WorldWideScience

Sample records for sanctions economic

  1. Economic Sanctions and Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    agricultural cash crops by white commercial farmers, and had achieved self sufficiency in sugar, milk, dairy and was an exporter of corn ( maize ) and cattle...of Cuba, Israel, and Rhodesia (Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1978), 124.) David Rowe’s definition of economic sanctions incorporates

  2. Economic sanctions: an ethical primer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J.G. Zandman

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The world has developed into a globe with increasingly inter- twined economic interests, with greater economic interdepen- dence than ever before. This has caused a new weapon to step onto the world scene in the 20th and 21st centuries, applied to bring nations to heel. It is aimed at those nations which do not conform to particular, usually ethically perceived standards. “Economic sanctions” is the name of this new weapon.  This article aims to evaluate the wielding of economic sanctions from the perspective of principles based on a Biblical worldview in order to assist Christians in making an informed decision as to what their stance ought to be regarding this phenomenon.   Data show that there is an incremental increase of the use of economic sanctions in world politics. At present, sanctions have uncertain grounding in ethics and little or no standing in inter- national law. Their effectiveness is seriously questioned, their economic cost, especially to the implementer(!, is considerable. The question as to whether economic sanctions should be deplored or embraced at times would be helped with further investigation beyond the scope of this article, notably with re- gard to what has been surmised in the context of the sanctions deployed regarding the apartheid regime in South Africa.   The results of economic sanctions appear to bear out the Biblical principles in that both, actual results plus Biblical prin- ciples, generally send a discouraging message regarding this approach to political conflict.

  3. Economic sanctions and US international business interests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Economic sanctions are seen as a foreign policy instrument less severe than military engagement but more potent than diplomacy. The assessment of the economic impact of sanctions invariably focuses on direct bilateral trade, with little regard to indirect costs. In the case of sanctions on Iran, the real cost to Iran and the U.S. is not so much due to reduced trade but to factors such as missed investment and joint venture opportunities, especially in the energy sector. The significant size of these costs for Iran will make it difficult for Iran to resume business as usual with U.S. companies whensanctions are lifted; and for U.S. energy companies, their long-term competitiveness in Iran and also globally will be reduced.

  4. On the Sanctioning of Economic Crime in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    This article - written for a symposium on comparative criminal law - discusses whether sanctions for economic crime have become excessive in the Danish context either in absolute terms or in comparison with sanctions for crimes involving physical harm. The text has three parts. In the first part, I...... present a theoretical framework that allows for a determination of optimal levels of sanctions and enforcement of crime. In the second part, I compare actual levels of sanctions in Denmark for various kinds of crime involving either economic or bodily harm, and discuss whether differences can be explained...... by the theory. In the third part, I compare a recent increase in the level of the sanction for breach of competition law and for insider trading with the theoretically optimal levels and I tentatively suggest that the increase may well have been warranted from a deterrence perspective. However, I stress...

  5. The impact of international economic sanctions on Iranian cancer healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabi, Shohreh; Fazlalizadeh, Hooman; Stedman, Jennifer; Chuang, Linus; Shariftabrizi, Ahmad; Ram, Regina

    2015-10-01

    In 2012, Iranian's economy collapsed under strain from sanctions instituted to stop Iran from violating the International Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. Sanctions have indirectly led to serious healthcare concerns, specifically cancer treatment. This is the first report to evaluate Iranian cancer healthcare while under international economic sanctions. Data and information were identified by searches of MEDLINE, PubMed, and references from relevant articles using the search terms: "Iran", "health policy", "sanctions", "ethics", and "cancer". Articles published in the English language between 1966 and present were included, based on relevance to sanctions or the specific case of sanctions in Iran. The Program of Action for Cancer Therapy evaluated Iran's National Cancer Control Program (NCCP), reporting it has substantial deficits, including prevention, diagnosis/treatment, palliative care, monitoring, and technology, with a serious drug shortage for cancer care. Sanctions have exemptions for medicines and food, but lead to disruption of health services through complications in transportation, transferring currencies or lack of money. There is increasing evidence that sanctions harm vulnerable populations, while blocking globalization and not creating political or social change quickly. Improvement of Iran's NCCP is not feasible, and the health of cancer patients will continue to decline while the sanctions are in effect. The solution is complex, but a modern and innovative approach to diplomacy, which includes human rights, is necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Economic sanctions against Russia: threats or possibilities for further growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svyatoslav Anatolyevich Masyutin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to estimate the possible consequences of economic sanctions against Russia for the economy and business basing on the analysis of socialeconomic indicators expert evaluation and the previous experience. Methods general scientific methods summarizing structural logical and comparative analysis economicmathematical modelling methods of sociological and statistical research polling documents analysis. Results the authors have obtained the following results 1 basing on the analysis of socialeconomic indicators of the economic system of the country compared with other countries the authors have studied the potential of economic grow than development of Russia before imposing of the sanctions 2 the authors have studied the experience of counteraction to the western economic sanctions with a view of using it in future 3 the authors have given the characteristics of the main programs of the Russian business support elaborated by the Russian government 4 the authors have analyzed the initial results of economic sanctions against Russia which are reduction of the basic indicators in foreign trade investments capital flow and others defined the main economic threats for the Russian economy 5 basing on the sociological poll it has been found that as early as in OctoberNovember 2014 the majority of enterprises felt the negative consequences of unstable international economic relations 6 the authors have proposed the most efficient managerial decisions for directors of enterprises under economic sanctions. Scientific novelty basing on the statistical data analysis the summarizing and comparing as well as expert evaluation the authors research possibilities and economic threats for the Russian business development in the nearest future. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in the scientific and practical activity when viewing the issues of functioning of business under economic sanctions against Russia. nbsp

  7. Reconsidering economic sanctions reconsidered. A detailed analysis of the Peterson Institute sanction database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Shahadat Hossain Siddiquee (Muhammad); P.A.G. van Bergeijk (Peter)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyses two vintages of the key resource for research on economic sanctions: the Peterson Institute database reported in Hufbauer et al. (2nd edition in 1990 and 3rd edition in 2007). The Peterson Institute has not reported transparently on these changes. We provide detailed

  8. Exempting Food and Agriculture Products from U.S. Economic Sanctions: Status and Implementation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jurenas, Remy

    2005-01-01

    .... economic sanctions against certain countries. In completing action on the FY2001 agriculture appropriations bill, Congress codified the lifting of unilateral sanctions on commercial sales of food, agricultural commodities, medicine, and medical...

  9. Economic sanctions and human rights: an analysis of competing enforcement strategies in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane de Andrade Lucena Carneiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the consequences of economic sanctions for the protection of human rights in Latin America. The literature on sanctions and compliance informs three hypotheses, which investigate the relationship between sanctions and the level of rights protection in two groups of countries: those that were targeted by sanctions and those that were not. Using data from the Political Terror Scale (PTS and from Freedom House, I find empirical evidence that sanctions do improve the level of protection in countries that were not targeted. This finding can be explained by the deterrent effect attributed to sanctions by the compliance literature, broadly interpreted. The presence of economic sanctions in a given year increases the probability of observing better human rights practices by almost 50%. These results hold for the 12 Latin American countries that were not subject to economic sanctions for the period 1976-2004.

  10. Economic Sanctions of the West and Russian Anti-sanctions: Success or a Failure?

    OpenAIRE

    Rustem M. Nureev; Evgeniy G. Busygin

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the work is the analysis of the consequences for Russian economy from the imposition of sanctions by Western countries. The paper discusses issues related to the effectiveness of the sanctions on South Africa, Iraq, and Haiti; the work presents the consequences of imposition of sanctions for Russian economy as a whole, as well as highlight the impact of the introduction of anti-Russian and Russian sanctions on two sectors: banking and food industry. The first was chosen ...

  11. The ordinary consumer: the burden of economic sanctions against Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nureev Rustem, M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main thrust of the paper - an attempt to assess how much the sanctions combined with the drop in oil prices hit the consumers. This paper provides an overview of the sanctions imposed by European Union, the United States and other countries (ban largest organizations in Russia to attract foreign capital of the European Union and the United States. The burden of economic sanctions against Russia for the average consumer is shown on the change in prices for food products, electronic products, analyzed Russian car market, the dynamics of small and medium-sized businesses in Russia. The results of import substitution - the balances of trade of consumer goods in Q1 2015 compared to Q1 2014. Dynamics of demand for electronic goods in the paper discusses the example of the effect of price changes in the popular Russian companies (Apple, Sony, etc. to sales. Rising prices for electronic goods has led Apple to a Giffen’s paradox in late 2014, the higher the price - the more sales. Despite the rapid rise in prices for the company's products (price of products apple Nov. 25 rose by 25% on December 22 for another 35%, sales growth was 80%. This is due to the fact that Russian consumers feared further rise in price of goods and the goods were afraid to lose, which has become for many of them a necessity. Car loans in Q1 2015 compared to Q1 2014 decreased by 4 times, car sales fell by 2 times, import cars from abroad fell almost 2-fold. Especially hard hit small businesses. If in 2013 in Russia was opened 490.7 thous. legal entities, and closed 419 thousand. Then for 11 months in 2014 opened 417.5 ths. legal entities and closed down 483.6 thousand. This means that if in 2013 opening of 70 thousand legal persons more, in 2014 almost 70 thousand legal persons shut more than open. Statistics show that the number of people wishing to sell his business in 2014 increased significantly. In Moscow, for example, in 2014, it was filed with the 14.5 times the

  12. Nonproliferation economic sanctions in US foreign policy: political and juridical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y A Sedlyar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic sanctions, an age-old tool of statecraft, are becoming increasingly central to shaping strategic outcomes. In the post-Cold War economic sanctions have become virtually the default option in US foreign policy. They are now employed by American diplomacy for a wide range of purposes and always have consequences. The article focuses in particular on the economic sanctions as a powerful tool to discourage the nuclear proliferation, highlights the key concepts of nonproliferation sanctions policy. The most important nuclear sanctions legislation, like Nuclear Nonproliferation Act, Nuclear Nonproliferation Prevention Act, the Symington, the Pressler and the Glenn amendments is analyzed. A major conclusion made in the article is that in spite of the proliferation of US nonproliferation economic sanctions they rarely work as intended, but often undermine American foreign policy goals. Enhancing our understanding of nonproliferation economic sanctions in US foreign policy, this article will be of interest to policy-makers, diplomats and scholars of international politics, international law, and US foreign policy.

  13. Economic Sanctions, Military Activity, and Road Traffic Crashes in Vojvodina, Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ðurić, Predrag; Peek-Asa, Corinne

    2008-01-01

    Objectives Political violence has not been examined as a risk factor for traumatic injuries from road traffic crashes. We identify trends in road traffic crashes related to war-related military activity and international economic sanctions in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Serbia. Methods Overall road traffic crashes and crashes leading to hospitalization and fatality in Vojvodina, Serbia were examined from 1996 through 2001. Rates were calculated per 100,000 population and per 10,000 registered vehicles. Three time periods were examined: years with international sanctions and military activity; years with international sanctions but no military activity; and, years with neither sanctions nor military activity. Results Compared to the period with neither sanctions nor military activity, severe injury crashes were 1.23 times more frequent (95% CI = 1.19 – 1.27) during the period with sanctions and military activity and 1.21 times more frequent (95% CI= 1.16 – 1.27) during the period with sanctions but no military activity. Conclusions Our data suggest that vehicle travel became safer following the end of military action and economic sanctions. Road traffic safety needs to be a priority both during periods of political unrest and its recovery phase. PMID:19074242

  14. Economic sanctions, military activity, and road traffic crashes in Vojvodina, Serbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duric, P; Peek-Asa, C

    2008-12-01

    Political violence has not been examined as a risk factor for traumatic injuries from road traffic crashes. To identify trends in road traffic crashes related to war-related military activity and international economic sanctions in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, Serbia. Overall road traffic crashes and crashes leading to hospitalization and fatality in Vojvodina, Serbia were examined from 1996 through 2005. Rates were calculated per 100,000 population and per 10,000 registered vehicles. Three time periods were examined: years with international sanctions and military activity (1996-1999); years with international sanctions but no military activity (2000-2001); years with neither sanctions nor military activity (2002-2005). Compared with the period with neither sanctions nor military activity, severe injury crashes were 1.23 times more common (95% CI 1.19 to 1.27) during the period with sanctions and military activity and 1.21 times more common (95% CI 1.16 to 1.27) during the period with sanctions but no military activity. The data suggest that vehicle travel became safer after the end of military action and economic sanctions. Road traffic safety needs to be a priority during both periods of political unrest and its recovery phase.

  15. 76 FR 56866 - Bureau of Economic, Energy and Business Affairs; Persons on Whom Sanctions Have Been Imposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... of Economic, Energy and Business Affairs; Persons on Whom Sanctions Have Been Imposed Under the Iran... determined that the following persons have engaged in sanctionable activity described in section 5(a) of the... Memorandum''), the Secretary has determined that the following persons have engaged in sanctionable activity...

  16. A review of pharmaceutical policies in response to economic crises and sanctions

    OpenAIRE

    Kheirandish, Mehrnaz; Rashidian, Arash; Kebriaeezade, Abbas; Cheraghali, Abdol Majid; Soleymani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    An economic crisis has been defined as a situation in which the scale of a country's economy becomes smaller in a period of time. Economic crises happen for various reasons, including economic sanctions. Economic crises in a country may affect national priorities for investment and expenditure and reduce available resources, and hence may affect the health care sector including access to medicines. We reviewed the pharmaceutical policies that the countries adopted in order to mitigate the pot...

  17. The Impact of Economic Sanctions on Income Inequality of Target States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afesorgbor, Sylvanus Kwaku; Mahadevan, Renuka

    In this paper, we draw on established theoretical work to analyze empirically which segments of the population in the target states bear the most cost when economic sanctions are imposed. Using a cross-country analysis of 68 target states from 1960 to 2008, we find robust empirical evidence...

  18. A news media analysis of economic sanction effects on access to medicine in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish, Mehrnaz; Rashidian, Arash; Bigdeli, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In the past decades economic sanctions have been used by different countries or international organizations in order to deprive target countries of some transactions. While the sanctions do not target health care systems or public health structures, they may, in fact, affect the availability of health care in target countries. In this study, we used media analysis to assess the impacts of recent sanctions imposed by the Central Bank of Iran in 2012 on access to medicines in Iran. Methods: We searched different sources of written news media including a database of nonspecialized weeklies and magazines, online news sources, web pages of daily newspapers and healthcare oriented weeklies from 2011 to 2013. We searched the sources using the general term “medicine” to reduce the chances of missing relevant items. The identified news media were read, and categorized under three groups of items announcing “shortage of medicines,” “medicines related issues” and “no shortage.” We conducted trend analyzes to see whether the news media related to access to medicines were affected by the economic sanctions. Findings: A total number of 371 relevant news media were collected. The number of news media related to medicines substantially increased in the study period: 30 (8%), 161 (43%) and 180 (49%) were published in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. While 145 (39%) of media items referred to the shortage of medicines, 97 (26%) reported no shortage or alleviating of concerns. Conclusion: Media analysis suggests a clear increase in the number of news media reporting a shortage in Iran after the sanctions. In 2013, there were accompanying increases in the number of news media reporting alleviation of the shortages of medicines. Our analysis provides evidence of negative effects of the sanctions on access to medicines in Iran. PMID:26645026

  19. A news media analysis of economic sanction effects on access to medicine in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish, Mehrnaz; Rashidian, Arash; Bigdeli, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades economic sanctions have been used by different countries or international organizations in order to deprive target countries of some transactions. While the sanctions do not target health care systems or public health structures, they may, in fact, affect the availability of health care in target countries. In this study, we used media analysis to assess the impacts of recent sanctions imposed by the Central Bank of Iran in 2012 on access to medicines in Iran. We searched different sources of written news media including a database of nonspecialized weeklies and magazines, online news sources, web pages of daily newspapers and healthcare oriented weeklies from 2011 to 2013. We searched the sources using the general term "medicine" to reduce the chances of missing relevant items. The identified news media were read, and categorized under three groups of items announcing "shortage of medicines," "medicines related issues" and "no shortage." We conducted trend analyzes to see whether the news media related to access to medicines were affected by the economic sanctions. A total number of 371 relevant news media were collected. The number of news media related to medicines substantially increased in the study period: 30 (8%), 161 (43%) and 180 (49%) were published in 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. While 145 (39%) of media items referred to the shortage of medicines, 97 (26%) reported no shortage or alleviating of concerns. Media analysis suggests a clear increase in the number of news media reporting a shortage in Iran after the sanctions. In 2013, there were accompanying increases in the number of news media reporting alleviation of the shortages of medicines. Our analysis provides evidence of negative effects of the sanctions on access to medicines in Iran.

  20. Economic Sanctions Against the Russian Federation Are Illegal under Public International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J.A. Burke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to the Russian Federation’s purported ‘annexation’ of Crimea and the conflict between separatists in the Donbass region and the central government of Ukraine, the United States, the European Union, Japan, and Australia, the principal countries, have imposed economic sanctions upon Russian officials, firms, and private individuals. The economic sanctions imposed upon the Russian Federation violate public international law on three grounds: 1 lack of authorisation under the United Nations Charter; 2 inapplicability of Art. XXI GATT (‘Security Exceptions’; and 3 lack of legal authority based on the International Law Commission’s Draft Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts. Fidelity to the ‘rule of law’ requires an immediate withdrawal of all economic sanctions. By contrast, the international community ‘ought to’ condemn Ukraine’s indiscriminate killing of innocent citizens living in the Donbass region and support the efforts of the Russian Federation to provide humanitarian aid to the region.

  1. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    imposes sanctions on several key sectors of Iran’s economic infrastructure. For a broader analysis of policy on Iran, see CRS Report RL32048, Iran...oil or gas drill rig or motors or other gear that Iran will use to drill for oil or gas were not sanctionable under ISA, unless the sale is...carrying Iranian oil, but they worked around that by setting up new insurance mechanisms. Japan’s exemption has benefitted its banks, such as Mitsubishi UFJ

  2. Economic Sanctions as a Factor of Modernizing of Russian Defense Industry Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustem M. Nureev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the defense-industrial complex (DIC of Russia in the conditions of economic sanctions. And although the center was the oil and gas industry, as well as the banking sector, economic sanctions against Russia affected the DCI. They touched first of all on such large Russian defense concerns as air defense "Almaz- Antey", "Sirius", "Stankoinstroment", "Kalashnikov", "Tula Arms Factory", NGO "Oriental Complexes", as well as "Dobrolyte". The prohibition of debt financing has affected such major enterprises of the defense industry as "Uralvagonzavod", "Oboronprom", "United Aircraft Corporation". The article shows, in general, the favorable impact of sanctions on the industry. At the end of 2016, Russia took the second place in world arms exports with a share of 23%, the US became the leader – their share was 33%. But the structure of the share capital in the defense industry companies is completely different if we compare these two countries: in the US, private companies dominate the market, in Russia – the largest enterprises are owned by the state. In the course of the analysis, it turned out that Russian defense industry enterprises are unprofitable or unprofitable, they do not have stability in financial performance, since they are highly dependent on government spending. To improve the current situation in this sector, it is advisable for the state to modernize the military-industrial complex companies in order to enhance the role of market mechanisms that will stimulate R & D, as under modern conditions of competition in any market, innovations represent an exclusive advantage for enterprise prosperity.

  3. Economic Sanctions Against Russia: Short and Medium Term Consequences for the Oil and Gas Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustem M. Nureev

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth in production and exports of oil and gas from the United States and other OECD countries led to pressure on energy prices, and posed the problem of redistribution of the structure of oil and gas market shares. The aggravation of competition contributed to the selection of measures to modernize the industry in Russia as the main measures of economic sanctions, as well as restrictions on the supply of Russian oil and gas to Europe, which jeopardized the implementation of the South Stream and North Stream-2 projects. The oil and gas industry continues to play a significant role in the formation of the revenue base of the federal budget of the Russian Federation. As a result of the imposition of sanctions, the export of Western equipment to Russia was banned, it could be a serious blow to the industry, which potential could be fully realized in the next 3–5 years. Oil and gas companies are most dependent on the pumping equipment (import share is 50%, catalysts (80% share of imports, applied software (the share of imports is more than 80%. Currently, Russian companies purchase equipment in China and South Korea, but the quality is much lower than the US, and the equipment often fails, so it is associated with the high costs of repairs. The import substitution should revive the domestic production of oil and gas equipment, but how this policy is implemented is difficult to predict, as enterprises have to overcome a significant technological gap and lag behind foreign developments. Russia managed to survive the short-term period of economic sanctions with significant, but not extremely large losses. Much more acute consequences can affect in the medium term, unless vigorous steps are taken to import substitution and modernization of oil and gas production and processing.

  4. Political dynamics of economic sanctions: a case study of Arab oil embargoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daoudi, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    The general question is considered of the effectiveness of economic sanctions in international politics, in terms of the Arabs' use of oil as a political weapon in 1956, 1967, and 1973. Chapter 3 focuses on the impact of the interruption of oil supplies to Western Europe throughout the 1956 Suez crisis. By 1967, pressure on the conservative governing elites of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Libya, and the Gulf Sheikdoms obliged these states to join Iraq and Algeria in imposing production cutbacks and an embargo. Yet the conservative regimes' ties to the West, and the control exerted by multinational oil corporations over all phases of their oil industry, insured that the embargo was not enforced. Chapter 4 explains historically how, by the late 1960s, relinquishment of old concessions, nationalization acts, and participation agreements had caused a decline in the multinationals' domination of the oil industry. The rise of OPEC and OAPEC, which by 1970 had united and organized the producing governments, channeled their demands, and created an international forum for their political grievances, is discussed. Chapter 5 considers how by 1973 international and Arab political developments had forced states like Saudi Arabia, which had sought to dissociate oil and politics, to unsheathe the oil weapon and wave it in the faces of their Western allies. The author concludes from analysis of these complex cases that scholarship has exaggerated the inefficacy of sanctions. The effectiveness of sanctions is seen to depend upon how the demands are formulated and presented and to what extent they can be negotiated, as well as upon the sociopolitical, cultural, and psychological characteristics of the target population.

  5. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 501 - Economic Sanctions Enforcement Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Sanctions History: the Subject Person's sanctions history, including OFAC's issuance of prior penalties... (including settlements). As a general matter, OFAC will only consider a Subject Person's sanctions history... accounts opened via the Internet). Limited number of funds transfers for customers and non-customers...

  6. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    it clear that the opposition is motivated by economic factors that are affected by sanctions. Still, the campaign for the March 2, 2012, Majles...plan first went into effect in December 2010, some Iranian truckers simply stopped working on the grounds that their work was no longer profitable

  7. A review of pharmaceutical policies in response to economic crises and sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish, Mehrnaz; Rashidian, Arash; Kebriaeezade, Abbas; Cheraghali, Abdol Majid; Soleymani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    An economic crisis has been defined as a situation in which the scale of a country's economy becomes smaller in a period of time. Economic crises happen for various reasons, including economic sanctions. Economic crises in a country may affect national priorities for investment and expenditure and reduce available resources, and hence may affect the health care sector including access to medicines. We reviewed the pharmaceutical policies that the countries adopted in order to mitigate the potential negative effects on access to medicines. We reviewed published reports and articles after conducting a comprehensive search of the PubMed and the Google Scholar. After extracting relevant data from the identified articles, we used the World Health Organization (WHO) access to medicines framework as a guide for the categorization of the policies. We identified a total of 40 studies, of which 10 reported the national pharmaceutical policies adopted to reduce the negative impacts of economic crises on access to medicines in high-income and middle-income countries. We identified 89 policies adopted in the 11 countries and categorized them into 12 distinct policy directions. Most of the policies focused on financial aspects of the pharmaceutical sector. In some cases, countries adopted policies that potentially had negative effects on access to medicines. Only Italy had adopted policies encompassing all four accesses to medicine factors recommended by the WHO. While the countries have adopted many seemingly effective policies, little evidence exists on the effectiveness of these policies to improve access to medicines at a time of an economic crisis. PMID:26312250

  8. A review of pharmaceutical policies in response to economic crises and sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheirandish, Mehrnaz; Rashidian, Arash; Kebriaeezade, Abbas; Cheraghali, Abdol Majid; Soleymani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    An economic crisis has been defined as a situation in which the scale of a country's economy becomes smaller in a period of time. Economic crises happen for various reasons, including economic sanctions. Economic crises in a country may affect national priorities for investment and expenditure and reduce available resources, and hence may affect the health care sector including access to medicines. We reviewed the pharmaceutical policies that the countries adopted in order to mitigate the potential negative effects on access to medicines. We reviewed published reports and articles after conducting a comprehensive search of the PubMed and the Google Scholar. After extracting relevant data from the identified articles, we used the World Health Organization (WHO) access to medicines framework as a guide for the categorization of the policies. We identified a total of 40 studies, of which 10 reported the national pharmaceutical policies adopted to reduce the negative impacts of economic crises on access to medicines in high-income and middle-income countries. We identified 89 policies adopted in the 11 countries and categorized them into 12 distinct policy directions. Most of the policies focused on financial aspects of the pharmaceutical sector. In some cases, countries adopted policies that potentially had negative effects on access to medicines. Only Italy had adopted policies encompassing all four accesses to medicine factors recommended by the WHO. While the countries have adopted many seemingly effective policies, little evidence exists on the effectiveness of these policies to improve access to medicines at a time of an economic crisis.

  9. Russian Innovative Potential in the Conditions of Economic Sanctions: Reserves of Grown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rustem M. Nureev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the impact of economic sanctions in general for innovative development of Russia, as well as individual sectors of oil, gas, financial and banking sector. It is shown that the ban on exports to the Russian oil and gas technology has led to the freezing of existing and refusal to enter into new projects. Increased production and export of US oil and gas have led to an increase in excess of the global scope of these types of raw materials and led to long-term downward trend in world energy prices. In recent years there has been a sharp decline in the net inflow of foreign direct investment in Russia, which exacerbates the problem of domestic sources of domestic innovation policy. The effect of sanctions on the development of the Russian economy as a whole and its individual regions is condifered. The paper describes the approaches to the definition of the innovation potential of the Russian region, identified several levels of manifestation of the region's potential and its characteristics, provides a definition of the region's innovation potential, discussed the factors influencing the development of the region's innovative capacity. The current state of the regional innovation system of the Russian Federation is analysed. The paper describes the main tasks of the Russian Federation Innovative Development Strategy for the period up to 2020. The degree of implementation of the Strategy, problems and prospects of realization of the basic provisions of the Strategy, the impact of the implementation of the Strategy on the Russian economy, its position in the index business are analysed in the paper.

  10. Changing views on child mortality and economic sanctions in Iraq: a history of lies, damned lies and statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Tim; Cetorelli, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    In August 1990, Saddam Hussein's army invaded Kuwait and consequently the United Nations imposed economic sanctions on Iraq. In 1991, an international military alliance expelled the Iraqi army from Kuwait during a short war. Nevertheless, the economic sanctions remained in place-their removal required that Iraq should destroy its weapons of mass destruction. Subsequent years saw reports of acute suffering in Iraq. The sanctions undoubtedly greatly reduced the country's ability to import supplies of food and medicine. Particular concerns arose about the state of young children. These concerns crystalised in 1999 when, with cooperation from the Iraqi government, Unicef conducted a major demographic survey. The results of the survey indicated that the under-5 death rate in Iraq had increased hugely between 1990 and 1991 and had then continued at a very high level. The survey results were used both to challenge and support the case for the invasion of Iraq in 2003. And they were cited by Tony Blair in 2010 in his testimony to the Iraq Inquiry established by the British government. Indeed, the results of the 1999 Unicef/Government of Iraq survey are still cited. Since 2003, however, several more surveys dealing with child mortality have been undertaken. Their results show no sign of a huge and enduring rise in the under-5 death rate starting in 1991. It is therefore clear that Saddam Hussein's government successfully manipulated the 1999 survey in order to convey a very false impression-something that is surely deserving of greater recognition.

  11. Unlearned History: The Ineffectual Application of U.S. Broad Economic Sanctions Against Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Political Freedoms," Human Rights Review 10, no. 3 (2009): 399, accessed August 28, 2015, EBSCOhost . 29 Bryan Early, “Why Sanctions Busting Leads to...34 Human Rights Review 10, no. 3 (2009): 393-411. Accessed August 28, 2015. EBSCOhost . Peksen, Dursun, and A. Cooper Drury. “Coercive or Corrosive

  12. Diversification of Oil and Gas Companies’ Activities in the Condition of Oil Prices Reduction and Economic Sanctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia V. Sheveleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the influence of the economic sanctions imposed from the USA and the EU and oil prices reduction on the oil and gas companies and the directions of diversification of their activity as a method of management of price risks are considered. In the modern dynamic and quickly developing world, in the conditions of globalization and market economy, the oil and gas companies are affected by various risks which can exert negative impact on production and financial results. Risks can arise in absolutely various spheres, beginning from natural and technological hazards, and finishing with price risks. Sharp reduction of oil prices and decrease in demand for energy resources in the world markets, first of all in the European countries, input of financial or technological sanctions from the USA and Europe against Russia in 2014 has caused necessity of search a new more effective methods of price risks management of the oil and gas company. The methods of price risk management include the creation of commodity reserves, the establishment of a reserve fund, long-term contracts, subsidies from the state and the diversification of activities. The most effective it is possible to offer diversification of oil and gas companies' activity. It is expedient to carry out diversification of oil and gas companies' activity in such directions as geographical diversification of the oil, oil products and gas realization directions, geographical diversification of oil and gas companies' purchasing activity, diversification of oil, oil products and gas transportation ways, diversification of oil and gas companies' business. This approach allows to expand the activities of the oil and gas companies and create additional ways to generate revenue and enhance efficiency of oil and gas companies.

  13. Strategic Narratives and Alliances: The Cases of Intervention in Libya (2011 and Economic Sanctions against Russia (2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Roselle

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Scholars of international communication recognize that strategic narratives are important for policymaking (Miskimmon, O’Loughlin, & Roselle, 2013 and scholars studying alliances suggest that communication is central to the formation and maintenance of alliances (Weitsman, 2010. This essay addresses how strategic narratives affect US alliance behavior—and hence international order—in two specific ways. First, alliance behavior can be affected by other allies’ narratives as demonstrated in the case of military intervention in Libya in 2011. Here the evidence suggests that the UK and France were able to use strategic narratives to influence the decision of the US to agree to military intervention in Libya by using narratives that could evoke a fear of abandonment. Second, alliance cohesion can be affected by narrative contestation by non-allies as demonstrated in the case of the Ukrainian crisis in 2014. Russia has used strategic narratives in a new media environment in an attempt to elicit a fear of entrapment to counter the US attempts to coordinate alliance support for economic sanctions. In both cases, distinguishing between system, identity, and policy narratives give us a deeper understanding of narrative contestation today. This analysis adds to our understanding of the factors that affect alliances set within a new media environment characterized by a proliferation of sources and outlets and thus a more horizontal structure of information exchange.

  14. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-21

    banking institutions to encourage their re-entry into the Iran market without fear of being sanctioned. And, Iran’s filing of its Action Plan with......investments, shielded from the view of the Iranian entities and international regulators.” In accordance with the JCPOA, EIKO-controlled companies were “ de

  15. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-19

    Coca Cola Company, which provides syrup for the U.S.-brand soft drink to an Iranian distributor, Khoshgovar. Local versions of both Coke and of Pepsi...37 China and Russia...as Citgo, were not sanctioned and U.S. purchases of Venezuelan oil were not affected. Jan. 12, 2012 Zhuhai Zhenrong Co. ( China ); Kuo Oil Pte Ltd

  16. Nonproliferation Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    nearly complete history of missile nonproliferation sanctions, see D. A. Ozga , "A Chronology of the Missile Technology Control Regime," The...of Congress," Washington, D.C., June 1996. Ozga , D. A., "A Chronology of the Missile Technology Control Regime," The Nonproliferation Review, Winter

  17. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-11

    activities, including sponsorship of players , coaching, referees, and training. In some cases, such as the earthquake in Bam in 2003 and the earthquake in...Woori Bank, and its main exports to Iran have been iron and steel, as well as consumer electronics and appliances made by companies such as Samsung...and elsewhere to increasing sanctions on Iran. Iran’s only female minister, Minister of Health Marzieh Vahid Dastjerdi, was dismissed in December

  18. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-16

    reduction was further compounded by a fall in oil prices since mid-2014. Sanctions also made inaccessible about $120 billion in Iranian reserves held in...December 2, 2011, that the provision could lead to a rise in oil prices that would benefit Iran, the Administration accepted the legislation. In the...confirmed. Instead, a portion of the Iranian oil China buys is reportedly sent to North Korea. South Asia: India, Pakistan , and Afghanistan India

  19. The Paradox of Sanctions as a Tool of Statecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Dilemmas of Economic Coercion: Sanctions in World Politics , ed. Miroslav Nincic and Peter Wallensteen, 155-181. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1983...and Peter Wallensteen, “Economic Coercion and Foreign Policy.” In Dilemmas of Economic Coercion: Sanctions in World Politics , ed. Miroslav Nincic...of Economic Coercion: Sanctions in World Politics , ed. Miroslav Nincic and Peter Wallensteen, 87-129. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1983. Weekman

  20. Sanctioning Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brentjes, Sonja

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I discuss stories about rulers and princes of three dynasties - Abbasid, Norman and Timurid – and their narrative representation as prime knowers of the mathematical sciences, geography and history. I argue that they constitute one set of positive forms of sanctioning or contesting knowledge in those societies by prescribing hierarchies of knowledge forms and hierarchies of people and institutions that decide about the veracity of knowledge. I suggest that these stories share their origin and meaning in an environment of legitimizing propaganda for the various rulers and princes. I also claim that the value and position of scientific knowledge in these stories differ, starting from what apparently were personal interests of a ruler and leading to its integration into what was considered necessary for the education of a prince and the cultured behaviour of a ruler. Hence, these stories about knowledge and rulers present images of knowledge that delineate the status of scholars in those three societies and thus define possibilities and set boundaries for learning and practicing scholarly fields.En este artículo se estudian historias sobre gobernantes y príncipes de tres dinastías - ‛abbāsí, normanda y timurí – y su representación narrativa como conocedores de las ciencias matemáticas, la geografía y la historia. Se argumenta que constituyen un conjunto de formas positivas de aprobar o impugnar el conocimiento en esas sociedades, prescribiendo jerarquías de formas de conocimiento y jerarquías de gentes e instituciones que deciden acerca de la veracidad del conocimiento. Se sugiere que esas historias comparten su origen y significado en un contexto de propaganda legitimadora para varios gobernantes y príncipes. También se afirma que el valor y la posición del conocimiento científico en esas historias difieren, empezando por lo que en apariencia eran los intereses personales de un gobernante hasta su integraci

  1. The criminal sanctions of commercial deceptions in Ethiopia: Could ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been contended that criminalization of commercial wrongs would chill economic activities due to the over-deterrence effect of criminal sanctions. However, a growing amount of legal literature has emerged in this area and it has indicated that deceptive commercial behaviors deserve criminal sanctions since they ...

  2. 48 CFR 25.703-2 - Iran Sanctions Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) As required by the Iran Sanctions Act, unless an exception applies or a waiver is granted in... expansion of Iran's domestic production of refined petroleum products, including any direct and significant... Sanctions Policy, Bureau of Economic, Energy, and Business Affairs in the State Department, allowing...

  3. Crime and Social Sanction

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Buonanno; Giacomo Pasini; Paolo Vanin

    2008-01-01

    Social sanctions may be a strong deterrent of crime. This paper presents a formal model that relates crime and social sanction to social interaction density. We empirically test the theoretical predictions using a provincial level panel dataset on di erent crimes in Italy between 1996 and 2003. We exploit detailed demographic and geo-morphological information to develop exogenous measures of social interaction density. We estimate a spatial panel model by means of a GMM procedure and we nd th...

  4. Cyberbullying: Sanctions or Sensitivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Helen; Colliety, Pat

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the phenomenon of cyberbullying. The argument here is that, although there is a case for sanctions, schools also have a critical role to play in preventing and reducing cyberbullying through a process of awareness-raising, the education of the emotions and active participation of children and young people themselves.

  5. Women under penal sanctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaura Tadioto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to characterize imprisoned and non- imprisoned women  in the State of São Paulo, as  well as the realities faced by them while under penal sanctions, searching,  to the possible extent, for a comparison with the male population  under the same sanctions.  In the case of imprisoned women, such exposition is based on data from the Justice Department and SAP (Penitentiary Administration Office, and , in the case of non-imprisoned women, documental research on the Presidente Prudente Center for  Penalties and Alternative Measures Monthly Follow-up Reports . Results showed that, when compared with the male population, women have to face extra difficulties when under penal sanctions. They also showed that gender inequalities are also present in the universe of these women, which are materialized in the compliance with the penal conditions and in the maintenance of the female responsibility for care taking, mainly of children.

  6. U.S.-Cuba relations : revisiting the sanctions policy

    OpenAIRE

    Giscard, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. In October 1960, faced with an increasingly hostile and threatening Marxist dictator, the United States implemented economic sanctions against Cuba. As Cuba aligned itself with the Soviet Union, it became a legitimate threat to U.S. national security interests. During the Cold War period, the sanctions policy was successful in achieving some of its aims; most notably, containing Communism in the hemisphere. However, it clearly failed ...

  7. Why do sanctions need time to work? Adjustment, learning and anticipation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.G. van Bergeijk (Peter); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractEconomists disagree on the influence of time on the probability of success of economic sanctions. Some argue that it takes time to convince the sanction target. Others stress that economic adjustment will reduce incentives to comply. We seek to reconcile these different literatures,

  8. 75 FR 75904 - Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Parts 594, 595, and 597 Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Terrorism Sanctions Regulations; Foreign Terrorist Organizations Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of... (``OFAC'') of the U.S. Department of the Treasury is amending the Global Terrorism Sanctions Regulations...

  9. 76 FR 35740 - North Korea Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... Part 510 North Korea Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury. ACTION... amending the North Korea Sanctions Regulations to implement Executive Order 13570 of April 18, 2011. OFAC..., the Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control published the North Korea Sanctions...

  10. 22 CFR 62.79 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanctions. 62.79 Section 62.79 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.79 Sanctions. (a) The Department of State shall impose sanctions...

