer on sand(am), obtained from Langmuir isotherm, exhibited the preference of metals for sand in the order Pb>Cr>Cu>Zn. The heavy metal-sand adsorption phenomena can be illustrated on the basis of the interaction between surface functional group of silicates (sand) and the metal ions. It is deduced that sand can be used as a low cost adsorbent for the removal of heavy metal from wastewater (containing low conc. of metals), especially in the developing countries.

  14. Numerical study on deformation and failure of reinforced sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Fang-le; LI Jian-zhong; Tatsuoka Fumio

    2005-01-01

    In order to investigate the deformation and failure of reinforced sand, and the reinforcing mechanism of flexible and rigid reinforcement, a set of plane strain compression tests of dense Toyoura reinforced sand with planar reinforcement of a wide range of stiffness were analysed by a nonlinear finite element method. The analysis was incorporated into an energy-based elasto-plastic constitutive model for sand to develop a stress path-independent work-hardening parameter based on the modified plastic strain energy concept. Numerical results indicate that the global stress-strain relations of sand specimens are reinforced by using relatively flexible and rigid reinforcement, and an unreinforced sand specimen can be reasonably simulated by the current finite element method. It is also found that the reinforcing mechanism and progressive failure with a development of shear bands in reinforced sand can be reasonably examined by the finite element method.

  15. The influence of arbuscular mycorrhizae and light on Wisconsin (USA) sand savanna understories 1. Plant community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Frank C; Gargas, Andrea; Givnish, Thomas J

    2005-11-01

    To explain the complex community composition found in Wisconsin (USA) oak savannas, we investigated potentially interacting effects of light gradients and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on community composition in the greenhouse, using a fully randomized block experimental design. We used plant species, soil, and AMF from a remnant sand savanna in setting up the experiment, using two light and five AMF treatments. Eleven plant species were seeded into 80 microcosms, and they were grown together for 20 weeks. Plant numbers and biomass were measured, and Simpson's index was calculated for both. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and nonparametric ANOVA. We found significant light effects on biomass and on numbers of four species. There were no treatment effects on Simpson's index, and only Schizachyrium numbers showed a significant AMF effect. These findings are consistent with results from other studies of the sand savanna, and, collectively, these data suggest that plant community composition in this species-rich savanna is not strongly influenced by arbuscular mycorrhizae. This is a novel finding with important implications for understanding interactions between plant and AMF diversity in wild communities.

  16. 'Sharks Teeth' -- Sand Dunes in Proctor Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Sometimes, pictures received from Mars Global Surveyor's Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) are 'just plain pretty.' This image, taken in early September 2000, shows a group of sand dunes at the edge of a much larger field of dark-toned dunes in Proctor Crater. Located at 47.9oS, 330.4oW, in the 170 km (106 mile) diameter crater named for 19th Century British astronomer Richard A. Proctor (1837-1888), the dunes shown here are created by winds blowing largely from the east/northeast. A plethora of smaller, brighter ripples covers the substrate between the dunes. Sunlight illuminates them from the upper left.

  17. Sphere impact and penetration into wet sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, J. O.; Vakarelski, I. U.; Thoroddsen, S. T.

    2012-08-01

    We present experimental results for the penetration of a solid sphere when released onto wet sand. We show, by measuring the final penetration depth, that the cohesion induced by the water can result in either a deeper or shallower penetration for a given release height compared to dry granular material. Thus the presence of water can either lubricate or stiffen the granular material. By assuming the shear rate is proportional to the impact velocity and using the depth-averaged stopping force in calculating the shear stress, we derive effective viscosities for the wet granular materials.

  18. Heating tar sands formations to visbreaking temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanikas, John Michael; Colmenares, Tulio Rafael; Zhang, Etuan; Marino, Marian; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Ryan, Robert Charles; Beer, Gary Lee; Dombrowski, Robert James; Jaiswal, Namit

    2009-12-22

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods may include heating at least a section of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from a plurality of heaters located in the formation. The heat may be controlled so that at least a majority of the section reaches an average temperature of between 200.degree. C. and 240.degree. C., which results in visbreaking of at least some hydrocarbons in the section. At least some visbroken hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  19. Biogenic crust dynamics on sand dunes

    CERN Document Server

    Kinast, Shai; Yizhaq, Hezi; Ashkenazy, Yosef

    2012-01-01

    Sand dunes are often covered by vegetation and biogenic crusts. Despite their significant role in dune stabilization, biogenic crusts have rarely been considered in studies of dune dynamics. Using a simple model, we study the existence and stability ranges of different dune-cover states along gradients of rainfall and wind power. Two ranges of alternative stable states are identified: fixed crusted dunes and fixed vegetated dunes at low wind power, and fixed vegetated dunes and active dunes at high wind power. These results suggest a cross-over between two different forms of desertification.