  11. 19 CFR 356.18 - Interim sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ARTICLE 1904 OF THE NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT Violation of a Protective Order or a Disclosure... administrative law judge to impose such sanctions. (b) The administrative law judge may impose interim sanctions... interim sanctions are a reasonable means for protecting the rights of the Department, authorized agency of...

  12. THE CHALLENGE OF THE “ECONOMIC INDEPENDENCE” AND THE “SOVEREIGNTY OF STATES”: A REVIEW OF THE PROBLEM OF LEGITIMACY OF ECONOMIC SANCTIONS IN THE REALITY OF THE INTERNATIONAL LEGAL ORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AKBAR ADIBI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems faced by the international community is to find a basis for regulating economic relations between the states. While the third world states still emphasize their economic sovereignty to encounter and maintain their positions against the North States, the analysis of the international legal realities shows that merely relying on the “economic independence” and “permanent sovereignty over natural resources” cannot be a practical way to achieve the ideals of states known as the “South.” Like the Sword of Damocles, sovereignty can pave the way for maintaining the “status quo” or the domination of the premier economic powers in the international equation. Merely relying on international law as a branch based on the states’ sovereignty will be actually misleading to change the status quo. By a realistic analysis of the less positive role of sovereignty in the procedure of regulating the relations between the North and the South, this study seeks to focus on the fact that going out of the impasse of unjust economic relations between the North and the South will be possible only by creating a gap in the traditional concept of economic sovereignty in a sense that has been formed by the third world states in the 60s and 70s of the past century.

  13. Maritime embargo operations: naval implementation of UN sanctions at sea under Articles 41 and 42 of the UN Charter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fink, M.D.

    2013-01-01

    Maritime embargo operations implement economic sanctions adopted by the UNSC by means of naval forces at sea. In order to implement such sanctions in line with international law, it is essential for states that the legal basis in maritime embargo operations is clear. Since the UNSC has authorized

  14. NATIONAL FOOD SECURITY AND FOOD INDEPENDENCE OF RUSSIA UNDER SANCTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Makhanko G. V.; Volohatykh A. S.

    2016-01-01

    The article reviews food security issues of Russia under foreign sanctions and the state of food products production and consumption in the Russian Federation. Food security is considered as a major factor of political and socio-economic stability of any country, with Russia a no exception. However, it has become one of the largest net food importers, chiefly due to its agrarian sector weakness. The present paper discusses major challenges of the agricultural industry and necessary conditions...

  15. Problems and prospects of regional economy development in the period of sanctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Kaigorodova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of economic and political consequences of the sanctions against Russia, analysis of the dependence of different economy sectors of this country on imports and the possibility of its substitution by domestic products is an important task. In this connection we study the economic situation of the regions of the Russian Federation under the conditions of Western sanctions on the formation import substitution. At present import substitution is the indicator of technological progress in Russia which is one of the priorities of economic development in the near future. The examples of the negative impact of sanctions on the economy of Russia and Western countries are presented. First of all, sanctions imposed limit access of European and American investors to long-term debt instruments. Special attention is given to innovative development of Russia which largely depends on the effective implementation of its infrastructure transformation by establishing a system for the efficient reallocation of financial resources towards innovation programs, as well as the active participation of the credit institutions, investment companies, venture capital funds, mutual insurance companies. The timely measure is linking of innovative and regional policy of the development of the subjects with their own resources and investors, an attractive environment for foreign investment. Directions of the confrontation to sanctions are determined. Issues relating to economic sanctions are of particular importance in the present conditions where the interdependence of national economies is associated with formation of the economic space. The possible scenarios of domestic economic development are formulated. The discussed issues of import substitution at the present stage, including at the stage of the actions of Russian sanctions, should be applied for the reorientation of the regional economy and the restoration of the destroyed production in the 1990s.

  16. 78 FR 21183 - Persons on Whom Sanctions Have Been Imposed Under the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996 and the Iran...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... on Whom Sanctions Have Been Imposed Under the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996 and the Iran Threat... persons have engaged in sanctionable activity described in section 5(a)(8) of the Iran Sanctions Act of...''), that the following persons have engaged in sanctionable activity described in section 212 of the Iran...

  17. Sanctions for doping in sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandarić Sanja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Top-level sport imposes new and more demanding physical and psychological pressures, and the desire for competing, winning and selfassertion leads athletes into temptation to use prohibited substances in order to achieve the best possible results. Regardless of the fact that the adverse consequences of prohibited substances are well-known, prestige and the need to dominate sports arenas have led to their use in sports. Doping is one of the biggest issues in sport today, and the fight against it is a strategic objective on both global and national levels. World Anti-Doping Agency, the International Olympic Committee, international sports federations, national anti-doping agencies, national sports federations, as well as governments and their repressive apparatuses are all involved in the fight against doping in sport. This paper points to a different etymology and phenomenology of doping, the beginnings of doping in sport, sports doping scandals as well as the most important international instruments regulating this issue. Also, there is a special reference in this paper to the criminal and misdemeanor sanctions for doping in sport. In Serbia doping in sport is prohibited by the Law on Prevention of Doping in Sports which came into force in 2005 and which prescribes the measures and activities aimed at prevention of doping in sport. In this context, the law provides for the following three criminal offenses: use of doping substances, facilitating the use of doping substances, and unauthorized production and putting on traffic of doping substances. In addition, aiming at curbing the abuse of doping this law also provides for two violations. More frequent and repetitive doping scandals indicate that doping despite long-standing sanctions is still present in sports, which suggests that sanctions alone have not given satisfactory results so far.

  18. 29 CFR 99.225 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Sanctions. 99.225 Section 99.225 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor AUDITS OF STATES, LOCAL GOVERNMENTS, AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Audits § 99.225 Sanctions. No audit costs may be charged to Federal awards when audits required by this part have not been...

  19. 75 FR 67912 - North Korea Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... 31 CFR Part 510 North Korea Sanctions Regulations AGENCY: Office of Foreign Assets Control, Treasury...'') is issuing regulations with respect to North Korea to implement Executive Order 13466 of June 26... issuing the North Korea Sanctions Regulations, 31 CFR part 510 (the ``Regulations''), to implement E.O...

  20. How Young People Interpret Teachers' Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Manfred

    Results of four experiments concerning the way young people interpret an intended or expressed sanction (praise or blame) from a teacher are presented. The intention of the four studies was to expose the flaws in Meyer's 1984 attempted explanations of such interpretation, in which sanctions are paradoxically received by the student as an…

  1. The competitive advantage of sanctioning institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürerk, Ozgür; Irlenbusch, Bernd; Rockenbach, Bettina

    2006-04-07

    Understanding the fundamental patterns and determinants of human cooperation and the maintenance of social order in human societies is a challenge across disciplines. The existing empirical evidence for the higher levels of cooperation when altruistic punishment is present versus when it is absent systematically ignores the institutional competition inherent in human societies. Whether punishment would be deliberately adopted and would similarly enhance cooperation when directly competing with nonpunishment institutions is highly controversial in light of recent findings on the detrimental effects of punishment. We show experimentally that a sanctioning institution is the undisputed winner in a competition with a sanction-free institution. Despite initial aversion, the entire population migrates successively to the sanctioning institution and strongly cooperates, whereas the sanction-free society becomes fully depopulated. The findings demonstrate the competitive advantage of sanctioning institutions and exemplify the emergence and manifestation of social order driven by institutional selection.

  2. Syria: effects of conflict and sanctions on public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Kasturi; Al-Faisal, Waleed; AlSaleh, Yaser

    2013-06-01

    The past 18 months have witnessed considerable turmoil in countries of the MENA region. The Syrian Arab Republic (SAR) is one such country, currently in the midst of a civil war. This report draws attention to some of the recent achievements of its health services, where, despite a dearth of published materials, the country achieved remarkable declines in maternal mortality and infant mortality rates. Its health sector now faces destruction from on-going violence compounded by economic sanctions that has affected access to health care, to medicines and to basic essentials as well as the destruction of infrastructure. This paper draws attention to the achievements of the country's health services and explores some of the consequences of conflict and of sanctions on population health. Readers need to be mindful that the situation on the ground in a civil war can alter on a daily basis. This is the case for Syria with much destruction of health facilities and increasing numbers of people killed and injured. We retain however our focus on the core theme of this paper which is on conflict and on sanctions.

  3. Sanctions for administrative delicts and protective measures

    OpenAIRE

    Rejdová, Kateřina

    2013-01-01

    The thesis, the topic of which is "Sanctions and protective treatment measures" provides an insight into the matter of very narrowly specified branch of administration criminal law as a sub-branch of the administration law, which is traditionally categorized as general administration law. The topic is not elaborated on in its entirety due to a large number of regulations on penalisation in administrative law, the thesis offers a general overview of the sanctions that can be imposed if an offe...

  4. Impact of US and EU Sanctions on Education and Healthcare of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    This study focuses on the impact of U.S. targeted sanctions and EU restrictive measures on the right ... Zimbabwe started in December 2001, when the United States passed the Zimbabwe. Democracy and Economic ..... Furthermore, the high rate of inflation that engulfed the Zimbabwean economy and currency added to the ...

  5. Assessing the Net Effects of Sanctions on the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    South Africa, and famously forced Coca Cola to sell 62 Hufbauer, et al., Economic Sanctions...inefficiency. Gaddafi’s proliferation ambitions began almost immediately, and he reportedly sought to purchase a nuclear weapon from China in 1970.122...immediate. France, Russian, and China balked at not being consulted before the launch of military operations, and protests over the attack spread

  6. Coercive Sanctions and International Conflicts: A Sociological Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Mark Daniel

    international sanctions work, and more substantially, what are the social conditions within sanctions conflicts that are conducive to either cooperation or non-cooperation? Arguing that coercive sanctions and international conflicts are socially-constructed facts, the book explores the processes involved...... in the formation of meaning that sanctions and conflicts acquire. From a sociological perspective, the answer to the question depends on the meaning that sanctions acquire for opponents in on-going conflict. On the other hand, sanctions contribute differently to the way in which opponents construct conflict...

  7. Secular trend of infant mortality rate during wars and sanctions in Western Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ani, Zaid R; Al-Hiali, Sahar J; Al-Farraji, Hussain H

    2011-12-01

    To study the infant mortality rate (IMR) trend during wars and sanction periods in Western Iraq. Data collected from the birth and death certificates of Haditha Health Vital Statistics Center, Haditha city (80,000 population), Western Iraq, included name, age, gender, residence, and infant's place and date of births and deaths, in 5 different sanction and war stages of the country from 1987 to 2010, in a study period from July to December, 2010. The IMRs were analyzed and compared between these stages and with other studies. The IMR of last 2 years of the Iraq-Iran war (1980-1988) was 35.6/1000 and 33.8/1000, this decreased in the war free period (1989-1990) to 28.6/1000, then increased during the sanction period (1991-2003) to 46/1000 in 2002, decreased to 16/1000 in 2006 during no sanctions but increased violence, then increased to 24.5/1000 in 2010. Approximately two-thirds of deaths occurred during the neonatal period, and one third in the post neonatal periods. Males had higher IMR than females, and rural residence higher than urban. Economic sanctions increased IMR more than wars or violence in Haditha city. When compared with other parts of Iraq, and despite the different conflicts that faced the country during the 24 studied years, Haditha had a lower IMR, however, this was still higher than developed, and many developing countries.

  8. Banks and Banking Business in Russia in the Face of International Sanctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina S. Panova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an analysis of the present condition and prospects of development of banks and the banking business in the face of international sanctions. It identifies current trends, problems and the risks of banks and banking in Russia and in the world. Special attention is paid to the analysis of sectoral international sanctions against the Russian banks and the need to minimize negative impact of sanctions on the banking business, both nationally and internationally. Great value in these conditions has the state monetary policy. Anti-crisis policy pursued by the Bank of Russia, in a context of stagnating economy, leads to a reduction in the Russian share in the world economy and increases in the standard of living gap with the developed countries. The article argues that Russia's economic growth opportunities in 2016 are limited by restriction level of bank interest, the high volatility of the exchange rate of the national currency, insufficient development of credit relations, tough, high-budget (at the level of developed Europe tax burden, increasing administrative costs, dramatically increasing the concentration of risks of subjective decisions at the present stage of the electoral cycle. In a situation of uncertainty of predictions regarding the scope and duration of the application of sanctions, the Russian Government and the Central Bank of the Russian Federation had rightly seek to use a combination of anti-sanctions measures of austerity measures on introduction of contra-sanctions to create more comfortable conditions for doing business in Russia and her allies from member countries of Eurasian Economic Union, SCO, BRICS. The article examines the strategic aspects of development banks and banking business in Russia under the new circumstances. Given the practical recommendations on improvement of the development strategy of banks in Russia. The necessity to improve the theoretical, conceptual, methodological, her reasoning

  9. Constructing sanctions: rallying around the target in Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Mark Daniel

    2016-01-01

    such an effect. This paper explores sanctions conflicts as social constructs. It purports that rally-around-the-flag is all but one part of the discursive dimension of sanctions conflicts. Sanctions are intricately connected with the conflict setting they occur in. The study suggests a dialectical relation...... precision as such reasoning would suggest. Whether sanctions are really “targeted”, sparing the economy and concentrating on the culprits, is as much a question of discourse in the target state....

  10. 42 CFR 1005.14 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES APPEALS.... Such sanction may include— (1) In the case of refusal to provide or permit discovery under the terms of this part, drawing negative factual inferences or treating such refusal as an admission by deeming the...

  11. 22 CFR 224.29 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanctions. 224.29 Section 224.29 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT § 224...) Failing to comply with an order, rule, or procedure governing the proceeding; (2) Failing to prosecute or...

  12. Criminal sanctions: does imprisonment strategy reduce crimes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Careful reading of the literature on psychology of criminal conduct and of prior reviews of studies of treatment effects suggested that neither criminal sanctioning without provision of rehabilitative treatment will succeed in reducing recidivism. What works, in our views, is the delivery of appropriate correctional treatment, and ...

  13. 17 CFR 200.114 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sanctions. 200.114 Section 200.114 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS Code of Behavior Governing Ex Parte Communications Between Persons...

  14. 7 CFR 18.9 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanctions. 18.9 Section 18.9 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY IN THE STATE COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICES § 18.9... appropriate action provided by law. (b) The remedies available to the Secretary under this part, and remedies...

  15. 10 CFR 26.75 - Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... area of any nuclear power plant, within a facility that is licensed to possess or use formula... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanctions. 26.75 Section 26.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... compensation or benefits to the donor during the period of temporary administrative action; (3) Immediately on...

  16. Conflict and normative sanctions among Galapagos fishermen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arren Mendezona Allegretti; Jerry J. Vaske; Ryan. Finchum

    2012-01-01

    At the start of this century, aggressive fishermen retaliated against changes in fishing regulations in the Galapagos. To understand this conflict, we examined fishermen's norms regarding sanctions that the Galapagos National Park Service should use for: (a) fishing regulation violations, and (b) aggressive behavior by fishermen.

  17. Sanctioning as a social norm: Expectations of non-strategic sanctioning in a public goods game experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vyrastekova, J.; Funaki, Y.; Takeuchi, A.

    2011-01-01

    Sanctioning increases cooperation in public goods games, but not indiscriminately under all conditions and in all societies, and the mechanisms by which sanctioning exercises its impact on behavior are yet to be studied in detail. We show experimentally that in the presence of sanctioning, our

  18. Sanctioning as a social norm : Expectations of non-strategic sanctioning in a public goods game experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Funaki, Y.; Takeuchi, A.; Vyrastekova, J.

    2011-01-01

    Sanctioning increases cooperation in public goods games, but not indiscriminately under all conditions and in all societies, and the mechanisms by which sanctioning exercises its impact on behavior are yet to be studied in detail. We show experimentally that in the presence of sanctioning, our

  19. TARGETED SANCTIONS, JUDICIAL ANTAGONISM OR LEGAL DIALOGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan-Luca VLAD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This piece begins by illustrating the current status of United Nations targeted sanctions regimes, from the formal point of view. It then proceeds to explain the mechanisms of listing and de-listing at the UN level, as well as the means by which UN Member States, and the European Union, implement these sanctions in their national (regional legal orders, and why the chosen means of implementation create potential situations where the states (the EU might find themselves in breach of differing international obligations. In the final part, the article shows how the major international European courts (the Court of Justice of the European Union and the European Court of Human Rights have dealt with this potential conflict, and posits that their approaches are very different and will have different consequences: i.e. whereas the CJEU has taken a militant approach, which threatens to damage the unity of international law, the ECtHR has taken an unitary approach, which strengthens the international system, while also promoting human rights over sanctions.

  20. Organizational Learning in Schools under Sanction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara S. Finnigan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus on “school turnaround” has become central to policy and practice in the United States as a result of school accountability, yet little remains known about school improvement under sanction. This study uses theories of organizational learning to understand the processes through which educators search for and adopt reform strategies, as well as the extent to which these schools’ organizational culture and climate are conducive to this type of learning. Our mixed methods study involves document analysis, intensive case studies, and a survey of teachers in schools under sanction in a large urban school district in the USA. We found limited evidence of organizational learning, and instead evidence suggested superficial use of restructuring planning, rare diagnoses of root causes of low performance, and limited engagement in learning processes of school staff. In addition, schools relied on exploitation resulting in the recycling of previous practices. In part, the limited organizational learning in evidence was the result of structures and climates within these low-performing schools that inhibited a more learning-oriented approach to reform. Our study has implications for school improvement under accountability policies as it uncovers important challenges that limit organizational learning and, as a result, school improvement under sanction.

  1. Public goods and voting on formal sanction schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putterman, Louis; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl; Kamei, Kenju

    2011-01-01

    The burgeoning literature on the use of sanctions to support the provision of public goods has largely neglected the use of formal or centralized sanctions. We let subjects playing a linear public goods game vote on the parameters of a formal sanction scheme capable of either resolving or exacerb......The burgeoning literature on the use of sanctions to support the provision of public goods has largely neglected the use of formal or centralized sanctions. We let subjects playing a linear public goods game vote on the parameters of a formal sanction scheme capable of either resolving...... or exacerbating the free-rider problem, depending on parameter settings. Most groups quickly learned to choose parameters inducing efficient outcomes. We find that cooperative orientation, political attitude, gender and intelligence have a small but sometimes significant influence on voting....

  2. 76 FR 70544 - OFAC Implementation of Certain Sanctions Imposed on Seven Persons by the Secretary of State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ..., Petrochemical Commercial Company International, Royal Oyster Group, ] Speedy Ship, and Tanker Pacific Management... International Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701-1706), to implement certain of the sanctions imposed... prohibit any United States financial institution from making loans or providing credits to a person...

  3. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of economics, and presents educational resources for teaching basics to children. Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources, as well as activities which focus on economics are described. Includes short features on related topics, and the subtopics of trade, money and banking, and…

  4. Biological and Chemical Weapons: Criminal Sanctions and Federal Regulations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Michael J

    2004-01-01

    .... In accordance with these obligations, the United States has enacted various federal requirements and criminal sanctions applying to biological and chemical weapons, Re cent anti4errorisrn legislation...

  5. Employer Sanctions and the Wages of Mexican Immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brownell

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Wage differences between authorized and unauthorized Mexican immigrants can be explained by human capital factors prior to the 1986 passage of employer sanctions, which prohibited knowingly hiring unauthorized aliens. However, a significant post-1986 wage differential has been interpreted as employers “passing along” expected costs of sanctions through lower wages for unauthorized immigrants. I test this explanation using administrative data on employer sanctions enforcement, finding employer sanctions enforcement levels are related to Mexican immigrants’ wages but have no statistically significant differential effect based on legal status. Estimated savings to employers due to the pay gap are orders of magnitude larger than actual fines.

  6. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  7. How Has Saddam Hussein Survived? Economic Sanctions, 1990-1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    construction equipment and vehicles, and some mineral products. These countries now permit the entry of merchandise worth millions of dollars a week. o...elite. such as the right to shop in the April 2X Supermarkets . In July 1991, prices in those markets were .125 diniars for 301 eggs compared to 12 dinars

  8. Sanctions, War, Occupation and the De-Development of Education in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santisteban, Agustín Velloso De

    2005-01-01

    In August 1990, the United Nations Security Council imposed economic sanctions on Iraq. These ended in May 2003. Ever since that same month, in which the war launched by Coalition Forces against Iraq ended, the country has been under occupation. The education system, one of the best in the Arab world 15 years ago, has been seriously affected by both the sanctions and the war. The present study explores how these factors have reversed previous educational achievements and rendered the education system unable to fulfil its missions. It also shows how continued instability and widespread violence gravely impede the reconstruction of the education system. In sum, while the Iraqis themselves are now responsible, under international law, for deciding on and implementing reconstruction policies, this has still not been taking place under occupation.

  9. Alcohol Use and Drinking Motives among Sanctioned and Nonsanctioned Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumas, Diana M.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined differences in the relationship of drinking motives to drinking behavior among sanctioned and nonsanctioned 1st-year students (N = 298). Results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that for both sanctioned and nonsanctioned students, alcohol use was predicted by social and enhancement motives, and alcohol-related…

  10. Unilateral trade sanctions as a means to combat human rights ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some developed countries have used unilateral trade sanctions against governments that have allegedly been engaged in gross violations of human rights as a tool to force such governments to comply with basic human rights standards. Even though unilateral trade sanctions might be targeted against governments that ...

  11. Sanctions Connected to Dress Code Violations in Secondary School Handbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Jane E.; Freeburg, Elizabeth W.; Lentz-Hees, Elizabeth S.

    2004-01-01

    This study identifies and evaluates sanctions for dress code violations in secondary school handbooks. Sanctions, or consequences for breaking rules, vary along seven interrelated dimensions: source, formality, retribution, obtrusiveness, magnitude, severity, and pervasiveness. A content analysis of handbooks from 155 public secondary schools…

  12. 77 FR 45897 - Authorizing Additional Sanctions With Respect to Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... gas, liquefied natural gas, biofuels, methanol, and other non-petroleum fuels; (m) the term... Government as a condition for the export or reexport of goods or technology to the sanctioned person; (c... of goods, technology, or services, directly or indirectly, into the United States from the sanctioned...

  13. 45 CFR 681.31 - Are there sanctions for misconduct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Are there sanctions for misconduct? 681.31 Section 681.31 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES ACT REGULATIONS Hearing Procedures § 681.31 Are there sanctions for...

  14. Sectoral Sanctions: The Long Arm of Coercive Diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Mark Daniel

    In the conflicts with Russia and Iran, Western countries are using sanctions as a core instrument of international politics. It is still unclear whether sanctions against the finance and energy sector contributed to the diplomatic breakthrough with Iran. However, it is hoped that such measures ca...

  15. THIRD PARTY SANCTIONS IN GAMES WITH COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obłój Jan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the relation between communication and preservation of social norms guarded by third-party sanctions. In 2001 Jonathan Bendor and Piotr Swistak derived deductively the existence of such norms from a simple boundedly rational choice model. Their analysis was based on a perfect public information case. We take into account communication and analyse at the micro level the process of production and interpretation of information on which decisions are based. We show that when information is fully private and we allow for communication a state of anomie can result. If some social control mechanisms are available, social stability can be maintained. The less efficient the social control mechanisms however, the more restrictive rules will be needed to sustain the social norms. Furthermore not all cognitive strategies for interpreting received messages are equally effective. Strategies based on reputation are better than strategies based on profit analysis.

  16. Registered criminality and sanctioning of schizophrenia patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkner, Runa; Haastrup, Soeren; Joergensen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia have been shown to have an increased risk of criminality, especially violent crimes. AIMS: The aim of the current study was to describe the pattern of crimes committed by Danish patients with schizophrenia and examine the sanctions given for crimes...... in relation to the different periods in the patients' lives: not yet known to the psychiatric hospital system, known to the system but not yet diagnosed with schizophrenia, and after being diagnosed with schizophrenia. METHODS: Information from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register was correlated...... with data from the Danish National Crime Register. RESULTS: One of the more prominent findings was that 16% of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia receive a prison sentence or a suspended prison sentence, despite the fact that Denmark is a co-signatory of the European Prison Rules and should treat, rather...

  17. THE COURT’S COMPETENCE TO DISMISS THE SUPPLEMENTARY SANCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia IOVĂNAȘ

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available According to art. 34 par. 1 from the UGO no. 34/2001, the court settling the complaint against the offence notice, verifying the legality and substantiality of same, decides on the sanction without distinguishing between the main and the supplementary sanctions. From corroborating these legal provisions with the stipulations under art. 5 from the same normative act, according to which the established sanction must be proportional with the degree of social danger of the committed act, without making differences between the types of sanctions, as well as those of art. 5 and art. 6 according to which the supplementary sanctions are to be applied depending on the nature and seriousness of the fact, it results that the law enforcer has also decided on the right of the court to assess inclusively the proportionality of the sanction in case of applying the supplementary measures, not only in applying main sanctions. And this is so because the proportionality of the committed act and its consequences is one of the requirements demanded by the ECHR jurisprudence in the matter of applying any rights restrictive measures.

  18. 42 CFR 1004.110 - Notice of sanction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... sanction report; (2) QIOs in adjacent areas; (3) State Medicaid fraud control units and State licensing and...) Medical societies and other professional organizations; and (7) Medicare carriers and fiscal...

  19. Achieving compliance when legal sanctions are non-deterrent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyran, Jean-Robert; Feld, Lars P.

    2006-01-01

    Law backed by nondeterrent sanctions (mild law) has been hypothesized to achieve compliance because of norm activation. We experimentally investigate the effects of mild law in the provision of public goods by comparing it to severe law (deterrent sanctions) and no law. The results show that exog......Law backed by nondeterrent sanctions (mild law) has been hypothesized to achieve compliance because of norm activation. We experimentally investigate the effects of mild law in the provision of public goods by comparing it to severe law (deterrent sanctions) and no law. The results show...... that exogenously imposing mild law does not achieve compliance, but compliance is much improved if mild law is endogenously chosen, i.e., selfimposed. We show that voting for mild law induces expectations of cooperation, and that people tend to comply with the law if they expect many others to do so...

  20. Impacts of international sanctions on Iranian pharmaceutical market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghali, Abdol Majid

    2013-07-31

    Iran in recent decade faced several regional and international sanctions in foreign trade, financial and banking services. Iran national pharmaceutical industry has always played a major role in providing medicines to the Iranian patients. However, following the sanctions it has faced profound difficulties for importing of both finished products and pharmaceutical raw materials. Although medicines are exempted from sanctions, due to restriction on money transaction and proper insurance Iranian pharmaceutical companies have to pay cash in advance for imports of medicines and raw materials or to secure offshore funds at very high risks. Current situation in Iran pharmaceutical market confirms that the sanctions against Iran are affecting ordinary citizens and national health sector which resulted to reduction of availability of lifesaving medicines in the local market and has caused increasing pain and suffering for Iranian patients.

  1. Impacts of International Sanctions on Iranian Pharmaceutical Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol Majid Cheraghali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Iran in recent decade faced several regional and international sanctions in foreign trade, financial and banking services. Iran national pharmaceutical industry has always played a major role in providing medicines to the Iranian patients. However, following the sanctions it has faced profound difficulties for importing of both finished products and pharmaceutical raw materials. Although medicines are exempted from sanctions, due to restriction on money transaction and proper insurance Iranian pharmaceutical companies have to pay cash in advance for imports of medicines and raw materials or to secure offshore funds at very high risks. Current situation in Iran pharmaceutical market confirms that the sanctions against Iran are affecting ordinary citizens and national health sector which resulted to reduction of availability of lifesaving medicines in the local market and has caused increasing pain and suffering for Iranian patients.

  2. United Nations Sanctions Against Iraq and Iraq's Current Military Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brackett, Steven

    2001-01-01

    The United Nations Sanctions against Iraq from 1990 to 2000 have had little impact on Iraq's weapons of mass destruction capabilities in researching and developing nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons...

  3. The Effect of Sanctions on the Job Finding Rate: Evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael

    This paper investigates the effect of sanctions of unemployment insurance benefits on the exit rate from unemployment for a sample of Danish unemployed. According to the findings are that even moderate sanctions have rather large effects. For both males and females the exit rate increases by more...... to sanctions than others. Finally, the analysis suggests that men react ex ante to the risk of being sanctioned in the sense that men who face higher sanction risk leave unemployment faster....

  4. Environment: the invisible victim of sanctions against Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Khatami, Sina

    2014-01-01

    The present article is a translation—to Farsi—of an article by Dr. Kaveh Madani (lecturer in Environmental Management at the Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London) and Nazanin Soroush (Middle East political analyst), entitled "Every breath you take: the environmental consequences of Iran sanctions", published in The Guardian 21 November 2014. The article discusses how both the imposer and the target of sanctions overlook the environmental consequences. Althoug...

  5. Centralized sanctioning and legitimate authority promote cooperation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarri, Delia; Grossman, Guy

    2011-07-05

    Social sanctioning is widely considered a successful strategy to promote cooperation among humans. In situations in which individual and collective interests are at odds, incentives to free-ride induce individuals to refrain from contributing to public goods provision. Experimental evidence from public goods games shows that when endowed with sanctioning powers, conditional cooperators can discipline defectors, thus leading to greater levels of cooperation. However, extant evidence is based on peer punishment institutions, whereas in complex societies, systems of control are often centralized: for instance, we do not sanction our neighbors for driving too fast, the police do. Here we show the effect of centralized sanctioning and legitimate authority on cooperation. We designed an adaptation of the public goods game in which sanctioning power is given to a single monitor, and we experimentally manipulated the process by which the monitor is chosen. To increase the external validity of the study, we conducted lab-in-the-field experiments involving 1,543 Ugandan farmers from 50 producer cooperatives. This research provides evidence of the effectiveness of centralized sanctioning and demonstrates the causal effect of legitimacy on cooperation: participants are more responsive to the authority of an elected monitor than a randomly chosen monitor. Our essay contributes to the literature on the evolution of cooperation by introducing the idea of role differentiation. In complex societies, cooperative behavior is not only sustained by mechanisms of selection and reciprocity among peers, but also by the legitimacy that certain actors derive from their position in the social hierarchy.

  6. Culturally sanctioned suicide: Euthanasia, seppuku, and terrorist martyrdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Joseph M

    2015-03-22

    Suicide is one of the greatest concerns in psychiatric practice, with considerable efforts devoted to prevention. The psychiatric view of suicide tends to equate it with depression or other forms of mental illness. However, some forms of suicide occur independently of mental illness and within a framework of cultural sanctioning such that they aren't regarded as suicide at all. Despite persistent taboos against suicide, euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the context of terminal illness is increasingly accepted as a way to preserve autonomy and dignity in the West. Seppuku, the ancient samurai ritual of suicide by self-stabbing, was long considered an honorable act of self-resolve such that despite the removal of cultural sanctioning, the rate of suicide in Japan remains high with suicide masquerading as seppuku still carried out both there and abroad. Suicide as an act of murder and terrorism is a practice currently popular with Islamic militants who regard it as martyrdom in the context of war. The absence of mental illness and the presence of cultural sanctioning do not mean that suicide should not be prevented. Culturally sanctioned suicide must be understood in terms of the specific motivations that underlie the choice of death over life. Efforts to prevent culturally sanctioned suicide must focus on alternatives to achieve similar ends and must ultimately be implemented within cultures to remove the sanctioning of self-destructive acts.

  7. Culturally sanctioned suicide: Euthanasia, seppuku, and terrorist martyrdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is one of the greatest concerns in psychiatric practice, with considerable efforts devoted to prevention. The psychiatric view of suicide tends to equate it with depression or other forms of mental illness. However, some forms of suicide occur independently of mental illness and within a framework of cultural sanctioning such that they aren’t regarded as suicide at all. Despite persistent taboos against suicide, euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the context of terminal illness is increasingly accepted as a way to preserve autonomy and dignity in the West. Seppuku, the ancient samurai ritual of suicide by self-stabbing, was long considered an honorable act of self-resolve such that despite the removal of cultural sanctioning, the rate of suicide in Japan remains high with suicide masquerading as seppuku still carried out both there and abroad. Suicide as an act of murder and terrorism is a practice currently popular with Islamic militants who regard it as martyrdom in the context of war. The absence of mental illness and the presence of cultural sanctioning do not mean that suicide should not be prevented. Culturally sanctioned suicide must be understood in terms of the specific motivations that underlie the choice of death over life. Efforts to prevent culturally sanctioned suicide must focus on alternatives to achieve similar ends and must ultimately be implemented within cultures to remove the sanctioning of self-destructive acts. PMID:25815251

  8. Asset Freezing: Smart Sanction or Criminal Charge?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter de Zanger

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article the question is asked whether asset freezing can be qualified as a criminal charge within the meaning of Article6 ECHR and if yes, what effects this qualification may have on the legislative framework on so called smart sanctions. Byanalysing Community and EU law and case law of the European Court of Human Rights, General Court of Instance andCourt of Justice of the European Communities the authors give an overview of the notion and possible qualification of assetfreezing as a criminal charge. The article further focusses on the consequenses of qualifying asset freezing as a criminal chargeunder ECHR and EC/EU law and concludes by answering the aforementioned question.This article is a rewrite of a research paper written under supervision of prof. dr. J.A.E. Vervaele and prof. dr. C.H. Brants(Willem Pompe Institute for Criminal Law and Criminology, Utrecht University School of Law, whom the authors wouldlike to thank for their useful comments and supervision.

  9. The impact of financial sanctions on the Russian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evsey Gurvich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of the current Western financial sanctions on the Russian economy. Modeling the capital flow components (accounting for the influence of other factors, including falling oil prices reveals that sanctions have directly affected sanctioned state-controlled banks, oil, gas and arms companies by severely constraining foreign funding and have indirectly affected non-sanctioned companies by reducing inflows of foreign direct investment and causing funding conditions to deteriorate. The overall negative effect on gross capital inflow over 2014–2017 is estimated at approximately $280bn. However, the effect on net capital inflow is significantly lower ($160–170bn due to Russian companies’ self-adjustment, which is evidenced by their utilization of foreign assets accumulated earlier for debt repayment and an overall decrease in gross capital outflow. The sanctions’ estimated effect on GDP is significant (–2.4 p.p. by 2017, compared with a hypothetical scenario with no sanctions but 3.3 times lower than the estimated effects of the oil price shock.

  10. Article 260 TFEU Sanctions in Multi-Tiered Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandenbruwaene Werner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The question at hand is located at the intersection of EU law and national constitutional law, and aims to answer the following problem: namely, how to mitigate federal concerns in the context of infringement procedures and financial sanctions under art. 260 TFEU. This article approaches this question both from the perspective of the Commission and the Court of Justice, as well as from the vantage point of the central and regional governments involved. After analysing the composition of the financial sanctions, we cover the involvement of subnational entities in the infringements proceedings in six tiered Member States (Austria, Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK and the relevant national provisions for the partition of financial sanctions. The conclusions pertain to both the central and regional level and the EU institutions concerned, adhering to the multi-level relationship subjacent to this article.

  11. When god sanctions killing: effect of scriptural violence on aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushman, Brad J; Ridge, Robert D; Das, Enny; Key, Colin W; Busath, Gregory L

    2007-03-01

    Violent people often claim that God sanctions their actions. In two studies, participants read a violent passage said to come from either the Bible or an ancient scroll. For half the participants, the passage said that God sanctioned the violence. Next, participants competed with an ostensible partner on a task in which the winner could blast the loser with loud noise through headphones (the aggression measure). Study 1 involved Brigham Young University students; 99% believed in God and in the Bible. Study 2 involved Vrije Universiteit-Amsterdam students; 50% believed in God, and 27% believed in the Bible. In Study 1, aggression increased when the passage was from the Bible or mentioned God. In Study 2, aggression increased when the passage mentioned God, especially among participants who believed in God and in the Bible. These results suggest that scriptural violence sanctioned by God can increase aggression, especially in believers.

  12. Considerations on replacing and suspending disciplinary sanctions. The issue of granting compensation for ungrounded or unlawful disciplinary sanctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbu VLAD

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Court's ability to replace the disciplinary sanction imposed by the employer with an easier one is the power to individualize employee's disciplinary sanction imposed by the general statutory criteria – the circumstances of committing the crime, the degree of culpability of the employee consequences of a disciplinary offence, the general behaviour of the employee and any disciplinary sanctions previously incurred. Another issue under discussion and which was not brought about a unified point of view is about the possibility of temporary suspension of disciplinary decision enforcement, pending resolution of the challenge which the court was invested with. This is why it's necessary the intervention of the legislator as statuary express the legal nature of the disciplinary decision. In all cases where the court ordered the annulment of illegality punish the employee who suffered an injury will receive compensation under article 52, paragraph 2, article 78 or, where appropriate, article 269 paragraph 1 of the Labour Code.

  13. Athletes' perceptions of anti-doping sanctions: the ban from sport versus social, financial and self-imposed sanctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overbye, Marie Birch; Elbe, Anne-Marie; Knudsen, Mette Lykke

    2015-01-01

    Today the main doping deterrence strategy is to ban athletes from sport if caught. This study examines whether Danish elite athletes perceive the ban as a deterrent and how they evaluate social, self-imposed and financial sanctions compared with the ban. Questionnaires were emailed to elite...... athletes from 40 sports (N = 645; response rate, 43%). Results showed that 78% of athletes regarded the ban as a deterrent. Older male athletes, however, did so to a lesser degree. Seventy-seven per cent, regardless of gender, age, sport type and previous experience of doping testing, viewed social...... sanctions as a greater deterrent than the ban. Many also considered self-imposed sanctions (54%) and financial consequences (47%) a greater deterrent. Four per cent considered neither the ban nor the presented alternatives a deterrent. The findings indicate that the ban from sport deters doping...

  14. State or nature? Endogenous formal versus informal sanctions in the voluntary provision of public goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamei, Kenju; Putterman, Louis; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the endogenous formation of sanctioning institutions supposed to improve efficiency in the voluntary provision of public goods. Our paper parallels Markussen et al. (Rev Econ Stud 81:301–324, 2014) in that our experimental subjects vote over formal versus informal sanctions...... the latter entails such a cost. Practice improves the performance of sanction schemes: they become more targeted and deterrent with learning. Voters’ characteristics, including their tendency to engage in perverse informal sanctioning, help to predict individual voting....

  15. When do severe sanctions enhance compliance? The role of procedural fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboon, Peter; van Dijke, Marius

    2011-01-01

    Building on theoretical notions that severe sanctions (more than mild ones) can communicate that sanctioned behavior is morally unacceptable, we argued that particularly authorities who enact the sanction procedures in a fair manner stimulate compliance with their decisions. This is because such

  16. What Deters Crime? Comparing the Effectiveness of Legal, Social, and Internal Sanctions Across Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Heather; Garcia-Rada, Ximena; Hornuf, Lars; Tafurt, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The question of what deters crime is of both theoretical and practical interest. The present paper focuses on what factors deter minor, non-violent crimes, i.e., dishonest actions that violate the law. Much research has been devoted to testing the effectiveness of legal sanctions on crime, while newer models also include social sanctions (judgment of friends or family) and internal sanctions (feelings of guilt). Existing research suggests that both internal sanctions and, to a lesser extent, legal sanctions deter crime, but it is unclear whether this pattern is unique to Western countries or robust across cultures. We administered a survey study to participants in China, Colombia, Germany, Portugal, and USA, five countries from distinct cultural regions of the world. Participants were asked to report the likelihood of engaging in seven dishonest and illegal actions, and were asked to indicate the probability and severity of consequences for legal, friend, family, and internal sanctions. Results indicated that across countries, internal sanctions had the strongest deterrent effects on crime. The deterrent effects of legal sanctions were weaker and varied across countries. Furthermore, the deterrent effects of legal sanctions were strongest when internal sanctions were lax. Unexpectedly, social sanctions were positively related to likelihood of engaging in crime. Taken together, these results suggest that the relative strengths of legal and internal sanctions are robust across cultures and dishonest actions.

  17. What Deters Crime? Comparing the Effectiveness of Legal, Social, and Internal Sanctions Across Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather eMann

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The question of what deters crime is of both theoretical and practical interest. The present paper focuses on what factors deter minor, non-violent crimes, i.e. dishonest actions that violate the law. Much research has been devoted to testing the effectiveness of legal sanctions on crime, while newer models also include social sanctions (judgment of friends or family and internal sanctions (feelings of guilt. Existing research suggests that both internal sanctions and, to a lesser extent, legal sanctions deter crime, but it is unclear whether this pattern is unique to Western countries or robust across cultures. We administered a survey study to participants in China, Colombia, Germany, Portugal, and USA, five countries from distinct cultural regions of the world. Participants were asked to report the likelihood of engaging in seven dishonest and illegal actions, and were asked to indicate the probability and severity of consequences for legal, friend, family, and internal sanctions. Results indicated that across countries, internal sanctions had the strongest deterrent effects on crime. The deterrent effects of legal sanctions were weaker and varied across countries. Furthermore, the deterrent effects of legal sanctions were strongest when internal sanctions were lax. Unexpectedly, social sanctions were positively related to likelihood of engaging in crime. Taken together, these results suggest that the relative strengths of legal and internal sanctions are robust across cultures and dishonest actions.

  18. 76 FR 58202 - TRICARE; TRICARE Sanction Authority for Third-Party Billing Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ... authority under 32 CFR 199.9 to invoke sanctions in situations involving fraud or abuse on the part of... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 199 RIN 0720-AB49 TRICARE; TRICARE Sanction Authority for Third-Party... authority to sanction third-party billing agents by invoking the administrative remedy of exclusion or...

  19. The United Nations sanctions against insurgents in Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On 22nd May, 2014, the United Nations Security Council (UNSC), at the request of Nigeria, imposed sanctions on Boko Haram, an insurgent group operating in Nigeria. This was in response to a spate of attacks, bombings, killings and kidnappings perpetrated by the group. The United Nations is endowed with tools to deal ...

  20. 42 CFR 438.700 - Basis for imposition of sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.700 Basis for imposition of... among enrollees on the basis of their health status or need for health care services. This includes termination of enrollment or refusal to reenroll a recipient, except as permitted under the Medicaid program...

  1. How Effective are Unemployment Benefit Sanctions? Looking Beyond Unemployment Exit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arni, P.; Lalive, R.; van Ours, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of benefit sanctions, i.e. temporary reductions in unemployment benefits as punishment for noncompliance with eligibility requirements. In addition to the effects on unemployment durations, we evaluate the effects on post-unemployment employment

  2. 76 FR 7695 - Iranian Human Rights Abuses Sanctions Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Part 562 Iranian Human Rights Abuses Sanctions Regulations AGENCY.... The Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control is issuing the Iranian Human Rights... PROPERTY OF CERTAIN PERSONS WITH RESPECT TO SERIOUS HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSES BY THE GOVERNMENT OF IRAN AND...

  3. How effective are unemployment benefit sanctions? Looking beyond unemployment exit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arni, P.; Lalive, R.; van Ours, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of benefit sanctions on post-unemployment outcomes such as post-unemployment employment stability and earnings. We use rich register data which allow us to distinguish between a warning that a benefit reduction may take place in the near

  4. 12 CFR 336.8 - Sanctions and remedial actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sanctions and remedial actions. 336.8 Section 336.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL... terminated consistent with applicable procedures and prohibited from providing future services for or on...

  5. China's potential for economic coercion in the South China sea disputes: a comparative study of the Philippines and Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Ravindran, Madhu Sudan

    2012-01-01

    "With tensions rising in the South China Sea, China’s use of its economic leverage over Southeast Asian countries has recently come into focus. With increasing economic and trade ties between China and Southeast Asia, the question being asked is whether China can successfully impose economic sanctions to gain policy concessions in the South China Sea disputes. This paper examines China's relations with the Philippines and Vietnam and analyses the possibility of a successful economic sanction ...

  6. Imprescribility of the action and the disciplinary sanction by violation of human rigths and infractions to the humanitarian international right.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Milena Daza-Márquez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article puts forward an analysis of the problem of the imprescriptibility of action and disciplinary sanctions for grave violations of human rights and international humanitarian law, committed by civil servants, particularly, members of the Military Forces and the National Police. The study deals with the regulation of disciplinary action for grave conduct within the disciplinary regime applicable to the Public Forces over the past thirty years and in the current Code of Practice on Disciplinary and Grievance Proceedures. I also illustrate the legal, political, social and economic consequences—for the Colombian State—of investigation and disciplinary sanctions for crimes against humanity or war crimes being ommitted or delayed through negligence of State offi- cials. The declaration of a prescription may be considered a means to impunity for administrative sanctions and, in turn, provides proof of the State’s failure to comply with International committments that guarantee and protect Human Rights and International Humanitarian Law. Finally, given the controversy regarding diciplinary imprescriptibility, this paper proposes a llegal reform which extends the term of prescription in order to preserve the rights of victims and the disciplined.

  7. The EU and the International Sanctions against Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In July 2015 an agreement on the so-called Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action regarding Iran’s nuclear program was announced between Iran and the permanent members of the UNSC, Germany and the EU. The Iranian decision to comply with the results of the negotiations attracted much focus, both...... at the policy level and in scholarly debates. However, the foreign and security policy interests and possibilities of Iran in the MENA region have not been discussed very intensively, nor has there been much attention paid to how the international actors and in particular the EU were able to influence...... the Iranian policies and decisions. This article seeks to take up this challenge: firstly by analyzing to what degree the sanctions influenced the Iranian decisions on the nuclear issue; and secondly, by discussing how the sanctions regime affected the relations between Iran and the international actors...

  8. Sanctions under GATT article XIX versus voluntary export restraints

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Franz Peter

    1988-01-01

    Voluntary export restraints play a substantial part in international trade today. This article compares the effects such restraints have upon certain exporting countries with the effect of sanctions applied under Article XIX of the GATT. It is shown that the microeconomic protectionism analysis used as a basis for the current debate on the reform of the GATT is unable to provide a conclusive answer as to which variant of protectionism would be preferable from the exporting economies' point of...

  9. ECONOMY, ECONOMICS, ECONOMIC, ECONOMICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sim Monica Ariana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To speak and understand a language means - among many other things - knowing the words of that language. The average speaker knows, hears, understands and uses thousands of words daily. But does he use them appropriately? That is why this paper is about words and meanings. More specifically, it deals with the internal structure of complex words, i.e. derivatives. The purpose of the paper is to enable students and potentially other individuals dealing with English language on business basis to engage in their own analyses of some aspects of the language, namely the family tree of the word economy. After having read the paper, the reader should be familiar with the necessary knowledge regarding differences between meanings, misuse and actual sense of words deriving from economy, be able to systematically analyze data and relate his own findings on theoretical language problems. English is used by hundreds of millions speakers and still there is always need for improving our knowledge continuously. Knowing and speaking approximate English may not be enough at an advanced level as in the case of students who prepare themselves for careers that involve proficient communication in a foreign language on specific business issues. This is where the idea of such a paper appeared: students of the Faculty of Economic Sciences talk about economy and all the other terms deriving from it, with approximate knowledge of their meaning, without even being aware that some ‘minor' suffixes like –ic, -ical, -ics etc. really matter and do make a difference. Consequently, we started our teaching of Business English lecture in September 2012 with a working sheet based on the terms economic/ economical/ economics/ economy to assess students' awareness of these terms. The result was not a surprise as more than 90% misused economical instead of economic. That seemed a perfect introduction for students in economics. From that moment on, the building of their specific

  10. [Sanctions against fraudsters and the situation of whistleblowers with respect to the law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret-Bailly, Joël

    2012-09-01

    Those who commit fraud should compensate their victims for the damage. Plagiarism and dissemination of faked products could lead to criminal sanctions. Intellectual fraud does not systematically lead to criminal sanctions. Those who commit fraud can be sanctioned by disciplinary committees. When an employee discover a violation of the research standards, he is not obliged to call the prosecutor. Whistleblowers, in the public health field, are not protected by labour law. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Immigration Reform and the Earnings of Latino Workers: Do Employer Sanctions Cause Discrimination?

    OpenAIRE

    BANSAK, CYNTHIA A; Raphael, Steven

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates whether employer sanctions for hiring undocumented workers introduced by the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) adversely affected the hourly earnings of Latino workers in the southwestern United States. We exploit the staggering of the sanctions and employee verification requirements across sectors to estimate this effect. In particular, IRCA’s employer-sanctions provisions were not extended to agricultural employers until 2 years after their imposition on...

  12. The impact of defensiveness and incident reactions on post-sanction drinking behaviors among mandated students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Diane E; Lewis, Melissa A; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Kilmer, Jason R; Larimer, Mary E

    2015-09-01

    Prior studies with mandated students (students referred for an intervention following violation of a campus alcohol policy) have suggested that decreases in drinking behaviors may occur before clinical intervention. Others studies have suggested that greater reductions were associated with lower defensiveness and stronger incident reactions, such as responsibility and aversiveness. The current study sought to integrate these findings and examine the influence of pre-sanction drinking and perceptions on mandated students' post-sanction drinking levels prior to attending a brief intervention. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal study of brief interventions in a mandated student sample (N=61, 43% female, 97% White). Participants completed demographic measures, scales measuring incident reactions and defensiveness, and a Time Line Follow Back assessing drinking quantity and frequency both pre- and post-sanction. Analyses revealed significant post-sanction decreases in quantity (average total drinks per month) and frequency (number of monthly drinking days). Pre-sanction drinking quantity and frequency significantly predicted post-sanction quantity and frequency, respectively. Interaction effects suggest higher post-sanction quantities among moderate and heavier drinkers with higher defensiveness and lower aversiveness perceptions, while perceptions did not influence outcomes among light drinkers. None of the interactions involving blame or responsibility, or predicting post-sanction frequency, were significant. These findings suggest a complex relationship between pre-sanction drinking and student reactions. Implications for mandated student interactions and future research directions are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. On sanction-goal justifications: How and why deterrence justifications undermine rule compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooijman, Marlon; van Dijk, Wilco W; van Dijk, Eric; Ellemers, Naomi

    2017-04-01

    Authorities frequently justify their sanctions as attempts to deter people from rule breaking. Although providing a sanction justification seems appealing and harmless, we propose that a deterrence justification decreases the extent to which sanctions are effective in promoting rule compliance. We develop a theoretical model that specifies how and why this occurs. Consistent with our model, 5 experiments demonstrated that-compared with sanctions provided without a justification or sanctions provided with a just-deserts justification-sanction effectiveness decreased when sanctions were justified as attempts to deter people from rule breaking. This effect was mediated by people feeling distrusted by the authority. We further demonstrated that (a) the degree to which deterrence fostered distrust was attenuated when the sanction was targeted at others (instead of the participant) and (b) the degree to which distrust undermined rule compliance was attenuated when the authority was perceived as legitimate. We discuss the practical implications for authorities tasked with promoting rule compliance, and the theoretical implications for the literature on sanctions, distrust, and rule compliance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Russia’s Sanctions Narrative in the Ukrainian Crisis: Implications for the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Joao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines Russia's discursive reaction to sanctions imposed by the West during the Ukrainian crisis. By portraying sanctions as a new form of containment, the Kremlin has been able to rally public opinion behind a narrative framing the crisis as the consequence of Western hegemonic ambitions against resurgent Russia. Further, withstanding and countering Western sanctions has been presented as a test of Russia's ability to remain a Great Power. As a consequence, even if sanctions were to be lifted, Moscow's relationship with the West would remain deeply problematic. Russia's foreign policy is therefore likely to remain assertive in the years to come.

  15. Decreasing Deforestation in the Southern Brazilian Amazon—The Role of Administrative Sanctions in Mato Grosso State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Queiroz Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest conservation efforts through regulatory enforcement routinely failed to prevent large scale deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon. However, a turning point occurred in 2005, when a combination of unfavorable economic conditions and an unprecedented coordinated effort between governmental institutions resulted in a gradual slowdown in deforestation. The continuation of this deforestation slowdown in an environment of economic recovery and expansion after 2009 suggests that regulatory enforcement achieved a measure of success not experienced before. In this study, the impact of fines, embargoes on rural private properties, and confiscation of means of production and produce on deforestation in the Southern Amazon state of Mato Grosso was considered through regression and GIS-based analyses. It was found that while all three sanctions were negatively correlated with deforestation, there were important differences in their level of enforcement. Embargoes were effectively implemented and showed high deforestation deterrence effectiveness, but the actual collection of the values of fines issued was extremely low, which casts doubts on their actual effectiveness as a deforestation deterrence mechanism. The results suggest that while sanctions for illegal deforestation have played an important role in the slowdown in deforestation, measures to increase the collection of fines issued are urgently needed.

  16. G8 Regional Security Governance through Sanctions and Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kirton

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Why do the Group of Eight (G8 members approve its members’ use of material sanctions in some regional conflicts but military force in others?2 As an informal security institution composed of major democratic powers from North America, Europe and Asia, the G8 has often chosen sanctions, notably on Iran in 1980, Afghanistan in 1980, Sudan in 2004, North Korea in 2006, and Syria in 2011. It has increasingly chosen military force, notably in Iraq in 1990, Kosovo in 1999, the USSR over Afghanistan in 2001, Libya in 2011, and Mali in 2013. Yet the G8’s choice, initiation, commitment, compliance, implementation and effectiveness of both sanctions and force has varied. Force was chosen and used effectively only in the post cold war period, primarily where the target was close to southern Europe. A high relative-capability predominance of G8 members over the target country strongly produces the G8’s choice of force, but a high, direct, deadly threat from the target state to G8 countries does not. Geographic proximity and the connectivity coming from the former colonial relationship between G8 members and the target country only weakly cause the G8 to choose force. Support from the most relevant regional organization – the North Atlantic Treaty Organization – and support from the United Nations in the form of an authorizing UN Security Council or General Assembly resolution have a strong, positive effect on the G8’s choice of force. Accompanying accountability mechanisms from the G8 itself have a variable impact, as leaders’ iteration of the issue at subsequent summits does not increase compliance with G8 commitments on force-related cases, but their foreign ministers’ follow up does to a substantial degree.

  17. Sanctioned social violence: A psychoanalytic view--part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernberg, Otto F

    2003-06-01

    This paper is the first of a series of two that present an effort to systematize the application of psychoanalytic theory of group processes to the outbreak of massive violence. It explores the origins and social amplification of primitive aggression by means of group psychology and mass psychology, and the combined influences of the regressive pull of ideologies, the personality features of social and political leadership, and the triggering impact of historical trauma and social crises. The paper describes a spectrum of narcissistic-paranoid mechanisms that provide a common matrix for the analysis of those aspects of social psychology that co-determine socially sanctioned violence.

  18. The Impact of the Sanctions Made Against Iran on Availability to Asthma Medicines in Tehran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasi, Golbarg; Rashidian, Arash; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Salamzadeh, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the international sanctions on the Central Bank of Iran in 2013 and also accessibility of medicines in this country have received a lot of media coverage. In this study we used the data collected from a group of pharmacies all located in Tehran to assess the potential effects of the banking sanctions on access to asthma medicines. Data were collected from forty community pharmacies in Tehran, using a standard methodology proposed by the WHO and Health Action International. Data were collected in two stages: first before the sanctions were made against the banking system in the summer of 2012, and second after they were in effect in the summer of 2013, and they were analyzed using univariate analysis techniques. Several imported medicines were already in shortage during 2012. As a result of the sanctions, the availability of both imported and locally manufactured asthma medicines decreased by 19% and 42%, respectively. While before the height of the sanctions 60% of the pharmacies could provide all the essential asthma medicines, this number reduced to 28% after the sanctions (p-value: 0.003). While studies about “access to medicines” in Iran prior to 2011 were indicating appropriate access, our findings suggested that the availability of asthma medicines in community pharmacies was already less than ideal in 2012 and declined dramatically after the latest wave of the sanctions. Our findings show the important effects of the sanctions on availability of asthma medications in community pharmacies. PMID:27980593

  19. Targeted or Restrictive: Impact of U.S. and EU Sanctions on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, in 2002, the European Union (EU) imposed sanctions that it officially referred to as restrictive measures against Robert Mugabe and some of his allies. These sanctions were meant to influence a change in the behaviour of the Mugabe regime, particularly in the area of democracy, human rights and the rule of law.

  20. 77 FR 38141 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Iranian Financial Sanctions Regulations Report on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... numbers). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Iranian Financial Sanctions Regulations Report on Closure by U...) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected; (d) ways to... Office of Foreign Assets Control Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Iranian Financial Sanctions...

  1. 78 FR 53038 - Interim Final Determination to Stay and Defer Sanctions; California; San Joaquin Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ... and 24-hour national ambient air quality standards for fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) in the San... business hours with the contact listed in the FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT section. FOR FURTHER... effective on January 9, 2012 and started a sanctions clock for imposition of offset sanctions 18 months...

  2. EU restrictive measures against natural and legal persons: from counterterrorist to third country sanctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckes, C.

    2014-01-01

    The use of targeted sanctions has dramatically increased. The EU runs 29 different sanctions regimes, mainly geographically defined but also including two counterterrorist regimes. These measures are under great judicial pressure: more than 250 natural and legal persons have challenged their

  3. School Social Workers Sanctioned by State Departments of Education and State Licensing Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland-Prom, Kim; Alvarez, Michelle E.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the unprofessional conduct of school social workers who have been sanctioned by state regulatory boards (boards of education and licensing boards). The data represent information from 14 states and the District of Columbia. Results indicate that school social workers are rarely sanctioned at the…

  4. Coercing, Constraining, Signalling : Explaining UN and EU Sanctions after the Cold War

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giumelli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    The costs of military ventures and concern for human rights has increased the importance of international sanctions in the twenty fist century, but our knowledge is still limited in this area. The United Nations sanctions on Libya, Al Qaeda and Rwanda, or the European Union restrictive measures on

  5. 25 CFR 39.412 - What sanctions apply for failure to comply with this subpart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INDIAN SCHOOL EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Accountability § 39.412 What sanctions apply for failure to comply... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What sanctions apply for failure to comply with this... school board; and (2) Notice of final tribal or school board personnel action to the Director of OIEP. ...

  6. The role of sanctions in Australia's residential aged care quality assurance system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Julie M; Howe, Anna

    2010-12-01

    To assess the role of sanctions as the highest level of enforcement in Australia's residential aged care quality assurance (QA) system. of secondary data on accreditation activities and outcomes from 1999-2000 to 2007-08, extracted from the Annual Report on the Aged Care Act 1997. A total of 138 sanctioned homes among all aged care homes in Australia (n = 2830 in 2007-08). Chi-square test of differences between sanctioned and non-sanctioned homes, and z scores to identify variables underlying differences. Sanctions are a rare event as more frequent enforcement actions at lower levels of regulatory action mean that a diminishing number of homes are subject to higher levels of action. Relationships between the risk of sanctions and characteristics of homes (state, size, sector and level of care) were evident. Sanctions provide only limited signals on quality to potential users and do not reflect the full scope of the QA process and the range of quality of care found. The effectiveness of sanctions in contributing to quality improvement has to be seen within the wider regulatory framework, which in turn has to be set in the context of other factors driving quality of care. Quality improvement in Australia and elsewhere will depend on further development of QA systems but will also require attention to wider contextual factors that contribute to quality outcomes, including quality of the aged care workforce.

  7. The Effect of Sanctions and Active Labour Market Programmes on the Exit Rate From Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Svarer, Michael

    optimally select the number of supports point for the distribution of unobserved heterogeneity. Results show that pre-specifying two support points underestimates the effect of sanctions and active labour market programmes. Failing to control for selectivity for sanctions not only underestimates...

  8. 78 FR 12953 - TRICARE; TRICARE Sanction Authority for Third-Party Billing Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 199 RIN 0720-AB49 TRICARE; TRICARE Sanction Authority for Third-Party... final rule will provide the Director, TRICARE Management Activity (TMA), or designee, with the authority... suspension from the TRICARE program. Such sanctions may be invoked in situations involving fraud or abuse on...

  9. 19 CFR 210.33 - Failure to make or cooperate in discovery; sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; sanctions. 210.33 Section 210.33 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Discovery and Compulsory Process... other non-monetary sanction available under Rule 37(b) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure. Any such...

  10. Deterrence's Element of Sanction Certainty: Friendships, Vicarious Experiences, and Underage Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowen, Thomas J; Boman, John H

    2018-01-09

    Underage drinking remains a pressing issue on college campuses across the United States. Though the most common form of addressing underage alcohol use on campuses is through deterrence-based policies, evidence suggests deterrence-based methods are ineffective and may produce negative outcomes. Using dyadic data, the objective of this study is to use a friendship-informed perspective on deterrence theory to examine how an individual's and his/her friend's perceptions of sanction certainty relate to self-reported underage alcohol use. Using multilevel mixed models which fall under the actor-partner interdependence modeling class, results demonstrate that respondents who perceive high levels of sanction certainty drink and heavily use alcohol more frequently than those who perceive low levels of sanction certainty. Additionally, those who have friends who perceive high levels of sanction certainty tend to drink at young ages significantly more frequently and in more dangerous patterns than those who have friends who perceive a low sanction certainty. The dyad members' levels of sanction certainty do not interact in relation to alcohol use. The significant relationships of the friends' sanction certainty support the notion of friendship-based deterrence. However, the consistent positive direction of all sanction certainty measures is the opposite of what deterrence theory hypothesizes. As such, it appears that deterrence is not only ineffective at stopping underage alcohol use on college campuses, but may be harmful due to increased rates of both drinking and high-risk drinking.

  11. The Perceived Effectiveness of Rewards and Sanctions in Primary Schools: Adding in the Parental Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Andy; Ferguson, Eamonn; Simpson, Rachel

    1998-01-01

    Examines parental perspectives on the potency of information being sent home as a powerful reward and sanction for pupils. Surveys inner-city primary school's teachers, pupils, and their parents. Finds parents and children in strong agreement over the effectiveness of school-initiated rewards, but in considerable disagreement over sanctions. (DSK)

  12. Effects of reputational sanctions on the competitive imitation of design innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemser, G.; Wijnberg, N.M.

    2001-01-01

    This study examines whether and under what conditions reputational sanctions are a strong deterrent to imitative firm behaviour. Results indicate that reputational sanctions can be an effective barrier to imitation, in particular when firms perceive a reputation for innovation to be a factor in

  13. Wangedrag van werknemers: de bevoegdheid van werkgevers tot opsporing en sanctionering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Koevoets (Miranda)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe subject of this thesis is misbehaviour of employees. Employers tend to investigate and sanction misbehaviour of employees. This study investigates the question whether there are (sufficient) rules to legitimise investigation and sanctioning by employers (in the Netherlands), and the

  14. Some factors in sanctions for unsportsmanlike behavior of players and coaches in youth soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmedilla, Aurelio; Lozano, Francisco J; Ato, Manuel; Garcés de los Fayos, Enrique; Ortega, Enrique

    2009-06-01

    Reasons and motives for sanctions imposed on players and coaches in youth soccer were examined to evaluate frequency and type of infraction by competition category (Under 12, 13-14, 15-16, and 17-18 years). Analysis of the first 30% of competitions yielded 1,202 sanctions of 340 teams with 6,120 players and 340 coaches. For older groups, the number of sanctions for aggressive conduct by the players was significantly higher; frequency of sanctions imposed on the coaches for disrespect also was significantly higher, and those for aggression were higher although not significantly so; the number of sanctions for disrespect by players was not different. Transgressions of the game rules recorded by officials are a valid representation of a pedagogical factor important for coaches and players. Implementing informative programs for knowledge and conduct of rules is suggested.

  15. The Effect of Sanctions and Active Labour Market Programmes on the Exit Rate From Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Svarer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    ). Hence, modeling only one of them as treatment might over or underestimate the true effect. Therefore, by using a multivariate mixed proportional hazard model (MMPH), we model the hazard rate out of unemployment along with the sanction rate and hazard rate into active labour market programmes. We......This paper simultaneously investigates the effectiveness of benefit sanctions and active labour market programmes on the exit rate from unemployment using Danish data. In the data about one third of the individuals who are sanctioned also participate in some active labour market programmes (ALMPs...... optimally select the number of supports point for the distribution of unobserved heterogeneity. Results show that pre-specifying two support points underestimates the effect of sanctions and active labour market programmes. Failing to control for selectivity for sanctions not only underestimates...

  16. The Size of the Sanction Should Depend on the Weight of the Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    The paper argues that society should vary the sanction applied to acriminal defendant with the weight of the evidence against him or her.This is optimal when it is costly for society to apply sanctions, since it canyield the same degree of deterrence while requiring fewer resources to bespent on ...... sanctions on people, who have committed the sameoffense, and that the legal system will lose legitimacy if it allows sanctionsto vary in the way suggested.......The paper argues that society should vary the sanction applied to acriminal defendant with the weight of the evidence against him or her.This is optimal when it is costly for society to apply sanctions, since it canyield the same degree of deterrence while requiring fewer resources to bespent...

  17. Influence Of Economic Islamization:Economic Mismanagement and Human Rights Abuses In Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    gaining international support for ILSA economic sanctions and trade restrictions. In 2005, President George W. Bush began targeting assets of both...Iranian businesses and individuals suspected of supporting terrorism or proliferating weapons of mass destruction.56 In addition, President Bush ...skyrocketing costs of basic necessities, such as housing, meat , vegetables, etc., have limited consumer choices and accessibility to basic food items. As

  18. 31 CFR 537.411 - Purchase of shares in economic development projects in Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 537.411 Purchase of shares in economic development projects in Burma... Burma of shares of ownership, including an equity interest, in the economic development of resources... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purchase of shares in economic...

  19. 78 FR 2709 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting The Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy (ACIEP) will meet from 2:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. on Wednesday, January 30, 2013, in the Loy... Sanctions Subcommittee, the Subcommittee on Women in International Economic Policy, and the Stakeholder...

  20. Do academically-engaged adolescents experience social sanctions from the peer group?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, David; Kelly, Brynn M; Duong, Mylien T

    2013-09-01

    Existing theoretical perspectives suggest that adolescents who are characterized by high achievement may experience social sanctions from peers. The central premise is that, in many North American settings, adolescent peer groups are characterized by negative attitudes toward the school environment. To test these hypotheses, we examined associations between indicators of low social power (unpopularity and victimization by peers) and academic competence for 415 adolescents (193 boys; 222 girls) attending an urban high school. This school served neighborhoods that were characterized by a moderate degree of economic distress and the students were predominately of Hispanic American descent. A short-term longitudinal design was used, with two waves of data collected over consecutive school years. The adolescents completed a peer nomination inventory assessing relational and overt victimization by peers, unpopularity, and social rejection. In addition, we obtained math and language arts grades from school records, and we assessed behavioral engagement in school with a self-report inventory. Structural equation models did not reveal a strong pattern of longitudinal change in social standing with peers or academic functioning. However, we found positive correlations between academic achievement and problematic peer relationships in both years of the project. We also found evidence that gender moderates these associations, with the effects reaching significance only for boys. Our results provide evidence that, in some settings, high achieving adolescents can be prone to negative treatment or marginalization by peers.

  1. Starvation of children in Syria--sanctions and the politics of revenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Kasturi

    2014-01-01

    As Syria completes two years of western sanctions (2011-13), their dramatic effects on health are being highlighted with first reports of starvation deaths among children in the suburbs of Damascus. Although heavy fighting has taken place in this area, experts had predicted for some time the unworkability of sanctions for regime change, arguing that only civilians would pay the price in a country (Syria in this case) which was once well on the way to meeting the Millennium Development Goals 4 targets on reducing child mortality. In this, as in the case of other "sanctioned" countries, it is not just "civilians" but the most vulnerable among them--children, who are experiencing the tragic consequences of sanctions.

  2. 78 FR 38782 - Lifting of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against Chinese Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Lifting of Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) Proliferation Sanctions Against Chinese Entities AGENCY... Chemical Nonproliferation, Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation, Department of State...

  3. Sentencing in Germany: explaining long-term stability in the structure of criminal sanctions and sentencing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Albrecht, Hans-Jorg

    2013-01-01

      With a separate track of measures of rehabilitation and security, the German system of criminal sanctions provides for a narrow safety valve that very selectively responds to political and public...

  4. Nutritional status of Haitian children, 1978-1995: deleterious consequences of political instability and international sanctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulder-Sibanda Menno

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Results from three national surveys in Haiti suggest that the prevalence of stunting, underweight, and wasting in children fell considerably between 1978 and 1990. In the following four years, rates of stunting and underweight levelled off, while that of wasting nearly doubled. Child nutrition deteriorated dramatically during a period of intense political crisis and international sanctions that included a strictly enforced trade embargo. Human welfare should be monitored whenever international sanctions are imposed to regulate a country's behavior.

  5. Non-sanctioning of illegal tackles in South African youth community rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J C; Boucher, S J; Lambert, M; Viljoen, W; Readhead, C; Hendricks, S; Kraak, W J

    2017-10-23

    The tackle event in rugby union ('rugby') contributes to the majority of players' injuries. Referees can reduce this risk by sanctioning dangerous tackles. A study in elite adult rugby suggests that referees only sanction a minority of illegal tackles. The aim of this study was to assess if this finding was similar in youth community rugby. Observational study. Using EncodePro, 99 South African Rugby Union U18 Youth Week tournament matches were coded between 2011 and 2015. All tackles were coded by a researcher and an international referee to ensure that laws were interpreted correctly. The inter- and intra-rater reliabilities were 0.97-1.00. A regression analysis compared the non-sanctioned rates over time. In total, 12 216 tackles were coded, of which less than 1% (n=113) were 'illegal'. The majority of the 113 illegal tackles were front-on (75%), high tackles (72%) and occurred in the 2nd/4th quarters (29% each). Of the illegal tackles, only 59% were sanctioned. The proportions of illegal tackles and sanctioning of these illegal tackles to all tackles improved by 0.2% per year from 2011-2015 (preferees consistently enforce all laws to enhance injury prevention efforts. Further studies should investigate the reasons for non-sanctioning. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 19 CFR 12.150 - Merchandise prohibited by economic sanctions; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property. 12.150 Section 12.150 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS...; detention; seizure or other disposition; blocked property. (a) Generally. Merchandise from certain countries... the United States shall be detained until the question of its release, seizure, or other disposition...

  7. The United Nations Organization's Economic Sanctions: The case of Iraq and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

    OpenAIRE

    Opara, Augustine Uchenna

    2002-01-01

    Endast sammandrag. Inbundna avhandlingar kan sökas i Helka-databasen (http://www.helsinki.fi/helka). Elektroniska kopior av avhandlingar finns antingen öppet på nätet eller endast tillgängliga i bibliotekets avhandlingsterminaler. Only abstract. Paper copies of master’s theses are listed in the Helka database (http://www.helsinki.fi/helka). Electronic copies of master’s theses are either available as open access or only on thesis terminals in the Helsinki University Library. Vain tiivi...

  8. Transfer of Labour Time on the World Market: Religious Sanctions and Economic Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sandemose, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    ... value of commodities on the world market. A leading idea is that religious outlooks, in the way they were conceptualized by Karl Marx, have a strong bearing upon the difference in labour intensities in countries contributing to the world market, and thereby upon the differences in international values and prices. These differences are...

  9. Invoking the Security Exceptions under GATT: Are Economic Sanctions Eroding the Foundation of the WTO?

    OpenAIRE

    Mustonen, Marika

    2016-01-01

    The national security exception under Article XXI of GATT is a major exception to Members’ obligations under the WTO. However, it has been claimed to be a loophole to the WTO system, and it goes beyond the principles of general international law on lawful suspension of treaty obligations. Throughout the GATT 1947 and WTO practice, from early cases to the case US – Helms-Burton regarding the U.S. embargo against Cuba, it has not yet been resolved whether Article XXI could be subject to the WTO...

  10. SOLVING PROBLEMS IN THE RUSSIAN IMPORT SUBSTITUTION CONDITIONS OF ECONOMIC SANCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Rjahovskaja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes some problems of the Russian economy, including the problem of import substitution, the possible directions of their solutions, the need to identify priorities and priority sectors in the fi rst place, do not compete on the international market, including the production of construction, housing and agriculture. The analysis of agricultural subsidies in Europe,USA,ChinaandRussia, the necessity of repeated increase in the budget allocated to farmers, reducing the tax burden. Studied some of the features of the investment policy ofRussia, developed areas of its adjustment.

  11. Japan’s Positive and Negative Aid Sanctions Policy Toward Asian Countries: Case Studies of Thailand and Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    FURUOKA, Fumitaka

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, Japan’s positive and negative aid sanctions policy toward Asian countries since the introduction of new aid guidelines will be examined and discussed. Japan can choose to impose negative aid sanctions (the suspension or a decrease in foreign aid) on recipient countries where undesirable policy changes occur, while positive aid sanctions (an increase in foreign aid) would be applied to aid recipients that conduct desirable polices in the light of Japan’s ODA Charter. The Japanes...

  12. 31 CFR 537.413 - Sale of interest in economic development projects in Burma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 537.413 Sale of interest in economic development projects in Burma... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale of interest in economic development projects in Burma. 537.413 Section 537.413 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to...

  13. How banking sanctions influence on performance of foreign currency portfolio management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khodaei Valahzaghard

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A good portfolio optimization on banks’ currency holdings not only helps meet their needs but also it increases banks’ total assets. During the past few months, US sanctions against Iran has influenced profitability banking currency portfolio holding. The proposed model of this paper considers the weekly information of two years before and after sanctions occurred in Iranian banking system. Therefore, the study uses 210 weekly data and proposes a method to analyze the data to measure the performance of banking currency portfolio after sanction happens. The proposed model of this paper provides lost profit and unrealized loss and using the idea of Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS we rank the resulted data. Next, we use some parametric and non-parametric methods to see whether there is any change as a result of sanction on the performance of the portfolio. The results indicate that not only the performance of the portfolio was reduced but also the variance of the return after sanction has been increased.

  14. 31 CFR 585.215 - Conveyances and cargo suspected of being in violation of United Nations sanctions; detention...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... being in violation of United Nations sanctions; detention; blocking. 585.215 Section 585.215 Money and... and cargo suspected of being in violation of United Nations sanctions; detention; blocking. (a) Except... § 585.201, but which are suspected of a violation of United Nations Security Council Resolutions No. 713...

  15. 21 CFR 570.13 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... materials prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. 570.13 Section 570.13 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... prior sanctioned for animal feed and pet food. Regulations providing for the use of food packaging... packaging materials used for animal feed and pet food. [42 FR 14091, Mar. 15, 1977] ...

  16. Using Rewards and Sanctions in the Classroom: Pupils' Perceptions of Their Own Responses to Current Behaviour Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The use of systems of rewards and sanctions within behaviour policies has now been adopted formally in UK schools. Such systems potentially represent competing theoretical ideas when considered alongside current approaches to teaching and learning. There is also opportunity for inconsistent use of rewards and sanctions resulting from the absence…

  17. An evaluation of a community service sanction for DWI : the Baton Rouge community service work program. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    This project examined the deterrent impact of community service as sanction for DWI offenders during a one-year study in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Since 1983, virtually all DWI offenders in Baton Rouge have been given community service as a sanction in...

  18. Cultural Production as a Strategy for Social Sanction in Yoruba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The typical Akiba festival singer has the opinion that he is performing a social, rather than a religious function. People take the advantage of the festival to socialize and meditate on the socio-economic development of the community. Also, people still recognize the significance of the festival as a means of social control in the ...

  19. China’s Potential for Economic Coercion in the South China Sea Disputes: A Comparative Study of the Philippines and Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Sudan Ravindran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With tensions rising in the South China Sea, China’s use of its economic leverage over Southeast Asian countries has recently come into focus. With increasing economic and trade ties between China and Southeast Asia, the question being asked is whether China can successfully impose economic sanctions to gain policy concessions in the South China Sea disputes. This paper examines China’s relations with the Philippines and Vietnam and analyses the possibility of a successful economic sanction by China against these two countries in future disputes. The article concludes that Vietnam may be more vulnerable economically to Chinese sanctions than the Philippines. However, political factors would offset that vulnerability in the case of Vietnam and amplify it in the case of the Philippines, making the Philippines more likely to concede to modest political demands.

  20. 77 FR 42973 - Export and Reexport Controls to Rwanda and United Nations Sanctions Under the Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Controls to Rwanda and United Nations Sanctions Under the Export Administration Regulations AGENCY: Bureau... Industry and Security (BIS) amends the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) to implement United Nations... conforming changes in the EAR related to the termination of the United Nations embargo on ``arms and related...