  20. Geology of the Athabasca oil sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossop, G. D.

    1980-01-01

    In-place bitumen resources in the Alberta oil sands are estimated at 1350 billion barrels. Open-pit mining and hot water extraction methods, which involve the handling of huge tonnages of earth materials, are being employed in the two commercial plants now operating. In situ recovery methods will be required to tap the 90 percent of reserves that are too deeply buried to be surface mined. Development of in situ technologies will be painstaking and expensive, and success will hinge on their compatibility with extremely complex geological conditions in the subsurface.

  1. Sphere impact and penetration into wet sand

    KAUST Repository

    Marston, J. O.

    2012-08-07

    We present experimental results for the penetration of a solid sphere when released onto wet sand. We show, by measuring the final penetration depth, that the cohesion induced by the water can result in either a deeper or shallower penetration for a given release height compared to dry granular material. Thus the presence of water can either lubricate or stiffen the granular material. By assuming the shear rate is proportional to the impact velocity and using the depth-averaged stopping force in calculating the shear stress, we derive effective viscosities for the wet granular materials.

  2. Undrained Triaxial Tests on Eastern Scheldt Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    In the process of understanding and developing models for geomaterials, the stress-strain behaviour is commonly studied by performing triaxial tests. In the present study, several types of static triaxial tests have been performed to gain knowledge of the undrained stress-strain behaviour...... of frictional materials during monotonic loading. The tests conducted includes undrained and constant volume tests, starting from different initial states of stress and following various stress paths. All the tests are performed on reconstituted loose to medium dense specimens of Eastern Scheldt Sand....

  3. Remedial investigation report on Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Technical summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    A remedial investigation (RI) was performed to support environmental restoration activities for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The WAG 5 RI made use of the observational approach, which concentrates on collecting only information needed to assess site risks and support future cleanup work. This information was interpreted and is presented using the framework of the site conceptual model, which relates contaminant sources and release mechanisms to migration pathways and exposure points that are keyed to current and future environmental risks for both human and ecological receptors. The site conceptual model forms the basis of the WAG 5 remedial action strategy and remedial action objectives. The RI provided the data necessary to verify this model and allows recommendations to be made to accomplish those objectives.

  4. Quality Assurance Plan for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, G.P.; Miller, D.E. (Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States))

    1992-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 Site Investigation (SI)includes the lower portion of the White Oak Creek (WOC) drainage and enbayment, and associated floodplain and subsurface environment. The ORNL main plant and the major waste storage and disposal facilities at ORNL are located in the WOC watershed and are drained by the WOC system to the Clinch River, located off-site. Environmental media are contaminated and continue to receive contaminants from hydrologically upgradient WAGS. WAG 2 is important as a conduit from upgradient areas to the Clinch River. The general objectives of the WAG 2 SI Project are to conduct a multimedia monitoring and characterization program to define and monitor the input of contaminants from adjacent WAGS, monitor and gather sufficient information for processes controlling or driving contaminant fluxes to construct an appropriate conceptual model for WAG 2, and prepare for the eventual remediation of WAG 2.

  5. Architectural/historical assessment of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge Reservation, Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carver, M.; Slater, M.

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is required by the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) of 1966, as amended, to identify any properties under its jurisdiction that are included in or eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places (National Register). In March 1993 Duvall & Associates, Inc., was engaged to survey the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), a DOE facility located on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Anderson and Roane Counties, Tennessee, and to prepare a determination of National Register eligibility for all ORNL properties. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of research into the historical context of ORNL and at to identify historic properties at ORNL that are included in present or eligible for inclusion in the National Register. The identification of archaeological properties at ORNL that are included and eligible for inclusion in the National Register Clinton is addressed in a separate report.

  6. Preliminary Observations from the 2014 Sand Dunes Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    2014 Sand Dunes Experiment by Christopher W. Miller, Ching-Sang Chiu, D. Benjamin Reeder, Ying-Jang Yang, Linus Chiu, and Chi-Fang Chen...COVERED (From-To) June 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Preliminary Observations from the 2014 Sand Dunes Experiment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government 14. ABSTRACT The Sand Dunes 2014 experiment was international US – Taiwan

  7. MC-Parameter Calibration of Baskarp Sand No. 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Hanson, Mats; Hjort, T.;

    The soil parameters are dependent on both confining pressure and density index. The density index of Baskarp Sand can be determined by conducting cone penetration tests with the mini-CPT cone used in the Geotechnical Engineering Laboratory at Aalborg University. The unit weight of Baskarp Sand No...... several conventional drained triaxial tests at two different density indices performed on Baskarp Sand No. 15 (Ibsen & Bødker, 1994). The used triaxial tests are listed in Table 1 and Table 2....