  1. Enforcement of emissions trading - sanction regimes of greenhouse gas emissions trading in the EU and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Marjan; Chen, Huizhen; Weishaar, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This chapter aims to further the debate regarding the role of law for establishing an adequate enforcement strategy for an emissions trading scheme. We focus on sanction regimes within the EU ETS and the Chinese emissions trading pilot projects. Section 2 sets the scene by pointing at the need of an

  2. Hospitalizations for Students with an Alcohol-Related Sanction: Gender and Pregaming as Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rimsha; Hustad, John T. P.; LaSalle, Linda; Borsari, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether pregaming (ie, drinking prior to a social event) is a risk factor for hospitalization. Participants: Participants (N = 516) were undergraduate students with an alcohol-related sanction. Methods: Participants completed a survey about alcohol use, as well as behaviors and experiences,…

  3. The hot breath of the IRS: how trustees can avoid intermediate sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shifman, J C

    1999-06-01

    New regulations from the IRS, called "intermediate sanctions," impose stiff taxes and penalties on members of not-for-profit organizations responsible for "unreasonable" compensation. That means administrators, physicians, trustees, and others must be careful to comply with the letter of the law or risk having the IRS breathing heavily down your neck.

  4. Did It Work? Examining the Impact of an Alcohol Intervention on Sanctioned College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswalt, Sara B.; Shutt, Michael D.; English, Erin; Little, Shay Davis

    2007-01-01

    Universities often conduct alcohol interventions for individuals who have violated institutional, local, or state laws. Few of these programs have been evaluated thoroughly. This study examined the impact of a 10-hour alcohol education course on 400 college students whose attendance was required as part of a judicial sanction. The…

  5. 16 CFR 1025.37 - Sanctions for failure to comply with discovery orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... discovery orders. 1025.37 Section 1025.37 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE FOR ADJUDICATIVE PROCEEDINGS Discovery, Compulsory Process § 1025.37 Sanctions for... decision on the pleadings be rendered against the party, or both; and (g) Exclude the party or...

  6. 76 FR 24410 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Comprehensive Iran Sanctions, Accountability, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... weapons of mass destruction, or in connection with Iran's support for international terrorism. In addition... processed one or more transfers of funds within the preceding 90 calendar days related to Iran's Islamic... international terrorism (as defined in section 14 of the Iran Sanctions Act of 1996 (Pub. L. 104-172; 50 U.S.C...

  7. Pathways to party unity: sanctions, loyalty, homogeneity and division of labour in the Dutch parliament

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andeweg, Rudy B.; Thomassen, Jacques J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The study of party unity and its determinants is conceptually confusing, with terms such as ‘party discipline’ and ‘party cohesion’ used to denote both dependent and independent variables. Moreover, while the literature recognizes both anticipated sanctions and homogeneity of preferences as pathways

  8. Fraud and punishment:enhancing deterrence through more effective sanctions: main report

    OpenAIRE

    Button, Mark; Lewis, Chris; Shepherd, David; Brooks, Graham; Wakefield, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Fraud is an extremely diverse problem which presents a huge cost (currently estimated by the National Fraud Authority as £73 billion each year) to society. It is preferable to pre-empt fraud, however part of any strategy to tackle it needs to involve sanctions and punishment.

  9. 78 FR 37719 - Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions; California; South Coast Air Quality Management...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... approval of revisions to the South Coast Air Quality Management District's (SCAQMD) portion of the... Quality Management District Proposed Contingency Measures for the 2007 PM 2.5 SIP'' (dated October 2011... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Interim Final Determination To Defer Sanctions; California; South Coast Air Quality...

  10. Enforcement of emissions trading: Sanction regimes of greenhouse gas emissions trading in the EU and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.G.W.M.; Chen, Huizhen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This chapter aims to further the debate regarding the role of law for establishing an adequate enforcement strategy for an emissions trading scheme. We focus on sanction regimes within the EU ETS and the Chinese emissions trading pilot projects. Section 2 sets the scene by pointing at the

  11. Institutional Alternatives of Food Embargo in the Conditions of a New Wave of Anti-Russian Sanctions (Case of Russian’s Meat Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny A. Kapoguzov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the impact of anti-Russian sanctions and response measures on the agro-production in terms of identifying the benefits and costs of imposing a food embargo. It is emphasized that, in the context of the policy of "smart sanctions", the goal of retaliatory measures should be to create conditions for maximizing public welfare. The reality and analysis and calculations carried out, however, show the disaster of the embargo in relation to the consumption of meat and meat processing products for the "ordinary consumer". Based on the dynamics of the caloric index, the socioeconomic consequences of the one-sidedness of autarkic measures are shown. The conditions for ensuring food security under the conditions of the food embargo are schematically presented and the consequences of the existing embargo policy on the basis of statistical data for the consumption of meat products are calculated. It is shown that the growth in prices played a key role in the dynamics of the cost volume, and structural changes were associated with the further growth of large agricultural organizations in the structure of the industry. In conclusion, recommendations are offered in the field of institutional design for the improvement of economic policy.

  12. Use of ontology structure and Bayesian models to aid the crowdsourcing of ICD-11 sanctioning rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yun; Tu, Samson W; Nyulas, Csongor; Tudorache, Tania; Chalmers, Robert J G; Musen, Mark A

    2017-04-01

    The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the de facto standard international classification for mortality reporting and for many epidemiological, clinical, and financial use cases. The next version of ICD, ICD-11, will be submitted for approval by the World Health Assembly in 2018. Unlike previous versions of ICD, where coders mostly select single codes from pre-enumerated disease and disorder codes, ICD-11 coding will allow extensive use of multiple codes to give more detailed disease descriptions. For example, "severe malignant neoplasms of left breast" may be coded using the combination of a "stem code" (e.g., code for malignant neoplasms of breast) with a variety of "extension codes" (e.g., codes for laterality and severity). The use of multiple codes (a process called post-coordination), while avoiding the pitfall of having to pre-enumerate vast number of possible disease and qualifier combinations, risks the creation of meaningless expressions that combine stem codes with inappropriate qualifiers. To prevent that from happening, "sanctioning rules" that define legal combinations are necessary. In this work, we developed a crowdsourcing method for obtaining sanctioning rules for the post-coordination of concepts in ICD-11. Our method utilized the hierarchical structures in the domain to improve the accuracy of the sanctioning rules and to lower the crowdsourcing cost. We used Bayesian networks to model crowd workers' skills, the accuracy of their responses, and our confidence in the acquired sanctioning rules. We applied reinforcement learning to develop an agent that constantly adjusted the confidence cutoffs during the crowdsourcing process to maximize the overall quality of sanctioning rules under a fixed budget. Finally, we performed formative evaluations using a skin-disease branch of the draft ICD-11 and demonstrated that the crowd-sourced sanctioning rules replicated those defined by an expert dermatologist with high precision and recall

  13. Sanctions, Smuggling, and the Cigarette: The granting of Iran office of foreign asset control′s licenses to big tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esfandyar Batmanghelidj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Presuming that tobacco taxes, levied both as import duties and ad valorem, would financially benefit the Iranian Government, such the introduction of a highly desired US product to the market would be antithetical to the sanctions regime currently in place. Methods: This paper as a systematic review and documents through Pubmed and webs seeks to understand the politician economy implications of nicotine addiction in Iran, focusing on the US office of foreign asset control′s (OFAC awarding of Iran operations licenses to American tobacco companies. Results: By comparing Iran′s tobacco industry and the attendant public health crisis that has arisen from high rates of nicotine addiction, to conditions in Turkey, it can be demonstrated that Iran is uniquely unable to extract revenues from the sale of tobacco products. The primary point of comparison between Iran and Turkey is smoking-attributable annual productivity loses of each country as estimated through the use of smoking-attributable mortality, morbidity and economic costs software (SAMMEC and the available related literature. Based on the calculations derived from the SAMMEC model, Iran is burdened with an incredible cost to the economy borne by a high prevalence of smokers. Conclusions: It is concluded that an awareness of this condition enables OFAC to award licenses to big tobacco without fear of undermining current foreign policy initiatives.

  14. Sanctions, Smuggling, and the Cigarette: The Granting of Iran Office of Foreign Asset Control's Licenses to Big Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batmanghelidj, Esfandyar; Heydari, Gholamreza

    2014-02-01

    Presuming that tobacco taxes, levied both as import duties and ad valorem, would financially benefit the Iranian Government, such the introduction of a highly desired US product to the market would be antithetical to the sanctions regime currently in place. This paper as a systematic review and documents through Pubmed and webs seeks to understand the politician economy implications of nicotine addiction in Iran, focusing on the US office of foreign asset control's (OFAC) awarding of Iran operations licenses to American tobacco companies. By comparing Iran's tobacco industry and the attendant public health crisis that has arisen from high rates of nicotine addiction, to conditions in Turkey, it can be demonstrated that Iran is uniquely unable to extract revenues from the sale of tobacco products. The primary point of comparison between Iran and Turkey is smoking-attributable annual productivity loses of each country as estimated through the use of smoking-attributable mortality, morbidity and economic costs software (SAMMEC) and the available related literature. Based on the calculations derived from the SAMMEC model, Iran is burdened with an incredible cost to the economy borne by a high prevalence of smokers. It is concluded that an awareness of this condition enables OFAC to award licenses to big tobacco without fear of undermining current foreign policy initiatives.

  15. The Criminal Offense of Credit/Debit Card Fraud and the Implementation of Its Sanction on Indonesian Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius Maria Laot Kian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the study are to determine the legal arrangements and the application of criminal sanctions against the crime of credit/debit card fraud in Indonesia. The type of study was a normative research by classifying the provisions relevant to the crime of credit/debit card fraud is based on Law No. 11 Year 2008 concerning Information and Electronic Transactions; otherwise it is used also Convention on Cyber crime 2001. Analysis of legal materials made through a law (statue approach to create an ius constituendum regarding the application of criminal sanctions against crime credit/debit card fraud. The results of the research indicated that the legal arrangements and criminal sanctions against the crime of credit/debit card fraud in Indonesia is still relatively minimal. First, not integrated article that directly regulates computer related fraud. Second, not arranged in the form of criminal sanctions for actions that are restitution culprit.

  16. Moral emotions as determinants of third-party punishment: Anger, guilt, and the functions of altruistic sanctions

    OpenAIRE

    Rob M. A. Nelissen; Marcel Zeelenberg

    2009-01-01

    Third-party punishment has recently received attention as an explanation for human altruism. Feelings of anger in response to norm violations are assumed to motivate third-party sanctions, yet there is only sparse and indirect support for this idea. We investigated the impact of both anger and guilt feelings on third-party sanctions. In two studies both emotions were independently manipulated. Results show that anger and guilt independently constitute sufficient but not necessary causes of pu...

  17. MODIFICATION BY THE COURT OF DISCIPLINARY SANCTION APPLIED TO THE EMPLOYEE IN ROMANIAN LABOUR LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUPU Dan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available High Court of Justice recently ruled that a court has the right to change too drastic punishment inflicted on an employee by another, more appropriate in relation to the offense committed. The Supreme Court ruling clarifies such a legal provision that was applied by different courts: some substituted for disciplinary sanctions if it were disproportionate to the offense employee, while others refused to do so.

  18. Chinese Economic Coercion Against Taiwan: A Tricky Weapon to Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    security forces from the pain of sanctions as a hedge against a coup attempt. If, however, the government is unable to insulate its key supporters from...conduits of influence. Some key interest groups may take measures to insulate them- selves from such political and economic pressure. In recent years...Chinese idiom, they would “refrain from stoning the rat for fear of smashing the porcelain ” (toushu jiqi).9 Beijing has indeed long hoped to exploit

  19. Reforming Wildlife Law: The Law Commission Proposals for Wildlife Law and Wildlife Sanctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Vincent

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article critically examines a an ongoing review commenced in 2012 by the United Kingdom’s Law Commission into new wildlife laws for England and Wales by considering four interlinked elements of the process. First, it outlines the underlying subject matter and regulatory aims of wildlife law.  It then describes the scope of the Law Commission’s Wildlife Law Project, identifying some of the key problem areas it sought to address and referencing its consultation process conducted in the later part of 2012. Next the article summarises the Law Commission’s view for a new wildlife law regime. The fourth element explores the current and potential roles of criminalising and non-criminalising sanctions. With a continued focus on the underlying subject matter and regulatory aims, discussion centres on the greater use of non-criminalising civil sanctions in wildlife law. The paper supports the Law Commission’s argument that the creation of a civil sanctions regime is not tantamount to decriminalisation in its true sense but simply widens the available regulatory enforcement options.

  20. Sanction changes and drunk-driving injuries/deaths in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yun-Shan; Chen, Chin-Shyan; Huang, Lanying; Peng, Yu-I

    2017-10-01

    Driving under the influence (DUI) is one of the major causes of traffic accidents in Taiwan. About 5% of injuries involve DUI, and nearly 20% of deaths are due to alcohol-related crashes. During early 2006 to the end of 2014, the authorities in Taiwan increased the severity of fine and jail penalties for DUI offenders three times. At the same time, the monthly drunk-driving injures decreased nearly 40% and the monthly alcohol-related traffic death dropped more than 80%. In this paper, we examine the effects of sanction changes on the reduction of drunk-driving casualties during this period. We find that drunk-driving injuries and deaths significantly dropped after the statutory changes. The reduction was immediate following all sanction changes that raised the maximum fines or jail terms of DUI offenders. Policies that increased the maximum jail terms of DUI offenders seem to have a better gradual effect on the reduction of alcohol-related traffic casualties. Although increased sanctions are found to be effective in reducing drunk-driving casualties, we need more future research to examine the policy-to-perception and the policy-to-behavior links. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Drinking reductions following alcohol-related sanctions are associated with social norms among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Jennifer E; Carey, Kate B; Reid, Allecia E; Carey, Michael P

    2014-06-01

    Students mandated for intervention following an alcohol-related sanction event often reduce their drinking prior to intervention. Knowing the determinants of self-initiated change may help identify intervention targets for individuals who do not reduce their drinking. Guided by self-regulation theory, we tested whether fewer past alcohol consequences and higher descriptive and injunctive norms would be associated with higher levels of postsanction drinking. College students referred for a campus alcohol violation (N = 658, 64% male) reported on their drinking during the month before and after their sanction event. Results show that postsanction drinking was significantly lower than presanction drinking across 4 outcomes: (a) drinks per drinking day, (b) drinks per week, (c) peak drinks, and (d) peak blood alcohol concentration. Hypothesized social influence variables (i.e., descriptive and injunctive norms) were consistently associated with all 4 drinking outcomes; that is, students who perceived that their friends drank more and held more accepting views of drinking were less reactive to alcohol-related sanctions. Past consequences of drinking did not consistently predict subsequent drinking. Therefore, we conclude that alcohol interventions for mandated students should target both descriptive and injunctive norms to optimize their efficacy.

  2. Economics and business economics.

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Silva

    1993-01-01

    The comparison between Economics and Business Management allows the clarification of some of their characteristics and limits as regards method, language, and objectives. Secondly, it allows the verification of the reciprocal contribution relating to research. For such a comparison, the object of study, the method, and the objectives of Economics and Business Management are taken into consideration distinguishing; so far as Business Management is concerned, between the Italian and American tr...

  3. Economic development in Russia after 2014 and its consequences for the Baltic States

    OpenAIRE

    Zdanavičius, Liudas

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the main tendencies of the current economic crisis in Russia. A combination of a very broad range of long- and short term factors lead to the situation, which was rightfully described by the Russian Minister of Economy Alexey Ulyukaev as a “perfect storm”. Most of the article is devoted to the analysis of the impact of the Russian–Western Sanctions War and how the economic crisis in Russia effects the economies of Baltic countries.

  4. Global crisis and challenges for Russian economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Mau

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Global crisis forms new economic policy agenda which raises new questions for economic theory and economic thinking. This paper deals with these new intellectual challenges. Among them: growth theory and the risks of secular stagnation, unconventional macroeconomic policy and the prospects of financial stability, inequality and growth, the new welfare state, the prospects of globalization vs. de-globalization, and the re-industrialization in advanced economies. Based on the analysis of global trends, the paper discusses the roots and features of current Russian economic problems, compares the 2008–2009 and 2014–2015 crises, and factorizes the last one on three main components. The analysis includes the effects of sanctions against Russia on the current economic situation and the structural problems that slow down economic growth. Special attention is paid to examples of medium-term and long-term steps that can provide sustainable development for the Russian economy.

  5. POST-CRIMEAN TWISTER: RUSSIA, THE EU AND THE LAW OF SANCTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAUL KALINICHENKO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available EU-Russia relations have never been simple. On the one hand, these two international actors have common values and interests. On the other, they have a conflictual relationship, which has become particularly acute after the Ukrainian crisis that started in 2014. After Ukrainian crisis, the EU and Russia have entered a new era. Unfortunately, it is an era of brinkmanship. This brinkmanship is marked, prima facie, by mutual sanctions. After 20 years of partnership and good neighborliness it sounds illogically, but it is a reality. The strategic nature of the EU-Russia partnership has been placed in doubt. The aim of this article is to show that the “war of sanctions,” which has frozen official contacts and negotiations have not achieved anything. This crisis can only be overcome through dialogue. However, at the moment, the main critics of the EU sanctions amongst EU Member States are too weak to convince the other members to lift them. The article concerns the modern legal aspects and modern legal circumstances surrounding EU-Russia relations in the light of recent events and the deterioration of relations between Russia and the EU in general. In this framework, an account is given of the EU’s reaction to the Ukrainian conflict in the context of the EU Common Foreign and Security Policy and of the EU restrictive measures as well as in the context of the Russian countersanctions. A special attention is paid to the EU Court of Justice case-law in the field of the restrictive measures.

  6. Sanctioning Large-Scale Domestic Cannabis Production - Potency, Yield and Professionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kim; Lindholst, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Domestically cultivated cannabis, referred to as sinsemilla, constitutes a growing share of the illicit drug markets in the Scandinavian countries. In this study we present forensic evidence of THC content in sinsemilla and resin confiscated by the Danish police from 2008 to 2012. The purpose...... that courts do not apply a yield-percentage estimate. The specificities of domestic cannabis cultivation also relate to the sanction criteria „professionalism”. Firstly, the number of plants found can provide for calculation of an aggregate quantum. Secondly, this can be related to the formal quantum......-scale cannabis cases would improve by applying a 1:1 potency level between sinsemilla and resin....

  7. QUALITY OF NATIONAL ECONOMIC GROWTH: FACTORS AND DETERMINANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaj I. Komkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject / topic: TThe theme of this article is very relevant in the light of changes in the global geo-economic structure and changing the role and place ofRussiain world economic and geopolitical relations. The article deals with the basic aspects of national economic growth, which slowed down in the last three years. The main reason for slowing national economic growth is associated with the depletion of the reserves of the traditional export-oriented development of the Russian economy, as well as problems with sluggish innovative transformation. In this paper, based on a systematic analysis of economic processes and the interpretation of analytical data, addresses the general theoretical and methodological aspects of the quality of economic development, as well as practical guidelines and recommendations related to sustainable national socio-economic development in the context of external constraints.The purpose / objectives: The aim of the article is to analyze the theoretical and methodological aspects of the quality of economic development of the Russian economy, which happened in the face of economic sanctions. Objectives of the article: justify practical directions and recommendations related to sustainable national socio-economic development in the context of external constraints, determine the prospects for the economy of theRussian Federationin the conditions of the introduction of sectoral sanctions by Western countries. Methodology:Methodological basis of this article are the comparative and economic-statistical methods of analysis.The Results: The study revealed that the harsh environment (sanctions, depreciation of the ruble, and others. Require surgical intervention and adjustments not only the current socio-economic plans, but also to take urgent measures to ensure the development prospects. The most important decision is the degree of support advanced scientific and technical programs and the creation of new domestic

  8. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-14

    supply nuclear technology to Iran and expanding provisions of the USA Patriot Act (P.L. 107-56) to curb money- laundering for use to further WMD programs...a “jurisdiction of primary money laundering concern” 33 under Section 311 of the USA Patriot Act (31 U.S.C. 5318A). The Department of the Treasury...2011, the government has frequently adjusted the official rate to one that is close to the unofficial rate.  Inflation . The drop in value of the

  9. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    increase taxation on the merchants by 70%, but it is likely that the broader adverse business climate contributed to the bazaar stoppages. An agreement...was eventually reached under which taxation only went up 15%. The merchant community could be a potential “swing constituency” if it sides with the...so include Alcatel-Lucent of France; Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ; BNP Paribas of France; Bosch of Germany; Canon of Japan; Fiat SPA of Italy

  10. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-18

    The ruling incorporated major features of the Iran Digital Empowerment Act (H.R. 4301 in the 111 th Congress). The OFAC determination required a...have long maintained that Iran should build a “resistance economy” – an economy that is self - sufficient and not dependent on imported goods. In...officials who are responsible for depriving Iranian women and other groups of internationally accepted rights.  Banning Passenger Flights to and

  11. Iran Sanctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Melli.24 In late 2009, the U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York seized the assets of the Assa Company, a UK-chartered entity. Assa...other evasion methods are discussed further in the sections below. Europe U.S. and European approaches have converged on Iran since 2002, when the...not known to have any involvement in or to supply any GM content to the Peugeot Iran activities. • Attorneys for BNP Paribas of France told the

  12. The law isn't everything: The impact of legal and non-legal sanctions on motorists' drink driving behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, James; Szogi, Elizabeth; Truelove, Verity; Vingilis, Evelyn

    2016-12-01

    The effectiveness of drink driving countermeasures (such as sanctions) to deter motorists from driving over the legal limit is extremely important when considering the impact the offending behavior has on the community. However, questions remain regarding the extent that both legal and non-legal factors influence drink driving behaviors. This is of particular concern given that both factors are widely used as either sanctioning outcomes or in media campaigns designed to deter drivers (e.g., highlighting the physical risk of crashing). This paper reports on an examination of 1,253 Queensland motorists' perceptions of legal and non-legal drink driving sanctions and the corresponding deterrent impact of such perceptions on self-reported offending behavior. Participants volunteered to complete either an online or paper version of the questionnaire. Encouragingly, quantitative analysis of the data revealed that participants' perceptions of both legal sanctions (e.g., certainty, severity and swiftness) as well as non-legal sanctions (e.g., fear of social, internal or physical harm) were relatively high, with perceptual certainty being the highest. Despite this, a key theme to emerge from the study was that approximately 25% of the sample admitted to drink driving at some point in time. Multivariate analyses revealed six significant predictors of drink driving, being: males, younger drivers, lower perceptions of the severity of sanctions, and less concern about the social, internal, and physical harms associated with the offense. However, a closer examination of the data revealed that the combined deterrence model was not very accurate at predicting drink driving behaviors (e.g., 21% of variance). A range of non-legal deterrent factors have the potential to reduce the prevalence of drink driving although further research is required to determine how much exposure is required to produce a strong effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights

  13. Criminal-justice and school sanctions against nonheterosexual youth: a national longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelstein, Kathryn E W; Brückner, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    Nonheterosexual adolescents are vulnerable to health risks including addiction, bullying, and familial abuse. We examined whether they also suffer disproportionate school and criminal-justice sanctions. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health followed a nationally representative sample of adolescents who were in grades 7 through 12 in 1994-1995. Data from the 1994-1995 survey and the 2001-2002 follow-up were analyzed. Three measures were used to assess nonheterosexuality: same-sex attraction, same-sex romantic relationships, and lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) self-identification. Six outcomes were assessed: school expulsion; police stops; juvenile arrest; juvenile conviction; adult arrest; and adult conviction. Multivariate analyses controlled for adolescents' sociodemographics and behaviors, including illegal conduct. Nonheterosexuality consistently predicted a higher risk for sanctions. For example, in multivariate analyses, nonheterosexual adolescents had greater odds of being stopped by the police (odds ratio: 1.38 [P educational and criminal-justice punishments that are not explained by greater engagement in illegal or transgressive behaviors. Understanding and addressing these disparities might reduce school expulsions, arrests, and incarceration and their dire social and health consequences.

  14. Why State Sanctions Fail to Deter Home Education: An Analysis of Home Education in Germany and Its Implications for Home Education Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegler, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Home education in Germany is a contravention to the school law, and severe sanctions are applied against it. Despite this, a small home education movement has developed within the last 25 years. This article, after a short overview of home education in Germany, examines the reasons why a policy with sanctions fails to deter homeschooling. Then I…

  15. Paradoxes of Economic Theories and Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Imranovich Khasbulatov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of the evolution of economic theories, the conditions which led to the formation of their modern schools and focuses on the analysis of arising classic, neoclassic and Keynesian doctrines encouraged by the growth and development of productive forces (factors of production, the formation of big corporations-monopolists and technological progress. The severe global recessions (1929–1933 and other shocks of the capitalist system brought to life the doctrinal theory, which is alternative to the classical one. The doctrinal theory was a theoretic and methodological basis of the System for half a century, then it was replaced by neoliberal and monetarist theories that proved to be inconsistent during the global crisis and depression in 2008–2013. The article also touches upon the necessity to change the economic policy of Russia — an urgent problem resulting from a policy of the Western countries trying to suffocate the country with sanctions

  16. Russia's defense spending and the economic decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Oxenstierna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explore the development of Russian military spending in light of weak and negative growth of the Russian economy and to look at the reasons for the economic decline that has developed after the economic crisis in 2009 and is due to long-term internal structural factors that have existed since the mid-2000s. The confidence crisis resulting from Russia's aggression against Ukraine 2014, Western sanctions and falling oil prices has further aggravated these tendencies and the economy is now contracting. The main conclusions are that the share of the defense budget in GDP has risen substantially, but there is still a trade-off between defense and other public spending in the budget. Political reform would be necessary to implement market institutions and revive the economy.

  17. Effectiveness of United StatesLed Economic Sanctions as a Counterproliferation Tool Against Irans Nuclear Weapons Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    These revelations exposed the broad reach of the Khan network, which included nations, like Malaysia , which are not normally associated with...Enrichment Plant in two months. Additionally, Iran could speed up the production of a nuclear weapon using 1,000 more advanced IR -2m centrifuges...If Iran feeds its IR -centrifuges with natural uranium and operates: • 9,000 centrifuges (the number now running): 6.8 months • 6,104 centrifuges

  18. Bureau-repression: Administrative Sanction and Social Control in Modern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Oliver Olmo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the creation of an intelligible suggestion for better understanding the administrative sanction in many disciplines in social sciences: the bureau-repression. The coining of this concept is due especially to the repression to which social protestors and demonstrators have been subject since the birth of the 15-M movement in Spain. However, bureau-repression had already begun being exercised in the years following the Transition, and it has developed in parallel to the stage of Security State that characterizes the state system of social control. A detailed analysis of the administrative sanction is performed for many benefits which such sanction provides for those in power, who use it both to silence voices from the street and to dispose of elements which are harmful for the neoliberal system (disadvantaged groups or immigrants. In short, the reader will find the underlying political and repressive background which, at first glance, is usually a monetary fine, and will discover that there are ways to avoid this dense surveillance exercised over the governed people (bureau-resistance. Este artículo explica la creación de una sugerencia inteligible para una mejor comprensión de la sanción administrativa en muchas disciplinas de las ciencias sociales: la burorrepresión. Este término nació especialmente a raíz de la represión que han sufrido los manifestantes de las protestas sociales desde el nacimiento del movimiento 15-M en España. Sin embargo, la burorrepresión ya había comenzado a ejercerse en los años que siguieron a la Transición, y se ha desarrollado de forma paralela al estado de seguridad que caracteriza el sistema estatal de control social. Se realiza un análisis detallado de la sanción administrativa, desarrollada en beneficio de los que están en el poder, quienes la usan tanto para silenciar las voces de la calle como para deshacerse de elementos que sean perjudiciales para el sistema neoliberal

  19. Motivations of Russian firms to invest abroad: how do sanctions affect Russia’s outward foreign direct investment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuhto Kari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2013, Russia’s outward foreign direct investment (OFDI soared and the OFDI stock exceeded $ 500 billion. However, a year later, Russia’s OFDI dropped by nearly 15 per cent. Rapid upward and downward swings make it necessary to analyze the motivation of Russian firms to invest abroad as well as to assess the impact of sanctions on Russian OFDI. The author points out that a significant part of Russia’s outward FDI stock is accounted for by the operations of Russian corporations in their home market. It is concluded that although Western sanctions target a relatively small number of Russian citizens and companies, they nevertheless affect some of Russia’s key people, largest banks, and hydrocarbon producers. Therefore, their direct impact could be substantial. Alongside the direct impact, one should consider their indirect impact, such as the tumbling rouble exchange rate and Russian banks’ increasing interest rates, which decrease Russian firms’ capability to invest abroad. Moreover, a less amicable politic al atmosphere in the West may push some Russian corporations out of the Western markets and diminish the enthusiasm of new ones to enter them. Today, Russia’s counter-sanctions do not directly restrict the country’s OFDI, but Russian state-owned enterprises may reach a decision to hold foreign investments to support Russia’s sanction policy.

  20. 78 FR 74218 - Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare... chemical weapons in violation of international law or lethal chemical weapons against its own nationals... the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991, 22 U.S.C. 5604(a) and...

  1. 31 CFR 585.509 - Trading in certain pre-sanctions obligations of debtors in the Republics of Slovenia, Croatia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...” of September 20, 1988 (the “NFA”), are authorized, notwithstanding the joint and several liability..., subject to the NFA for which the Pre-sanctions Obligor was the National Bank of Yugoslavia or an entity... “Refinancing Loan Notice” required pursuant to the NFA concerning the debt obligation transferred, and (ii) If...

  2. Perceived sanction risk, individual propensity and adolescent offending : Assessing key findings from the deterrence literature in a dutch sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauwels, Lieven; Weerman, Frank; Bruinsma, Gerben; Bernasco, Wim

    Deterrence studies have shown that perceived sanction risk is related to delinquent behaviour, independent of other variables, and that this relation may be conditioned by individual propensity towards crime. The principal goal of this study is to assess these findings with data from a sample of 843

  3. EFFECTS OF SECTORAL ANTI-RUSSIAN SANCTIONS ON THE POSSIBILITY OF GEOLOGICAL EXPLORATION DRILLING IN THE ARCTIC SEAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Sochneva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the past and current situation of geological exploration drilling on the Arctic region continental shelf. Along with climate conditions, the strategy of drilling is greatly infl uenced by technical accessibility of licensed sites, the latter depending on achieved level of equipment and technologies. Since 2014 the USA, the European Union countries and a number of other states have imposed sanctions against Russia. Sectoral sanctions, prohibiting access to technologies employed in the Arctic region shelf projects, have become an important part of these sanctions. This research is aimed at assessing the infl uence of sectoral anti-Russian sanctions on geological exploration drilling in the Arctic seas. The choice of geological exploration drilling is not accidental as the majority of Russian Arctic projects are at this particular stage now.Over the recent forty years, the country has accumulated considerable practical experience of conducting geological exploration drilling and the Arctic region field development. Our analysis demonstrates that modern Russia has necessary technologies for exploration and field development in the Arctic region. In fact, Russia is the only country, which actually continues its operations in the Arctic region amid a sharp decline of oil prices. Imposing sectoral sanctions related to equipment and technologies of developing the Russian Arctic shelf is inefficient.It is forecasted that in the coming decade, the continuing global warming process will make the majority of regions of the Barents Sea and the Kara Sea – where a number of large and gigantic fields have already been discovered – more accessible for conducting geological exploration drilling. It is possible to use here the traditional types of off shore drilling units with a low ice rate. This will totally eliminate any technical and technological problems of drilling. The USA are expected to enter the market of arctic hydrocarbons from

  4. Criminal sanctions applicable to Federal water pollution control measures. Master's thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J.C.

    1991-09-30

    Overkill or not enough: Two decades ago, Congress realized that a system of civil remedies alone, devoid of any lasting punitive consequences, was inadequate to insure compliance with environmental protection statutes. Other than the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, which was designed to protect navigation, Federal criminal sanctions were not applicable to water pollution offenses. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, more commonly known as the Clean Water Act (CWA), was twenty-four years old before Federal criminal enforcement of its provisions was allowed. But since the early 1970's, the criminal provisions of the CWA have been strengthened, the United States Department of Justice has beefed up its environmental enforcement efforts, and environmental polluters have been prosecuted. This Federal effort is now approaching overkill.

  5. System justification, the denial of global warming, and the possibility of "system-sanctioned change".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feygina, Irina; Jost, John T; Goldsmith, Rachel E

    2010-03-01

    Despite extensive evidence of climate change and environmental destruction, polls continue to reveal widespread denial and resistance to helping the environment. It is posited here that these responses are linked to the motivational tendency to defend and justify the societal status quo in the face of the threat posed by environmental problems. The present research finds that system justification tendencies are associated with greater denial of environmental realities and less commitment to pro-environmental action. Moreover, the effects of political conservatism, national identification, and gender on denial of environmental problems are explained by variability in system justification tendencies. However, this research finds that it is possible to eliminate the negative effect of system justification on environmentalism by encouraging people to regard pro-environmental change as patriotic and consistent with protecting the status quo (i.e., as a case of "system-sanctioned change"). Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. Preliminary benchmarking of appropriate sanctions for lapses in undergraduate professionalism in the health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roff, Sue; Chandratilake, Madawa; Mcaleer, Sean; Gibson, John

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the extent of consensus between faculty and students in order to benchmark appropriate sanctions for first-time offences with no mitigating factors in the area of Academic Probity by quota sampling in one cohort of medical, nursing and dental students in a Scottish university. This study reports administration of a web-based preliminary inventory derived from the international research literature to a target population of health professions staff and students. This study was conducted at Scottish University College of Medicine, Dentistry, Nursing and Midwifery. 57 faculty and 689 students in the College in first quarter of 2009 participated in this study. 50% of medical students, 26% of dental students, 22% of nursing students and 27% of midwifery students responded; 22% of faculty responded. Administration of a preliminary 41-item inventory to 57 faculty and 689 students from a Scottish College of Medicine, Dentistry, Nursing and Midwifery has allowed us to preliminarily rank the sanctions that are broadly agreed between the two cohorts as well as to identify a small cluster of behaviours which are viewed less severely by students than by faculty. These data will give guidance to undergraduate Fitness to Practice committees but also guidance to curriculum planners about the areas in which students may need more teaching. The results informed the reduction of the inventory and its refinement in to a 30-item e-learning tool that is being field tested for generalisability within and beyond the UK. The researchers have also been invited to adapt the proposed teaching and learning tools beyond the health professions.

  7. Urban Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Quigley, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Urban economics emphasizes: the spatial arrangements of households, firms, and capital in metropolitan areas; the externalities which arise from the proximity of households and land uses; and the public policy issues which arise from the interplay of these economic forces.

  8. Internet economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik; Øst, Alexander Gorm

    1997-01-01

    A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect.......A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect....

  9. Structural Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Raa, T.

    2015-01-01

    This book aims to make the nature of input-output analysis in economics clearly accessible and, contrary to the opinion of many commentators, shows that this type of analysis can be compatible with the doctrines of neoclassical economics.

  10. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark, Woodrow

    2012-01-01

    Focus in this paper is on building a science of economics, grounded in understanding of organizations and what is beneath the surface of economic structures and activities. As a science Economics should be concerned with its assumptions, logic and lines of arguments, and how to develop theories...... and formulate ideas of reality. There is a disconnection between a science of economics focuses on structures and universal laws from what is experienced in everyday of life of business activity. The everyday of life of business is processual, dynamic and contradictional. This discussion of how to understand...... the everyday economic life is the central issue and is discussed from the perspective of interactionism. It is a perspective developed from the Lifeworld philosophical traditions, such as symbolic interactionism and phenomenology, seeking to develop the thinking of economics. The argument is that economics...

  11. 20 CFR 667.269 - What procedures and sanctions apply to violations of §§ 667.260 through 667.268?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... investigation and resolution of the violations are provided for under the Grant Officer's resolution process at....266(b)(1)). (c) Sanctions and remedies are provided for in WIA section 181(d)(3) for violations of...

  12. Contradictions of the Misdemeanor Law in the area of sanctions for minors with special review to the measures that are of the medical character

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžić Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Minors represent a special category of offenders, due to the age at the time of commission of a misdemeanor. Hence, the law prescribes special sanctions for them. A special attention has been given to measures that are of medical character. However, the Law on Misdemeanors has contradictory provisions in terms of sanctions for minors by differentiating, in certain provisions, between younger and older minors. In the first part, this paper deals in general with offenders of misdemeanors that are minors, while sanctions are dealt with in the second part of the paper. Central part of the paper deals with the issues surrounding protective measure 'Mandatory treatment of alcohol and psychoactive substance addicts', by pointing to some irrational provisions of the Law. In relations to that issue, the paper discuss whether in certain situations the law is more harsh on minors that commit misdemeanor offences or minors that commit criminal offences, having in mind prescribed sanctions.

  13. Comparison of recommended sanctions for lapses in professionalism of undergraduate medical students in a Saudi Arabian and a Scottish medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Kamran; Roff, Sue

    2016-12-01

    Medical Professionalism is recognized as a cultural construct. We explore perceptions of the severity of lapses in professionalism of undergraduate medical students at two medical schools with different cultural contexts. Respondents from two medical schools (Saudi Arabia & UK) recommended sanctions for the first time, unmitigated lapses in academic professionalism, using the Dundee Polyprofessionalism Inventory 1: Academic Integrity. While more than two-thirds of the recommended sanctions for the 30 items of poor professionalism were fully or nearly congruent among the 1125 respondents, there were substantial differences in recommended response for one-third of the items, with a strong tendency for the Saudi students to recommend more lenient sanctions than the Scottish students. The strategy of using recommended sanctions as a proxy for the perception of the severity of different lapses in professionalism may be a useful tool in learning and teaching academic professionalism among medical students in different cultural contexts.