  8. A soil emergence trap for collections of phlebotomine sand flies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casanova Cláudio

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of breeding sites of sand flies is of great epidemiological interest. A soil emergence trap for investigating potential sand fly breeding sites is described. The trap was tested in two rural areas in the Mogi Guaçu River Valley where the American cutaneous leishmaniasis is an endemic disease. Seventy-three sand fly individuals of three species, Lutzomyia intermedia s. l., L. whitmani and L. pessoai, were collected on the forest floor and peridomicile.

  9. Possibilities of preparation asphalt concrete by oil sands of Kazakhstan

    OpenAIRE

    Erbol Tileuberdi; Yerdos Ongarbayev; F. Behrendt; Schneider, I.; Yerzhan Imanbayev; B. Tuleutayev; Yerlan Doszhanov; Zulkhair Mansurov

    2012-01-01

    In the paper physicochemical properties of oil sands of Munayli-Mola deposits and efficient ways to use them for preparing asphalt concrete were represented. For determination of organic part of oil sands the extraction methods were used in Soxhlet apparatus by variety of solvents. It has been established 16 wt.% content of natural bitumen in oil sands, which compared with results of ash content determination. According to results of experiment, the natural bitumen is heavy oil and its charac...

  10. Microwave processing of oil sands and contribution of clay minerals

    OpenAIRE

    John P. Robinson; Binner, Eleanor; Saeid, Abdul; Al-Harahsheh, Mohammad; Kingman, S. W.

    2014-01-01

    This study establishes the feasibility of microwave heating for extracting oil from Oil Sands in ex-situ processes. Previous studies in this area have shown some potential, but have not characterised the dielectric properties of the Oil Sands used, nor related them to the mineral composition, both of which are vital if successful scale up is to be achieved. In this work the fundamental interactions of microwave energy with Oil Sands are investigated and understood for the first time, and the ...

  11. Seed Mucilage Improves Seedling Emergence of a Sand Desert Shrub

    OpenAIRE

    Xuejun Yang; Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Guangzheng Liu; Zhenying Huang

    2012-01-01

    The success of seedling establishment of desert plants is determined by seedling emergence response to an unpredictable precipitation regime. Sand burial is a crucial and frequent environmental stress that impacts seedling establishment on sand dunes. However, little is known about the ecological role of seed mucilage in seedling emergence in arid sandy environments. We hypothesized that seed mucilage enhances seedling emergence in a low precipitation regime and under conditions of sand buria...

  12. Provenance of coastal dune sands along Red Sea, Egypt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samir M Zaid

    2017-06-01

    Texture, mineralogy, and major and trace element geochemistry of 26 coastal dune sand samples were studied to determine the provenance and tectonic environment of two dune fields close to the beaches of Safaga (SF) and Quseir (QS) at the Egyptian Red Sea coast. Onshore winds generate fine, moderate, moderately-well to well-sorted, coarse-skewed to near-symmetrical dune sands with mesokurtic distributions. Winds pick up and transport grains from nearby beach sands and alluvial deposits into a wide Red Sea coastal plain at the border of the beach. The mineralogical (Qt–Ft–Lt) and geochemical composition of the sands, indicate that SF and QS coastal dune sands are mature and influenced by quartz-rich sands. The average CIA values in SF and QS coastal dune sands are low relative to the range of the PAAS, suggesting an arid climate and a low intensity of chemical weathering. The SF and QS coastal dune sand samples are plotted in the recycled orogen and partly in craton interior fields suggesting recycled older sedimentary and partly metamorphic-plutonic sources. The high content of quartz with shell debris and carbonates in coastal dune sands support the recycled sedimentary beach and alluvial sand sources. The dominance of heavy minerals like amphiboles (hornblende) and biotite in the coastal dune sands also supports the effect of metamorphic-plutonic source rocks. The new tectonic discriminant-function diagrams suggest that the coastal dune sands were deposited in a passive margin of a synrift basin. The results provide a good evidence for the extension in the Red Sea rift system during Oligocene-post Pliocene, which is consistent with the general geology of Egypt.

  13. Developing a Sand Management Plan for Galveston Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-16

    US Army Corps of Engineers BUILDING STRONG® Developing a Sand Management Plan for Galveston Island Ashley E. Frey, P. E. Research Civil...GenCade Alternatives • Sand Management Alternatives and Plan • Beach Nourishment Project 2 Innovative solutions for a safer, better world...BUILDING STRONG® Problem Statement/Approach Recommend a long-term plan of actions to better manage sands on Galveston Island Initial Tasks

  14. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF FLUORIDE IN SAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-mei; SU Bao-yu

    2006-01-01

    The transport and transformation of fluoride in sand were studied by using soil tank test under the condition of saturated water in this article. Based on the analysis of the laboratory experiments, the rules of fluorine transportation and transformation were simulated in sand by solving the advection-diffusion equation. Through comparison between computed results and observed data , it is shown that the established model and determined parameters could be used to simulate the fluoride transport in sand.