  14. The effect of sanctions on the evolution of cooperation in linear division of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamaru, Mayuko; Shimura, Hayato; Kitakaji, Yoko; Ohnuma, Susumu

    2018-01-21

    The evolution of cooperation is an unsolved research topic and has been investigated from the viewpoint of not only biology and other natural sciences but also social sciences. Much extant research has focused on the evolution of cooperation among peers. While, different players belonging to different organizations play different social roles, and players playing different social roles cooperate together to achieve their goals. We focus on the evolution of cooperation in linear division of labor that is defined as follows: a player in the i-th role interacts with a player in the i + 1-th role, and a player in the n-th role achieves their goal (1 ≤ i dumping, which can be interpreted as cooperation or defection (i = 1-3). With legally required treatment, the player of B j pays a cost to ask the player of B j +1 to treat the waste (j = 1, 2). Then, the cooperator of B j +1 pays a cost to treat the waste properly. With illegal dumping, the player of B i dumps the waste and does not pay any cost (i = 1-3). However, the waste dumped by the defector has negative environmental consequences, which all players in all roles suffer from. This situation is equivalent to a social dilemma encountered in common-pool resource management contexts. The administrative organ in Japan introduces two sanction systems to address the illegal dumping problem: the actor responsibility system and the producer responsibility system. In the actor responsibility system, if players in any role who choose defection are monitored and discovered, they are penalized via a fine. However, it is difficult to monitor and detect the violators, and this system does not work well. While, in the producer responsibility system, the player in B 1 is fined if the player cannot hand the manifest to the local administrative organ because the players of B i (i = 1-3) who choose defection do not hand the manifest to the player of B 1 . We analyze this situation using the replicator equation

  15. Economic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kholopov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of the School of Economic Science at MGIMO was due to the necessity of the world economy research, and the need to prepare highly skilled specialists in international economics. The school is developing a number of areas, which reflect the Faculty structure. - Economic theory is one of the most important research areas, a kind of foundation of the School of Economic Science at MGIMO. Economic theory studies are carried out at the chair of Economic theory. "The course of economic theory" textbook was published in 1991, and later it was reprinted seven times. Over the past few years other textbooks and manuals have been published, including "Economics for Managers" by Professor S.N. Ivashkovskaya, which survived through five editions; "International Economics" - four editions and "History of Economic Thought" - three editions. - International Economic Relations are carried out by the Department of International Economic Relations and Foreign Economic Activity. Its establishment is associated with the prominent economist N.N. Lyubimov. In 1957 he with his colleagues published the first textbook on the subject which went through multiple republications. The editorial team of the textbook subsequently formed the pride of Soviet economic science - S.M. Menshikov, E.P. Pletnev, V.D. Schetinin. Since 2007, the chair of Foreign Economic Activities led by Doctor of Economics, Professor I. Platonova has been investigating the problems of improving the architecture of foreign economic network and the international competitiveness of Russia; - The history of the study of problems of the world economy at MGIMO begins in 1958 at the chair baring the same name. Since 1998, the department has been headed by Professor A. Bulatov; - The study of international monetary relations is based on the chair of International Finance, and is focused on addressing the fundamental scientific and practical problems; - The chair "Banks, monetary circulation

  16. The principle of guilt as a basis for criminal sanctions justification review in the Criminal Law in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćorović Emir A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The principle of guilt is one of the essential principles of criminal law. However, it is a very complex principle. Its content has been presented in this paper particularly referring to a systematic deviation of it in the criminal legislation of the Republic of Serbia. According to the provisions of the article 2 of the Criminal Code of Serbia the principle of guilt is related to punishments and warning measures, while security and educational measures remained beyond its reach. On the other side, The Criminal Code defining a crime offense in the article 14 demands culpability of perpetrator's behavior. It involves a conceptual problem: a possibility is given for criminal sanctions of the principle of guilt, article 2 of the Criminal Code not referring to security and educational measures could be applied for people acting without culpability. It is paradoxical to accept criminal-justice reaction in the form of criminal sanctions regarding people without guilt. According to author of this paper, such a normative solution brings into issue the relevant principle, more precisely its basis, generality and guidance, the qualities that every legal principle should maintain. Of course, deviations of legal principle and the principle of guilt are possible but they must be kept to a minimum. Otherwise, systematic legal principle deviations, in this case the principle of guilt, are not to be tolerated. Connecting the principle of guilt with the system of criminal sanctions opens the debate on voluntarism embodied in the freedom of will and guilt and positivism/determinism embodied in perpetrator's danger and educational neglect within the criminal law. It is over a century discussion in the science of criminal law. The author of the paper concludes criminal-justice reaction in the form of criminal sanction can be justified only of based on the principle of guilt. Otherwise, such a reaction has no place in the criminal law.

  17. Have Sanctions Modified Iran’s Trade Policy? An Evidence of Asianization and De-Europeanization through the Gravity Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Popova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study is an empirical attempt to find out whether under sanctions Iran’s trade direction has shifted away from Europe (trade policy of de-Europeanization towards Asia (trade policy of Asianization. The analysis is conducted using a panel-gravity trade model to analyze bilateral trade pattern between Iran and 50 countries from the EU and Asia during the period 2006–2013. To this end, the authors use an extended gravity model by adding new variables, including the index of Chinn–Ito (KAOPEN as an indicator of financial openness, and the composite trade intensity (CTI as an indicator of trade openness. Our findings reveal that the gravity equation fits the data reasonably well. The empirical evidence indicates a significant negative effect of sanctions on Iran–EU bilateral trade (by an average of 46.9%, while it has a positive impact on trade between Iran and the Asian countries (by an average of 85.2%. Overall, these findings confirm that the imposition of various sanctions related to Iran’s nuclear program has pushed the country’s foreign trade to reorient away from Europe towards Asia.

  18. Potterian Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Daniel; Snir, Avichai

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies in psychology and neuroscience find that fictional works exert strong influence on readers and shape their opinions and worldviews. We study the Potterian economy, which we compare to economic models, to assess how Harry Potter books affect economic literacy. We find that some principles of Potterian economics are consistent with economists’ models. Many others, however, are distorted and contain numerous inaccuracies, which contradict professional economists’ views and insight...

  19. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We define an evolutionary process of “economic Darwinism” for playing-the-field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is “economic selection”: if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-) activity than does Nash equilibrium...

  20. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    We define an evolutionary process of "economic Darwinism" for playing the field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is "economic selection": if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-)activity than does Nash equilibrium....

  1. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

                         This book is about science -- specifically, the science of economics. Or lack thereof is more accurate. The building of any science, let alone economics, is grounded in the understanding of what is beneath the "surface" of economics. Science, and hence economics, should...... be concerned with formulating ideas that express theories which produce descriptions of how to understand phenomenon and real world experiences.                       Economics must become a science, because the essence of economics in terms of human actions, group interactions and communities are in need...... of scientific inquiry. Academics and scholars need a scientific perspective that can hypothesize, theorize document, understand and analyze human dynamics from the individual to more societal interactions. And that is what qualitative economics does; it can make economics into becoming a science. The economic...

  2. Cooperative Networks: Altruism, Group Solidarity, Reciprocity, and Sanctioning in Ugandan Producer Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassarri, Delia

    2015-09-01

    Repeated interaction and social networks are commonly considered viable solutions to collective action problems. This article identifies and systematically measures four general mechanisms--that is, generalized altruism, group solidarity, reciprocity, and the threat of sanctioning--and tests which of them brings about cooperation in the context of Ugandan producer organizations. Using an innovative methodological framework that combines "lab-in-the-field" experiments with survey interviews and complete social networks data, the article goes beyond the assessment of a relationship between social networks and collective outcomes to study the mechanisms that favor cooperative behavior. The article first establishes a positive relationship between position in the network structure and propensity to cooperate in the producer organization and then uses farmers' behavior in dictator and public goods games to test different mechanisms that may account for such a relationship. Results show that cooperation is induced by patterns of reciprocity that emerge through repeated interaction rather than other-regarding preferences like altruism or group solidarity.

  3. Social Media Rhetoric of the Transnational Palestinian-led Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hitchcock

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article uses rhetorical analysis to determine the effectiveness and characteristics of social media usage by the Boycott, Divestment, and Sanctions (BDS movement targeting Israel. Hundreds of local student, community, and religious groups in the United States use social media platforms such as Twitter and Facebook to promote BDS discourse and organize local BDS-related events. Even though social media platforms are important for an international movement composed of a very dispersed population, with millions of Palestinians also living under military occupation, the history of traditional media use during the First Intifada also suggests that social media are not necessary for mobilizing Palestinians at the local level. A preliminary rhetorical analysis of several BDS-related Facebook pages and Twitter accounts reveals that the BDS movement’s social media usage functions similarly in some ways to other contemporary mass movements by facilitating on-the-ground actions and delivering useful information to supporters. BDS movement social media discourse, however, does not establish the same level of emotional connection or interactivity with audiences as some other recent movements have, but these limitations can be partly explained by the unique political, material, and rhetorical constraints of the situation.

  4. Age, risk assessment, and sanctioning: Overestimating the old, underestimating the young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, John; Skeem, Jennifer; Lowenkamp, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    While many extoll the potential contribution of risk assessment to reducing the human and fiscal costs of mass incarceration without increasing crime, others adamantly oppose the incorporation of risk assessment in sanctioning. The principal concern is that any benefits in terms of reduced rates of incarceration achieved through the use of risk assessment will be offset by costs to social justice-which are claimed to be inherent in any risk assessment process that relies on variables for which offenders bear no responsibility, such as race, gender, and age. Previous research has addressed the variables of race and gender. Here, based on a sample of 7,350 federal offenders, we empirically test the predictive fairness of an instrument-the Post Conviction Risk Assessment (PCRA)-that includes the variable of age. We found that the strength of association between PCRA scores and future arrests was similar across younger (i.e., 25 years and younger), middle (i.e., 26-40 years), and older (i.e., 41 years and older) age groups (AUC values .70 or higher). Nevertheless, rates of arrest within each PCRA risk category were consistently lower for older than for younger offenders. Despite its inclusion of age as a risk factor, PCRA scores overestimated rates of recidivism for older offenders and underestimated rates of recidivism for younger offenders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Ecological economics and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    Boulding's 1966 paper on the economics of spaceship Earth established the framework for ecological economics and an understanding of economic growth. In ecological economics, economies are conceptualized as open subsystems of the closed biosphere and are subject to biophysical laws and constraints. Economic growth measured as an increase in real gross domestic product (GDP) has generally been associated with increases in the use of energy and materials and the generation of wastes. Scale, composition, and technology are the proximate determinants of environmental impacts. They are often reduced to two: scale (GDP) and intensity (impact per unit GDP). New work described in this paper defines "green" growth as intensity that declines faster than scale increases. Similarly, "brown" growth occurs when intensity declines more slowly than increases in scale, and "black" growth happens when both scale and intensity increase. These concepts are then related to the environmental Kuznets curve, which can be understood as a transition from brown to green growth. Ecological economics provides a macroperspective on economic growth. It offers broad policy principles, and it challenges the primacy of economic growth as a policy objective, but many important questions remain.

  6. "New Economics"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    1999-01-01

    The United States, the United Kingdom and Denmark have all enjoyed a long period of high stable growth and low inflation in the 1990s. Attempts to determine the implications of this have led to the so-called "New Economics", whose advocates claim that the relationship between economic growth and ...... and inflation has fundamentally changes. The following article tests this thesis against current data for the USA.......The United States, the United Kingdom and Denmark have all enjoyed a long period of high stable growth and low inflation in the 1990s. Attempts to determine the implications of this have led to the so-called "New Economics", whose advocates claim that the relationship between economic growth...

  7. Circulation economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Stig; Jakobsen, Ove

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - This paper is an attempt to advance the critical discussion regarding environmental and societal responsibility in economics and business. Design/methodology/approach - The paper presents and discusses as a holistic, organic perspective enabling innovative solutions to challenges...... concerning the responsible and efficient use of natural resources and the constructive interplay with culture. To reach the goal of sustainable development, the paper argues that it is necessary to make changes in several dimensions in mainstream economics. This change of perspective is called a turn towards...... presupposes a perspective integrating economic, natural and cultural values. Third, to organize the interplay between all stakeholders we introduce an arena for communicative cooperation. Originality/value - The paper concludes that circulation economics presupposes a change in paradigm, from a mechanistic...

  8. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  9. Economic sovereignty. An agenda for Militant Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Malle

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that Russia has embarked on a difficult path to economic sovereignty and heightened security to withstand rising antagonism from the West that culminated with the application of punitive sanctions against Russia's positioning on Ukraine. With the aim of lessening economic dependence on trade with the EU, its major trade partner for decades, Russia tries to work out a patriotic model of growth based on two vectors: import and trade partner substitution. The pursuit of self-sufficiency in foodstuffs adds an important pillar to security concerns as reflected earlier in the 2010 Doctrine on Food Security. But import substitution will be costly and difficult to manage. Fiscal balances and exchange rates will need to adjust to the new challenges. Finding new partners eastwards is also complicated. Trade with China, in hydrocarbons or other commodities, requires massive infrastructural work that neither the government nor private investors can afford in a situation of financial stringency. Investment from China is slow to materialize as the economic slowdown also impinges on China's projects. Nonetheless important deals on gas and infrastructure have been agreed and are pursued despite difficulties. A favourable institutional framework aimed at attracting investors to the Far East is in place. It will be up to the local administrations to make the best of it and venture capital to run the risk. The outlook is long-term, but both Russia and China have learnt from history to be patient.

  10. Frustration of contracts, signed in compliance with law of England, as a probable consequence of EU sanctions against Russian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr V. Padiryakov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective comprehensive analysis of the doctrine of the frustration of contracts signed in compliance with law of England and the practice of its application for the Russian companies. Methods dialectical approach to cognition of social phenomena allowing to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the totality of objective and subjective factors that determined the choice of the following research methods systematicstructural formallegal comparativelegal legal modeling method. Results due to the introduction of the EU sanctions there is the risk of foreign counterpartiesrsquo refusal to execute contracts with Russian companies on the legal basis of frustration of treaties. The essence of the frustration doctrine is that the contract obligations may be terminated if after their signing such events occur which make their fulfillment impossible or unlawful. When signing international agreements under English law the lawyers of Russian companies should include provisions governing the relationships of the parties in case of impossibility of the contract execution due to the occurrence of an event that caused the treaty frustration in particular the imposition of sanctions. It is recommended to specify in the contract how the losses arising from the inability to execute the contract will be distributed between the parties. Scientific novelty for the first time basing on court practice review the definition of the frustration of contracts according to the law of England is formulated the legal implications of the recognition of the contract frustrated are discussed and the legal conditions are proposed that should be provided for in the text of a contract to avoid the problem of uncertainty in the allocation of losses of the parties in case of occurrence of external events including sanctions. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and lawenforcement activity

  11. Interdisciplinary Success Of Law And Economy: Economic Analysis Of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Barković

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic analysis of law defines as an application of economic theory and economic methods in studies of forming, structure, process and influence of the law and legal institution. Although many comment that it is the question of a new scientific discipline or contemporary intellectual movement, the economic analysis of law reaches even the classics of economic thought Adam Smith and David Hume but the real recognition of the analysis was the publishing of the famous article of Ronald Coase (1960 “Problem of Public Expense” . Here he discusses how the incentives for damage reduction and various negativities come from the allocation of property rights. The aim of this work is to present an economic analysis of law as an interdisciplinary success of two great fields – law and economy, i.e. to present the way on which economy helps to understand law in a new way. Realizing it, the economy uses mathematically precise theories (e.g. price theory, game theory etc. and empirically firm methods (statistics and econometrically to analyse the impact of prices, i.e. of sanctions on behaviour. The article shows basic economic analyses of law which especially cite the contract law and balance law.

  12. And They Are Still Targeting: Assessing the Effectiveness of Targeted Sanctions against Zimbabwe Und sie sanktionieren weiter: Zur Wirksamkeit zielgerichteter Sanktionen gegen Simbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Grebe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Targeted sanctions have been extensively used by states throughout history to achieve political objectives. This article examines the European Union’s and United States’ targeted sanctions against the Zimbabwean regime, which have been in place for several years. The central thesis of the article is that the sanctions are not effective and thus have failed to achieve the political objectives of both the European Union and the United States. Numerous violations of the travel ban and the financial restrictions have undermined the general effectiveness of the sanctions. A detailed analysis of each individual measure empirically supports the argument that the ineffectiveness of the sanctions has negatively influenced the achievement of the political objectives. In addition, by taking a closer look at Risa Brooks’ theory and discussing it in regards to the Zimbabwean sanctions, attention is drawn to the question of how to target authoritarian regimes. Seit Jahrzehnten sind zielgerichtete Sanktionen ein wichtiges Instrument der internationalen Politik. Der vorliegende Artikel untersucht die von der Europäischen Union und den Vereinigten Staaten verhängten Sanktionen gegen das simbabwische Regime, die seit einigen Jahren wirksam sind. Zentrales Argument des Autors ist, dass diese Sanktionen bislang nicht effektiv waren und die damit verbundenen politischen Ziele daher nicht erreicht werden konnten. Zahlreiche Verstöße gegen das Reiseverbot und die Finanzrestriktionen haben die Wirksamkeit der Sanktionen untergraben. Eine empirische Analyse der einzelnen Sanktionsmaßnahmen unterstützt das Argument, dass die Ineffektivität der Sanktionen die Durchsetzung der politischen Ziele verhindert hat. Mit Blick auf die Theorie von Risa A. Brooks wird zudem der Frage nachgegangen, wie zielgerichtete Sanktionen gegen autoritäre Regime funktionieren können.

  13. Economic impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Technology Transfer Department

    2001-06-01

    In federal fiscal year 2000 (FY00), Berkeley Lab had 4,347 full- and part-time employees. In addition, at any given time of the year, there were more than 1,000 Laboratory guests. These guests, who also reside locally, have an important economic impact on the nine-county Bay Area. However, Berkeley Lab's total economic impact transcends the direct effects of payroll and purchasing. The direct dollars paid to the Lab's employees in the form of wages, salaries, and benefits, and payments made to contractors for goods and services, are respent by employees and contractors again and again in the local and greater economy. Further, while Berkeley Lab has a strong reputation for basic scientific research, many of the Lab's scientific discoveries and inventions have had direct application in industry, spawning new businesses and creating new opportunities for existing firms. This analysis updates the Economic Impact Analysis done in 1996, and its purpose is to describe the economic and geographic impact of Laboratory expenditures and to provide a qualitative understanding of how Berkeley Lab impacts and supports the local community. It is intended as a guide for state, local, and national policy makers as well as local community members. Unless otherwise noted, this analysis uses data from FY00, the most recent year for which full data are available.

  14. Environmental Economics

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    David Glover, Bhim Adhikari and Isabelle Proulx

    ICS. Press, Ithaca, NY, USA. Teitenberg, T.; Lewis, L. 2009. Environmental and natural resource economics. Pearson/Addison-Wesley: Reading, Mass., USA. Yusuf, A.A. 2008. The distributional impact of environmental policy: the case of carbon tax and energy pricing reform in Indonesia. EEPSEA, Singapore. Research ...

  15. Mystical Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The world envisioned by Economics resembles the Garden of Eden, where everything came from God, the pre-primordial sin people having nothing else to do but wait for the natural rhythms, set by the invisible hand, which is moved by the will and the power of the Creator.

  16. Economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) mandated that minimum energy efficiency standards be established for classes of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners, and furnaces. EPCA requires that standards be designed to achieve the maximum improvement in energy efficiency that is technologically feasible and economically justified. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter Two describes the methodology used in the economic analysis and its relationship to legislative criteria for consumer product efficiency assessment; details how the CPES Value Model systematically compared and evaluated the economic impacts of regulation on the consumer, manufacturer and Nation. Chapter Three briefly displays the results of the analysis and lists the proposed performance standards by product class. Chapter Four describes the reasons for developing a baseline forecast, characterizes the baseline scenario from which regulatory impacts were calculated and summarizes the primary models, data sources and assumptions used in the baseline formulations. Chapter Five summarizes the methodology used to calculate regulatory impacts; describes the impacts of energy performance standards relative to the baseline discussed in Chapter Four. Also discussed are regional standards and other program alternatives to performance standards. Chapter Six describes the procedure for balancing consumer, manufacturer, and national impacts to select standard levels. Details of models and data bases used in the analysis are included in Appendices A through K.

  17. Behavioral Law and Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Jolls

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral economics has been a growing force in many fields of applied economics, including public economics, labor economics, health economics, and law and economics. This paper describes and assesses the current state of behavioral law and economics. Law and economics had a critical (though underrecognized) early point of contact with behavioral economics through the foundational debate in both fields over the Coase theorem and the endowment effect. In law and economics today, both the end...

  18. Comparing attitudes about legal sanctions and teratogenic effects for cocaine, alcohol, tobacco and caffeine: A randomized, independent samples design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alanis Kelly L

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing more sensible measures to treat cocaine-addicted mothers and their children is essential for improving U.S. drug policy. Favorable post-natal environments have moderated potential deleterious prenatal effects. However, since cocaine is an illicit substance having long been demonized, we hypothesized that attitudes toward prenatal cocaine exposure would be more negative than for licit substances, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine. Further, media portrayals about long-term outcomes were hypothesized to influence viewers' attitudes, measured immediately post-viewing. Reducing popular crack baby stigmas could influence future policy decisions by legislators. In Study 1, 336 participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions describing hypothetical legal sanction scenarios for pregnant women using cocaine, alcohol, nicotine or caffeine. Participants rated legal sanctions against pregnant women who used one of these substances and risk potential for developing children. In Study 2, 139 participants were randomly assigned to positive, neutral and negative media conditions. Immediately post-viewing, participants rated prenatal cocaine-exposed or non-exposed teens for their academic performance and risk for problems at age18. Results Participants in Study 1 imposed significantly greater legal sanctions for cocaine, perceiving prenatal cocaine exposure as more harmful than alcohol, nicotine or caffeine. A one-way ANOVA for independent samples showed significant differences, beyond .0001. Post-hoc Sheffe test illustrated that cocaine was rated differently from other substances. In Study 2, a one-way ANOVA for independent samples was performed on difference scores for the positive, neutral or negative media conditions about prenatal cocaine exposure. Participants in the neutral and negative media conditions estimated significantly lower grade point averages and more problems for the teen with prenatal cocaine exposure

  19. Comparing attitudes about legal sanctions and teratogenic effects for cocaine, alcohol, tobacco and caffeine: A randomized, independent samples design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Harvey J; Raffeld, Paul; Alanis, Kelly L; Boyce, Angela S

    2006-01-01

    Background Establishing more sensible measures to treat cocaine-addicted mothers and their children is essential for improving U.S. drug policy. Favorable post-natal environments have moderated potential deleterious prenatal effects. However, since cocaine is an illicit substance having long been demonized, we hypothesized that attitudes toward prenatal cocaine exposure would be more negative than for licit substances, alcohol, nicotine and caffeine. Further, media portrayals about long-term outcomes were hypothesized to influence viewers' attitudes, measured immediately post-viewing. Reducing popular crack baby stigmas could influence future policy decisions by legislators. In Study 1, 336 participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions describing hypothetical legal sanction scenarios for pregnant women using cocaine, alcohol, nicotine or caffeine. Participants rated legal sanctions against pregnant women who used one of these substances and risk potential for developing children. In Study 2, 139 participants were randomly assigned to positive, neutral and negative media conditions. Immediately post-viewing, participants rated prenatal cocaine-exposed or non-exposed teens for their academic performance and risk for problems at age18. Results Participants in Study 1 imposed significantly greater legal sanctions for cocaine, perceiving prenatal cocaine exposure as more harmful than alcohol, nicotine or caffeine. A one-way ANOVA for independent samples showed significant differences, beyond .0001. Post-hoc Sheffe test illustrated that cocaine was rated differently from other substances. In Study 2, a one-way ANOVA for independent samples was performed on difference scores for the positive, neutral or negative media conditions about prenatal cocaine exposure. Participants in the neutral and negative media conditions estimated significantly lower grade point averages and more problems for the teen with prenatal cocaine exposure than for the non-exposed teen

  20. Rearrest and Probation Violation Outcomes among Probationers Participating in a Jail-Based Substance-Abuse Treatment Used as an Intermediate Sanction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhorst, Donald M.; Dirks-Linhorst, P. Ann; Groom, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the characteristics of two groups of probationers ordered to jail-based substance-abuse treatment as an intermediate sanction. It further reviews rearrest and probation failure outcomes of the two groups, along with the demographic, clinical, and criminal factors associated with those outcomes. Probationers jailed for probation…

  1. How lay third parties weigh legitimacy and sanctions in a side-taking dilemma: A study among Chinese and Dutch employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, H.; van de Vliert, Evert; Shi, Kan

    2009-01-01

    Lay third parties sometimes react to an interpersonal dispute by taking sides. In this paper, we investigate the interaction effects of lay third parties' moral and expedient orientations on the relationship between perceived legitimacy (or expected negative sanctions) and their intention of

  2. How Lay Third Parties Weigh Legitimacy and Sanctions in a Side-Taking Dilemma : A Study among Chinese and Dutch Employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, H.; Van de Vliert, E.; Shi, K

    Lay third parties sometimes react to an interpersonal dispute by taking sides. In this paper, we investigate the interaction effects of lay third parties' moral and expedient orientations on the relationship between perceived legitimacy (or expected negative sanctions) and their intention of

  3. 20 CFR 666.240 - Under what circumstances may a sanction be applied to a State that fails to achieve negotiated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Under what circumstances may a sanction be....240 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR PERFORMANCE... indicators for the same program in two successive years, the amount of the succeeding year's allocation for...

  4. The Impact of Early Literacy and Behavior Sanctions on African-American Male High School Students' Matriculation in a Selected South Carolina School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Raashad

    2012-01-01

    The study under investigation was the impact of early literacy and behavior sanctions on Black male matriculation towards graduation in a selected South Carolina school district. Attendance and course failure in English strongly predicted whether or not students graduated from high school. Early literacy is the foundation for academic success in…

  5. Food economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    Food and food markets still enjoy a pivotal role in the world economy and the international food industry is moving towards greater consolidation and globalization, with increased vertical integration and changes to market structure. Companies grow bigger in order to obtain economies of scale...... and issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented...

  6. The complexities of anti-doping violations: a case study of sanctioned cases in all performance levels of USA cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, April D; Dimeo, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The use of banned substances and techniques in sport is regulated by anti-doping rules co-ordinated by the World Anti-Doping Agency. The purposes of these rules are to protect the health of the athlete, the level playing field and what WADA refers to as the spirit of sport. In this article, we review the known cases of sanctions in USA cycling since 2001. We show that the diversity of cases expands upon the simplistic, one-dimensional understanding of doping as risky and cheating. Contrary to this paradigm, we establish a typology of cases that challenges the one size fits all approach and, more specifically, we argue that WADA should develop new policies with independent standards for amateur and masters athletes.

  7. ASPECTS OF COMPARATIVE LAW IN THE MATTER OF JUVENILE PRE-DELINQUENCY AND DELINQUENCY WITH TRENDS TOWARDS SANCTIONS AND PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MONICA POCORA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to be an interdisciplinary, criminal-criminological approach of the minority institution in terms of criminal liability, with an evolutionary dynamic of the pre-offense and post-offense assumptions. The operative criterion is the notion of juvenile pre-delinquency (pre-deviance or potential deviance, because it refers to all the acts violating the norm of moral behaviour, which in certain circumstances may lead a teenager to appear before the court, and in other circumstances not. The deviant conducts of minors do not necessarily have a criminal nature and not under all circumstances. If these different acts of them do not violate the criminal norms, representing only deviations from ethical rules of behaviour, they are not legally sanctioned, but only in moral forms. Thus, this approach is meant to be a criminological transition from the criminological plan to the criminal illegality.

  8. Behavioral economics: Reunifying psychology and economics

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Colin

    1999-01-01

    “Behavioral economics” improves the realism of the psychological assumptions underlying economic theory, promising to reunify psychology and economics in the process. Reunification should lead to better predictions about economic behavior and better policy prescriptions.

  9. Status Concern and Relative Deprivation in China: Measures, Empirical Evidence and Economic and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, CHEN

    2017-01-01

    Status concern and feelings of relative deprivation affect individual behaviour and well-being. Traditional norms and the alarming inequality in China have made relative deprivation increasingly intense for the Chinese population. This article reviews empirical literature on China that attempts to test the relative deprivation hypothesis, and also reviews the origins and pathways of relative deprivation, compares its economic measures in the literature and summarises the scientific findings. Drawing from solid empirical evidence, the author discusses the important policy implications on redistribution, official regulations and grassroots sanctions, and relative poverty alleviation. PMID:29033479

  10. ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel MARIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to highlight the quality of life that depends on necessary, harmonious and simultaneous satisfying of all human needs, instead of „one at a time”, health and economic insecurity being at the very foundation of it. A society that is focused on quality of life will be a society centered on the individual, their needs and aspirations. It needs to offer alternatives and choices of the individual and not to impose models. Coercion of society over the individual is an objective and necessary phenomenon. Its deepening is not, however, as required. Social environment based on quality of life must be characterized by the maximum possible degree of permissiveness in which the individual is educated in its contribution to social awareness.

  11. Analysis of Environmental Law Enforcement Mechanism Based on Economic Principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hongjun; Shao, Haohao; Cai, Xuesen

    2017-11-01

    Strengthening and improving the environmental law enforcement mechanism is an important way to protect the ecological environment. This paper is based on economical principles, we did analysis of the marginal management costs by using Pigou means and the marginal transaction costs by using Coase means vary with the quantity growth of pollutant discharge Enterprises. We analyzed all this information, then we got the conclusion as follows. In the process of strengthening the environmental law enforcement mechanism, firstly, we should fully mobilize all aspects of environmental law enforcement, such as legislative bodies and law enforcement agencies, public welfare organizations, television, newspapers, enterprises, people and so on, they need to form a reasonable and organic structure system; then we should use various management means, such as government regulation, legal sanctions, fines, persuasion and denounce, they also need to form an organic structural system.

  12. Economic growth, ecological economics, and wilderness preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Czech

    2000-01-01

    Economic growth is a perennial national goal. Perpetual economic growth and wilderness preservation are mutually exclusive. Wilderness scholarship has not addressed this conflict. The economics profession is unlikely to contribute to resolution, because the neoclassical paradigm holds that there is no limit to economic growth. A corollary of the paradigm is that...

  13. French Economics of Convention and Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    The French Economics of convention tradition has developed to be an influential research tradition situated in the area between economics and sociology. The aim of the paper is to explore some of the themes that may be common to economics of conventions and economic sociology by looking more...... closely into three recent texts from the economics of convention tradition discussing, in slightly different ways, differences and similarities between economics of convention and economic sociology. It is argued that André Orléan’s point that a common aim could be to ‘denaturalise’ the institutional...... foundation of markets and of money may be an occasion for economic sociology to focus even more on elaborating on the institutional void created by traditional economic theory. A second point is that economic sociology could benefit from the perspective of a plurality of forms of coordination involved...

  14. Economics of Convention and New Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the article is to explore potential common themes in economic sociology and economics of conventions. The article explores two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be of particular importance to economic sociology. First, the explicit exploration of the consequences...... of a plurality of forms of justification, as elaborated in économie de la grandeur. This perspective was recently taken up in economic sociology by David Stark's introduction of the notion ‘sociology of worth'. The second issue, recently suggested by André Orléan, is the need to denaturalize economic theory...... and economic action to demonstrate the social constructed nature of economic action. It is argued that these two issues demonstrate that a fruitful dialogue is indeed possible between economic sociology and economics of convention and should be encouraged....

  15. Behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2009-01-01

    It is human nature to overestimate how rational we are, both in general and even when we are trying to be. Such irrationality is not random, and the search for and explanation of patterns of fuzzy thinking is the basis for a new academic discipline known as behavioral economics. Examples are given of some of the best understood of our foibles, including prospect theory, framing, anchoring, salience, confirmation bias, superstition, and ownership. Humans have two cognitive systems: one conscious, deliberate, slow, and rational; the other fast, pattern-based, emotionally tinged, and intuitive. Each is subject to its own kind of error. In the case of rational thought, we tend to exaggerate our capacity; for intuition, we fail to train it or recognize contexts where it is inappropriate. Humans are especially poor at estimating probabilities, or even understanding what they are. It is a common human failing to reason backwards from random outcomes that are favorable to beliefs about our power to predict the future. Five suggestions are offered for thinking within our means.

  16. RUSSIAN FOREIGN POLICY - INTERESTS VECTORS AND ECONOMIC IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA – EMANUELA DRǍGOI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, Russia's foreign policy was shaped by both a number of internal factors (government strategy, political elites, culture, economics and demography and external ones (international treaties, changes in the structure of the international power balance. In the post-soviet era Russian foreign policy was radically different from that of other major economic powers. One of the factors that influenced decisively Russia’s external strategies was the collapse of the USSR as a superpower (phenomenon described by the president Vladimir Putin as "the most powerful geo-political catastrophe of the XXst century". The shift from the former communist regime (a totalitarian one to an authoritarian oligarchy (the current regime was followed by the transition to a market economy, a phenomenon that coincided with Russia’s military and political diminished influence in the international arena. Our research aims to assess the main interest vectors that shaped Russian Foreign Policy considering the main events that constitute milestones: Russia’s emerging as a great energy power, the Crimean crisis and Western international economic sanctions that followed. Our paper will base the main assumption on a joint analysis both qualitative and quantitative, using main international economic indicators (GDP, FDI flows, trade flows, general government balance and general gross debt and the most relevant approaches in the literature in the field.

  17. La création d'une culture de controle? Les intentions politiques derrière la genèse des Sanctions Administratives Communales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devroe, E.

    2015-01-01

    C’est le 3 mars 1999, en fin de législature, qu’est introduit par les ministres de la Justice et de l’Intérieur de l’époque Tony Van Parijs et L. Van den Bossche, le projet de loi sur les sanctions administratives communales[1] (connue sous le nom de «Loi SAC). La loi devait être votée et il y avait

  18. From control (insurgent punishments to autonomy (community sanctions. Elements for the transition of the Local Justice in La Sierra de la Macarena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Espinosa Menéndez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Local Legal System in La Sierra de la Macarena is facing the challenge of the political transition in the Colombian post war. Since this Legal System integrates insurgent, community, and state practices, after the abandonment of weapons that the insurgency makes, the ability of coercion that integrates the local justice shall cease. This implies that sanctions provided by the Manuals of Coexistence of the communities (fines, confiscations, and community work should strengthen their legitimacy. Likewise, the sanctions imposed by the guerrillas to punish the violation of its regulations and/or to maintain order (forced labor, exile, executions have to be overcome. Since such an improvement implies a territorial transformation, in order to make it, it is necessary to recognize the current social conditions. In this order of ideas, a characterization of the criminal nature of the Local Legal System isprovided and the main elements of its sanctions are set out. The text is supported by a long-standing social and legal ethnography, in the zone.

  19. SANCTIONS WHICH OCCUR AS A CONSEQUENCE OF NON-COMPLIANCE WITH THE PRINCIPLE OF LEGALITY IN THE PENAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CATALIN IONUT ONCESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The legality principle represents a frame principle since its interaction with the other principles exceeds the simple connection with those. The legality represents the frame within and with the compliance with which all the other fundamental principles of the penal trial are realized. No other principle can be placed outside thelegality, in same way in which any principle, no matter how important it may be, does not occur in any other way than according to the forms stipulated by law.Taking into consideration that the enforcement of the law is mandatory in criminal law procedures, as well as the obvious significance of the penal trial’s principle oflegality, it was absolutely necessary for the compliance with this principle to be doubled by numerous guarantees which, in the situations in which this fundamental rule has been violated, would become genuine sanctions referring not only to the procedural acts achieved with the law’s violation, but also to the people who have not complied with the law as far as the procedural penal activities’ unfolding is concerned.

  20. DUI Countermeasures: differences between court jail sentences and jail time actually served and available alternative sanctions in select California counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenzburger, Gloriam Vanine; Atkinson, Debra Barbiaux

    2014-02-01

    Jail sentences and actual jail times were compared for 2006 California driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs (DUI) offenders from select counties using matched data from Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV), court, and sheriff databases. Additionally, alternative sanctions to jail were investigated. Jail sentences reported by courts were consistently longer than actual jail time. Actual jail time percentages across participating counties ranged from 0 to 67% for 1st DUI offenders, 0 to 20% for 2nd offenders, and 0 to 66% for 3rd(+) offenders. Median percentages of jail sentences actually served across participating counties were 0%, 7%, and 22% for 1st, 2nd, and 3rd(+) DUI offenders, respectively. Alternative sentences were used more often for 1st DUI offenders and less so for 2nd and 3rd(+) offenders. Caution is warranted regarding conclusions about jail ineffectiveness as a DUI deterrent from previous studies given that most were based on jail sentence or statutory lengths, which appear to overestimate actual jail times. © 2013.

  1. Can centralized sanctioning promote trust in social dilemmas? A two-level trust game with incomplete information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Raymond Yu; Ng, Cho Nam

    2015-01-01

    The problem of trust is a paradigmatic social dilemma. Previous literature has paid much academic attention on effects of peer punishment and altruistic third-party punishment on trust and human cooperation in dyadic interactions. However, the effects of centralized sanctioning institutions on decentralized reciprocity in hierarchical interactions remain to be further explored. This paper presents a formal two-level trust game with incomplete information which adds an authority as a strategic purposive actor into the traditional trust game. This model allows scholars to examine the problem of trust in more complex game theoretic configurations. The analysis demonstrates how the centralized institutions might change the dynamics of reciprocity between the trustor and the trustee. Findings suggest that the sequential equilibria of the newly proposed two-level model simultaneously include the risk of placing trust for the trustor and the temptation of short-term defection for the trustee. Moreover, they have shown that even a slight uncertainty about the type of the newly introduced authority might facilitate the establishment of trust and reciprocity in social dilemmas.

  2. Governmental control of public expenditure in the constitutional State: thoughts regarding General Comptroller sanctioning powers approval on functional administrative responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika García Cobián Castro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional doctrine has little addressed on the General Comptroller of the Republic and its controlling function of public resources execution and management. Efforts have been made to explain this situation in other realities, regarding high budgetary, accounting and auditing content needed to carry out auditing activities constitutionally assigned to this kind of entities. Nevertheless, identifying competences of the General Comptroller of the Republic and its nature of autonomous constitutional body shapes an important expression of Constitutional State and the principle of powers division. This entity controls State’s Public Budget execution contributing to constitutional property protection, legality of budget implementation and the appropriate management of public resources, also the «efficiency» of social needs, proper functioning of public administration and prevention of corruption, among others duties. This article analyzes the constitutional mission of the General Comptroller in a Constitutional State promoting the process of given a constitutional status to the legal system in its area of influence, also optimizing constitutional properties protected. For such purpose, the 29622 recent law («Law that modifies the 27785 Organic Law of National Control System and the General Comptroller of the Republic extending powers in order to sanction in accordance of functional administrative responsibility» shall be used as object of constitutional analysis.

  3. Criminal Sanctions Against Official Corruption and other Offences Against Official Duty Offenders in Kosovo for the Period 2008-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flutura Tahiraj

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The need to fight corruption, with the focus on official corruption in Kosovo continues to be addressed by both national and international reports. The objective of this paper is to find out the number of the cases and analyse the sactions against official corruption and other offences against official duty delivered by Municipality Courts in Kosovo during the period 2008-2015 with the aim to assess the developments during a period of eight years since most of the other researches are focused on annual performance of the courts. All data presented in this article are taken from the Kosovo Statistical Office and include statistical information on the types and frequency of criminal sanctions to perpetrators of the official corruption and other offences against official duty. Case study is also applied to analyse some court judgments. The study shows there is a slight incresase of the number of convicted perpetrators over years, the number of corruption cases addressed by the courts remained very limited, followed by low sentences or even prescription of cases. The findings will add additional scientific insights to the existing knowledge about preventing and fighting official corruption and it can be useful for scholars, policy makers and practitioners in Kosovo.

  4. Economic Sociology and Economics of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    This paper is part of a larger exploration of the French Economics of Convention tradition. The aim of the paper is to explore potential themes of common interest to economic sociology and Economics of Conventions. The paper is in two parts. First, I summarise the main theoretical features of EC...... the institutional framework of social action. Second, I explore two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be particularly important to consider for economic sociology. The first issue is the explicit exploration of the consequences of a plurality of forms of justification suggested by Luc Boltanski...... and Laurent Thévenot in ‘économie de la grandeur’. This perspective has already been taken up in economic sociology in David Stark’s notion of a ‘Sociology of Worth’. The second issue, recently suggested by André Orléan, is the need to denaturalise economic theory and economic action to demonstrate the social...

  5. Effect of the U.S. embargo and economic decline on health in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, M

    2000-01-18

    This article describes the ways in which economic crisis and the U.S. embargo have affected Cuba's health care system during the past 15 years. With the demise of subsidized trade, the absence of aid from the former Soviet Union, and the progressive tightening of U.S. sanctions, Cuba's model health care system has become threatened by serious shortages of medical supplies. Several public health catastrophes have occurred, including an epidemic of blindness that was partially attributed to a dramatic decrease in access to nutrients; an outbreak of the Guillain-Barré syndrome caused by lack of chlorination chemicals; and an epidemic of lye ingestion in toddlers due to severe shortages of soap. The policy of mandatory quarantine for HIV-infected Cubans has evolved into a less rigid system. Although the prevalence of HIV infection in Cuba is low compared with that in the United States and other Caribbean nations, it is threatened by prostitution, which has increased along with tourism. In general, economic sanctions may have an unintended but profound effect on the health and nutrition of vulnerable populations.

  6. Ethiopian Journal of Economics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ethiopian Economic Journal of Economics is a publication of the Ethiopian Economic Association. It is a bi annual publication devoted to the advancement of economics as a scientific discipline in Ethiopia. However, contributions of articles by non-Ethiopian and on economic experience of other countries are ...

  7. Finding the economics in economic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstad, David W; Knolhoff, Lisa M

    2009-02-01

    To recommend new pest management tactics and strategies to farmers and policy makers, economic entomologists must evaluate the economics of biologically reasonable approaches. We collected data to determine how frequently these economic evaluations occur. We discovered from our survey of entomological journals representing the discipline of economic entomology that entomology is to ultimately determine the value of different kinds of tactics, the discipline may need to take steps to enhance the research that supports these evaluations.

  8. Does India's Economic Transformation Promote Women's Economic ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women: Strengthening Research Capacity. The Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women (GrOW) research program is a collaborative initiative involving IDRC, the United Kingdom's Department for International Development, and The... View moreGrowth and Economic ...

  9. Economic theories of dictatorship

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Debs

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews recent advances in economic theories of dictatorships and their lessons for the political stability and economic performance of dictatorships. It reflects on the general usefulness of economic theories of dictatorship, with an application to foreign relations.

  10. Marriage From the Perspective of Economics of Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    علی تازیکی‌نژاد

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Marriage law, as part of general pattern of family, is a policy instrument that defines optimal behavioral standards for matrimonial relationship through ordaining sanctions. Imposing such standards regardless of their consequences may result in anxiety in the family institution and subsequently in the society itself and may raise the motivation of defensive behaviors among people and as a result will increase the cost of legislative and judicial system. Economic approach to the marriage law with analyzing aftermath of laws on couple's behavior is looking for minimizing marriage costs including couple, society and judiciary system costs, and maximizing the cost of its inefficient breach. Incentive role of family law and its supplements, such as labor laws, tax and employment affairs etc., on the rate of marriage and divorce, the amount of dowry and other couple's decisions is a topic that economics of family law is recently very focused on. This article, in the form of “contract” and “market” and by using of concepts including costs, benefits, efficiency, competition and monopolywill present the economic analysis of marriage and other related legal concepts and is to introduce a new approach to Iranian family legislators and judges.

  11. Economic Science Going Through a Painful Time Confronted with Societal Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Daňhel

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the globalised world of the past decade, the characteristic movement of the real economy in Europe has been in the lower amplitudes of the economic cycle and has been complicated by the low effectiveness of fiscal and monetary policy tools and instability on the financial markets, which, in relation to the real economy, display features of autonomy and virtuality. The exchange rates of the euro, rouble and Czech crown display exceptional volatility, while the yields from financial instruments are at a historic minimum. These phenomena are the result of the stagnation of the European economy, a  high level of indebtedness and an inability to effectively solve escalating political problems, such as military conflicts, terrorism, mass migration, economic sanctions, etc

  12. Engaging Undergraduates in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajwani, Kiran; Miron, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Siegfried and Stock (2007) explore the undergraduate training of PhD economists. Their findings show that among U.S. undergraduate economics programs, the Harvard University Economics Department produces many eventual economics PhD recipients. In this article, the authors discuss Harvard's undergraduate economics program and highlight some key…

  13. Ranking economic history journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2010-01-01

    This study ranks-for the first time-12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We also...... compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential for economic...

  14. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen M. Ivic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Under Economic Growth mean constantly increasing volume of production in a country, or an increase in gross domestic product as the main quantitative indicators of production for a period of one year. Economic development is not only quantitative changes when it comes to the economic position of the country, but also qualitative changes (changing the economic structure, the emergence of new sectors and industries, new jobs, etc... They lead to a better and more complete satisfaction of all human needs. Production per capita is a measure of the ability of a society to achieve their goals of social and economic development, all in order to meet the constantly growing social needs. The increase in output per capita in economic theory is expressed as economic growth, without which no economic development, but does not have any economic growth to be a function of economic development.

  15. Did economic inequality cause the economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šuković Danilo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The sudden and large increase of interest in questions of distribution of wealth and economic inequality, arising in recent years, resulted primarily from the enormous increase in inequality that occurred during the last three decades. The global economic crisis that emerged in 2008 gave a new impetus to this research because numerous scientific studies appeared in which inequalities were given as one of the key causes of the crisis from which the world is slowly recovering. This is especially true in Europe, whose recovery is barely discernible. This paper analyzes the trends of economic inequality and points to the impact of inequality on economic growth. The central question in this paper, however, is whether the economic inequalities caused the economic crisis. Although opinions differ as to inequality’s impact on the occurrence of the crisis, the fact is that enormous economic inequalities, and especially their permanent growth, could have many negative effects, such as increasing poverty, increasing social stratification and causing global economic crises. As many authors have pointed out, escalating inequality is not an inevitable price of progress. On the contrary, it is a political decision that often has expensive ramifications.

  16. Is ‘making work pay’ effective for the ‘unemployable’? The impact of benefit sanctions on social assistance recipients in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diop-Christensen, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In spring 2006, the Danish government introduced a policy that required married long-term social assistance recipients to work 300 hours in non-subsidised employment during a 2-year period in order to remain eligible for benefits. The intention was to ‘make work pay’ for unemployed immigrant women...... an unforeseen effect on the work effort of social welfare workers. Many moved their clients to other benefit schemes instead of applying the sanctions. This was particularly the case for the weakest among the unemployed and in municipalities, which were headed by left-wing mayors or that received extra funds...

  17. Ranking Economic History Journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    This study ranks - for the first time - 12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We...... also compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential...

  18. Perspectives of economics – behavioural economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula-Elena DIACON

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The present turning point, accentuated by the crisis, has revitalized the interdisciplinary study of economics and determined the reconsideration of its fundamental bases as a social science. The economists have abandoned the traditional neoclassical sphere and have directed towards understanding the behaviour resorting to psychology and developing in this manner a new field - behavioural economics. This article examines whether this economic sub-discipline is a viable research direction and the extent to which it may increase the explanatory power of science by providing a realistic database for analysis, taking into account the complexity of the human factor.

  19. Partners in Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Regina M. J.

    1981-01-01

    A key element for economic revitalization, the local labor market development, can be supported by colleges and universities in coordination with business and government. The Human Resources Management Center, a strategic model for managing economic dislocations, is described. (MLW)

  20. Economics and Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Alan K.

    Economic matters are often entangled with interventions. Aid agencies need to understand where they can have the highest leverage, and where aid may cause harmful economic distortions. Humanitarian interventions in crises will be more effective if the economic and social root causes of the crisis are addressed as well. The root causes of insurgencies often include economic issues, particularly economic discrimination. Planners for military operations in a country need to know the economic side effects of military activities, including the effects of withdrawal. Government agencies trying to bring developed-nation investors into a developing country must understand, along with the potential investors, what the economic prospects of the economy are, and how safe an investment is (or is not). Economic modeling and analysis can assist in each of these cases.

  1. Globalization and economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization is nothing, really, that the universality of capitalism. Not globalized culture, and economic participation, and human rights, ... has only globalized market. We must react by substituting those materialistic values with cooperative economy.

  2. Botswana Journal of Economics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Botswana Journal of Economics is a professional journal established for the dissemination of contemporary economic issues–theoretical, methodological, and policy relevant–in the context of both the immediate environment and the wider international community.

  3. STRUCTURE OF ECONOMIC MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Podderegina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers and analyzes scientific approaches of economists to the essence and contents of the economic mechanism. Proposals for methodological formation of economic mechanism structure are substantiated in the paper.

  4. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Maruyama, Toru

    2017-01-01

    The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who are seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking effective mathematical tools for their research. A lot of economic problems can be formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories.

  5. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Maruyama, Toru

    2016-01-01

    The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who are seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking effective mathematical tools for their research. A lot of economic problems can be formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories.

  6. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Yamazaki, Akira

    2006-01-01

    A lot of economic problems can formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories. The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who were seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking for effective mathematical tools for their researchers.

  7. Economics of Blockchain

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Sinclair; De Filippi, Primavera; Potts, Jason

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Claims blockchain is more than just ICT innovation, but facilitates new types of economic organization and governance. Suggests two approaches to economics of blockchain: innovation-centred and governance-centred. Argues that the governance approach — based in new institutional economics and public choice economics — is most promising, because it models blockchain as a new technology for creating spontaneous organizations, i.e. new types of economies. Illustrates this ...

  8. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Yamazaki, Akira

    2006-01-01

    A lot of economic problems can formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions.Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories. The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who were seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking for effective mathematical tools for their researchers.

  9. The Economics of Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    The literature on business networks is often oversocialized. The economic side of business is implicitly assumed. This paper analyses the economics of network behavior by loking at each of the key concepts in the Network Theory.......The literature on business networks is often oversocialized. The economic side of business is implicitly assumed. This paper analyses the economics of network behavior by loking at each of the key concepts in the Network Theory....

  10. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Maruyama, Toru

    2014-01-01

    A lot of economic problems can be formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories. The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who are seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking effective mathematical tools for their research.

  11. The Economics of Nationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaohuan Lan; Ben Li

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an economic framework for examining how economic openness affects nationalism. Within a country, a region's level of nationalism varies according to its economic interests in its domestic market relative to its foreign market. A region's nationalism is strongest if the optimal size of its domestic market equals the size of its country. All else being equal, increasing a region's foreign trade reduces its economic interests in its domestic market and thus weakens its nation...

  12. ECONOMICS OF COPYRIGHT:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MLR

    The Emergence of Economic Analysis of Law. 1.1. Law and Economics: A Lasting Love Affair. Until recently, the overlapping academic interests of law and economics mostly comprised of the following areas: antitrust law, regulated industries, tax and determination of monetary damages. However, since the early 1960s, the.

  13. Shea Stadium: Economic Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norflus, David

    1978-01-01

    The author describes a course which links sports and economics. The course encompassed 28 lessons, which are listed, and which gave students the opportunity to work with charts, graphs, the Consumer Price Index, lifetime wages, and other economic data. A noticeable change in attitudes toward economics was demonstrated. (KC)

  14. Essays on economic cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de E.A. (Bert)

    2006-01-01

    Schumpeter’s line of thought of multiple economic cycles is further investigated. The existence of multiple cycles in economic variables is demonstrated. In basic innovations five different cycles are found. Multiple cycle structures are shown in various macro-economic variables from the United

  15. Behavioral Economics and Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Sunstein, Cass R.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral economics explores why people sometimes fail to make rational decisions, and how their behavior departs from the predictions of standard economic models. Insights gained from studies in behavioral economics are used in consumer research and consumer policy to understand and improve ind...... individuals' decisions about health, wealth, and happiness....

  16. Foundations of economic change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantner, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    This paper employs the Schumpeterian approach to the development of economies in order to identify the core building blocks of a theory of endogenous economic change. Borders and insights are widened by combining concepts and findings from behavioral economics, from evolutionary economics, and from...

  17. Energy and Economic Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonenblum, Sidney

    This report reviews the economic impacts of the energy dilemma. Presented are viewpoints that have emerged relating to: (1) the desirability of economic growth; (2) the relationship between economic growth and energy usage; (3) the effects of energy wage in limiting or expanding the opportunities for growth; and (4) whether there is some sense in…

  18. Economics: It's Your Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Henry

    This document is a text for teaching economics. The book is divided into seven units. Unit 1 is called "What is Economics?" Its seven chapters discuss economics and scarcity, money, the role of the consumer, the role of the producer, capitalism and the free enterprise system, and the circular flow of the economy. The second unit is "How the United…

  19. Did Economic Inequality Cause the Economic Crisis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Danilo Sukovic

    2014-01-01

    ... that occurred during the last three decades. The global economic crisis that emerged in 2008 gave a new impetus to this research because numerous scientific studies appeared in which inequalities were given as one of the key causes...

  20. Economic Modelling in Institutional Economic Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wadim Strielkowski; Evgeny Popov

    2017-01-01

    Our paper is centered around the formation of theory of institutional modelling that includes principles and ideas reflecting the laws of societal development within the framework of institutional economic theory...

  1. Essays in Labor Economics and Development Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Yakovlev, Evgeny

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation contains three essays on labor economics and development economics.In the first and second chapters, I examine determinants and consequences of alcohol consumption in Russia and quantify the effects of various public policies on mortality rates and on consumer welfare. For the past twenty years, Russia has confronted the Mortality Crisis - the life expectancy of Russian males has fallen by more than five years, and the mortality rate has increased by 50%. Alcohol abuse is wi...

  2. Non-equilibrium Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Martinás

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A microeconomic, agent based framework to dynamic economics is formulated in a materialist approach. An axiomatic foundation of a non-equilibrium microeconomics is outlined. Economic activity is modelled as transformation and transport of commodities (materials owned by the agents. Rate of transformations (production intensity, and the rate of transport (trade are defined by the agents. Economic decision rules are derived from the observed economic behaviour. The non-linear equations are solved numerically for a model economy. Numerical solutions for simple model economies suggest that the some of the results of general equilibrium economics are consequences only of the equilibrium hypothesis. We show that perfect competition of selfish agents does not guarantee the stability of economic equilibrium, but cooperativity is needed, too.

  3. Individuals and identity in economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    This book examines the different conceptions of the individual that have emerged in recent new approaches in economics, including behavioral economics, experimental economics, social preferences approaches, game theory, neuroeconomics, evolutionary and complexity economics, and the capability

  4. Possibilities of sanction of the improper behaviour of a power network operator. Instruments of energy economy act, public order law, and criminal law; Sanktionsmoeglichkeiten bei missbraeuchlichem Verhalten eines Energienetzbetreibers. Energiewirtschaftsrechtliche, ordnungsrechtliche und strafrechtliche Instrumentarien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitto, L.

    2007-07-01

    The liberalization of the electric power market and gas market has released a comprehensive reorganisation of the energy branch. Under this aspect, the author of the book under consideration reports on power network operators, their improper behaviour as well as the use of the instruments of energy economy act, public order law, and criminal law in order to sanction power network operators.

  5. Prospects for Economics.

    OpenAIRE

    Pencavel, John

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the curent state of economics and ruminates about its future course. Conjectures are offered about developments in economics research and also about the evolution of the profession. The discipline will become increasingly diverse both in its subject matter and in its analytical approaches. Much of the advance in economics science will come from those fusing theory with data, yet there are powerful forces attracting economists away from this central ground and toward the w...

  6. The Journals of Economics.

    OpenAIRE

    Stigler, George J; Stigler, Stephen M; Friedland, Claire

    1995-01-01

    The authors examine the principal journals of economics, with particular attention to the communication between journals, as reflected by interjournal citations during 1987-90, and the changes over the past century in the characteristics of the authors and the techniques they have used. The numerical results, and those of the statistical modeling of these results, reinforce importance of economic theory as an exporter of intellectual influence to applied economics. The study examines the degr...

  7. Practice and Economic Geography

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, A.; Murphy, J. T.

    2010-01-01

    Economic geography has over the last decade become increasingly interested in the role of practice, conceptualised as the regularised or stabilised social actions through which economic agents organize or coordinate production, marketing, service provision, exchange and/or innovation activities. Interest in practice is most clearly manifest in a growing body of research concerned to conceptualise how the regularized social relations and interactions linking economic actors (e.g. entrepreneurs...

  8. Religion and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Barro, Robert J.; Rachel McCleary

    2003-01-01

    Empirical research on the determinants of economic growth has typically neglected the influence of religion. To fill this gap, we use international survey data on religiosity for a broad panel of countries to investigate the effects of church attendance and religious beliefs on economic growth. To isolate the direction of causation from religiosity to economic performance, we use instrumental variables suggested by our analysis of systems in which church attendance and beliefs are the depende...

  9. Agroforestry Economics and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.D. Godsey; D. Evan Mercer; Robert K. Grala; Stephen C. Grado; Janaki R.R. Alavalapati

    2009-01-01

    Essentially every living thing on Earth has applied the basic concepts of economics. That is, every living thing has had to use a limited set of resources to meet a minimum set of needs or wants. Although the study of economics is often confused with the study of markets or finance, economics is simply a social science that studies the choices people make. As a social...

  10. Models of Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Ioana; Tiberiu Socaciu

    2013-01-01

    The article presents specific aspects of management and models for economic analysis. Thus, we present the main types of economic analysis: statistical analysis, dynamic analysis, static analysis, mathematical analysis, psychological analysis. Also we present the main object of the analysis: the technological activity analysis of a company, the analysis of the production costs, the economic activity analysis of a company, the analysis of equipment, the analysis of labor productivity, the anal...

  11. Contemporary engineering economics

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Chan S

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary Engineering Economics, 5/e, is intended for undergraduate engineering students taking introductory engineering economics while appealing to the full range of engineering disciplines for which this course is often required: industrial, civil, mechanical, electrical, computer, aerospace, chemical, and manufacturing engineering, as well as engineering technology. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated while continuing to adopt a contemporary approach to the subject, and teaching, of engineering economics. This text aims not only to build a sound and comprehensive coverage of engineering economics, but also to address key educational challenges, such as student difficulty in developing the analytical skills required to make informed financial decisions.

  12. Politico-economic equivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez Eiras, Martin; Niepelt, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    and a state are equivalent to another such pair if both pairs give rise to the same allocation in politico-economic equilibrium. The equivalence conditions help to identify factors that render institutional change non-neutral and to construct politico-economic equilibria in new policy regimes. We exemplify......Traditional "economic equivalence'' results, like the Ricardian equivalence proposition, define equivalence classes over exogenous policies. We derive "politico-economic equivalence" conditions that apply in environments where policy is endogenous and chosen sequentially. A policy regime...

  13. CDBG Economic Development Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to economic development, including commercial or industrial rehab, commercial or industrial land acquisition, commercial or industrial...

  14. Globalization and Economic Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2006-01-01

    This paper employs a panel data set to estimate the effect of globalization on four measures of economic freedom. Contrary to previous studies, the paper distinguishes between three separate types of globalization: economic, social and political. It also separates effects for poor and rich...... countries, and autocracies and democracies. The results show that economic globalization is negatively associated with government size and positively with regulatory freedom in rich countries; social globalization is positively associated with legal quality in autocracies and with the access to sound money...... in democracies. Political globalization is not associated with economic freedom...

  15. Models of Economic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Ioana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents specific aspects of management and models for economic analysis. Thus, we present the main types of economic analysis: statistical analysis, dynamic analysis, static analysis, mathematical analysis, psychological analysis. Also we present the main object of the analysis: the technological activity analysis of a company, the analysis of the production costs, the economic activity analysis of a company, the analysis of equipment, the analysis of labor productivity, the analysis of the goods flow.Keywords: Economic analysis, Models, Adoption of innovation

  16. Buddhism, Business, and Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brox, Trine; Williams-Oerberg, Elizabeth Lane

    2017-01-01

    This chapter takes the relationship that Buddhists have historically had with economic practices as a starting point for discussing contemporary entanglements of Buddhism and economy. Based on a literary review of previous studies on Buddhism and business and building upon our own research, we......-monk exchange relations, Buddhist economic ethics, monastic businesses, spiritual consumerism, globalized Buddhism, secularized Buddhist technologies in the corporate world, and Buddhist branding, all of which testify to the diverse modalities of Buddhism and economic relations, illuminating also the economic...

  17. Industrial Economics in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Møllgaard, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Based on diverse research methods, we trace and map industrial economics research in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in the periode of 1880 to 1908. After describing this research in terms of key contributors, we argue that industrial economics developed rather unevenly in the Scandinavian countries....... Danish research was mainly theoretical and strongly oriented towards the international context, whereas Norwegian research was largely industry analysis with a strong leaning towards managerial economics. Swedish research in industrial economics is very scant until the end of the 1960s.JEL Code: B1, B2...

  18. Essays in health economics and labor economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The economics literature presents a growing number of studies focusing on risky health behaviors such as tobacco use or cannabis use. One of the most important characteristics of these risky health behaviors is that they harm the users and the people around the users, causing great social and

  19. Economic globalisation and economic justice: Covenanting for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The premise of this article is that ethical moral formation or 'covenanting for justice' leads to action. The covenanting church itself, in conjunction with other movements, works for justice in all areas of life. The article uses the six aspects of ethical moral formation of Heinz Tödt to analyse some aspects of economic ...

  20. Economic Modelling in Institutional Economic Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadim Strielkowski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Our paper is centered around the formation of theory of institutional modelling that includes principles and ideas reflecting the laws of societal development within the framework of institutional economic theory. We scrutinize and discuss the scientific principles of this institutional modelling that are increasingly postulated by the classics of institutional theory and find their way into the basics of the institutional economics. We propose scientific ideas concerning the new innovative approaches to institutional modelling. These ideas have been devised and developed on the basis of the results of our own original design, as well as on the formalisation and measurements of economic institutions, their functioning and evolution. Moreover, we consider the applied aspects of the institutional theory of modelling and employ them in our research for formalizing our results and maximising the practical outcome of our paper. Our results and findings might be useful for the researchers and stakeholders searching for the systematic and comprehensive description of institutional level modelling, the principles involved in this process and the main provisions of the institutional theory of economic modelling.

  1. Economic Engagement Framework: Economic Impact Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambargis, Zoë; Mead, Charles Ian; Rzeznik, Stanislaw J.; Swenson, David; Weisenberger, Janet

    2014-01-01

    The Association of Public and Land-grant Universities' (APLU's) Commission on Innovation, Competitiveness, and Economic Prosperity (CICEP) views university contributions to the economy across a spectrum of activity--from educating students and creating the talent necessary for the 21st century workforce to developing innovation ecosystems and…

  2. Between agreements and disagreements. Use of the Pragmatic Sanction to avoid the abuse of unequal marriages in the province of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fuentes-Barragán

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the repercussions produced by the implementation of the consecutive versions of the “Real Pragmática de Matrimonios” [Royal sanction for marriage] in the Vice-royalty of Río de la Plata and, more speciically, in the Province of Buenos Aires, since its irst American proclamation in 1778 until the dawn of emancipation. We will analyze both the role of parents, supported by the Crown to decide the matrimonial fate of their children, as well as the reaction of the latter, who saw their rights limited and had to disobey their parents in order to become responsible for their own lives. After analyzing documents from various kinds of Argentinian historical iles, relevant historiographical variations are obtained. Those variations are meaningful, as they help us to explore the fascinating reality typiied by prejudice, family interests and individual feelings in the late colonial period.

  3. A NUCLEAR IRAN: DID THE UNITED STATES, UNITED NATIONS AND EUROPEAN UNIONS USE OF SANCTIONS IMPACT THE IRANIAN NUCLEAR PROGRAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    I thank my family . To my Mother, who always encouraged me to chase my dreams and to my Father who taught me to continually ask why, I would not be...commodity=crude-oil-west-texas- intermediate&months=120 103 Dominique Guillaume, Roman Zytek and Mohammad Reza Farzin, “Iran-The Chronicles of the...Iranian Disease : Why a Developing Country’s Government did not listen to Economists’ Advices”, American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Vol 72 (3

  4. THE SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DIRECTIONS OF DEVELOPMENT OF IT-TECHNOLOGIES IN SYSTEM OF INTERNET BANKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Sergeevna Vinnikova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of work is caused by active introduction of IT-technologies in various spheres of economic activity and in particular the bank environment, and also social and economic problems of use of information systems which arose along with a world economic crisis, sanctions and growth of the competition.Purpose: to define the main social and economic problems and the directions of development of IT-technologies in system of Internet banking at the present stage.Methodology: general scientific methods were used: analysis and synthesis, comparison, generalization, system approach.Results. Features of development of IT-technologies within remote bank customer service in Russia are defined. The directions of development of IT-technologies of the BSS company from a position of dynamic distribution of Internet banking in the future and from a position of development of the relations with clients are presented.Practical implications: results of research will be demanded by the scientists dealing with problems of Internet banking, heads of the commercial banks dealing with issues of remote bank service, students, undergraduates and graduate students of higher educational institutions.

  5. Complexity Triggered by Economic Globalisation— The Issue of On-Line Betting-Related Match Fixing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladimir Andreff

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Complexity in mainstream economics consists in high intermediary consumption of mathematics. A new approach to complexity economics dwells upon path-dependent global systems; their emergence and evolving organisation. The focus here is on the complexity of the real economic world due to globalisation. On-line betting related match-fixing is a case in point about which the article presents non-exhaustive empirical evidence and shows how it is analysed with the standard model of the economics of crime. There is no room for complexity in such an individualistic approach to corrupt behaviour applied to bet-related fixes. A more complex model is sketched based on interactions between a global (though underground market for fixes and the actual partly legal, partly illegal global sport betting market. These interactions exhibit how complex is the issue of combating betting-related match fixing. Reviewing those major policies envisaged for containing the latter—prohibition; sanctions; regulation; privatisation (betting rights—the article opts for a global ‘Sportbettobin’ tax on sport betting gains; in the same vein as the famous Tobin tax on international capital transfers. The novelty in this approach is a variable (increasing rate applied to increasing tranches of taxation (gains which should dry up the worst cases of on-line bettingrelated match fixing.

  6. Essays in antitrust economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verouden, V.C.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    Competition law - or antitrust law, as it is called in the United States - is a field of law to which economic concepts, such as "restriction of competition" and "anti-competitive effect", are of central importance. This thesis analyses a number of such concepts, both from an economic and a legal

  7. Translational Health Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogowski, Wolf; John, Jürgen; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Scheffler, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Translational health economics (THE) can be defined as the use of theoretical concepts and empirical methods in health economics to bridge the gap between the decision to fund and use a new health technology in clinical practice (the backend of translational medicine) and the decision to invest into

  8. Economics of professional football

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besters, Lucas

    2018-01-01

    This dissertation contains four chapters, all with a different topic that is of interest from a sports economic perspective. More specifically, from the economic perspective of professional football. Football is the most popular sport within Europe and the data that is used in the analyses stems

  9. History of Economic Rationalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    takes place in the meeting with other regimes of thought, values, and moral discourses. The book offers new and refreshing insights, ranging from the development of early economic thinking to economic aspects and concepts in the works of classical thinkers such as Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and Karl Marx...

  10. Teaching Writing in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeiser, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the author provides motivation and a template for integrating and teaching writing in a variety of economics courses: core theory or introductory courses, topic courses, and economic writing/research courses. For each assignment, pedagogical reasoning and syllabus integration are discussed. Additionally, the author shows that…

  11. Network versus Economic Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    might be an important part of the vicious circles of unemployment. Finally, the article analyse the importance of network versus the importance of economic incentives. The result supports the thesis that economic sociology provides a better account of the transition from unemployment to employment than...

  12. Economic and tax issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steverson O. Moffat; John L. Greene

    2002-01-01

    Economic conditions and tax policies affect land use decisions everywhere, but their effects on the rate of change in land use are particularly large in the wildland-urban interface. We begin this chapter with a brief economic history of the South and a description of the macroeconomic trends and conditions that affect microeconomics at the wildlandurban interface....

  13. Economics and agroforestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    John W. Brown

    1993-01-01

    The concept of sustainability is an underlying theme in much of the literature dealing with the economics of agroforestry. Four major areas of concern for economic investigation into sustainable agroforestry systems — profitability, dynamics, externalities, and markets — are addressed using examples from the available literature. Finally, the social constraints that...

  14. Economics of Agroforestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Evan Mercer; Frederick W. Cubbage; Gregory E. Frey

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides principles, literature and a case study about the economics of agroforestry. We examine necessary conditions for achieving efficiency in agroforestry system design and economic analysis tools for assessing efficiency and adoptability of agroforestry. The tools presented here (capital budgeting, linear progranuning, production frontier analysis...

  15. Threshold Concepts in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine threshold concepts in the context of teaching and learning first-year university economics. It outlines some of the arguments for using threshold concepts and provides examples using opportunity cost as an exemplar in economics. Design/ Methodology/Approach: The paper provides an overview of the…

  16. Energy Strategy of Russia in the Conditions of Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashulin Danila A.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the transformation of the energy strategy of Russia in the conditions of the current economic crisis. The special attention is paid to current trends in the sphere of international relations having a decisive influence on the formation of Russia’s energy strategy. The authors point to the crisis of the modern world, the deepening of interstate contradictions, the expansion of confrontation, the revision of the uniform principles of trade, established by the World Trade Organization, the changes in the global financial system. The authors investigate the possibility of political arrangements between the leading suppliers of oil on the destabilization of the oil market in order to achieve geopolitical goals. In the article special attention is also paid to the issue of political motivation of anti-Russian sanctions directed at impeding Russia’s development and its Fuel & Energy Complex, in particular. Today, against the background of the current political situation, the energy strategy of Russia is exposed to adjustment. The country has the important task of ensuring technological independence of the energy sector on the basis of import substitution of the equipment, diversification of the directions of export of energy resources, preservation of leading positions in the world market of peaceful nuclear energy, etc. The authors conclude that the energy strategy of Russia is important part of foreign policy strategy of the country, and it is focused on practical cooperation with all countries and is aimed at protecting interests of the state.

  17. Purposeful engineering economics

    CERN Document Server

    Chadderton, Ronald A

    2015-01-01

    This textbook/course supplement stands as a unique and highly original complement to the traditional engineering economics curriculum. Its primarily narrative approach conveys the essence of an “Austrian" economic perspective on cash flow analysis and decision making in engineering, without extensive tables and graphs, and requires very little mathematics. The book’s objective is to add a new perspective to the usual study of cash flow analysis and solely econometric engineering decision making. The author draws on the methodology of the Austrian Economists—a school of economic thought that bases its study of economic phenomena on the interpretation and analysis of the purposeful actions of individuals. The book includes an array of illustrative case studies examined in detail by the author and emphasizes the importance of market processes and price signals to coordinate engineering plans. Purposeful Engineering Economics is an ideal resource for students, teaching faculty, and practicing professional ...

  18. Behavioral Economics of Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade knowledge about human behavior from psychology and sociology has enhanced the field of economics of education. By now research recognizes cognitive skills (as measured by achivement tests) as equally important drivers of later economic outcomes, and skills are seen as multi......-dimensional rather than one-dimensional. Explicitly accounting for soft skills often implies departing from the standard economic model by integrating concepts studied in behavioral and experimental economics, such as self-control, willingness to compete, intrinsic motivation, and self-confidence. We review how...... approaches from behavioral economics help our understanding of the complexity of educational investments and outcomes, and we discuss what insights can be gained from such concepts in the context of education....

  19. Slowly, we are Growing together – European Economic Policy and Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Schubert

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last 20 years statistical data has become vastly more important for economic policy in Europe. Where as economic statistics once played a role in relatively marginal areas of European policy, the establishment of the macroeconomic convergence criteria for joining Economic and Monetary Union in the Maastricht Treaty in 1992–1993 sparked a quantum leap. Questions of comparability and harmonisation suddenly be- came increasingly relevant. The Stability and Growth Pact then made the calculation of the budget deficit and government debt even more important, including the measurement of GDP as denominator for the respective ratios. With the outbreak of the second Greek crisis in 2009–10 and the flaws that emerged in the quality of Greek economic statistics, statistical questions were suddenly at the centre of international media and political interest. At the same time the financial and economic crisis brought to the fore severe economic imbalances, both between European countries and within European countries. In order to prevent similar imbalances in the future, the EU has developed and adopted the "macroeconomic imbalance procedure", in which currently eleven macroeconomic indicators are used for on-going surveillance of countries ("alert mechanism". Thus more economic statistics have gained an important political function, particularly since sanctions can even be imposed on the basis of them. In parallel with this, the new European Supervisory Authorities use "dashboards" i.e. a range of statistics that are regularly watched and are intended to function as early warning indicators. The paper takes a look at this move towards more "evidence-based policy making" and its implications for European statistics and statisticians and discus ses the related challenges, paying particular attention to the role of the European Central Bank and its specific data needs.

  20. School of Economic French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Franceva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic French at MGIMO-University is based on the teaching methods developed by talented Methodist practitioner assistant professor L.L. Potushanskoy. She and her colleagues G.M. Kotova, N. Kolesnikova, I.A. Yudina created well-known in our country methodical complex of three textbooks. This complex is built on clear guidelines to facilitate the natural development of language skills "from simple to complex" and represents the effective approach to language learning: Currently, the department is constantly expanding its boundaries of school teaching economic and business of the French language in accordance with the emerging new special courses on the economics faculties.

  1. Thermodynamics extends economics potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandura, Alexander V. [Kiev Technical Univ., Dept. of Marketing and Management, Kiev (Ukraine); Brodiansky, Victor M. [Moscow Energy Inst., Dept. of Cryogen Machines, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-08-01

    In this paper we consider the use of exergy in economic valuation and its correlation with money. Exergy-based determination of production expenses provides a new base for 'natural' price determination. A new macroeconomic dynamics approach based on this correlation is proposed. This method is relatively general because it is not restricted by certain assumptions used in traditional economic analysis. The exergy model of macroeconomic dynamics was tested by utilizing data from the US economy. This test, covering a period of about 25 years, confirms this approach and opens new potentials in economic analysis. (Author)

  2. Economic Selection Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn

    2003-01-01

    principles of variation, continuity and selection, it is argued that economic selection theory should mimic the causal structure of neo-Darwinian theory. Two of the most influential explanations of economic evolution, Alchian's and Nelson and Winter's, are used to illustrate how this could be achieved.......The present article provides a minimal description of the causal structure of economic selection theory and outlines how the internal selection dynamics of business organisations can be reconciled with selection in competitive markets. In addition to generic similarity in terms of the Darwinian...

  3. Individualism in Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carré, David

    2015-01-01

    Proposing models built upon unrealistic assumptions poses a serious issue for social sciences in general –but not for economics. Since Friedman’s methodological insights (1953) assumptions about the agent of the model are irrelevant as long as it has enough predictive power. The latter becomes...... particularly problematic when econometric models have been introduced in areas like education or healthcare instead of commodities markets. Despite recent efforts from behavioral economics proposing more realistic assumptions (see Camerer, 1999), one idea remains untouched: agents are always individuals......). This revision aims to dialogue with the ever-increasing participation of economics in the social discussion, supplementing rather than excluding its ideas....

  4. Economics of organizations and markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onderstal, S.

    2014-01-01

    Economics of organizations and markets combines insights from two fields in Economics: Organizational Economics and Industrial Economics. Organizational Economics focuses on the organizational design of firms, which includes a firm’s motivation of its personnel, its hiring and firing policy and make

  5. The deadlock of Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis has contradicted the statement that Economics deserves to be treated as a science. A science is measured by its capacity of explaining, predicting and prescribing.

  6. Capabilities, economic development, sustainability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fagerberg, J.; Srholec, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 3 (2017), s. 905-926 ISSN 0309-166X Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : national innovation systems * growth * technology Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.338, year: 2016

  7. Complexity of Economical Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    G. P. Pavlos; A. C. Iliopoulos; L.P. Karakatsanis; M. Xenakis; E. Pavlos

    2015-01-01

    .... In addition a summary of an extended algorithm of nonlinear time series analysis is provided which is applied not only in economical time series but also in other physical complex systems (e.g. [22, 24...

  8. The Economics of Overeducation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Mun C.; Levin, Henry M.

    1985-01-01

    Explains overeducation as an economic phenomenon using several labor-market models. Establishes theoretically the effect of overeducation on production, using a production function model that characterizes production as a two-phase process. (PGD)

  9. European Economic Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, James A.

    1971-01-01

    Recounts the history and problems of European Economic Integration from the first post World War II organization, the OEEC, to the EEC (Common Market) and the EFTA. Suggestions for further reading are included. (JB)

  10. Economic Education in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Weber

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available It is rather difficult to describe economic education in Germany: Due to German federalism the sixteen German Länder are independent in terms of educational policy. Thus the German educational system differs slightly from Land to Land, even more heterogenous is the situation of economic education. With regard to this it is impossible to give a detailed picture of the whole, but it is useless to present the situation in only one land. This report tries to do the impossible by giving a rough overview of the situation of economic education in Germany at school as well as at university. Above all it is concerned with outlining the gap between claim and reality of economic education. A summary about the main topics of the didactic discussion can reflect contents and methods, which influence the syllabus construction.