  15. RCRA Facility Investigation report for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    This report presents compiled information concerning a facility investigation of waste area group 6(WAG-6), of the solid waste management units (SWMU'S) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The WAG is a shallow ground disposal area for low-level radioactive wastes and chemical wastes. The report contains information on hydrogeological data, contaminant characterization, radionuclide concentrations, risk assessment from doses to humans and animals and associated cancer risks, exposure via food chains, and historical data. (CBS)

  16. RCRA Facility Investigation report for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    This report presents compiled information concerning a facility investigation of waste area group 6(WAG-6), of the solid waste management units (SWMU's) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The WAG is a shallow ground disposal area for low-level radioactive wastes and chemical wastes. The report contains information on hydrogeological data, contaminant characterization, radionuclide concentrations, risk assessment and baseline human health evaluation including a toxicity assessment, and a baseline environmental evaluation.

  17. Assessing Threats and Conservation Status of Historical Centers of Oak Richness in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Jane Easterday

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Oak trees are emblematic of California landscapes, they serve as keystone cultural and ecological species and as indicators of natural biological diversity. As historically undeveloped landscapes are increasingly converted to urban environments, endemic oak woodland extent is reduced, which underscores the importance of strategic placement and reintroduction of oaks and woodland landscape for the maintenance of biodiversity and reduction of habitat fragmentation. This paper investigated the effects of human urban development on oak species in California by first modeling historical patterns of richness for eight oak tree species using historical map and plot data from the California Vegetation Type Mapping (VTM collection. We then examined spatial intersections between hot spots of historical oak richness and modern urban and conservation lands and found that impacts from development and conservation vary by both species and richness. Our findings suggest that the impact of urban development on oaks has been small within the areas of highest oak richness but that areas of highest oak richness are also poorly conserved. Third, we argue that current policy measures are inadequate to conserve oak woodlands and suggest regions to prioritize acquisition of conservation lands as well as examine urban regions where historic centers of oak richness were lost as potential frontiers for oak reintroduction. We argue that urban planning could benefit from the adoption of historical data and modern species distribution modelling techniques primarily used in natural resources and conservation fields to better locate hot spots of species richness, understand where habitats and species have been lost historically and use this evidence as incentive to recover what was lost and preserve what still exists. This adoption of historical data and modern techniques would then serve as a paradigm shift in the way Urban Planners recognize, quantify, and use landscape

  18. The WWF Cork Oak Landscapes Programme: PES as a tool to enhance conservation?

    OpenAIRE

    Escuté, X.

    2005-01-01

    This presentation discusses WWF's Cork Oak programme, highlighting possible opportunities for developing payments for environmental services. It provides an overview of Cork Oak landscapes, describes the biological characteristics and identifies current threats. The goal of the Cork Oak Landscape Programme is to protect, manage, and restore the landscape through capacity building, establishing good practices, providing market support and engaging in policy advocacy. PES-1 (Payments for Env...

  19. Oil sands to the rescue: oil sand microbial communities can degrade recalcitrant alkyl phenyl alkanoic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitby, Corinne [University of Essex (Canada)], email: cwhitby@essex.ac.uk

    2011-07-01

    Almost half of all global oil reserves are found as biodegraded heavy oils found in vast tar sand deposits located in North and South America and these account for 47% of Canadian oil production. Oil sand extraction generates large amounts of toxic waste water, known as oil sand process waters (OSPW), that are stored in large tailing ponds that contain toxic compounds like naphthenic acids (NAs). The presence of NAs creates problems like toxicity, corrosion, and the formation of calcium napthenate deposits which block pipelines and other infrastructure and need to be removed. This paper presents oil sand microbial communities that can degrade these NAs. The approach is to apply new aliphatic and aromatic NAs as substrates to supplement and identify NA degrading microbes and also to identify the metabolites produced and explain NA degradation pathways and the functional genes involved. The chemistry and the processes involved are explained. From the results, it is suggested that pure cultures of P. putida KT2440 be used against NAs.

  20. Modeling the response of shoreface-connected sand ridges to sand extraction on an inner shelf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nnafie, A.; de Swart, Huib; Calvete, D.; Garnier, R.

    2014-01-01

    Shoreface-connected sand ridges are rhythmic bedforms that occur on many storm-dominated inner shelves. The ridges span several kilometers, are a few meters high, and they evolve on a timescale of centuries. A processbased model is used to gain a fundamental insight into the response of these ridges