  11. Economic Commission Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Indian Journal, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Summarizing presentations and discussions of the Economic Commission of the International Non-Governmental Organizations Conference on Discrimination Against Indigenous Populations (1977), this report addresses: multinational corporations; the land question; and the Commission's recommended "Plan of Action". (JC)

  12. A National Economic Strategy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weaver, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    .... The privatization of Social Security and educational reform proposals will improve productivity. The second prong, the international component, employs the economic instruments to achieve U.S. goals overseas...

  13. Hydrological or economical obligation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorucci E

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A short comment is made about the obligation of the forest management plan in Italy, that was established as an economical (not hydrological obligation according to the Luzzatti law of 1910.

  14. How economics shapes science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stephan, Paula E

    2012-01-01

    .... At a time when science is seen as an engine of economic growth, Paula Stephan brings a keen understanding of the ongoing cost-benefit calculations made by individuals and institutions as they compete...

  15. Techno-economic Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Halldór Matthias; Point, J.C.; Million, P.

    A techno-economic model for analysing and comparing broadband deployment strategies has been established. The resulting simulation model can compare Capital Expenditure (CAPEX) of dominating broadband technologies in different types of demographic areas. The study reveals the competitiveness...

  16. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Yamazaki, Akira

    2005-01-01

    A lot of economic problems can be formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories. The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who are seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking effective mathematical tools for their research. The editorial board of this series comprises the following prominent economists and mathematicians: Managing Editors: S. Kusuoka (Univ. Tokyo), T. Maruyama (Keio Univ.). Editors: R. Anderson (U.C. Berkeley), C. Castaing (Univ. Montpellier), F.H. Clarke (Univ. Lyon I), G. Debreu (U.C. Berkeley), E. Dierker (Univ. Vienna), D. Duffie (Stanford Univ.), L.C. Evans (U.C. Berkeley), T. Fujimoto (Okayama Univ.), J.-M. Grandmont...

  17. Essays on Applied Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Seixas, Renato Nunes de Lima

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation is comprised of two essays that apply tools from applied microeconomics and empirical methods to study important issues in agriculture, environment and health economics. The unifying topic of the essays is the use of economic reasoning and careful research design to identify causal relationships using observational data.In the first essay, I investigate the environmental effects due to pesticides for two different genetically modified (GM) seeds: insect resistant (IR) cotton...

  18. Urban Economics and Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Glaeser, Edward L.; Stuart S. Rosenthal; Strange, William C.

    2009-01-01

    Research on entrepreneurship often examines the local dimensions of new business formation. The local environment influences the choices of entrepreneurs; entrepreneurial success influences the local economy. Yet modern urban economics has paid relatively little attention to entrepreneurs. This essay introduces a special issue of Journal of Urban Economics dedicated to the geography of entrepreneurship. The paper frames the core questions facing researchers interested in assessing the local c...

  19. The Economics of Starvation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahl, Rune Møller

    2016-01-01

    Stahl investigates the role of liberal economics in the formulation of the disastrous famine policy of the British colonial administration in nineteenth-century India, where millions of Indians starved to death in a series of famines. The chapter examines the influential debates around the Great ....... The hegemonic position of free trade ideas and economic liberalism allowed for proponents of a hard laissez-faire line to mobilize considerable intellectual resources, from Adam Smith to Ricardo, to overcome humanitarian critiques....

  20. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND POVERTY,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The problems of poverty in the United States, and their resolution, are inextricably connected with the nature of the economic growth process and its...economic deprivation, but the adjustments required by growth have left in their wake new pockets of poverty . In the future, one of the key variables...that will determine how rapidly we can eliminate poverty in the United States will be the rate of increase in average incomes. And one of the key

  1. Economics, History, and Causation

    OpenAIRE

    Randall Morck; Bernard Yeung

    2011-01-01

    Economics and history both strive to understand causation: economics using instrumental variables econometrics and history by weighing the plausibility of alternative narratives. Instrumental variables can lose value with repeated use because of an econometric tragedy of the commons bias: each successful use of an instrument potentially creates an additional latent variable bias problem for all other uses of that instrument - past and future. Economists should therefore consider historians' a...

  2. Economic development and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, D M

    1966-06-01

    Two schools of theorists have been concerned with the effect of economic development on fertility. One school has contended that economic development has an inhibiting effect on fertility. The demographic transition which has occurred among the non-developed countries confirms their viewpoint. Another school of thought, including in its members Thomas Malthus, has believed that economic development promoted fertility. Much empirical evidence may also be brought to bear to support this viewpoint.The present paper attempts to reconcile these viewpoints. It is hypothesized that the direct effect of economic development is to increase fertility. However, various factors which usually accompany the process of economic development serve to reduce fertility. These include an increase in the level of education and a reduction in infant and childhood mortality. Making use of data for 41 nations pertaining to the decade of the 1950's, it is found that fertility is directly associated with per capita net national product when controls for other relevant variables are in8tituted. On the other hand, per capita newspaper circulation is inversely related to fertility, and infant mortality is directly related.If the hypothesis advanced in this paper is correct, relatively large governmental expenditures on health and education will enhance the reduction in fertility obtainable from an increase in national economic level alone.

  3. Key economic sectors and services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arent, Douglas J.; Tol, Richard S.J.; Faust, Eberhard; Hella, Joseph P.; Kumar, Surender; Strzepek, Kenneth M.; Tóth, Ferenc L.; Yan, Denghua; Abdulla, Amjad; Kheshgi, Haroon; Xu, He; Ngeh, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and Context This chapter discusses the implications of climate change on key economic sectors and services, for example, economic activity. Other chapters discuss impacts from a physical, chemical, biological, or social perspective. Economic impacts cannot be isolated; therefore, there

  4. Influence Of International Financial And Economic Organizations On The Development Of Russian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy A. Pashencev

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article characteristics and patterns of the impact of the international financial and economic organizations on the development of Russian law in the present-day conditions are described. It is noted, that the international financial and economic organizations firmly rooted in the world. They are based on international agreements, which participants could be also non-State structures. The role of international financial and economic organizations in the development of the negative effects of globalization and the production of global financial crisis is considered. The necessity to change the economic course of our country was proved because of the crisis and sanctions, as well as the need to find new ways of structuring the international financial and economic space, including the basis of the new inter-state unions and a new reserve currency. It is shown that the Russian domestic law should be the barrier against the destabilizing influence of transnational corporations. Legal acts of the Russian Federation defining the terms and scope of cooperation with international economic and financial organizations were analyzed. It is noted, that in accordance with applicable Russian legislation, international financial institutions have the right to invest in Russian companies, including and strategic. It is proved that the situation in the modern world and its negative manifestations determine the need for a number of effective measures and require changes in legislation. It is necessary to make changes in the current Russian legislation, first of all, investment, banking, trade, etc., to develop effective legal mechanisms for the protection of domestic producers and the national market from the expansion of multinational corporations.

  5. Recent Developments in Ecological Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reader with published articles within the field of ecological economics, mostly from 1997 - 2007......Reader with published articles within the field of ecological economics, mostly from 1997 - 2007...

  6. Economic study of the organizational mechanism of economic security companies

    OpenAIRE

    Vaskova, Yulia

    2014-01-01

    In today's adverse economic conditions is particularly important preventive anti-crisis policy. Important precondition for the prevention of crisis situations is to ensure economic security. Exploring the economic essence of the organizational mechanism of economic security allows its effective application.

  7. Group Formation in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demange, Gabrielle; Wooders, Myrna

    2005-01-01

    Broad and diverse ranges of activities are conducted within and by organized groups of individuals, including political, economic and social activities. These activities have recently become a subject of intense interest in economics and game theory. Some of the topics investigated in this collection are models of networks of power and privilege, trade networks, co-authorship networks, buyer-seller networks with differentiated products, and networks of medical innovation and the adaptation of new information. Other topics are social norms on punctuality, clubs and the provision of club goods and public goods, research and development and collusive alliances among corporations, and international alliances and trading agreements. While relatively recent, the literature on game theoretic studies of group formation in economics is already vast. This volume provides an introduction to this important literature on game-theoretic treatments of situations with networks, clubs, and coalitions, including some applications.

  8. ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HORAŢIU ŞOIM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems of wealth and economic performance are old but despite their importance we have not a final answer on them. Besides the standard production factors usually stresed when we analyze economic performance and growth, land, labor and capital, we approach institutions in general and entrepreneurial culture in particular. In this paper we analyze the relationship between entreprenurship, defined by many dimensions derived from the study „Entrepreneurship in the EU and beyond.” requested by European Comission to the Gallup Internaitional, and economic performance measured by GDP/capita. The results show that countries where there is a strong entrepreneurial culture that promote initiative, opportunity seeking, risk taking aare doing better in terms of development level and wealth. At the same time the countries where the entrepreneurs have a good image in society, and thus promote entrepreneurship, are doing beter than the other countries.

  9. Economics of resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiter, R.D.; Friedlander, S.L. (eds.)

    1976-01-01

    Eight papers and conference discussion are presented by the Economics Department of the City College of New York's City University. The conference, held on May 15, 1975, focused on dwindling natural resources and the economics of managing those resources which remain. Although a global perspective is taken, discussion of the role and needs of the United States predominates. Two authors support reliance on free market prices as a conservation mechanism, while a third argues for central planning of energy output. Other papers address the infringement of energy development on property rights, the possibility of modifying plants and animals to increase food production, reallocation of food supplies from the reserves of developed areas to undeveloped areas, the economics of population growth, and a proposal for developing Resource X, described as the basis of an individualistic society. The self-discipline requirements of Resource X allows society to accept and plan for change and diversity and respond to empirical evidence. (DCK)

  10. Econophysics and physical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Richmond, Peter; Hutzler, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of the behaviour of financial assets and the evolution of economies has never been as important as today. This book looks at these complex systems from the perspective of the physicist. So called 'econophysics' and its application to finance has made great strides in recent years. Less emphasis has been placed on the broader subject of macroeconomics and many economics students are still taught traditional neo-classical economics. The reader is given a general primer in statistical physics, probability theory, and use of correlation functions. Much of the mathematics that is developed is frequently no longer included in undergraduate physics courses. The statistical physics of Boltzmann and Gibbs is one of the oldest disciplines within physics and it can be argued that it was first applied to ensembles of molecules as opposed to being applied to social agents only by way of historical accident. The authors argue by analogy that the theory can be applied directly to economic systems comprising...

  11. Blue Growth and Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phoebe eKoundouri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Oceans and seas represent over 70% of the earth's surface. Furthermore, living aquatic resources can provide a significant contribution to food, energy and bio-based products. However, marine ecosystems are subject to increasing pressures and competing usages, resulting from resources over-exploitation and pollution. In order to produce efficient marine management plans, it is essential to consider the total economic value provided by the marine ecosystems. In this review, we are focusing on the Marine Framework Strategy Directive and the European Marine Spatial Planning that are established for the protection and efficient use of the marine area. We present the ecosystem services approach with regards to the marine ecosystem and propose economic methods that capture the marine ecosystem’s total economic value in relation to the opportunity cost of marine space. Values should be used to guide policy makers following the European directives and initiatives.

  12. Statistics for economics

    CERN Document Server

    Naghshpour, Shahdad

    2012-01-01

    Statistics is the branch of mathematics that deals with real-life problems. As such, it is an essential tool for economists. Unfortunately, the way you and many other economists learn the concept of statistics is not compatible with the way economists think and learn. The problem is worsened by the use of mathematical jargon and complex derivations. Here's a book that proves none of this is necessary. All the examples and exercises in this book are constructed within the field of economics, thus eliminating the difficulty of learning statistics with examples from fields that have no relation to business, politics, or policy. Statistics is, in fact, not more difficult than economics. Anyone who can comprehend economics can understand and use statistics successfully within this field, including you! This book utilizes Microsoft Excel to obtain statistical results, as well as to perform additional necessary computations. Microsoft Excel is not the software of choice for performing sophisticated statistical analy...

  13. Economic impacts study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsen, W.; Worley, W.; Frost, E.

    1988-09-30

    This is a progress report on the first phase of a project to measure the economic impacts of a rapidly changing U.S. target base. The purpose of the first phase is to designate and test the macroeconomic impact analysis model. Criteria were established for a decision-support model. Additional criteria were defined for an interactive macroeconomic impact analysis model. After a review of several models, the Economic Impact Forecast System model of the U.S. Army Construction Research Laboratory was selected as the appropriate input-output tool that can address local and regional economic analysis. The model was applied to five test cases to demonstrate its utility and define possible revisions to meet project criteria. A plan for EIFS access was defined at three levels. Objectives and tasks for scenario refinement are proposed.

  14. Privatization in economic theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drakić Maja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In reality privatization has never occurred according to the handbook rules of ordinary market transactions. Not even in advanced market economies can privatization transactions be described by the Walrasian or Arrowian, or Leontiefian equilibrium models, or by the equilibrium models of the game theory. In these economies transactions of privatization take place in a fairly organic way – which means that those are driven by the dominance of private property rights and in a market economy. But despite this fact Western privatization also some peculiar features as compared to ordinary company takeovers, since the state as the seller may pursue non – economic goals. Changes in the dominant form of property change positions and status of many individuals and groups in the society. That’s why privatization can even less be explained by ordinary market mechanisms in transition countries where privatizing state-owned property have happened in a mass scale and where markets and private property rights weren't established at the time process of privatization began. In this paper I’ll discuss and analyze the phenomenon of privatization in context of different economic theories arguing that empirical results go in favor of the public choice theory (Buchanan, 1978, theory of "economic constitution" (Brennan and Buchanan 1985, (Buchanan and Tullock, 1989, and theory of "collective action" (Olson, 1982. These theories argues that transition from one economic system into another, for example transition from collectivistic, socialistic system into capitalism and free market economy with dominant private property, will not happen through isolated changes of only few economic institutions, no matter how deep that changes would be. In other words privatization can not give results if it's not followed by comprehensive change of economic system because privatized companied wouldn't be able to operate in old environment.

  15. Regional Economic Growth; Socio-Economic Disparities among Counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Özgür SARICA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available State level economy has always been relying on its major metropolitan area’s economic success. So, such metropolitan agglomerations have been considered the only agents that can foster the state’s economic standing as if other economic places do (or may not have significant contribution to the regional economy. In contrast, as some major cities enhance their economic well-being and agglomerate in specialized sector, the rest of the region lose their economic grounds or stay constant by widening the economic gap among cities. Therefore, an institutional approach can help to establish new regional arrangements to substitute all economic places to coordinate each other and succeed the economic growth as part of state government by reducing the disparities. In this sense, this study builds upon the inquiry that seeks the impacts of some economic disparities among economic places (counties on the performances of state level regional economy.

  16. Economics of animal vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, A; Rushton, J

    2007-08-01

    This paper describes the steps that might be used in assessing the economic justification for using vaccination to control animal disease, and the way that vaccination is financed and administered. It describes decisions that have been taken with respect to preserving international trade, and issues related to protection of livelihoods. Regardless of the motivation for vaccination, its costs can usually be shared between the public and private sectors. Cost-effective vaccination requires methods of delivery to be adapted to livestock production systems. The paper concludes by suggesting questions around the use of vaccination that would merit further economic analysis.

  17. Sector Economic Outlook. Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-15

    The energy sector is a key driver of the economic pillar of Vision 2030. As the economy grows, urbanization intensifies and incomes increase, corporate and household demand for energy also rises. To meet this growth in demand for energy, the sector needs to increase investments and diversify into more sources of energy such as geothermal and wind power. It is therefore critical that focus is directed towards development and sustainability of the energy sector to ensure delivery of least cost power that will improve Kenya's competitiveness and achieve the Vision 2030 objective of 10% average annual economic growth.

  18. Water Economics and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Berbel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Economics plays a double role in the field of water management, firstly as a powerful analytical tool supporting water allocation and policy decisions, and secondly in the form of policy instruments (water pricing, markets, etc.. This Special Issue presents a platform for sharing results connecting excellent interdisciplinary research applied to different regional and sectoral problems around the world. The 22 peer-reviewed papers collected in this Special Issue have been grouped into five broad categories: Water valuation and accounting; Economic instruments; Cost effectiveness and cost-benefit analysis; and Water productivity and Governance. They are briefly presented.

  19. Sanctioning Memory: Changing Identity - Using 3D laser scanning to identify two 'new' portraits of the Emperor Nero in English antiquarian collections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles Russell

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Using 3D laser scanning, two badly damaged and heavily restored Roman portraits from English country house collections are here identified as originally being representations of the Emperor Nero. The first portrait, from Petworth House, is of Nero at the time of his formal adoption as heir by the Emperor Claudius in AD 51, while the second, from Wilton House, represents a new intermediate portrait type of the fifth emperor, marking his transition from traditional Julio-Claudian prince to more flamboyant princeps, made between AD 54 and 59. Given that few replicas of Nero exist in anything like their complete state, following the memory sanctions that followed his death in AD 68, any 'new' discovery represents a significant find, to be analysed and cross-compared with established portraits. This article further assesses the importance of recording head dislocation and mutilation in images of Nero while the dangers of over restoration in classical portraiture, in which original identity can be obscured, are also considered.

  20. Economic Citizenship and Socio-Economic Rationality as Foundations of an Appropriate Economic Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schank

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we argue that social science education needs to convey more than operational mechanisms of society. Especially in socio-economic education, questions of business ethics, i.e. phenomena of economics and society need to be integrated and reflected, decidedly focusing on the moral content of economics. With the introduction of economic citizenship as the ideal economic actor to be the purpose of economic education, this paper proposes that economic education needs to connect economic expertise and moral judgment and should also allude to the necessity of every market action’s conditional legitimization by society. We propose to discuss different ‘sites’ of morality as a heuristic approach to the different areas of economic responsibility. The individual, organizational and political level of responsibility helps to categorize the different moral issues of economic activity and serves as a great pattern to explain economic relations to scholars and students.

  1. African Journal of Economic Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of Economic Review (AJER) is a refereed, biannual Journal that publishes high quality and scholarly articles on economic issues relevant to Africa. The AJER is an applied journal with keen interest in the following areas: Public sector economics, monetary economics, international trade and finance, ...

  2. Economic Literacy among Corporate Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William C.; Doyle, Joanne M.

    2002-01-01

    Reports the results of a telephone survey of employees (n=1001) of large corporations (n=7) conducted for the Business Roundtable. Embeds 20 questions keyed to the Voluntary National Content Standards in Economics to measure economic literacy. Finds that economic literacy was associated with education level, courses in economics, high income, and…

  3. Economics of microalgae production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acién, F.G.; Molina, E.; Fernández-Sevilla, J.M.; Barbosa, M.; Gouveia, L.; Sepúlveda, C.; Bazaes, J.; Arbib, Z.

    2017-01-01

    The economic analysis of biomass production is a critical step in ensuring the success of any microalgae-based industry. Until recently, only small-scale facilities of less than 10. ha have been in operation, but now large-scale facilities of more than 200. ha are being built and operated.

  4. Capabilities, economic development, sustainability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fagerberg, J.; Srholec, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 3 (2017), s. 905-926 ISSN 0309-166X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/10/2310 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : national innovation systems * growth * technology Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.338, year: 2016

  5. Economic consequences of intifada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M.C. de Boer (Paul); M. Missaglia (Marco)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn 2003 the World Bank (WB) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) published estimates of macro-economic indicators for 2002 of the economy of Palestine. WB used a micro-founded recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, calibrated on the 1998 Social Accounting

  6. ALDOT economic sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This research used quantitative methods to document 15-year trends in various economic factors, from the very detailed (e.g., cost per ton for aggregate) to the very broad (total ALDOT annual receipts and expenditures), and for categories of receipts...

  7. Academic (economic) woman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Pallesen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    that men and women respond differently to economic incentives. We analyze how gender, incentives and the perception of these incentives at research institutions affect organizational performance, measured as the number of scientific publications. Using data from 2000-2005, the analysis includes 162 Danish...

  8. A Very Economic Elite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellersgaard, Christoph Houman; Larsen, Anton Grau; Munk, Martin D.

    2012-01-01

    degree. Elite universities also hold little importance for Danish top CEOs, partly due to the institutions’ historic decline; instead, reproduction is mediated through time spent in the economic field, placing the case of the Danish CEOs between that of their British and German counterparts. Specific...... trajectories of Danish executives, in particular sales people, are identified using Multiple Correspondence Analysis and cluster analysis....

  9. Economical space power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    A commercial approach to design and fabrication of an economical space power system is investigated. Cost projections are based on a 2 kW space power system conceptual design taking into consideration the capability for serviceability, constraints of operation in space, and commercial production engineering approaches. A breakdown of the system design, documentation, fabrication, and reliability and quality assurance estimated costs are detailed.

  10. Emerging Asian Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trezise, Philip H.

    What we can expect in the future from the miracle economies of Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong, whether they pose a threat to the older industrial states of Western Europe and North American, and whether China is to be the next emerging Asian economy are discussed. The amazing economic recovery of these East Asian countries…

  11. Energy Storage Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-07

    This presentation provides an overview on energy storage economics including recent market trends, battery terminology and concepts, value streams, challenges, and an example of how photovoltaics and storage can be used to lower demand charges. It also provides an overview of the REopt Lite web tool inputs and outputs.

  12. RECONSIDERING ECONOMIC PRODUCTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIS A. MIHAI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Economy has changed significantly over the past century, in part due to the scientific discoveries, due to the industrial revolution, to the research, development and innovation, but maybe the most important contributor to the economic development is the human resource. We have witnessed significant changes enhancing the levels of productivity, both labor and capital. This paper analyzes productivity in relation to its social and sustainability dimension. The paper follows a previous study, highlighting the most important findings identified and reinterpreting them on the basis of the most recent research papers produced by the scholars in the field. The analysis is focused on the most unsustainable economies worldwide, respectively, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Belgium, Kuwait, Singapore, Netherlands, Republic of Korea, Israel, Saudi Arabia, Macedonia, Japan and the United States of America – selected by considering their per capita ecological deficit. The research uses statistical data provided by the United Nations Development Program, the World Bank and the Global Footprint Network. The research combines economical, development and environmental indexes in our attempt to evaluate productivity and to adjust it so that it considers the ecological deficit of the nations. The research hypothesis that generated the study is: the levels of economic productivity obtained by countries are not limited by their biocapacities. The empirical analysis will verify the research question advocating for the need to consider the limited capacity of the planet, in term of natural resources, when promoting economic and social development.

  13. Economics of fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1977-10-15

    This report provides the results of a study of methods of economic analysis applied to the evaluation of fusion research. The study recognizes that a hierarchy of economic analyses of research programs exists: standard benefit-cost analysis, expected value of R and D information, and expected utility analysis. It is shown that standard benefit-cost analysis, as commonly applied to research programs, is inadequate for the evaluation of a high technology research effort such as fusion research. A methodology for performing an expected value analysis is developed and demonstrated and an overview of an approach to perform an expected utility analysis of fusion research is presented. In addition, a potential benefit of fusion research, not previously identified, is discussed and rough estimates of its magnitude are presented. This benefit deals with the effect of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns. The results of this study indicate that it is both appropriate and possible to perform an expected value analysis of fusion research in order to assess the economics of a fusion research program. The results indicate further that the major area of benefits of fusion research is likely due to the impact of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns and it is recommended that this benefit be included in future assessments of fusion research economics.

  14. Economic Outcomes in Prosthodontics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bassi, Francesco; Carr, Alan B.; Chang, Ting-Ling; Estafanous, Emad W.; Garrett, Neal R.; Happonen, Risto-Pekka; Koka, Sreenivas; Laine, Juhani; Osswald, Martin; Reintsema, Harry; Rieger, Jana; Roumanas, Eleni; Salinas, Thomas J.; Stanford, Clark M.; Wolfaardt, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A systematic literature review was conducted to identify the types of economic measures currently used in implant prosthodontics and determine the degree to which cost of care is considered in the context of any positive outcome of the care provided. Materials and Methods: A literature

  15. Shea Stadium: Economics Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norflus, David

    1977-01-01

    A secondary course uses an integrated approach to teach economic analysis through sports. The course takes a microeconomic look at one segment of the national economy, providing an in-depth analysis of the American sport scene through the eyes of an economist. Evaluation techniques are discussed and a reprint of the course outline is provided.…

  16. About the Economical Equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Angelo Ioan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In thispaper we will study the economic equilibriumproblem from a general point of viewwith applications for polynomial demand and supply functions. We willexposeand analyzealsothestability ofsupply and demandinrespectWalrasandMarshall,in ageneralapproach, detached fromtheusuallinear.Thedynamicstabilityafter Kaldorwill be presentedin conjunctionwithfixed pointtheoremswhichprovide resultsof greatgenerality.

  17. "The New Economic Reality"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Pearl

    2012-01-01

    Many historically Black business schools have taken a proactive stance during this period of economic uncertainty. Dr. Jessica Bailey, president of the HBCU Business Deans' Roundtable, which includes 52 of the 104 historically Black business schools, thinks the institutions are "expanding their missions" to place more emphasis on globalization,…

  18. Networks and Economic Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Matthew O.

    2009-01-01

    Recent analyses of social networks, both empirical and theoretical, are discussed, with a focus on how social networks influence economic behavior, as well as how social networks form. Some challenges of such research are discussed as are some of the important considerations for the future.

  19. Economic Growth with Bubbles

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Martin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a stylized model of economic growth with bubbles. This model views asset price bubbles as a market-generated device to moderate the effects of frictions in financial markets, improving the allocation of investments and raising the capital stock and welfare. It shows that, contrary to conventional wisdom, bubbles can arise even if all investments in the economy are dynamically efficient.

  20. Economic geology, Mexico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salas, Guillermo P

    1991-01-01

    .... The various elements of Mexico's economic geology are discussed in the chapters of this volume by outstanding Mexican geologists, whose expertise vouches for the high quality of this presentation. Their efforts are a valuable contribution to the knowledge of Mexico's nonrenewable resources.

  1. Networks versus Economic Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    The article analyses the neglected relationship between networks and unemployment. It challenges the neo-classic understanding of the transition from unemployment to employment and elaborates the line of reasoning within economic sociology. Based on theories of information problems at the labour ...

  2. Understanding World Economic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaples, Robert

    2013-01-01

    One joy of studying history is discovering people living meaningful lives and behaving in unusual ways that are startling to the modern reader--young or old. Why did pre-modern people living hundreds or even thousands of years ago do things so differently than we do? Robert Whaples states that Economic historians conclude that the key difference…

  3. Economics of stand management

    Science.gov (United States)

    David K. Lewis

    1986-01-01

    This paper sets out to demonstrate the importance of considering the wealth represented by the growing stock in economic analyses of stand management alternatives, and to demonstrate the role of thinning in the manipulation of the efficiency of growing stock in the management of shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata Mill.). These goals are achieved through a demonstration of...

  4. Entrepreneurs and Economic Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob Rubæk

    the evolution of economic data. The model is applied to the evolution of Danish labour productivity and systematic differences are identiffied between manufacturing industries and service industries. It is argued that similar results for the US and Sweden may be extracted from productivity studies following...

  5. Essays in development economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Marijke

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three chapters in the field of Development Economics. The first chapter examines the saving and investment decisions of self-employed farming households in Indonesia. Using an instrumental variables strategy, with local rainfall as an instrument for farm profit, no

  6. Economics of Outdoor Recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clawson, Marion; Knetsch, Jack L.

    Written for the purposes of presenting an overview of outdoor recreation in the United States and defining the significant outdoor recreation policy issues of the next 10 to 20 years, this document also includes major sections on recreation resources and economic considerations. Projections to the year 2000 are made for a national time budget,…

  7. Essays in Information Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiao, Hak Fung

    2010-01-01

    I study two economic responses to the challenges of copyright infringements and spam brought about by the birth of the Internet. These responses are anti-spam mechanisms and open contents. I derive conditions under which distribution and care level taken to avoid damages in open contents are socially efficient or inefficient. Then I report…

  8. Advanced Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Marc W.; Laing, William

    2013-01-01

    An Economic Analysis (EA) is a systematic approach to the problem of choosing the best method of allocating scarce resources to achieve a given objective. An EA helps guide decisions on the "worth" of pursuing an action that departs from status quo ... an EA is the crux of decision-support.

  9. Heterogeneous computing in economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziubinski, Matt P.; Grassi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the potential of heterogeneous computing in solving dynamic equilibrium models in economics. We illustrate the power and simplicity of C++ Accelerated Massive Parallelism (C++ AMP) recently introduced by Microsoft. Starting from the same exercise as Aldrich et al. (J Econ Dyn...

  10. Economics of vaccines revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Maarten J.; Standaert, Baudouin A.

    2013-01-01

    Performing a total health economic analysis of a vaccine newly introduced into the market today is a challenge when using the conventional cost-effectiveness analysis we normally apply on pharmaceutical products. There are many reasons for that, such as: the uncertainty in the total benefit (direct

  11. State Economic Development Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sheila A. Martin; Richard McHugh; Stanley R. Johnson

    1991-01-01

    The expanded role of state governments in economic development has increased their need for a wide variety of economic, demographic, and marketing information. Many state governments have responded to these needs by developing systems to deliver economic and related information to state and local economic development offices, businesses, and the general public. This paper reports the results of a survey of economic development officials designed to disclose information about how extensive aut...

  12. Economics-driven software architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Mistrik, Ivan; Kazman, Rick; Zhang, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Economics-driven Software Architecture presents a guide for engineers and architects who need to understand the economic impact of architecture design decisions: the long term and strategic viability, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability of applications and systems. Economics-driven software development can increase quality, productivity, and profitability, but comprehensive knowledge is needed to understand the architectural challenges involved in dealing with the development of large, architecturally challenging systems in an economic way. This book covers how to apply economic consider

  13. The Geography of Economic Segregation

    OpenAIRE

    Florida, Richard; Mellander, Charlotta

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the geography of economic segregation in America. Most studies of economic segregation focus on income, but our research develops a new measure of overall economic segregation spanning income, educational, and occupational segregation which we use to examine the economic, social and demographic factors which are associated with economic segregation across US metros. Adding in the two other dimensions of educational and occupational segregation– seems to provide additional,...

  14. Decision analysis in fuzzy economics

    OpenAIRE

    Aliev, Rafiq

    2009-01-01

    Tracing the development of economics since the 19th century up to the present day makes it evident that at its core there is a sequence of rather precise and mathematically sophisticated axiomatic theories. At the same time, there is always a noticeable and persistent gap between economic reality and the economic predictions derived from these theories. The main reason why economic theories have not been successful so far in modeling economic reality is the fact that these theories are formul...

  15. Corruption and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Skender Ahmeti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is no sustainable economic development without a functioning rule of law. Besides sustainable economic policies like low interest rates, low inflation, low budget deficit, reasonable taxes and economic freedom for business development, the necessary ones for country’s economic growth are functioning of state institutions, support and development of reforms as well as successful fight against corruption. Corruption is a phenomena often encountered and spread in countries that have problems with rule of law as well as with judiciary system. Corruption manifestation is inevitable in circumstances when state institutions are weak. The phenomena is especially problematic in countries that go through transition periods since these countries are often characterized as nonefficient in fighting this phenomena1 . Countries in transition continue to have the image of countries with high level of corruption, which causes serious crisis from local opinion and continuous demand from international community due to the unsuccessful fight against this malevolence. World Bank considers corruption as the biggest obstacle in the fight for poverty eradication, since it undermines the rule of law, weakens state institutions and most of all it affects the poor. Politically, it undermines democracy and good governance, economic equal growth and development, as well as people’s trust in state institutions. Lately, several anti-corruption laws have been adopted in Kosovo, but they have not been implemented in practice and were not sufficient in fight against corruption. Kosovo’s long lasting dream of integrating in European Union, necessarily demands to built and functionalize anti-corruptive measures with priority, as a fundamental precondition for EU pre-accession process

  16. Essays in applied economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arano, Kathleen

    Three independent studies in applied economics are presented. The first essay looks at the US natural gas industrial sector and estimates welfare effects associated with the changes in natural gas regulatory policy over the past three decades. Using a disequilibrium model suited to the natural gas industry, welfare transfers and deadweight losses are calculated. Results indicate that deregulation policies, beginning with the NGPA of 1978, have caused the industry to become more responsive to market conditions. Over time, regulated prices converge toward the estimated equilibrium prices. As a result of this convergence, deadweight losses associated with regulation are also diminished. The second essay examines the discounted utility model (DU), the standard model used for intertemporal decision-making. Prior empirical studies challenge the descriptive validity of the model. This essay addresses the four main inconsistencies that have been raised: domain dependence, magnitude effects, time effects, and gain/loss asymmetries. These inconsistencies, however, may be the result of the implicit assumption of linear utility and not a failure of the DU model itself. In order to test this hypothesis, data was collected from in-class surveys of economics classes at Mississippi State University. A random effects model for panel data estimation which accounts for individual specific effects was then used to impute discount rates measured in terms of dollars and utility. All four inconsistencies were found to be present when the dollar measures were used. Using utility measures of the discount rate resolved the inconsistencies in some cases. The third essay brings together two perspectives in the study of religion and economics: modeling religious behavior using economic tools and variables, and modeling economic behavior using religious variables. A system of ordered probit equations is developed to simultaneously model religious activities and economic outcomes. Using data

  17. BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS AND THE NEED OF PSYCHOLOGY IN ECONOMIC RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea GRADINARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The turning point in economic science has now come, marked especially by triggering the biggest crisis since the Great Depression of '29-'33, has called into question the need to reconsider the status of economic science and finding ways in which it can increase its practical foundations. In the elaboration of this study I’ve took into account the fact that beyond any abstract, formal and mathematical model, economics is a science, having the man in its center. Furthermore, every economic process is based on the human being. But the way individuals behave does not follow precisely the pattern predicted by classical and neoclassical models, but most of the time they are making decisions under the influence of psychological factors. Starting from these assumptions I considered important to highlight a real need for psychology in economic research. Therefore, the aim of this work is exclusively theoretical meant to show that the study of psychological factors is necessary in economic research, because it allows a better explanation of the economic problems and lead to obtaining results closer to reality than those who only take into consideration economic factors. In this way I appealed to behavioral economics. This represents a new trend of economic thinking that reunites psychology with economy. The thing that I observed after finishing the study is that behavioral economics can increase the explanatory power of economics by providing more realistic psychological bases, because human behavior is not only the subject matter of economics but psychology too.

  18. Essays in Transport Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abegaz, Dereje Fentie

    The PhD thesis consists of four self-contained chapters in the area of Transport Economics. The main aim of the thesis is not to produce a single message which is supported by all four chapters. Rather, each chapter is written to make a contribution of its own. The thesis covers a wide range...... Symposium for the European Association for Research in Transportation, Leeds, UK, 10-12 September, 2014.) Chapter 2 is titled “Valuation of travel time variability with endogenous scheduling iv of a meeting time”, and is a joint work with Mogens Fosgerau. The chapter involves a theoretical model to examine....... (Previous versions of this paper were presented at the 2nd Symposium of the European Association for Research in Transportation, Stockholm, 4-6 Sept, 2013; and at the ITEA’s Annual Conference and Summer School on Transportation Economics, Toulouse, 2–6 June, 2014.) This paper is related the scheduling model...

  19. Nuclear power economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emsley, Ian; Cobb, Jonathan [World Nuclear Association, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-15

    Many countries recognize the substantial role which nuclear power has played in providing energy security of supply, reducing import dependence and reducing greenhouse gas and polluting emissions. Nevertheless, as such considerations are far from being fully accounted for in liberalized or deregulated power markets, nuclear plants must demonstrate their viability in these markets on commercial criteria as well as their lifecycle advantages. Nuclear plants are operating more efficiently than in the past and unit operating costs are low relative to those of alternative generating technologies. The political risk facing the economic functioning of nuclear in a number of countries has increased with the imposition of nuclear-specific taxes that in some cases have deprived operators of the economic incentive to continue to operate existing plants.

  20. [Science and economic development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor Zaragoza, Federico

    2004-01-01

    In times of great turbulences at a planetary scale, as a result of economic and social disparities, of environmental erosion, cultural uniformization and progressive weakness of international ethical and legal international institutions, the reinforcement of scientific research appears as one of the crucial keys to correct the present trends. Increase of knowledge and its adequate application are not only the fundamental pillars of the urgent general enhancement of the quality of life, but also economic competitiveness is based on knowledge. In this communication recent data on the ERA (European Research Area) are presented and commented as well as the proposal of a European Fund (of 2000 million of euros initially) which, administered by a European Research Council, would improve the EU trade and productive perspectives and, above all, will avoid or reduce the present brain-drain of those who, lacking opportunities in Europe, emigrate to other countries, particularly the United States.

  1. The Economics OF NEOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalkwyk, James D.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Ames Research Center, in its role as partnerships lead for NASA asteroid redirect robotic missions and as a supporting Center for the Asteroid Grand Challenge, responded to increasing interest in near-Earth objects (NEOs) by holding a workshop entitled 'The Economics of NEOs' on the 6th and 7th of September 2014. The workshop was intended to serve as a catalyst for discussions and to foster collaborations between industry, academia and government. This document serves as a summary of the discussions which took place within three sessions and their respective table discussions; Session One: Background and Motivation; Session Two: Economics of NEOs; and Session Three: Policy and Legal Frameworks. This document is a collection of observations by individuals and does not express the consensus view of all participants; it does not express US Government or NASA policy.

  2. Modularity and Economic Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron; Mahoney, Joseph T.

    and the nature of product market competition, (ii) the organization designs firms may adopt and the industry structures that can result when significant numbers of firms adopt modular product architectures, and (iii) learning processes and knowledge structures at the firm and industry levels in modular product......This paper addresses modularity as a basis for organizing economic activity. We first define the key concepts of architecture and of modularity as a special form of architecture. We then suggest how modular systems of all types may exhibit several properties of fundamental importance...... to the organization of economic activities, including greater adaptability and evolvability than systems that lack modular properties. We draw extensively on our original 1996 paper on modularity and subsequent research to suggest broad theoretical implications of modularity for (i) firms' product strategies...

  3. Economic communication model set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvereva, Olga M.; Berg, Dmitry B.

    2017-06-01

    This paper details findings from the research work targeted at economic communications investigation with agent-based models usage. The agent-based model set was engineered to simulate economic communications. Money in the form of internal and external currencies was introduced into the models to support exchanges in communications. Every model, being based on the general concept, has its own peculiarities in algorithm and input data set since it was engineered to solve the specific problem. Several and different origin data sets were used in experiments: theoretic sets were estimated on the basis of static Leontief's equilibrium equation and the real set was constructed on the basis of statistical data. While simulation experiments, communication process was observed in dynamics, and system macroparameters were estimated. This research approved that combination of an agent-based and mathematical model can cause a synergetic effect.

  4. The Economics of Nudge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proponents of ‘nudge theory’ argue that, because of our human susceptibility to an array of biases, we often make subprime choices and decisions that make us poorer, less healthy, and more miserable than we might otherwise be. However, using behavioural economics—and insights from other disciplines...... of its practical applications as short-term, politically motivated initiatives based on flimsy evidence), in recent years there has been an astonishing growth in scholarly output about and around the economics of nudge. And now, while the hybrid field continues to flourish, Routledge announces a new four...... Health, Wealth, and Happiness (2008), and Lucia Reisch of the Copenhagen Business School. The Economics of Nudge is fully indexed and has a comprehensive introduction, newly written by the editors, which places the collected material in its historical and intellectual context. It is an essential work...

  5. Finance and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugo Panizza

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanThis chapter reviews the literature on finance and economic development. It starts with a description of the roles of finance, a definition of financial efficiency, and a discussion of whether countries may have financial sectors that are ‘too large’ compared to the size of the domestic economy. Next, the author describes several indicators of financial development and reviews the literature on the relationship between financial development and economic growth. In the literature review, he discusses in detail some recent evidence indicating that the marginal contribution of financial development to gross domestic product (GDP growth becomes negative when credit to the private sector reaches 110 per cent of GDP. The chapter concludes with some policy conclusions targeted to developing countries.

  6. Globalisation, economics and professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chay-Hoon; Macneill, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the effect of globalisation and attendant economic factors on the global practice of medicine, medical education, medical ethics and medical professionalism. The authors discuss the implications of these trends, citing case scenarios in the healthcare insurance, medical tourism, pharmaceutical industries, and the educational systems as well as in clinical practice, to illustrate the impact of globalisation and economics on professionalism. Globalisation, on the one hand, offers benefits for the global practice of medicine and for medical education. On the other, globalisation can have negative effects, particularly when the main driver is to maximise profitability across national boundaries rather than concern for human well-being. Appraising the effect of globalisation on professionalism involves assessing its effects at the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and institutional levels, and its effect on society at large.

  7. Psychology, economics and incentives.

    OpenAIRE

    Biel, P. R.

    2005-01-01

    This PhD. Thesis deals with the effects that psychological phenomena may have on the incentives of agents participating in economic interaction. In particular, I focus on how individuals' preference for certain distributions of welfare among others may affect their effort and other strategic decisions in a variety of contexts. The thesis consists of five chapters. The first one introduces the study. The next two chapters are theoretical and study the effects that aversion to inequity may have...

  8. Entrepreneurship and Economic Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Ruta Aidis

    2003-01-01

    Identification of the entrepreneur's economic function has engaged economistsfor more than 200 years. In this paper we address the issue of entrepreneurship intwo distinct ways: a) as it has historically developed within the field of economicsand b) as it develops in the transitional context. In contrast to advanced westerneconomies, productive entrepreneurship cannot be taken for granted in transitioncountries. Therefore we propose a working definition and model for productiveentrepreneurshi...

  9. ECONOMIC TOURS IN ISRAEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrică ȘTEFAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is the economic promotion of tourism circuit between Romania (Bucharest and Israel (Tel Aviv and Jerusalem, unique and blessed area in the world because here was born the Lord Jesus Christ and also our religion: Christianity. It wants also presenting significant sights in Israel which, financially, would be visited at very competitive rates for Romanian tourists, making, in this way, important discounts.

  10. Basic Economic Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tideman, T. N.

    1972-01-01

    An economic approach to design efficient transportation systems involves maximizing an objective function that reflects both goals and costs. A demand curve can be derived by finding the quantities of a good that solve the maximization problem as one varies the price of that commodity, holding income and the prices of all other goods constant. A supply curve is derived by applying the idea of profit maximization of firms. The production function determines the relationship between input and output.

  11. The Ghanaian Economic Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    NY.GDP.MKTP.KD.ZG. 2 Only Syria, Zambia, Myanmar , and Algeria had slower growth rates in 1966. 3 Ferdinand Bakoup, Republic of Ghana Country Strategy Paper (Accra...bestowment of “middle income ” status to Ghana in November 2010.5 This spectacular economic turnaround begs the question: Why did the economy improve so...implemented a number of socialist programs that benefited rural communities and public employees.65 Unfortunately, these programs proved to be

  12. Economic outcomes in prosthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, Francesco; Carr, Alan B; Chang, Ting-Ling; Estafanous, Emad W; Garrett, Neal R; Happonen, Risto-Pekka; Koka, Sreenivas; Laine, Juhani; Osswald, Martin; Reintsema, Harry; Rieger, Jana; Roumanas, Eleni; Salinas, Thomas J; Stanford, Clark M; Wolfaardt, Johan

    2013-01-01

    A systematic literature review was conducted to identify the types of economic measures currently used in implant prosthodontics and determine the degree to which cost of care is considered in the context of any positive outcome of the care provided. A literature search was conducted using the following set of terms plus some additional hand searching: "dental implants" (Mesh) AND ("cost") OR "maintenance" OR "healthcare policy" OR "access to care" OR "third party" OR "economic") AND (("1995/01/01"[PDat]:'2009/12/31"[PDat]) AND (Humans[Mesh]) AND (English[lang])). After a review of the 466 titles and abstracts identified by the search, 18 articles were accepted for further consideration, as some attempt at economic outcome measures was made. An additional four articles were identified by hand searching. The 22 accepted articles were grouped into four basic categories: (1) measure of costs of treatment (direct, indirect, and maintenance costs), (2) cost-effectiveness mathematical modeling applied to simulate the lifetime paths and cost of treatment, (3) cost-effectiveness analysis/cost minimization, and (4) willingness-to-pay, willingness-to-accept. Attempts at determining the costs of treatment varied widely. When the OMERACT filters were applied to the various measures it was felt that discrimination and/or feasibility was a problem for most of the current economic outcome measures. Measures of cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility are currently the gold standard; however, feasibility of such analyses is an issue. Collaboration with health economists to guide future research is highly recommended.

  13. Sustainable Food & Sustainable Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Mavis Dora

    2012-01-01

    Cuba today is immersed in a very intense process of perfecting its agricultural production structures with the goal of making them more efficient and sustainable in their economic administration and in their social and environmental management. Agricultural cooperatives in Cuba have the responsibility of producing on 73% of the country's farmland. Their contributions are decisive to developing agricultural production and to ensuring more and better food for the population, in addition to redu...

  14. Behavioral Law & Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Nieborak

    2012-01-01

    Issues concerning the regulation aspects of financial markets are not simple. One of the reasons for this is that a great number of detailed factors have an effect, for example, the trust of the consumers of financial services or their behavior. The paper analyses the most important of them, and issues related to them, from a legal point of view, with the main objective of presenting the basic assumptions of the behavioral Law & Economics theorem. Dynamic development of financial markets and ...

  15. Parenting styles and economics

    OpenAIRE

    Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Does the economy influence the way people bring up their children? How can we determine and measure a child’s utility? How can parenting styles be categorized in an economic model? These are the questions that Professor Fabricio Zilibotti of the University of Zurich addressed in his honorary lecture ‘Parenting with Style’, which he delivered at the April International Academic Conference during the 5th LCSR international workshop ‘Social and Cultural Changes in Cross-National Perspective: Sub...

  16. Mathematical Optimiation in Economics

    CERN Document Server

    De Finetti, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Preface by B. de Finetti.- G.Th. Guilbaud: Les equilibres dans les modeles economiques.-H.W. Kuhn: Locational problems and mathematical programming.- M. Morishima: The multi-sectoral theory of economic growth.- B. Martos, J. Kornai: Experiments in Hungary with industry-wide and economy wide programming.- A. Prekopa: Probability distribution problems concerning stochastic programming problems.- R. Frisch: General principles and mathematical techniques of macroeconomic programming.

  17. Economic growth and concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Shu-hen

    2017-02-01

    Over the past few decades, shift-share (SS) analysis is widely applied to explore the sources of local economic growth; however, it leaves unanswered the inequality question. The purpose of this paper is to exclude these biases caused by inequalities to generate a new identity, which fully shows the concept of externalities and comparative advantage, the nation-industry-region interactions and the structural change of local industry in a timely manner

  18. Disrupting Syrian Economic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-28

    inclusively termed the, “Shadow Economy”. 56 This is run by war profiteers, smugglers, criminal gangs, and often encompasses displaced economic activities...down, even the Hawala system suffers when serving the most vulnerable of Syria’s population, including women, the elderly , and people with disabilities...to consider is the agent network. While it would be desirable to create a digital credit environment along the lines of a Syrian PayPal, even if the

  19. Economic uncertainty principle?

    OpenAIRE

    Harin, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    The economic principle of (hidden) uncertainty is presented. New probability formulas are offered. Examples of solutions of three types of fundamental problems are reviewed.; Principe d'incertitude économique? Le principe économique d'incertitude (cachée) est présenté. De nouvelles formules de chances sont offertes. Les exemples de solutions des trois types de problèmes fondamentaux sont reconsidérés.

  20. MARKET ECONOMICS PRICING PARTICULARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Parshin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The price performs several economic functions: accounting, stimulation, distribution, demand and offer balancing, serving as production site rational choice criterion, information. Most important pricing principles are: price scientific and purpose-aimed substantiation, single pricing and price control process. Pricing process factors are external, internal, basic (independent on money-market, market-determined and controlling. Different pricing methods and models are to be examined, recommendations on practical application of those chosen are to be written.

  1. Ideology and economic activity

    OpenAIRE

    Michio Morishima

    1986-01-01

    In considering ideology and economic activity, ideology is defined as a system of beliefs which binds people together into a social grouping. This is synonymous with religion as defined by Durkheim (1912) and, as a definition of religion, it may be too wide; but if this definition is adopted, both Confucianism and Marxism are 'religion'. In any case, there are two broad-based classes of approach to this problem, Marxian and Weberian. The former regards ideology which, together with such insti...

  2. Institutional Problems and Development Perspectives Innovative Entrepreneurship in Resource Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutskiy Vladislav, N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper justifies the necessity to transit towards the mobilization model "triple helix" (strategic partnership of science and education organizations, business and government, the public. Innovation as a product of entrepreneurship permeate the system of relations from top to bottom – from more efficient ways of doing home Ho households, and to design mechanisms of state regulation of the economy. However, at the theoretical level, the relationship remains poorly studied in-novations as a function of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship as social phenomenon in the system of institutional relations "business-authorities-society". Modern Russian economy has features of "dual enclave economy" with isolated more productive export-oriented resource sector. Innovative entrepreneurs do not become actors of change because of weak protection of property rights, manipulated state, weak sanctions for rent-seeking. The transition from innovative system "technology push" (fundamental knowledge on demand of state towards innovation system "market pull" (innovations on demand of business is complicated within Y-matrix of competitive institutional environment. It could turn out to be more effective to transit to the mobilization model "triple helix" (strategic partnership of science and education organizations, business and government, the public in compliance with X-matrix of cooperative institutional environment of redistribution. This will allow to create the necessary mechanisms for the exchange of missing codified knowledge (for those who imitate innovations and tacit knowledge (for pure innovators in the cross-sectoral technological chains. The design of institutional change in compliance with real needs of participants of innovative processes requires formal analysis of the region economic development type through assessing its key spheres, revealing and modeling prevailing type of entrepreneurship as well as identifying the relationship between

  3. States and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atul Kohli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Today the Washington Consensus on development lies in tatters. The recent history of the developing world has been unkind to the core claim that a nation that opens its economy and keeps government's role to a minimum invariably experiences rapid economic growth. The evidence against this claim is strong: the developing world as a whole grew faster during the era of state intervention and import substitution (1950-1980 than in the more recent era of structural adjustment (1990-2005; and the recent economic performance of both Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africaregions that truly embraced neoliberalismhas lagged well behind that of many Asian economies, which have instead pursued judicial and unorthodox combinations of state intervention and economic openness. As scholars and policy makers reconstruct alternatives to the Washington Consensus on development, it is important to underline that prudent and effective state intervention and selective integration with the global economy have been responsible for development success in the past; they are also likely to remain the recipes for upward mobility in the global economy in the future."

  4. Economic value of walkability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litman, T.

    2004-10-12

    Traditional transportation planning and evaluation practices treat walking as a minor transport mode. However, it is evident that walking is a critical component of the transport system. This paper presents a series of methods to evaluate the value of walking and walkability, which is defined as the quality of walking conditions, including safety, comfort and convenience. The socio-economic benefits of walking and walkability were discussed, including basic mobility, consumer cost savings and reduced external costs. Efficient land use, community livability, improved public health, economic development and support for equity objectives were also presented as potential benefits. It was concluded that walking receives less than its appropriate share of transportation resources, and that improvements in walkability can provide a high economic return on investment. Increased government funding to walking facilities and programs was recommended. Other recommendations included: shifting road space from traffic and parking lanes to sidewalks and paths; and policies to create more walkable safety and comfort. These recommendations comply with other transport and land use management reforms to reduce automobile dependency and create greater accessibility. refs., tabs., figs.

  5. [Economic limits in oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellriegel, K P

    2000-12-01

    Economic aspects require consideration even in oncology. However, they have to be seen in context with open questions concerning especially the evaluation of therapeutic effectiveness, of methodology, and particularly of ethics. Medical procedures and achievements should primarily be measured against objective results, against effectiveness and benefits. Consequently, the suitability of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies has to be evaluated. Overall objective of medical achievements should be their optimalization, not their maximization. For a physician being aware of his responsibility, the optimal care for his patients always has highest priority. Medical guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up are the basis for effective and economic patient care. They have to undergo economic evaluation and permanent updating. For systematic collection, documentation and evaluation, the clinical register is the appropriate instrument. For the assessment of medical care, a continuous monitoring of its processes has to be established. The documentation of medical care processes should lead to sustainable cost reductions together with an optimalization of the quality of care.

  6. GOVERNANCE, CULTURE AND DEMOCRACY: INSTITUTIONS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF EU MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartha Attila

    2013-07-01

    lack of obedience ensure the most successful long-term growth pattern in Europe. Another important finding is that the EMU countries are conspicuously heterogeneous in their institutional quality and the Mediterranean members of the Euro area are institutionally closer to the non-EMU-member Central-Eastern European countries than the core EMU countries. Concerning the economic policy consequences, the heterogeneity of the informal institutions fundamentally challenges the effectiveness of the approach of stronger harmonisation by stricter formal rules and stricter sanctions against the norm-breaking Euro area members.

  7. Le déploiement du contrôle sanction automatisé en France avec une mise en perspective européenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Hamelin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Le récent déploiement d’un système de contrôle sanction automatisé (CSA de la vitesse constitue l’innovation la plus marquante de la politique de sécurité routière en France et cela d’autant plus que la révolution technologique s’accompagne d’innovations juridiques et administratives conséquentes. Pour autant, l’analyse des modalités de déploiement du CSA met à jour des archaïsmes troublants. Le CSA peut bien incarner le triomphe de la modernité technologique et de l’efficacité politique, y compris par rapport aux autres pays européens, l’analyse établit que sur plusieurs aspects, en recourant au CSA, on invente une machine à remonter le temps politico-administratif. Le CSA prolonge un style de gouvernement qui apparaît dépassé ou en perte de légitimé. Il faut alors faire un détour par les usages locaux et les compromis offerts par le recours au CSA pour comprendre l’acceptation dont bénéficie cet instrument.Since 2003, France implemented a speed cameras system to cover its national road network, that increased surveillance of road users. The deployment of automated enforcement system in France constitutesa major change in road safety-related public action. It is of course a technical revolution with significant juridical and administrative changes. Yet this paper shows that it constitutes also a sort of administrative counter-revolution, which means a re-centralization of state public action in this domain and which grows distance between administrations and users. So it is necessary to study local implementation to understand public and professional acceptance of this new instrument of road

  8. On the relationship between economic freedom and economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, Jakob de; Sturm, Jan-Egbert

    1999-01-01

    Often it is maintained that economic freedom may further high levels of economic growth. This paper compares various indicators for economic freedom. It is concluded that although these measures differ somewhat in their coverage, they show similar rankings for the countries covered. Some elements in

  9. Institutional economics and economic organisation theory: An integrated approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, L.H.G.; Loucks, L.A.; Slangen, A.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    This publication presents one of the first attempts to integrate two emerging bodies of economic research: institutional economics and organizational theory. It begins within the framework of neoclassical economics, and then extends the boundaries of this framework to offer answers to questions that

  10. Institutional economics and economic organisation theory : an integrated approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, L.H.G.; Loucks, L.; Slangen, A.H.L.

    2008-01-01

    This publication presents one of the first attempts to integrate two emerging bodies of economic research: institutional economics and organizational theory. It begins within the framework of neoclassical economics, and then extends the boundaries of this framework to offer answers to questions that

  11. The Opinions of Economics Majors before and after Learning Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammock, Michael R.; Routon, P. Wesley; Walker, Jay K.

    2016-01-01

    Using longitudinal data on undergraduates from 463 American colleges and universities from 1994-99, the authors examine how majoring in economics affects student opinions on 13 social, political, and economic issues. Economics majors were found to begin and end their college tenure with differing opinions on several issues when compared to other…

  12. Space and economics : An introduction to regional economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.; Schipper, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    The subject area Regional Economics is becoming more and more topical. This means that in economic analyses the production factor 'space' is of increasing importance. This study book aims to integrate space in the area of General Economics in an analytical way. Models and their applications play a

  13. Evolutionary Thinking in Environmental Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Evolutionary and environmental economics have a potentially close relationship. This paper reviews past and identifies potential applications of evolutionary concepts and methods to environmental economics. This covers a number of themes: resource use and ecosystem management; growth and

  14. Entrepreneurial Diversity and Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Verheul (Ingrid); A.J. van Stel (André)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractMost studies investigating the relationship between entrepreneurship and economic growth treat entrepreneurs as a homogeneous group. This study investigates the impact of entrepreneurial diversity on national economic growth. Using data for 36 countries participating in the Global

  15. Resource Economics and the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Stephen R.; Tisdell, Clement A.

    1994-01-01

    Recently, a number of specialty areas have developed dealing with the economics of natural systems, resources and the environment. These include natural resource economics, environmental economics, ecological economics and bioeconomics. As well, new government departments, research institutes and tertiary courses have evolved in these areas. This paper examines the evolution and characteristics of the new areas of specialisation, and their relationship with the more traditional discipline of ...

  16. Financial history and financial economics

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, John D.

    2014-01-01

    This essay looks at the bidirectional relationship between financial history and financial economics. It begins by giving a brief history of financial economics by outlining the main topics of interest to financial economists. It then documents and explains the increasing influence of financial economics upon financial history, and warns of the dangers of applying financial economics unthinkingly to the study of financial history. The essay proceeds to highlight the many insights that financi...

  17. PUBLIC EDUCATION AND ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel-Andrei Donici

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a certain connection between education and economic competitiveness. The relation between these two concepts is easy to intuit. On the medium and long term investments in education generate astrong increase in a country’s level of economic competitiveness. Through education the human capital is formed, and it affects all economic fields. Therefore we can observe that human capital has a decisive influence on the economic competitiveness of a country.

  18. On the role of investment in the socio-economic development of territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Vitalyevna Uskova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The modern stage of Russia’s socio-economic development is characterized by the lack of budgetary resources to finance both strategic and current tasks. The situation is exacerbated by the introduction of political and economic sanctions, the significant fluctuations in oil prices and the ruble exchange rate, the growing mistrust on the part of business, followed by the increase in capital outflow. These circumstances predetermine the search for the ways to solve the socio-economic problems. The studies of leading Russian and foreign scientists prove that investment plays a major role in ensuring sustainable economic growth and solving the problems of territorial development. Moreover, the recently increasing impact of large companies on the country’s development and the low budget lead to the necessity to attract private investment resources for regional development. In this regard, the authors analyze the investment activity in Russia, present the countries’ rankings by the state of investment climate and disclose the successful experience of business’ participation in socially significant regional projects. The periodicals and Internet resources comprise an information base of this study. To achieve this goal the authors use system and integrated approaches, general scientific research methods (comparative analysis, generalization and comparison, table and graphical methods of information processing. The results of the research help prove the need to attract private investment in distressed areas and provide the Vologda Oblast authorities with the recommendations that can be applied in other regions. The work describes the promising priority projects of the region. Their implementation will contribute to the restoration of positive investment growth. The authors suggest the directions to amend the federal legislation in order to stimulate investment activity of enterprises and, therefore, enhance the role of business in regional

  19. Language Skills and Economic Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrouste, Christelle

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the contributions from the emerging positivist epistemological approach, endorsed by the economics of language and the economics of education, to study the returns to language skills, assuming that language competencies constitute key components of human capital. It presents initial results from a study on economic returns…

  20. Economic growth and business cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canton, E.J.F.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis contains five essays on economic growth and business cycles. The main focus is on the interaction between economic growth and the cycle: is cyclical variability good or bad for the long-run rate of economic growth? The introduction aims to provide some empirical evidence for an

  1. Nigerian Journal of Economic History

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Journal of Economic History (NJEH) seeks to promote the scholarly study of Africa's and the developing world's past economic issues and events from a diversity of perspectives notably those of History, Economics, and other relevant disciplines. The Journal, which encourages careful formulation of issues and ...

  2. SADI CARNOT AND ECONOMIC ENGINES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SARAPH, A; SLESSER, M

    This article identifies the fundamental unit of the economy: an economic engine. It explores the structure and workings of the economic engine. it derives the properties of economies based on the economic engine. It illustrates the insights that can be obtained and policy leverages that can be

  3. Rural development as economic category

    OpenAIRE

    KOSTYRKO I.G.; GROMIAK T.D.

    2012-01-01

    Is conducted scientific analysis of such concepts as “steady development of village”, “development of rural territories”, “development of rural locality”, “rural development”, “steady economic development”, “economic relations”. Reasonably and the vision of determination of rural development is given from the economic point of view.

  4. Different perspectives on economic base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa K. Crone; Richard W. Haynes; Nicholas E. Reyna

    1999-01-01

    Two general approaches for measuring the economic base are discussed. Each method is used to define the economic base for each of the counties included in the Interior Columbia Basin Ecosystem Management Project area. A more detailed look at four selected counties results in similar findings from different approaches. Limitations of economic base analysis also are...

  5. Economic geology, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, G.P. (ed.) (Centro Minero Nacional, Pachuca (Mexico))

    1991-01-01

    This volume, part of the Decade of North American Geology Project series, reflects the status of information on the economic geology of Mexico (excluding petroluem) in the early to mid-1980s. It contains 54 papers contributed by authors in Mexican corporation or government agencies, three of which have been separately abstracted. Initial papers on energy sources and Mexico's hydroelectric plan are followed by more detailed papers on geothermal fields, coal deposits and mineral deposits (including deposits of iron ore, asbestos, titanium, sulfur, barite and copper) in various districts and metallogenic provinces.

  6. Essays on labor economics.

    OpenAIRE

    Centeno, Mário José Gomes de Freitas

    2000-01-01

    Doctor of Philosophy in subject of Economics This thesis studies three different aspects of the labor market functioning. In the first chapter I investigate how the unemployment insurance (UI) system affects match quality. The argument is that UI enables workers to sort themselves into bet­ ter jobs. I present a model of job-search that predicts procyclical match quality and that higher UI reduces mismatch over the cycle. Using data from the NLSY I find that a higher level of UI increases ...

  7. Neuroeconomics and Health Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2009-01-01

    ://www.integratedhomecare.eu/ . III. In-depth-relaxation is evidenced as the result of regular practice of medical meditation comprising various practical meditation settings by NGOs whereof some are rooted in the religious tradition while other aim to be post-religious. Medical meditation combines savings on health care costs...... with de-stressing benefits as reduced anxiety, less use of stimulants and a reduction of blood pressure which in all increase life-expectancy. Conclusion: Neuroeconomics helps economists to identify dominant health economic interventions that may be overlooked by traditional discipålines   [i] This part...

  8. KAZAKHSTAN ECONOMIC SAFETY RISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Rakhmatulina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic safety of the Republic of Kazakhstan essentially depends on how the Republic’s transit potential is used and how internal demands in energy resources are met. There are many legal, investment, technological and other challenges with respect to these aspects. Main ways to solvethe problems are: to form potential transit development legislation conforming to respective international standards; to take specific transport infrastructure modernization measures; to simplify railway and road transport state border crossing procedures; to develop service facilitiesalong interstate trunk roads; to improve competitiveness of domestic oil-processing enterprises; to further develop integrative cooperation withRussia in the oil processing field.

  9. Economic Freedom and Economic Growth in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive E. Coetzee

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic growth and economic freedom nexus is studied in this article and applied to South Africa in an empirical study. Economic freedom is founded on the free or private market economy, based on competition, where voluntary exchange occurs and a legislative framework ensures the safety of market agents and private property. As part of the literature study, the Index of Economic Freedom, the Economic Freedom of the World Index and the Freedom in the World Index were studied and applied to South Africa. An empirical analysis was conducted, cross-correlation functions were estimated, and Granger causality functions, regression analysis and finally a vector auto-regression model (VAR were constructed and estimated. The research findings from South Africa support the literature, suggesting that there are indeed some indications that greater levels of economic freedom support higher rates of economic growth in a country.

  10. L’influenza delle norme e delle sanzioni sui fenomeni di consumo e dipendenza da droga / L’influence des normes et des sanctions sur les phénomènes de consommation de drogues et de dépendance / The influence of norms and sanctions on drug abuse and addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertelli Bruno

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes the relationship between norms and sanctions, on the one hand, and drug addiction, on the other. It highlights three implications for: a the weakness of the deterrent value of the rules prohibiting the use of drugs in the current socio-cultural context; b the therapeutic issue that engages in the framework in the execution of the sentence for the drug addicted offender; c assessment of the effectiveness of rehabilitation of drug addicts in the execution of sentence. Particular attention is given to socio-cultural perspectives and social policy. The importance of evaluation is established in order to implement effective preventive and rehabilitative programs.Questo contributo analizza il rapporto fra norme e sanzioni, da un lato, e stati di tossicodipendenza, dall’altro, cogliendo tre implicazioni concernenti: a la debolezza del valore deterrente delle norme che vietano il consumo di droghe nell’attuale contesto socio-culturale; b la questione terapeutica che si innesta nel quadro coercitivo della privazione della libertà per il tossicodipendente autore di reato; c la valutazione dei differenti percorsi riabilitativi del tossicodipendente che entra nel circuito penale. In chiave critica viene data particolare attenzione agli aspetti socio-culturali e alle prospettive di politica sociale. E’ sottolineata l’importanza della ricerca valutativa al fine di implementare programmi, sia di tipo preventivo che riabilitativo, che possano garantire livelli soddisfacenti di efficienza e di efficacia.Cet article analyse la relation entre les normes et les sanctions, d’un côté, et la toxicomanie, de l’autre. Le texte met en évidence trois implications concernantes : a la faiblesse de la valeur dissuasive des règles qui interdisent la consommation des drogues; b la question thérapeutique qui s'engage pour le délinquant toxicomane dans le contexte de la privation de liberté; c l'évaluation des différentes démarches de r

  11. Economics of pediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Michael J; Phillips, Linda G

    2008-07-01

    Sustaining a burn injury sets in motion a cycle of pain, disfigurement, and a search for survival. In pediatric burns, the injury extends to the parents where fear, ignorance, and helplessness forever change their lives. Pediatric burn injuries are caused by fire, hot liquids, clothing irons, hair curlers, caustic substances like drain cleaner, the grounding of an electrical source, and exposure to radiation. Efficiency in the delivery of pediatric burn care is critical. Maximizing resource utilization means continual self-evaluation and economic analysis of therapeutic modalities. Griffiths et al found that most childhood burns are due to scalds, which can be treated for $1061 per percent burn. Paddock et al reduced the cost of treating superficial pediatric burns and reduced the length of stay in hospital using silver-impregnated gauze over traditional methods. Barrett et al found improved cosmesis of skin grafts using cultured epithelial autografts but at a substantially increased cost. Corpron et al showed that pediatric burn units that treat burns >10% total body surface area and operative treatment of pediatric burns regardless of size generate positive revenue. There is a paucity of evidentiary pediatric burn economic data. More research is needed to address areas of pediatric burn care inefficiency. Improving knowledge of cost in all health care endeavors will create competition and drive down expenditures.

  12. Economics of patenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Zinov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an economic analysis of expenses for patenting and by using leading technical universities as an example, it demonstrates the lack of economic practicability of patent activity in a situation, when only 6–12% of patents for inventions can be supported. There are recommendations offered on how to utilize intellectual property in a scientific organization. There are methodic approaches described for making informed decisions about legal protection of research and development outcomes. Using «photonics» sub-industry as a reference, there was a publication and patent analysis presented for developing research areas in Russia and in the world. It is graphically shown, that competitive scientific-technological capacities, which are recently created and which allow Russia to remain as one of the world scientific leaders in the area, are not supported by patenting activity, and this can ultimately force Russia out from the group of key new technological markets, which we see are being formed today.

  13. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Maruyama, Toru

    2000-01-01

    The role of asymmetric information in allocation of resources, together with the associated information-revelation process, has long been a central focus of economic research. While the bulk of the literature addresses these is­ sues within the framework of principal-agent relationship, which essentially reduces the problem to the sole principal's (the sole Stackelberg leader's) optimization problem subject to the agents' (the Stackelberg followers') re­ sponses, there are recent attempts to extend analysis to other economic setups characterized by different relationships among decision-makers. A notable strand of such attempts is the core analysis of incomplete in­ formation. Here, there is no Stackelberg-type relationship, and more impor­ tantly the players can talk to each other for coordinated choice of strategies. See, e.g., Wilson (1978) for a pioneering work; Yannelis (1991) for formula­ tion of feasibility of a strategy as its measurability; Ichiishi and Idzik (1996) for introduction of Bayesian ...

  14. Economía General

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Escobar, Gonzalo

    2006-01-01

    La siguiente es la segunda parte para el curso de Contexto en CTS denominado Fundamentos de Economía y CTS, elaborada a partir del segundo capítulo del texto Fundamentos de Economía y Transportes preparado para el módulo de Economía del Transporte dictado en el posgrado en Vías y Transportes del Programa de Ingeniería Civil de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales. Se trata de un curso corto en el que se introduce al estudiante del curso de contexto de CTS y Economía a la econom...

  15. European Union Antitrust Enforcement against Cartels – Priorities in the Context of Globalisation of Business and Economic Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iordache Lucia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalisation and EU member states’ efforts to overcome the difficulties of the economic crisis, realising the full potential of the Single Market is the main component of a credible plan for higher and sustainable growth in the EU. Competition policy is the central pillar of the Single Market. A strong antitrust enforcement, especially fighting cartels and preventing the creation of new ones, is at the core of open and fair pan-European markets, higher productivity and growth across Europe. This article summarizes the activities of the European Commission for the investigation and sanctioning of companies involved in cartels, focusing on the effectiveness of preventive policy of the Commission in antitrust enforcement, reflected in particular by the evolution of the fines imposed in cartel cases. The analysis outlines how antitrust policy contributes to strengthening the single market and the EU economic growth and examines the challenges for the implementation of antitrust policy caused by the changes in the dynamics and complexity of the economic environment, at the national and international level.

  16. Conservation through the economics lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Although conservation is an inherently transdisciplinary issue, there is much to be gained from examining the problem through an economics lens. Three benefits of such an approach are laid out in this paper. First, many of the drivers of environmental degradation are economic in origin, and the better we understand them, the better we can conserve ecosystems by reducing degradation. Second, economics offers us a when-to-stop rule, which is equivalent to a when-to-conserve rule. All economic production is based on the transformation of raw materials provided by nature. As the economic system grows in physical size, it necessarily displaces and degrades ecosystems. The marginal benefits of economic growth are diminishing, and the marginal costs of ecological degradation are increasing. Conceptually, we should stop economic growth and focus on conservation when the two are equal. Third, economics can help us understand how to efficiently and justly allocate resources toward conservation, and this paper lays out some basic principles for doing so. Unfortunately, the field of economics is dominated by neoclassical economics, which builds an analytical framework based on questionable assumptions and takes an excessively disciplinary and formalistic approach. Conservation is a complex problem, and analysis from individual disciplinary lenses can make important contributions to conservation only when the resulting insights are synthesized into a coherent vision of the whole. Fortunately, there are a number of emerging transdisciplines, such as ecological economics and environmental management, that are dedicated to this task.

  17. Solving the Problems of Physical and Economic Accessibility of Foodstuff in the Region by Means of AIC State Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babich Tatyana Vladimirovna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the physical and economic accessibility to foodstuff in the region. The effects of economic sanctions are analyzed, the main types of risks of the domestic agricultural producers’ competitiveness are described, and the methods of their reduction are identified. The concept of food security in terms of physical and economic accessibility is considered. The analysis of the Volgograd region data on the development of agricultural production let conclude that there is the problem of ensuring the physical availability of foodstuff in the region. The state regulation of agricultural production is identified as an important factor of food security in the modern world. The authors identified the basic problems of agricultural production, including the problem of irrigation, economic accessibility of food products, depreciation of fixed assets, the use of obsolete and resource-intensive technologies of production, decline in qualification level of staff employed in the industry, underfunding of agricultural science, low competitiveness of agricultural and food policy. Moreover, in the current situation the further growth of food prices and reduced purchasing power of the population, as a result of inflation, would further reduce the economic affordability of food and decrease food security in the region and in the country, as a whole. As a result, аs part of the solution to the problem of providing physical and economic access to food, the authors offered and proved complex measures on improving state regulation of agro-industrial complex. These measures include conducting large-scale works on restoration of the complex reclamation of the region; implementation of technical and technological modernization of agriculture, food industry and agrobusiness production services; formation of the system of professional agricultural education; formation of modern social infrastructure in rural areas; development of the program of food

  18. Competitiveness and Economic Security — Priority Problems of the Region’s Metallurgical Comples and Its Leaders in the Conditions Of Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Anatolyevich Kozitsyn

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject-matter of the research is the study of the regional metallurgical complex and its leaders, which account for 55 % of industrial output and more than 57 % of exports of the Sverdlovsk region, in the current terms of economic instability. Supporting the business priorities of improving the competitiveness and economic security of the enterprise is based on the example of "UMMCHolding" — the leader of ferrous metallurgy in the Middle Urals, an active participant in the global and Russian copper market. The modern economic, mathematical, and general scientific methods (comparison study, the ratio of total and private, and others are applied as the research methods. To obtain the study results, the main areas of the holding impacted by the sanctions are analyzed: modernization of production and spare parts provisions of the current imported equipment, correction of the supply chain, searching for new business partners, transformation of the structure and direction of cargo traffic, solving transportation problems, stocks system management and minimization of economic, social and environmental costs. The urgency of solving the problem of company competitiveness and economic security increasing together with its sectoral and regional features in the present conditions is proved as the key conclusion. The high competitiveness of the holding is considered to be one of the factors of its economic security. The main goal of the economic security of the company is its sustainable and maximally effective functioning at the present time and high potential for successful development in the future. The indicators and criteria for the economic security evaluation are studied in detail. The analysis conducted has shown that, in general, the holding has high indicators characterizing its economic security on the basis of high competitiveness. As a negative sign, a lack of the investment growth needed to solve urgent problems is noticed.

  19. Essays in public economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Jason Scott

    2002-01-01

    Three essays in the field of public economics are included in this thesis. Chapter 1 begins this work with an introduction to public economics and places the remaining chapters in context. Like all economic agents, the government must manage its cash position. Chapter 2 considers this activity. Short-term financial requirements cause the government to solicit the market for bills not previously scheduled (Cash Management Bills). Using data from the US Treasury's Proprietary Domestic Finance Database, this chapter shows that these bills have higher costs than normal bills, suggesting that both Treasury and financial markets appreciate that demand is more inelastic for these instruments. In addition, this research identifies several factors that increase finance costs for Treasury in meeting short-term financial need. Chapter 3 explores location choices for generation investment in a re-regulated electricity market. Recently, there have been significant changes in the regulation of electricity in the State of California. These changes may affect generation investment behavior within the State, an important consideration for policy makers. This work identifies the impact of public sector regulatory change on private sector investment outcomes, by comparing the location and scope of electricity generation projects before and after two specific regulatory changes in air quality management and transmission tariff charges, while controlling for expected population growth patterns within the State. Significant changes in location preference are identified using factors for the northern and southern transmission zones, NP15 and SP15, the intermediate zone ZP26, and for areas outside of ISO control. Chapter 4 considers Disability Insurance and individual public pension investment accounts. Current debate on the Social Security Administration's long-term finance of benefits includes proposals for independent private investment via individual accounts. The author investigates

  20. [The economics of preventing psycho-social risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golzio, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the essay is to show the SHIELD methodology for helping the firm management to improve the risks prevention policy. It has been tested in the field with positive results. SHIELD is a cost-benefit analysis application to compare prevention and non-prevention costs, which arise from non-market risks. In the economic perspective safety risks (which include psycho-social risks) are non-market ones as they cause injures to workers during the job. SHIELD (Social Health Indicators for Economic Labour Decisions), is the original method proposed by the author. It is a cost benefits analysis application, which compares safety prevention and non-prevention costs. The comparison allow stop management to evaluate the efficiency of the current safety prevention policy as it helps top management to answer to the policy question: how much to invest in prevention costs? The costs comparison is obtained through the reclassification of safety costs between prevention and non-prevention costs (which are composed by claim damages and penalty sanction costs). SHIELD has been tested empirically in four companies operating in the agribusiness sector during a research financed by the Assessorato all'Agricoltura and INAI Regionale of Emilia Romagna Region. Results are postive: it has been found that the increase of prevention costs causes the cut of non-prevention costs in all companies looked into, as assumed by the high reliability organization theory. SHIELD can be applied to all companies which must have an accounting system by law, no matter of the industry they act. Its application has limited costs as SHIELD doesn't need changes in the accounting system. Safety costs sustained by the company are simply reclassified in prevention and non-prevention costs. The comparison of these two costs categories has been appreciated by top management of companies investigated as a useful support to decide the risks prevention policy for the company. The SHIELD original feature compared